Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
SECOND EDITION'

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
SECOND EDITION

Turan G6nen
California State University Sacramento, California

o ~Y~~F~~~~~"P
Boca Raton London

New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

MATLAB" is a trademark of The MathWorks. Inc. and is used with permission. The MathWorks does not warrant the accuracy of the text or exercises in this book. This book's use or discussion of MATLAB" software or related products does not constitute endorsement or sponsorship by The MathWorks of a particular pedagogical approach or particular use of the MATLAB· software.

CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW. Suite 300 Boca Raton. FL 33487-2742
© 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group. an Informa business

No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 109876543 International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4200-6200-7 (Hardcover) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission. and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Except as permitted under u.S. Copyright Law. no part of this book may be reprinted. reproduced. transmitted. or utilized in any form by any electronic. mechanical. or other means. now known or hereafter invent·ed. including photocopying. microfilming. and recording. or in any information storage or retrieval system. without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work. please access www.copyright.com (http:// www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center. Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive. Danvers. MA 01923. 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC. a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gonen. Turan. Electric power distribution system engineering / EDITOR. Turan Gonen. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-6200-7 (alk. paper) ISBN-lO: 1-4200-6200-X (alk. paper) 1. Electric power distribution. 1. Title. TK3001.G582007 621.319--dc22 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

2007018741

To an excellent engineer, a great teacher, and a dear friend,
Dr. David D. Robb and in the memory of another great teacher, my father

There is a Thrkish proverb to the effect that "the world belongs to the dissatisfied." I believe in this saying absolutely. For me the one great underlying principle of all human progress is that "divine discontent" makes men strive for better conditions and improved methods.
Charles P. Steinmetz

A man knocked at the heavenly gate His face was scared and old. He stood before the man of fate For admission to the fold. "What have you done," St. Peter asked "To gain admission here?" "I've been a distribution engineer, Sir," he said "For many and many a year." The pearly gates swung open wide; St. Peter touched the bell. "Come in and choose your harp," he said, "You've had your share of hell."
Author Unknown

Life is the summation of confusions. The more confused you are, the more alive you are. When you are not confused any longer; You are dead!
Turan GOllen

Contents

Chapter 1 1. I 1.2 1.3

Distribution System Planning and Automation .......................... . 2 4 4 5 5 6 8 10 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 21 22 24 28 30 31

Introduction ........................................................... . Distribution System Planning .............................................. Factors Affecting System Planning ......................................... 1.3. I Load Forecasting .................................................. 1.3.2 Substation Expansion ............................................... 1.3.3 Substation Site Selection ............................................ 1.3.4 Other Factors ..................................................... 1.4 Present Distribution System Planning Techniques .............................. 1.5 Distribution System Planning Models ....................................... 1.5.1 Computer Applications ............................................. 1.5.2 New Expansion Planning ............................................ 1.5.3 Augmentation and Upgrades ......................................... 1.5.4 Operational Planning ............................................... 1.5.5 Benefits of Optimization Applications ................................. 1.6 Distribution System Planning in the Future ................................... 1.6.1 Economic Factors .................................................. 1.6.2 Demographic Factors ............................................... 1.6.3 Technological Factors .............................................. 1.7 Future Nature of Distribution Planning ...................................... 1.7.1 Increasing Importance of Good Planning ............................... 1.7.2 Impacts of Load Management ........................................ 1.7.3 Cost/Benefit Ratio for Innovation ..................................... 1.7.4 New Planning Tools ................................................ 1.8 The Central Role of the Computer in Di'Stribution Planning ...................... 1.8.1 The System Approach .............................................. 1.8.2 The Database Concept .............................................. 1.8.3 New Automated Tools .............................................. 1.9 Impact of Dispersed Storage and Generation .................................. 1.10 Distribution System Automation ............................................ 1.10.l Distribution Automation and Control Functions .......................... 1.10.2 The Level of Penetration of Distribution Automation ...................... 1.10.3 Alternatives of Communication Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1.11 Summary and Conclusions ................................................ References ....... ,.......................................................... Chapter 2 2.l 2.2 2.3

Load Characteristics ................................................ 35

Basic Definitions ......................................................... 35 The Relationship Between the Load and Loss Factors ............................ 48 Maximum Diversified Demand ............................................. 57

Load Forecasting ...................................................... 2.4.1 Box-Jenkins Methodology ......................................... 2.4.2 Small-Area Load Forecasting ...................................... 2.4.3 Spatial Load Forecasting ........................ : ................. 2.5 Load Management ..................................................... 2.6 Rate Structure ........................................................ 2.6.1 Customer Billing ................................................ 2.6.2 Fuel Cost Adjustment ............................................. 2.7 Electric Meter Types ................................................... 2.7.1 Electronic Meters ................................................ 2.7.2 Reading Electric Meters ........................................... 2.7.3 Instantaneous Load Measurements Using Watt-Hour Meters .............. Problems ................................................................. References
2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

62 65 65 66 70
72

73 75 79 80 82 83 87 91 93 93 95 98 103 107 107 108 108 III 111 113 121 121 130 134 135 137 141 142 144 159 161 162 163 168

Chapter 3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9

Application of Distribution Transformers ..............................

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Types of Distribution Transformers ........................................ Regulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Transformer Efficiency .................................................. Terminal or Lead Markings .............................................. Transformer Polarity .................................................... Distribution Transformer Loading Guides ................................... Equivalent Circuits of a Transformer ....................................... Single-Phase Transformer Connections ..................................... 3.9.1 General......................................................... 3.9.2 Single-Phase Transformer Paralleling ................................. 3.10 Three-Phase Connections ................................................ 3.10.1 The Ll-Ll Transformer Connection .................................... 3.10.2 The Open-Ll Open-Ll Transformer Connection .......................... 3.10.3 The Y-Y Transformer Connection .................................... 3.10.4 The Y-Ll Transformer Connection .................................... 3.10.5 The Open-V Open-Ll Transformer Connection .......................... 3.10.6 The Ll-Y Transformer Connection .................................... 3.11 Three-Phase Transformers ............................................... 3.12 The T or Scott Connection ............................................... 3.13 The Autotransformer .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3.14 The Booster Transformers ............................................... 3.15 Amorphous Metal Distribution Transformers ................................ Problems .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. References

Chapter 4
4. I 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations ............. 169
169 169 173 173 174 176 178

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Subtransmission ....................................................... 4.2.1 Subtransmission Line Costs ........................................ Distribution Substations ................................................. 4.3.1 Substation Costs ................................................. Substation Bus Schemes ................................................. Substation Location .....................................................

The Rating of a Distribution Substation ..................................... General Case: Substation Service Area with n Primary Feeders .................. Comparison of the Four- and Six-Feeder Patterns ............................. Derivation of the K Constant ............................................. Substation Application Curves ............................................ Interpretation of the Percent Voltage Drop Formula ........................... Supervisory Data and Data Acquisition ..................................... Advanced SCADA Concepts ............................................. 4.13.1 Substation Controllers ............................................. 4.14 Advanced Developments for Integrated Substation Automation .................. 4.15 Capability of Facilities .................................................. 4.16 Substation Grounding ................................................... 4.16.1 Electric Shock and Its Effects on Humans ............................. 4.16.2 Ground Resistance ................................................ 4.16.3 Substation Grounding ............................................. 4.17 Transformer Classification ............................................... Problems .................................................................. References

4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13

181 184 186 189 198 203 216 218 218 220 223 224 224 226 228 230 232 234

Chapter 5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

Design Considerations of Primary Systems ............................. 235 235 237 239 240 240 244 245 247 249 249 251 252 256 258 264 265 265 280 280 282

Introduction .......................................................... . Radial-Type Primary Feeder ............................................. . Loop-Type Primary Feeder .............................................. . Primary Network ..................................................... . Primary-Feeder Voltage Levels .......................................... . Primary-Feeder Loading ................................................ . Tie Lines ............................................................ . Distribution Feeder Exit: Rectangular-Type Development ...................... . 5.8.1 Method of Development for High-Load Density Areas .................. . 5.8.2 Method of Development for Low-Load Density Areas ................... . 5.9 Radial-Type Development ............................................... . 5.10 Radial Feeders with Uniformly Distributed Load ............................ . 5.11 Radial Feeders with Nonuniformly Distributed Load ......................... . 5.12 Application of the A, B, C, D General Circuit Constants to Radial Feeders ......... . 5.l3 The Design of Radial Primary Distribution Systems .......................... . 5.l3.l Overhead Primaries .............................................. . 5.13.2 Underground Residential Distribution ................................ . 5.l4 Primary System Costs .................................................. . Problems ................................................................. . References

Chapter 6
6.l 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

Design Considerations of Secondary Systems ........................... 283 283 284 285 285 288 289 290 290

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Secondary Voltage Levels ................................................ The Present Design Practice .............................................. Secondary Banking ..................................................... The Secondary Networks ................................................ 6.5.l Secondary Mains ................................................. 6.5.2 Limiters ........................................................ 6.5.3 Network Protectors ...............................................

6.5.4 High-Voltage Switch .............................................. 6.5.5 Network Transformers ............................................. 6.5.6 Transformer Application Factor ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Spot Networks ......................................................... 6.6 6.7 Economic Design of Secondaries .......................................... 6.7.1 The Patterns and Some of the Variables ............................... 6.7.2 Further Assumptions .............................................. 6.7.3 The General TAC Equation ......................................... 6.7.4 Illustrating the Assembly of Cost Data ................................ 6.7.5 Illustrating the Estimation of Circuit Loading .......................... 6.7.6 The Developed TAC Equation ....................................... 6.7.7 Minimization of the TAC .......................................... 6.7.8 Other Constraints ................................................. 6.8 Unbalanced Load and Voltages ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6.9 Secondary System Costs ................................................. Problems .................................................................. References Chapter 7 7.1 7.2

292 293 294 295 295 296 297 297 298 299 299 301 301 309 318 319 321

Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations ............................. 323 323 323 323 325 327 328 333 357 357 360 360 361 361 366 367 369

Three-Phase Balanced Primary Lines ...................................... Nonthree-Phase Primary Lines ............................................ 7.2.1 Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Ungrounded Neutral ................ 7.2.2 Single-Phase Two-Wire Unigrounded Laterals .......................... 7.2.3 Single-Phase Two-Wire Laterals with Multigrounded Common Neutrals ..... 7.2.4 Two-Phase Plus Neutral (Open-Wye) Laterals ........................... 7.3 Four-Wire Multigrounded Common Neutral Distribution System ................. 7.4 Percent Power (or Copper) Loss ........................................... 7.5 A Method to Analyze Distribution Costs .................................... 7.5.1 Annual Equivalent of Investment Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7.5.2 Annual Equivalent of Energy Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7.5.3 Annual Equivalent of Demand Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7.5.4 Levelized Annual Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7.6 Economic Analysis of Equipment Losses .................................... Problems .................................................................. References Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems ....................... 371 371 371 373 373 375 376 376 382 382 392 395 395

8.4

8.5

Basic Definitions ....................................................... Power Capacitors· . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Effects of Series and Shunt Capacitors ...................................... 8.3.1 Series Capacitors ................................................. 8.3.2 Shunt Capacitors ................................................. Power Factor Correction ................................................. 8.4.1 General ......................................................... 8.4.2 A Computerized Method to Determine the Economic Power Factor ......... Application of Capacitors ................................................ 8.5. J Capacitor Installation Types ........................................ 8.5.2 Types of Controls for Switched Shunt Capacitors ........................ 8.5.3 Types of Three-Phase Capacitor Bank Connections ......................

Economic Justification for Capacitors ..................................... . 8.6.1 Benefits Due to Released Generation Capacity ......................... . 8.6.2 Benefits Due to Released Transmission Capacity ....................... . 8.6.3 Benefits Due to Released Distribution Substation Capacity ............... . 8.6.4 Benefits Due to Reduced Energy Losses .............................. . 8.6.5 Benefits Due to Reduced Voltage Drops .............................. . 8.6.6 Benefits Due to Released Feeder Capacity ............................ . 8.6.7 Financial Benefits Due to Voltage Improvement ........................ . 8.6.8 Total Financial Benefits Due to Capacitor Installations .................. . 8.7 A Practical Procedure to Determine the Best Capacitor Location ................ . 8.8 A Mathematical Procedure to Determine the Optimum Capacitor Allocation ...... . 8.8.1 Loss Reduction Due to Capacitor Allocation .......................... . 8.8.2 Optimum Location of a Capacitor Bank .............................. . 8.8.3 Energy Loss Reduction Due to Capacitors ............................ . 8.8.4 Relative Ratings of Multiple Fixed Capacitors ......................... . 8.8.5 General Savings Equation for Any Number of Fixed Capacitors ........... . 8.9 Capacitor Tank Rupture Considerations .................................... . 8.10 Dynamic Behavior of Distribution Systems ................................. . 8.10.1 Ferroresonance .................................................. . 8.10.2 Harmonics on Distribution Systems ................................. . Problems ................................................................. . References

8.6

397 397 398 398 399 399 400 400 401 404 405 406 415 418 425 426 427 429 429 431 437 439

Chapter 9
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7

Distribution System Voltage Regulation ............................... 441 441 441 442 444 445 474 475 478 479 480 484

Basic Definitions ....................................................... Quality of Service and Voltage Standards ................................... Voltage Control ........................................................ Feeder Voltage Regulators ............................................... Line-Drop Compensation ................................................ Distribution Capacitor Automation ......................................... Voltage Fluctuations .................................................... 9.7.1 A Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips Due to a Single-Phase Motor Start ......................................... 9.7.2 A Shortcut Method to Calculate the Voltage Dips Due to a Three-Phase Motor Start .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Problems .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. References .................................................................

Chapter 10 Distribution System Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 485
10.1 10.2 Basic Definitions ....................................................... Overcurrent Protection Devices ........................................... 10.2.1 Fuses .......................................................... 10.2.2 Automatic Circuit Rec10sers ........................................ 10.2.3 Automatic Line Sectionalizers ....................................... 10.2.4 Automatic Circuit Breakers ......................................... Objective of Distribution System Protection ................................. Coordination of Protective Devices ........................................ Fuse-to-Fuse Coordination ............................................... Rec1oser-to-Rec1oser Coordination ......................................... 485 485 485 489 493 498 499 502 504 506

10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6

Recloser-to-Fuse Coordination ............................................ Recloser-to-Substation Transformer High-Side Fuse Coordination ................ Fuse-to-Circuit-Breaker Coordination ...................................... Recloser-to-Circuit-Breaker Coordination ................................... Fault Current Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10.11.1 Three-Phase Faults ............................................. 10.11.2 L-L Faults .................................................... 10.11.3 SLG Faults .................................................... 10.11.4 Components of the Associated Impedance to the Fault ................. 10.11.5 Sequence Impedance Tables for the Application of Symmetrical Components ...................... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10.12 Fault Current Calculations in Per Units ..................................... 10.13 Secondary System Fault Current Calculations ................................ 10.13.1 Single-Phase 120/240-V Three-Wire Secondary Service ................ 10.13.2 Three-Phase 2401120- or 480/240-V Wye-Delta or Delta-Delta Four-Wire Secondary Service ..................................... 10.13.3 Three-Phase 2401120- or 480/240-V Open-Wye Primary and Four-Wire Open-Delta Secondary Service ........................... 10.13.4 Three-Phase 208YI120-V, 480Y/277-V, or 832Y/480-V Four-Wire Wye-Wye Secondary Service ..................................... 10.14 High-Impedance Faults .................................................. 10.15 Lightning Protection .................................................... 10.15.1 A Brief Review of Lightning Phenomenon ........................... 10.15.2 Lightning Surges ............................................... 10.15.3 Lightning Protection ............................................ 10.15.4 Basic Lightning Impulse Level .................................... 10.15.5 Determining the Expected Number of Strikes on a Line ................ 10.16 Insulators ............................................................. Problems ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11

506 512 512 512 515 516 517 518 520 523 529 535 535 536 538 539 543 544 544 546 547 548 550 555 556 557

Chapter 11 Distribution System Reliability ...................................... 559

Basic Definitions ....................................................... National Electric Reliability Council ....................................... Appropriate Levels of Distribution Reliability ................................ Basic Reliability Concepts and Mathematics ................................. 11.4.1 The General Reliability Function .................................... 11.4.2 Basic Single-Component Concepts ................................... 11.5 Series Systems ......................................................... 11.5.1 Unrepairable Components in Series .................................. 11.5.2 Repairable Components in Series .................................... 11.6 Parallel Systems ....................................................... 11.6.1 Unrepairable Components in Parallel ................................. 11.6.2 Repairable Components in Parallel ................................... 11.7 Series and Parallel Combinations .......................................... 11.8 Markov Processes ...................................................... . 11.8.1 Chapman-Kolmogorov Equations .................................... 11.8.2 Classification of States in Markov Chains .............................. 11.9 Development of the State Transition Model to Determine the Steady-State Probabilities .............................................

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

559 561 563 567 567 572 576 576 579 581 581 584 591 596 602 606 606

11.10 Distribution Reliability Indices ............................................ II.I I Sustained Interruption Indices ............................................ 11.11.1 System Average Interruption Frequency Index (Sustained Interruptions) (SAIFI) .................................. 11.11.2 System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI) .................. 11.11.3 Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIOI) .............. '. 11.11.4 Customer Total Average Interruption Duration Index (CTAIDI) .......... 11.11.5 Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index (CAIFI) ............... 11.11.6 Average Service Availability Index (ASAI) .......................... 11.11.7 Average System Interruption Frequency Index (ASIFI) ................. 11.11.8 Average System Interruption Duration Index (ASIDI) .................. 11.11.9 Customers Experiencing Multiple Interruptions (CEMl n ) . • • • • • • . . • • • • . • . 11.12 Other Indices (Momentary) .............................................. 11.12.1 Momentary Average Interruption Frequency Index (MAIFI) ............ 11.12.2 Momentary Average Interruption Event Frequency Index (MAIFI E) . . . . • . • 11.12.3 Customers Experiencing Multiple Sustained Interruptions and Momentary Interruption Events (CEMSMI,.) ...................... 11.13 Load- and Energy-Based Indices .......................................... 11.13.1 Energy Not Supplied Index (ENS) ................................. 11.13.2 Average Energy Not Supplied (AENS) .............................. 11.13.3 Average Customer Curtailment Index (ACCI) ........................ 11.14 Usage of Reliability Indices .............................................. 11.15 Benefits of Reliability Modeling in System Performance ....................... 11.16 Economics of Reliability Assessment ....................................... Problems ................................................................... References .................................................................

610 610 610 611 611 611 612 612 612 613 613 613 613 614 614 614 615 615 615 617 618 619 621 626

Chapter 12 Electric Power Quality ............................................. 629
Basic Definitions ....................................................... Definition of Electric Power Quality ....................................... Classification of Power Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Types of Disturbances ................................................... 12.4.1 Harmonic Distortion ............................................. 12.4.2 CBEMA and ITI Curves .......................................... 12.5 Measurements of Electric Power Quality .................................... 12.5.1 RMS Voltage and Current ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12.5.2 Distribution Factors ............................................. 12.5.3 Active (Real) and Reactive Power .................................. 12.5.4 Apparent Power ................................................. 12.5.5 Power Factor ................................................... 12.5.6 Current and Voltage Crest Factors .................................. 12.5.7 Telephone Interference and the I· T Product .......................... 12.6 Power in Passive Elements ............................................... 12.6.1 Power in a Pure Resistance ........................................ 12.6.2 Power in a Pure Inductance ....................................... 12.6.3 Power in a Pure Capacitance ...................................... 12.7 Harmonic Distortion Limits .............................................. 12.7.1 Voltage Distortion Limits ......................................... 12.7.2 Current Distortion Limits ......................................... 12.8 Effects of Harmonics ................................................... 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 629 630 631 631 632 635 637 637 638 639 640 641 643 645 647 647 648 649 650 650 650 653

....................... .. ..........l7........................................1 Series-Tuned Filters . ......... .l7. 777 791 The Per-Unit System ..........l9.....3 Three-Phase System ... ........ ............................. 12..........11 Neutral Conductor Overloading.. .......... and Underground Cables . ....... .......... .. D.................................l7.......2 Single-Phase System .. .................4 Practical Examples of Resonance Circuits ....................... ......................2 Skin Effect ..... 12............. ..................... 12.........1 System Impedance .2 Active Filters ...................... ......................................... .................l Passive Filters .... ................... 12........... Problems ........................... D... 12..........20 Load Modeling in the Presence of Harmonics ................... 12..........17 Resonance ............................l7.........................12 Capacitor Banks and PF Correction ...........l Series Resonance ... 12... 12......................13 Short-Circuit Capacity or MVA ............................... ................. 12............... .............................. 12.. 12.................... ..............14............................... 813 .14........ 12...................................... References ................................ ........................................ 799 Answers to Selected Problems ................................................................15 Bus Voltage Rise and Resonance ........ 793 793 793 795 798 D.. ....2 Capacitor Impedance ............................ 12....................1 The K-Factor ............... 12.....16 Harmonic Amplification .............................. 767 Glossary for Distribution System Terminology ...... Notation .................... 12................................... 12... 766 Appendix B Appendix C References Appendix D Graphic Symbols Used in Distribution System Design ......................... ...... 707 References .......19 Harmonic Filter Design .. 12........................................................... ......10 Derating Transformers ...........................9 Sources of Harmonics ........................... 12........................................................ 12.......19.................................. Problems .......14 System Response Characteristics .......l8...... ...... .......................... .............3 Effects of Harmonics on the Resonance ........... 12.............. ........................ .......................................... 809 Index .l Introduction ............20...l8 Harmonic Control Solutions .12..... ................................................ 12..............2 Parallel Resonance ....... .... Transformers.......... 12...........20.............3 Load Models ...... .......10......................... ............... .................... 12...2 Second-Order Damped Filters ........ .......................l8.............2 Transformer Derating .. 12....... ... 12... ...... Appendix A 654 655 655 656 657 660 661 662 662 663 663 667 671 671 673 675 678 683 684 690 690 691 694 697 697 698 698 700 704 Impedance Tables for Lines.................l Impedance in the Presence of Harmonics .............20.. . 12..................... .... .. ................. ..10................................................ ..

also a glossary has been provided.Preface Today. problems. as the title suggests. It can serve as a text for a two-semester course. . It has been written for senior-level undergraduate and beginning-level graduate students. However. as well as practicing engineers in the electric power utility industry. This book has been particularly written for students or practicing engineers who may want to teach themselves. nor concentrate on. A special effort has been made to familiarize the reader with the vocabulary and symbols used by the industry. Most of the material presented in this book was included in the author's book entitled Electric Power Distribution System Engineering which was published by McGraw-Hili previously. Some of them are considered to be classics. examples. application of capacitors. load characteristics. that has existed so long in power system engineering literature. However. and Florida International University. Therefore the intention here is to fill the vacuum. distribution substations. This book has evolved from the content of courses given by the author at the University of Missouri at Columbia. or by a judicious selection the material in the text can also be condensed to suit a single-semester course. there are many excellent textbooks dealing with topics in power systems. and distribution system protection. The book includes topics on distribution system planning. to the author's knowledge. It includes numerous new topics. at least partially. voltage regulation. Each new term is clearly defined when it is first introduced. harmonics on distribution systems. topics dealing with electric power distribution engineering. primary systems. the University of Oklahoma. they do not particularly address. application of distribution transformers. it is an excellent reference book but unfortunately not a textbook. The addition of the appendixes and other back matter makes the text self-sufficient. reliability and electric power quality. design of subtransmission lines. Presently. Special features of the book include ample numerical examples and problems designed to use the information presented in each chapter. and secondary systems. Basic material has been explained carefully and in detail with numerous examples. as well as MATLAB® applications. voltage-drop and power-loss calculations. the only book available in electric power systems literature that is totally devoted to power distribution engineering is the one by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation entitled Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems.

.

He holds BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from Istanbul Technical College (1964 and 1966. and Tau Alpha Pi. and Engineering Economy for Engineering Managers. and he is a member of numerous honor societies including Sigma Xi. . for eight years he worked as a design engineer in numerous companies both in the United States and abroad. Professor Gonen received the Outstanding Teacher Award at CSUS in 1997.About the Author Thran Gonen is professor of electrical engineering at California State University. Phi Kappa Phi. Iowa State University. Black & Veatch Consultant Engineers. Sacramento. He has served as a consultant for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Aramco. and the public utility industry. Electric Power Transmission System Engineering: Analysis and Design. He served on several committees and working groups of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. Eta Kappa Nu. Florida International University and Ankara Technical College. Professor Gonen also held teaching positions at the University of Missouri-Rolla. He has taught electrical electric power engineering for over 31 years. Electrical Machines. Professor Gonen is the director of the Electrical Power Educational Institute at California State University. Dr. Gonen also received an MS in industrial engineering (1973) and a PhD co-major in industrial engineering (1978) from Iowa State University. respectively). Gonen was professor of electrical engineering and director of the Energy Systems and Resources Program at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Previously. Gonen also has a strong background in power industry. Dr. Turan Gonen is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and a senior member of the Institute of Industrial Engineers. and an MBA from the University of Oklahoma (1980). Sacramento. Professor Gonen has written over 100 technical papers as well as four other books: Modern Power System Analysis. the University of Oklahoma. and a PhD in electrical engineering from Iowa State University (1975). Dr.

.

Syed Nasar. Lopp.Acknowledgments This book could not have been written without the unique contribution of Dr. and T. Peter Sauer. O. Inc. The author also wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. Lee Rosenthal. and R. Elgerd of the University of Florida. James Hilliard of Iowa State University. Iowa State University. University of Florida. Balteau Standard. James P. J. The author would also like to express his thanks for the many useful comments and suggestions provided by colleagues who reviewed this text during the course of its development. for their kind help and encouragement. Moreau. Finally.. Advanced Systems Technology. Grainger. Robb and Associates. the author's deepest appreciation goes to his wife. A special 'thank you' is extended to my students Margaret Sheridan for her contribution to the MATLAB work and Joel Irvine for his kind help for the production. Paul M. Siemens-Allis. of D. encouragement. Sullivan. and Dr. A special thank you is extended to John Freed. Carlson. D. for their interest. for her limitless patience and understanding. John Pavlat. Baldwin. W. James R. Olle I. North Carolina State University. in terms of numerous problems and his kind encouragement and friendship over the years.. Koval of the University of Alberta. D. Inc. Dr. Joan Gonen. Robb. J. S & C Electric Company. General Electric Company. Dr. University of Kentucky. James Story of Florida International University. Dr. Simpson. Tudor of the University of Missouri at Columbia. particularly Dr. Late Dr. Iowa State University. chief distribution engineer of the Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company. C. John Thompson who provided moral support for this project. Anderson of Power Math Associates and Arizona State University for his continuous encouragement and suggestions. Council of Louisiana Tech University. Fairleigh Dickinson University. and invaluable suggestions. Hilliard. The author is most grateful to numerous colleagues. especially to John 1. L. E. Earl M. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Don O. Turan Gonen . L. David D. University of Illinois. Dr.

.

representing 64% of the total O&M expenses in 1978.2. the economic importance of the distribution system is very high. total operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for the privately owned utilities have increased from $8. however. Succinctly put. the definition of an electric power system includes a generating. Figure 1. may be your boss! Author unknown To make an end is to make a beginning. For example. The electric utility industry grew very rapidly.. A. went into operation. and distribution. The data represent the privately owned class A and class B utilities. and together they represented over 80% of the total system investment [1]. distribution. on a national average. Where expenditures for individual generation facilities are visible and receive attention because of their magnitude. The end is where we start from. 1985 Those who know how can always get a job. In general. . In recent years.3 billion in 1969 to $40. was estimated to be roughly equal in capital investment to the generation facilities. construction. Gasgoigne. generation). The main reason for the increase has been rapidly escalating fuel costs. Again. The percentage of electric plants represented by the production (i. but those who know why. Figure 1. generation. and operation. with distribution a close second. Pearl Street Electric Station in New York City. design. which include 80% of all the electric utility in the United States.2 billion in 1978 [4]. the major O&M expense has been in the production sector. Furthermore.1 shows electric utility plants in service for the years 1960 to 1978.3 shows the ratio of maintenance expenses to the value of plant in service for each utility sector.1 Distribution System Planning and Automation To fail to plan is to plan to fail. transmission. The major investment has been in the production sector. a transmission. Considering the energy needs and available fuels that are forecasted for the next century. T S. In the past. Production expense is the major factor in the total electrical O&M expenses. these figures have somewhat changed. and general plant sector is shown in Figure 1. followed by the one for the distribution sector.E. and a distribution system. and the amount of investment involved dictates careful planning.e. energy is expected to be increasingly converted to electricity. the data indicate the significant investment in the distribution sector. and generation stations and transmission and distribution networks spread across the entire country. namely. the distribution system. Eliot 1.1 INTRODUCTION The electric utility industry was born in 1882 when the first electric power station. transmission.

2 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering en co (J) (J) ~ '5 ctl 0 "0 C ctl <{ c. more than in the past. Energy Data Reports-Statistics of Privately-Owned Electric Utilities in the United States. U. reliable. 1975-1978. from the secondary conductors through the bulk power substations. U Q) FIGURE 1. Distribution system planners must determine the load magnitude and its geographic location.2 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING System planning is essential to assure that the growing demand for electricity can be satisfied by distribution system additions which are both technically adequate and reasonably economical.2: co E. Department of Energy. for example.1 Electric utility plant in service (1960-1978). electric utilities will need a fast and economical planning tool to evaluate the consequences of different proposed alternatives and their impact on the rest of the system to provide the necessary economical.S. Ul oS C ctl . can put the problem of optimal distribution system planning beyond the resolving power of the unaided human mind. can be satisfied in an optimum way by additional distribution systems.g [j] Ci. which are both technically adequate and reasonably economical. u Q) '> Q. (From Energy Information Administration. while considering the constraints of service reliability.) 1. In the future. in terms of increasing growth rates and high load densities. the scarcity of available land in urban areas and ecological considerations. All these factors and others. Although considerable work has been performed in the past on the application of some type of systematic approach to generation and transmission system planning. . The objective of distribution system planning is to assure that the growing demand for electricity. its application to distribution system planning has unfortunately been somewhat neglected.o (J) ctl 0 ctl ~ "0= Q) 0 ~0 0 >-Ul _ c Q) 0 c"O 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 196219641966196819701972 1974197619781980 Year ro§ . and safe electric energy to consumers. Then the distribution substations must be placed and sized in such a way as to serve the load at maximum cost effectiveness by minimizing feeder losses and construction costs.

:: tl Qi 15 C OJ Transmission 8: ~ Distribution 10 o ::::::: 1960 3 :::::::: 1962 3 :::::::: 1964 3 3 3 :::::::: 1966 :::::::: 1968 :::::::: 1970 3 :::::::: 1972 3 :::::::: 1974 3 3 3 :::::::: 1976 :::::::: 1978 General Plant Years FIGURE 1.3 Ratio of maintenance expenses to plant in service for each utility sector (1968 to 1980). Department of Energy. '" 01960 a:: C 1965 1970 Year 1975 1980 FIGURE 1. April 1981. the planning for the other portions of the electric power supply system and distribution system frequently had been authorized at the company division level without review of or coordination with long-range plans.~ (f) u Transmission u c: OJ C . X OJ OJ OJ . The data is for privately owned class A and class B electric utilities. Department of Energy. its failures affect 0 0 Production C' a x (/) "b x Distribution ~ ~ OJ (/) c: OJ 0. DOE/EP-0005. Office of Emergency Operations.) In the past.S ::.S Ci.@ '" c OJ .2 Electric utility plant in service by percent of sector (1960 to 1978). As a result of the increasing cost of energy. improved system planning through use of efficient planning methods and techniques is inevitable and necessary. OJ 70 42 § u '" OJ ":5 '.. US.Distribution System Planning and Automation 3 90 80 42 42 40 40 40 40 44 46 49 Production '2: C u OJ '" . Energy Data Reports-Statistics of Privately-Owned Electric Utilities in the United States. and labor. US. The distribution system is particularly important to an electrical utility for two reasons: (i) its close proximity to the ultimate customer and (ii) its high investment cost.) . equipment. (From Energy Information Administration. Department of Energy. US. As the distribution system of a power supply system is the closest one to the customer. 1975-1978. The National Electric Reliability Study: Technical Study Reports. (From Energy Information Administration. Energy Data Reports-Statistics of Privately-Owned Electric Utilities in the United States. 1975-1978..

substations. unexpected local population growth' or decline. The demand. voltage levels and voltage drops in the system. and money. this collection of requirements and constraints has put the problem of optimal distribution system planning beyond the resolving power of the unaided human mind. or siting. The distribution system planner partitions the total distribution system planning problem into a set of subproblems which can be handled by using available. labor. distribution system planning starts at the customer level. The primary distribution system loads are then assigned to substations that step down from transmission voltage. Therefore. changing public behavior as a result of technological changes. changing environmental concerns of the public. laterals. laterals. in turn. determine the size and location. feeders. the duration and frequency of outages. In this process. methods and techniques. usually ad hoc. substations. failures on the transmission and generating systems. have to be considered in good long-range distribution systems planning. carrying charges. and regulations of federal. and production charges. voltage dips. These include a scarcity of available land in urban areas. and so on. changing socioeconomic conditions and trends such as the growing demand for goods and services. In other words. The planner. and the cost of losses. the cost of equipment.1 LOAD FORECASTING The load growth of the geographical area served by a utility company is the most important factor influencing the expansion of the distribution system. and local governments.3 FACTORS AFFECTING SYSTEM PLANNING The number and complexity of the considerations affecting system planning appears initially to be staggering. limitations on fuel choices. The distribution transformer loads are then combined to determine the demands on the primary distribution system. energy conservation. may restate the problem as an attempt to minimize the cost of subtransmission. of the substations as well as the routing and capacity of the associated transmission lines. there are factors over which the distribution system planner has no influence but which. increasing fuel costs. higher distribution voltages. Succinctly put. service areas of substations. In pursuing these objectives. and the loading of transformers and feeders. nevertheless.4 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering customer service more directly than. each step in the process provides input for the step that follows. Furthermore. and greater control sophistication constitute only the beginning of a list of such factors. they are grouped for service from secondary lines connected to distribution transformers that step down from primary voltage. the timing and location of energy demands. the undesirability of rate increases. flicker. for example. 1. and the rates that are charged to the customers. forecasting of load increases and . There are. however. Indeed. Therefore. the location of capacitors and voltage regulators. insulation levels. the planner is usually restricted by permissible voltage values. Demands for ever-increasing power capacity.3. the planning problem is an attempt to minimize the cost of subtransmission. increasing or decreasing prices of alternative energy sources. as well as service continuity and reliability. some other factors that need to be considered such as transformer impedance. location of breakers and switches. Once the customer loads are determined. as well as the cost of losses. of course. availability of spare transformers and mobile substations. and so on. more automation. which usually do not cause customer service interruptions. The distribution system loads. sizes of feeders and laterals. changing economic conditions such as a decrease or increase in gross national product (GNP) projections. state. load factor. dispatch of generation. type. and other customer load characteristics dictate the type of distribution system required. The constraints which circumscribe the designer have also become more onerous. and so on. ecological considerations. 1. inflation and/or recession. locations and sizes of substations. for example. feeders. the planner ultimately has a significant influence on additions to and/or modifications of the subtransmission network. and the necessity to minimize investments. in the absence of accepted planning techniques.

institutional. extending even to the individual customer level.6 shows the factors that affect substation site selection. The grid data are then available to aid configuration design. load growth is very much dependent on the community and its development. Economic indicators. and load growth may require a substation expansion or a new substation construction. In the system expansion plan the present system configuration.3. Output from the forecast is in the form of load densities (kilovoltamperes per unit area) for long-range forecasts. Ideally. with time horizons of up to 5 yr away. The planner makes a decision based on tangible or intangible information.5 presents some of the factors affecting the substation expansion. with time horizons in the order of 15 or 20 yr away. For example.3. demographic data. Thus. This stage of the site selection mainly indicates the areas that are unsuitable for site development. load density.7. and aesthetics. Short-range forecasts may require greater detail.4 indicates some of the factors which influence the load forecast. its cost. and it provides a useful planning tool for checking all geographical locations and taking the necessary actions to accommodate the system expansion patterns. the candidate sites are categorized into three basic groups: (i) sites .3 SUBSTATION SITE SElECTION Figure 1. such as availability of land. Further. system planning. as indicated in Figure 1. The master grid presents the load forecasting data. Densities are associated with a coordinate grid for the area of interest. and short-range. and official land use plans all serve as raw input to the forecast procedure.Distribution System Planning and Automation 5 Geographical factors Historical (tim) data Population growth Land use City plans Load Industrial plans Community development plans energy sources FIGURE 1. There are two common time scales of importance to load forecasting. these forecasts would predict future loads in detail. engineering. for example. It may be defined as the service territory of the utility.2 SUBSTATION EXPANSION Figure 1. long-range. economics. An initial screening is applied by using a set of considerations. The distance from the load centers and from the existing subtransmission lines as well as other limitations. the forecasted load. The substation siting process can be described as a screening procedure through which all possible locations for a site are passed. capacity. much less resolution is sought or required. and the forecasted loads can play major roles. The service region is the area under evaluation.4 Factors affecting load forecast. Figure 1. As one would expect. the service region is screened down to a set of candidate sites for substation construction. and land use regulations. are important. system reaction to these increases is essential for the planning process. 1. but in practice. 1. safety.

(ii) sites that have some promise but are not selected for detailed evaluation during the planning cycle. number of feeders. and (iii) absolute versus relative scaling of effects. that are unsuitable for development in the foreseeable future.6 Factors affecting substation siting.6 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 1. and total cost. A complete site assessment should use a mix of all alternatives and attempt to treat the evaluation from a variety of perspectives. feeder route selection. The emphasis put on each consideration changes from level to level and from utility to utility_ Three basic alternative uses of the considerations are: (i) quantitative versus qualitative evaluation.3. .8. (ii) adverse versus beneficial effects evaluation. conductor size selection. then the remaining factors affecting primary voltage selection.5 Factors affecting substation expansion. Closeness to load centers Feeder limitations FIGURE 1. 1. need to be considered. as shown in Figure 1. and (iii) candidate sites that are to be studied in more detail.4 OTHER FACTORS Once the load assignments to the substations are determined.

and they are unlikely to be subject to change at the whim of the planning engineer unless the planner's argument can be supported by running test cases to show substantial benefits that can be achieved by selecting different voltage levels. In general. . the subtransmission and distribution system voltage levels are determined by company policies.7 Substation site selection procedure.8 Factors affecting total cost of the distribution system expansion.Distribution System Planning and Automation 7 Considerations Safety Engineering System Planning Institutional Economics Aesthetics Proposed sites FIGURE 1. Maintenance cost Operating cost Costs of taxes and miscellaneous Power losses FIGURE 1.

the computers do perform calculations more expeditiously than other methods and free the distribution engineer from detailed work. the planning procedure consists of four m~or activities: load forecasting. It is clear that each step in this planning process provides input for the steps that follow. The distribution transformer loads are then combined to determine the demands on the primary distribution system. and total system impedance calculation programs. voltage regulation.4 PRESENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING TECHNIQUES Today. determine the size and location (siting) of the substations as well as the route and capacity of the associated subtransmission lines. within limits. This analysis. the designer may not have much freedom in choosing the necessary sizes and types of capacity equipment. For example. many electric distribution system planners in the industry utilize computer programs. However. substation expansion. depend on the adequacy of the existing system and the size. The distribution system loads.8 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Further. because of the standardization and economy that are involved. 1. The latter provides the reduction from primary voltage to customer-level voltage. and substation site selection. The primary distribution system loads are then assigned to substations that step down from subtransmission voltage. regardless of how calculations are made. Configuration design starts at the customer level. no attempt was made to represent the planning procedure of any specific company but rather to provide an outline of a typical planning process. and additional constraints can include: 1. as well as other tools such as load forecasting. short-circuit and fault-current calculation programs. Figure 1. A much more common procedure is the following. such a straightforward procedure may be impossible to follow. The demand type. . representing the company's policies. In general. Perhaps what is not clear is that in practice. rather than actually making them.9 shows a functional block diagram of the distribution system planning process currently followed by most of the utilities. Once customer loads are determined. location. there is no substitute for engineering judgment based on adequate planning at every stage of the development of power systems. the use of the aforementioned tools and their bearing on the system design is based purely on the discretion of the planner and overall company operating policy. and timing of the additional loads that need to be served. in general. As the diagram shows. distribution system configuration design. secondary lines are defined which connect to distribution transformers. Of course. load factor. voltage drop calculation programs. 2. and optimal siting and sizing algorithms. constituting the second stage of the process. The acceptability criteria. and a regulation program. This process is repeated for each year of a long-range (15-20 yr) planning period. requires the use of tools such as a distribution load flow program. 3. radial or loop load flow programs. capacitor planning. in turn. Nevertheless. regulator setting. such as load flow programs. Service continuity. The maximum allowable voltage dip occasioned by the starting of a motor of specified starting current characteristics at the most remote point on the secondary. a voltage profile. and other customer load characteristics dictate the type of distribution system required. The maximum allowable peak-load voltage drop to the most remote customer on the secondary. Upon receiving the relevant load projection data. Any decision regarding addition of a feeder or adding on to an existing feeder will. In the development of this diagram. a system performance analysis is done to determine whether the present system is capable of handl ing the new load increase with respect to the company's criteria. usually based on ad hoc techniques. The engineer can then spend time reviewing results of the calculations. reliability. obligations to the consumers. the designer may have to choose a distribution transformer from a fixed list of transformers that are presently stocked by the company for the voltage levels that are already established by the company. the overall concept of using the output of each program as input for the next program is not in use.

The maximum allowable peak load.9. If the decision is to expand the present system with minor additions. Service reliability. then either the present system needs to be expanded by new. then a new additional network configuration is designed and analyzed for adequacy. If the cost is found to be too high. and so on. If the new configuration is found to be inadequate. another is tried. Power losses. As illustrated in Figure 1. if the results of the performance analysis indicate that the present system is not adequate to meet future demand.Distribution System Planning and Automation 9 Load forecast Yes Good system erformance ? No Feedback Expand present system No Yes Select substation site No Total cost acceptable ? Yes FIGURE 1.9 A block diagram of a typical distribution system planning process. relatively minor. or a new substation may need to be built to meet the future demand. 5. 6. 4. system additions. or adequate performance cannot be . The cost of each configuration is calculated. until a satisfactory one is found.

Further. The quadratic programming method. 4. then the original expand-or-build decision is re-evaluated. Therefore. 2. The dynamic programming method. the actual number of possible plans for a 40-node distribution system is over 15 million. . making it a significant expense [44].10 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering achieved. Optimum feeder routes and sizes to supply the given loads subject to numerous constraints to minimize the present worth of the total costs involved. Such programs never consider all aspects of the problem. 5. The decomposition method. integer-programming. distribution system planning dictates a complex procedure because of a large number of variables involved and the difficult task of the mathematical presentation of numerous requirements and limitations specified by systems configuration. and thus there can be a number of feasible alternative plans which make the selection of the optimum alternative a very difficult one [10). 4. by selecting: 1. Finding the overall least-cost plan for the distribution system associated with several neighboring substations can be a truly intimidating task. today a number of computerized optimization programs that can be used as tools to find the best design from among those many possibilities. The linear-programming. Optimum load transfers between substations and demand centers. the expand-or-build decision may need further re-evaluation. For example. with the number of feasible designs being in about 20. The distribution system costs of an electric utility company can account for up to 60% of investment budget and 20% of operating costs. Genetic algorithms method. for example. Some of the operation research techniques used in performing this task include: 1. Minimizing the cost of distribution system can be a considerable challenge. This process terminates when a satisfactory configuration is attained which provides a solution to existing or future problems at a reasonable cost. As a result.000 variations. 3. and mixed-integer programming methods which linearize constraint conditions. 6. If the resulting decision is to build a new substation. a great number of variables are involved. The alternative-policy method. 2. mathematical models are developed to represent the system and can be employed by distribution system planners to investigate and determine optimum expansion patterns or alternatives. as the feeder system associated with only a single substation may present a distribution engineer with thousands of feasible design options from which to choose. The use of computer-aided tools that help identify the lowest cost distribution configuration has been a focus of much R&D work in the last three decades. Especially in long-range planning. in which a large problem is subdivided into several small problems and each one is solved separately. However. a new placement site must be selected. 5. 1. and most include approximations. Optimum substation transformer sizes. 3. Many of the steps in the aforementioned procedures can feasibly be carried out only with the aid of computer programs. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages. they can help to deduce distribution costs even with the most conservative estimate by 5-10% which is more than enough reason to use them [44].5 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING MODElS In general. Optimum substation expansions. if the purchase price of the selected site is too high. by which a few alternative policies are compared and the best one is selected. Optimum substation locations.

