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Alcani CnH2n+2 metan CH4 CH4 etan C2H6 CH3-CH3 propan C3H8 CH3-CH2-CH3 butan C4H10 CH3-(CH2)2-CH3 pentan

C5H12 CH3-(CH2)3-CH3 hexan C6H14 CH3-(CH2)4-CH3 heptan C7H16 CH3-(CH2)5-CH3 octan C8H18 CH3-(CH2)6-CH3 nonan C9H20 CH3-(CH2)7-CH3 decan C10H22 CH3-(CH2)8-CH3 Alchili CnH2n+1 metil CH3 -CH3 etil C2H5 -CH2-CH3 propil C3H7 -CH2-CH2-CH3 butil C4H9 -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 pentil C5H11 -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 Alchene CnH2n etan C2H4 CH2=CH2 propan C3H6 CH3-CH=CH2 butan C4H8 CH3-CH=CH-CH3 pentan C5H10 CH3-(CH2)2-CH=CH2 Alchine CnH2n-2 etina C2H2 CH CH propina C3H4 CH3-C CH but-1-ina C4H6 CH3-CH2-C CH but-2-ina CH3-C CH-CH3 pent-1-ina C5H8 CH3-CH2-CH2-C CH pent-2-ina CH3-C C-CH2-CH3 Alcadiene CnH2n-2 propdiena C3H4 CH2=C=CH2 butadiena C4H6 CH2=C=CH-CH3 buta-1,3-diena CH2=CH-CH=CH2 penta-1,3-diena C5H8 CH2=CH-CH=CH-CH3 Acizi monocarboxilici saturati (alcanoici) CnH2nO2 acid metanoic/formic CH2O2 H-COOH acid etanoic/acetic C2H4O2 CH3-COOH acid propanoic/propionic C3H6O2 CH3-CH2-COOH acid octadecanoic/stearic C18H36O2 CH3-(CH2)16-COOH Arene CnH2n-6 benzen C6H6 metil benzen C6H5-CH3 etil benzen C6H5-CH2-CH3 propil benzen C6H5-(CH2)2-CH3 Alcooli monohidroxilici CnH2n+1OH metanol CH3OH CH3-OH etanol C2H5OH CH3-CH2-OH propanol C3H7OH CH3-(CH2)2-OH butanol C4H9OH CH3-(CH2)3-OH Alcooli polihidroxilici CnH2n+1O2H CH2-CH2 etilenglicol C2H6O2 OH OH CH2-CH-CH3 propilenglocil C3H8O2 OH OH CH2-CH2-CH2 propan-1,3-diol C3H8O2 OH OH Aldehide CnH2nO metanal CH2O H-C etanal C2H4O CH3-C propanal C3H6O CH3-CH2- C butanal C4H8O CH3-CH2-CH2-C

Acizi azotic HNO3 sulfuros H2SO3 sulfuric H2SO4 carbonic H2CO3 silicic H2SiO3 fosforic H2PO4

Resturi acide nitrat NO3 sulfit SO3 sulfat SO4 carbonat CO3 silicat SiO fosfat PO4

Oxizi acizi oxid de azot (V) oxid de sulf (VI) oxid de sulf (IV) oxid de carbon (IV) oxid de siliciu (IV) oxid de fosfor (V)

N2O5 SO2 SO3 CO2 SiO2 P2O5

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Metal (sare +H2) Oxid basic (sare +H2O) Nemetal Oxid acid

Acid

Baza

Baza (sare +H2O) Sare ---------------Acid Sare

Valentele elementelor hidrogen H I fluor F I sodiu Na I potasiu K I oxigen O II magneziu Mg II calciu Ca II aluminiu Al III azot N III,IV fosfor P III,V carbon C IV fier Fe II,III clor Cl I,III,V,VII sulf S II,IV,VI