Chapter 9

Inventories
Accounting, 21st Edition
Warren Reeve Fess

PowerPoint Presentation by Douglas Cloud
Professor Emeritus of Accounting Pepperdine University

© Copyright 2004 South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. Task Force Image Gallery clip art included in this electronic presentation is used with the permission of NVTech Inc.

What is Inventory ?
Barang yang dibeli untuk dijual kembali Dengan atau tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu

• Barang yang siap dijual (Barang Jadi) •Barang dalam Proses untuk tujuan dijual (barang dalam Proses •Barang yang akan dipakai dalam kegiatan produksi perusahaan (Bahan Baku)

SUPERMARKET (Perusahaan Dagang)
Inventory Aktiva tetap

Whose Inventory is it ?

Barang Dalam Gudang

Barang Dalam Perjalanan ?

Barang Konsinyasi?

FOB SHIPPING POINT

FOB DESTINATION

FOB Shipping point Penjual Milik pembeli Kepemilikan pindah Pembeli .

FOB destination Penjual Milik penjual Pembeli Milik pembeli Kepemilikan pindah .

PENILAIAN INVENTORY FIFO COST LIFO Inventory Average Special Identification LCM RETAIL METHOD ESTIMASI Individual Kelompok Total Gross Profit Method .

Metode Penentuan Harga Pokok Barang Terjual dan Pesediaan Akhir FIFO LIFO Rata-rata Identifikasi khusus Asumsi Asumsi Asumsi Yang Pertama Dibeli Pertama dijual Yang Terakhir Dibeli Pertama dijual Barang Yang Dijual Ngacak Setiap Barang Dikenali Costnya .

First In First Out Purchased goods Sold goods .

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Sold Purchased goods goods .

Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions Purchased goods Sold goods .

Fifo Periodic .

Sistem Periodik Pada saat menjual barang tidak ditentukan harga pokok barang yang dijual Pada akhir periode ditentukan unit persediaan yang ada dan yang dijual Pada akhir periode ditentukan harga pokok barang yang dijual dan persediaan yang ada .

000 $4.300 $11.200 $3.300 $1.000 Cost/unit $ 10 $ 12 $ 11 $13 Jumlah $2.100 $7.400 Terjual = 700 Unit Persediaan 300 unit Fifo 200 x $ 10 = $2.500 $11.Tgl Jan 1 12 26 30 Keterangan Persediaan Pembelian Pembelian Pembelian Jumlah Unit 200 400 300 100 1.800 $3.300 200 x $ 11 = $2.900 100 x $ 13 = $1.800 100 x $ 11 = $1.000 400 x $ 12 = $4.400 .

300 700 units $1.000 $4.100 $7.800 $1.500 200 units at $11 100 units at $13 1.400 Merchandise Inventory $2.000 units 300 units . 26 300 units at $11 Jan. 30 100 units at $13 Merchandise Available for Sale $2.300 $3. 12 400 units at $12 Jan.Summary of Fifo Periodic Purchases Jan.300 $11. 1 200 units at $10 Jan.800 Cost of Merchandise Sold $2.000 $4.200 $1.900 200 units at $10 400 units at $12 100 units at $11 $3.

Lifo Periodic .

300 300 x $ 12 = $3.200 $11.Tgl Jan 1 12 26 30 Keterangan Persediaan Pembelian Pembelian Pembelian Jumlah Unit 200 400 300 100 1.400 Persediaan 300 unit 200 x $ 10 = $2.300 300 x $ 11 = $3.200 Lifo 100 x $ 12 = $1.600 $8.300 11.400 .300 $13 1.200 $3.000 $ 12 4.000 Terjual = 700 Unit 100 x $ 13 = $1.800 $ 11 3.000 Cost/unit Jumlah $ 10 2.