000 segments/potential segments. For a given distribution system. As expansion costs are usually very large. can be optimized in one analysis on a DEC 3000/600 with 64-Mb RAM in about I min [44]. and a constrained linear optimization algorithm for determination of multifeeder configurations. the present level of electric power demand is known and the future levels can be forecasted by one stage. and (iii) operational planning. the development of more involved studies with a large number of alternating projects using mathematical models and computational optimization techniques can improve the traditional solutions that were achieved by the planners. (ii) augmentation of existing system. editor. Such models may provide the optimal solutions for a single planning stage. What is needed is the full representation of individual feeder segments. or several stages. The complexity of the mathematical problems and the process of resolution become more difficult because the decisions for building substations and feeders in one of the planning stages have an influence on such decisions in the remaining stages. that is. However. For example. its large problem capacity. or in terms of load times distance. For the program. depending on data availability and company policy) to meet the demand at minimum expansion cost. 1. Using this package. and reasonable computational requirements. The subproblem of the optimal sizing and/or locating feeders. and planner's past ex"perience and engineering judgment. distribution system planning can be categorized as: (i) new system expansion. The studies were based on the existing system. a system of 10. Such models take into account the full representation of the feeder network but do not take into account the former subproblem. I yr. the overall distribution system planning problem has been dealt with by dividing it into the following two subproblems that are solved successfully: 1. The subproblem of the optimal sizing and/or location of distribution substations. there are various innovative algorithms based on optimization programs that have been developed based on the aforementioned fundamental operations research techniques. However.Distribution System Planning and Automation 11 Expansion studies of a distribution system have been performed in practice by planning engineers. This program uses a linear trans-shipment algorithm in addition to a postoptimization radialization. In the early applications. there are more complex mathematical models that take into account the distribution planning problem as a global problem and solve it by considering minimization of feeder and substation costs simultaneously.ing and locating. extensive economic and electrical calculations. the corresponding mathematical formulation has taken into account the present feeder network either in terms of load transfer capability between service areas. forecasts of power demands. and GUI structure specifically designed to support optimization applications in augmentation planning and switching studies. the problem is to plan the expansion of the distribution system (in one or several stages. one such distribution design optimization program has been called now in use at over 25 utilities in the United States. a linear algorithm methodology was selected over nonlinear methods even though it is not the best in applications involving augmentation planning and switching studies. In some approaches. . various equipment selection optimization routes such as capacitor-regulator siz. Therefore.5. The reasons for this section include its stability in use in terms of consistently converging performance. the network itself. The key features include a database. such improvements of solutions represent valuable savings.1 COMPUTER ApPLICATIONS Today. display. which at a typical 200 segments per feeder means roughly eight substation service areas. It works within an integrated Unix or Windows NT graphical user interface (GUI) environment with a single open SQL circuit database that supports circuit analysis. 2. for example. From the applications point of view.

a piecewise linearization type approximation has been effectively used in a number of optimization applications. the cost for each feeder size should include: (i) 10 investment costs of each of the installed feeder. operational planning in terms of determining switching patterns has very little effect if any on the initial investment decisions on either feeder routes and/or substation locations. that is. 1. then the costs involved become fixed investment costs. Such applications may reduce costs in augmentation planning approximately by 5% [44]. environmental. For example. equipment sites. Willis [44] names such planning as greenfield planning because of the fact that the planner starts with essentially nothing.12 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering NEW EXPANSION PLANNING 1. and a capacity limit that constraints its maximum loading. namely.5. . when an existing system is in place. fixed and variable costs of each circuit element should be included in such studies. a linear cost versus kVA slope based on segment length. or greenfield. or community reasons. operational.5. The optimization involved is the minimization of J2R losses while meeting properly the loading and operational restrictions. Second. Here. the cost of useful system capacity lost (i. the challenge is the balancing of the numerous unique constraints and local variations in options. Any switching activities that take place later on in the operational phase only affect the minimization of losses.5. a distribution planner faces the problem of economically upgrading a distribution system that is already in existence. Economic savings as large as 19% in comparison with good manual design practices have been reported in IEEE and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) publications. usually for the purpose of meeting the voltage drop criterion and loading while having minimum losses. optimization programs have long been applied to augmentation planning partially because of the absence of better tools. and permitted upgrades of existing equipment are very limited because of practical. and (ii) cost of energy lost because of J2 R losses in the feeder conductors. the demand cost incurred to maintain adequate and additional system capacity to supply J2R losses in feeder conductors) into such calculations. at the same time introducing only a slight approximation error. Although such planning may be seen as much easier than the Greenfield planning.4 OPERATIONAL PLANNING It determines the actual switching pattern for operation of an already-built system. optimization algorithms can apply a clever linearization that shortens computational times and allows large problem size. in reality this perception is not true for two reasons. new routes. in a wellestablished neighborhood where a slow growing load indicates that the existing system will be overloaded pretty soon. Nevertheless. However. It can be envisioned as the distribution expansion planning for the growing periphery of a thriving city. the options for upgrading existing lines generally cannot be linearized. aesthetic. As discussed in Section 7. This approach has provided very satisfactory results since the 1970s. For example.5. Luckily. providing good results. In such planning problem. Once the investment decisions are made. the only choice is switching..3 AUGMENTATION AND UPGRADES Much more often than a Greenfield planning. obviously there are a vast range of possibilities for the new design. It has received the most attention in the technical literature partially because of its large capital and land requirements. 1. each segment in the potential system is represented with only two values. First of all. more than 60 utilities in this country alone use this method routinely in the layout of major new distribution additions today. and plans a completely new system based on the development of a region. It is also possible to include the cost of demand lost. contrary to the other two planning approaches. According to Willis [44]. In such linearization.e.2 It is easiest of the aforementioned three categories to optimize. Here. In the last two decades.

[44] report that in a single analysis that lasted less than a minute. The third factor which must be considered is increasing difficulty in raising customer rates. this is definitely not the case with switching. the factors affecting the distribution system planning decisions have been reviewed. and tradeoffs. This in turn will increase the competition for attracting the capital necessary for expansions in distribution systems. This rate increase "inertia" also stems in part from inflation as well as from the results of customers that are made more sensitive to rate increases by consumer activist groups. An additional benefit of optimization efforts is that it greatly enhances the understanding of the system in terms of the interdependence between costs. Only a slight influence of not including the cost of energy losses is observed in the optimal network structure evolved in terms of delay in building a feeder.5 BENEFITS OF OPTIMIZATION ApPLICATIONS Furthermore. The following sections examine what today's trends are likely to portend for the future of the planning process. It can easily be said that cost reduction is the primary justification for application of optimization. attempts will be made by government to reduce the money supply. the optimal solution is the same. The second important economic factor will be the increasing expense of acquiring capital. they have shown that the problem can successfully be resolved considering only investment costs. 1. The forces which initially drove this migration economic in nature are still at work.1 ECONOMIC FACTORS There are several economic factors which will have significant effects on distribution planning in the 1980s.6. For example. environmental concerns.Distribution System Planning and Automation 13 1. Also. performance. as expected having a lower total costs.5. The first of these is inflation. According to Willis et al. energy source conversion cost. according to Gonen and Ramirez-Rosado [46]. the optimization program results have identified the key problems to savings and quantified how it interacts with other aspects of the problems and indicated further cost reduction possibilities. However. one of their studies involving multistage planning have shown that the optimal network structure is almost the same as before.6. As population leaves the countrysides. a linear optimization delivers in the order of 85% of savings achievable using nonlinear analysis. Also. inflation will continue to be a major factor. For example. a nonlinear optimization algorithm would improve average savings in augmentation planning to about the same level as those of Greenfield results. population must also leave the smaller towns which depend on the countrysides for economic life. The number of single-family farms has continuously declined during this century. and there are no visible trends which would reverse this population flow into the larger urban areas. Furthermore. tests using a nonlinear optimization have shown that potential savings in augmentation planning are generally only a fourth to a third as much as in Greenfield studies.2 DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS Important demographic developments will affect distribution system planning in the near future. [44]. and government deficits. the need for a systematic approach to distribution planning has been emphasized. As long as inflation continues to decrease the real value of the dollar. . some of the past and present techniques used by the planning engineers of the utility industry in performing the distribution systems planning have been discussed. In addition.6 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE FUTURE In the previous sections. This trend has been a consideration of distribution planners for years and represents no new effect for which account must be taken. when the problem is resolved considering only the costs of investment and energy losses. 1. 1. Fueled by energy shortages. with the exception of building a particular feeder until the fourth year. Willis et al. The first of these is a trend which has been dominant over the last 50 yr: the movement of the population from the rural areas to the metropolitan areas.

large banks of fuel cells could supply significant amounts of the total power requirements. and it will result in an increase in multifamily dwellings in areas which already have high population densities. The first of these is the improvement in fuel-cell technology. and modify.3 TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS The final class of factors..e. this basic philosophy has been re-examined and customer load management has been investigated as an alternative to capacity expansion. expand. 1. and the bulk power system. environmental concerns. distribution systems will become more expensive to build. and minimize losses. high cost of labor. These requirments need to be met at a time when demographic trends are veering away from what have been their norms for many years in the past and when distribution systems are becoming more complex in design because of the appearance of more active components (e. Therefore. This trend is just beginning to be visible. and the recent shortage (or high cost) of fuels.and wind-driven generators. Alteration of the electric energy use patterns will not only affect the demands on system-generating equipment but also alter the loading of distribution equipment.7.14 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering However. Recently. The load management may be used to reduce or balance loads on marginal substations and circuits. in time and in location. and interest rates). However.7 FUTURE NATURE OF DISTRIBUTION PLANNING Predictions about the future methods for distribution planning must necessarily be extrapolations of present methods.7. Before giving a detailed discussion of these expected changes. Load management's benefits are systemwide.. the superstructure which supports these algorithms and the problem-solving environment used by the system designer is expected to change significantly to take advantage of new methods which technology has made possible. Other nonconventional energy sources which might be a part of the total energy grid could appear at the customer level. the . thus even extending their lives. Thus. which will be important to the distribution system planner. If this trend becomes important. has arisen from technological advances that have been encouraged by the energy crisis. in the future. In addition to the accurate load growth estimates. it would change drastically the entire nature of the distribution system as it is known today. As distribution systems have been designed to interface with controlled load patterns. because of the financial constraints (i. meet performance goals. the power utility companies of the United States supplied electric energy to meet all customer demands when demands occurred. 1. the systems of the future will necessarily be designed somewhat differently to benefit from the altered conditions. The output power of such devices has risen to the point where in the areas with high population density.6.1 INCREASING IMPORTANCE OF GOOD PLANNING For the economic reasons listed before. it is particularly important that each distribution system design be as costeffective as possible. 1. the migration from the suburbs to the urban and near-urban areas is a new trend attributable to the energy crisis. materials.2 IMPACTS OF LOAD MANAGEMENT In the past. Basic algorithms for network analysis have been known for years and are not likely to be improved upon in the near future. However. There is some pressure from consumer groups to force utilities to accept any surplus energy from these sources for use in the total distribution network. on the distribution system. 1. subtransmission system. fuel cells) instead of the conventional passive ones. This means that the system must be optimal from many points of view over the time period from first day of operation to the planning time horizon. however. the implementation of load management policies may drastically affect the distribution of load. the changing role of distribution planning needs to be examined.g. components must be phased in and out of the system so as to minimize capital expenditure. Among the possible candidates would be solar.

7. these designs in digital form will be passed to extensive simulation programs which will determine if the proposed network satisfies performance and load growth criteria. and/or fuel costs. are expected to show the greatest development as better planning could have a significant impact on the utility industry.3 CosT/BENEFIT RATIO FOR INNOVATION In the utility industry. The results of this development will show the following characteristics: 1. purchased power. however. It must be able to reduce demand during critical system load periods. It must operate at an acceptable reliability level. it is necessary that one judge their acceptance on this basis. It must provide a benefit to the customer in the form of reduced rates or other incentives. The design tools. 2.4 NEW PLANNING TOOLS Tools to be considered fall into two categories: network design tools and network analysis tools. It must result in a reduction in new generation requirements. The evolution of the system in response to changing requirements and under changing constraints is a process involving considerable uncertainty. Network design will be optimized with respect to many criteria by using programming methods of operations research. 6. That this is not likely to be the case may be seen by considering the trends judged to be dominant during this period with those which held sway over the period in which the tools were developed. distribution system planners have used computers for many years to perform the tedious calculations necessary for system analysis. 1. This environment will be discussed in the next section. 7. the most powerful force shaping the future is that of economics. 1. It must have an acceptable level of customer convenience. However.Distribution System Planning and Automation 15 benefits of load management cannot be fully realized unless the system planners have the tools required to adequately plan incorporation into the evolving electric energy system. The requirements of a successful load management program are specified by Delgado [19] as follows: I. The analysis tools may become more efficient but are not expected to undergo any major changes. Its operation must be compatible with system design and operation. 3. S. 2. any new innovations are not likely to be adopted for their own sake but will be adopted only if they reduce the cost of some activity or provide something of economic value which previously had been unavailable for comparable costs.8 THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE COMPUTER IN DISTRIBUTION PLANNING As is well known. 3. In predicting that certain practices or tools will replace current ones. 4. although the environment in which they are used will change significantly. 1. The expected innovations which satisfy these criteria are planning tools implemented on a digital computer which deal with distribution systems in network terms. One might be tempted to conclude that these planning tools would be adequate for industry use throughout the 1980s.7. It must have an acceptable cost/benefit ratio. Network design will be only one facet of distribution system management directed by human engineers using a computer system designed for such management functions. So-called network editors [7] will be available for designing trial networks. Therefore. it has only been in the past few years that technology has provided the means for planners to truly take a system approach to the total .

1 THE SYSTEM ApPROACH A collection of computer programs to solve the analysis problems of a designer does not necessarily constitute an efficient problem-solving system. The system approach to the design of a useful tool for the designer begins by examining the types of information required and its sources. At certain points.8. and modifies various data on distribution systems [11]. Finally. With this conception of the planning process. It is the central thesis of this book that the development of such an approach will occupy planners in the 1980s and will significantly contribute to their meeting the challenges previously discussed.16 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering design and analysis. retrieves. The view taken is that this information generates decisions and additional information which pass from one stage of the design process to another. nor does such a collection even when the output of one can be used as the input of another. it is noted that the human engineer must evaluate the information generated and add his or her input. One representation of this information flow is shown in Figure 1. 1.10 A schematic view of a distribution planning system.10. ensuring in the process that the various transformations of information are made as efficiently as possible. the results must be displayed for use and stored for later reference. 1.10. Analysis programs forming part of the system are supported by a database management system which stores.2 THE DATABASE CONCEPT As suggested in Figure 1. the system approach seeks to automate as much of the process as possible. the database plays a central role in the operation of such a system. It is in this area that technology has made some significant strides in the past 5 yr so that not only FIGURE 1.8. where the outer circle represents the interface between the engineer and the system. .

photovoltaics. these generators are small (typically ranging in size from 100 kW to 10 MW and connectable to either side of the meter) and can be economically connected only to the distribution system. hydroelectric pumped storage.Distribution System Planning and Automation 17 it is possible to store vast quantities of data economically. opportunities for small power producers and cogenerators have been enhanced by recent legislative initiatives. the capacity of such production sources together with other facilities located at the same site must not exceed 80 MW. Furthermore. A cogeneration facility is one which produces electricity and steam or forms of useful energy for industrial. If properly planned and operated.B. but it is also possible to retrieve desired data with access times in the order of seconds. 1. DSG may provide benefits to distribution systems by reducing capacity requirements. and command functions. One such new tool which has appeared in the literature is known as a network editor [7]. such as transformers and loads.1 gives the results of a comparison of DSG devices with respect to the factors affecting the energy management system (EMS) of a utility system [22]. Examples of DSG technologies include hydroelectric. . A qualified facility is any small power production or cogeneration facility which conforms to the previous definitions and is owned by an entitity not primarily engaged in generation or sale of electric power.9 IMPACT OF DISPERSED STORAGE AND GENERATION Following the oil embargo and the rising prices of oil. control mechanisms. it is expected that some new tools will emerge to assist the designer in arriving at the optimal design. commercial. renewable resources. The database management system provides the interface between the process which requires access to the data and the data themselves. the efforts toward the development of alternative energy sources (preferably renewable resources) for generating electric energy have been increased. In general. and edges which represent connections among the components. and by the subsequent interpretations by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 1980 [20. The network consists of a graph whose vertices are network components. wind electric systems. solar electric systems. and reducing losses. A primitive network object comprises a name. secondary line sections. distribution transformers. Operations on the database are performed by the database management system (DBMS). They are defined as dispersed storage and generation (DSG) devices. Table 1. the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978.2 gives the interactions between the DSG factors and the functions of the EMS or energy control center. waste. The control mechanisms may provide the planner with natural tools for correct network construction and modification [11]. improving reliability. Furthermore. or any combination thereof. and a connection list.21]. The features of the network editor may include network objects. for example. batteries. for example. or variable or fixed capacitors. storage space and water heaters. The following definitions of the criteria affecting facilities under PURPA are given in Section 201 of PURPA. an object class description. diesel generators. 1. Table 1. A small power production facility is one which produces electric energy solely by the use of primary fuels of biomass.3 NEW AUTOMATED TOOLS In addition to the database management and the network analysis programs. storage air conditioners. or cooling applications. The particular organization which is likely to emerge as the dominant one in the near future is based on the idea of a relation. and fuel cells. feeder line sections. heating.

... :l ([) ([) :::!... 339-45.co ... Power Appar. PAS-l 02.. -< Ul ([) :l Vl ..9. H. :l OQ .. " 0 ::: ([) . c . 3 m :l <1.... Klein...... IEEE Trans. O· 0- 0 Source: From Kirkham..1 Comparison of Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) Devices Factors DSG Devices Biomass Geothennal Pumped hydro Compressed air storage Solar thennal Photovoltaics Wind Fuel cells Storage battery Low-head hydro Size Variable Medium Large Large Variable Variable Small Variable Variable Small Medium Medium Small Power Source Availability Good Good Good Good Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Good Good Variable Good Good Good Power Source Stability Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good DSG Energy Limitation No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Voltage Control Yes Yes Yes Yes Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Response Speed Fast Medium Fast Fast Variable Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast Harmonic Generation No No No No Uncertain Yes Uncertain Yes Yes No No No No Special Automatic Start Yes Yes Yes Yes Uncertain Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes DSG Factors Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No m ([) ('i' ~ .. :::!. TABLE 1. Cogeneration: Gas turbine B uming refuse Landfill gas Ul .2. Syst.. 1983... and J.

IEEE Trans. H. PAS-I 02.. 0. . 339-345. ~. Source: From Kirkham..o u c ~. interaction unlikely. and J.2 Interaction Between Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) Factors and Energy Management System Functions Factors Power Source Availability Power Source Stability DSG Voltage Control Special DSG Factors (JQ OJ ::J Functions Size Energy Limitation Response Speed Harmonic Generation Automatic Start o :3 ~ O· ::J » c 0. interaction possible. 2.. Automatic generation control Economic dispatch Voltage control Protection State estimation On-line load flow Security monitoring I 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I 0 I 0 0 ? I 0 0 0 0 0 I I 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I. <. ?.. interaction probable.. Syst. Klein. Power Appar.. 1983.C> . o ::J Vl '< Vl ro ::J ::J ::J OJ :3 :::2 TABLE 1.

the feeder or feeders will no longer be radial. IEEE Spectrum. The contribution of the DSO systems to this figure has been estimated to be in the range of 4 to 10%. According to Chen [26]. A. In distribution systems with DSO. or a substation would require an increasing amount of automation and control.. then it might be considered as backup for normal supply. : : : : : : DSG Battery or fuel cells. as shown in Figure 1. In a given fault.3 gives a profile of the electric utility industry in the United States in the year 2006.. With permission. a more complex distribution of higher magnitude fault currents will occur because of multiple supply sources. distribution automation will be indispensable for maintaining a reliable electric supply and for cutting down operating costs.. C. a more complex set of operating conditions will prevail for both steady-state. small. a power distribution feeder. and fault conditions.. M. If so. lateral feeder DSG Photovoltaic power supply. For example.) . 1 to 25 MW Distribution: primary s u b s t a t i o n : feeder r-~'____~~~--~~~___ : Sectionalizing " : switch . as power distribution systems become increasingly complex because of the fact that they have more DSO systems. this could improve service security in instances of loss of supply. if 5% of installed capacity is DSO in the year 2000. ~ Primary circuits i i ! L______________________ : L__________________ ! J One-phase.20 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering As mentioned before. Table 1. Consequently. it has been estimated that the installed generation capacity will be about 1200 OW in the United States by the year 2000.11. April 1982. If the dispersed generator capacity is large relative to the feeder supply capacity. (From Chen. Three-phase. dispersed energy storage and generation units attached to a customer's home. 55-60. Such systems require more sophisticated detection and Generating plant Step-up transformers Circuit breakers Transmission system Transformers in bulk power substation Dispersed storage and generation (DSG) Solar or wind sources (100 kW to 1 MW) r---------------------.--------------------. up to 100 kW Home FIGURE 1.11 In the future. it represents a contribution of 60 Ow.

3. The term distribution automation has a very broad meaning. Increased reliability of service to essential loads. capitalization. can continuously monitor the system. Reduced reserve requirements in both transmission and generation. and operating efficiency. Increased market penetration of coal. . Improved overall system efficiency in the use of both capital and energy. Advances in digital technology are making true distribution automation a reality. Recently. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system involves generation and transmission systems. The operations involved dictate geographically dispersed and functionally complex monitoring and control systems. Automatic monitoring and control features have long been a part of the SCADA system. including connected load.10 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AUTOMATION The main purpose of an electric power system is to efficiently generate. To some people. better automation and control tools are required. located at a distribution substation. performance reliability.12. As noted in the figure. issue commands. inexpensive minicomputers and powerful microprocessors (computer on a chip) have provided distribution system engineers with new tools that are making many distribution automation concepts achievable. 1. make operating decisions. and renewable domestic energy sources. Therefore. The microprocessor. If the systems being developed are to be optimal with respect to construction cost. is well suited to the complexities of a distribution system with DSG. The motivating objectives of the DAC system are [25]: 1.12 Monitoring and controlling an electric power system. distribution automation. The distribution automation and control (DAC) system oversees the distribution system.Distribution System Planning and Automation 21 isolation techniques than those adequate for radial feeders. the distribution automation may mean an unattended distribution substation that could be considered attended through the use of an on-site microprocessor. 4. More recently automation has become a part of the overall energy management. It is clear that future distribution systems will be more complex than those of today. as shown in Figure 1. and distribute electric energy. nuclear. To others. with its multiple point monitoring and control capability. it may mean a communication system at the distribution level that can control customer load and can reduce peak load generation through load management. the EMS exercises overall control over the total system. transmit. including the distribution system. and additional applications are added every day. and Energy management system (EMS) I Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system I Distribution automation and control (DAC) system I Generation and transmission systems I Distribution system I Connected load FIGURE 1. 2.

Customer loads that are appropriate for control are water heating. Here. Significant service interruption will be limited to those customers supplied from the faulted and isolated line section. followed by the undiversified demand experienced when re-energizing a circuit following an extended.S. It involves direct control of loads at individual customer sites from a remote central location. Fast completion of a fault isolation and service restoration operation will reduce the undiversified component of cold load pick-up considerably. Load Shedding. space heating. Cold Load Pick-Up. This is achieved by designing the system to disconnect loads controlled by the load management system so that customer loads are reduced when energy is restored. It entails the controlled pick-Up of dropped load. Control may be exercised for the purpose of overall system peak load reduction or to reduce the load on a particular substation or feeder that is becoming overloaded. A Study of a Space Communication System for the Control and Monitoring of the Electric Distribution System. With permission. report any change in status to the distribution dispatch center (DDC). While this function is similar to peak load pricing. store it on-site for later use. depending on the need of the utility.. or seasonal reconfiguration of feeders or feeder segments for the purpose of taking advantage of load diversity among feeders. thermal storage heating. and remote meter reading functions. short duration in-rush current. May 1980. Reconnection of loads can be timed to match the return of diversity to prevent exceeding feeder loading limits. interruption. the undiversified demand cold load pickup can be suppressed. Table 1. JPL Publication 80-48. This function involves remote control of switches and breakers to permit routine daily.4 gives some of the automated distribution functions which can be categorized as the load management functions. California Institute of Technology. weekly. real-time operational management functions. This function permits the rapid dropping of large blocks of load. Peak Load Pricing.1 DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION AND CONTROL FUNCTIONS There is no universal consensus among the utilities as to the types of functions which should be handled by a DAC system. according to an established priority basis. under certain conditions. This function is a corollary to the load-shedding function. population Number of electric meters Number of residence With central air conditioners With electric water heaters With electric space heating Number of electric utilities 250 110 X X 106 106 33 X 106 25 X 106 7 X 106 3100 Source: From Vaisnys. CA. It enables the system to effectively serve . Load Reconfiguration. A. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.3 A Profile of the Electric Utility Industry in the United States in the Year 2000 Total U. An extended system interruption may be because of upstream events beyond the control of the distribution automation system. When this occurs. that is. the dispatching center controls the individual customer loads rather than only the meters. Pasadena. air conditioning. 1. cold load pick-up describes the load that causes a high magnitude. 20 min or more. and industrial loads supplied under interruptible survice contracts.10. Some of these functions will be discussed in further detail. This function allows the implementation of peak load pricing programs by remote switching of meter registers automatically for the purpose of time-of-day metering.22 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 1. or forget it. and so on. Discretionary Load Switching. This function is also called the customer load management.

location.4 Automated Distribution Functions Correlated with Locations Customer Sites Residential Load Management Discretionary load switching Peak load pricing Load shedding Cold load pick-up ::J o (J') "< tf> Power System Elements Distribution Circuits Industrial Substation Distribution Substation Power Substation Bulk DSG Facilities :3 ~ ro Commercial and Industrial 3: Agricultural ::J ::J ::J ()Q ~ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x ::J Q c (5 » ~ ::J :3 Operational Management Load reconfiguration Voltage regulation Transfonner load management Feeder load management Capacitor control Dispersed storage and generation Fault detection. 6' TABLE 1. JPL Publication 80-48.o ~ ""! c . o· x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Source: From Vaisnys. Pasadena. dispersed storage and generation..-. CA. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. and isolation Load studies Condition and state monitoring Remote Meter Reading Automatic customer meter reacjing DSG. N W . A Study of a Space Communication System for the Control and Monitoring of the Electric Distribution System. May 1980. California Institute of Technology. A.

such as Watts. and Volts. Dispersed Storage and Generation. This information. and they may be used for peak shaving. or time-of-day consumption and saves the otherwise necessary man hours involved in meter reading. This function is similar to TLM. It also enables routine maintenance on feeders without any customer load interruptions. isolate the faulted segment. as the amount of information to be reported grows. Location. replacement. This function enables the dispatcher to send repair crews faster to the fault location and results in lesser customer interruption time. Sensors located throughout the distribution network can be used to' detect and report abnormal conditions. This function enables the monitoring and continuous reporting of transformer loading data and core temperature to prevent overloads. Capacitor Control. Vars. [27]. the need for gathering substation and power plant data has increased. Increased efficiency requirements because of much higher fuel prices. and initiate proper sectionalization and circuit reconfiguration. The result has been a quantum jump in the amount of data being gathered by a SCADA system or EMS.24 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering larger loa9s without requiring feeder reinforcement or new construction. peak demand. and Isolation. can be used to automatically locate faults. Increased reporting requirements of reliability councils and government agencies. Fault Detection. in turn. This function involves real-time data gathering and status reporting from which the minute-by-minute status of the power system can be determined. This function permits remote control of switches to connect or disconnect an individual customer's electric service from a central control location. this is because of: I.10. to effect coordinated systemwide voltage control from a central facility. Load Studies. Storage and generation equipment may be located at strategic places throughout the distribution system. or transmitted to a dispatch center. This function enables the coordinated remote control of these sites. or abnormal operation by timely reinforcement. but the loads are monitored and measured on feeders and feeder segments (known as the line sections) instead. The tendency of utilities to monitor lower voltages than before. which are periodically sampled at a remote location. Recently. .2 THE LEVEL OF PENETRATION OF DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION The level of penetration of distribution automation refers to how deeply the automation will go into the distribution system. Feeder Load Management (FLM). Operation of the electric system closer to design limits. 2. alarm logs. This function involves the automatic on-line gathering and recording of load data for special off-line analysis. Voltage Regulation. A large portion of this data consists of analog measurements of electrical quantities. Condition and State Monitoring. This function allows the remote control of selected voltage regulators within the distribution network. The data may be stored at the collection point. This function permits selective and remote-controlled switching of distribution capaCitors. 4. together with network capacitor switching. Remote Service Connect or Disconnect. and so on. Table 1. Transformer Load Management (TLM). However. This function provides accurate and timely information for the planning and engineering of the power system. or reconfiguration. at the substation. transmitted to a control center. This function permits loads to be equalized over several feeders. These needs have occurred simultaneously with the relative decline of the prices of the computer and other electronic equipments.5 gives the present and near-future functional scope of power distribution automation systems. This function allows the remote reading of customer meters for total consumption. and processed by computer for output on cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. Automatic Customer Meter Reading. 3. According to GausheII et al. 1. burnouts.

As succinctly put by Markel and Layfield [28].5 Functional Scope of Power Distribution Automation System Present Within Up to 5 yr After 5 yr Protection Excessive current over long time Instantaneous overcurrent Underfrequency Transformer protection Bus protection Breaker failure protection Synchronism 'check Dispersed storage and generation (DSG) protection Personnel safety Operational Control and Monitoring Automatic bus sectionalizing Alarm annunciation Transformer tap-change control Instrumentation Load control Integrated voltage and var control: Capacitor bank control Transformer tap-change control Feeder deployment switching and automatic sectionalizing Load shedding Data acquisition. using one medium Two-way communication. IEEE Spectrum. Therefore. The computational requirements increase to handle the larger amount of data or to examine the increasing number of available switching options. costs increase as well as benefits. logging. With permission.. For example. and has greater flexibility. as equipments are controlled or monitored further down the feeder. connect more points. and display Sequence-of-events recording Transformer monitoring Instrumentation and diagnostics DSG command and control: power. 1. The number of devices to be monitored or controlled increases drastically. so do the number of communication channels and the amount of control center computer resources that are required. A. April 1982. 55-60. Today. 4. the utility obtains more information. has greater control. The communication system must cover longer distances. 3. The time and equipment needed to identify and communicate with each individually controlled device increases as the addressing system becomes more finely grained. voltage. C. synchronization DSG scheduling Automatic generation control Security assessment Data Collection and System Planning Remote supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) at a substation Distribution SCADA Automatic meter reading Distribution dispatching center Distribution system data base Automatic billing Service connecting and disconnecting Communications One-way load control Two-way communication. it has become a reality that normal loadings of substation transformers . 2. microprocessors use control algorithms which permit real-time control of distribution system configurations. and transmit greater amount of information. using many media Source: From Chen. M. However.Distribution System Planning and Automation 25 TABLE 1.

In summary. amount and speed of data transmission required.g. whether one-way or two-way communication is required. SCADA remotes. The return data link uses VHF receivers that are synchronized by the broadcast station to significantly increase data rate and coverage range [30].13 Applications of two-way radio communications. Figure 1. The EPRI and the U. a power-line carrier between the transformer and the customer's meter. For example. The forward (control) link of this system uses commercial broadcast radio. However. Utility phase-modulated (PM) digital signals are added to amplitude-modulated (AM) broadcast information. An example of such a system is shown in Figure 1. the command (forward) link might be one communication system.S. these other techniques involve greater uncertainties [29]. for example. and vice versa. The system includes two minicomputers.26 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering and of looped (via a normally open tie recloser) sectionalized feeders can be economically increased through software-controlled load-interrupting switches. They provide advantages such as continuous scanning. are installed in increasing numbers in distribution substations. It is possible to use hybrid systems. at the present time. higher speed of operation.) . and. between utility and customer. certain control practices (e. (From EPRI)'. Department of Energy (DOE) singled out power-line.14 shows an experimental system for automating power distribution at the LaGrange Park Substation of Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago. telephone. which is presently done only in transmission systems) are expected to become cost-effective in distribution systems. other communication techniques are certainly possible. thanks to the falling prices of microprocessors. 46-47.. and radio carriers as the most promising systems for their research. equipment costs. Furthermore. Standard AM receivers cannot detect the utility signals. September 1982. and the return (data) link might be another system. that is. often computer-directed. Furthermore.13. density of control points. of course. and greater security. a radio carrier might be used between the control station and the distribution transformer. the choice of a specific communication system or combination of systems depends on the specific control or monitoring functions required. Load management (one-way communication required) Air conditioners Water heaters Electric heaters Utility operations center Distribution automation (two-way communication required) Sectionalizing switches Capacitor banks Billing meters FIGURE 1. existing system configuration. protecting power systems against circuit-breaker failures by energizing backup equipment. two or more different communication systems. such as very high frequency (VHF) radio. broadcast radio.

The project is directed toward developing microprocessor-based digital relays capable of interfacing with conventional current and potential transformers and of accepting digital data from the substation yard. and operator control display. A.) a commercial VHF radio transmitter and a receiver.. The digital protection module operates in coordination with the data acquisition system and is also a standalone device. It includes line protection and transformer protection. C.14 The research system consisted of two minicomputers with distributed high-speed dataacquisition processing units at the La Grange Park Substation. base station Minicomputer B Communication controller Minicomputer A Carrier. and a feeder remote unit (FRU). __ I u~lI~ transformer -------r- Carrier modem I I I I Coupling capacitor-s--V /l I Sectionalizing switch ___ J Fault Current transformer Substation Feeder FIGURE 1. Microprocessors atop utility poles can automatically connect or disconnect two sections of a distribution feeder upon instructions from the base station.. These protective devices can also communicate with substation microcomputer controls capable of providing sequence of events. Figure U6 shows an integrated distribution control and protection system developed by EPR!. and feeder remote units by collecting data from them and forming the real-time database required for substation and feeder control. The integrated system includes four subsystems: a substation integration module (SIM). April 1982. the digital protection module. It features a common signal bus to control recording. Figure U5 shows a substation control and protection system which has also been developed by EPR!. 55-60. a DAS. M. The substation integration module coordinates the functions of the data acquisition and control system. substation unit r--- Voltage and current data to and from substation equipment and polemounted Processor for current lead/lag angle and reactive power Pole-mounted control unitl I I I I Radio Microprocessor: modem I I I I I I I I -----------. . and other equipments installed at a special facility called Probe. a digital protection module (DPM). fault recording. and follow-up actions.Distribution System Planning and Automation Antenna 27 r-------------------Distribution automation system. IEEE Spectrum. (From Chen. comparison. base station Radio. They are also able to interface upward to the dispatcher's control and downward to the distribution system control [31].

53-55. including optical fibers. 3. and follow-up actions (right)..10. (From EPRI J. . Critical processes are shaded. 2.) 1. 5. Power-line carrier (PLC) Radio carrier Telephone (lines) carrier Microwave Private cables. 4. comparison.15 Substation control and protection system that features a common signal bus (center lines) to control recording.3 ALTERNATIVES OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS There are various types of communication systems available for distribution automation: 1.28 Low-speed data and control bus High-speed (critical) data and control bus Electric Power Distribution System Engineering To energy control center Current Power circuit breaker Potential transformer Logger • Local load shedding • Synchro-check • Other To district engineer } Load tap changer control Protective relay control signals Transformer bank Transformer status and alarms FIGURE 1. June 1978.

43-45..16 The integrated distribution control and protection system of Electric Power Research Institute.Distribution System Planning and Automation 29 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 DAS' (transformer secondary data acqisition only) . May 1983.--- DAS-DPM"j" (bus-tie breaker) To other substation integration modules r- Bus protection module I-I-- DAS-DPM (feeder breaker) ~ Distribution dispatch center f--- Substation integration module II--I-- DAS-DPM (transformer secondary breaker) Transformer protection module DAS-DPM (transformer primary breaker) I- User-machine interface User-machine interface (portable) DAS (feeder data acquisition only) *Data acquisition system tDigital protection module Feeder remote unit (pole-mounted) FIGURE 1.) . (From EPRI J...

utilities would have to change their control hierarchies substantially in the future to accommodate the DSG systems in today's power distribution systems. Its disadvantages include the fact that under mass failure or damage to the distribution system. Telephone carrier systems use existing telephone lines for signal communication. The advantages of the PLC system include complete coverage of the entire electric system and complete control by the utility.11 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In summary. However. the communication system could also fail. which means that the distribution system planner's task will be more complex. It is a communication system which is separate and independent of the status of the distribution system. according to Chen [26]. Furthermore.30 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 1.I7. It can also be operated at a very high data rate. March 1979. Radio. In radio carrier systems.6 Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of the Power-Line. Other disadvantages include the fact that the utility does not have complete control of the telephone system and that not all meters have telephone service at or near them. either accidentally or intentionally. as shown in Figure l. Such systems would be owned and operated by electric utilities. JPL Publication 79-35. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Table 1. California Institute of Technology. and that additional equipments must be added to the distribution system. With permission. CA.6 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the aforementioned communication systems. If the systems that are planned are . However. the basic disadvantage of the radio system is that the signal path can be blocked. existing telephone tariffs probably make the telephone system one of the more expensive concepts at this time. Pasadena. PLC systems use electric distribution lines for the transmission of communication signals. future distribution systems will be more complex than those of today. and Telephone Carriers Advantages Power-Line Carrier Owned and controlled by utility Utility system must be conditioned Considerable auxiliary equipment Communication system fails if poles go down Disadvantages Radio Carrier Owned and controlled by utility Point-to-point communication Terminal equipment only Subject to interference by buildings and trees Telephone Carrier Terminal equipment only Carrier maintained by phone company Utility lacks control On-going tariff costs New telephone drops must be added Installation requires house wiring Communication system fails if poles go down Source: From Proc. communication signals are transmitted point-to-point via radio waves. 1. and therefore they are the least expensive. Distribution Automation and COlllro/ Working Group.

capitalization. A. better planning and operation tools are required.. C. 2. Energy Information Administration: Energy Data Reports-Statistics of Privately-Owned Electric Utilities in the United States. 3.----'-----.. voL 3.. April 1982.---I I Feeder -- r-I-Tie switch (normally open) Seclionalizing switch (normally closed) Up 10 100 kW FIGURE 1. U. Office of Emergency Operations. M. .. REFERENCES L Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems..--. April 1981.faclor correction L. East Pittsburgh.. IEEE Spectrum.. and operating efficiency. Department of Energy... I I I I I I I .S. 1975-1978.) to be optimal with respect to construction cost. The National Electric Reliability Study: Technical Study Reports. (From Chen. U..Distribution System Planning and Automation Interutility tie 31 r:M~r~h:--+-i : breaker: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -1 Power· pool coordination Utility energy· management system --/ Corporate billing computer / Bulk power / / // / Meter readings ------------/ Automated distribution system t t / r-------- Power. it is possible to identify the major forces which are beginning to institute a change in the methodology and extrapolate. Department of Energy. 1965. 55-60.S.. While it is impossible to foresee all the effects that technology will have on the way in which distribution planning and engineering will be done.17 A control hierarchy envisaged for future utilities. DOE/ EP-0005.----1.. performance reliability.capacitor ------. PA.

P. vol.: Toward Automated Distribution Systems Planning. Two-Way Data Communication Between Utility and Customer. 10. Pergamon. C. October 10.401-292. pp. Fourth PSCC. Texas.D. Electr. 9. C.. no. Yu: A Distribution System Planning Model. 129-36.101. Communication and Load Management. College Station. L. Proc. IEEE Proc. pt. A. March 17-18. 6.: Load Management-A Planner's View. pp. U. EPRI J.: Use of Computer Graphics in Data Management Systems for Distribution Network Planning in Electricite De France (E. IEEE Control Power Systems Conference (COPS). 128. 2. 1979. Texas A&M University. March 1981.276-83. IEEE Trans. and D. and D. Distribution Automation and Control on the Electric Power System. 1979 Modeling and Simulation Conj. College Station.. Grenoble.. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. D. Oklahoma City. B. Distribution. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). 27. Patton: Impacts of Dispersing Storage and Generation in Electric Distribution Systems. Gonen.403. Power Appar. CA. EPRI J.S. 20. Control Power Systems Conference. Rubinstein: Methodes pour la Planification a Court Terme des Reseaux de Distribution. 28. Foote. and R. Thompson: Development of Advanced Methods for Planning Electric Energy Distribution Systems. 18. 2. Launay. Ma. IEEE Trans. May 1980. 1972. Ludot. 2. Chen. pt. April 25-27.. 1972. 1.F. Proc. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations under Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA. PAS-102. Gonen.. and M.32 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 4. Proc.: A Study of a Space Communication System for the Control and Monitoring of the Electric Distribution System.S. vol. 1123-31. vol. Gonen. 28-34. 23-30. CA. JPL Publication 79-35. 30. 4. Proc. University of Pittsburgh. C.: The Economics of Power System Reliability and Planning.. 10. T. University of Pittsburgh. Texas. B. vol. L. 24. and 1. Report No. T. Proc.58-62. and 292. Syst. final report. PAS-102. 7. W. 1812-13. Pasadena. M. 2. April 25-27. February 1983. pp. Power Appar.. England. 1979. April 1982. U. pp. Layfield: Economic Feasibility of Distribution Automation.. 5. L. 46-47. JPL Publication 80-48. in Proc. 23-34. Power Appar. 2. 1979. Syst. L. C. Houston. no. Munasinghe. September 1982. C. H. no. Markel. L. Delgado. in R&D Status Report-Electrical Systems Division. April 1982. and B. DOE/ERA-0056-2. March 14-16. Proc. Department of Energy.308.: Automated Power Distribution.. 339-45. Thompson: Distribution System Planning: The State-of-the-Art and the Future Trends. 6. Conference Report. 1983. no. Gonen. Syst. Kuchefski: Analysis of Analog Data Dynamics for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems. 10. 1977. T. vol. Pasadena. Gonen. 55-60. C.. 13. 1980. 23. and 1. 29.. 8.. G. Yu : Bibliography of Distribution System Planning. October 1979. Frisbie. Gonen. Power Energy Syst. Baltimore. and M. Klein: Dispersed Storage and Generation Impacts on Energy Management Systems. pp. pp. PAS-I02. 275-81. T. Power Appar. March 19-21. Proc. pp. May 1980. no. 25. 14.. January 22-24. and P. C. 15. Thompson: An Interactive Distribution System Planning Model. T. Office of Utility Systems. Oklahoma City. M. IEEE Control Power Systems Conj. IEEE Trans. 1983. McGraw-Hill. H. Syst. Oklahoma. Oxford. IEEE Spectrum. R. Oklahoma. pp. Vaisnys.. 16. Department of Energy. 12. Texas. IEEE Control Power Systems Conj (COPS). pp. . pp.. 17-19. Gonen. Kirkham. Southwesi Electrical Exposition IEEE Conj. Isaksen. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. March 1979.301-292.. California Institute of Technology. Economic Regulatory Administration. M. Foote: Mathematical Dynamic Optimization Model for Electrical Distribution System Planning. 21.292. 1979. pp. T. T. C. Paper 1. 3. Department of Energy. J. Proceedings of the Distribution Automation and Control Working Group. pp. 13-18. F. c.. L. U. and 1. 2. Sullivan. 11.. pp. and 1. pt. 19. 1133-39. PA. Gonen. PA. 95-1750.S. no. T. A. pp. vol. 3. Gaushell. Johns Hopkins. Foote: Application of Mixed-Integer Programming to Reduce Suboptimization in Distribution Systems Planning. Knight. 70-79.. L.. 22. PAS-IOI. vol. 26.: Power System Planning. July 1979. Foote: Distribution System Planning Using Mixed-Integer Programming. House of Representatives. pp. Gonen. L. The National Power Grid Study. 1982. France. IEEE Trans. and B. Sections 292. 1977. et al.: Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics.1/12. T. 17..). New York. 1980. September 1979. vol. 1979 Modeling Simulation Conj. pp. California Institute of Technology. 1980. U. R. March 17-18.. 1980. Texas A&M University. and B. vol.

Economic. 35. 397-408. Power.: Probe and its Implications for Automated Distribution Systems. 6. 2. in R&D Status Report-Electrical Systems Division. J. Castro. IEEE Trans. B. 397-408. Control and Protection Systems. 2. EPRI J. et al. L. vol. 1. April 1987. H. Gonen. A. 34.549-57. 1. Gentz: Effect of Distribution Automation and Control on Future System Configuration. vol. R.. T.43-45. vol. Ramirez-Rosado. pp. and C.. Chesnut. C. D... Power Appar. vol. 43. and 1. Inglis. pp. H. PAS-WI. no. Syst.. June 1978. pp.. Power Delivery. 1.. vol. 1923-31. 2355-63. 41. PAS-99. 1. August 1977. IEEE.: Monitoring and Control Requirements for Dispersed Storage and Generation. B. Adams. 67. 1994.47-50. pp. 37. 39.. IEEE Trans. PA. 1. pp. 43.: Two-Way Communication for Load Management. Power Energy Syst. G. 683-88. H. pp. October 1995. no. and S. 1981. pp. N.. Syst. Philadelphia. July 1982. May 1983. vol. November 1986. vol. and 1. Miller.. H. I. Power Appar. in R&D Status Report-Electrical Systems Division. PAS-101. Bunch. no. Power Energy Syst. 1. vol. IEEE Trans. Willis.. lEE Proc. Wheeler: Distribution System Integrated Voltage and Reactive Power Control. February 1991. Kaplan. 36. C. et al. 1. vol. M. no. D. 1. et al. L. Redmon. T. R.: Optimization Applications to Power Distribution. February 1982. pp. pp.Distribution System Planning and Automation 33 31. March/April 1980. Ramirez-Rosado. American Power Coni. April 1981. no. Bunch. Electr. April 1981. vol. 512-19. lEE Proc. no. pp. and H. Proc. N. G. EPRI J. pp. vol. Regulatory and Social Issues.. 2. Gonen. Colburn: Bibliography of Power Distribution System Planning. 1. June 1983. J. no. 1. Ramirez-Rosado: Review of Distribution System Planning Models: A Model for Optimal Multistage Planning. and T Gonen. Power Appar. March 1981. Hawkins. 47. 46. 38. . A. Proc. and T Gonen: Computer-Aided Design of Power Distribution Systems: Multi-objective Mathematical Simulations. PICA Coni. E. no. Power Syst. pp. Chicago. January 1984. 6. no. 55-61. and T Gonen: Review of Distribution System Planning Models: A Model for Optimal Multistage Planning. and T M. D. 40. no. Thompson: Computerized Interactive Model Approach to Electrical Distribution System Planning. Power Appar. IEEE Trans. part C. Whelan: Linking Distribution Facilities and Customer Information System Data Bases. 2. 44. Power Appar. 2.. 7.. 14. Ramirez-Rosado. 45. Topka: Generalized Algorithms for Distribution Feeder Deployment and Sectionalizing. and T Gonen: Optimal Multi-Stage Planning of Power Distribution Systems. May 5-8... 241-313.. B. Morgan. 245-54. Syst. Ramirez-Rosado. 2. 1. 1. IEEE Compo Appl. part C. pp. and S. 133. 12-17. PAS-100. Talukdar: Electric Power Load Management: Some Technical..9-12. Distribution Automation. 133. Int.371-75. Bunch. 7. 102. Syst. 32. T. 48. vol. pp. 1. 42. 33. and J. IEEE Trans. W. February 1979.. no. ILL. Mahmoud. R. 4. System. 6.. IEEE Trans. pp.. Gonen. no. 1. 183-88. IEEE Spectrum. vol. pp. 1. pp. Proc. D. IEEE Trans. 53-55. Pseudo-Dynamic Planning for Expansion of Power Distribution Systems.

.

The curve is constructed by selecting the maximum peak points and connecting them by a curve. as a function of demand intervals. 30 min. weekly. For example. The data given by the curve of Figure 2. For example. or even longer. Figure 2. This can easily be achieved by a computer program.1 Assume that the loading data given in Table 2.1 can also be expressed as shown in Figure 2. there may be situations where the 15. To calculate the average demand. the universe and human stupidity.l belongs to one of the primary feeders of the No Light & No Power (NL&NP) Company and that they are for a typical winter day. the maximum of IS-min demands is 0.and 30-min demands are identical. Demand Interval. Maximum Demand.254. The hour-to-hour load on a system changes over a wide range.2 2. In that case. about three times the annual minimum. 35 .3. Of course. "The demand of an installation or system is the load at the receiving terminals averaged over a specified interval of time" [1]. monthly. Develop the idealized daily load curve for the given hypothetical primary feeder. it is called an annualload-duration curve. kiloamperes. Note that the selection of both I1t and total time t is arbitrary. The load is expressed in per unit (pu) of peak load of the system. Here. The load--duration curves can be daily. or annual. or amperes.2. the area under the curve has to be determined. weekly. whereas the average daily demand of the system is 0. the time is given in pu of the total time. This selected I1t period may be IS min. For example. the load may be given in kilowatts. the daytime peak load is typically double the minimum load during the night. the specific demand might be the maximum of all demands such as daily. kilovars. or annual. and the number of hours in the year that load exceeded the value shown. the curve shows the individual hourly loads during the year.1 Load Characteristics Only two things are infinite. The maximum demand statement should also express the demand interval used to measure it. and the maximum of I-h demands is 0.940 pu. Albert Einstein BASIC DEFINITIONS Demand.884.1 shows a daily demand variation curve. or load curve. For example. "The maximum demand of an installation or system is the greatest of all demands which have occurred during the specified period of time" [1]. the annual peak load is. This curve is called the load-duration curve. 1 h. EXAMPLE 2. kilovoltamperes. Solution The solution is self-explanatory. Here. as shown in Figure 2. It is the period over which the load is averaged. but not in the order that they occurred. if the curve is a plot of all the 8760 hourly loads during the year. The demand statement should express the demand interval I1t used to measure it. And I am not sure so sure about the former. monthly. Usually. due to seasonal variations.

0 0.0 pu time FIGURE 2.:. 5 I I I I -0 O. 0.J ~ ctl 0 r-." Here.1 O. be considered statistically representative of the residential customers as a whole.254 -! I. 1..Q O. Manning [3] defines it as "the sum of the demands of a group of loads with no restrictions on the interval to which each demand is applicable. Noncoincident Demand..8 0..5 0.4 0.9 1./r\ -- -r ·1 \ V: I: -]"" I ~-\ - -. 9 O.. M. ::l 0. 3 O.1 A daily demand variation curve.5 0.3 0.3 O. 2 / 4 o.r.1-- I I . 7 -'" Q) I I I I I ctl O.. 84 -..6 0.2 A load-duration curve.. "if the test locations can.- Maximum 15-min demand Maximum 30-min demand Maximum 1-h demand IX I O. 6 0. If this same technique is used for other classes of customers. Diversified Demand (or Coincident Demand). --.0 0.1 ~ ~ -0 . the system load curve can be developed. 0. O. as a whole. 8 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~i:-r:-).h 4 6 8 FIGURE 2. if these load curves are aggregated.0 0.1 0. For example. It is the maximum sum of the contributions of the individual demands to the diversified demand over a specific time interval.-..7 -'" ctl Q) 1\ \ I~ r-.- -- --I \ .4 0. 4 ctl 11\ 1-.4.- "'1= 1 Hour 1\ !'10 12 P.7 0. in the aggregate.3 0. It is the demand of the composite group.9 0. Here.2 0.. 2 1-/II 6 I \ 1-- . I I 8 10 12N 2 Time.-..36 1.- Average demand =0. .. of somewhat unrelated loads over a specified period of time.- - -.2 0.. As shown in Figure 2. The interclass coincidence relationships can be observed by comparing the curves. ~ 0. the maximum diversified demand has an importance.- '-==1= Q:94. a load curve for the entire residential class of customers can be prepared. 0. again the maximum of the noncoincident demand is the value of some importance. 0 12 A.8 0. M.980 O. similar load curves can be prepared" [3].6 0.

1 Idealized Load Data for the No Light & No Power Company's Primary Feeder load.M. the OF is usually less than 1. It is an indicator of the simultaneous operation of the total connected load. kW Time Street lighting Residential Commercial 12 A.1) The DF can also be found for a part of the system. In either case. Therefore. 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 600 700 SOO 400 400 400 200 200 200 SOO 1000 1000 SOO 600 300 Demand Factor. the DF is dimensionless. the demand factor (OF) is OF = maximum demand total connected demand (2.Load Characteristics 37 Table 2. an industrial or commercial customer. Connected Load. for example. .0. instead of for the whole system. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 400 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 soo 500 soo 1000 1000 1000 1000 1200 1200 1200 1200 10 II 12 noon I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II SOO SOO SOO SOO SOO SOO 12 P. It is "the sum of the continuous ratings of the load-consuming apparatus connected to the system or any part thereof' [I]. When the maximum demand and total connected demand have the same units. It is the "ratio of the maximum demand of a system to the total connected load of the system" [l].M.

' = = 2 0 0 . the utilization factor (Fu) is F = maximum demand u rated system capacity (2.3 800 600 400 200 12 A.I-I· I I I 500 ·H-I+ 'I-H-' I I I I I I I ' 800 800 300 500 Residential load. I . M.. Therefore. 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12 . It is the ratio of the total actual energy produced or served over a designated period of time to the energy that would have been produced or served if the plant (or unit) had operated continuously at maximum rating. .. 800 300 ' (kW) . maximum plant rating x T (2. For example. P. It is "the ratio of the maximum demand of a system to the rated capacity of the system" [1]. It is also known as the capacity factor or the use factor. Annua I p Iant factor = or --------"=-'''----- actual annual energy generation maximum plant rating (2.. h : / .1 0 0 . Therefore.1. . .5) . .. . [-100---1 : 1-200 .38 2000 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 1600 1400 ---------------~--~ ----------""T"""---i -0 1000 ell ~ 1200 .3 The daily load curve for Example 2.1 Street lighting load. . Time.2) The utilization factor can also be found for a part of the system. M. The rated system capacity may be selected to be the smaller of thermal..4) actual annual energy generation A nnua I p Iant factor = --------"'"'--'''----maximum plant rating x 8760 (2.or voltage-drop capacity [3]..(kW) 600700 1000 600 . Plant Factor.. Utilization Factor.1000-!--1200-j-!-400-!-200=j comm(~~~'load.. PI ant f actor = actual energy produced or served x T . • 30~ 400 I. FIGURE 2. "!~--t!--+! .3) It is mostly used in generation studies.

~~I\ + 4 8 tr> .C .2 "0 <1l <1l v 1\ 1\ . AlEE Trans. Dashed curve shown on system load diagram is actual system generation sent out. R. D- Q) ~ 20 ..:- ~ 20 c 0 + = Ttl Ql Ql Ql o c 8: 8: o 2 ~ 20 w. tr> =:!...j (") Urban residential load Rural residential load Rural commercial load Commercial load ro(") 100 "0 Ttl C ~ ~ 80 60 40 20 ... Ql 2 20 Q) 12 4 AM 8 8 12 o 12 12 4 PM 8 12 AM Industrial load Miscellaneous load System load 100 1il . and H. August 1957. sales to other agencies.2 100 1il D- 80 60 40 "" Ql <1l c + 12 \ 1'.. pt. With permission. 4 AM 0.2 <1l "" Q) 100 "0 <1l 80 60 40 ___ I 80 60 40 '--'-- 80 60 1\ Q) "" Q) o 8: D- D- "" Q) + 8 I~ c 0..12 4 PM + 0 40 c Q) o 12 4 AM 12 4 8 PM 12 o 12 4 AM 8 12 4 8 PM 12 o 0.. 1\ D- 11111. Solid curve is based on group load study data.) W I.. III.2 "0 <1l 80 60 40 20 I 1/ 1\ 1\ Losses in transmission and distribution ...4 Development of aggregate load curves for winter peak period..2 80 60 40 Ttl Ql ~ lim 4 AM 100 . Thacker. 31. j I I" I" 100 100 . Miscellenous load includes street lighting. (From Sarikas. ~ 20 + I~ c 0. 12 8 12 4 8 PM o 12 4 AM 8 12 4 8 PM 12 o 12 8 12 4 8 PM 12 FIGURE 2. H....2 "0 <1l <1l '\ . B.r- o n ::J ~ 0- ~ j.

Therefore.8) Diversity Factor. The diversity factor can be equal to or greater than 1.. disregarding time of occurrence and Dg = D J +2+3+ is the coincident maximum demand of group of n loads.6) or L' _ FLD - average load x T peak load x T (2.12) . respectively. use it in 24. 730. It is "the ratio of the average load over a designated period of time to the peak load occurring on that period" [1].40 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Load Factor. or 8760 h. Here.. weeks.' ' ' ' ' . It is less than or equal to 1.9) or (2. Therefore. the energy consumption covers a larger time period and results in a smaller average load. the load factor FLD is the ratio of the average load to the peak load L' _ FLD - average load peak load (2.. From Equation 2. the diversity factor (F D) is F. when time T is selected to be in days. Therefore. weeks.7) units served =----peak load x T' where T is the time. months.1. the DF is DF = maximum demand total connected demand ""+Il or Maximum demand = total connected demand x DE (2.10) or (2. or years... in days. 168.0.. _ sum of individual maximum demands D - coincident maximum demand (2. or years.. for example.. The longer the period T the smaller is the resultant factor. The reason for this is that for the same maximum demand.11) where D. the annual load factor is total annual energy A nnu all oad f actor = .0. months.annual peak load x 8760 (2. It is "the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system to the maximum demand of the whole system" [1]. is the maximum demand of load i.

. the coincidence factor is the reciprocal of diversity factor..15) Thus.=1 . i load.15. the setting of clocks I h late or early. Load Diversity. Also. It is "the ratio of the maximum coincident total demand of a group of consumers to the sum of the maximum power demands of individual consumers comprising the group both taken at the same point of supply for the same time" [1]. the coincidence factor (Fc) is F. = C coincident maximum demand sum of indi vidual maximum demands (2. Therefore. (2.11. or class.12 into Equation 2. Coincidence Factor. the diversity factor can also be given as LTCD.13) " where TCD. the load diversity (LD) is (2.18) Substituting Equation 2. and during summer.X DF. that is. or class. is the total connected demand of group. as "the contribution factor of the ith load to the group maximum demand. just the opposite occurs.. Therefore.16) These ideas on the diversity and coincidence are the basis for the theory and practice of north-tosouth and east-to-west interconnections among the power pools in this country. energy comes from south to north. F=-· c 1 FD (2. (2. east-to-west interconnections help to improve the energy dispatch by means of sunset or sunrise adjustments.17) Contribution Factor.Load Characteristics 41 Substituting Equation 2. For example. during winter time. F = c CI X DI + C2 X D2 + C3 n X D3 + . i load and DF.18 into Equation 2." It is given in pu of the individual maximum demand of the ith load.19) ID. that is. + e" x D" (2. Manning [2] defines c. is the demand factor of group. It is "the difference between the sum of the peaks of two or more individual loads and the peak of the combined load" [1]. Therefore.14) or (2.

total copper. Hence.. from Equation 2. . = D" = D. .-=-'-1_ nxD " LC.--1- LD. that is.23) or (2.. From Equation 2.-. .=-1. LD. (2. at which the power loss.20.. LD. Therefore.. Loss Factor. Case 2: c 1 = c2 = c3 = . the loss factor (F LS) is FLS = average power loss power loss at peak load (2. is 80 kW per three phase..15.24) That is.22) That is. the coincidence factor is equal to the average contribution factor. (b) The total annual energy loss due to the copper losses of the feeder circuits.21) or (2.-=.25) Equation 2. Dx Fe = _-----".2 Assume that annual peak load of a primary feeder is 2000 kW. cX Fe = -_". or 2J2R loss.20) Special Cases Case 1: D] = D2 = D3 = .20.42 or Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Fe = --..25 is applicable for the copper losses of the system but not for the iron losses. It is "the ratio of the average power loss to the peak load power loss during a specified period of time" [I]. EXAMPLE 2.=1 (2. the coincidence factor is equal to the contribution factor.XD._ __ " Lc. determine: (a) The average annual power loss. Assuming an annual loss factor of 0. = c" = c.=-.=1 n (2.

5. the third figure. for example. the diversified demand of the group on the DT is D) tTCD. as shown in Figure 2. Lateral L41 Distribution transformer DT427 FeederF4 Lateral L42 FIGURE 2.3 There are six residential customers connected to a distribution transformer (DT). the second figure. respectively. indicates the lateral number connected to the F4 feeder. either from the NL&NP Company's records or from the relevant handbooks.)XDF o FD Jt9kW)X065 1.10. 4. 7. Determine the diversified demand of the group of six houses on the distribution transformer DT427. Solution From Equation 2. EXAMPLE 2. is for the DT on that lateral.120 kWh. is for the house number connected to that DT.1 6x9kWxO.65 and 1.13.Load Characteristics 43 Solution (a) From Equation 2. (b) The total annual energy loss is T AELcu = average power loss x 8760 h/yr = l2x8760= 105. Average power loss = power loss at peak load =80kWxO.9kW.65 1.5 Illustration of loads connected to a distribution transformer. 2. Notice the code in the customer account number. have been decided as 0.15 = 12 kW. 4276. and finally the last figure. stands for feeder F4. The first figure. 6.1 =31.25. Assume that the connected load is 9 kW per house and that the demand factor and diversity factor for the group of six houses. .

5% x system peak = 0.M.M..M. .4 Assume that feeder 4 of Example 2..M.6 The NL&NP's Riverside distribution substation.M. (c) The coincidence factor of the load connected to transformer T3. as shown in Figure 2. The other one feeds residential loads which occur mainly between 6 A. Determine the following: (a) The copper loss of the feeder in kilowatts per phase.5% at the system peak. One of the feeders supplies an industrial load which occurs primarily between 8 A. with a peak of 2000 kW at 9 P.44 EXAMPLE Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 2.6. and 12 P. Determine the following: (a) The diversity factor of the load connected to transformer T3. with a peak of 2000 kW at 5 P. (b) The total copper losses of the feeder in kilowatts per three phase. the diversity factor of the load is -----I------Transformer T3 '-----y--J Subtransmission Riverside distribution substation Primary feeders Reserved for future loads Industrial load Residential load FIGURE 2. EXAMPLE 2. and 11 P.005 x 3000 kVA = 15 kW per phase. (b) The LD of the load connected to transformer T3.3 has a system peak of 3000 kVA per phase and a copper loss of 0.. as shown in Figure 2.11.5 Assume that there are two primary feeders supplied by one of the three transformers located at the NL&NP's Riverside distribution substation. Solution (a) From Equation 2. Solution (a) The copper loss of the feeder in kilowatts per phase is J2R = 0.M.7. (b) The total copper losses of the feeder in kilowatts per three phase is 3J2R = 3 x 15 = 45 kW per three phase.

(b) From Equation 2.=1 = 4000-3000 = 1000kW.17.752.// .33 == 0.. the LD of the load is 2 LD= LD.L__~__L-~ 12A. (c) From Equation 3.. 2000+3000 3000 = 1. the coincidence factor of the load is F =_1 C FD 1..l_ _.J ~ o 2.000 45 3./ '.. / '"'- -g .. .000 System peak load I"'.l__.16.M.L_ _~_ _L--....7 Daily load curves of a substation transformer.Load Characteristics 4./ / / / / Industrial / load peak \ / Residential \ load peak \ \ \ \ \ 1.000 / / / / // \\ / ..33.-..L__~__L .2 4 6 8 1012Noon2 4 6 8 10 12 Time h FIGURE 2.-Dg .000 / / I / \ \ \ \ \ o L .

.M.denllal 1000 kW .'=1 1=1 . c slreel = OkW =0 100 kW c .6 Use the data given in Example 2. = 600kW =06 res.1 for the NL&NP's load curve. Solution (a) The class contribution factor is c·-------------------~----~~~-2~~I - _ class demand at time of system (i. The diversity factor for the primary feeder.. The coincidence factor of the load group. = 1200kW = 10 1200 kW . Substituting Equation 2.1S. Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) The class contribution factors for each of the three load classes.46 EXAMPLE Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 2.11. Note that the peak occurs at 5 P.. residential. . c .1S into Equation 2. commercial (b) From Equation 2. and commercial loads.e.11. The diversified maximum demand of the load group.. FD = " LDI LclxD. the diversity factor is and from Equation 2. group) peak class noncoincident maximum demand For street lighting.

(2.Ox 1200 = 1.=1 100 + 1000 + 1200 Ox 100+0.12 into Equation 2. .-..13. D g • There- fore. the diversity factor is where the maximum demand.13. from Equation 2. the diversity factor for the primary feeder is LD.=.12) or Therefore.-1- ) - LCi XDi . from Equation 2.=.278. (c) The diversified maximum demand is the coincident maximum demand.Load Characteristics 47 Therefore. Fo = ---=-)-.6x 1000+ l. that is. the diversified maximum demand of the load group is =------- 100 + 1000+ 1200 1. Substituting Equation 2. is Maximum demand = total connected demand x DF.278 = 1800kW.12.

2 at the peak load P 2 • The load factor is (2.8 is connected to a variable load.9.278 = 0. the limiting values of the relationship can be found [3]. = 2.16. from Equation 2. . Figure 2. _P2 xt+Rx(T-t) LD- P2 xT or FID=-+-X T P2 T t ~ T-t (2.9 shows an arbitrary and idealized load curve.Di j. Pay = P2 X t + R x (T .2 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LOAD AND LOSS FACTORS In general. F =_1 C FD 1 1. Assume that the off-peak loss is P LS • I at some off-peak load PI and that the peak loss is P LS . However.26. F.28) FIGURE 2.7825.15. is D FC =--gII I.8 A feeder with a variable load.48 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (d) The coincidence factor of the load group.26) From Figure 2.27 into Equation 2.27) Substituting Equation 2.t) . T (2. it does not represent a daily load curve. Assume that the primary feeder shown in Figure 2. However. from Equation 2. the loss factor cannot be determined from the load factor.J or.::.

Load Characteristics 49 p2 Peak load g . the off-peak and peak loads can be expressed.9. as (2.. LS. The copper losses are the function of the associated loads. (2. 2 is the peak loss at peak load... F. and T ..29) where P LS.2 X T ' (2. From Figure 2.f\-s...t is the off-peak load duration.32) .9 I Time I T An arbitrary and idealized load curve. av is the average power loss. Therefore. and P LS..29..J o C1l ----I Off-peak load I I I I I Peak loss -------.2Xl+PLS..------Off-peak loss -----I I Average loss ------- o FIGURE 2. PLS.max PLS..30 into Equation 2.. P LS. max is the maximum power loss...av _ PLS.IX(T-l) LS- p.31) where P LS .. _ PLS.L S . The loss factor is .30) Substituting Equation 2...~------+---- Average load r---I I I I I I I I I I I I D . respectively. l is the peak load duration. I is the off-peak loss at off-peak load.2 (2.av F.

Thus.-71. if the customer's load is a petrochemical plant. Here.38) .28 and 2. the value of the loss factor approaches the value of the load factor squared.36) That is.33 into Equation 2. Case 3: Load is steady. For example. Here. Thus.35. the difference between the peak load and the off-peak load is negligible. from Equations 2. t-70 hence. this would be the case. (2. from Equations 2.0.33) where k is a constant..31.35.35. T therefore. (2. T-t . Here.34) or FLS = T + ( P } x T' z t ~ 2 T-t (2. (2.35.50 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering and PLS •Z = k x P~ (2. substituting Equations 2.28 and 2. in Equations 2. the load factor is equal to the loss factor and they are equal to the tiT constant. the loss factor can be expressed as F. the load factor can be related to loss factor for three different cases Case 1: Off-peak load is zero.28 and 2. Therefore.I=O since PI = O.37) That is. _ (kxpi)xt+(kxP~)X(T-t) LS- (kxP2Z )xT (2. Case 2: Very short lasting peak. t-7 T That is.28 and 2.35) By using Equations 2.32 and 2. PLS.

With permission.3 FLO - A Ui .84FLD • EXAMPLE 2 (2. Buller and Woodrow [5] developed an approximate formula to relate the loss factor to the load factor as (2./ ~ ~ r.0 Load factor (FLO).8 Loss factor = load factor ::J Cl. Therefore. the formula given before has been modified for rural areas and express sed as F Ls = O..6 !:!::. 0 ti (/) (/) ~ 0.39) Therefore. vol.8 1. PA. are proportional to the time function of the square load [2-4]. pu FIGURE 2. (b) A rural area..Load Characteristics 51 That is.7 The average load factor of a substation is 0.) .1 0. Relatively recently. 1965. Determine the average loss factor of its feeders.6 0. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.40a) where F LS is the loss factor (pu) and F LD is the load factor (pu). the value of the loss factor is (2.65.J 0. The reason is that the loss factor is determined from losses as a function of time. L / / 11 1/V V/ V V/ V/ V ~ Loss factor = (load factor)2 0.7 (FLO)2 + 0.10 Loss factor curves as a function of load factor.4 0.4 0 . if the substation services: (a) An urban area.2 o ~~/ / / //" 0.40a gives a reasonably close result. the value of the loss factor approaches the value of the load factor.10 gives three different curves of loss factor as a function of load factor.2 / / V . f r-0.l6FLD + 0. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems.0 0. in general. in turn. East Pittsburgh.40b) 2. 1. 3.. However. the loss factor cannot be determined directly from the load factor. Equation 2. Figure 2. which. /.

3(0.7(0.65)2 = 0. (a) Find the annual average power demand.65)2 =0. The peak demand occurs in July or August and is due to air-conditioning load. Solution Assume a monthly load curve as shown in Figure 2. which is a small city.000 kWh.52 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Solution (a) For the urban area.65) + 0. experiences an annual peak load of 3500 kW. . FLS = 0.000.49.84(0. FLS = 0.3FLD + 0.7(FLD)2 = 0. (a) The annual average power demand is ~ "0 C <Ii E '" Ql "0 E ::l 'x E E >E '" C o :2 FIGURE 2.53. (b) Find the annual load factor.84(FLD)2 = 0. The total annual energy supplied to the primary feeder circuits is 10.11 A monthly load curve.11.16FLD + 0.16(0. (b) For the rural area.8 Assume that the Riverside distribution substation of the NL&NP Company supplying Ghost Town.65) + 0. EXAMPLE 2.

00/kW per month. from this substation is $18. Ideally. (b) From Equation 2.11. The IC.12 shows the new load curve after the addition of the new load of 100 kW with 100% load. is a measure of capacity and investment cost (IC). NL&NP. of the power system upstream. Solution Figure 2.8 and suppose that a new load of 100 kW with 100% annual load factor is to be supplied from the Riverside substation. $0. annual average load peak monthly demand 1141kW 3500kW = 0. (b) Find the total annual cost to NL&NP to serve this load. total annual energy A nnua I I oad factor= ---------==-annual peak load x 8760 10 7 kWhlyr 3500 kW x 8760 = 0. (a) Find the new annual load factor on the substation..06/kWh..9 Use the data given in Example 2...6. as shown in Figure 2.326 or.Load Characteristics 53 ' I P _ total annual energy A nnu" av.326. The unsold energy. that is.. toward the generator. EXAMPLE 2.. Assume that the energy delivered to these primary feeders costs the supplier. it should be kept at a minimum. from Equation 2. or capacity cost." ' ' ' year 10 7 kWh/yr 8760h/yr = 1141kW.. the annual load factor is 17 _ l'[D- . .8. (a) The new annual load factor on the substation is 17 _ l'LD - annual average load peak monthly load 1141+100 3500+ 100 = 0. that is.345..

560 = $74. A computer program which calculates voltage drops and PR losses shows that the total copper loss at the time of peak load is "L. determine the annual loss factor.560. (b) The total annual and additional cost to NL&NP to serve the additional 100-kW load has two cost components.06/kWh = $52.12 The new load curve after the new load addition. ~ 3000 -" co c: OJ I I I I • ". months :I ~ I ~ E I New annual average load FIGURE 2.. (b) Calculate the total annual copper loss energy and its value at $O. EXAMPLE 2. The total annual energy supplied to the sending end of the feeder is 5.. Therefore.61 x 106 kWh./ f-~ -t r I I Time.. . \ \ \ \.160.54 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 3600 -----------~ "...------. namely: (i) annual capacity cost and (ii) annual energy cost.40.03/kWh.600 + $52.10 Assume that the annual peak load input to a primary feeder is 2000 kW.J2R = 100 kW. Annual additional capacity cost = $IS/kW/mo x 12 mo/yr x 100 kW = $21. (a) By using Equation 2.New load curve \ E :I 2000 I 7il OJ Old load curve "0 E ·x co ~ :1 ::c "E ~ E >- 1241 1000 \ -----------.600 and Annual energy cost = 100 kW x 8760 h/yr x $O. Therefore. Total annual additional costs = annual capacity cost + annual energy cost = $21.

90 2 3 2200 Assume a diversity factor of 1.000 kWh x $0. Therefore. .LS or _ - average power loss power loss at peak load Average power loss = 0.40. F LS = 0.11 Assume that one of the DT of the Riverside substation supplies three primary feeders.Load Characteristics 55 Solution (a) From Equation 2.85 0. Demand.61xI06 kWh 2000kWx8760h/yr LD - = 0.95 0. (b) From Equation 2.81 kW. The 30-min annual maximum demands per feeder are listed in the following table.81 kW x 8760 h/yr = 147.15 among the three feeders for both real power (P) and reactive power (Q). F. EXAMPLE 2.25.7 x 0. _ 5.32 + 0.32.000 kWh and Cost of total annual copper loss = 147.1681 x 100 kW = 16. the annual loss factor is where F.06/kWh = $8820.322 == 01681. Total annual copper loss = 16.3 x 0. Feeder kW 1800 2000 PF 0. Therefore. together with the power factor (PF) at the time of annual peak load.

. Among the standard three-phase (31)) transformer sizes.8 2 ).8 kvar.l5 To find power in kilovoltamperes.2° + 2000 x tan 31.-i~~I_ _ __ 3 FD 1.800 x tan 18.79° PF 3 = cose3 = 0. Therefore. If the 7500/9375-kVA-rated transformer is installed.84° 1. x tane Q= --.15. FD = 1800+2000+2200 = 1. . (b) Find the LD in kilowatts.79° + 2200 x tan 25.10. Dg Therefore. the diversified reactive power (Q) is L. (c) Select a suitable substation transformer size if zero load growth is expected and if company policy permits as much as 250/0 short-time overloads on the distribution of substation transformers.85 -7 e2 = 3l.. 6000 Dg = .= 5217kW = P. those available are: 2500/3125 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 3750/4687 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 5000/6250 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 7500/9375 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled (d) Now assume that the substation load will increase at a constant percentage rate per year and will double in 10 yr.90 -7 e3 = 25. Therefore.95 -7 e l = 18.l5 = 2518.60 kV A.2° PF 2 = cose2 = 0.56 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (a) Calculate the 30-min annual maximum demand on the substation transformer in kilowatts and in kilovoltamperes. in how many years will it be loaded to its fans-on rating? Solution (a) From Equation 2. 1.2 = 5793. PF I = cosel = 0.84° Thus. the PF angles have to be determined.P. Dg = (p2 + Q2 )112 =S = (5217 2 + 2518.

07175 or g = 7. It is "the ratio of the demand of a particular type of load coincident with the group maximum demand to the maximum demand of that particular type of load [3].07175)" x 5793.48130 =6. if the 7500/9375-kVA-rated transformer is installed. n= In1.07175)" = 1. which is larger than the maximum demand of 5793.60 kVA as found in part (a).175%/yr.8 kVA. Figure 2.6182 Inl. the LD is 3 57 LD= LDi-Dg i:::.07175 0. To take into account the noncoincidence of the peaks of different types of loads. Arvidson introduced the hourly variation factor.2 gives the hourly variation curves for various types of household appliances. (c) From the given transformer list. it will be loaded to itsfans-on rating in about 7 yr.60 = 9375 kVA or (1.25 = 5858. Therefore.:l = 6000-5217 = 783kW." Table 2.946 or 7 Therefore. To find the increase (g) per year.Load Characteristics (b) From Equation 2. (1.06929 y r = 0.3 MAXIMUM DIVERSIFIED DEMAND Arvidson [7] developed a method of estimating DT loads in residential areas by the diversified demand method which takes into account the diversity between similar loads and the noncoincidence of the peaks of different types of loads. 2.6182. Thus. it is appropriate to choose the transformer with the 3750/4687-kVA rating since with the 25% short-time overload it has a capacity of 4687 x 1. (d) Note that the term fans-on rating means the forced-air-cooled rating.17.13 . hence 1 + g = 1.

04 0. 'Load cycle dependent on schedule of water heater restriction..96 0.95 1. 'Hourly variation factor is dependent on living habits of individuals.53 0.17 0. H.85 0.M.05 0.70 0. Home Freezer 0.84 0.30 0.08 0.~~".37 0.76 0.40 0.22 0.59 0.40 Cooling Season 0.79 0.38 0.12 0.96 0.34 0.42 0.74 0. Thacker.98 0.67 0.2 Hourly Variation Factors Heat Pump' lighting and Miscellaneous Refrigerator 0.37 0.79 0.44 0.70 0.01 0. AlEE Trans..35 0.35 0.49 0.24 0.68 0.54 0.75 0.92 Range 0.25 0.00 0.20 0.93 0.44 :::l '""" o Vl -< '" ro 3 m :::l :::l 'Load cycle and maximum diversified demand are dependent on outside temperature.09 0. ro ro :::l (JQ :::!.99 1.13 0.92 1.93 co Water Heatert OPWH' House' Heating 0. and heater element rating.11 0.39 0. () r0""0 (1) m 2 3 4 o ~ 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 o o o ~ .76 0.28 0.17 0. dwelling construction and insulation.74 1.07 0.79 0.~~CC'?'_'_'~ __ ~ _ _ _ __ .72 0.93 0. R.99 0.75 0.74 0.70 1.29 0.13 0.72 0.51 0.04 0.51 0.79 0.33 0.00 0.25 0.46 0.83 0.49 0.00 1. and H.67 0.and 1000-W elements.60 0.31 0.55 0.22 0..88 0.57 0.58 0.88 0.34 Both Elements Restricted 0.85 0.26 0.80 1.86 0.54 0.51 0.30 0.00 0.81 0.49 0.51 0.79 0.03 0.16 0.09 0.20 0.76 1.86 0.02 AirConditioning' 0.92 0.87 0.40 0.84 0.24 0.97 0. August 1957.12 0.91 0.65 0.02 0.19 0.32 0.73 0.23 0.43 0.98 0.26 0.65 1.98 0.85 0.9.80 0.31 0. pI.99 1.49 0.86 0.41 0.03 9 10 11 12 noon n :::!.97 0.46 0.08 0.00 1.81 0.46 0. B.00 1.47 0.99 0.90 0.67 0.00 0.42 o 1.28 0.70 0.00 1.85 0.73 0.51 Clothes§ Dryer 0.33 0.51 0.79 0.57 0.98 0.27 0.05 0.32 0.63 0.36 0. With permission.43 0.00 1.93 0. CJ C P.02 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 o o o o o o 0.10 0.13 0.33 0.47 0.32 0.34 0.34 0.98 0.08 0.17 0.15 0.87 0.30 0.90 0.97 0.26 0.75 0.19 0.00 0.09 0..87 0.91 0.19 1.85 0. among other factors.. Source: From Sarikas.30 0.72 0.93 0.01 0.69 0.24 0.90 0.54 0.95 0.90 0.61 0.30 0.90 0.85 0.82 0.73 0.84 0.89 0.35 0.35 0.49 0. 0.00 0.02 0. III.90 0. ____ ~ .18 0.30 0.01 0.95 0.33 Only Bottom Elements Restricted 0.76 0.28 0.16 0.88 0.95 1. 1500.00 Heating Season 0. values may be different from those shown.67 0.71 0.01 0.22 0.80 0.00 0.00 0. 'Load cycle and maximum diversified demands are dependent on tank size. 31.77 0.89 0.82 0.53 0.61 0.22 0.M.46 0.26 0.00 0.41 0.80 0.41 0.50 0.17 0.62 0.TABLE 2.90 0. in a particular area.61 Uncontrolled 0.54 0..79 0.57 0.63 0.09 0.30 0.63 0.35 0.60 0.64 0.19 0.75 0.15 0. iJ.49 0.65 0.00 0.88 0.72 0.13 0.67 0.96 0.10 0.28 0.88 0.98 0.49 0.14 0.35 0.95 0.92 0.10 0.27 0. values shown apply to 52-gal tank.48 0.11 VI Hour 12 A.86 0.87 0.55 0.68 0.42 0.85 0.55 0.00 0.

.11' y .--I--. --- ../ .. C1l ~ -0 c 0 1...r- l. I. ~ """ '~ '" ~--. -'r--.'I'. 1965. C = water heater.3 ....t-.. interlocked elements.5 1---..r-. vol...03 . 3. J = refrigerator. L = house heating.4 :--- > :a .08 . including heat-pump cooling. ~ ~ I ~ ~~ <D "0 "0 E ~ "§ <D . . i'-r--.::. . ~ ::-- "0 C1l ..01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8910 Number of loads 30 40 50 6070 100 FIGURE 2. "off-peak" load. D = range..02 ~ ~ r-. I = home freezer.~ \.5-hp room coolers. F = O... ~ t:. .t-- - r- '~ '.r-""'" ~r-...) ..tf-. K = central airconditioning. upper element uncontrolled. B = off-peak water heater... E = lighting and miscellaneous appliances...2 'x C1l E :J E E <D 0> <D ~ - "" r-- ti-- 1---- "I'-.6 . ...~ H !'G" .9 ..06 .7 .:.10 ..0 . Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. H = oil burner. 5-hp heat pump (4-ton air conditioner)......04 ... ..Load Characteristics 59 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 '--. With permission.l- I---- t-. G = off-peak water heater. PA.... "on-peak" load. t-.J.. - -= -20 - ""'-r-..."' . ~ --... uncontrolled.05 . . including heat-pump-heating-connected load of 15-kW unit-type resistance heating or 5-hp heat pump. East Pittsburgh.07 ..13 Maximum diversified 30-min demand characteristics of various residential loads: A = clothes dryer. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation. I- (CI ~ D Icf' ~ I~ ~ > « ..

the total hourly diversified demands at 4.2. To apply Arvidson's method to determine the maximum diversified demand for a given saturation level and appliance. when the number of loads is six.076kW/house (3. determine the contribution of that type load to the group maximum demand by mUltiplying the resultant value from step 3 by the corresponding hourly variation factor found from Table 2. Solution (a) To determine the 30-min maximum diversified demand on the DT. Suppose that there are a total of 150 DTs and 900 residences supplied by this primary feeder. through six service drops (SD) and two spans of secondary line (SL). I. that is.13 and Table 2.60 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering shows a number of curves for various types of household appliances to determine the average maximum diversified demand per customer in kilowatts per load.M. Therefore.61 =3. and for six houses 4 (Pav.5 kW.11 Assume a typical DT that serves six residential loads. (c) Use the typical hourly variation factors given in Table 2.2 and calculate the small portion of the daily demand curve on the DT. (b) The 30-min maximum diversified demand on the entire feeder.61 kWlhouse Thus.6+0. for the given number of appliances.13. a refrigerator.8 kWlhouse Pav. Read the corresponding diversified demand per customer from the curve. Finally.. and some lighting and miscellaneous appliances. that is. on the DT. houses.13. 2.2. the average maximum diversified demand per customer is found from Figure 2.6 kWlhouse 0.max for dryer for range for refrigerator for lighting and miscellaneous appliances = 0.076 kW/house)(6 houses) = 18.13. assume that a typical residence contains a clothes dryer. the average maximum diversified demands per customer are 1. Use Figure 2. Determine the following: (a) The 30-min maximum diversified demand on the DT. Determine the total number of appliances by mUltiplying the total number of customers by the pu saturation. the following steps are suggested [3]: 1. multiplying the demand found in step 2 by the total number of appliances.max)j = 1. For the sake of illustration. and 6 P. in kilowatts. In Figure 2.066 kWlhouse 0.8+0. in Figure 2. EXAMPLE 2. 5. 4. each curve represents a 100% saturation level for a specific demand. Determine the maximum demand. . a range.066+0. 3.

and 0. = 0.6 kW/house. However. refrigerator.0.52 kW/house Hence.2 kW/house 0.90. Therefore.5 kW.6 kW 4. the hourly variation factors can be found as 0.max)j i::::l 4 = 1.52 = 2.044 + 0. and lighting and miscellaneous appliances. Note that the results given in column 6 are the sum of the contributions to demand given in columns 2-5.2. if the answer for the 30-min maximum diversified demand on one DT found in part (a) is multiplied by 150 to determine the 30-min maximum diversified demand on the entire feeder.32 for dryer.6 kW found previously. the 30-min maximum diversified demand on the entire feeder is L i=I 4 (Pav. due to the given curve characteristics. respectively. This discrepancy is due to the application of the appliance diversities. range. Therefore.53 + 0. 0. the answers would be the same as the ones for the number of loads of 100). Therefore. L (~1V.4 kW 3.61 kW/house)(6 houses) = = = = 9.044 kW/house 0.max)j = 900 x 2.294kW/house.max for dryer for range for refrigerator for lighting and miscellaneous appliances.5 == 2775 kW which is greater than the 2064.13.6 kW/house)(6 houses) (0. then the average maximum diversified demands per customer are l.Load Characteristics 61 Thus. the total hourly diversified demands on the DT can be calculated as given in the following table in which (1. (c) From Table 2. (b) As in part (a).38.8 kW 0.066 kW/house)(6 houses) (0.24.2 + 0. the average maximum diversified demand per customer is found from Figure 2. the contributions of the appliances to the 30-min maximum diversified demand on the DT is approximately 18.8 kW/house)(6 houses) (0. 0. the answer would be 150 x 18. . when the number of loads is 900 (note that.294 = 2064.53 kW/house Pav.7 kW.

if the load growth rate is known. On the contrary.4 x 0. kW (3) 4.24 4. the logarithms of the data as typified by the exponential trend Yr = air. 9.3 gives a MATLAB computer program to forecast the future demand values if the past demand values are known.22 2.90 Lighting and Miscellaneous Appliances (kW) (5) 3.8 x 0.30 9. or feeder) is not a smooth curve. Fitting trends after transformation of data is a common practice in technical forecasting. Adjustments must be made for load transfers into and out of the area and for the addition or removal of block loads that are too large to be considered part of normal growth.M. Therefore.41.00 Refrigerators. 1 + g = b.70 3. Now.4 x 0. Before the 1973-1974 oil embargo.90 0. An arithmetic straight line that will not fit the original data may fit. The growth in customers was reasonably steady and the demand per customer continued to increase. it is necessary to forecast as accurately as possible the magnitude and distribution of these loads. and n = x. As a result.38 9. kW(4) 0. Methods that forecast future demand by location divide the utility service area into a set of small areas forecasting the load growth in each. In order to plan the resources required to supply the future loads in an area. Po is the initial load. the behavior of load growth.344 9.3.42 is identical to the exponential trend equation.670 10. Trending methods extrapolate past historical peak loads using curve-fitting or some other methods. For example.42) where P is the load at the end of the 11th year. an exponential growth rate. P.4 x 0.7 X 0. commonly referred to as Il . (2. in any relatively small area (served by substation.1 of Chapter I. and 11 is the number of years. if it is set so that PI! = YI' Po = a. letting equipment service areas implicitly define the small areas. for example. Most modern small area forecast methods work with a uniform grid of small areas that covers the utility service area. most forecasting methods themselves invariably fall into one of the two categories.4 LOAD FORECASTING The load growth of the geographical area served by a utility company is the most important factor influencing the expansion of the distribution system. Regardless of how small areas are defined.674 4 5 6 P. but.6 X 0. increasing electric rates.M. trending or land use. However. is more like a sharp Gompertz curve.41) This expression is sometimes called a growth equation.90 0. such as the one given in the first part of this section.8 x 0. g is the annual growth rate. since it is often used to explain the phenomenon of growth through time.32 3.6 x 0. and a slow economy have combined to slow the growth rate. Energy conservation. an exponential projection of adjusted historical peak loads provided satisfactory load forecasts for most distribution study areas. Such forecasts are normally based on projections of the historical growth trend for the area and the existing load distribution within the area.6 x 0.8 x 1.80 4. then Equation 2. load management. that is. forecasting of load increases is essential to the planning process. P. is no longer valid in most study areas.92 Total Hourly Diversified Demand (kW) (6) 6. but the more traditional approach was to forecast the growth on a substation-by-substation or feeder-by-feeder basis.M. Equation 2. Table 2.7 X 0.7 x 0. as explained in Section 1. the load at the end of the 11th year is given by (2.62 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Time (1 ) Dryers (kW) (2) Ranges. in recent years the picture has drastically changed.

DY = A * XI + B. SYI = 0. RLXC(IP))." Both are essential for determining T&D expansion needs. namely. In order to plan a T&D system. and saturation phases. land-use simulation involves mapping existing and likely additions to land coverage by customer class definitions like residential. SYl=SYl+ Y (I). known as regression analysis. Either way. dormant. end fprintf('\tRLXD\t\tRLXC\n') . SYlSQ=SYlSQ+ Y(l)A2. fprintf('\n\nRate of growth %f\n\n'. NN = NP+NF. end an "s" curve. and industrial. R = exp(A). RG=R-l. SXI=SXI+Xl. for I=I:NP fprintf('\t%f\t%f\n'. analyzing it in total and on a local area" basis throughout the system. SXISQ=SXISQ+ XI/\2. that is. fprintf('\t\t\t\t%f\n'. In contrast. NF = input('Enter the number of years from the present to the future that will be predicted: '). the small area has no load growth. 8 SYI/NP-A ~SXI/NP. usually due to new construction. the load growth happens at a relatively rapid rate. RLXD(I) input(") . SXISQ = 0. for I=2:NN XI = I-I. SXI = 0.3 A MA HAB Demand-Forecasting Computer Program %RLXD = read past demand values in MW %RLXC = predicted future demand values in MW %NP = number of years in the past up to the present %NF = number of years from the present to the future that will be predicted NP = input('Enter the number of years in the past up to the present: '). The S curve exhibits the distinct phases. end' for I=I:NF IP = I + NP. Y(I) = 10g(RLXD(I)). RLXC(I)). commercial. for I=l:NP fprintf('Enter the past demand values in MW: " I). Two usual approaches followed for trend analysis are: The fitting of continuous mathematical functions through actual data to achieve the least overall error. determining the "where" aspect of the load growth as well as the "how much. RLXD(I) . the ultimate goal is to project changes in the density of peak demand on a locality basis. it is necessary to study not just overall load in a region. In the growth phase. end A = (SXIYl-(SXI*SYl)/NP)/(SXlSQ-(SXl/\2)/NP). RG). but to study and forecast load on a "spatial basis. growth. Trend (or regression analysis) is the study of the behavior of a time series or a process in the past and its mathematical modeling so that future behavior can be extrapolated from it. In the saturation phase. RLXC (1) =exp (8) .Load Characteristics 63 TABLE 2. The fitting of a sequence on discontinuous lines or curves to the data. . In the dormant phase. Any increase in load growth is extremely small. for I=I:NP XI = I-I. SYISQ = 0. SXIYI=SXIYI+XI*Y(I). the small area is fully developed. end SXIYI = 0. RLXC(I) = exp(DY). in order to forecast growth.

(xI!' Yn). Linear Regression. that is. week day. The principle of regression theory is that any function y =f(x) can be fitted to a set of points so as to minimize the sum of errors squared to each point. Typical regression curves used in power system forecasting are: Linear: Exponential: Power: Polynomial: Gompertz: y=a+ bx y=a(l + bY y=axb y= a + bx+ cx 2 Y = ae. A time varying event such as distribution system load can be broken down into the following four major components: 1. Random variations which occur on account of the day-to-day changes and in the case of power systems are usually dependent on weather and the time of the week. It is applied by using the method of least squares.. Seasonal variation. that is (X2.=1 By taking partial differentiation with respect to the regression coefficients and setting the resultant equations to zero to achieve the minimum error criterion. for example. Y2) (XI' YI)' I! £2 = L[Y. the line y = a + bx is fitted to the sets of points (XI' YI)' (x 2. The following are some of the methodologies used in applying some of the aforementioned regression curves. that is I! [2 = L[Y.be . (2))(2>2)_[Ix}(Ixy) a= n IX2 -(Ixr and b= (2. Cyclic variation which includes influences of periods longer than the above and causes the load pattern to be repeated for 2 or 3 yr or even longer cycles.=1 f(x)f = minimum.64 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The second approach is more widespread in short-term forecasting. Here.. . -(a+bx. . monthly or yearly variation of load.)f = minimum. Yz). 2. Basic trend.cx The coefficients used in these equations are called regression coefficients. 3. and so on. . weekend. . 4. .43) n(IxY)-(Ix)·(IY) nIx2 -(Ixf (2.44) This process is also referred as the least square line method. Sum of squared errors is used as it gives a significant indication of Roodness offit.