400 1.300 $8.200 200 units at $10 100 units at $12 300 units $4. 1 200 units at $10 Jan. 30 100 units at $13 Merchandise Available for Sale $2. 26 300 units at $11 Jan.Summary of Lifo Periodic Purchases Jan.000 units 700 units .000 $1.300 $3.600 $3.300 $1.200 300 units at $12 300 units at $11 100 units at $13 $1.800 Cost of Merchandise Sold $3. 12 400 units at $12 Jan.000 Merchandise Inventory $2.200 $3.300 $11.

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800 $ 11 3.4 Persediaan Yang terjual = 700 Persediaan akhir = 300 x x $11.000 = $11.4 $11.Tgl Jan 1 12 26 30 Keterangan Persediaan Pembelian Pembelian Pembelian Jumlah Unit 200 400 300 100 1.300 11.300 $13 1.000 $ 12 4.400 Persediaan 300 unit Average Cost Rata-rata per unit = $11.4 = $7.980 = $3.420 $11.000 Cost/unit Jumlah $ 10 2.400 / 1.400 .

Sistem Perpetual Pada saat menjual barang ditentukan harga pokok barang yang dijual Perlu bantuan daftar ( Kartu ) .

Data Persediaan Tanggal Keterangan Unit 200 400 Harga beli per unit $ 10 $ 12 $ 11 Jan. 1 Persediaan 12 Pembelian 17 26 27 28 30 Dijual Pembelian Dijual Dijual Pembelian 300 300 200 200 100 $ 13 Harga jual per unit $20 .

.

400 1.300 27 28 30 100 13 1.200 200 200 400 300 300 300 100 300 200 200 100 10 10 12 12 12 11 12 11 11 11 13 2.600 3.000 1.300 1.200 1.600 3.000 2.300 200 100 100 12 12 11 2.200 2.200 1.Tgl 2005 Jan 1 12 17 26 Dibeli Unit Hg/unit Jumlah FIFO Dijual/COGS Persediaan Unit Hg/unit Jumlah Unit Hg/unit Jumlah 400 12 4.300 2.100 .800 200 100 10 12 2.000 4.800 3.200 3.300 300 11 3.

.

LIFO Tgl Dibeli Unit Hg/unit Jumlah Dijual Persediaan Unit Hg/unit Jumlah Unit Hg/unit Jumlah 2005 Jan 1 12 17 26 400 12 4.200 3.200 1.200 2.300 200 100 .100 2.300 30 100 13 1.000 2.100 1.200 200 200 400 200 100 200 100 300 200 100 100 200 10 10 12 10 12 10 12 11 10 12 11 10 10 13 2.000 2.000 1.300 2.000 4.200 1.000 1.600 300 11 3.000 1.800 300 12 3.800 2.300 27 28 200 100 100 11 11 12 2.000 1.

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33 3.34 600 11.33 3.Tgl 2005 Jan 1 12 17 26 Dibeli Unit Hg/unit Jumlah AVERAGE Dijual Persediaan 10 Unit Hg/unit Jumlah Unit Hg/unit Jumlah 200 2.17 6.234 600 11.800 3.233 3.000 400 12 11 4.17 2.17 200 11.701 4.300 400 11.300 200 11.78 .401 6.234 2.533 300 27 28 30 100 13 1.399 300 11.17 200 11.467 2.800 300 11.17 300 11.

LOWER OF COST OR MARKET (LCM/LOCOM) LCM bisa dihitung berdasar: • Jenis Inventory (Individual LCM) • Kelompok Inventory • Total Inventory .

Jika Cost < Market Jika Cost > Market Tidak Perlu Jurnal Perlu Jurnal Jurnal Penyesuaian • Loss of Declining Inventory xxx Merchandise Inventory xxx .

700 2.25 B 120 22.800 $ 3.720 4.75 $15.75 14.800 6.780 4.00 D 280 14.700 2.070 7.100 $ 3.472 .650 4.800 3.650 3.Valuation of Inventory at Lower-of-Cost-or-Market Inventory Item Quantity Kelompok I A 400 $10.520 $15.892 6.920 $15.800 2.50 520 Kelompok II C 600 8.130 8.10 Total Cost Total Market Lower C or M $ 4.920 8.50 24.00 880 Total Unit Cost Price Unit Market Price $ 9.692 4.