To model the systematic patterns inherent in this series. irregular movements.+cLY. Least Square Exponential. b. set the sum of squared errors. (x 2. The resultant coefficients are then transformed back.z. and C coefficients. For example.+cLYl= LY. and c. the same approach that has been used in linear regression can be used at first.). Multi-nonlinear regressions are also used. gives simultaneous equations which can be solved for a. +b Lxl +CLX.4. Two or more variables can be treated by an extension of the same principle. i::::1 Taking partial differentiation with respect to the regression coefficients and setting the resultant equations to zero.44 and the regression coefficients are found.43 and 2. and c so that one can get the following three simultaneous equations: an+bLx.2 SMAll-AREA LOAD FORECASTING In this type of forecasting.+bLx. II £2 = L[z. -(a+bx+c/)f = minimum i=1 and then differentiate it with respect to a. b. The process starts from the most simple structure with the least number of parameters and develops into as complex structure as necessary to obtain an adequate model. = LZ. Z2)' . a LX. the method relies upon autoregressive and moving average processes to account for cyclical movements and upon differencing to account for seasonal and secular movements. aLy. that is The parabola curve of Y = a + bx + CX2 is fitted to minimize the sum II £2 = L[Y. that is. of squared errors.Z.. if an equation of z=a+bx+cy is required to fit to a series of points (x" y" z. then this is a multiple linear regression. Just like before. 2. Multiple Regression. 2.. which can be solved for a. Here. Most modern small-area forecast methods work with a . It is a popular method for short-term (5 yr or less) forecasting. The Box-Jenkins methodology is an iterative procedure by which a stochastic model is constructed.1 BOX-JENKINS METHODOLOGY This method uses a stochastic time series to forecast future load demands. the utility service area is divided into a set of small areas and the future load growth in each area is forecasted.y. leaving a series made up of only random. but LY is replaced by Lin Y in Equations 2. Box and Jenkins [8] developed this method of forecasting by trying to account for repeated movements in the historical series (those movements comprising a trend).4. in the sense of yielding white noise only.Load Characteristics 65 Least Square Parabola. -(a+bx+cx 2 )f = minimum. Yz. b. = LX.Y.

some very far away. the final goal is to project changes in the density of peak demand on a locality basis. using peak day load curves on a IS-min demand period basis. and their simultaneous variations in location and time. continuous process from year to year.66 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering uniform grid of small area that covers the utility service area. Trending methods have been explained in Section 2. This led to characterization of small-area growth with Gompertz or the S curve. It is very important that the base year model must provide accurately all known readings about customers.4. with the historical trend in each area influencing the extrapolation of others. in contrast. and the second is an optional set of scenario descriptors that allow the user to change future conditions to answer "what if?" questions. most forecasting methods are based on trending or land use. commercial. used for land-use identification and mapping purposes. differentiating electric consumption within each by end-use category. lighting. but the more traditional approach was to forecast growth on a substation-by-substation or feeder-by-feeder basis. in order to forecast future growth. heating.4. in which the peak load histories of up to several hundred small areas are extrapolated in a single computation. but only that there is seldom a middle ground between high and low growth rates. high. Solution The MATLAB demand forecasting computer program is given in Table 2. the forecaster gets better and more meaningful answers to "what if?" type questions by using land-use-based simulation methods. Base spatial data includes multispectral satellite imagery of the region. customer density. . and industrial. with a spatial resolution of 2. Its use does not imply that small-area growth always follows an S-shaped load history. the majority of load growth effects in any small area are due to effects from other small areas. then drops to very low levels while high growth suddenly begins in other areas. Also.14 illustrates this method. Instead. small-area load growth is a spatial process. making LTC trending a true spatial method. land-use simulation involves mapping existing and likely additions to land coverage by customer class definitions like residential. customerlbilling/rate class data. Therefore. for example. In either way. metered load curves. the forecast of anyone area must be based on an assessment data not only for that area. There are two inputs that control the forecast: the first one is the utility system-wide rate and marketing forecast. small-area forecasting is less a process of extrapolating trends it is a determination of when small areas transition among zero. and metered load curve readings by substation throughout the system. growth in a small area is intense for several years. but for many other neighboring areas. 2. using a modified form of Markov regression. Regardless of how small areas are defined. Its main advantage is economy of use. end-use load curve and load research surveys. Figure 2. The influence of one area's trend on others is found by using pattern recognition as a function of past trends and locations. Therefore. and a function of the distances to those areas. The best available trending method in terms of tested accuracy is load-trend-coupled (LTC) extrapolation. Land-use methods are much better in predicting such load growth. small-area growth is not a smooth. It is applied on a grid basis.5 acres (square area is 1116 miles across).3 SPATIAL LOAD FORECASTING In general. Only the peak load histories of substations and feeders and X-Y locations of substations are required as input [10].13 Write a simple MATLAB demand forecasting computer program based on the least-square exponential. EXAMPLE 2. According to Willis [10].5. allowing equipment service areas to implicitly define the small areas. and low growth states. It works with land-use classes that correspond to utility rate classes. Furthermore.

New York.14 Spatial load forecasting (From Willis. Forecasted Future Load Map FIGURE 2. Pattern Recognition Identify growth superiority of one locale over another based on past development patterns.Load Characteristics End-Use Load Curves (from load research) T&D Loading Data (metered by location) 67 Customer Map (from satellite imagery and customer billing) Calibration Adjust database to match observed base year customer and metered data. 1996. H. Marcel Dekker. "User scenario variation" input End-Use Model Load curves translate customer data to electric load. Spatial Electric Load Forecasting. Lee.) . Load curve data Spatial Model Link forecast of each class and tie to spatially significant events and features.

1) + n. B = mean(Y) .2f\n'. x1abel('Year'). past_dem=input('\nEnter year I demand values: ').2) . yr4 Id4. 2). est_dem(i. end end plot (past_dem(:. past_dem(i. yrS IdS]\n'). ntotal = np + nf.2f%%\n\n'. sumx2 (X mean(X))*(X . In(b) and B In(a) % calculate the estimated values est_dem = 0. % year = first year + n est_dem(i. fprintf('\n\tRate of growth = %2. fprintf('\tYEAR\tACTUAL\t\tFORECAST\n').mean(X))'.2)). % load growth equation est_dem(i. est_dem(i.past_dem(:.mean(X)) '.1. cols = sizepd(2). 1). else fprintf('\t%4d\t-\t\t\t%6. yr2 Id2.1. g*100). for i = l:ntotal n = i-I. % obtain the least-square terms to estimate the Id growth value g % y = abAx must be transformed to In(y) = In(a) + x*ln(b) Y = log(past_dem(:. 'k-+') . sizepd = size(past_dem). 1) . ylabel('Demand'). est_dem(:.2)) . % get the coeffs of the transformed data A A = sumxy/sumx2.2f\n'.68 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 2. fprintf('\nEnter an array of demand values in the form:\n'). fprintf('\t[yr1 Id1.2f\t\t%6.l) .est_dem(i.l). X = O:np . Po and g Po = exp (B). 2).mean(Y))*(X . g = exp (A) . 'Forecast'). % solve for the initial value. est_dem(:. 'k-s'. % get the # of past years of data and the # of cols in the array np = sizepd(l). if i <= np fprintf('\t%4d\t%6.A*mean(X). yr3 Id3. % get the number of years to predict nf=input('\nEnter the number of year to predict: ').4 Demand Forecasting MAnAB Program %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% % demand forecasting matlab program %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% fprintf('\nDemand Forecast\n'). 1) = past_dem(l. 1egend('Actual'. . est_dem(i. sumxy = (Y .2))'. 2) = Po* (l+g) An.

13 as a curve-fitting technique and determine the following: (a) The average rate of growth of the demand.Load Characteristics EXAMPLE 2. Solution Here is the program output showing the answers for the parts (a) through (c). Use the MATLAB program given in Example 2.55% Forecast 3094 3266 3447 3639 3841 4054 4279 4516 4767 5032 5311 5606 5918 6246 6593 6959 7345 7753 8184 EDU» . (d) Plot the results found in parts (a) and (b). and 4436.3591.2938. The answer for part (d) is given in Figure 2. yr3 Id3. yr7 Id7] An example is shown below: [1997 3094. Program Output EDU» load_growth Demand Forcast Enter an array of demand values in the following form: [yr1 Id1. 2001 4027. (b) Find out the ideal data based on growth for the past 8 yr to give the correct demand forecast. yr6 Id6.2714. 2002 3591. 1998 2938. yr2 Id2. 2000 3567. yr5 Id5.4579.14 69 Assume the peak MW July demands for the last 8 yr have been following: 3094. 2003 4579. (c) The forecasted future demands for the next 10 yr.15.3567. yr4 Id4. 4027. 2003 4579] Enter year / demand values: [1997 3094. 1999 2714. 2001 4027. 2002 3591. 1999 2714. 1998 2938. 2000 3567. 2004 4436] Enter the number of year to predict: 10 Rate of growth Year Actual 1997 3094 1998 2938 1999 2714 2000 3567 2001 4027 2002 3591 2003 4579 2004 4436 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 5.

annual) load characteristics in the following manner: By suppressing loads at peak times and/or encouraging energy consumption at off-peak times. Demand-side management (DSM) includes all measures. It provides for direct control of customer loads.5 LOAD MANAGEMENT The load management process involves controlling system loads by remote control of individual customer loads. that is ~S(t). Dcont(t) is the duty cycle allowed by the load control at time t. equipments. and the monitoring necessary to verify that programmed levels are achieved.Dcont(t)] x N. Load management can also be affected by inducing customers to suppress loads during utility-selected daily periods by means of time-of-day rate incentives.70 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Demand Forecast Model using Growth Equation 9000r---'-~--~---'---'---'--~===c==~ 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 4000 4000~--~--L---~--~--~--~--~--~--~ "D c ~ o co 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Year F!GURE 2. Distribution automation provides the control and monitoring ability required for both load management scenarios. By minimizing the requirement for more costly generation or power purchases by suppressing loads. Such control includes suppressing or biasing automatic control of cycling loads. Such activities are called demand-side management. Duncont(t) is the average duty cycle of uncontrolled units at time t. Maximizing utilization of existing distribution system can lead to deferrals of capital expenditures. . and N is the number of units under control. The use of load management provides various benefits to the utility and its customers. programs.15 The answers for the parts (a) and (b). This is achieved by shaping the daily (monthly. It also provides for the appropriate selection of energy metering registers where time of use rates are in effect. In general. as well as load switching. which can be expressed as ~S(t) = Savg x [Duncon! (t) . and activities that are directed towards improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness of energy usage on the customer side of the meter. such load control results in a load reduction at time t. where Savg is the average connected load of controlled devices. 2.

Dcont(t)] x N = (5 kW) 3[0. (d) The total additional amount of energy reduction due to the reduction in the T&D losses is (75 MW) x 0. Controlling individual customer loads: To suppress total system.0. In response to the economic penalty in terms of higher energy rates. and others. (d) The total amount of additional reduction in energy consumption in part (c) if T&D losses at peak is 8%.80 . electric clothes dryers. Also.000 Savg =75 MW.65) x (5 kW) = 0.000 units is LlS(t) = x [Duncont(t) .75 kW (c) The total amount of energy reduction for 100. By reducing cold load pick-up during re-energization of circuits using devices with cold load pick-up features. (b) The amount of reduced energy consumption during the peak hour if such control is applied simultaneously to 100.65) x (60 min/h) = 9 min. air conditioning. (c) The total amount of reduced energy consumption during the peak. the customers will limit their energy consumption during peak load periods. substation. where these are in effect. EXAMPLE 2.0. that is. Determine the following: (a) The number of minutes of operation denied at the end of I h of control of the unit. customer-activated load management is achieved by incentives such as time-of-use rates or customer alert to warn customers so that ttJ. These include electric space and water heating.000 air conditioners throughout the system.08 = 6 MW . rate structures. Solution (a) The amount of operation that is denied is (0.65] x 100. (b) The amount of reduced energy consumption during the peak is (0. The effectiveness of direct control of customer loads is increased by choosing the larger and more significant customer loads.ey can alter their use.80 .15 Assume that a 5-kW air conditioner would run 80% of the time (80% duty cycle) during the peak hour and might be limited by utility remote control to a duty cycle of 65%. Load management monitoring and control functions include the following: Monitoring of substations and feeder loads: To verify that the required magnitude of load suppression is accomplished for normal and emergency conditions as well as switch status.Load Characteristics 71 By relieving the consequences of significant loss of generation or similar emergency situations by suppressing loads. or feeder loads for normal or emergency conditions: and switching meter registers in order to accommodate time-of-use. time of day.80 .0. Distribution automation provides for remotely adjusting and reading the time-of-use meters.

45) The determination of the revenue requirement is a matier'of regulatory commission decision. Their rates are subject to government regulation. resulting in higher rates to compensate the cost of a greater peak load capacity. (Revenue requirement) = (operating expenses) + (depreciation expenses) + (taxes) + (rate base or net valuation) x (rate of return). most public utilities are monopolies. It should be sufficient to permit the utility to maintain its credit and attract the capital required to perform its tasks. thus metering is not required. It provides a single price per kilowatt-hour without considering customer demand costs. The block meter rate structure provides lower prices for greater usage. . and some of them are: Flat demand rate structure Straight-line meter rate structure Block meter rate structure Demand rate structure Season rate structure Time-of-day (or peak-load pricing) structure. The total revenue which a utility may be authorized to collect through the sales of its services should be equal to the company's total cost of service. should avoid unjust and unreasonable discrimination.6 RATE STRUCTURE Even after the so-called deregulation. that is. season. it causes a greater than necessary peak and. However. Theoretically. customers using the utility'S service under similar conditions should be billed at similar prices. the overall total reduction is 75MW+6MW=81 MW. It is sometimes used for parking lot or street lighting service. designing schedules of rates which will produce the revenue requirement is a management responsibility subject to commission review. Therefore. The straight-line meter rate structure is similar to the flat structure. a regulatory commission cannot guarantee a specific rate of earnings. by law. or volume. The flat rate structure provides a constant price per kilowatt-hour which does not change with the time of use. they have the exclusive right to sell their product in a given area. consequently. but all customers in a given class should be treated the same. 2. excess idle generation capacity during most of the time. it gives certain prices per kilowatt-hour for various kilowatt-hour blocks where the price per kilowatt-hour decreases for succeeding blocks. There are several types of rate structures used by the utilities. It is a matter of necessity to categorize the customers into classes and subclasses. it does not encourage energy conservation and off-peak usage. The rate is negotiated knowing connected load. it can only declare that a public utility has been given the opportunity to try to earn it. that is. This example shows attractiveness of controlling air conditioners to utility company.72 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Thus. However. (2. The rate of return is partly a function of local conditions and should correspond with the return being earned by comparable companies with similar risks. that is. the rate schedules. Therefore. Therefore.

4. The seasonal rate structure specifies higher prices per kilowatt-hour used during the season of the year in which the system peak occurs (on-peak season) and lower prices during the season of the year in which the usage is the lowest (off-peak season). had the customer received some special service during this billing period. COUNT NUMBER 01-2500-2775-1 PLEASE RETURN THIS PART WITH PAYMENT $ $89.1 CUSTOMER BILLING Customer billing is done by taking the difference in readings of the meter twice successively. Date on which the billing period ended.Load Characteristics 73 The demand rate structure recognizes load factor and consequently provides separate charges for demand and energy. the only charge shown in box 6 of Figure 2.16 SERVICE ADDRESS -+ A customer's monthly electric bill. It gives either a constant price per kilowatt-hour consumed or a decreasing price per kilowatt-hour for succeeding blocks of energy used. The monthly bill includes the following items in the indicated spaces: 1. 6. In this case. Itemized list of charges. The seasonal rate structure and the time-of-day rate structure are both designed to reduce the system's peak load and therefore reduce the system's idle stand-by capacity. in kilowatt-hours. a service charge would appear in this space as a separate entry. 2. It specifies higher prices per kilowatt-hour used during the peak period of the day and lower prices during the off-peak period of the day. Figure 2. A code showing whether the customer's bill was estimated or adjusted. This amount is multiplied by the appropriate rate or the series of rates and the adjustment factors. A code showing which of the rate schedules was applied to the customer's bill. consumed by the customer in that period. 2. The difference in readings indicates the amount of electricity. The time-of-day rate structure (or peak-load pricing) is similar to the seasonal load rate structure.69@ AMOUNT DUE AFTER Sept.16 shows a typical monthly bill rendered to a residential customer.6. Information appears in this box only when the bill is sent to a nonresidential customer using more than 6000 kWh electricity a month. and the bill is sent to the customer. Number of kilowatt-hours the customer's meter registered when the bill was tabulated. The customer's account number. 5. 7. usually at an interval of 1 mo.14 is a figure determined by adding the price of the electricity the customer has used to the routine taxes and surcharges. However. 3. 30 74 +FIGURE 2. .

25 (flat rate) Next 80 kWh x 0. is based on the following rate schedule. 16. Both the total adjustment and the adjustment per kilowatt-hour are shown.0265 Additional 1400 kWh x 0. electric utilities are forced to use spare generators that are often less efficient and consequently more expensive to run. or service. Included in the minimum.032 I IkWh $0. meter reading. 14.0321 Next 200 kWh x 0.25/month $0. State sales tax. Fuel cost adjustment.92 =$10.43 The customer is billed according to the utility company's rate schedule.0220 2200kWh Environmental surcharge County energy tax Fuel cost adjustment State sales tax Total amount = $2.62 = $0. Note that there is a minimum charge regardless of how little electricity the customer uses. Date on which bill.0355 Next 100 kWh x 0.0265lkWh $0.74 8. Environmental surcharge. County energy tax. including metering. Amount that the customer must pay if the bill becomes overdue.80 = $55.28 = $85. becomes overdue. As an example.0296lkWh $0. The sample electrical bill.0220lkWh The sample bill shows a consumption of 2200 kWh which has been billed according to the following schedule: First 20 kWh @ $2.0355lkWh $0.096 Next 400 kWh x 0. Amount due now.60 =$30. if unpaid.5 gives a typical energy rate schedule for the on-peak and off-peak seasons for commercial users.21 =$5. Table 2. shown in Figure 2. 10. . Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The number of kilowatt-hours the customer used during the billing period.25 = $1.84 =$3. the rates vary according to the season. Total amount that the customer owes.33 = $ 3. Therefore. 12. 15. 9.95 = $24. billing. to meet the added burden. In general. In most areas the demand for electricity increases in the warm months.l6.25 =$2. charge is the cost of providing service to the customer. and various overhead expenses. and that the first 20 kWh that the customer uses is covered by this fiat rate. II. Rate Schedule Minimum charge (including first 20 kWh or fraction thereof) Next 80 kWh Next 100 kWh Next 200 kWh Next 400 kWh Consumption in excess of 800 kWh $2. 13.

The PF penalty shall not be applied when the consumer's monthly average PF exceeds 0. $/kWh. and D is the loss factor.15 Assume that the NL&NP Utility Company has the following. given in decimal. The monthly bill as calculated under the previously stated rate is increased or decreased for each kilowatt-hour consumed by an amount calculated according to the following formula: B 1 FCAF=Axxcx-6 10 I-D (2.5% associated with off-system sales) to net system input. given in decimal.0490/kWh 3. and typical. B is the amount by which average cost of fuel per million Btu during the second calendar month preceding the end of the billing period for which the kilowatt-hour usage is billed exceeds or is less than $lImillion Btu. for the cost of fuel burned at the NL&NP's thermal-generating plants. 1.6490/kWh First 50 kWh or less/month for Next 50 kWh/month Next 500 kWh/month Next 1400 kWh/month Next 3000 kWh/month All additional kWh/month @ @ @ @ @ 2.5090/kWh 4.2440/kWh 3. This ratio is updated every year and applied for 12 mo. or kilowatt-hours produced by hydro generation and purchased by the NL&NP.85/monthly average PF). to be applied per kilowatt-hour consumed.7830/kWh 2. during the same period. in dollars per million Btu. that is. C is the ratio. which is the ratio.09 5.6. Monthly billing demand = 30-min monthly maximum kilowatt demand multiplied by the ratio of (0. EXAMPLE 2.5 A Typical Energy Rate Schedule for Commercial Users On-Peak Season (June 1-0ctober 31) First 50 kWh or less/month for Next 50 kWh/month Next 500 kWh/month Next 1400 kWh/month Next 3000 kWh/month All additional kWh/month Off-Peak Season (November 1-May 31) @ @ @ @ @ $4.85.5090/kWh 4. for the year ending December 31 preceding.8780/kWh 3. .3390/kWh $4. 1220/kWh 2.Load Characteristics 75 TABLE 2.8430/kWh 4. of the total net generation from all the NL&NP's thermal plants during the second calendar month preceding the end of the billing period for which the kilowatt-hour usage is billed to the total net generation from all the NL&NP's plants including hydro generation owned by the NL&NP. commercial rate schedule.09 5. A is the weighted average Btu per kilowatt-hour for net generation from the NL&NP's thermal plants during the second calendar month preceding the end of the billing period for which the kilowatt-hour usage is billed. total system input less total kilowatt-hours in off-system sales.46) where FCAF is the fuel cost adjustment factor.2 FUEL COST ADJUSTMENT The rates stated previously are based on an average cost. of kilowatt-hour losses (total kilowatt-hour losses less losses of 2.

90 lag 30-min Dmax = 39 kW/month Wa =7.85? (e) Secondary voltage shunt capacitors.00/kW of monthly billing demand. as shown in Figure 2.000 kWh/month PF a = 0. FLD _ units served peak load x T 7000 kWh 22kW x 730h - = = 0. each requiring a DT. where both kilowatt-hours and kilovar-hours are measured.000 kWh/month PFA = 0. On this basis. find the number of months required for the PF correction capacitors found in part d to pay back for themselves with savings in demand charges. would raise the PF of customer B to 0.7. Monthly energy charges shall be: 2. Assume that two consumers. (a) (b) (c) (d) Assume that an average month is 730 h and find the monthly load factor of each consumer. are supplied from a primary line of the NL&NP. Calculate the monthly bill for each consumer. Using the 30/kvar figure.17 Two customers connected to a primary line of the NL&NP.435 Distribution F~-~'I Customer's meter (or service) f C"'to~~""om" B I 30-min Dmax = 22 kW/month WA =7. for each DT. For customer A. Monthy demand charge = $2.50 cents/kWh for all kWh in excess of 4000 4. the monthly load factors for each consumer are the following.00 cents/kWh for the next 3000 kWh 1.76 lag FIGURE 2. It is not uncommon to measure the average monthly PF on a monthly energy basis. continuous kilovoltampere rating. 3.50 cents/kWh for the first 1000 kWh 2. what size capacitor. in kilovars. Consumers sometimes install secondary capacitors to reduce their billings for utility service.76 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 2. may cost about $30/kvar installed with disconnects and short-circuit protection. Solution (a) From Equation 2. in small sizes. Find a reasonable size. that is. . The total monthly charge shall be the sum of the monthly demand charge and the monthly energy charge.17.

rather than. Therefore.6 kW Monthly demand charge = 43.76 = 5 1. Therefore. if the PF is greater than 0. Total monthly bill = monthly demand charge + monthly energy charge = $44 + $130 = $174. . For customer B: Monthly billing demand = 39 kW x g:~g = 43. then still the actual amount of P is used.85. the resultant kW. Monthly energy charge: First 1000 kWh = $0.6 kW x $2.90 =24. respectively.85 == 22 kW.0l5/kWh x 3000 kWh =$45 Monthly energy charge = $l30.90 Monthly demand charge = 22 kW x $2.246. 0.Load Characteristics 77 and for customer B.00/kW == $44. (b) The continuous kilovoltamperes for each DT are the following: = 22kW 0. _ units served F/1)~ peak load x T 7000 kWh 39kW x 730h = 0. However.2 kYA.025/kWh x 1000 kWh =$25 Next 3000 kWh = $0.00/kW = $87.02/kWh x 3000 kWh =$60 Excess kWh = $0.20 *It is calculated from P (Op~).4kYA and SB=~ cose 39kW 0. (c) The monthly bills for each customer are the following: For customer A: Monthly billing demand' = 22 kW x 0. the continuous sizes suitable for the DTs A and Bare 25 and 50 kYA ratings.

0.85 Therefore. Total monthly bill = $78 + $l30 = $208.I 0. the resultant savings due to the capacitor installation is the difference between the before-and-after total monthly bills. savIngs =---- $69 $9.$208 = $9.13 kvarh. 730h (e) The new monthly bill for customer B would be Monthly billing demand = 39 kW Monthly demand charge = 39 kW x $2.76) = 5986. 0. d capacitor cost Pay bac k peno = .20 + $l30 = $217. Therefore. customer B would have 7000 kWh xsin(cos-10. Therefore.76 If its PF is raised to 0.5 == 8 mo. (d) Currently. Hence. the capacitor size required is 5986.$78 = $9.20.oI5/kWh x 3000 kWh = $45 Monthly energy charge = $l30. The cost of the installed capacitor is $30/kvar x 2. Thus.78 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Monthly energy charge: First 1000 kWh = $0.258 kvar == 2. Total monthly bill = $87.025/kWh x 1000 kWh = $25 Next 3000 kWh = $0. customer B at the lagging PF of 0.4338 kvarh = 2.13 kvarh .76 has _7_00_0_k_W_h x sin(cos. Savings = $217.20/month or Savings = $87. Therefore.20 .02/kWh x 3000 kWh = $60 Excess kWh =$O.20/mo = 7.20 . the number of months required for the capacitors to "payback" for themselves with savings in demand charges can be calculated as .85.85) = 4338 kvarh.20/month.3 kvar = $69.3 kvar. .00 = $78 Monthly energy charge = $130 as before.

transmission.$9. ElECTRIC Rrt3% ~. current transformers (CT) and potential transformers (PT). GENERAL.. the speed at which the shaft will turn for a given load condition to determine the watt-hour constant. the realistic cost of the installed capacitor is $30/kvar x 3 kvar = $90. With permission. FIGURE 2. 2.Load Characteristics 79 However.. $90 Payback period = .20 gives a diagram of a typical motor and magnetic retarding system for a single-phase watt-hour meter. and distribution systems. in practice. Figure 2. It is not only used to measure the electric energy delivered to residential. Figure 2. that is. It is a combination of single-phase watt-hour meter stators that drive a rotor at a speed proportional to the total power in the circuit. Figure 2.19 shows its basic parts. For those applications. Figure 2. Therefore. transformer-rated meters are developed.7 ElECTRIC METER TYPES An electric meter is the device used to measure the electricity sold by the electric utility company. (From General Electric Company: Manual afWalthour meters. and distribution systems are required to measure large quantities of electric energy at relatively high voltages. Therefore. These transformers reduce the voltage and the current to values that are suitable for the low-voltage and low-current meters.21a shows a typical socket-mounted two-stator polyphase watt-hour meter. They are used in conjunction with standard instrument transformers. transmission. Figure 2. ~ KllOWATTHOURS (J. Figure 2.21h shows a typical transformer-rated meter.22 shows a single-phase.20/mo == 10mo. and industrial customers but also used to measure the electric energy passing through various parts of the generation.18 Single-phase watt-hour meter. the available capacitor size is 3 kvar instead of 2. commercial.3 kvar.) . in combination with the stator. two-wire watt-hour meter connected to a high-voltage circuit through CTs and PTs. The watt-hour meters used to measure the electric energy passing through various parts of the generation.18 shows a single-phase watt-hour meter. The magnetic retarding system causes the rotor disk to establish.

20 Diagram of typical motor and magnetic retarding system for a single-phase watt-hour meter. (From General Electric Company: Manual (~r Watthour meters.1 ELECTRONIC METERS Utility companies are starting to use new meters with programmable demand registers (PDRs).7. With permission. 15. for example. which is expressed in kilowatts. the demand meter indicates energy per time interval.) A demand meter is basically a watt-hour meter with a timing element added.19 Basic parts of a single-phase watt-hour meter.23 shows a demand register. 2.) .30. whereas a traditional register measures only the amount of electricity Stator Retarding magnet Rotor FIGURE 2.80 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Magnetic Cover \\ Moving element Frame Electromagnet FIGURE 2. With permission. or average power. or 60 min. Therefore. Figure 2. (From General Electric Company: Manual of Watthollr meters. A PDR also can measure demand. The meter functions as an integrator and adds up the kilowatt-hours of energy used in a certain time interval.

(From General Electric Company: Manual (~f Watthour meters.21 Typical polyphase watt-hour meters: (a) self-contained meter (socket-connected cyclometer type).) . With permission. (b) transformer-rated meter (bottom-connected pointer type). With permission. (From General Electric Company: Manual of Walthour meters.22 Single-phase.:::::::::::::::---ti "I 1 : 1 1 1 \ i ) 1 1 ~) / / 1 1 ---t---1 1 1 1 1 / 1 1 1 1 Load FIGURE 2.) Front view _e Line r.Load Characteristics 81 FIGURE 2. two-wire watt-hour meter connected to a high-voltage circuit through current and potential transformers.:::::.

(From General Electric Company: Manual of Walthour meters. if the pointer is between numbers. It will automatically add the demand reading to the cumulative each time it is reset.) used in a month. so that the customer could cut back if he or she wants it. the revolution counter.000 1000 100 10 Kilowatthours FIGURE 2. As shown in Figure 2.24. A demand profile shows how much electricity a customer used in a month. . so a meter will know if someone reset it since he or she was there last. read the smaller one. If that pointer has 10. Industrial and commercial customers are billed according to their peak demand for the month. demand and cumulative demand by itself. If the pointer is pointed directly at a number. as well as their kilowatt-hour consumption. For example. read the dials from left to right. (Note that numbers run clockwise on some dials and counterclockwise on others.2 READING ELECTRIC METERS By reading the register. But the programmable demand register measures total kilowatthours used. Utilities have been using supplementary devices with the traditional meters to measure demand. look at the dial to the right. it can alert a customer when he reaches a certain demand level. To interpret it.24 shows a conventional dial-type register.24 A conventional dial-type register. 2. The PDR can also be programmed in many other ways.7.) The figures above each dial show how many kilowatt-hours are recorded each time the pointer makes a complete revolution. measuring cumulative demand is a security measure.82 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Kilowatthours FIGURE 2. Here. that is. The 0 stands for 10. There are primarily two different types of registers: (i) conventional dial and (ii) cyclometer.23 The register of a demand meter for large customers. the customers' bills can be determined. then someone may have tempered with the meter. Figure 2. The PDR may also be programmed to record the date each time it is reset. If the cumulative demand does not equal the sum of the monthly demands.

24. the wheels. This reading is based on a cumulative total.Load Characteristics 83 Single-phase walt-hour meter t:::===-::::::::::. This type of meter is primarily for high-usage customers. The third dial would be read as 8 after the pointer on the lO-kWh dial reaches O. (2. the pointer on the first dial is between 8 and 9. that is. For a self-contained watt-hour meter.6xK. therefore read 8. Figure 2. which indicate numbers directly. For a transformer-rated meter (where instrument transformers are used with a watt-hour meter). indicated on the meter. Here. 2. it makes possible the reading of the meter simply and directly. the instantaneous load measurement should not replace demand meters that record for longer time intervals. or multiplier. record the smaller number. To find the customer's monthly use.25 15 amperes 0 3 wire 0 60 cycles A cyclometer-type register.3 INSTANTANEOUS LOAD MEASUREMENTS USING WATT-HoUR METERS The instantaneous kilowatt demand of any customer may be determined by making field observations of the kilowatt-hour meter serving the customer. D = 3. For example. Some electric meters have a constant. 8378 kWh of electricity has been used. although the procedure is the same as in the conventional type. the total reading is 8378 kWh. The instantaneous demand may be determined by using one of the following equations: I. The fourth dial is read as 8.25 shows a cyclometer-type register. However. but the dial on the right has not reached 0 so the reading on the third dial is 7. The pointer on the third dial is almost directly on 8. The pointer on the second dial is between 3 and 4.48) . take two readings one month apart. Therefore. thus read 3. Therefore. if it has passed 0. XKh xCTRxPTR kW I T (2. replace the dials. and subtract the earlier one from the later one. in Figure 2. not yet passed 0. from left to right. since the meter was last set at 0.7. record the number the pointer is on.»Ic=:===::=j 240 volts O FIGURE 2.47) 2.

and PTR is the potential transformer ratio.84 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where D j is the instantaneous demand (kW).6 x 27 x 7.6 x 32 x 7.18 Assume that the data given in Example 2.2 59 .17 Assume that the load is measured twice with a watt-hour meter which has a meter constant of 7.- T 3.058 + 17.2 40 = 17.8 and that the ratios . Since the kilowatt demand is based on a short-time interval.496kW. Kh is the watt-hour meter constant (given on the register). EXAMPLE 2. two or more demand intervals should be measured. Solution From Equation 2.777kW.058kW and for the second reading.6 x Kr x Kh .6 x Kr x Kh 2- T 3. D _ 3.2 and the following data are obtained: First Reading 32 59 Second Reading 27 Revolutions of disk Time interval for revolutions of disks 40 Determine the instantaneous demands and the average demand. the average demand is 14. Suppose that the new meter constant is 1.496 2 = 15. D _ 3.47. for the first reading. T is the time (s). CTR is the current transformer ratio. EXAMPLE 2. Wh/rev. = 14. Kr is the number of meter disk revolutions for a given time period. Therefore. The average value of these demands is a good estimate of the given customer's kilowatt demand during the intervals measured.17 are the results of load measurement with watt-hour meters and instrument transformers.

8 x 200 x I 40 = 874.9kW.8 kW.48. respectively.8 2 == 788.19 Assume that the load is measured with watt-hour and var-hour meters and instrument transformers and that the following readings are obtained. _ 3. average kilovoltampere demand. Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The The The The The instantaneous kilowatt demands average kilowatt demand instantaneous kilovar demands average kilovar demand. Thus. respectively. EXAMPLE 2.8 x 200x I = 702. SolutiO/l Therefore. the average demand is 702. Determine the instantaneous demands for both readings and the average demand.6 x D1- x CTR xPTR T = 3. .9+874.load Characteristics 85 of the CTs and PTs used are 200 and I. from Equation 2.9 kW S9 Do = 3. Watt-hour Readings First Set Revolutions of disk Time interval for revolutions of disks Var-hour Readings First Set 10 Second Set 30 Second Set 20 50 60 50 20 60 Assume that the new meter constants are 1.6 x and 32 x 1.6 x 27x 1.2 and that the ratios of the CTs and PTs used are 80 and 20.

6 x 10 x 1.2 x 80 x 20 50 = 1382.6 x Kr x Kh x CTR x PTR 1.4+2304 2 = 1843.8+ 3456 2 = 3I10.2 x 80 x 20 60 = 2304 kW. (d) The average kilovar demand is 1382.6 x 20 x 1.4kW.6 x 30 x 1.2 x 80 x 20 1 - 50 =2764.4 kW and Do = 3. (b) The average kilowatt demand is 2764.2 x 80 x 20 2 60 =3456 kW.6 x 20 x 1. . (c) The instantaneous kiIovar demands are D _ 3.2kW.8 kW and D _ 3. T 3.86 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Solution (a) The instantaneous kilowatt demands are D _ 3.

respectively.14.1 and the equations given in Section 2. in kW Time Street lighting Residential Commercial 12 I A. PROBLEMS 2.1 Use the data given in Example 2. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 9 10 II 12 noon I 2 3 4 5 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 350 450 550 550 550 600 600 600 600 600 650 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 400 600 1100 1100 1100 1100 1300 1300 1300 1300 continued . TABLE P2.M. 2000 and 2000 kW. Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) The demand factor of the street lighting load The demand factor of the residential load The demand factor of the commercial load The demand factor of the feeder. and the commercial load are 100. Use the data given in Example 2.2 and determine the load factor of the feeder.Load Characteristics (e) The average kilovoltampere demand is 87 == 3615.2 2.1 and assume that the feeder has the peak loss of 72 kW at peak load and an annual loss factor of 0.5.1 and assume that the connected demands for the street lighting load. 2.4 A Typical Summer-Day load. Determine the following: (a) The daily average load of the feeder (b) The average power loss of the feeder (c) The total annual energy loss of the feeder.3 Use the data given in Example 2. the residential load.

900.000 kWh. The customer is considering purchasing equipment for a hobby shop which he has in his basement.10 Use the data given in Example 2.4 and repeat Problem 2. and the weekly energy consumption is 4200 kWh.9 Using the data given in Table P2. Estimate the additional annual electric energy cost for operation of the equipment.8 2. 1400.8? 2. The IS-min weekly maximum demand is given as 7S kW.5 2.4 and repeat Problem 2. 100 100 100 100 100 750 900 1100 1100 900 700 350 900 500 500 500 300 300 300 2.600. ISOO.SO%.11 The input to a subtransmission system is 87. Assume that a load of 100 kW is connected at the Riverside substation of the NL&NP Company. (c) Why is it that the hypothetical but illustrative energy cost is smaller in this problem than the one in Example 2.12 . Let the new electric heating load average 200 kW during 6 mo of heating (and off-peak) season. in kW Time 6 Street Lighting Residential Commercial 7 8 9 10 II 12 P. 1000. 1200.000 kWh annually. 2.7 2.4 for a typical summer day.000 kW and the energy input that day is 300.02S/kWh.2 and calculate the associated loss factor.3. The equipment will consume about 200 kWh each month. On the peak-load day of the year. 2.4 2. (b) Find the total annual cost to NL&NP to serve this new load. Find the load factors for the year and for the peak-load day.1 and compare the ~esults.2. 1300. starting in January: 1400. . (a) Find the new annual load factor on the substation. what is the total annual core loss energy on this feeder? (b) Find the value of the total core loss energy calculated in part (a) at $0. Assume that the total kilovoltampere rating of all DTs connected to a feeder is 3000 kVA. Use the data given in Problem 2. Assuming a week is 7 days.6 and also consider the following added new load. Determine the following: (a) If the average core loss of the transfers is O.00/kW per month. Use the result of Problem 2.M.88 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE P2. and 1400 kWh.6 2.800. find the demand factor and the IS-min weekly load factor of the substation. ISOO. the peak is 2S. The electric energy consumption of a residential customer has averaged IISO kWh/mo as follows. Use the electrical rate schedule given in the following table. Suppose that several buildings which have electric air-conditioning are converted from gas-fired heating to electric heating. Use the data given in Problem 2. repeat Example 2.4 (continued) A Typical Summer-Day Load. 700. Assume that off-peak energy delivered to these primary feeders costs the NL&NP Company 2 cents/kWh and that the capacity cost of the power system remains at $3. 700.

consumed 16.0 ¢/kWh For the first 25 kWh For the next 375 kWh 4.000 kWh in any 3 mo or who exceeds 12.251kW Energy charge: 2.000 kWh in any I mo during a calendar year shall be required to receive power under this rate at the option of the supplier.000 kWh due to some unknown reasons. Demand Charge For the first 30 kW of maximum demand per month $2. The company's newly hired plant engineer. Rate: (net) per month per meter Energy charge: 6. A customer who exceeds 10. commercial.000 kWh in any month during any calendar year.13 The Zubits International Company. The company's monthly average energy consumption is also 16. who recently completed a load management course at Ghost University.00 ¢IkWh For the first 100 kWh per kW of maximum demand per month 1. by shifting the hours of a certain . It has a 30-min monthly maximum demand of 200 kW and a connected demand of 580 kW.001kWh with a minimum monthly charge of $1.l2.000 kWh.00 ¢/kWh For the first 25 kWh 3. A customer who exceeds 10.OO ¢IkWh All in excess of 1000 kWh Minimum: $1. and miscellaneous power uses where consumption of energy does not exceed 10.Load Characteristics 89 Residential Rate: (net) per month per meter Energy charge: 6.00.2 ¢IkWh For the next 200 kWh per kW of maximum demand per month 0.00 ¢IkWh For the next 850 kWh l. Rate: (net) per month per meter kW is rate of flow. located in Ghost Town.5 ¢/kWh Minimum: $1. (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the Zubits International's total monthly electrical bill for this month.000 kWh of electric energy for Zubit production this month. Find its 30-min monthly load factor.50 per month General Power A rate available for service supplied to any commercial or industrial customer whose consumption in any month during the calendar year exceeds 10. whichever is greater.000 kWh per month in any I mo may elect to receive power under this rate.0 ¢IkWh All in excess of 4000 kWh 1.50IkW For all maximum demand per month in excess of 30 kW $1. Determination of maximum demand: The maximum demand shall be either the highest integrated kW load during any 30-min period occurring during the billing month for which the determination is made. Use the electrical rate schedule given in Problem 2.2 ¢/kWh For the next 125 kWh 2. Water heating: 1.0 ¢IkWh For the next 3600 kWh 3. suggested that.50 per month Commercial A rate available for general. A customer who elects at his own option to receive power under this rate may not return to the commercial service rate except at the option of the supplier. 2. I kW for I h is I kWh. or 75% of the highest maximum demand which has occurred in the preceding month.5 ¢IkWh All in excess of 300 kWh per kW of maximum demand per month Minimum charge: The minimum monthly bill shall be the demand charge for the month. Find its demand factor.

The new lagging load PFs of A and Bare 0. Repeat Example 2.15 Repeat Example 2. A customer transformer has 12 residential customers connected to it. respectively. the load has a daily constant peak value of 50 MW between 7 P. If its annual average load factor is 0. Feeder Demand (kW) PF 2 3 4 900 1000 2100 2000 0. Derive the necessary equations and calculate: (a) The load factor of the feeder (b) The factor of the feeder.M. Among the four feeders the diversity factor is 1.16 2.15.15. until 7 A. respectively.19 Suppose that a primary feeder is supplying power to a variable load. until 7 P.85 0.90 and 0. (b) Find the LD in kW.6. determine the following: (a) The annual average power demand (b) The maximum monthly demand.14 2. The new monthly energy consumptions by customers A and Bare 8000 and 9000 kWh. in how many years will it be loaded to its fans-on rating? 2. and a daily constant off-peak value of 5 MW between 7 A.17 2.90 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering production from the peak load hours to off-peak hours.000 MWh. Among the standard three-phase transformer sizes. Find the diversified demand of the group of 12 houses on the transformer.70. Do you agree that this will save money? How much? 2.18 Suppose that one of the transformers of a substation supplies four primary feeders. A distribution substation is supplied by total annual energy of 100. Every day and all year long.l2. (d) Now assume that the substation load will increase at a constant percentage rate per year and will double in 10 yr.M.95 0. those available are: 2500/3125 kYA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 3750/4687 kYA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 50006250 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled 750019375 kVA self-cooled/forced-air-cooled. The 30-min annual demands of per feeder with their PFs at the time of annual peak load are shown next. (c) Select a suitable substation transformer size if zero load growth is expected and com- pany policy permits as much as 25% short-time overloads on the transformer.M. respectively. demand factor is 0. assuming that there are eight houses connected on each DT and that there are a total of 120 DTs and 960 residences supplied by the primary feeder. the maximum monthly demand can be reduced to 140 kW at a cost of $50/mo. and diversity factor is 1. If750019375-kYA-rated transformer is installed. . 2.9 0. assuming that the 30-min monthly maximum demands of customers A and Bare 27 and 42 kW. Connected load is 20 kW per house.M.6.25 for both real power (P) and reactive power (Q).9 (a) Find the 30-min annual maximum demand on the substation transformer in kW and inkVA.

Generation. a range. that is. vol. 1976. Box. on the DT. Use the given MATLAB program as a curve-fitting technique and determine the following: (a) The average rate of growth of the demand. ABB Power T & D Company: Introduction to Integrated Resource T & D Planning. July 14.35. 1928. 1930. Woodrow: Load Factor-Equivalent Hour Values Compared. 6. 2. Consider the MATLAB demand forecasting computer program given in Table 2. AlEE Trans.2 and assume that a typical residence has a cloth dryer. (b) Find out the ideal data based on rate of growth for the past 8 yr to give the correct future demand forecast. Seelye.: Diversified Demand Method of Estimating Residential Distribution Transformer Loads. H. vol. There are a total of 200 DTs and 800 residences supplied by this primary feeder. E.3. Holden-Day. and 7 P. Edison Electr. 8. New York. McGraw-Hill. in kilowatts. 2. 564-73. CA. 3591. 92. The PFs for customer A and B are 0. ASA C42. 2938. October 1940. and G. through six SDs and two spans of SL.. (d) The total amount of energy lost due to copper losses per year in part (b) and its value at $O. that is. 3.95 lagging and 0. pp. (c) The total amount of energy lost due to copper losses per year in part (a) and its value at $O.06/kWh. pp. Sarikas. Jenkins: Time Series Analysis.50 lagging. 8.. Transmission and Distribution. H. Buller. the total hourly diversified demands at 6 A. 12 noon. East Pittsburgh. Bulletin GET-1840C. 4. 4027. The 30-min maximum diversified demands for customers A and Bare 40 kW each.: Electrical Distribution Engineering...23 The annual peak load of the feeder is 3000 kWh. (b) (c) The 30-min maximum diversified demand on the entire feeder. 469-79. Group 35. no. Assume that the peak MW July demands for the last 8 yr have been the following: 3094. Inst.M. Forecasting and Control. P. 7.Load Characteristics 91 2. Total copper loss at peak load is 300 kW.2 and calculate the small portion of the daily demand curve on the DT. 3. 31. pp. A.20 A typical DT serves four residential loads. World. F. San Francisco. H. and H.. vol. a refrigerator. 1957. 4579. and 4436. 3567.06/kWh. General Electric Company: Manual of Walthour Meters. PA.13 and Table 2. assuming that the monthly demand charge is $15/kW and that the monthly energy charges are: 12 cents/kWh for first 1000 kWh.M. respectively. 1994. Cory. 1965. houses. American Standard Definiti~ns of Electric Terms. 9. . and 8 cents/kWh for all kilowatt-hours in excess of 4000. Thacker: Distribution System Load Characteristics and Their Use in Planning and Design. 2. (b) The annual loss factor for a rural area. P. pt. 59-60. III. M. determine the following: (a) The annual loss factor for an urban area. and some lighting and miscellaneous appliances. B. Determine the following: (a) The 30-min maximum diversified demand on the transformer. R. Bull.21 2. August 1957. If the total annual energy supplied to the sending end of the feeder is 9000 MWh. 10 cents/kWh for next 3000 kWh. (c) The forecasted future demands for the next 10 yr. and C.. 5..2714.15. no. G. North Carolina. Use the typical hourly variation hlctors given in Table 2. C. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. 2. Use Figure 2. Arvidson. Electr.22 Repeat Example 2. REFERENCES 1.

16. Ramirez-Rosado. Gellings. Saidian: Electrical Load Forecasting. Zurich. Lee: Spatial Electric Load Forecasting. Modeling. Rome. I. Elecrotechn. PA. Proc. University of Pittsburgh.92 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 10. Italy. Thompson. Identification. February 1998. Proc. Marcel Dekker. Conf... 1. (MELECON 83). T. vol. University of Pittsburgh. pt. and T. 1996. Ganen: Simulation of Load Growth Developmental System Models for Comparison with Field Data on Radial Networks. Int. 3D-May 1. Thompson: A New Stochastic Load Forecasting Model to Predict Load Growth on Radial Feeders. IEEE Mediterr. pp. vol. e. and I.. 35-46. and T. 1982 Modeling Simulation Conf. 1549-1554. 1981 Modeling Simulation Conf. T. Control. Ganen: Economical and Energetic Benefits Derived from Selected Demand-Side Management Actions in the Electric Power Distribution. 1981. 15. Conf.. Switzerland. 3. 1. Ganen. Apr. 1. New York. April 22-23. 1984. and T. W.e. May 24-26. Ganen: A Developmental System Simulation of Growing Electrical Energy Demand. Thompson. 14. no..: Demand Forecasting for Electric Utilities. Willis. International Journal for Computational and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (COMPEL). 4. 1982. Ganen. Lilburn. 11. and A... 17. pp. GA. 1. C. 13. 1992. The Fairmont Press.1983. PA. H. C. . 13.

for example.1 INTRODUCTION In general. public acceptance. for example.l2. The installation of the equipment to either front or rear locations may be limited by customer preference. small distribution transformers are made for pole mounting in overhead distribution. distribution transformers are used to reduce primary system voltages (2. and then the mid-tap voltage. preferred oriented steel is commonly used in their construction. Table 3. be feeling gladder. A winding which is appropriate for series. for 240-V series connection. but not for a three-wire connection. in manholes directburied. or within buildings. and transformers larger than 100 up to 500 kVA are hung on cross-beams or support lugs. and Gnd Y. To designate a winding with a mid-tap which will provide half the full-winding kilovoltampere rating at half the full-winding voltage. In Table 3. or cost. and landscape conditions. and so on. no doubt. When two voltages are separated by a cross (x).20-l964 for single-phase distribution transformers. Windings that are delta-connected or may be connected delta are designated by the voltage of the winding only. The type of transformer may depend on soil content. The rule of thumb requires that a transformer 93 . 2401120 is used for a three-wire connection to designate a 120-V mid-tap voltage with a 240-V full-winding voltage.3 Application of Distribution Transformers Now that I'm almost up the ladder. For example. To reduce size and weight. It is quite fine. To reduce installation costs to a minimum.1. transformers are installed in street vaults. on pads at ground level.4-34. and for 2401120 three-wire connection.l gives standard transformer capacity and voltage ratings according to ANSI Standard C57. which indicates that the winding is connected or may be connected wye. the full-winding voltage is written first. Other voltages are also available. If three or more transformers larger than 100 kVA are used. The distribution transformers and any secondary-service junction devices are installed within elements. local ordinances. further information is given by the order in which the voltages are written for lowvoltage windings. followed by a slant. usually placed on either the front or the rear lot lines of the customer's premises.5 kV) to utilization voltages (120-600 V). which indicates that the winding has one end grounded to the tank or brought out through a reduced insulation bushing. they are installed on a platform supported by two poles. which is used on a 2400-V system that is to be changed later to 7200 V. Transformers 100 kVA and below are attached directly to the pole. and three-wire connections will have the designation of multiple voltage rating followed by a slant and the series voltage rating. The notation 120 x 240 is used to differentiate a winding that can be used for 120-V multiple connection and for 240-V series connection. Richard Armour 3. Secondary symbols used are the letter Y. the view and such. I should. lot location. Examples of all symbols used are given in Table 3. 2400 x 7200. In underground distribution. If just it didn't shake so much.2. the notation 120/240 means that the winding is appropriate either for 120-V multiple connection. a winding is indicated which is appropriate for both multiple and series connection but not for three-wire connection. multiple.

1 Standard Transformer Kilovoltamperes and Voltages Kilovoltamperes Single-Phase 5 10 IS 25 37Y2 50 75 100 167 250 333 500 High Voltages Single-Phase 2400/4160Y 4800/8320Y 4800 Y18320 YX 7200112. or direct-buried splice types. Secondary-service junctions for an underground distribution system can be of the pedestal. mUltiple.200122.2 Designation of Voltage Ratings for Single.400124.200 Y 13.200 Gnd Y/7620 12.500 Gnd Y 22. TABLE 3.470Y/7200 13.400 43.200 Y/7620 13.94 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 3.000 12.470 Gnd Y17200 Three-Phase Meaning Designation 2400/4160Y 4160 Y 4160 Y2400 12.800 22.940 Gnd Y 16.000 13.200 Y/7620 4160Y12400 4160Y 4800 8320Y/4800 8320Y 7200 12.400 43.860 Gnd Y 13.470Y 13.200Y D.and Three-Phase Distribution Transformers Single-Phase Designation 1201240 2401120 240 x 480 120/208 Y 12.920/34. No junction is required if the service cables are connected directly from the distribution transformer to the user's apparatus.800 67.200 13. voltage drop. hand-hole.800 67.800 Gnd Y/7970 13.340 19.470 Y 12. and esthetic effect.470 Gnd Y/7200 4160 Meaning Suitable for delta or wye connection Wye connection only (no neutral) Wye connection only (with neutral available) Wye connection only (with reduced insulation neutral available) Delta connection only Series.900 34.800123.000 Low Voltages Single-Phase 2400 Three-Phase 30 45 75 112Y2 150 225 300 500 Single-Phase 120/240 240/480 2400 2520 4800 5040 6900 7200 7560 7980 Three-Phase 208Y/120 240 480 480YI277 240 x 480 2400 4160Y12400 4800 12.470 Y/7200 12.200 13.900 34.000 be centrally located with respect to the load it supplies in order to provide proper cable economy. or three-wire connection Series or three-wire connection only Series or multiple connection only Suitable for delta or wye connection three-phase One end of winding grounded to tank or brought out through reduced insulation bushing .800 14.470 Gnd Y/7200 7620113.900 Gnd Y D.

as shown in Figure 3.400 V. 60 Hz. Network transformers are employed in the secondary networks. The liquid-filled-type distribution transformers can further be classified as (a) oil-filled and (b) inerteen-filled. In liquid-filled types. 3. The CSP transformers are. Presently. They can be conventional-type or current-protected-type. in turn. The transformer is protected against an internal fault by internal protective links located between the primary winding and the primary bushings. 65°C. delivers it to the surrounding air. aluminum conductors are mostly used due to cost savings. Single-phase CSP transformers (oil-immersed. To further increase the heat disposal capacity. or sealed dry-type. with respect to self-cooled types. Removing the coil heat is an important task. and their sizes differ from #6 AWG to 1000 kcmil. The secondary voltages are 120/240 or 240/480/277 V. They can be either liquid-filled. Network transformers. protect the primary winding against the lightning and line surges. in general. ventilated dry-type. the transformer coils are immersed in a smooth-surfaced. The overload protection is provided by circuit breakers inside the transformer tank. air may be blown over the tube surface. Conventional transformers 2. self-protecting from lightning or line surges. The second set is used to sectionalize the secondary when it is needed. The dry-type distribution transformers are air-cooled and air-insulated. They have the primary disconnecting and grounding switch and the network protector mounted integrally on the transformer. However. installed separately. fault. Neutrals may be either bare or covered. the size of the smooth tank surface required to dissipate the heat becomes larger than that required to enclose the coils. The cables are single-conductor or triplexed. The distribution transformers employed in overhead distribution systems can be categorized as: 1. They are built similar to the CSP transformers.2 TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS Heat is a limiting factor in transformer loading. pole-mounted. overloads. Low-cost residential transformers are similar to those conventional transformers employed in overhead distribution. For transformers 25 kVA and larger. The CSPB distribution transformers are designed for banked secondary service. The distribution transformers employed in underground distribution systems can be categorized as: 1. however. or assembled with the power conductors. Subway transformers 2. Therefore the transformer tank may be corrugated to add surface. The conventional transformers have no integral lightning. Lightning arresters mounted directly on the transformer tank. Completely self-protecting for secondary banking (CSPB) transformers. Subway transformers are used in underground vaults.1. All secondary or service conductors are rated 600 V. and short circuits. Therefore. Low-cost residential transformers 3. 10-500 kVA) are available for a range of primary voltages from 2400 to 34. Oil absorbs the coil heat and transfers it to the tank surface which. or external tubes may be welded to the tank.Application of Distribution Transformers 95 Secondary or service conductors can be either copper or aluminum. but they are provided with two sets of circuit breakers. oil-filled tank. Such designs are known as forced-air-cooled. or overload protective devices provided as a part of the transformer. Completely self-protecting (CSP) transformers 3. as the name implies. the distribution transformers can be classified as: (i) dry-type and (ii) liquid-filledtype. . all distribution transformers are built to be self-cooled.

(b) three phase. to 35-kY class.and low-voltage on opposite ends and full-length flanges for close coupling to high. These units are normally made in sizes from 75 to 2500 kYA.3h. They are made typically for 500 to 2500 kYA. Normally they can have two or three primary voltages and two or three secondary voltages. These units are made for 75 to 2500 kYA and are made of a heavier gauge steel.3a shows a typical three-phase subsurface-vault-type transformer used in utility applications in vaults below grade where there is no room to place the transformer elsewhere. With permission. three-phase. so they may be used on any system .1 Overhead pole-mounted distribution transformers: (a) single-phase completely self-protecting (or conventional).) Figure 3. They can be used on underground service as well as overhead service. Figure 3. They are also designed for underground service. and a special coal-tar type of paint.2c shows a typical single-phase pad-mounted (minipad) utility-type transformer. special heavy corrugated radiators for cooling.2 shows various types of transformers. A typical mobile transformer is shown in Figure 3. A typical three-phase pad-mounted (stan-pad) transformer used by utilities as well as industrial and commercial applications is shown in Figure 3. These are made from IO to 167 kYA.2h. Figure 3. A typical single-phase pole-type transformer for a normal utility application is shown in Figure 3.and low-voltage switchgear. These units are made for emergency applications and to allow utilities to reduce inventory. but have been made to 5000 kYA on special applications.2d.96 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 3. They are made from 45 to 2500 kYA normally. They are designed to do the same' function as the pole type except that they are for the underground distribution system where all cables are below grade. Figure 3. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.2a shows a typical secondary-unit substation with the high. These are made from 10 to 500 kYA for delta and wye systems (one-bushing or two-bushing high voltage).

) the utility may have.l) . that is.Application of Distribution Transformers . This class of unit is manufactured from 3700 kVA to 30 MVA up to about 138-kV class. For an emergency outage this unit is simply driven to the site. The picture shows removable radiators to allow for a smaller size during shipment. and the power to the site is restored.4 gives electrical characteristics of typical three-phase pad-mounted transformers.. Therefore. (From Balteau Standard Inc. This allows time to analyze and repair the failed unit. 97 ~ - 75 • (aj (hj (c) (d) FIGURE 3. Z'IZ. Figure 3..3c shows a typical power transformer.3 presents electrical characteristics of typical single-phase distribution transformers. Table 3. Table 3. consult the individual manufacturer's catalogs.. hooked up. (For more accurate values. With permission. the resistance and the reactance of the new transformer can be found from R'=Rx Z' Z (3.2 Various types of transformers.) To find the resistance (R') and reactance (X') of a transformer of equal size and voltage. including an automatic on-load tap changer which changes as the voltage varies. multiply the tabulated percent values of R and X by the ratio of the new impedance value to the tabulated impedance value. and fans for increased capacity when required. which has a different impedance value (Z') than the one shown in tables.

anyone of the followi ng formulas can be used: SI e. (From Balteau Standard Inc.3) . e + (%/XCOSe-%/RSine)2] 10 /0 200 (3.) and X' XxZ Z' (3.3 Various types of transformers.3 REGULATION To calculate the transformer regulation for a kilovoltampere load of power factor cos voltage. at rated % regulation --'- Sr [0/ If? cos e + Of IX Sill .98 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (b) (c) FIGURE 3.2) 3. With permission.

58 1.30 1.07 1.9 0.12 1.9 2.11 1.3 1.):- TABLE 3.90 0.4 1.90 2.95 0.3 1.9 0.43 1.2 1.3 1.70 1.57 2.4 10 IS 25 38 50 75 100 167 1.2 3 1.8 1.6 1.1 1.8 PF z R x 240014160 Y V High Voltage o .1 1.7 1.0 1.1 0.50 1.0 0.1 1.8 0.49 1.0 1.80 1..1 1.08 0.7 0' ro .3 0.2 1.9 1.0 1.3 1.7 continued ~ ~ .90 0.2 1.2 7200112.6 1.99 1.69 1.9 1.85 0.35 1.2 1.30 1.2 1.85 0.1 2.0 41 68 84 118 166 185 285 355 144 2.5 1.6 1. kVA Curro No load Watts loss Total % % % Watts loss No load Total % % % 1.65 1..4 1.27 1.7 1.5 1..69 1.9 1.1 1.5 R x 0.4 1.0 PF 0.7 1.11 1.54 1. 1.0 0.4 1.9 0.9 :J P> :J Vl -.9 2.7 1.97 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.95 0.24 1.33 204 282 422 570 720 500 985 1275 2100 1. .470 Y V High Voltage 5 2.2 1.41 1.80 1.60 1.10 1.0 1.9 0.71 1.0 34 68 84 118 166 185 285 355 137 197 272 500 610 840 1140 385 540 615 910 1175 2100 3390 4200 5740 2.1 1.72 2.59 1..69 1.16 1.33 1.7 1.4 1.0 0.7 1.1 1..3 1.1 1.65 1.3 Electrical Characteristics of Typical Single-Phase Distribution Transformers* 120/240-V low Voltage % Regulation 2401480 and 277 1480 Y V low Voltage % Regulation 1J 1J n ~ :J o· o Percent of Av.5 1.90 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.1 2.06 1.4 1.9 68 84 118 166 185 285 355 500 209 287 427 575 725 1.0 1.52 1. o· V> u c 5 2.0 3.1 1.95 1.1 1.02 1.6 1.6 1.51 2.6 1.10 1000 1290 2000 1.9 0.8 3.7 1.88 0.3 1.97 2.8 1.6 1.86 0.7 1..7 1.4 1.0 1.0 PF 0.95 0.2 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.8 0.70 1.1 1.4 10 IS 25 38 50 75 100 167 250 333 500 1.0 1.00 2.4 3.00 0.1 2.55 1.0 0.11 1.35 1.2 1.7 1.16 2.22 1.4 1. V> 1.3 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.98 2.64 1.7 1.58 1.10 0.0 1.2 2.1 1.04 0.65 1.9 2.0 1.2 1.7 2.75 2.10 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.0 68 84 118 166 185 285 355 500 610 840 1140 202 277 390 550 625 925 1190 2000 3280 3690 4810 1.1 1.8 1.71 1.69 1.1 1.0 1.91 1.37 1.2 1.60 1. Excit.3 1.10 0.6 2.60 1.7 1.8 1.8 PF z 2.55 1.88 0.1 1.84 0.68 1.

72 1.3 1.8 1.4 J.91 0.7 2.3 1.5 1.80 1..0 1.95 0. m :3 03.81 1.8 PF 2.0 PF 1..9 1.900 end Yor 14.1 1. v ([) .1 3.9 1.16 2.9 2. Curro 1.8 1. 0 :::!.9 0.:.1 1.0 PF 1.14 1.200122..0 2.15 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.8 3.5 1.I 2.3 ~ .0 1.0 1.9 1.0 0..97 0.7 2.03 1.o o .15 1.6 1.45 2.8 2..940 end Y V High Voltage 5 10 15 25 38 50 75 100 167 250 333 500 2.99 % % % X Z R Z R 1.9 3..4 1.4 2.49 1.45 1.1 0.4 1.0 1.50 2.2 2.16 1.1 1.78 1.0 1.0 2.2 2.0 240/480 and 277/480 Y V low Voltage % Regulation Watts loss No load 610 840 1140 Total 3250 3690 4810 1..3 1.8 1.860 end Yor 13.29 1.3 1.76 1.74 1.1 1.78 0.4 0.8 2.9 1.2 1.400124.5 1.7 1.8 3.22 1.0 3. -< U1 ([) Vl .4 1..78 1.8 2.8 1.60 2.30 1.89 1..98 0.2 1.81 1.4 1.3 2.17 0.06 0. ::l ::l (JQ .0 42 73 84 118 166 185 285 355 500 610 840 1140 154 215 305 437 585 735 1050 1300 2160 3490 4300 5640 2. 0 ~ .3 1.8 1.9 3.6 2.0 1.0 0.79 1. 0- ~ o· ::l c .0 2.07 0.55 2.05 0.9 1.80 1.89 1. Excit.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.98 1.2 2.3 m ([) 13.48 1.5 1.800123.2 1..95 2.22 1.72 1.1 2.3 1.3 (continued) Electrical Characteristics of Typical Single-Phase Distribution Transformers* 1201240-V low Voltage % Regulation Watts loss No load 610 840 1140 Total 3490 4255 5640 1..09 0.52 2.52 1.98 1. ::l ([) ([) .5 1. TABLE 3..0 73 84 118 166 185 285 355 500 610 840 1140 220 310 442 590 740 1065 1310 2060 3285 3750 4760 1.78 1.25 1.9 1.I 0.96 2.9 2.05 1.0 1..55 % % % X kVA 250 333 500 Percent of Av.81 1.4 1.2 2..6 1.19 2.89 0.95 1.11 0.1 1.9 0.4 1.80 2.2 1.5 1.8 1.0 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.30 1.5 2.4 2.8 PF 2.8 1.9 1.

7 1.15 1.35 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.5 I~ 360 530 560 880 1050 1600 1800 2100 2900 1350 1800 2250 3300 4300 6800 10.0 1.9 2.6 5.500 1.4 Electrical Characteristics of Typical Three-Phase Pad-Mounted Transformers 208 Y1120 Y Low Voltage % Regulation Percent of Av.1 1.6 1. .1 l..4 5.1 1.4 4.8 2.600 35."0 "0 » TABLE 3.1 5.7 1.0 1. 7 1.18 1.9 0.28 1. V"> I~ I~ I~ 2.15 1.3 1.7 R x 1.7 5.0 PF 0..6 5.9 0.0 1.7 1.9 1.9 0.6 1.8 0.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 I~ I~ 12.200 12.0 continued .10 1.500 19.7 1.7 1.7 5.6 5.26 2.0 1... Excit.6 1.7 5.0 1.3 5.3 1..2 1.9 2. Curro Watts Loss No Load Total 1.8 tl> ~ ::J 1.6 I~ I~ 1.7 4.3 1.3 1.5 1.04 1.4 4.0 5.1 1..1 1.1 1.3 0.10 1.2 1.6 1.95 V"> ISO 225 300 500 750 1000 1500 2500 3750 0' ~ I~ I~ 1.2 1.1 1.7 5.8 PF % % " ~ ::J o· 480 Y1277 V low Voltage % Regulation Watts Loss No load Total S.4 1.1 1.1 1.7 5.6 360 530 560 880 1050 1600 1800 2100 1350 1800 2250 3300 4100 6500 9400 10.0 1.470 end YI7200 V High Voltage 75 112 150 225 300 500 750 1000 15 1~ I~ I~ 1~ 360 530 560 880 1050 1600 1800 2100 1350 1800 2250 3300 4300 6800 10.0 1.9 1.03 0.4 1.1 R x 1.7 5.400 1.05 1.4 4.3 4.0 5.5 1.04 1.6 5.6 1.1 1.9 1.6 1.15 1.9 1.3 360 530 560 800 1050 1600 1800 2100 3300 4800 6500 1350 1800 2250 3300 4100 6500 9400 10.1 1.7 5.2 1.7 1.7 1.15 1.2 4.5 1.2 1.3 4.2 1.7 1.7 1.1 1. o .8 PF % % kYA z 2.1 1.200 12.0 0..2 4.1 1.1 1.9 1.2 1.7 5.3 u c 4160 end Y12400X12.0 PF z 2.7 1.7 1.6 1.0 3 .7 5.6 1.7 1..2 1.1 1.15 1.2 4.7 I~ I~ I~ 1.8 1.0 2.470 end YI7200 v High Voltage 75 112 ::J o 1.1 0 1.500 1.0 0.3 4.7 5.2 1.8 2. o ~ ~.0 4.5 1.6 5.6 1.5 1. % % 0.1 1..900 1.0 1.8 1.20 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.1 I.4 1.1 1.4 5.7 1.9 1.0 1.8 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.7 5.3 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.35 2.500 26.l 1.7 5.10 1.1 1.3 5.900 16.3 1.2 4.

56 5.06 0.56 5..3 Watts loss No load 3300 4800 6500 480 Y1277 V low Voltage % Regulation 0.7 5.97 3.04 3.50 5.3. 0 :::!.96 5.90 0. 11.400 1. Curro 1...7 %R 0..52 5. N o TABLE 3.4 (continued) Electrical Characteristics of Typical Three-Phase Pad-Mounted Transformers Percent of Av.2 4.45 m (1) ri' 0 ~ (1) Q .56 5. 940 Delta V High Voltage 1000 1.33 8800 24.6 Total 16.0 1.50 0.8 %X 5.72 0.98 0.56 5.500 26..96 0.716 23.69 5..49 5.193 33.33 8725 11..1 kVA 1500 2500 3750 Total 19.2 4.33 3455 2500 1.37 6775 5000 1.44 o· -< <J> c .71 0.89 0.37 3625 2500 1.89 0.l %X 5.50 0.9 0.125 1.03 3..80 0..588 15. -0 .7 %R l..49 5.98 3...7 5.91 0.97 3.0 0.92 0.7 5.51 5.600 35.67 5.8 PF 4.94 5.3 %Z 5.50 5.50 5..29 4956 3750 1.0 PF 1.8 PF 4.500 1.86 4.31 5338 3750 1..100 42.45 5...213 23...09 4.52 5. :l O'Q .56 5.42 7075 5000 1. Excit.700 43. :l Vl ro 3 :l :l m 0.480 15.07 0.44 5.97 3.9 0.9 %Z 5.470 Delta V High Voltage 1000 1.213 33.0 Watts loss No load 2900 208 Y/120 V low Voltage % Regulation 0.0 1.7 240014160 YI2400 V Low Voltage 12. 0<J> .73 0.0 1.0 PF 1.7 5.88 4.56 5. (1) (1) :::!.38 2443 1500 1..81 0.88 0.550 1..09 4.42 2533 1500 1.70 0.

-----. Therefore.:.4 TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY The efficiency of a transformer can be calculated from m -10 .VR sin e)" regulatIOn = VR cos + Vx SIn + --'"'------"---200 90 (3.7) The total losses include the losses in the electric circuit.8) Figures 3. The eddy-current loss is proportional to the square of the frequency and the square of the flux density. effiIClency = output in watts x 100 . the load at which the efficiency is highest can be found from If? % load = ( iron loss ) . as shown in Figure 3. Vx is the percent leakage reactance voltage (V~ . lop is the operating current. and V z is the percent impedance voltage. The core is built up of thin laminations insulated from each other by an insulating coating on the iron to reduce the . The eddy-current loss is the loss due to circulating currents in the core iron. e · e (Vx COS e. (%Xcose-%Rsin % regulation = .4) or )1 . ST is the rated apparent power of the transformer.4 and 3. 1m 200 (3. and dielectric circuit. the cost efficiency of transformers now shifts to align itself with energy efficiency. consult the individual manufacturer's catalogs. copper loss (3. [ e .x 100. (For more accurate values. Note that the percent regulation at unity power factor is 01 10 I· copper loss 100 (% reactance)2 regu atIOn = x + -'------'output 200 (3.-. Note that the iron losses (or core losses) include (i) hysteresis loss and (ii) eddy-current loss. VR is the percent resistance voltage = copper loss/ output x 100. magnetic circuit. caused by the time-varying magnetic fluxes within the iron.6) 3.V~)1/2.Application of Distribution Transformers 103 or .5 show nomograms for quick determination of the efficiency of a transformer.5) where e is the power factor angle of the load. The hysteresis loss is due to the power requirement of maintaining the continuous reversals of the elementary magnets (or individual molecules) of which the iron is composed as a result of the flux alternations in a transformer core. Stigant and Franklin [3] state that a transformer has its highest efficiency at a load at which the iron loss and copper loss are equal..6.) With the cost of electric energy presently 5-6 cents/kWh and projected to double within the next 10-15 yr.1 % R cos + % X SIn e + ~-------. output in watts + total losses in watts (3. SL is the apparent load power. Ira is the rated current. 10 .

and A.5 99.0 98.1 0.0 0.60 98. " ui "' 97. -0 co 98.5 0.00 5/4 1/1 3/4 1/2 1/4 FIGURE 3. The .0 97.0 1.20 0.5 98.80 0. London. (ii) the cost of lost energy due to the losses in the transformer.104 Fractional Load Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 5/4 1/1 3/4 1/2 1/4 o 0.70 96.5 98. 1973.0 1.5 0. To obtain the efficiency at a given load.9 1.90 96.2 c: 98. and (iii) the cost of demand lost . the distribution transformer costs can be classified as: (i) the cost of the investment.5 0.0 0.5 0. The iron or core losses are practically independent of the load. C.4 99.0 99.5 98.9 2.4 98.8 0.1 1.0 1. S.. in order to reduce the hysteresis loss and the eddy-current loss.0 0.4 Transformer efficiency chart applicable only to the unity power factor condition.3 98.50 c e Q) 'a.3 0.40 99. special grades of steel alloyed with silicon are used.5 99. In general.0 99.0 1.5 c e Q) Q) 0. Franklin. the copper losses are due to the resistance of the primary and secondary windings.5 o 99.8 E .2 0.) eddy-current loss.0 0. Butterworth.0 97.1&P 7/-Cll1sf{lrIl1cr Book.5 99.7 1.6 1.5 97.10 0. (From Stigant.6 0.5 1.0 1. A. On the other hand.0 1.2 .5 97.5 97.5 97.30 99.2 a.5 98. Also.7 99. lay a straight edge across the iron and copper loss values and read the efficiency at the point where the straight edge cuts the required load ordinate.

the relatively high costs result basically from the investment cost.5 98. they are due to the cost of additional loss of life of the transformer.3 96.0 96.J 2.2 Q. whereas at high-load levels.5 96.0 (].e. A.0 1.5 0.0 0. To obtain the efficiency at a given load.2 c o o 2. and it includes the cost of the transformer itself and the costs of material and labor involved in the transformer installation.5 Transformer efficiency chart applicable only to the unity PF condition.5 0.5 -0 «l ..0 96.0 1.0 5/4 1/1 98. Butterworth.0 97.5 97.0 1. (From Stigant. S..J l:: 0(]. C.5 97.6 98.0 1.5 3/4 98.0 95. London. Figure 3. The J&P Transformer Book.5 96. Of course. Franklin.9 96.0 98.5 93.) (i.5 97.4 5/4 1/1 3/4 FIGURE 3. the cost of lost capacity) due to the losses in the transformer.7 0.5 98.5 94.0 95.5 97.0 105 1/2 1/4 0.J (].0 97.0 94.1 (]. 00UJ UJ 0- ui . lay a straightedge across the iron and copper loss values and read the efficiency at the point where the straightedge cuts the required load ordinate.5 1. and the cost of . and A.5 95.6 95.0 3.7 1/2 1/4 3.5 97.0 1.J E! :2 ro .0 98.2 c 1.5 93.7 shows the annual cost per unit load versus load leveL At low-load levels.5 96.4 1.0 95.5 97.2 UJ e 1.0 96. 1973.Application of Distribution Transformers Fractional Load 1.5 96.8 c 97.5 ~~ 95. the cost of lost energy.5 96. With permission.5 97. the cost of investment is the largest cost component.

A. .. and energy tend to reduce these percentages. presently. it is economical to install a transformer at approximately 80% of its nameplate rating and to replace it later. Figure 3.) demand loss in addition to the investment cost.. plant and equipment. . \ I I \ . .. The J&P Transformer Book. With permission. London. However. Franklin.Projection -V f I I I I I I I ~ ~ J 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Years FIGURE 3.6 Cost of electric energy. \ \ I I I I I I \ \ 6 rI \ 4 l- \ I ~"-2 r- \. and A. by one with a larger capacity. Butterworth. at approximately 180%.. C. Usually. 1973.. S. increasing costs of capital. (From Stigant.7 Annual cost per unit load versus load level. kWh FIGURE 3.7 indicates an operating range close to the bottom of the curve.Source: Edison Electric Institute . 10 8 l- I I I I I I \ -.106 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 12 . _Operating range Load.

Transformer polarity can be determined by performing a simple test in which two adjacent terminals of the high. Additive and subtractive polarity connections: (a) subtractive polarity and (b) additive . (a) (b) FIGURE 3. as shown in Figure 3. to indicate the high-voltage from the low-voltage side. when terminals HI and XI are diagonally opposite. the voltage from HI to H2 is always in the same direction or in phase with the voltage from XI to X2. and z. Transformers with more than two windings have the windings identified as H. and then the voltage between the highand low-voltage winding terminals that are not connected together are measured. terminals in numerical sequence from left to right. According to NEMA and ASA standards. the transformer is said to have additive polarity.Application of Distribution Transformers 107 3.8 polarity. 3. terminals in numerical sequence from right to left. With standard markings. On three-phase transformers. The polarity is additive if the voltage read is greater than the applied voltage. the transformer polarity simply refers to the relative direction of induced voltages between the high-voltage leads and the low-voltage terminals.8b. Transformer polarity is an indication of the direction of current flowing through the highvoltage leads with respect to the direction of current flowing through the low-voltage leads at any given instant. The terminal XI is on the left-hand side when facing the low-voltage winding. x. and the lower-voltage winding is identified by LV or x. Primary and secondary are not identified as such because which is which depends on input and output connections. the transformer is said to have subtractive polarity. On singlephase transformers the leads are numbered so that when HI is connected to XI' the voltage between the highest-numbered H lead and the highest-numbered X lead is less than the voltage of the highvoltage winding. The polarity of a single-phase distribution transformer may be additive or subtractive.and low-voltage windings are connected together and a moderate voltage is applied to the high-voltage winding.9. with the X 2 and x.5 TERMINAL OR LEAD MARKINGS The terminals or leads of a transformer are the points to which external electric circuits are connected. The polarity is subtractive if the voltage read is less than the voltage applied to the high-voltage winding. The terminal HI is located on the right-hand side when facing the high-voltage side of the transformer. as shown in Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3.8a. as shown in Figure 3. In a transformer where HI and XI terminals are adjacent. On the other hand.9a.6 TRANSFORMER POLARITY Transformer-winding terminals are marked to show polarity. the terminal HI is on the right-hand side when facing the highvoltage winding. with the H2 and H.9b. in order of decreasing voltage. In other words. the higher-voltage winding is identifled by HV or H. as shown in Figure 3. y.

These curves indicate a minimum life expectancy of 20 yr at 95°C and 110°C hot-spot temperatures for 55°C and 65°C rise transformers. It represents a practical transformer with an iron core and connected to a load (L). the ambient temperature. have additive polarity. All other single-phase transformers have a subtractive polarity. and the duration of peak loads must be known.91 entitled The Guide for Loading Mineral Oil-Immersed OverheadType Distribution Transformers with 55°C and 65°C Average Winding Rise [4]. 3. .8 EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS OF A TRANSFORMER It is possible to use several equivalent circuits to represent a given transformer. When the primary winding is excited.9 Polarity test: (a) subtractive polarity and (b) additive polarity. there are also leakage fluxes cP" and cPl2 that are produced at the primary and secondary windings. 20 transformer insulation-life curves were developed. preload conditions. However.108 Apply 240 V Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I· Hl C 0 -I H2 c I· Hl Apply 240 V -I H2 TI Q) c 0 C '''8 (j) 0 V M Read 216 V c 0 C V M Read 264 V " en Q) " en Q) l- I- Xl X3 X3 (a) (b) FIGURE 3. The flux that links both primary and secondary is called the mutual flux. having high voltages of 8660 V and below (winding voltages). its life would be reduced by half. the rate of deterioration doubles approximately with each 8°C increase in temperature. for transformers with class A insulation (usually oil-filled).7 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER LOADING GUIDES The rated kilovoltamperes of a given transformer is the output which can be obtained continuously at rated voltage and frequency without exceeding the specified temperature rise. which is an appendix to the ANSI Overhead Distribution Standard C57. and its maximum value is denoted as cPlIl' However. if a class A insulation transformer were operated 8°C above its rated temperature. In other words.l2. the general practice is to choose the simplest one which would provide the desired accuracy in calculations. Therefore. For example. since the ambient temperature may vary considerably under operating conditions. all single-phase distribution transformers 200 kVA and smaller. Based on Appendix C57. a flux is produced through the iron core. Temperature rise is used for rating purposes rather than actual temperature. Figure 3. Polarity markings are very useful when connecting transformers into three-phase banks.10 shows an equivalent circuit of a single-phase two-winding transformer. Previous transformer-loading guides were based on the so-called 8°C insulation life rule. 3. By industry standards. before the overload capabilities of the transformer can be determined. The life of insulation commonly used in transformers depends on the temperature that the insulation reaches and the length of time that this temperature is sustained.

The xm represents the inductive reactance components of the transformer with an open secondary. As shown in Figure 3. the excitation current Ie also has two components. The rc represents the equivalent transformer power loss due to (hysteresis and eddy current) iron losses in the transformer core as a result of the magnetizing current Ie.10 Basic circuit of a practicallransformer. (i) the magnetizing current component 1m and (ii) the core-loss component Ie.12. The primary and secondary windings also have their internal resistances of r l and r 2 .11 shows an equivalent circuit of a loaded transformer. respectively. Therefore /' 2 112 -x 12 111 (3. namely.11 Equivalent circuit of a loaded transformer. and 11 is the turns ratio = l1/n 2. In turn.9) or I~ = 12 11 (3. n 2 is the number of turns in the secondary winding. Note that the secondary current 12 is seen by the primary side as 121n and that the secondary and load impedances are transferred (or referred) to the primary side FIGURE 3. The Ie current is the excitation current component of the primary current II that is needed to produce the resultant mutual flux. .13 shows an approximate equivalent circuit with combined primary and reflected secondary and load impedances. 111 is the number of turns in the primary winding. respectively. Note that I~ current is a primarycurrent (or load) component which exactly corresponds to the secondary current 12 . primary and secondary inductive reactances. Figure 3. as it does for an ideal transformer.Application of Distribution Transformers 109 FIGU RE 3.1 0) where 12 is the secondary current. the (1)11 and 4>12 leakage fluxes produce XII and X/2' that is. Figure 3.

Also note that the secondary-side terminal voltage V2 is transferred as n V2 • Since the excitation current Ie is very small with respect to Izln for a loaded transformer.14. as shown in Figure 3. respectively. rhe former may be ignored. FIGURE 3. the equivalent impedance of the transformer referred to the primary is Z eq =ZI +Z. = r. as nZ(rz + jx12 ) and n 2(R L + jX L). + jx" z2 = n2(r2 + jx.110 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering E.. .13) + jXI2 and therefore the equivalent resistance and reactance of the transformer referred to the primary are (3. FIGURE 3.14) z.12) (3.11) + jXeq where ZI =fj + jXII Z2 = r2 (3.12 Phasor diagram corresponding to the excitation current components at no load.13 Equivalent circuit with the referred secondary values. Therefore. _ = ZI +n2Z2 = req (3.l ~ - + v.

9. roOO''-----t -I~-r J . Also. 1-_1 and (3. the single-phase distribution transformers greatly outnumber the poly-phase ones.15) As before in Figure 3.15 Simplified equivalent circuit for a large-sized power transformer.Application of Distribution Transformers 111 + + FIGURE 3. even poly-phase secondary systems are supplied by single-phase transformers which are connected as poly-phase banks.15. This is partially due to the fact that lighting and the smaller power loads are supplied at single-phase from single-phase secondary circuits.9 3. Earlier transformers were built FIGURE 3.1 SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS GENERAL At the present time.16) 3.14 Simplified equivalent circuit assuming negligible excitation current. Single-phase distribution transformers have one high-voltage primary winding and two lowvoltage secondary windings which are rated at a nominal 120 V. therefore the equivalent impedance of the transformer is (3. most of the time. for large-size power transformers.

112 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering with four insulated secondary leads brought out of the transformer tank. It is often used for a single customer who requires only 120-V single-phase power. this connection usually is not considered adequate._- A------------.l6a and b.. the connections are made inside the tank. . However.:------b----~----~---------n _____ _ 120/240 V (d) b------------~--~~----- n _____ _ 120/240 V Secondary (e) Secondary FIGURE 3.16 shows various connection diagrams for single-phase transformers supplying single-phase loads. The connections shown in Figure 3.16a) so that the low-voltage terminal 1 is connected to terminal 4 and terminal 2 to terminal 3.--------------N--t--____~-----------~~-- a------+--~~-_t------­ a-----____:------4.l6c and d. Secondary coils each rated at a nominal 120 V may be connected in parallel to supply a two-wire 120-V circuit. for modern homes. the result will be a short-circuited secondary which will blow the fuses that are installed on the A--~~--------~--------- Primary B or N -___<:-----------t-- N--<~------~-----.__..l6a and b are used where the loads are comparatively small and the length of the secondary circuits is short. or they may be connected in series to supply a three-wire 120/240-V single circuit..16 Single-phase transformer connections. Presently. with only three secondary terminals being brought out of the transformer. the series or parallel connection being made outside the tank. Figure 3. Single-phase distribution transformers have one high-voltage primary winding and two lowvoltage secondary windings. as shown in Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3. in modern transformers.------------ Primary n-----120V a--------~-----~-----­ Secondary n----120V a-----------~-----~----­ Secondary (b) (a) Primary A-------------~----BorN-------t--------~------- Primary A ------.. If a mistake is made in polarity when connecting the two secondary coils in parallel (Figure 3.

high-voltage side of the transformer (they are not shown in the figure). Here.and two-bushing transformers to provide customers who require only 240-V single-phase power. each 120-V winding has one-half the total kilovoltampere rating of the transformer.2 SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER PARALLELING When greater capacity is required in emergency situations. All transformers are connected to the same primary phase. 13. Taps for voltage adjustment. Figure 3. the 120/240-V three-wire connection system is preferred since it has twice the load capacity of the 120-V system with only 12 times the amount of the conductor. Per unit (pu) impedance of one transformer is between 0. the load is balanced and no current flows in the neutral conductor. All transformers have identical frequency ratings. 4. if provided. L 2. a mistake in polarity when connecting the coils in series (Fig.400-V multigrounded neutral systems.Application of Distribution Transformers Primary Primary 113 A---4~--------------------BorN--~~----------------~~- A ------------~------------- N ~~--------~--------~~- a------*-------------~----b--------------------~----- 240 V Secondary (a) b-------------------*----240 V Secondary (b) a------~------------~----- FIGURE 3. if the connected 120-V loads are equal.17 Single-phase transformer connections. however. The single-phase transformers can be of either additive or subtractive polarity as long as the following conditions are observed and connected. It is crucial that good and solid grounds are maintained on the transformer and on the system. Thus the loads connected to the transformer must be held as nearly balanced as possible to provide the most economical usage of the transformer capacity and to keep the regulation to a minimum. are located on the high-voltage winding of the transformer. All transformers have identical tap settings. Normally.16c) will result in the voltage across the outer conductors being zero instead of 240 V.925 and 1.075 of the other in order to maximize capability. 3. two single-phase transformers of the same or different kilovoltampere ratings can be connected in parallel.16b and d shows single-bushing transformers connected to a multigrounded primary. These connections are used for small industrial applications. All transformers have identical voltage ratings. Figure 3. On the other hand.200 GndYI7620-. All transformers have the same turns ratio. .470 GndYI7200-.17 shows single-phase transformer connections for single. 6. They are used on 12.18. 5. Therefore.9. and 24. 3. one leg of the 120-V two-wire system and the middle leg of the 240-V two-wire or 120/240-V three-wire system is grounded to limit the voltage to ground on the secondary circuit to a minimum. 3. In general. as shown in Figure 3.940 GndYIl4.

r===-1 H.18 Single-phase transformer paralleling. each with two bushings. ~H' .j ~ H. However. paralleling two single-phase transformers is not economical since the total cost and the losses of the two small transformers are much larger than one large transformer with the same capacity.ooooornJ a--~----~----~----~----~--~---­ b--------~----~----------~--~---- 120/240 V Three-wire secondary FIGURE 3. it should be used only as a temporary remedy to provide for increased demands for single-phase power in emergency situations.19 Parallel operation of two single-phase transformers. connected to a two-conductor primary to supply 1201240-V single-phase power on a three-wire secondary.19 shows two single-phase transformers. Therefore. BOC~ H.114 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (a) (b) (c) FIGU RE 3. . Figure 3.

the voltage drop through each transformer must be equal. T2 Zeq.Application of Distribution Transformers 115 FIGURE 3. consider the lWO transformers connected in parallel and feeding a load.18) 0--- H ----0 Vn q FIGURE 3. Figure 3. = 12 Zeq. Since the transformers are connected in parallel. . Therefore.21 shows the corresponding equivalent circuit referred to as the low-voltage side.l.20. To iiiustrate ioad division among the paraiiel-connected transformers. (3.17) from which !...Tl (3. . as shown in Figure 3.20 Two transformers connected in parallel and feeding a load. Assume that the aforementioned conditions for paralleling have already been met.21 0 .VL----D Equivalent circuit.

22 An equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer with three-wire secondary. The typical distribution transformer is rated as 25 kVA.l7 it can be seen that the load division is determined only by the relative ohmic impedance of the transformers. Zeq. From Equation 3. the following equation can be obtained.22 shows an equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer with three-wire secondary for three-wire single-phase distribution.014 pu 2ZHX1 _ 2 - 2ZHX1 _ 3 n 2 120V ~-------------------4~ 7200 V 2ZHX1 _ - 120V 2ZHX1 _ 2 3 n2 FIGURE 3.17 are replaced by their equivalent in terms of percent impedance. 72001201240 V. . (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation. PA. IL is the load current.) "'Pcr unit systeills are explained in Appendix D. and ST2 is the kilovoltampere rating of transformer 2. and Zeq.1 is the equivalent impedance of transformer 1. Electric Utility EI1RilleerillR Reference Book-Distrihutioll Systell1s. 3. STI is the kilovoltampere rating of transformer 1.12 is the secondary current of transformer 2. and has the following pu* impedance based on the transformer ratings and based on the use of the entire low-voltage winding with zero neutral current: RT = 0. SLI (% Zh2 STI (3.19) 12 where (% Zhl is the percent impedance of transformer 1. 60 Hz. 1965. East Pittsburgh. EXAMPLE 3. respectively. Equation 3. vol.20) SL2 (% Z}n Sn where SLI is the kilovoltamperes supplied by transformer 1 to the load and SL2 is the kilovoltamperes supplied by transformer 2 to the load. Therefore. (% Zh2 is the percent impedance of transformer 2.116 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where II is the secondary current of transformer 1.2 is the equivalent impedance of transformer 2. II (%Zh2 STI (%Zb ST2 (3.1 Figure 3. If the ohmic impedances in Equation 3.19 can be expressed in terms of kilovoltamperes supplied by each transformer since the primary and the secondary voltages for each transformer are the same.

22.Ol44) = 0. Lloyd gives (3. Therefore. in general.Ol44pu.021 + jO.014 + jO. Therefore. Thus use the meager amount of data (it is all that is usually available) and evaluate numerically all the impedances shown in Figure 3.012 pu. 117 Here.Application of Distribution Transformers and Xl = 0._J n2 2(0.637L53.21.21) where ZHX 1-2 is the the transformer impedance referred to high-voltage winding when the section of the low-voltage winding between the terminals X2 and X3 is short-circuited. Vx 120V Since the given pu impedances of the transformer are based on the use of the entire low-voltage winding. = 0.021+ jO. Also. the two halves of the low voltage may be independently loaded.2xO. and. ZHX 1-2 = 1.22.2XT = 1. in general.5 x 0.007 + jO.89 10-6 + j1.012 pu.0096 pu = 14.22. the three-wire secondary load will not be balanced. the equivalent circuit needed is that of a three-winding single-phase transformer as shown in Figure 3.012 = 0. From Figure 3.012) 60 2 X - = 3._1 -2Z11X .014 + j1. 2ZHX 1_3 -ZHX 1-2 = 2(0.515+ j19.012)-(0. .22 is based on the reference by Lloyd [1].021+ jO.0028 X 10-6 pu = 0.0144)-2(0. from Equation 3.906 = 24.9° Q and 2Z HX .5RT + j1.014+ jO. To determine the following formula: ZHX 1-2 approximately.9° Q.334 jO.525 x 10-3 L18. the turns ratio of the transformer is n= VH = noov =60.008064 + =8. when voltage drops and/or fault currents are to be computed.014+ jO. Solution Figure 3.

7 L -34.9° Q R FIGURE 3. (b) Find the symmetrical RMS fault currents in the high-voltage and low-voltage circuits for a 240-V fault if the R of the service drop cable is zero.9') Thus. determine the following: (a) Find the symmetrical root-mean-square (RMS) fault currents in the high-voltage and low-voltage circuits for a 120-V fault if the R of the service drop cable is zero.. LV 8.n = 8181. R represents the resistance of the service drop cable per conductor.24. the fault current in the high-voltage side is I r.23 Secondary line-to-neulral fault. determine the line-to-neutral (120 V) and line-to-line (240 V) fault currents in three-wire single-phase 1201240-V secondaries shown in Figures 3.4° A.23. 60 Note that the turns ratio is found as 24.7 = 136.2 Using the transformer equivalent circuit found in Example 3. LV I cflv = .525 x 10-' L18. Using the given data. the line-to-neutral fault current in the secondary side of the transformer is I.118 EXAMPLE Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 3. In the figures. from Figure 3. respectively.4A." = 8.9' + ( 6~ = 8181.637 L 53.637 L53 . Solution (a) When R = 0. (c) If the transformer is a CSPB type.9° Q X1 120V X2 ~ 'f.525 x 10-3 L 18. find the minimum allowable interrupting capacity (in symmetrical RMS amperes) for a circuit breaker connected to the transformer's low-voltage terminals.9° n 8. .1. 120 J (24. Usually R is much larger than X for such cable and therefore X may be neglected.23 and 3.525 X 120V X3 • 10-3 L 18.

determine the following: (a) Estimate approximately the value of R.2. LV If .Application of Distribution Transformers 119 H. Thus. f 240 = 2(S.0 ( )2 (24.9° Q R R FIGURE 3.---------fc-----{X2 If · HV 120V 8.7 A.6° A.9° n 8. that is.9° Q 7200 V '---. the line-to-line fault current in the secondary side of the transformer is LV I . . 30 Note that the turns ratio is found as n = noov 240 V = 30. the service drop cable's resistance.525 X 10-3 LlS. l20V (b) When R = 0.. which will produce equalline-to-line and line-to-neutral fault currents.9°) + .24.3 Using the data given in Example 3. n = noov = 60. (c) Therefore.637 L53. the fault current in the high-voltage side is If.. 120V .637 L 53.9°) = 5649L-40.-----(x.525 X 10-3 L 18. HV = n- = 5649 = ISS. the minimum allowable interrupting capacity for a circuit breaker connected to the transformer low-voltage terminals is S1S1.24 Secondary line-tn-line fault. 24.525 X 10-3 L 18. from Figure 3.3 A. EXAMPLE 3.