Presentation of Merchandise Inventory on the Balance Sheet Metro-Arts Balance Sheet December 31. first-out method) or market 216 300 00 . 2007 Assets Current assets: Cash $ 19 400 00 Accounts receivable $80 000 00 Less allowance for doubtful accounts 3 000 00 77 000 00 Merchandise inventory at lower of cost (first-in.

Estimating Inventory Cost .

Menaksir cost Inventory Metode Harga Eceran (Retail Price Method) Metode laba Kotor (Gross Profit Method) .

Retail Method of Estimating Inventory Cost  Metode Menentukan harga pokok persediaan berdasarkan estimasi harga eceran  Tentukan Harga Eceran atas persediaan awal dan Pembelian selama periode  Hitung Barang yang tersedia untuk dijual (menurut harga pokok dan harga eceran dihitung)  Dihitung rasio cost terhadap retail price  Tentukan Penjualan (menurut retail price) selama satu periode (dari pita yang ada pada cash register)  Tentukan Persediaan akhir at retail yaitu barang tersedia untuk dijual dikurangi penjualan  Hitung persediaan at cost dengan cara persediaan at retail dikali dengan ratio cost terhadap retail price .

600 $62. Jan.400 42.000 $100.000 Ratio of cost to retail price = = 62% $100. 1 Purchases in January (net) Merchandise available for sale Cost $19.000 $62.000 Step 1: Determine the ratio of cost to the retail price.000 Retail $ 36.000 64. .Retail Inventory Method Merchandise inventory.

000 Purchases in January (net) 64.600 $62. .000 Sales for January (net) 70.000 Cost $19.000 Merchandise inventory.400 42. January 31.000 Step 2: Determine the ending inventory at retail.Retail Inventory Method Retail Merchandise inventory. 1 $ 36. at retail $ 30.000 Merchandise available for sale $100. Jan.

at retail $ 30. 1 $ 36.400 42.000 Merchandise available for sale $100.Retail Inventory Method Retail Merchandise inventory. .000 x 62%) $18. January 31. January 31.000 Merchandise inventory.000 Purchases in January (net) 64.000 Sales for January (net) 70.600 $62.600 Cost $19. Jan.000 Step 3: Calculate the estimated inventory at cost.000 Merchandise inventory. at cost ($30.

Estimasi Inventory Akhir = Available For SalesEstimasi COGS . Estimasi COGS = Net Sales – Estimasi GP 4. Estimasi gross profit = % GP X Net Sales 3. Tarif % gross profit adl estimasi Laba kotor berdasar pengalaman periode-periode sebelumnya 2.Gross Profit Method of Estimating Inventory Cost 1.

Gross Profit Method Merchandise inventory.000 $250. .000 180.000 x 30%) $ 57. January 1 Purchases in January (net) Merchandise available for sale Sales in January (net) Less: Estimated gross profit ($250. January 31 175.000 $237.000 Estimated cost of merchandise sold Estimated merchandise inventory.000 $ 62.000 The gross profit method is useful for estimating inventories for monthly or quarterly financial statements in a periodic inventory system.000 75.

000 571.467.050.000 $2.091.000 $1.000 Zale $ 737.000 1. .000 Inventory turnover 14.529.188.067.115.669.000 $1.4 times Use: Inventory turnover measures the relationship between the volume of goods sold and the amount of inventory carried during the period.000 $1.136.000 $478.837.366.Inventory Turnover SUPERVALU Cost of merchandise sold Inventories: Beginning of year End of year Total Average $15.127.3 times 1.068.000 $525.183.683.620.

693 $571.188.067.837.000/365 $737.Number of Days’ Sales in Inventory SUPERVALU Average daily cost of merchandise sold: $15.019.669.868 $1.620.794.127.000/365 Ending inventory Zale $42.000 $2.000 Average selling period 25 days 283 days Use: To assess the efficiency in the management of inventory .

Chapter 9 The End .

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