4% impedance is paralleled with a 500-kYA transformer with 3.6458. and using Equation 3.012096+ jO.58 Q/mi and (ii) #110 AWG conductors with a resistance of 1.886x 10-4 Q/ft are used. EXAMPLE 3. .. (ii) If #110 AWG aluminum conductors with a resistance of 1. 500 . respectively. Solution (a) Since the line-to-line and the line-to-neutral fault currents are supposed to be equal to each other. SerVlce drop length = 0. find the length of the service drop cable that would correspond to the resistance R found in part (a) in the case of (i) #4 AWG conductors with a resistance of 2.58 Q/mi or 4.35f1. (b) The length of the service drop cable is: (i) If #4 AWG aluminum conductors with a resistance of 2.4 = 0. Determine the maximum load that can be carried without overloading either transformer.4 Assume that a 250-kYA transformer with 2.032256+ jO.1% impedance.0075 Q.03 Q/mi or 4.120 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (b) If the conductors of the service drop cable are aluminum. (%Z)1'2 ~ Su = (% Zhl ST2 ~ x 250 2.886x 10-4 Q/ft are used. ------------------=-----------------or 240 2R+0.J.0075 Q 4.and 500-kYA transformers as transformers 1 and 2.886 X 10-4 Q/ft ::::15.0075 Q -4 1.9508xl0 Q/ft == 38. Assume that the maximum allowable transformer loading is 100% of the rating.45 f1. Service drop length = R-4 4.886xlO 0. Solution Designating the 250.03 Q/mi.0083 R ::::0.02765 120 2R+0.20. ~J.

27.2S and 3. the 2S0-kYA transformer becomes overloaded before the SOO-kYA transformer. Therefore. the transformer with the mid-tap carries two-thirds of the 1201240-V single-phase load and one-third of the 240-Y three-phase load. There is no problem from third-harmonic overvoltage or telephone interference. 3. The other two units each carry one-third of both the 1201240. wye-delta (Y-Ll).=1 = 2S0+387.10 THREE-PHASE CONNECTIONS To raise or lower the voltages of three-phase distribution systems. The transformer bank rating is decreased unless all transformers have identical impedance values. Therefore. high circulating currents will result unless all three single-phase transformers are connected on the same regulating taps and have the same voltage ratios.Application of Distribution Transformers 121 Assume a load of SOO kYA on the SOO-kYA transformer.1kYA. the single-phase loads are connected between the phase and neutral conductors. it is assumed that all transformers in the bank have the same kilovoltampere rating. either single-phase transformers can be connected to form three-phase transformer banks or three-phase transformers (having all windings in the same tank) are used. All transformers have identical impedance values 3. Here.1 THE Ll-Ll TRANSFORMER CONNECTION Figures 3. To provide this type of service the mid-tap of the secondary winding of one of the transformers is grounded and connected to the secondary neutral conductor. the total load is 2 ISLi = SLI +SL2 .S kYA when the load on the SOO-kYA transformer is SOO kYA.64S8 2S0 0.10. the conditions include the following: 1. However. 3.26 show the Ll-ll connection formed by tying together single-phase transformers to provide 240-Y service at 0 and 180 0 angular displacements.1 =637.64S8 = 387. Common methods of connecting three single-phase transformers for three-phase transformations are the delta-delta (Ll-Ll). as shown in Figure 3.and 240-Y loads.1 kYA. wye-wye (Y-Y). Thus. to get balanced transformer loading. All transformers have identical voltage ratios 2.27. All transformers are connected on identical taps . respectively. Thus. The secondary neutral bushing can be grounded on only one of the three single-phase transformers. as shown in Figure 3. This connection is often used to supply a small single-phase lighting load and three-phase power load simultaneously. The preceding result shows that the load on the 2S0-kYA transformer will be 193. The load on the SOO-kYA tranformer when the 2S0-kYA transformer is carrying the rated load is S -~ L2 - 0. and delta-wye (Ll-Y) connections. Therefore.

with unbalanced transformer loading.5 gives the permissible amounts of load unbalanced on the odd and like transformers.22) c. A voltage drop equation can be written for the low-voltage windings as (3. the load values have to be checked against the values of the table so that no one transformer is overloaded.[jL~~IH.secondary FIGURE 3. . .28 shows the equivalent circuit of a ~-~-connected transformer bank referred to the low-voltage side. However.secondary FIGURE 3. it is possible to operate the ~-~ bank. 25% of the impedance value of the like transformers.CJH' Xl Xl Xl a--~~--------~~------------~----------~--- ALe C\]' b b--------------~------------~------------­ c------------------------------~--------------- 180° angular displacement 240 V c. . plus or minus.25 Deita-deila transformer bank connection with 0° angular displacement.primary ~ H.primary A~~------------------------~--~--------------------~-B~~--------------~----------------------------------~-­ C-4~--------------~----------------~----------------~-- Hl 0° angular displacement a--------------------~-------4~--------------~--------------­ b---------------------------4--------------~-------------­ c----------------------------------------------~--------------- 240 V c.122 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering c. Table 3. Assume that Figure 3. with a small unbalanced transformer loading. . Therefore. at reduced bank output capacity. . Note that ZZI is the impedance of the odd transformer unit and Z2 is the impedance of the like transformer units. if two of the units have the identical impedance values and the third unit has an impedance value which is within.26 Delta-delta transformer bank connection with 180 0 angular displacement.

80 0.15 1.9 .85 0.2 103. four-wire 6 .3 Like Unit 96.1 103.-----~~­ b------~~-----*------------~----~~~~--­ c------~~------------------~~--r__r~~~~ 180 0 angular displacement n---FIGURE 3.3 96.27 -------------=.2 103.3 102. Equation 3.75 0.0 105.7 95.Application of Distribution Transformers 6 .6.120/208/240 V Three-phase.25) (3.23) Therefore./ac - - (3.26) (3.20 1.5 97.primary 123 X1 a--~--~~----~------------~----.0 96.22 becomes (3.2 93.IZ2 Ratio 0.90 1.24) For the .25 Odd Unit 109.10 1.secondary Delta-delta connection to provide 120/208/240 V three-phase four-wire service.0 107.27) TABLE 3. - / a = / ba .0 102.-connected secondary. where (3.5 The Permissible Percent loading on Odd and like Transformers as a Function of the Z/Z2 Ratio Percent Load On Z.8 92.3 98.

..28 have equal percent impedance and equal ratios of percent reactance to percent resistance.<"'-O__ S.24.Zab Zab + Zbc +Zm and (3. 01> ST..32 can be expressed as /1>0 = __ S. (..30) (3. Icc From Equation 3.29) and similarly. then Equations 3.28) Adding the terms of IbaZbc and / baZca to either side of Equation 3.b Tc_ C fiGURE 3.'.__ ---+--+-ST.32) ..Z."-'.:.. ..:T.28 and substituting Equation 3.31) If the three transformers shown in Figure 3..'" ...124 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering T _ B B 4.(.29 through 3. . T:. / Z -/bb( Z !=(Jca ba Zab +Zbe +zell (3. ST. m I I I (3.:.28 Equivaient circuit of a deita-delta-connected transformer bank..25 into the resultant equation. (3..

33) (3.80 lagging power factor and a 80-kYA single-phase light load with a 0. eo is the kilovoltampere rating between phases c and a. be is the kilovoltampere rating between phases band c. Assume that the single-phase transformer connected between phases band c is rated at 100 kYA and the other two are rated at 75 kYA.L .Application of Distribution Transformers 125 I(1C (3.34) where ST. and ST. Assume that the three single-phase transformers have equal percent impedance and equal ratios of percent reactance to percent resistance. The primary-side voltage of the bank is 7620113. Determine the following: A O---f--_.29 For Example 3.90 lagging power factor.200 Y and the secondary-side voltage is 240 V.29.5.5 Three single-phase transformers are connected 6._-'---' -._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _c~ FIGURE 3.-6. . EXAMPLE 3. ST. to provide power for a three-phase Y-connected 200-kYA load with a 0.oi> is the kilovoltampere rating of the single-phase between phases a and b. as shown in Figure 3.

The single-phase component of the line currents can be found as /1. 7 L203.7(0.240 .3¢ =lla.21 = 481./= /" V SL.87 + j478.1/ 1 .36 .J3 200 x 0.126 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (a) The line current flowing in each secondary-phase wire.1/ 1 .9° = -443.I¢ L-L =~333. 3¢I(cOS8.3¢ c. Solution (a) Using the voltage drop Van as the reference. = (I L2400)481.9° A.1 J3SL3¢! X V 1 a. (e) The line current flowing in each primary-phase wire.7 L -36.7 L -36.02 = 481. 0.9° = 57.99 = 481.80 .j289.3¢! b.1 ° A. 1".33A.jO.J¢ =ala. .08 . (d) The current flowing in each primary winding of each transformer.3¢ = (I LI 20°)48 1. (c) The load on each transformer in kilovoltamperes. Since the three-phase load has a lagging power factor of 0.240 = 481. (b) The current flowing in the secondary winding of each transformer.7 L83.1 ° A.3¢ - _ L L .7 L -36. Ic. the three-phase components of the line currents can be found as / .60) = 385.80.jI 88.jsin8) = 481.7 A.

Application of Distribution Transformers 127 Since the single-phase load has a lagging power factor of 0.8° -6. -115.07 + j56.33 L.1 ° . .9° 0. 9° A.7 L.9° 100 75 1 1 1 -+-+75 100 75 1.80.26). ab ST. 1c =1c.-115.8° (= -25.33 L.3¢ -Ibe = 481. = 333. Therefore. -63.8° A.90.1°A.8° 481.ab 198. Also.43+ jl78.j300A. the current phasor~" will lag the voltage reference V"" by -115. the current phasor ~" lags its voltage phasor Vhc by -25.11 L.219Y A. ca ST.5 L. lags the voltage reference V"" hy 90° (Fig.83. (b) By using Equation 3.5 L.38 ..3 .8° = -87.8° .8° = -145. 3. -63.33 L. the current Howing in the secondary winding of transformer 1 can be found as - ~-~ lac = -1-'-'---1---'-''-'''---1--+--+-ST.0367 = -116.3¢ + I"c =481. 1.99 - - =765.36.7 L.7 L. Hence the line currents Howing in each secondary-phase wire can be found as I =I 1I ii. -115. be ST...985 L.-63.203.55 =129.05 L. .b.9(0). ST.333.-33. ~¢ = 481.7 L.-36. - I" = 1".j488.4227 L. since the voltage phasor V.So = -588. -36..33.21 = 198.io+333.

co 765.7° 19S.63.128 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Similarly.05L219. Sl.7L-36.. co ST.ab leb ST. = V.6 . eo - - = --+--+-ST.9° -7.ob ST.240 x 301. <lb = Vba = I~)a I 0. Sl. by using Equation 3.11 = 30.0S = 301.99kVA.95 = 270. be --+--+-ST.7° 0.4 kVA.h.7° A.9° 765.65 X = 72.65 L5.3° A and using Equation 3. ~_ Ib Iba = -1--'----1-'--'---1- ST.ca 4S1. ~_l ST.3L204.'h Xl~bl = 0.4227 L -36. (c) The kilovoltampere load on each transformer can be found as SL. ab ST.34 + j2S.33 = 64." x 1~1( I = 0. .0367 = 300.0367 = -245. m = V.5L .240 x 129.jl12.34. be 1 1 I ST.05L219.88 kVA.32.240 x 270.6505L219.bc ST.7° 75 100 1 1 1 -+-+75 100 75 6.So 75 75 0..

05 - j3.tC I =.1° 31.7° 31.3° -8..4.l = 6. (e) The line current flowing in each primary-phase wire can be found as - lA = lAC .ISA = 4.65 L5..3L204.22 L186.5° A.19+ j4.J!.lAC = 8.75 _ 240 V and hence l.5LS..75 =4.~-33.07L-33.51 L204.07 L -33. ..7° .3° A. Therefore..07 L .1 ° = -11..8 L270.51 L204.76LI4. n 129.j1.75 = 8.3° 31.8° A. Ie = lcs ..33.5LS.3° = -6.lo A..1 ° A.51L204. I ISA =. T cs =~ n 270. I BA -ICB Is = = 9.5 L5.1 ° -9.!!!!.!:.44 = 17.11. n 301.7° = 17. n = 7620V = 31 _ ..Application of Distribution Transformers 129 (d) The current flowing in the primary winding of each transformer can be found by dividing the current flow in each secondary winding by the turns ratio.34 = 1 1.7° A.75 = 9..14 .

.7% which can be found as follows: (3.10. the connected load has to be decreased by the 57. secondary FIGURE 3. (Note that 3t-4W means a three-phase system made up of four wires.73.37) . by dividing Equation 3. /. However.7% (3.130 Three-phase three wire - Electric Power Distribution System Engineering open 6. (3. the individual transformers now function at a power factor of 0.35 by Equation 3.2 THE OPEN-~ OPEN-~ TRANSFORMER CONNECTION The L1-L1 connection is the most flexible of the various connection forms. side by side.577 or 57. although the output of the transformer bank is the same with a unity power factor as before.36.35) and S L-L = J3 x 1000 J3v I. J kYA. as shown in Figure 3. primary A--~~------~------------~--~--~-------- B--~----------------~~-------------------­ C--~----------------~~--------------~~-- ~L~_\c 0° angular displacement C--~--~--~------------------~---r--1---'----- o b 120/208/240 V Three-phase four wire open 6.866. One of the advantages of this connection is that if one transformer becomes damaged or is removed from service.e. One of the transformers delivers a leading load and the other a lagging load. the remaining two can be operated in what is known as the open-delta or V connection.) 3. I J3 = 0. Assume that a balanced three-phase load with unity power factor is served by all three transformers of a L1-L1 bank.30 Three-phase four-wire open-delta connection.-I. To operate the remaining portion of the L1-L1 transformer bank (i. the open-L1 open-L1 bank) safely. The removal of one of the transformers from the service will result in having the currents in the other two transformers increase by a ratio of 1.30.36) Therefore.

the ratio of 57.6% of the installed capacity of the three transformers of the .1-.O-.7% of what it was with all three transformers in service since it has only 86. b.1 banks are quite often used where the load is expected to grow.1 connection for 240-V three-phase three-wire secondary service at 0° angular displacement.1 bank. SL-L is the kilovoltampere rating of the open-.7% of the three. three wire open ~ primary B---t----------~------~-------------­ C--~--------~----~~------~r_-- X2 a--~----------~~----t_--------~~-­ b------------~~-.31 shows an open-. Note that the two transformers of the open-.6% of the rating of the two units making up the three-phase bank.O- '.--~--~------~--~--~------- Three-phase. = S .' (3.38) - I. but they can supply only 57. assume that a balanced three-phase load.-------2~4~0~V~~-- c 0° angular displacement Three phase T three-wire open ~ a secondary I t FIGURE 3. with a lagging power factor is connected to the secondary. For the sake of illustration.31 Three-phase three-wire open-delta connection.40) A---. the bank still delivers three-phase currents and voltages in their correct phase relationships.)3VL _ L 3¢ L.7/66.--~--------~--­ c----------------~~-. c phase currents in the secondary can be found as T "'3v '\j L-L j = S3¢ L.O- I. ' b (3. Open-.866 is the power factor at which the two transformers operate when the load is at unity power factor.6 = 0.1-.Application of Distribution Transformers 131 where St>-t> is the kilovoltampere rating of the . . = r::. is the line (or full load) current (A). Here. the third transformer may be added to complete a . . an induction motor as shown in the figure. Therefore the a.1 bank. but the capacity of the bank is reduced to 57.1-L1 bank. and when the load does grow. Figure 3. By being operated in this way. (3.1 bank make up 66.1 bank.. VIA is the line-to-line voltage (V). for example. ) S3¢ L-L '\j3V L. The neutral point n shown in the low-voltage phasor diagram exists only on the paper.39) I. and II.

44) For example.132 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The transformer kilovoltampere loads can be calculated as follows.y 2 '£. . = 100 kVA i=1 in reality the bank's "effective" maximum capacity is Slm = . J32 S3. "VJ Therefore.x 100 = 86. " 2 J3 If there are three 50-kVA transformers in the L'1-L'1 bank. The kilovoltampere load on the first transformer is (3. the bank's maximum capacity is 3 S3\. '.42) S = ~ kVA. .41) S = :A kVA and the kilovoltampere load on the second transformer is (3.6-kVA load capacity. 1=1 (3. the total load that the transformer bank can be loaded to (or the total "effective" transformer bank capacity) is """" ~ .43) and hence. although the total transformer bank capacity appears to be 2 IST.6kVA.13 (3.. = " ST' kVA. if there are two 50-kVA transformers in the open-L'1 bank.=1 ~ S _ 2xS3¢ r::. = ISI: i=1 = 150 kVA which shows an increase of 73% over the 86.

Also.8T /.30°) = . is negative.8I.lcos(8 + 30°) + VL _ L ITclcos(8 .49) (3.Application of Distribution Transformers 133 Assume that the load power factor is cos 8 and its angle can be calculated as (3. + 30°) and cos8T. + Pr.46 ) If 8~. the total real power output of the bank is PT = PT .50) (3. then 8 is positive which means it is the angle of a lagging load power factor..55) = VL _ L 1~.8I.47) or 8 = -120° .54) Therefore.53) (3. . it can be shown that 8 = 81i/".J3VL _JL cos8 kW ..}.52) (3. T The transformer power factors for transformers 1 and 2 can be calculated as cos8T1 = cos(81i -8T ) uh <I (3. . (3.51) orif cos 8T1 = cos( 81i.48) (3. (3. (3. = cos(8) 1'/..8 .45 ) or using Y"" as the reference. and 8 = 8~" -8~ or 8 = +120 . or if (3.

54. therefore.6 when the connected bank load has a lagging power factor of 0. of course its angle is zero. However. .0 Transformer Power Factors cos 8 Tl = cos(8+ 30°) O.__. = cos(8. transformer 1.32 Wye-wye connection to provide a i 20/20S-Y grounded-wye three-phase four-wire mllitigrollncieci service.10.~~-----. 3. from Equation 3.52.866 leading power factor._::_:_:_:__:_f:_--.------------------------C---7------------~------------~----------­ N-- 8 H.134 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 3.866 lead and.56) =J3VL _ L I L sine kvar. the total reactive power output of the bank is QT =QT1 +QT.Slag 0.866 lag 8 cos 8T. it has a 30° power factor angle and.3 THE Y-Y TRANSFORMER CONNECTION Figure 3.2.-:-::-::-:-:-----~::_--_.~ A -=b C '. has a unity power factor. H. from Equation 3.866 lag 1. and therefore transformer 1 has a 0.5 lagging power factor and transformer 2.6 The Effects of the load Power Factor on the Transformer Power Factors load Power Factor cos 8 0.866. similarly.displacement n--- 120/208 V Three-phase four-wire '4 secondary FIGURE 3.30°) 1. has a 0. when the bank load has a unity power factor.32 shows three transformers connected Y-Y on a typical three-phase four-wire multigrounded system to provide for 120/208Y-V service at 0° angular displacement.30°) L _L (3. As shown in Table 3.0 0. b ______~-------+~~~~~~~~--~2~0~8~V~-c-------~-------r--~~T7~~~~L-_+----~~- a~c 0° angular a -------f:--------._.866 lagging power factor and transformer 2 has a 0.___.----------~----------~--~----------- Three-phase four-wire '4 primary 8---7-------------. = VL _ L ITa sin( I e+ 30°) + V lTe Isin( e. This particular system provides a 208-V three-phase power supply for three-phase motors and a l20-V single-phase A---.

2.34 shows three transformers connected in Y-ll. an unstable condition results at the transformer neutral. Here the existing 2.l6-kV three-phase Y circuit. assume that the old distribution system was 2. In the Y-Y transformer bank connection.4 THE Y-i1 TRANSFORMER CONNECTION Figure 3. so that higher distribution voltage can be gained by using transformers with primary winding of only the voltage between any leg and the neutral. on a three-phase three-wire ungrounded-Y. the possibility of telephone interference is greatly enhanced and there is also a possibility of resonance between the line capacitance to the ground and the magnetizing impedance of the transformer. to a four-wire Y to increase system capacity. and the new distribution system is 2. A---. secondary service at 210° angular displacement. if the neutral of the transformer is isolated from the system neutral. For example. but full-line current flows in each transformer winding. For example. telephone interference) in their immediate vicinity. primary system to provide for 120/208/240-Y three-phase four-wire ll. 3.10.33 Wye-delta connection to provide a 120/208/240-Y three-phase four-wire secondary service.g. If the transformer neutral is connected to the ground.16 Y kY. the primary neutral point should be solidly grounded and tied firmly to the system neutral.73 times the voltage of the neutral. . existing transformers can be used. Power distribution circuits supplied from a Y-Y bank often create series disturbances in communication circuits (e.4-kY ll.4-kV primary single-phase transformers can be connected in Y on the primary to a 4. connection is advantageous in many cases because the voltage between the outside legs of the Y is 1.4/4. One of the advantages of the Y-Y connection is that when a system has changed from ll. An attempt should be made to distribute the single-phase loads reasonably equally among the three phases. Also.33 shows three single-phase transformers connected in Y-ll. excessive voltages may be developed on the secondary side. otherwise.7% (or 111. Figure 3.Application of Distribution Transformers 135 power supply for lamps and other small single-phase loads.4/4. only 57. For example.------------------------------------------B--~------------~r_------------------------- Three-phase three-wire Y primary (ungrounded) B C -+------E--------1'-----Hl H2 I A~C aZJ: 30° angular displacement 120/208/240 V Three-phase four-wire Ll secondary FIGURE 3.16 Y-kY transformers can be connected in Y and used. caused primarily by third-harmonic voltages.. secondary service at 30° angular displacement.73) of the line voltage affects each winding. on a typical three-phase four-wire grounded-wye primary system to provide for 240-Y three-phase three-wire ll. The Y-ll.

Thus. the blowing of a single fuse is hard to detect as no decrease in service quality is noticeable right away. it is grounded at many points. but this deformation causes circulating currents in the A. usually a grounded Y circuit. The neutral wire. disconnection of one transformer results in a partial service interruption without danger of a transformer burn-out. In the Y-A connection the voltage/transformation ratio of the bank is 1.Primary A--~------------~--------~----~--------B--~------------~------------------------- C--~-------------t--------------~----------­ N- 210 0 angular displacement a--~-----------*--------------~----------~--- b--------------~----------~~------------c------------------------------~--------------- 240 V Three-phase three-wire /). Here. The primary supply. If the transformer bank is used to supply three-phase and single-phase load. In the case of the Y-Y connection. the maximum safe bank rating is three times the capacity of the smallest transformers. in either case. the primary bank neutral is usually not connected to the primary circuit neutral since it is not necessary and prevents a burned-out transformer winding during phaseto-ground faults and extensive blowing of fuses throughout the system. including each customer's service and is a multigrounded common neutral. there is no objection to neglecting the neutral.136 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Three-phase four-wire v. This applies to ungrounded Y-A and A-Y banks. if the neutral is spared on the primary side the voltage waveform tends to deform. a damaging overcurrent is produced in each three-phase motor circuit.34 Wye-delta connection to provide a 240-V three-phase three-wire secondary service. On the other hand. may be either three-wire or four-wire including a neutral wire. If the highest of the three currents occurs in the unprotected circuit. motor burn-out will probably happen. running from the neutral of the Y-connected substation transformer bank supplying the primary circuit. and one of the two remaining transformers may be burned out by the overload. disconnection of the large transformer by fuse operation causes an even greater overload on the remaining two transformers. causing an equal amount of current to flow in two wires of the motor branch circuit and the total of the two currents to flow in the third. secondary FIGURE 3. However. In the case of the Y-A connection. In the case of having the same wire serving as both a primary neutral and the secondary neutral. but left isolated.73 times the voltage/ transformation ratio of the individual transformers. The approximate rated capacity . However. When transformers of different capacities are used. neglecting the neutral on the primary side causes the voltages to be deformed from the sine-wave form. and if the bank neutral is solidly connected. In the case of having the primary neutral independent of the secondary system. if the bank neutral is not connected to the primary circuit neutral. may be completely independent of the secondary or may be united with the neutral of the secondary system. if the transformer supplies a motor load. it is used as an isolated neutral and is grounded at the substation only. and these currents act as magnetizing currents to correct the deformation.

reducing its own capacity for connected load. when the primary-side neutral of the transformer bank is not isolated but connected to the primary circuit neutral.6 Two single-phase transformers are connected open-Y open-6 to provide power for a three-phase Y-connected 100-kVA load with a 0. in which triple-harmonic currents circulate. assuming unity power factor. The transformer bank may be overloaded if one of the protective fuses opens on a lineto-ground fault. 3. open primary A--~------------------------------B--~------------------'--------------C--~--------------~~----------­ N-- T a---+----~--------~--------------~-­ b--------*-------~------------~--- c--------~------------------------*--- 210° angular displacement 120/208/240 V Three-phase four-wire open-t. can be found as which is equal to rated transformer capacity across lighting phase.10.80 lagging power factor and a 50-kVA single-phase load with a Three-phase four-wire v.. where SI¢ is the single-phase load (kVA) and SJ¢ is the three-phase load (kVA). The transformer bank may act as a grounding transformer bank for unbalanced primary conditions and may supply fault current to any fault on the circuit to which it is connected. EXAMPLE 3. secondary FIGURE 3. 3. 4.5 THE OPEN-V OPEN-~ TRANSFORMER CONNECTION As shown in Figure 3. All the aforementioned effects can cause the transformer bank to carry current in addition to its normal load current. The transformer bank provides a t. In summary. in the case of having one phase of the primary supply opened. bank.35 Open-wye open-delta connection. resulting in the burn-out of the transformer bank. the Y-6 transformer bank may burn-out due to the following reasons: I.35. . leaving the bank with only the capacity of an open-Y open-t. in an attempt to balance any unbalanced load connected to the primary line.Application of Distribution Transformers 137 required in a Y-6-connected bank with an isolated bank neutral to serve a combined three-phase and single-phase load. 2. The transformer bank causes circulating current in the t. the transformer bank becomes open-Y open-6 and continues to serve the three-phase load at a reduced capacity.

6. The kilovoltampere load on each transformer.57) J3 X VIA J3 x 0.60) = J92. Solution (a) Using the voltage drop Villi as the reference.138 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I.a= fa r-~~------~----~~--------------~I L __________ ~_1 - fa ~1¢) + 50kVA @ 1 <1> +~1¢) ~a.68-jI44.80.5 = 240.3¢ (3. C I I I I b I I I I I I A 0------''----' F!GURE 3.8A.200 V and the secondary-side voltage is 240 V.b= -I.9' A. Assume that the primary-side voltage of the bank is 7620113.8 L -36. Using the given information..3¢) 3<1> 100 kVA @ 0. The current flowing in each primary-phase wire and in the primary neutral.90 lagging power factor. the three-phase components of the line currents can be found as I~I.58) = 240. 3¢ I =11 I c.jsin 8) (3..36. 3¢ 1 = I~}. "It.90 PF "It.80 .36 Open-wye open-delta connection for Example 3. - B o---t----l. as shown in Figure 3.240 100 = 240.39 "It. calculate the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) The line current flowing in each secondary-phase wire. . The current flowing in the secondary winding of each transformer..3¢ r-------------.8(0.jO..---J - fa I.8 PF 0. Since the three-phase load has a lagging power factor of 0. 0. = 1". 3¢ = l~d¢l(cos8 . ~I.

76 = 442.7" A. 1. (3. (b) The current flowing in the secondary winding of each transformer is Iba =1a = 420.9° A.j94.26 = 429.207.240 therefore ~¢ = 1~¢I[cos(300-e.8'<:::: -17. the line currents flowing in each secondary-phase wire can be found as fa = f a.9°) = 240.<::::240°)(240. / c = / c.8 0)] = 207.9°) = 240.2S.)+ jsin(300-e.68 .78+ jlS.9° A.61 ) =~=208. The single-phase component of the line currents can be found as (3.9 + j239.1° A.j129.~¢ = -22l.33A 0.<::::120°(240.78 + jlS.1 A.j144.62) fb = I b. Hence.78 .d¢ = (1.I¢ V L-L (3.26A.S .2S.<:::: -36. 3¢ + ~¢ = 192.j15.1° = 28.8'<::::83.3¢ = 240.j109.26 = 400.SA. .60) I I 1= I¢ SL.<:::: -17.46 .S + 207.- j94.S ." 09 = a/.8'<::::203. 3¢ .8 0) + j sin(30° .33[cos(30° .<:::: -36.28 .8.S .24 = 420.Application of Distribution Transformers 139 = (1.8'<:::: -165.8'<::::83.1 ° (3.8.S0) =-221.)] = 208.8.

1° A.9° = 31.6 .6 = 16. (c) The kilovoltampere load on each transformer can be found as SL. (3.cb = Vcb Xl~bl (3.63b) = 0.1° = 240.j7.1 ° = I 1.47 L -44.l°+ IS0° = 240.52 = 7.jl 1.64a) = 13.S = 101 kVA.75 = -0.07 (3.IO 31.9° + 7.SL263.17.Ibo n 420.loA. the current in the primary neutral is -- IN =1" +IIJ = 13.75 = 12. n = 7620V = 31.SLS3. (3.j4. Therefore.63a) SL. n 240.64b) Therefore.58L263.SLS3.8° A.240 x 240.7 240V and hence IA.25L -17.58L263. (3.65) .240 x 420.69 .8L263.S kVA.25L .91.S = 57.9°A. (d) The current flowing in each primary-phase wire can be found by dividing the current flow in each secondary winding by the turns ratio.140 - Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (b = -Ie = -240.SL-17. ba = Vba X IIba I = 0.

.6 THE ~-y TRANSFORMER CONNECTION Figures 3.-----. The ~-y step-up and Y-~ step-down connections are especially suitable for high-voltage transmission systems. 4. The additional conditions to successfully parallel three-phase distribution transformers are the following: 1. the transformer bank becomes inoperative. secondary FIGURE 3. 2. the line voltages on the secondaries are at 30° to the line voltages on the primaries.075 of the other.------------------<~---t::-. the ~-y system finds many uses. With both the Y-Y and the ~-~ connections. and banks may be paralleled if desired.38 show three single-phase transformers connected in ~-Y to provide for 120/208-Y three-phase four-wire grounded-Y service at 30° and 210° angular displacements. 3. maximum safe transformer bank rating is three times the capacity of the smallest transformer. They are economical in cost.. Per unit impedance of one transformer is between 0. All transformers have identical tap settings. primary C~~----------~------------~~----------~-- ~~~~A ~D c a~ c 30° angular displacement 8 X X x LX_2__+-x_l___ e_3 ____-+__2__f-X_l __ e__3____-' x. To eliminate this difficulty. a --~..". the line voltages on the secondaries are in phase with the line voltages on the primaries. respectively. .::-. Therefore. All transformers have identical voltage ratings. x. but with the Y-~ or the ~-Y connections. A--. and they supply a stable neutral point to be solidly grounded or grounded through resistance of such value so as to damp the system critically and prevent the possibility of oscillation. resulting in unbalanced primary currents in anyone bank.-------------------------------------------~-8~~--------------------------~----------~-- Three-phase three-wire ll. Having the identical angular displacements becomes especially important when three-phase transformers are interconnected into the same secondary system or paralleled with three-phase banks of singlephase transformers.. All transformers have identical frequency ratings.-cV'"*-- b ~---+----~~-JlT1~2~0~V~----~--~~~L----L------ 120 V 120/208 V Three-phase four-wire ¥. the single-phase loads can be balanced on three phases in each bank.37 Delta-wye connection with 30° angular displacement. Here the neutral of the secondary three-phase system is grounded and single-phase loads are connected between the different phase wires and the neutral while the three-phase loads are connected to the phase wires.925 and 1.="".-=2:::-08.10. Consequently a Y-~ or ~-Y transformer bank cannot be operated in parallel with a ~-~ or Y-Y transformer bank. In the previously mentioned transformer banks the single-phase lighting load is all in one phase. When transformers of different capacities are used. If one transformer becomes damaged or is removed from service..1-:::-20~V.Application of Distribution Transformers 141 3.37 and 3.

.--~--. Two core legs act as the return for the flux in the third leg.-:-----------------_. Figure 3. if flux is at a maximum value in one leg at some instant. It is possible to construct the core with only three legs since the fluxes established by the three windings are 120° apart in time phase.40 shows a three-phase open-il connection for 120/240-V service. Figures 3.. Three-phase transformers can be connected in any of the aforementioned connection types. transformers with a capacity of 150 kVA or less are built in such a design that when 5% of the rated kilovoltamperes of the transformer is taken from the 120-V tap on the 240-V connection.39 through 3.. three-phase transformers are usually more efficient and less expensive than the equivalent single-phase transformer banks. and less than this when they are unequal.11 THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS Three-phase voltages may be transformed by means of three-phase transformers. The core of a three-phase transformer is made with three legs. It is used to supply large 120. This is especially noticeable at the larger ratings. The statements on efficiency and capacity for three-phase open-il connection are also . It is used to supply three-phase 240-V loads and small amounts of 120-V single-phase loads._t----_t. On the other hand. It is used to supply 240-V three-phase loads with small amounts of 120-V single-phase load. The three-phase transformer takes less space than does the three single-phase transformers having the same total capacity rating since the three windings can be placed together on one core. Furthermore. Figure 3..43 show various connection diagrams for three-phase transformers.and 240-V single-phase loads simultaneously with small amounts of three-phase load. The transformer efficiency is low especially for three-phase loads. The two sets of windings in the transformer are of different capacity sizes in terms of kilovoltamperes.6% of the rating of the two sets of windings when they are equal in size.42 shows a three-phase open-Y open-il connection for 1201240-V service at 30° angular displacement.142 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Three-phase three-wire A primary A----------------~-------------------------------B----------------t---------------~---------------C--.41 shows a three-phase Y-il connection for 120/240-V service at 300 angular displacement. The transformer is rated only 86. The difference is that all connections are made inside the tank.--E_~~. if one phase winding becomes damaged the entire three-phase transformer has to be removed from the service. 3.-----------~--------------_r------------~- ~~~~~A ~~ b B C x'Cx-' -=a 120 V 210° angular b -----l------.displacement ~-----l-----r~~. For example. secondary FIGURE 3. 1h20~V~------------~-L~~J-----~ 120/208 V Three-phase four-wire '4.38 Delta-wye connection with 210° angular displacement. . Figure 3. the flux is half that value and in the opposite direction through the other two legs at the same instant. the three-phase capacity is decreased by 25%. Usually.39 shows a il-il connection for 1201208/240-V three-phase four-wire secondary service at 0° angular displacement. a primary and secondary winding of one phase being placed on each leg. Figure 3.

120/208/240V Three-phase four-wire L'. Three-phase three-wire open-/l primary A--~~--------------------- B--~~------~~----------­ C--~--------~-------.--- c n -- 120/208/240 V 0° angular displacement -=FIGURE 3. A--~r------------------------------- Three-phase.Application of Distribution Transformers Three-phase three-wire L'.41 Three-phase transformer connected in wye-delta. b 0° angular displacement secondary FIGURE 3.40 Three-phase four-wire open-/l secondary Three-phase transformer connected in open-delta. primary 143 A--~----~--------------~------- B--~------~~------------------­ C--~--------~---------. four-wire L'. 30° angular displacement secondary FIGURE 3.------------ :D. three-wire Y primary B---*~-------4~-------------------- C--~--------r-------~'--------- 120/208/240V Three-phase. .39 Three-phase transformer connected in delta-delta.

42 Three-phase transformer connected in open-wye open-delta.---­ b--+-~~~----+--=~~~~--~~~ c~~~~~~--~--~~~--~--~---­ n-- 120/208 V Three-phase. The first transformer is called the main transformer and A--~__------------------------------ Three-phase. primary a--. which employs two transformers.Three-phase.43 shows a three-phase transformer connected in Y-Y for 1201208Y-V service. the basic design is the same.~~--_. four-wire V. The connection allows single-phase loads to balance among the three phases. 0° angular displacement secondary FIGURE 3. In general. four-wire open Ll secondary FIGURE 3. two-phase is required from a three-phase system. is the most frequently used connection for three-phase to two-phase (or even three-phase) transformations. four-wire V.-__ --~~--~------_. 3. applicable for this connection. the T connection is primarily used for getting a three-phase transformation. This connection type requires two singlephase transformers with Scott taps. The T or Scott connection.12 THE T OR SCOTT CONNECTION In some localities. In either connection type.44 through 3.primary A--~~-------------------B--~~--------~---------­ C--~~------~r---------- N~ 30° angular displacement -=.46 show various types of the Scott connection. four-wire open-V. . Figure 3.43 Three-phase transformer connected in grounded wye-wye. whereas the Scott connection is mainly used for getting a two-phase transformation. Figures 3.144 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Three-phase.

The main transformer has a 50% tap on the primary-side winding. or 7. the main transformer operates at 86. (In usual design practice. which means that a balanced load on the secondary will result in a balanced load on the primary. their total rated kilovoltampere capacity must be 15. When the twophase load at the secondary has a unity power factor. four-wire.6% power Three-phase. The secondary may be either three-. It dictates that the 111idpoints of both primary and secondary windings be available for connections. transformation. . than the actual load supplied (or than the standard single-phase transformer of the same kilovoltampere and voltage). whereas the teaser transformer has an 86. three-wire primary A--------------------------~----B--------------~----------~----C--~~--~M~a~in-----{~--~T<~e-a-s-er----~------ b 1 --~~----------E_--~----------~~-­ b2 ----------------~--~----------~~-- a1 --------------------~----------~~-- a2 --------------------------------~~-Two-phase.Application of Distribution Transformers Three-phase. four-. three-wire primary 145 A----------------------------~~---- B--------------~----------~----­ C--~~--M~a~in-----{~--~~~e-a-s-er----~------ Two-phase. single-phase transformers. four-wire secondary FIGURE 3. connected from line-to-line. the connection needs specially wound. as shown in the figures. or five-wire.5% greater if the transformers are interchangeable.75% greater if noninterchangeable. both transformers are built to be identical so that both have a 50% and an 86.45 The T or Scott connection for three-phase to two-phase.6% tap in order to be used interchangeably as main and teaser transformers. The T or Scott connections change the number of phases but not the power factor. transformation. In either case. three-wire secondary FIGURE 3.) Although only two single-phase transformers are required. It is very important to keep the relative phase sequence of the windings the same so that the impedance between the two half windings is a minimum to prevent excessive voltage drop and the resultant voltage unbalance between phases.44 The T or Scott connection for three-phase to two-phase three-wire. and the second one is called the teaser transformer and connected from the midpoint of the first transformer to the third line.6% tap.

if all the odd-numbered terminals are positive (+) at a particular A 7. five-wire. especially to supply customers having large single-phase lighting loads and small three-phase (motor) loads.46 The T or Scott connection for three-phase to two-phase.------------~----C---. or open-Y.47 a-------------------------------b-------------------------------c-------------------------------- O~en ~~~co~3:ry For Example :'. The high-voltage connections are either open-t. The low-voltage connections are three-phase four-wire 120/240-V open-t.7 Two transformer banks are sometimes used in distribution systems. three-wire primary A----------------------------~----­ B--------------. four-wire primary 8---------------------------------C-------------------------------Ny-----------------~H2H1~H2 CD ~X1~X1 120/240 V Three-phas. it is important to understand that all odd-numbered terminals of a given transformer... and so on. transformation. EXAMPLE 3. as shown in Figure 3. . HI' XI' x 3...7.2 kV Y Three-phase..62/13. factor and the teaser transformer operates at unity power factor. that is.. the transformer-rated high voltage is the primary line-to-neutral voltage. If it is open-Y.47. In preparing wiring diagrams and phasor diagrams.. the transformer-rated high voltage is the primary line-to-line voltage. that is. from three-phase to two-phase or from two-phase to three-phase. have the same instantaneous voltage polarity... These connections can transform power in either direction.. For example..:!our-wire secondary ® nr FIGURE 3..146 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Three-phase.---:-::-:------E------:=-------~----- b1 --~~--------~~--_t----_t----_t---­ ~ --------------~~--_t----_t----_t---­ a1 --------------------~~--_t----_t---- ~ --------------------------~----~~-- n------------------------ Two-phase. If it is open-t. five-wire secondary -=- FIGURE 3.

or shell-type three-phase Open-tl primary A--~~--------------~--~----~----~ 7.48 For Example 3. secondary. . Note that. because of Kirchhoff's voltage law.62/13. secondary on the 0° references given. and V . are '\1\4 all in phase. . four-wire secondary Vac= 240V Open-tl secondary FIGURE 3. (b) Show the connections required for the open-l'.--~~--------~~-­ b---+----~--------~----------~-­ c---------t--------~~-------------- n !120/240 V Three-phase. for example. The performance is substantially like banks of three identical single-phase transformers or classical core. some of the so-called three-phase distribution transformers now marketed contain two single-phase cores and coils mounted in one tank and connected T-T.200LOoy and Also assume that the left-hand transformer is lIsed for lighting.and low voltages and the phasor diagrams and v'.. four-wire primary B--~----------~----------------­ C---+------------~----------~~---- Nl • a--~----~-----.c = l3.7.49 shows another two-transformer bank which is known as the T-T connection. Today. To establish the two-transformer bank with open-L\ primary and open-L\ secondary: (a) Draw and/or label the voltage phasor diagram required for the open-l'. Assume that ABC phase sequence is lIsed in the connections for both high.2 kV Y Three-phase. there are V"c and Vac voltages between A and C and between a and c.48 illustrates the solution. VII I /I 2 ' V. respectively. In other words. primary and open-l'.Application of Distribution Transformers 147 instant of time. Also note that the midpoint of the left-hand transformer is grounded to provide the 120 V for lighting loads. then all the even-numbered terminals are negative (-) at the same instant. the no-load phasor voltages of a given transformer.8 Figure 3. EXAMPLE 3. Solution Figure 3. . primary and open-l'. I x 2 .

and abc sequence. V. V'I 2 on transformer J.?\.77Q FIGURE 3.. V'2 X . correctly oriented on the 0° reference shown. the unbalance in secondary voltages is small. on transformer 2. VII?H.16 kV Three-phase. perfectly balanced secondary voltages do not occur although the load and the primary voltages are perfectly balanced. X (d) Would it be possible to parallcl a T-T transformer bank with: (i) A !l-!l bank? (ii) A Y-Y bank? (iii) A !l-Y bank? . In spite of that. exactly like Y circuitry.0° Ic~ Ib ~ la ~ -=R 1R=2.49 shows a particular T-T connection diagram and an arbitrary set of balanced threephase primary voltages. determine the following: (a) Draw the low-voltage phasor diagram. (c) Find the magnitudes of the following rated winding voltages: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) The The The The The The The voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage V lil1l2 on transformer J. respectively. on transformer 2. secondary ------1 -R -------------------. on transformer I. Assume that the no-load line-to-Iine and line-to-neutral voltages are 480 and 277 V. (b) Find the value of the V"h phasor. . V'I-'2 on transformer 2.11I 2 on transformer 2. However. transformers. Figure 3. V'. three-wire primary B~~------------~~---------­ C~~--------------t----------'-- Fc H1 ~--------------~Oo • H1 n B VAB =4160L180 ABC sequence 0 A 3" a--~----~~------~--------~~ Low-voltage phasors b--------~------~~--~~~~ c--------~~----------~--7__7~- n 277/480\/ Three-phase.49.148 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering High-voltage phasors A 4. Based on the given information and Figure 3.49 A particular T-T connection. four-wire q.

2 Iv 1= (4160 .49.x.H' I SO%(4160V) = = 2080V."2 ~ . I= % (480 = 277Y.S0. Iv"x. 2 - 240 ) 112 2 (iv) From Figure 3.49 and 3. (b) The value of the voltage phasor is (c) The magnitudes of the rated winding voltages: (i) From the high-voltage phasor diagram shown in Figure 3.20S02 )1/2 11.50 The required low-voltage ph as or diagram. (v) From Figure 3. (ii) From Figures 3."4f\2\1/2 V ) L. (iii) From Figures 3. . IV 1__ 1/480 1 <. = 3600 V.49 and 3.1/ .49. 1. Note the ISO° phase shift among the corresponding phasors.Application of Distribution Transformers 149 Solution (a) Figure 3.S0 shows the required low-voltage phasor diagram. FIGURE 3. I~{.S0. 2 = 139 Y.49.

Determine the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The low-voltage current phasors. .77 100L-30° A T = ~O b R =----- -277L+30° 2. the low-voltage current phasors are: T a = VaO R = 277L-30° 2.49.150 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (vi) From Figure 3.50.9. from Figure 3.51a. (iii) yes. At what power factor does the transformer operate? What power factor is seen by winding X 2X 3 of transformer 2? What power factor is seen by winding X 1X 2 of transformer 2? Solution (a) The low-voltage phasor diagram of Figure 3. The low-voltage current phasor diagram. (ii) no. Also assume that the secondary voltages are to be perfectly balanced and that the necessary high-voltage applied voltages then are not perfectly balanced.51a.150° A. EXAMPLE 3. 90 0 (a) (b) FIGURE 3. iV"x. (d) (i) No. Therefore.9 Assume that the T-T transformer bank of Example 3. I= 240 V.8 is to be loaded with the balanced resistors (R = 2.77 Q) shown in Figure 3.51 Phasor diagrams for Example 3.50 can be redrawn as shown in Figure 3.77 = -100L+30° = 100L .

the power factor of transformer I can be found as cos8Tj = cos(8 v -8T ) .866. the necessary voltampere rating of the transformer I is X 2X 3 low-voltage winding of (b) Similarly.0 " = cos[( -30") . leading. lagging. The necessary voltampere rating of the x 2x j low-voltage winding of transformer l. Total voltampere output from transformer l.0.10 Consider Example 3.50. The necessary volt ampere rating of the XjX2 low-voltage winding of transformer 2. (c) From part (a). of transformer 2 is 0. Sx.Application of Distribution Transformers 151 = 277L90" 2. (g) The ratio of total voltampere rating of all low-voltage windings in the transformer bank to maximum continuous voltampere output from the bank.50.51b shows the low-voltage current phasor diagram. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Solution (a) From Figure 3. (f) Total voltampere output from transformer 2.(-30')] = 1. (b) Figure 3.(13 3 2 VJI . (d) The power factor seen by winding (e) The power factor seen by winding X 3X 2 XjX2 of transformer 2 is 0. EXAMPLE 3..77 = I 00L90" A. =1. and determine the following The necessary voltampere rating of the x 2X 3 low-voltage winding of transformer I.x.9 and Figure 3.866. The necessary voltampere rating of the X 2X 3 low-voltage winding of transformer 2.

53 shows the low-voltage phasor diagram. two-transformer banks do not deliver balanced three-phase low-voltage terminal voltages even when the applied high-voltage terminal voltages are perfectly balanced. determine the following: (a) Find the phasor currents f". the necessary voltampere rating of the X 1X2 low-voltage winding of transformer 2 is V 5 xx =-xI VA. will be allowable as an arbitrary criterion. neglect transformer magnetizi ng currents. Overloads. and (h) Select suitable standard kilovoltampere ratings for both transformers. Figure 3. Both transformers have nOOIl20-240-V ratings and have equal transformer impedance of ZT = 0. V 5xx =-xI VA. Here. open-~ high-voltage open-~ low-voltage. Note that.52 shows two single-phase transformers connected in open-Y high-voltage and open-~ low-voltage. total voltampere output rating from transformer 1 is = J3 VI VA. in general.53. . Hence. in Figure 3.15.. 'J 2 (J) Therefore.11 In general. Also the two transformers do not. as much (e) 1. Based on the given information.03 pu based on their ratings. Figure 3. total voltampere output rating from transformer 2 is =VI VA. the 0 indicates the three-phase neutral point. except for unique unbalanced loads. Find the pu kilovoltampere load on each transformer. the two transformers are likely to have unequal percentages of voltage regulation. operate at the same power factor or at the same percentages of their rated kilovoltamperes.01 + jO.078. I". Max continuous output J3 The same ratio for two-transformer banks connected in open-Y high-voltage open-~ low-voltage is 1. or 3. EXAMPLE I.50. as 10%.152 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (c) Therefore. (g) The ratio is Installed core and coil capacity ( J3 / 2) + I =---------= =1. 2 (d) From Figure 3. " 2 (e) Similarly. In this problem the secondary voltages are to be assumed to be perfectly balanced and the primary voltages are then unbalanced as required. The two-transformer bank supplies a large amount of single-phase lighting and some small amount of three-phase power loads.

(d) Find the power factor of the output of each transformer.11. (e) Find the phasor currents 1.52 Two single-phase transformers connected in open-Y and open-.90 lagging or 8 = 25.--_ A __~-~------~~-----a --------n N---. Solution (a) For the three-wire single-phase balanced lighting load.-.1' IB (j) Find the high-voltage terminal voltages VAN and VBN• Therefore.90 0 V a <2---=---- .0° Vao 0 ® c FIGURE 3.8° therefore. and IN in the high-voltage leads. ..--. using the symmetrical components theory.: ~------4_-+_-~---~-~---b B-------'-- B c Balanced three-wire one-phase lighting load 90 kVA 90% PF lagging Balanced three-phase power load 25 kVA 80% PF lagging FIGURE 3..2°) = 374+ j27.5 = 375L4.2° A. (g) Also write the necessary codes to solve the problem in MATLAB. cos 8 = 0. this part of the question can indicate the amount of voltage unbalance that may be encountered with typical equipment and typical loading conditions.2°+ jsin4.240kV v" =375L300-25. LV phasors b ~c= 240 L .Application of Distribution Transformers 153 A------.-8 0.6.8° = 375(cos4. . I a1 = 90kVA L8.53 The low-voltage phasor diagram for Example 3.

2 ° A.2° A.240kV 25kVA L8--8 ":.8° = 60.37 L .44 = 422. cos 8 = 0. therefore.8 = 422.2°+60. the phasor currents in the transformer secondary are ~I = ~Ii +~/2 = 375L4.0 = 60.2°+60.8° A. ~.2L83.2L83.2L -36. I a2 = J3 x0.154 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Also =-374.5 = -375L4.8° = 60.8° = 60.2° = -429.2° A. For the three-phase balanced power load.33 .2L203. =O+60.36.8°.2L203.2 LO° .2L-36.80 lagging or 8 = 36.j8.j51.2L -36.12L -1. = ~'I + ~/2 = -375L4. .15 ° A.j27.2L -36.2L83.173.2° A and I" '- =aI (l~ = IL1200x60. Therefore. Also = IL2400x60.2°A.2° =60.04 .22 = 432.

8° = 0.15° = 0. If a transformer with 15 kYA is selected. = 0. cos8T.4kYA. 5" = 0. = cos (8v:.240x60. = 0.993 lagging.0l3pukYA. (e) The turns ratio is 8~) = cos[90° .856 lagging 8~. for transformer 1. (c) From part (b). 5 Tl =1.3%.240kYx/" = 0.240kY x ( =0. (d) Since the power factor that a transformer sees is not the power factor that the load sees. cos 8T.12 = 101.83.Application of Distribution Transformers 155 (b) For transformer I.15°)] and for transformer 2.(-1.2°] n = nOOY = 30 240Y .2= 14.3kYA.96 pu kYA with a 4% excess capacity.240 x 422.. = cos6. = cos31. ) = cos [30° . If a transformer with 100 kYA is selected. 5T = 1.013 pu kYA with an overload of 1.. I For transformer 2.96pukYA. 5T. 5. Sl~ =0. = cos( 8v:.

240L30° = I. (f) In pu.pll V base. LV 422.013L -1.15° =-----30 = 14. \!.0 13L -1. = I.156 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering therefore.0 1+ jO..15°)(0. VIN .2L83.I5°pu A.67 A.240 kV 416.2°) = -14.l2L -1. I n 422. IN = -(1.67 V V =_'_'h_ ab.INoJlll I'" = 0. pu +1a.2° 30 Thus. 0. therefore.07 L -1. 416.2L83.12L _1. j A =--E.OL30° u V.pu I = Vb a .01 + jO.15° .1 + IB ) = -(14. pu xZor • pu where Ib asc.pll I = __ I <1_ base.15°puV .03 pu Q.15° A and j B- --~ n = 60.02L -9. LV 0.07 L -1. j lJ.15° = 1.240 P Zr.3° A.03) = I.OL30° +(1. LV = 100 kVA 0.024L31.

Note that the difference between the phase angles of the VAN and V BN voltages is almost 120° and the difference between their magnitudes is almost 80 V. PFll = 0. 416.024L31. VBN • PU = 1.76°)(7200 V) = 7214.00195L -89. \Iso VBN • pu vhere = ~. % kVA .03.76°V.0L-900+(0.240 p Therefore.c. LV - V 0.I44L83.00l95L .2° = 0.2°)(0. pu - ~" pu X ZT.01+ jO.pplication of Distribution Transformers 157 v =V AN AN.LV 60. Smagll = 90.01 + j*0.9.8L31. I c.67 Vbe. pu .04L -89.15°)(7200 Y) = 7372. HV = (I.OL-90° uY. pu xVhilSC. (g) Here is the MATLAB script: clc clear % System parameters ZT = 0. 0.2L83.89.144L83.76°pu V or = (1.20 pu A.15° Y.240L-90° =I.pu =-V-be base. pu = __ c_ T I base.03) = 1.

Smagpl = 25. thetaVaO 0.S66.acos (PFll) ) ) Ia2 = (Smagpl/(sqrt(3)*kVa))*(cos(thetaVaO . thetaVab (pi*30)/lSO.24. n = 7200/240. Ib and Ic Ial = (Smagll/kVa) * (cos (thetaVab .acos(PFpl))) Ibl -Ial A Ib2 a 2*Ia2 Ic2 a*Ia2 Ia Ib Ic = Ial + Ia2 Ibl + Ib2 Ic2 % solution for part b and part c % For transformer 1 STI = kVa*abs(Ia) STlpulOOkVA = STI/IOO % For transformer 2 ST2 = kVa*abs(Ic) ST2pu15kVA = ST2/15 % solution for part d PFTI cos (thetaVab atan(imag(Ia)/real(Ia))) PFT2 = cos (thetaVcb .atan(imag(Ic)/real(Ic))) % Solution for part e IA Ia/n IB = Ib/n IN = . % kVA kVa = 0.5 + j*0.acos(PFpl)) + j*sin(thetaVaO . % turns ratio % solution for part a % Phasor currents la.acos(PFll)) + j*sin(thetaVab .S. a -0.Icpu*ZT + j*sin(thetaVab)) )/kVa + j*sin(-thetaVcb)) )/kVa .(IA + IB) % Solution for part f IbaseLV = 100/kVa Iapu = Ia/lbaseLV Vabpu = (kVa*(cos(thetaVab) VANpu = Vabpu + Iapu*ZT VAN = VANpu*7200 Icpu = Ic/lbaseLV Vbcpu (kVa*(cos(-thetaVcb) VBNpu = Vbcpu . thetaVcb (pi*90)/lSO.158 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering PFpl = O.

67) =n-l FIGURE 3.54 Wiring diagram of a single-phase autotransformer.abs(VBN) Thetadiff = 180*(atan(imag(VAN)/real(VAN)) real (VBN) ))/pi . is the voltage on the low-voltage side.Application of Distribution Transformers 159 VBN = VBNpu*7200 Vmagdiff = abs(VAN) . the circuit ratio is always larger than 1. smaller excitation current requirements.13 THE AUTOTRANSFORMER The usual transformer has two windings (not including a tertiary. As can be observed from Equation 3.66. It is rated on the basis of output kilovoltamperes rather than the transformer's kilovoltamperes. it is cheaper than the equivalent two-winding transformer (especially when the voltage ratio is 2:1 or less).54 shows the wiring diagram of a single-phase autotransformer. Note that Sand C denote the series and common portions of the winding. lower losses. On the other hand.66) where VH is the voltage on the high-voltage side. V. whereas an autotransformer is a transformer in which one winding is connected in series with the other as a single winding. Figure 3. the winding-voltage ratio is Vs Vc =!i n[ (3. It has lower leakage reactance. if there is any) which are not connected to each other. n[ is the number of turns in the common winding. n is the turns ratio of the autotransformer. most of all. an autotransformer is a normal transformer connected in a special way. . and n 2 is the number of turns in the series winding. namely. and.atan(imag(VBN)/ 3. In this sense. circuit and winding ratios. The circuit ratio is (3. There are two voltage ratios.

160 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where Vs is the voltage across the series winding and Ve is the voltage across the common winding. if n is given as 2. one can use a 500-kVA autotransformer instead of using a 1000-kVA two-winding transformer. (3.68) where Ie is the current in the common winding.)I H VH IV.56 shows a three-phase autotransformer Y-Y connection used in distribution systems to increase voltage at the ends of feeders or where extensions are being made to existing feeders. the ratio. is 2. Therefore. which means that the voltage ratios approach I.2 kV/6. Is is the current in the series winding. and IH is the input current at the high-voltage side.71. Figure 3.and low voltages are the same. the circuit's voltampere rating for an ideal autotransformer is Circuit's VA rating = VHI H (3. Therefore. Figure 3. such as 7. the capacity of an autotransformer can be compared with the capacity of an equivalent two-winding transformer (assuming that the same core and coils are used) as Capacity as autotransformer _ VHI H Capacity as two-winding transformer VsIs VHI H (VH-V. Therefore.55 shows a single-phase autotransformer connection used in distribution systems to supply 120/24()-V single-phase power from an existing 208Y1I20-V three-phase system. It is . Note that as n approaches I.69) =VJx and the winding's voltampere rating is Winding's VA rating = VsIs (3. An interesting case happens when the voltage ratio (or the turns ratio) is unity: the maximum savings is achieved but then there is no need for any transformer since the high. the current ratio is -=- Ie Is Ie IH I. which means that Capacity as autotransformer = 2 x capacity as two-winding transformer. increases.9 kV.70) =Vele which describes the capacity of the autotransformer in terms of core and coils.71) n 11-1 For example. given by Equation 3. Ix is the output current at the low-voltage side. Similarly. most economically. in terms of the core and coil sizes of autotransformer. -IH IH =n-l (3. then the savings.

The transformer connection is made in such a way that the secondary is in series and in phase with the main line. .57a and b boost the voltage 5% and 10%. The connections shown in Figure 3. a 5% buck in the voltage results. In Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3.57 shows a single-phase booster transformer connection. four-wire primary B~~-----------. llso the most economical way of stepping down the voltage. 3. Figure 3. three-wire secondary FIGURE 3. Also. It is necessary that the neutral of the lUtotransformer bank be connected to the system neutral to prevent excessive voltage development )n the secondary side.pplication of Distribution Transformers 120/208 V Three-phase.55 Single-phase autotransformer. four-wire secondary 161 A B ______________~J~--------C-----------------+------------ N-r~ ---~---I= T = B A _-------1j-----.56 Three-phase autotransformer.57a. the system impedance should be large enough to restrict the short-circuit :urrent to about 20 times the rated current of the transformer to prevent any transformer burn-outs. if the lines to the low-voltage bushings X3 and XI are interchanged. n :IGURE 3.59 shows a three-phase four-wire booster transformer connection using A~~----------~--~----~--~--------- Three-phase.-------------------------C~~---------+----------~----------- NN B b a A c c a------~----------~~----------~----~~ b------------------~----------*_----~ c--------------------------------~----~~ n------------------------Three-phase. respectively.14 THE BOOSTER TRANSFORMERS Booster transformers are also called the buck-and-boost transformers and provide a fixed buck or boost voltage to the primary of a distribution system when the line voltage drop is excessive.58 shows a three-phase three-wire booster transformer connection using two single-phase booster transformers.

> 0 0 1 x2 H..and high-voltage windings and bushings have the same level of insulation. <D C\I C C FIGURE 3.. To prevent harmful voltage induction by the series winding. three single-phase booster transformers. Boosters are often used in distribution feeders where the cost of tap-changing transformers is not justified. Both low.. the transformer primary must never be open under any circumstances before opening or unloading the secondary.. x3 > b > .. <D C\I H... the primary side of the transformer should not have any fuses or disconnecting devices...... 0 C\J 0 .. because of extremely low magnetic losses. C\I 0 . Also. X3 240 V > .15 AMORPHOUS METAL DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS The continuing importance of distribution system efficiency improvement and its economic evaluation has focused greater attention on designing equipment with exceptionally high efficiency levels. Three-phase three-wire booster transformer connection using two single-phase booster .. For example... 3. amorphous metal offers the opportunity to reduce the core loss of distribution transformers by approximately 60% and thereby reduce operating a H2 A > 0 .162 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 2520 V 2400 V X2 2640 V 120V (a) (b) FIGURE 3. C\I 0 X2 0 ..57 Single-phase booster transformer connection: (a) for 5% boost and (b) for 10% boost.. <D C\J B To load H2 x.58 transformers.

Application of amorphous metal transformers is a substantial opportunity to reduce utilityoperating costs and defer generating capacity additions. There are more than 25 million distribution transformers installed in this country.59 transformers. determine: (a) The value of the open-6 high-voltage phasor between A and B. Also. \l4N' . In addition. that is. Replacing then with amorphous units could result in an energy savings of nearly 15 billion kWh per year.1. For example. that is. this could represent a savings of more than $700 million which is annually equivalent to the energy consumed by a city of 4 million people. assuming an open-Y primary and an open-6 secondary and using the 0° references given in Figure P3. nOO/12. core loss of a 25 kVA.1 Repeat Example 3. PROBLEMS 3. 1.---------~--+---------~ B To load H2 > C\l X2 > ill C\l 0 0 '<t 0 '<t Hl X3 - 240 V C 2640 V 2400 V n-l__~__ FIGURE 3. ~B' (b) The value of the open-Y high-voltage phasor between A and N.7. Each year._------------------------~--~--~ N Three-phase four-wire booster transformer connection using three single-phase booster costs. whereas it is only 28 W for an amorphous transformer. it is quieter (with 38 db) than its equivalent silicon steel transformer (with 48 db). _ L_ _ _ _ _ _.pplication of Distribution Transformers 163 X2 Hl X3 240 V a-r--------------~~~--------~ A H2 > o C\l '<t o X2 > (0 0 '<t C\l Hl x3 240 V b-+--. Nationally.470Y-1201240 V silicon steel transformer is 86 W. approximately 1 million distribution transformers are installed on utility systems in United States.

-------------~----------­ C-4~--------------~--------~~ F~ Va Fe LV phasor diagram ® Xl p~ a------------~~------~----~~ b------------~------~--~4_~ c----------------------~4r~_r~ . four-wire primary Open Y primary A----------------~~------~- 8--------------------------------C----------------------------N-r-----------------· .' .3 A T-T connection.' . four-wire V.-----------~----------~--~ 4. four-wire secondary ® Open 11 secondary a --------------------------------- b----------------------------c --------------------------------n -I-----------------· -=.' .-.-..10...1 For Problem 3.2 3.' . three-wire primary 8~.correctly oriented on the 0° reference shown. Balanced HV phasors A--.' .---.3 and determine the following: (a) Draw the low-voltage ~iagram--.3 Repeat Example 3.164 7.1. ..120/240 V -. secondary RR FIGURE P3.' ..0° n------------277/480 V Three-phase. Consider the T-T connection given in Figure P3.6/13..0° FIGURE P3.' .buuJH buuJ 2 H2 .16 kV Three-phase.0° CD [[1 [[1 Three-phase.. (b) Find the value of the Vab and Van phasors. if the low-voltage line current I is 100 A and the line-to-line low voltage is 480 V.2 k V Y Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Three-phase.. 3.

" on transformer I. 3. Use secondary voltages of 480 V and neglect magnetizing currents.--.'f:.6.7. V'I" on transformer 2.--. ~ I\) C---------------- 8------------------------------ A-------------------------------A .3 is loaded with the balanced resistors given.4 Assume that the T-T transformer bank given in Problem 3.4 and apply the complex power formula S = P + jQ = VI * four times. for example.2 . Based on these results.I$ on transformer l.\l .6 Consider Figure P3. . < A 0° V &".5 Use the results of Problems 3. three-Wire secondary 8 a .6 and assume that the motor is rated 25 hp and is mechanically loaded so that it draws 25.I \?-.". three-wire primary -. (Does your result agree with that which is easily computed as input to the resistors?) (b) The necessary kilovoltampere ratings of both low-voltage windings of both the transformers.3 and 3. VON on transformer 2.() \.866 lagging power factor.6 For Problem 3.. HV phasors C 12 kV Three-phase.--. (b) The high-voltage current phasors. find: (a) Total complex power output from the T-T bank.Application of Distribution Transformers (c) Find the magnitudes of the following rated winding voltages: 165 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) The The The The The The The voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage VII I "l on transformer l. V. a part of the output of transformer 1 is Vx I x2T. "'" T <t. the necessary high voltages applied then are not perfectly balanced.--. 3. 0 < 0° c 240 V Three-phase. O°lrl/ 8 b I\) CD o0 0 0 x1 X2 ® o0 0 0 X1 X2 ~()o -. 3.f>. Ts. Determine the following: (a) The low-voltage current phasors. once for each low-voltage winding. VIIX on transformer 2. <<to Irl/ LV phasors c FIGURE P3. V" I-0 on transformer 2. \j {.--.0-kVA three-phase input at cos8 = 0. (c) The ratio of total kilovoltampere ratings of all low-voltage windings in the transformer bank to total kilovoltampere output from the bank.--. Assume that the secondary voltages are perfectly balanced.I ~! a b !~ o. Vq.

(a) (b) Sketch the low-voltage ph as or diagram. B \'0 '+- '-.. abc phase sequence at low-voltage and high-voltage sides and 1201240 V are required.Q resistance and then find the following six complex ~. and (2). to identify. Two competitive bids have been received. T currents numerically: 1.S shows two single-phase transformers. = complex power of HI .16 L -90 "'-16 0 kV p~ a R ~~ n For Problem 3. and so on. correctly oriented on the 0° reference line. each with a 7620-V high-voltage winding and two 120-V low-voltage windings. the T-T performance is quite different from the three-transformer Y-grounded Y bank. The problem is to determine if this bank can carry unbalanced loads although the primary neutral terminal N is not connected to the source neutral. ~.8 Figure P3. 2(HZ-0) = complex power of H2 .) Use the ideal transformer theory and pursue the question as follows: (a) Load phase an with R = 1. 3. p~ b c ~~ +v C FIGURE P3. (b) Find the power factors cosqT I .166 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (a) Draw the necessary high-voltage connections so that the low voltages shall be as shown. and T c· (b) Find the following complex powers of windings by using the S = P + jQ = vI' equation 4. State whether or not the proposed connections will output the required three-phase fourwire 120/240-V tllow voltage.H2 portion of transformer 1. The bid data are tabulated as follows._. numerically: STI(xl-ll) ST ST ST I(H I -H 2) = complex power of XI - n portion of transformer 1. that is.7 ._.7 Consider Figure P3. (If it can. The diagram shows the proposed connections for an open-Y to open-tl bank and the high-voltage-applied phasor voltage drops.7 and assume that the two-transformer T-T bank delivers 120/20S V threephase four-wire service from a three-phase three-wire 4160 V primary line. of abc phase sequence.9 A large number of 25-kVA distribution transformers are to be purchased." B . HV phasors A F~ H2 B C VC H2 1>. Label it adequately with xs (I)._. Here.7. (c) Do your results indicate that this bank will carry unbalanced loads successfully? Why? 3. 2(HZ-0) = complex power of HI - 0 portion of transformer 2. 3. x2 x2 A .20.0 portion of transformer 2. and coSqT2 at which each transformer operates. (c) Find the ratio of voltampere load on one transformer to total voltamperes delivered to the load.\ ® x. 00 Vac =4.

The cost of installing a transformer is not to be included in this study. Find the actual current values in the high. H.15 Per unit annual fixed charge rate == 0. The following system data are given: Annual peak load on transformer == 35 kVA Annual loss factor == 0.5%.2 kV Y Three-phase.7 pu A in the high-voltage winding. and state which transformer should be purchased. four-wire primary 167 B--------------~-------------- C--------------~---1------------ N- J • H. --------------~--------4.Application of Distribution Transformers Balanced HV phasors A 7.0° b ----~--------~--------~------- nI-------------=FIGURE P3. and 2520 V phase-toneutral on the secondary side.012/kWh Investment cost of power system upstream from distribution transformers == $300/kVA.--.62/13.-. The leakage impedance of the transformer is 3. VAN = 7.020 Evaluate the bids on the basis of total annual cost (TAC) and recommend the purchase of the one having the least TAC.015 0.8 For Problem 3.10 Assume that a 250-kVA distribution transformer is used for single-phase pole mounting.) 3.15 Installed cost of shunt capacitors == $lO/kvar Incremental cost of off-peak energy == $O. Calculate the TAC of owning and operating one such transformer. Transformer A B Cost of Transformer Delivered to Nl&NP's Warehouse $355 $345 Core loss at Rated load 360W 380W Copper loss at Rated Voltage and Frequency 130W 150W Per-Unit Exciting Current 0. determine the following: (a) Assume that the transformer has 0. (Hint: Study the relevant equations in Chapter 6 before starting to calculate.62 L 0° kV • a c ----~--------~--~~--~--~~ c --.--. Based on the given information.8.------- LV phasors 120/240 V Three-phase.OllkWh Incremental cost of on-peak energy == $0.--. What is the value of the current in the low-voltage winding in per units? .and low-voltage windings. four-wire secondary ---. The transformer is connected phase-to-neutral 7200 V on the primary.

A. 1. McGraw-Hill. and A. REFERENCES l. C. Find the high. 6. 1943. American National Standards Institute. . Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book. 7. 1965. Schenectady.11 Resolve Example 3. N.168 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (b) Find the impedance of the transformer as referred to the high. London.22 pu V is applied to the high-voltage winding.. and H. (c) Assume that the low-voltage terminals of the transformer are short-circuited and 0. 4. vol. if a 1.C. PA. PA. E. New York. General Electric Series. 5.11 by using MATLAB. 2. The Guide for Loading Mineral Oil-Immersed Overhead-Type Distribution Transformers with 55°C and 65°C Average Winding Rise. (d) Determine the internal voltage drop of the transformer. 1973. S. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. 1978. 1964. 3. Clarke.. D. Assume that all the quantities remain the same. Franklin: The J&P Transformer Book. Give the result in pu and volts. Beaty: Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers.91-1969. 3. Hickory. due to its leakage impedance. 11th ed.. East Pittsburgh.and low-voltage winding currents that exist as a result of the short circuit in pu and amperes. 1975. Stigant.2 pu current flows in the high-voltage winding. Fink. Appendix C57. Butterworth. 3. East Pittsburgh. New York. W.: Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems. G.and low-voltage windings in ohms. vol. General Electric Company: Distribution Transformer Manual..

are usually connected to each primary feeder. Distribution transformers.. in ratings from 10 to 500 kVA. Will Rogers 4. such as large transmission substations. They reduce the distribution voltage to the utilization voltage. 5. Subtransmission system Distribution substations Distribution or primary feeders Distribution transformers Secondary circuits Service drops However. which is usually operating in the range of 4. 4. subfeeders.. hanging around until you've caught on. Education is . Aristotle. The subtransmission circuits deliver energy from bulk power sources to the distribution substations.47 and 245 kYo The distribution substation. 365 /J.1 shows a one-line diagram of a typical distribution system. distributes energy from the low-voltage bus of the substation to its load center where it branches into threephase subfeeders and single laterals. the distribution system is that part of the electric utility system between the bulk power source and the customers' service switches. 3.2 SUBTRANSMISSION The subtransmission system is that part of the electric utility system which delivers power from bulk power sources. 2. buses. The secondaries facilitate the path to distribute energy from the distribution transformer to consumers through service drops. which is made of power transformers together with the necessary voltage-regulating apparatus. 6.5 kV. Figure 4. The subtransmission circuits may be 169 .e.16-34. Author UnknolVn Education is the best provision for old age. This chapter covers briefly the design of subtransmission and distribution substations. and switchgear. some distribution system engineers prefer to define the distribution system as that part of the electric utility system between the distribution substations and the consumers' service entrance. 4. This definition of the distribution system includes the following components: 1. reduces the subtransmission voltage to a lower primary system voltage for local distribution.4 Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations A teacher affects eternity. The subtransmission voltage is somewhere between 12. The three-phase primary feeder.1 INTRODUCTION In a broad definition. and laterals.

made of overhead open-wire construction on wood poles or of underground cables. Instead. as shown in Figure 4. There is a continuous trend in the usage of the higher voltage as a result of the increasing use of higher primary voltages..47 to 245 kY. as the name implies.1 One-line diagram of a typical distribution system. In the radial system..2 shows a radial subtransmission system. the subtransmission system is designed as loop circuits or multiple circuits forming a subtransmission grid or network.3. Figure 4.._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.170 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Bulk power source _...4 shows a loop-type . Because of this reason._ Subtransmission Distribution sUbstation Primary feeders Three-phase primary main One-phase laterals Distribution transformers Secondary mains Consumers' services FIGURE 4.. the radial system is not generally used. with the majority at 69-.. the circuits radiate from the bulk power stations to the distribution substations. and 138-kV voltage levels._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. The subtransmission system designs vary from simple radial systems to a subtransmission network.. It allows relatively faster service restoration when a fault occurs on one of the subtransmission circuits. The voltage of these circuits varies from 12. 115-.. an improved form of radial-type subtransmission design is preferred.. In general. The major considerations affecting the design are cost and reliability. Figure 4.. The radial system is simple and has a low first cost but it also has a low service continuity. clue to higher service reliability.

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations Bulk power source bus 171 I ± I ± I Radial-type subtransmission. Subtransmission circuits Distribution substation I FIGURE 4. Figure 4. . Therefore.O. a single circuit originating from a bulk power bus runs through a number of substations and returns to the same bus. N. The distribution substations are interconnected.5 shows a grid-type subtransmission which has multiple circuits. FIGURE 4. It is the most commonly used form of subtransmission.2 Distribution substation subtransmission system. and the design may have more than one bulk power source. and it requires costly control of power flow and relaying. it has the greatest service reliability. In this design.3 -=- T Improved form of radial-type subtransmission.

.5 Grid.172 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Bulk power source bus Subtransmission circuits Distribution substations ==r:: FIGURE 4.or network-type subtransmission. Bulk power source buses Subtransmission circuits Distribution substations Distribution substations FIGURE 4.4 Dislribuiion substations Loop-type subtransmission.

(From S&C Electric Company.6 A typical distribution substation. A typical substation may include the following equipments: (i) power transformers.7 show typical distribution substations. FIGURE 4.1% impedance. and the second transformer is rated 15/20/28 MVA. (x) coupling capacitors. However. Automatic switching is used for sectionalizing in some of these stations and for preferred emergency automatic transfer in others. 1I5/13. (xvi) protective relays.1 SUBTRANSMISSION LINE COSTS Subtransmission line costs are based on a per mile cost and a termination cost at the end of the line associated with the substation at which it is terminated. (xv) line traps. based on 1994 prices. costs can run from as low as $50.8% impedance. With permission. (xvii) station batteries.000 per mile for a 500 kV double circuit construction with 2000-MVA capacity ($0. (ii) circuit breakers.Design of Subtransmission lines and Distribution Substations 173 4. (xiv) lightning arresters andlor gaps. 4. and (xviii) other apparatus.000 per mile for a 46-kV wooden pole subtransmission line with perhaps 50-MVA capacity ($1 per kVA-mile) to over $1. 115/4. This figure shows two 11S-kV 1200-A vertical-break-style circuit switchers to switch and protect two transformers supplying power to a large tire manufacturing plant.8 shows an overall view of a modern substation. Figure 4. (v) current-limiting reactors.3 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Distribution substation design has been somewhat standardized by the electric utility industry based on past experiences. The transformer located in the foreground is rated 15/20128 MVA. (ix) capacitor voltage transformers. (vi) shunt reactors. (vii) current transformers.9 shows a close view of a typical modern distribution substation transformer.5 per kVA-mile).6 and 4. Figure 4. (viii) potential transformers. 8. 9.8 kY. the process of standardization is a continuous one. (xi) series capacitors. (xiii) grounding system.16 kV. (iii) disconnecting switches.000. The attractive appearance of these substations is enhanced by the use of underground cable in and out of the station as well as between the transformer secondary and the low-voltage bus structure. (xii) shunt capacitors. Figures 4.) . According to the ABB Guidebook [14].2. (iv) station buses and insulators.

3.) . relaying. metering.e. cooling. oil spill containment. Site costs: the cost of buying the site and preparing it for a substation. switches. 2.3. control. along with typical buswork. For planning purposes. (From S&C Electric Company. (From S&C Electric Company. which includes getting feeders out of the substation. Transformer cost: the transformer and all metering.7 A typical small distribution substation. substation costs can be categorized into four groups: 1. 4.. Transmission cost: the cost of terminating transmission at the site. and breakers associated with this type of transformer and their installations. Feeder busworklgetaway costs: the cost of beginning distribution at the substation.) 4. fire prevention. rights-of-way).8 Overview of a modern substation. FIGURE 4. With permission. noise abatement.1 SUBSTATION COSTS Substation costs include all the equipment and labor required to build a substation. and other transformer-related equipment. including the cost of land and easements (i. With permission.174 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 4.

lighting. The feeder busworkl getaway cost is $400.000. grounding mat. real-estate market.) The site depends on local land prices. the utility equipment and installation standards. According to ABB guidebook. estimated costs of feeder bus work and gateways are folded into the transformer costs.000. Often. Substation costs vary greatly depending on type. based on 1994 prices.000.000.5 million. local land prices. It includes the cost of preparing the site in terms of grading. Determine the following: . each with a low-voltage bus. With permission. substation costs can vary from $1. (From ABE. 138-kVI12. fence. capacity. is estimated to be $900. depending on circumstances. and other variable circumstances.9 Close view of typical modern distribution substation transformer. foundations. if it is going to be used to serve a peak load of about 50 MVA. control building.47-kV transformers. buried ductwork. The total site cost of the substation is $600. Typical total substation cost could vary from between about $36 per kW and $110 per kW. . EXAMPLE 4.1 Consider a typical substation which might be fed by two incoming 138-kV lines feeding two 32-MVA. (c) The total substation cost per kVA based on the aforementioned utilization rate. It depends on land costs.8 million to $5.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 175 FIGURE 4. and access road. (a) The total cost of this substation. and other circumstances. landscaping. Each bus has four outgoing distribution feeders of 9 MVA peak capacity each. The total costs of the two transformers and associated equipment is $1. The total transmission cost including high-side bus circuit breakers. labor costs. (b) The utilization factor of the substation.100.

000 + $900.000 kVA 4.100. 2(32 MV A) (c) The total substation cost per kVA is $3. reliability.000 = $60/kVA. .78 or 78%.000 = $3. Figure 4.176 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Solution (a) The total cost of this substation is $600. the selection of a particular substation scheme is based on safety. Figure 4. Table 4. 50. Line t Line Line Line Line FIGURE 4. The most commonly used substation bus schemes include: (i) single bus scheme. and (vi) breaker-and-a-half scheme. Figure 4.13 shows a typical double bus-single breaker scheme. (iii) main-and-transfer bus scheme.11 gives a typical double bus-double breaker scheme.000. Figure 4.000 + $1. Figure 4. (ii) double bus-double breaker (or double main) scheme. On the other hand.10 shows a typical single bus scheme.15 illustrates a typical breaker-and-a-half scheme. Each scheme has some advantages and disadvantages depending upon economical justification of a specific degree of reliability.000.10 A typical single-bus scheme.14 gives a typical ring bus scheme. economy.12 illustrates a typical main-and-transfer bus scheme.1 gives a summary of switching schemes' advantages and disadvantages. (iv) double bussingle breaker scheme. (v) ring bus scheme. and other considerations.000 + $400. (b) The utilization factor of the substation is Fu = maximum demand rated system capacity = 50 MVA == 0. Figure 4. simplicity.000.4 SUBSTATION BUS SCHEMES The electrical and physical arrangements of the s\vitching and busing at the subtransmission voltage level are determined by the selected substation scheme (or diagram).

Incoming line Incoming line ~ . ) t ~ .12 A typical main-and-transfer bus scheme. ) t B".J.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations Line Line 177 t Bus 1 t Bus 2 Line Line ~ FIGURE 4.11 A typical double bus-double breaker scheme. tie Transfer bus Outgoing lines Outgoing lines FIGURE 4. .J.

and the costs of primary feeders. However. mains. subtransmission costs. to select an ideal location for a substation. the following rules should be observed [2]: 1. 4. substation costs. which may not be technical in nature. Line Line Line f----/ 0 Line o Line Line FIGURE 4. The selected substation location should provide enough space for the future substation expansion. 3. as explained in Chapter I.5 SUBSTATION LOCATION The location of a substation is dictated by the voltage levels.178 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Bus 1 Line Line Line Line FIGURE 4. 4. . and distribution transformers. It is also restricted by other factors.13 A typical double bus-single breaker scheme. Locate the substation such that proper voltage regulation can be obtainable without taking extensive measures.14 A typical ring bus scheme. Select the substation location such that it provides proper access for incoming subtransmission lines and outgoing primary feeders and also allows for future growth. so that the addition of load times distance from the substation is minimum. Locate the substation as much as feasible close to the load center of its service area. voltage regulation considerations. 2.

Single bus Advantages I. I. 2. 3. Most expensive. TABLE 4. Difficult to do any maintenance.1 Summary of Comparison of Switching Schemes Switching Scheme 1. 4. High reliability. Double bus-double breaker I. Lowest cost. 2.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations Line Line Line Line 179 --~~---'---+--~--~--~-BuS1 Tie breaker --~~--~---+--~--~--~-Bus2 Line Line Line Line FIGURE 4. 3. Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to either bus. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance.15 A typical breaker-and-a-half scheme. Each circuit has two dedicated breakers. Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. 2. Disadvantages I. 2. continued . 4. Bus cannot be extended without completely de-energizing the substation. Would lose half the circuits for breaker failure if circuits are not connected to both buses. Failure of bus or any circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation.

Potential devices may be used on the main bus for relaying. Line breaker failure takes all circuits connected to that bus out of service. New York. Ring bus 1. McGrawHill. 5. Beaty. 11th cd. 1'/2 breakers per circuit. 5. All switching is done by breakers. Source: From Fink. If a fault occurs during a breaker maintenance period. 6. High reliability. With permission. Bus protection scheme may cause loss of substation when it operates if all circuits are connected to that bus. . Standard Handbook for Electrical Enl{ineers. 6. 4. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. 2. Switching is somewhat complicated when maintaining a breaker. 2. 2. 2.1 (continued) Advantages I. Failure of bus or any circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation. Any breaker can be removed for maintenance without interrupting 4. If a single set of relays is used. load. Main-and-transfer Disadvantages I. 6. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. 4. and H. 2. 4. Requires one extra breaker for the bus tie.. Requires only one breaker per circuit. no disconnect switching required for normal operation. Most flexible operation. 2. One extra breaker is required for the bus tie. 3. W. Four switches are required per circuit. Permits some flexibility with two operating buses. Each circuit is fed by two breakers. the circuit must be taken out of service to maintain the relays (common on all schemes). 3. 5. Low initial and ultimate cost. 5. Flexible operation for breaker maintenance. Either main bus may be isolated for maintenance. or voltage indication.180 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 4. These devices may be required in all cases for synchronizing. I. 3. Bus-tie breaker failure takes entire substation out of service. 3. 6. Simple operation. Requires potential devices on all circuits since there is no definite potential reference point. Circuit can be transferred readily from one bus to the other by use of bus-tie breaker and bus selector disconnect switches.G. the ring can be separated into two sections. 5. Bus failure does not remove any feeder circuits from service. 3. 7. Low initial and ultimate cost. Does not use main bus. live line. 197R. 2. 7. High exposure to bus faults. 4. Automatic reC\osing and protective relaying circuitry rather complex. D. Breaker failure during a fault on one of the circuits causes loss of one additional circuit owing to operation of breaker-failure relaying.. Relaying and automatic reclosing are somewhat involved since the middle breaker must be responsive to either of its associated circuits. 3. I. 2. All switching is done with breakers. Double bus-single breaker 1. Breaker-and-a-half I. Switching Scheme 3. 3. I. Breaker failure of bus side breakers removes only one circuit from service.

// I Distribution _____ transformer I I 1 1 '" + t f"""'-. With permission. and different primary-feeder voltages. or the entire service area of. . . different numbers of primary feeders. it is also customary and helpful to employ geometric figures to represent substation service areas.16. and Reps [5]. and neighbors.16 Square-shaped distribution substation service area. such as adaptability.6 THE RATING OF A DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION The additional capacity requirements of a system with increasing load density can be met by: 1. '" Feeder I I 1 1 1 1 1 // / // / 1 a 'b Area served by lateral / / 1/ L:':______________ : _ 1 . "'". Or developing new substations and thereby holding the rating of the given substation constant.. a distribution substation. Either holding the service area of a given substation constant and increasing its capacity. as suggested by Van Wormer [3]. Further. emergency. 3. 1965. 2. as shown in Figure 4.) . Denton and Reps [4]. It is helpful to assume that the system changes (i) at constant load density for short-term distribution planning and (ii) at increasing load density for long-term planning. ~-------­ ------/1 Feeder load center / / I'" 1 "'". 7.. 6. It is assumed that the square area is served by four primary feeders from a central feed point.. Each feeder and its laterals are of three-phase. local ordinances. 4. The selected substation location should not be opposed by land use regulations.Lateral '" "'". Reps [5] analyzed a square-shaped service area representing a part of. East Pittsburgh. PA. Dots represent balanced three-phase loads lumped at that location and fed by distribution transformers. It simplifies greatly the comparison of alternative plans which may require different sizes of distribution substation. Other considerations.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 181 5./ 4 ---. . The selected substation location should help to minimize the number of customers affected by any service discontinuity. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems.1 FIGURE 4. vol. etc.

w. In Figure 4. A4 is the area served by one of the four feeders emanating from a feed point (mi2). Figure 4.l7 is developed for three-phase overhead lines with an equivalent spacing of 37 inches between phase conductors.1) where S4 is the kilovoltampere load served by one of four feeders emanating from a feed point.9. .00001 '-----''--_"-_-'--_-'-_--'---_--'--_----'-_--'_ _'--_-'--_-1 6 5 4 3 2 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 350 500 Copper conductor. the percent voltage drop from the feed point a to the end of the last lateral at c is Reps [5] simplified this voltage drop calculation by introducing a constant K which can be defined as percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile.17 The K constant for copper conductors. and D is the load density (kVA/mi2). The following analysis is based on the work done by Denton and Reps [4] and Reps [5]. A.l7 gives the K constant for various voltages and copper conductor sizes. or MCM FIGURE 4. each feeder serves a total load of (4.G.182 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Here. Figure 4. assuming a lagging load power factor of 0.l6. 0.

. 1 Feeder load center - Distribution transformer _Lateral b :::::::::::::::::: Area :::::::::::::::::: served by :::::::::::::::::: lateral '::~::::::. (4.4....) FIGURE 4. Assuming uniformly distributed load.667 x K x D x l~.1 can be rewritten as (4..4 and 4..4) or substituting Equation 4.main = 0.18 .5) in Equations 4. vol. 3.2 into Equation 4.18.::::::::: c Hexagonally shaped distribution substation area. that is.2) since (4.. as shown in Figure 4. equally loaded and spaced distribution transformers.3) where 14 is the linear dimension of the primary-feeder service area in miles.5. Reps [5] extends the discussion to a hexagonally shaped service area supplied by six feeders from the feed point which is located at the center. %VD4. East Pittsburgh.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 183 Equation 4. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. With permission. PA. or / 1 ' /" I . the voltage drop in the primary-feeder main is (4. 1965. il is assumed that the total or lumped sum load is located at a point on the main feeder at a distance of 2/3 x l4 from the feed point a. Assume that each feeder service area is equal to one-sixth of the hexagonally shaped total area.

mam . each feeder serves a total load of (4.7 GENERAL CASE: SUBSTATION SERVICE AREA WITH N PRIMARY FEEDERS Denton and Reps [4] and Reps [5] extended the discussion to the general case in which the distribution substation service area is served by n primary feeders emanating from the point.19 Distribution substation service area served by I~ X-----l-'I' dX-1 ·1 II c ~-----------------~------------------~ primary feeders.9.6 into Equation 4. Hence. it is assumed that the total or lump sum is located at a point on the main feeder at a distance of ~ x 16 from the feed point. .7) or substituting Equation 4.8 into Equation 4.9) 4. = -x16 xKxS6 3 or substituting Equation 4. %VD 6 .184 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (4.385 x K x D x l~. the percent voltage drop in the main feeder is %VD 6.19. (4. The differential load served by the feeder in a differential area of dA is Feeder main (n -1) x28 a ~_____ --+-----l::"~~~~. Here.10) 2 (4.----------Ib FIGURE 4.7.8) As before.578 x D x l~ (4.6) where A6 is the area served by one of the six feeders emanating from a feed point (mil) and 16 is the linear dimension of a primary-feeder service area (mi). Assume that the load in the service area is uniformly distributed and each feeder serves an area of triangular shape. as shown in Figure 4.main = 0. S6 = 0.

19) Equations 4.15) Dxl..17) (4.2 gives the results of the application of Equation 4.13) The total service area of the feeder can be calculated as I" All = = J dA x=() (4. 2 x KxD x I" 3 O/OVD" =3 x tan or. . substituting Equation 4. Hence. at a point on the main feeder at a distance of 2/3 x 14 from the feed point a. In Figure 4.12) x+tix or y = (x + dx) tan 8 == x x tan e. 3 "2n (4. and. as a lump-sum load. dA is the differential service area of the feeder (lI1i 2).16) or. The total kilovoltampere load served by one of the n feeders can be calculated as S" = = f x=O I" dS (4. This total load is located.14) I. x tan 8.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations dS=f)dA kYA 185 (4. Table 4.16.18 and 4.19 are only applicable when n ~ 3. x tan 8. (4. the summation of the percent voltage contributions of all such areas is (4.17 can also be expressed as 2 360 0 O/OYD" =-x KxDx/ 3 xtan--.19. the following relationship exists: tan8 = (4. since n(28) = 360 e (4. f) is the load density (kYA/mil).15 into Equation 4.17 to square and hexagonal areas.18) Equation 4.11) where dS is the differential load served by the feeder in the differential area of dA(kYA)..

the total kilovoltampere load served by all four feeders is (4. 3XKXDX!6 3 For n = 1.17 n 4 6 e 45° 30° tan e 2 %VD n 1. the percent voltage drop in the feeder main is (4.2 Application Results of Equation 4.27) . n = 4.8 COMPARISON OF THE FOUR.24) Thus.23) The kilovoltampere load served by one of the feeders is (4.AND SIX-FEEDER PATTERNS For a square-shaped distribution substation area served by four primary feeders.21) To compute the percent voltage drop in uniformly loaded lateral. (4.26) The load current in the main feeder at the feed point a is (4.22) The total area served by all four feeders is TA4 = 41~ mi 2 • = 4A4 (4.20) and for n = 2 it is (4.main = ~ x K x D x l~.0 I {3 tXKXDX(. lump and locate its total load at a point halfway along its length. and multiply the kilovoltampere-mile product for that line length and loading by the appropriate K constant [5]. 4. the area served by one of the four feeders is (4. that is.186 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 4.25) The percent voltage drop in the main feeder is %VD 4.

the area served by one of the six feeders is (4. .31) Therefore.3 2 3 (4.27 and 4.34) or I = 6 Dx/2 3xV 6 L-L .33) The load current in the main feeder at the feed point a is (4.2g) The ampacity. the current-carrying capacity.30) The kilovoltampere load served by one of the feeders is (4.main = r:.\ . that is.29) The total area served by all six feeders is (4. that is. . 3. (4..Design of Subtransrnission Lines and Distribution Substations 187 or I =-----. the total kilovoltampere load served by all six feeders is (4. f) xl.and six-feeder patterns can be found under two assumptions: (i) feeder circuits are thermally limited and (ii) feeder circuits are voltage-drop-limited. .2g. (4.. x K x D x I. .. On the other hand.J3 X V. of a conductor selected for the main feeder should be larger than the current values that can be obtained from Equations 4.32) The percent voltage drop in the main feeder is % VD6.. n = 6.35) The relationship between the service areas of the four. for a hexagonally shaped distribution substation area served by six primary feeders...

37.188 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering For Thermally Limited Feeder Circuits.33 into Equation 4. Dxl. 2 14 (4. drop.36) Substituting Equations 4.35 into Equation 4.37) L _L (4.39) Substituting Equation 4. by dividing Equation 4.44) .28 and 4. the six feeders can carry 1.30.42) Substituting Equations 4. For a given conductor size and assuming equal percent voltage drop.38 into Equation 4.38) Also.50 times as much load as the four feeders if they are thermally loaded. _ L L 3X V (4. (4. J3(~)2.41) Therefore. (4.36.42 and simplifying the result.43) From Equation 4.39. (4. Dxl~ J3 x V from Equation 4. the total area served by all six feeders is (4.23. For a given conductor size and neglecting voltage (4.26 and 4. T~ TA4 = 6/J31~ 4/.30 by Equation 4. For Voltage-Drop-Limited Feeder Circuits.40) or (4.

When the load is uniformly distributed.44 by Equation 4.9 DERIVATION OF THE KCONSTANT Consider the primary-feeder main shown in Figure 4.46) or (4.25 times as much load as the four feeders if they are voltage-drop-limited.I = 2. Here.47) Therefore. phase)] and. (4.20 -------. for a lumped-sum load connected at the end of the main. the effective impedance is Z = -x Zx I Q/phase.78 x I~.45. 4.. as shown in the figure. the effective impedance Z of the three-phase main depends on the nature of the load. 2 When the load has an increasing load density.. 3 Taking the receiving-end voltage as the reference phasor. (4. I is the length of the feeder main (mi). (4.~~I r P + jOr An illustration of a primary-feeder main..49) - 2 (4.48) where z is the impedance of three-phase main line [Q/(mi ..45) Dividing Equation 4. the effective impedance is Z = z x I Q/phase (4.51) I (4. the six feeders can carry only 1. the effective impedance is Z = -xzxl Q/phase.43 into Equation 4. For example.50) Z = R+ jX p- T \lr o- Load I· FIGURE 4. the total area served by all four feeders is TA. .23.20.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 189 Substituting Equation 4.

190 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering _ _ _ 0° FIGURE 4.eI (4.56) V -V (4. Here.53b) and the power factor is a lagging one. When the real power P and the reactive power Q flow in opposite directions.21. the per unit (pu) voltage regulation is defined as VR pu v __ -Vr =_. the sending-end voltage is (4. . 53a) and the power factor angle is e = ev.Vr x 100 Vr (4. .21 Ph as or diagram.54) and the percent voltage regulation is O/OVRpu = V._ _ r (4. Vr (4.57) where VB is normally selected to be Yr' .52) The current is - 1=IL-e (4. the power factor is a leading one.55) or °kNR = VRpu x 100 whereas the pu voltage drop is defined as _ . from the phasor diagram given in Figure 4.

(4.' v -V x VB lOO (4.62) .21.61.j sin 8)(R + jX). Common PT Ratios 20 Va 2400Y 60 100 nooy 12. In typical distribution circuits. and the voltage angle 8 is closer to zero or typically whereas in typical transmission circuits. Use line-to-neutral voltages for single-phase three-wire or three-phase three. The base secondary voltage is usually selected as 120 V.. (4. The base primary voltage is usually selected with respect to the potential transformation (PT) ratio used. the sin 8 can be neglected in Equation 4. the percent voltage drop is O/OYD = _S_'.61) The quantities in Equation 4. Hence Y.59) where VB is the arbitrary base voltage.OOOY From Figures 4. since X is much larger than R.20 and 4.61 becomes Vs = v. Therefore.60) or Vs (cos8 + j sin 8) = VrLO° + l(cos8 . for a typical distribution circuit. the sending-end voltage is ~ = Vr+IZ (4. cos 8 and Equation 4.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 191 Hence.58) or O/OYD = YD pu x 100 (4.or four-wire systems. + IR cos 8 + IX sin 8. = Y.61 can be either all in pu or in the MKS (or SI) system..

(4.68) or VD I'" - '" (S/V:)Rcose+(S.l e (4.+ Substituting Equation 4.65 into Equation 4. VD pu _ RP.I * . Vs =V . RQ.64) Therefore. The complex power at the receiving end is P.Nr)~sin~ VB (4. V .69) or VDpu x X sin == --'-------'-----VrV. LOa . V.63) and it is a positive quantity. which is the exact equation since the voltage angle (5 is not neglected. for a lagging power factor. = fi. the sending-end voltage can be written as v = VLO o+ RP. + XQ.XP.65) smce Substituting Equation 4.67 into Equation 4. + jQ. .70) .66) or approximately.VB (4. LOa (4. . ) V.57. (4. _ s. The VDpu is negative when there is a leading power factor due to shunt capacitors or when there is a negative reactance X due to series capacitors installed in the circuits.67) == RP' +XQ.61. V. +XQ.192 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Therefore the pu voltage drop. is VD pu = IRcose+IXsine VB (4. (4.

74) Of VO PlI = S x K X 53¢ pu V (4.69 and 4.72) s. = V.63. use Equation 4. To determine the K constant. Use the line-to-neutral voltage values and per phase values for the PI' Q" and Sr. of kV A· mi To get the percent voltage drop.77 by 100.¢)(s)(rcose+xsin e)(~ x 1000 ) VO pu == Vr VB .VB x 100 (4. and s. VO plI == RPr +XQ.71) Q.cosew (4. Equations 4.78) . cos and it has the unit of eyB) arbitrary no.68. VV r B or (S. so that (rCOse+xsine{~xlOOO ) K == Y. since (4. multiply the right side of Equation 4. spacing. = Sr sin e var.70 can also he derived from Equatioll 7.75) or VO PlI = S x K X 5" pu V (4.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 193 since P.70 can be either all in pu or in the Sl system.68 and 4.76) where K == (rCOse+xsine{~x 1000) VrVB (4.77) Therefore.73) The quantities in Equations 4. pu V (4. K = f (conductor size. (4.I VA.

7456X0. K == (rcose + xsin e{ ~ x 1000 ) VrVB where r = 1..1366 Qlmi from Table A.2 Assume that a three-phase 4.194 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering which has the unit of %VD arbitrary no..---. of kV A· mi In Equations 4. For example.0001 VDp)(kVA·mi) .1O for 60 Hz and 37-inch spacing cos e = 0..9. (a) Determine the K constant of the main by employing Equation 4.503 n/mi from Table A..l6-kV wye-grounded feeder main has #4 copper conductors with an equivalent spacing of 37 inches between phase conductors and a lagging load power factor of 0.609 Q/mi from Table A.9+0. Therefore. s is the effective length of the feeder main which depends on the nature of the load. Solution (a) From Equation 4. lagging. s= ! x I unit length when the load has an increasing load density.4359{jx 1000 ) K ::0: .. s = ~ x I unit length. X(J = 0. the effective feeder length is s = I unit length when the load is uniformly distributed along the main.9. the pu voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile is 0 (1..I for 50 e and 60 Hz. XL = X(J + Xd = 0..76.503XO. EXAMPLE 4.74 through 4...I for 60 Hz....----------------- - 2400 2 == 0.7456 n/mi. line-to-neutral voltage... (b) Determine the K constant of the main by using the precalculated percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile curves and compare it with the one found in part a.....77.. when the load is connected at the end of the main as lumped sum. Xd = 0. and Vr = VB = 2400 V.77..

3.17. I· $= 1= 1 mi # 4 copper 0m= 37" kVLL =4.01 % VD/(kVA x mi) x SOOkVA = S.S mi. .0mi x 0.O%.9 lag FIGURE 4.2 and a lumped-sum load of SOO kYA with a lagging load power factor of 0. Calculate the percent voltage drop in the main.16 kV 500 kVA PF = 0. (b) From Figure 4.3.23 has the same characteristics as the one in Example 4.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 195 or K == 0.22 has the same characteristics as the one in Example 4. EXAMPLE 4. the K constant for #4 copper conductors is K == O. but the SOO-kYA load is uniformly distributed along the feeder main.22 The feeder of Example 4.4 Assume that the feeder shown in Figure 4. Calculate the percent voltage drop in the main.9 is connected at the end of a l-mi long feeder main. Solution The percent voltage drop in the main is %VD =s x KxS n where the effective feeder length s is s=t=O.04%YD/(kYA· mi).3 Assume that the feeder shown in Figure 4. Solution The percent voltage drop in the main is %YD = s x K X SI! = 1.OI%YD/(kYA· mi) which is the same as the one found in part a. EXAMPLE 4.

..196 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 1 ...24 has the same characteristics as the one in Example 4...4. 1 -S=~=0.01 %VD/(kVA xmi) x 500kVA = 2. Solution The percent voltage drop in the main is %VD=sxKxS" 1 .... Calculate the percent voltage drop in the main....5min_1a 9 FIGURE 4.5 Assume that the feeder shown in Figure 4... but the 500-kVA load has an increasing load density.6667 mi ----> . --- S= ~ 1= 0... Therefore.. ~I b FIGURE 4..5.1= 1.23 also shows the conversion of the uniformly distributed load to a lumped-sum load located at point a for the voltage drop calculation.1=1 mi . Therefore.23 I I I I I I I 1 1 The feeder of Example 4..... 0 .5%..0 mi ---------~ I~.3.. %VD = sxKxSn = 0..... Figure 4.. .24 The feeder of Example 4..5mix 0.... it can be seen that the negative effect of the lumped-sum load on the % VD is worse than the one for the uniformly distributed load. EXAMPLE 4.

50 (4.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 197 where the effective feeder length s is s =~ Therefore.33 = 1. (4.5(% VDincreasing). (4. Figure 4.81) Therefore. % VDunifonn 2. 2.6667 mi.exKxS 3 t = 0.0 = 2. Thus it can be seen that the negative effect of the load with an increasing load density is worse than the one for the uniformly distributed load but is better than the one for the lumped-sum load.0 = 1.5.5 (4. %YD = '?:.33 (4.33%.6 Use the results of the calculations of Examples 4.80) (b) The ratio of the percent voltage drop for the lumped-sum load to the percent voltage drop for the load with increasing load density is % VDlumped = 5. EXAMPLE 4.0(% VDunifonn). % VDlumped = 2. and reach conclusions.24 also shows the conversion of the load with an increasing load density to a lumped-sum load located at point b for the voltage drop calculation.6667mi x O.83) . II = 0..79) Therefore.5 to calculate and compare the percent voltage drop ratios.82) (c) The ratio of the percent voltage drop for the load with increasing load density to the one for the uniformly distributed load is % VDincreasing % VDuniform = 3. % VDlumped = 1.0.OI%YD/(kYAxmi) x 500kYA = 3. % VDincrcasing 3. Solution (a) The ratio of the percent voltage drop for the lumped-sum load to the one for the uniformly distributed load is % VDlumped = 5.33.3 through 4.

#4/0 AWG copper conductors are used for the three-phase primary-feeder mains.84) 4. The equivalent spacing between phase conductors is 37 in. (4. The curves are drawn for five primary-feeder voltage levels and for two different percent voltage drops..3_-:-:-::n n 3/2 x D"2 (tan 8)1/2 (4. n is the number of primary feeders. #4 AWG copper conductors are used for the three-phase primary-feeder laterals. A lagging load power factor of 0. primary-feeder voltage.. Based on Equation 4.198 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Therefore. The combination of distribution substations and primary feeders applied in a given system are generally designed to give specified percent voltage drop or a specified kilovoltampere loading in primary feeders. K is the % VD/(kVA .e 2 TS3/2 -xK % VD = n --=.- (3. % VDincreasing = 1.) (4. mi) of the feeder. as shown in Figures 4. total kilovoltampere loading of all n primary feeders including a pattern serving the load area of a substation or feed point.85) n n is the effective length of where %VD n is the percent voltage· drop in primary-feeder circuit. In areas where load density is light and primary feeders must cover long distances. 3 and 6%.9. which may be attained as a feeder becomes more heavily loaded. X£. 3. and permissible feeder loading. and D is the load density.. substation load kilovoltamperes..5(% VDuniform). . In areas where load density is relatively heavy and primary feeders are relatively short. The distribution substation application curves are based on the following assumptions [5]: .. the allowable maximum percent voltage in a primary feeder usually determines the kilovoltampere loading limit on that feeder. In Figures 4.. the curves for n versus Dare given for constant TSn or TA". 2.26.25 and 4. 4. that is. that is.10 SUBSTATION APPLICATION CURVES Reps [5] derived the following formula to relate the application of distribution substations to load areas: K(n x D x A ) 3 n n % VDn = . A" is the area served by one feeder. The curves are the plots of number of primary feeders n versus load density D for numerous values of TS". total area served by all n feeders emanating from the feed point or substation. These application curves relate the load density. Reps [5] and Denton and Reps [4] developed an alternative form of Equation 4.85 as x. that is. 1. The percent voltage drop is [5] measured from the feed point or distribution substation bus to the last distribution transformer on the farthest lateral on a feeder." .. .' . and before voltage drop becomes a problem.25 and 4.26.86.. they have developed the distribution substation application curves. ~ the primary feeder. the maximum allowable loading on a primary feeder is usually governed by its current-carrying capacity.86) where TS n = total kVA supplied from a substation (= n x D x An).

"/./ '§" 6 I . Imi2_hsubstation area 40 Thermal loading limit of feeders 6 30.-.32 kV 15J 1b~1ni2 I I 20000 10 '1\/ ~ 115.000 20.000 20... 1)'- 10 8 I 100 2 KI7/ ~ l"1000 2 hZ' . 8 1--24.1 4 3 2 1 12 "K I/K/ Ix."- '" 1 r" /'.000 20.t--"-.30.000 .J V / / -56>( 4 7 ~ I/' / / 3 .000 kVA substation load 11 4...000 25.\.sf· I I I \ 10 10 2 I 7500 I 4 ..+ 0 30~ mi 2 / / ' / 20 2 substation area 15 10 1 1 1100 2 34 5 1000 2 34 5 10.. Thermal loading 4 500~ . 1965. 1/ 4 "")( 1"f..000 l'! Q) " "- "" '" --- 12 42...000 136. E 3 :J I k' ~ Z 2 1 1 100 2 345 1000 2 3 4 5 10. "'" --- '1'-' '" 12 11 10 9 8 7 13. kVAlmi2 FY ")( ~I/ 'I. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems.f/ V / 5 "'-. East Pittsburgh. )1'3 1>< f=I?'2 . J II .5001 X 1)\ 7 4000 1/ '!( t){ 6 -~ -7'1/ 3000 5 I/)( "'-)( "20001 / mi substation area 2 "- 2. \[ 10 Thermal loading J'\ 1/\ 9 H..00020.000 40.91 170. 0 OJ 7 E 1'..25 Distribution substation application curves for 3% voltage drop.000 1\ "160. '>< "'" V Thermal loading limit of feeders --_.8/8..3 1000 I'\. 'f..1\.000 'V Y-..000 \ 10. voL 3... "/.. " / / / J FIGURE 4.... W/ I>< V / / 3 1/ V I>ZZ V / 2 2 30 20 10 4 1 100 2 34 5 1000 2 34 5 10.000 N1 50..0?~1I 'r--J 4 )<.. / / 6 12. 1'-.L..: bL- /"" Thermal loading limit of feeders 34 5 34 5 10./ I I 7 18..000 kVA substation load 11 4. . II'--J 1/'1.r I"--...Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 12 11 10 9 24/416 kV 199 10000 kVA substation load 75007 m 6 '{ 6000 / -~ J 5 4 TI rYJ II' 3 8 I . i5 5 f--7~bo I 1)1: "A (.000 60 1.62113.2 kV 11 48./ 2-t6 -4000 / 3000' 5 "1 V I'-..I I I mi I 9 substation area \/ \ 8 -hri06 5 7 _50001\ 3 I"X "'-..J'..600 II 5 2o.000 .7 7\ I I 8 <:5 j\ 12.000 kVA s ubstation load 7.odo 'f.000 Load density.000 20.000 Q) substation area 9 . With permission. f\. PA.0 V limit of feeders ll' I "--/.000 / b( J I'-...2122.000 " / limit of feeders 7' \ .) .. 100 2 12 34 5 1000 2 34 5 10.l'! \. !><-.

_1_----1 ~ 20000 100 2 34 5 1000 2 345 10.b.-1---~ 3 0..~~~==~=t Thermal limit of feeders __~~~~L--L~ / lL--L~~ Q) . As such a curve is followed.5 6 5 6000 loading .ubstation load 10-ml 8 substation area 65 4 3 Thermal loading limit of feeders 4.00020..2122.000 /' ~r.16 kV Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 15. Vol.000 kVA+I=t'-"-"-I-_-+-=--fi 9 90...'--. 1965.000 kVA .2 kV 10 54.000 8 42. a curve of constant loading may be followed (from upper-left toward lower-right) as load density increases.000 5 .4<'--7''--+--+--.000 8 25. For each substation or feedpoint kilovoltampere loading.000 7 6 Thermal loading 5 4 limit of feeders 3 3 2 lL--L~LL Z __~~~~L--L~ 12100 2 345 1000 2 34510.8kV mi 2 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 SUbstation area 9 7 .000-/-.8/8. and the number of primary feeders required to serve that load decreases.) The application curves readily show whether the loading of primary feeders in a given substat ion area is Iimited by voltage drop or feeder current-carrying capacity. kVAlmi2 FIGURE 4.000 30.4/4.000 -H-f---f----f---f--i 6 60.000 .'---1----1---1---1 4 0.200 2. load density increases.000'-h'--j'--+---r---.000 kVA substation area 9 48..000 Load density. PA...{ 8 30.illeerinM Reference Book-Distribution Systems.000 20.32 kV 11 20 substation area 10 35. East Pittsburgh.000 ~ 24.50.000 43 12.Thermal loading limit of feeders 2 \00~-2~3-4~5~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ 13.000 12 ____ mi2 4..0 E ::> 100 2 345 1000 2 3 45 10. With permission.OOO-H'-I'---f----+--+--i 7 70. 3. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utilitl' EIlr. But eventually the number of .000 mi 2 11 7.000 kVA s..000 +1-1'---1---+--"+1 B BO.000 7 36.~~~.000.9 kV 100 mi' substation area 10 100.t:==l.26 Distribution substation application curves for 6% voltage drop.000 20.62113.

Show and explain your reasoning and calculations. spacing. In the region of constant primary-feeder loading. (b) In case thermally loaded or thermally limited feeders are encountered.0 6.l6-kV line-to-line voltage base) among the figures given in Figure 4.2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . The remaining cases can be answered in a similar manner as given in Table 4. one region in which voltage drop is constant. Note that cases 6 and 8 are TABLE 4. From the appropriate figure (the one with 3. or 4. 500 kVA/mi2 load density. are valid only for the conductor sizes.25 and 4.0 1.000 Substation Area Coverage TAn (mi 2 ) 6. feeder loading is constant. given in Figures 4. the number of required feeders can be found as 3. Solution (a) For case 1. attempt to deduce if it is the #4/0 AWG copper main or the #4 AWG copper lateral that is thermally limited.0 3.0 6.0 3. or kilovoltampere-thermal. EXAMPLE 4. and load power factor stated.3 The Data for Example 4. For the horizontal portion of the curve.0 3. (a) Use the substation application curves and the data given in Table 4. and (3) whether the feeders are thermally limited or voltage-drop-limited.7 Case No. and the line of constant feed-point loading abruptly changes slope and becomes horizontal.16 4.7 Refer to previous text and note that the distribution substation application curves. capacity. As the corresponding point in the figure is located on the left-hand side of the curve for the thermalloading limit of feeders (the one with darker line).000 10. percent voltage drop decreases as load density increases.8.0 1.0 Maximum Total Primary Feeder (% VD) 3. (2) the required number of feeders.0-mF substation area coverage.0% voltage drop and 4.\6 13.000 2. the total substation kilovoltampere load is TS = DxTA fl Il = sOOx6. but percent voltage drop decreases as load density increases. for 3000-kVA substation load. and the other region within which primary-feeder loading is constant.000 1O.16 4.16 4.26.16 4. Hence each set of planning curves may be divided into two general regions. Tabulate the results.0 6.000 2.0 \5.0 6.0 6.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 201 primary feeders diminishes to the minimum number required to carry the given kilovoltampere load from the standpoint of feeder current -carrying. load Density D (kVA/mj2) 500 500 2.0 = 3000 kVA.16 4.0 Base Feeder Voltage (kV u ) 4.0 3. and 6.0 \5.0 3.000 2.3 for eight different cases and determine: (I) the substation sizes.2 \3. Further decrease in the number of primary feeders is not permissible. the feeders are voltage-drop-limited.25.4.

202

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

TABLE 4.4 Cases of Example 4.7
Case No. Substation Size TS"
3000 3000 6000 6000 10,000 10,000 30,000 30,000

Required No. of Feeders N
3.8 (or 4) 2 5 3 5 4 5.85 (or 6) 5

Voltage-Orop-Limited (Vdl) or Thermally Limited (ll) Feeders VOL VOL VOL VOL VOL TL VOL TL

2 3 4 5 6
7

8

thermally limited feeders as their corresponding points are located on the right-hand side of the thermal-loading limit curves. (b) Cases 6 and 8 have feeders which are thermally loaded. From Table A-I the conductor ampacities for a #4/0 copper main and a #4 copper lateral can be found as 480 A and 180 A, respectively. For case 6, the kilovoltampere load of one feeder is S = TS"

"

n

= 1O,000kVA = 2,500kVA.
4

Therefore, the load current is
1=

J3 X V

S"

_ L L

J3 x4.16kV

2500kVA

= 347.4A.

As the conductor ampacity of the lateral is less than the load current, it is thermally limited but not the main feeder. For case 8, the kilovoltampere load of one feeder is
S" = 30,000kVA = 6,OOOkYA. 5

The load current is
1=

6000kYA = 262.4A. x13.2kY

Therefore, only the lateral is thermally limited.

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

203

4.11

INTERPRETATION OF THE PERCENT VOLTAGE DROP FORMULA

Equation 4.85 can be rewritten in alternative forms to illustrate the inter-relationship of several parameters guiding the application of distribution substations to load areas
K(n x D x A,,) % VO" = .-'----....---'-----------

n

3 x ( 3:.

jI

1/

x K)TS
n

Ii

=

(.~ x e 3

x K)S
"

II

where %VO" is the percent voltage drop in primary-feeder circuit, 2/3 x .e" is the effective length of primary feeder, TS" = n x D x A" is the total kilovoltamperes supplied from feed point, K is the %VO/(kVA . mi) of the feeder, An is the area served by one feeder, n is the number of primary feeders, and D is the load density. To illustrate the use and interpretation of the equation, assume five different cases, as shown in Table 4.5. Case 1 represents an increasing service area as a result of geographic extensions of a city. If the length of the primary feeder is doubled (shown in the table by x 2), holding everything else constant, the service area A" of the feeder increases four times, which in turn increases TS and SIl four times, causing the %VO Il in the feeder to increase eight times. Therefore, increasing the feeder length should be avoided as a remedy due to the severe penalty. Case 2 represents load growth due to load density growth. For example, if the load density is doubled, it causes TS" and S" to be doubled, which in turn increases the %VO" in the feeder to be doubled. Therefore, increasing load density also has a negative· effect on the voltage drop. Case 3 represents the addition of new feeders. For example, if the number of the feeders is doubled, it causes S" to be reduced by half, which in turn causes the %VO" to be reduced by half. Therefore, new feeder additions help to reduce the voltage drop. Case 4 represents feeder reconductoring. For example, if the conductor size is doubled, it reduces the K constant by half, which in turn reduces the %VO" by half.
Il

TABLE 4.5 Illustration of the Use and Interpretation of Equation 4.85
Case

'n

K

Base kV L_L

n

D

An

TSn

Sn

%VO n

1. Geographic extensions 2. Load growth 3. Add new feeders

x2i xl xl xl xl

xl xl xl xl-t 2 xl-t
3

xl xl xl xl x{3i

xl xl x2i xl xl

xl x2i xl xl xl

x4i xl xl-t 2 xl xl

x4i x2i xl xl xl

x4i x2i xl-t 2 xl xl

xsi x2i xl-t 2 xl-t 2 xl-t
3

4. Feeder
reconductoring 5. ll.-to-Y-grounded conversion

204

ElectriC Power Distribution System Engineering

Case 5 represents the delta-to-grounded-wye conversion. It increases the line-to-line base kilovoltage by...[3, which in turn decreases the K constant, causing the %VDn to decrease to one-third its previous value.
EXAMPLE

4.8

To illustrate distribution substation sizing and spacing, assume a square-shaped distribution substation service area as shown in Figure 4.16. Assume that the substation is served by four three-phase four-wire 2.4/4.16-kV grounded-wye primary feeders. The feeder mains are made of either #2 AWG copper or #1/0 aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors. The three-phase open-wire overhead lines have a geometric mean spacing of 37 inches between the phase conductors. Assume a lagging load power factor of 0.9 and a 1000 kVA/mi2 uniformly distributed load density. Calculate the following:
(a) Consider thermally loaded feeder mains and find:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Maximum load per feeder Substation size Substation spacing, both ways Total percent voltage drop from the feed point to the end of the main

(b) Consider voltage-drop-limited feeders which have 3% voltage drop and find:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Substation spacing, both ways Maximum load per feeder Substation size Ampere loading of the main in pu of conductor ampacity

(c) Write the necessary codes to solve the problem in MATLAB.

Solution From Tables A.I and A.5 of Appendix A, the conductor ampacities for #2 AWG copper and #110 ACSR conductors can be found as 230 A.
(a) Thermally loaded mains:

(i) Maximum load per feeder is
SII =

J3

X

VL _ L

X

Imax

=J3 x4.l6x230=1657.2kVA. (ii) Substation size is
TS 11 =4 x S11

= 4 x 1657.2 = 6628.8 kV A. (iii) Substation spacing, both ways, can be found from
SII

= All X [)

=I; xD
or

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

205

1/2

l657.2kVA ) - ( IOOOkVA/mi 2
= 1.287mi.

Therefore, 214 = 2 x 1.287
= 2.575mi.

(iv) Total percent voltage drop in the main is
% VD = - x K x D " 3

2

X 1 4

?

= 2 x 0.007 x 1000 x (1.287)3

3

= 9.95%

where K is 0.007 and is found from Figure 4.l7.
(b) Voltage-drop-limited feeders: (i) Substation spacing, both ways, can be found from

% VD =
n

2 ? x K x D X l43

or

1 = (3 x %VD n )113 4 2xKxD

3x3 ( - 2 x 0.007 x 1000
= 0.86 mi.

)1/3

Therefore, 2/4 = 2 xO.86
= 1.72 mi.

(ii) Maximum load per feeder is
S" = Dxl;
= 1000 x (0.86)2 == 750kVA.

206

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(iii) Substation size is
TS = 4 X SII
II

= 4 x 750 = 3000kVA.
(iv) Ampere loading of the main is
1= SII

Jj XVL _ L
750kVA

Jj x4.16kV
= 104.09A.

Therefore, the ampere loading of the main in pu of conductor ampacity is
I = 104.09 A
pu

230A =0.4526pu.

(c) Here is the MATLAB script:

clc clear % System parameters VLL = 4.16; % kV lamp = 230; % ampacity from Tables A-1 and A-S D = 1000; % uniformly distributed load density in kVA/miA2 K = 0.007; % from Figure 4-17 pVDn_b = 3; % voltage-drop~limited feeders
% solution for part a

(thermally loaded mains)

% (i) Maximum load per feeder Sn a = sqrt(3)*VLL*Iamp
% (ii) TSn a

=

Substation size is 4*Sn a

% (iii) Substation spacing, both ways 14 = sqrt(Sn_a/D) lsp_a = 2*14

% (iv) Substation spacing A pVDn_a = (2/3)*K*D*14 3
% Solution for part (b) (voltage-drop-limited feeders)

% (i) Substation spacing, both ways 14 = ((3*pVDn_b)/(2*K*D) )A(1/3) lsp_b = 2*14

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

207

% (ii) Maximum load per feeder A Sn b = D*14 2 % (iii) Substation size is TSn b = 4*Sn b % (iv) Ampere loading of the mains I = Sn_b/(sqrt(3)*VLL) Ipu = I/Iamp
EXAMPLE

4.9

Assume a square-shaped distribution substation service area as shown in Figure 4.27. The square area is 4 mi and has numerous three-phase laterals. The designing distribution engineer has the following design data, which are assumed to be satisfactory estimates. The load is uniformly distributed, and the connected load density is 2000 kVA/mi2. The demand factor, which is an average value for all loads, is 0.60. The diversity factor among all loads in the area is 1.20. The load power factor is 0.90 lagging, which is an average value applicable for all loads. For some unknown reasons (perhaps, due to the excessive distance from load centers or transmission lines, or other limitations, such as availability of land, its cost, and land use ordinances and regulations), the only available substation sites are at locations A and B. If the designer selects site A as the substation location, there will be a 2-mi long feeder main and 16 three-phase 2-mi long laterals. On the other hand, if the designer selects site B as the substation location, there will be a 3-mi long feeder main (including a I-mi long express feeder main) and 32 three-phase I-mi long laterals. The designer wishes to select the better one of the given two sites by investigating the total peak load voltage drop at the end of the most remote lateral, that is, at point a. Assume 7.62/13.2-kV three-phase four-wire grounded-wye primary-feeder mains which are made of #2/0 copper overhead conductors. The laterals are made of #4 copper conductors, and they are all three-phase, four-wire, and grounded-wye. Using the precalculated percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile curves given in Figure 4.17, determine the better substation site by calculating the percent voltage drops at point a that correspond to each substation site and select the better one.

AD
Laterals

Main

T
1 mi

B

Main

-

I-

Laterals

1 mi

f--1 mi

2mi

a

FIGURE 4.27

For Example 4.9.

208

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Solution
Maximum diversified demand is

Ldemand factor; x connected load;
Diversified demand =
...!;~=I,--------------

n

diversity factor

0.60x2000 kVAlmi2 1.20 = 1000kVAlmi2. The peak loads of the substations A and B are the same
TSII = 1000kV Almi2 x4mi 2
= 4000kVA.

=--------

From Figure 4.17, the K constants for #2/0 and #4 conductors are found as 0.0004 and 0.00095, respectively. The maximum percent voltage drop for substation A occurs at point a, and it is the summation of the percent voltage drops in the main and the last lateral. Therefore, %VD" =
=

"2 KmS", + "2 K,S,
~

1

1

x 0.0004 x 4000 + ~ x 0.00095 x 4000 2 2 16 == 1.84%.

The maximum percent voltage drop for substation B also occurs at point a. Therefore, 1 4000 % VD" = 2 x 0.0004 x 4000 + -x 0.00095 x - 2 32
== 3.26%.

Therefore, substation site A is better than substation site B from the voltage drop point of view.
EXAMPLE

4.10

Assume a square-shaped distribution substation service area as shown in Figure 4.28. The fourfeeder substation serves a square area of 2a x 2a mi 2. The load density distribution is D kVA/mi2 and is uniformly distributed. Each feeder main is three-phase four-wire grounded-wye with multigrounded common neutral open-wire line. Since dimension d is much smaller than dimension (I, assume that the length of each feeder main is approximately (I mi, and the area served by the last lateral, which is indicated in the figure as the cross-hatched area, is approximately (I x dmi 2 • The power factor of all loads is cos lagging. The impedance of the feeder main line per phase is

e

Design of Subtransmission lines and Distribution Substations

I , I " I,
I I
1

"'----------------TI, ~~
~~

/-d-/

1

1
,

/

'"

/(/ : / I I ',/( I I I IMain / 'I / '

T 1
8
8

209

I I

I I

/

//

"I: , I

I I

I I

i//
1'
FIGURE 4.28

!

I

//

/

'~I

'.! !
'~J

~-----------------~---

I

i

I

2t

8

:1

Service area for Example 4.30.

The impedance of the lateral line per phase is

The V L _ L is the base line-to-line voltage in kilovolts, which is also the nominal operating voltage. (a) Assume that laterals are also three-phase four-wire grounded-wye with multigrounded cornman neutral open-wire line. Show that the percent voltage drop at the end of the last lateral is
% VD = 2D x a3(~11 cose + jx", sine) 30 x VL2 _ L

+D x a

2

X

d(li cos~ + jx{ sine). 20 X VL _ L

(4.87)

(b) Assume that the laterals are single-phase two-wire with multigrounded common neutral

open-wire line. Apply Morrison's approximation [6] and modify the equation given in part a.

Solution
(a) The total kilovoltampere load served by one main is

S = Dx (2a)2

'"
2

4
= Dxa kVA.

(4.88)

210

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

The current in the main of the substation is (4.89)

Therefore, the percent voltage drop at the end of the main is 2 %VDm= gxa (rm cose+xm sine) ,,3 x VL _ L 1000
2D x a
3
---::-2 VL _ L

.J3 (~xa)100 X V 3
L_L

(4.90)

30 x

-(rm cose+Xm sme).

The kilovoltampere load served by the last lateral is (4.91) The current in the lateral is

I _Dxaxd
1-

.J3 X V

(4.92)

_ L L

Thus, the percent voltage drop at the end of the lateral is

. %VD I = Dxaxd r;:; (licose+xlsme) ,,3 x VL _ L
2

.J3
1000
X

VL _ L

(1- x )100
2
a

(4.93)

----::?:--(li cos e+ XI sm e). 20 x Vi_L Therefore, the addition of Equations 4.90 and 4.93 gives Equation 4.87.
(b) According to Morrison [6], the percent voltage drop of a single-phase circuit is approxi-

D x a

X

d

.

mately four times that for a three-phase circuit, assuming the usage of the same-size conductors. Therefore, (4.94) Hence, the percent voltage drop in the main is the same as given in part (a), but the percent voltage drop for the lateral is not the same and is
0, _

IOVD /1 ,,-4x

.,'

D x a X d. . ? (licose+xlsme) 20 x VI.-I.

2

D x a2 X d . - - - 2-(li cose + XI sm e). 5 x VL _ L

(4.95)

)esign of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

211

Thus, the total percent voltage drop will be the sum of the percent voltage drop in the threcJhase main, given by Equation 4.90, and the percent voltage drop in the single-phase lateral, given Jy Equation 4.95. Therefore, the total voltage drop is
2D x a J • 0 (r cose+x sme) 30 x v111 111 L-L

%VD =

(4.96)

+

D x a2 x d

5x

Vl~_L

0

. ('icose+x,SlI1e).

EXAMPLE

4.11

Figure 4.29 shows a pattern of service area coverage (not necessarily a good pattern) with primaryfeeder mains and laterals. There are five substations shown in the figure, each with two feeder mains. For example, substation A has two mains like A, and each main has many closely spaced laterals such as a-a. If the laterals are not three-phase, the load in the main is assumed to be well-balanced among the three phases. The load tapped off the main decreases linearly with the distance s, as shown in Figure 4.30.

E

-r-i~-~-- --:~;~-----------i
2/2
I I I I I I I I I I I I I

/"\. /"\.

-t
I

/2

I "\. I I"\. I

~-D

/ I"\. a I "\. I"\. AI I H-+_~~~+_+_HI

----*------

1
22
I I I

t

~ L:~ ~-~~ '----J
l B · I I I I I I I I
I I

I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I

i i i
I I I I I I l ____________ L ___________

J

I...

2/2

..

I...

12--1--/2--1

FIGURE 4.29

Service area for Example 4.11.

212

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

/

/

/

/

FIGURE 4.30

Linearly decreasing load for Example 4.11.

Using the following notation and the notation given in the figures, analyze a feeder main.

D = uniformly distributed load density, kVA/mi2 VL _ L = base voltage and nominal operating voltage, line-to-line kV A2 = area supplied by one feeder main TAl = area supplied by one substation 52 = kVA input at the substation to one feeder main T5 2 = total kVA load supplied by one substation K2 = % VD/(kVA . mil for conductors and load power factor being considered Z2 = impedance of three-phase main line, Q/(mi· phase) VD 2 = voltage drop at end of main, for example, AI'
(a) Find the differential area dA and the differential kilovoltampere-Ioad supplied d(5) shown

in Figure 4.30.
(b) Find the kVA load flow in the main at any point s, that is, S,. Express the S, in terms of 52'

and [2' Find the differential voltage drop at point s and then show that the total load may be concentrated at s = /2/3 for the purpose of computing the VD 2 . (d) Suppose that this two-feeder-per-substation pattern is to be implemented with thermally lim ited, that is, ampacity-Ioaded, feeders.
.1',

(e)

Assume that the load density is SOO kVA/mi2, the line-to-line voltage is 12.47 kV, and the feeder maillS are #4/0 AWG ACSR open-wire lines. Find the substation spacing, both ways, that is, 2/ 2 , and the load Oil the substation transformers, that is, T5 2•
SO/III ion
(a)

Frolll Figure 4.30, the differential area is

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

213

(4.97) Therefore, the differential kilovoltampere load supplied is d(5) = 2D(l2-s)ds kVA.
(b) The kilovoltampere load tlow in the main at any point s is

(4.98)

= 2(l? - st

?
?

-

x---=:,
21:;
x52 kVA.

5?

(4.99)

I =
(

.I'
)

-

\

(c) The differential current at any points is

I =
s

J3 X V

5,

(4.100)

_ L L

Hence, the differential voltage drop at points is

(4.101)

The integration of either side of Equation 4.101 gives the voltage drop at point .1':

VDs =

f
o

s

d(VD)s
X

=f
=
=

o J3 x VL _ L x
52

52

Z2

Ii

(l2- S )2ds

(4.102)
52 X Z2
L-L

x

Z2
X

J3 x V

L-L

3J3 x V

52 X Z2
L-L

I; 3 - J3 x V X I; 2 [I; -(I-s/].
X

I;

(12 -

.I' )3

3

12

When s = 1 2 , Equation 4.102 becomes

214

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

VDo

- J.J3 X V

=

So X Z2 Xl~
2

L-L

X

l2

_ S2 X Z2 x/ 2
- 3.J3 x V L-L
Xz X--.L
2

(4.103)
I

3

Therefore, the load has to be lumped at li3.
(d) From Table A.S of Appendix A, the conductor ampacity for #4/0 AWG ACSR conductor

can be found as 340 A. Therefore,

So =.J3 x12.47kV x 340A == 7343.S kV A.
Since

then

_(S2)112 10 -

-

D

= ( 7343.SkVA J SOOkVA/mi 2 = 3.83 mi. Therefore, the substation spacing, both ways, is 2/2=2x3.83 = 7.66mi. Total load supplied by one substation is
TS 2

(4.104)

= 2xS2 = 2 x7343.5
= 14,687kYA.

EXAMPLE

4.12

Compare the method of service area coverage given in Example 4.11 with the four-feedersper-substation pattern of Section 4.6 (see Figure 4.16). Use the same feeder main conductors so that K2 = K4 , and the same line-to-Iine nominal operating voltage VIA'

Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations

215

Here, let S4 be the kilovoltampere input to one feeder main of the four-feeder substation, and let TS 4 , A 4 , VD 4 , K4 , and so on, all pertain similarly to the four-feeder substation. Investigate the voltage-drop-limited feeders and determine the following:
(a) Ratio of substation spacings 21 2121 4 , (b) Ratio of areas covered per feeder main = AiA 4 • (c) Ratio of substation loads = TSiTS 4 .

=

Solution
(a) Assuming that the percent voltage drops and the K constants are the same in both cases,

and

where

and

Therefore,

l~ = 2l!
or the ratio of substation spacings is

(4.105)

or for both ways, (4.106)

(b) The ratio of areas covered per feeder main is

216

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(4.107)

== 1.59.
(c) The ratio of substation loads is

TS 2 2 x D x I; TS4 = 4 x D x I;

=~(lL)2
2 14
== 0.8.

(4.108)

4.12

SUPERVISORY DATA AND DATA ACQUISITION

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is the equipment and procedures for controlling one or more remote stations from a master control station. It includes the digital control equipment, sensing and telemetry equipment, and two-way communications to and from the master stations and the remotely controlled stations. The SCADA digital control equipment includes the control computers and terminals for data display and entry. The sensing and telemetry equipment includes the sensors, digital to analog and analog to digital converters, actuators, and relays used at the remote station to sense operating and alarm conditions and to remotely activate equipments such as the circuit breakers. The communications equipment includes the modems (modulator/demodulator) for transmitting the digital data, and the communications link (radio, phone line, and microwave link, or power line). Figure 4.31 shows a block diagram of a SCADA system. Typical functions that can be performed by the SCADA are:

1. Control and indication of the position of a two- or three-position device, for example, a motor-driven switch or a circuit breaker. 2. State indication without control, for example, transformer fans on or off. 3. Control without indication, for example, capacitors switched in or out. 4. Set point control of remote control station, for example, nominal voltage for an automatic tap changer. 5. Alarm sensing, for example, fire or the performance of a noncommanded function. 6. Permit operators to initiate operations at remote stations from a central control station. 7. Initiation and recognition of sequences of events, for example, routing power around a bad transformer by opening and closing circuit breakers, or sectionalizing a bus with a fault on it. 8. Data acquisition from metering equipment, usually via analog/digital converter and digital communication link.
Today, in this country, all routine substation functions are remotely controlled. For example, a complete SCADA system can perform the following substation functions:
I. Automatic bus sectionalizing 2. Automatic reclosing after a fault

)esign of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations
MASTER STATION Data displays

217

M

o
d

f~------------~

m

e

~------------~

Computer at master station

Alarm annunciators

Communication lines '------ -- -- -- - ------(t-o-a-n-d-:-f-:-ro-m--r-em--o-te-s-t-at-C-io-n-s-c-)------- - -

--l
M
0

Control data input

Analog data measuring equipment

Analog to digital converters

r---

Data

REMOTE STATION

Digital data measuring equipment Status indicators

Data Data Command

Romote station SCADA control

~ d

I--

e

m
-

On-off and state change control generator

1
Set point control generator

+ + +
Controlled equipment

+ +
Controlled equipment

FIGURE 4.31

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA).

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Synchronous check Protection of equipment in a substation Fault reporting Transformer load balancing Voltage and reactive power control Equipment condition monitoring Data acquisition Status monitoring Data logging.

All SCADA systems have two-way data and voice communication between the master and the remote stations. Modems at the sending and receiving ends modulate, for example, put information

218

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

on the carrier frequency, and demodulate, that is, remove information from the carrier, respectively. Here, digital codes are utilized for such information exchange with various error detection schemes to assure that all data are received correctly. The remote terminal unit (RTU) properly codes remote station information into the proper digital form for the modem to transmit, and to convert the signals received from the master into the proper form for each piece of remote equipment. When a SCADA system is in operation, it scans all routine alarm and monitoring functions periodically by sending the proper digital code to interrogate, or poll, each device. The polled device sends its data and status to the master station. The total scan time for a substation might be 30 sec to several minutes subject to the speed of the SCADA system and the substation size. If an alarm condition takes place, it interrupts a normal scan. Upon an alarm the computer polls the device at the substation that indicated the alarm. It is possible for an alarm to trigger a computerinitiated sequence of events, for example, breaker action to sectionalize 'a faulted bus. Each of the activated equipment has a code to activate it, that is, to make it listen, and another code to cause the controlled action to take place. Also, some alarm conditions may sound an alarm at the control station that indicates action is required by an operator. In that case, the operator initiates the action via a keyboard or a cathode ray tube (CRT). Of course, the computers used in SCADA systems must have considerable memory to store all the data, codes for the controlled devices, and the programs for automatic response to abnormal events.

4.13

ADVANCED SCADA CONCEPTS

The increasing competitive business environment of utilities, due to deregulation, is causing a reexamination of SCADA as a part of the process of utility operations, not as a process unto itself. The present business environment dictates the incorporation of hardware and software of the modern SCADA system into the corporation-wide, management information systems strategy to maximize the benefits to the utility. Today, the dedicated islands of automation gave way to the corporate information system. Tomorrow, in advanced systems, SCADA will be a function performed by work-station-based applications, interconnected through a wide area network (WAN) to create a virtual system, as shown in Figure 4.32. This arrangement will provide the SCADA applications access to a host of other applications, for example, substation controllers, automated mapping/facility management system, trouble call analysis, crew dispatching, and demand-side load management. The WAN will also provide the traditional link between the utility's energy management system and SCADA processors. The work station-based applications will also provide for flexible expansion and economic system reconfiguration. Also, unlike the centralized database of most exiting SCADA systems, the advanced SCADA system database will exist in dynamic pieces that are distributed throughout the network. Modifications to any of the interconnected elements will be immediately available to all users, including the SCADA system. SCADA will have to become a more involved partner in the process of economic delivery and maintained quality of service to the end user. In most applications today, SCADA and the energy management system (EMS) operate only on the transmission and generation sides of the system. In the future, economic dispatch algorithms will include demand-side (load) management and voltage control/reduction solutions. The control and its hardware and software resources will cease to exist.

4.13.1

SUBSTATION CONTROLLERS

In the future, RTUs will not only provide station telemetry and control to the master station, but also will provide other primary functions such as system protection, local operation, graphical user interface (GU/), and data gathering/concentration from other subsystems. Therefore, the future

These software applications provide various users access to the data of the substation controller in order to provide instructions and programming to the substation controller. Substation controllers will make all data available on WAN. it has hardware modules and software in terms of: Data-Processing Applications. whether from a data-processing application. or derived from the substation controller itself. As shown in Figure 4. and it processes control commands and messages received from the SCADA master. and operation functions. Data-Collection Applications.32 area network. They will eliminate separate stand-alone systems and thus provide greater cost savings to the utility company.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 219 Substation controller Demand side load management Energy management system Substation controller SCADA backup SCADA AM/FM Substation controller Graphical information system Revenue Substation controller FIGURE 4. These software applications provide the access to other systems and components that has data elements necessary for the substation controller to perform its functions. Control Database. All data resides in a single location. RTU may exist only as a software application within the substation controller system. data-collection application. collect data from the substation controller. The substation controller is basically a computer system designed to operate in a substation environment.33. Besides these functions. protection. The substation controller· will provide a gateway function to process and transmit data from the substation to the WAN. the substation controller also develops and processes data required by the SCADA master. Therefore. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) in a virtual system established by a wide RTUs will evolve into a class of devices that perform multiple substation control.>. and perform the necessary function. . Here. the substation controller is a system which is made up of many different types of hardware and software components and may not even be in a single location.

ro 0- 'E .91 () Cl d:s Cil Specialized I/O modules Intelligent electronic device External systems DSM AM/FM GIS Sub-remotes & other station RTUs FIGURE 4. for example. Each must ask the other "How can your requirements be met in a manner that provides positive benefits for my business?" 1.33 Substation controller. Overall lowering of power system operating costs. the SCADA planner must look beyond the traditional roles of SCADA. 6. 7. ro 0. Intelligent Electronic Device (lED). Utilization of existing resources and company standard for hardware. there are no industry standard definitions with the exception of the following definitions. controllers. 4. . and database generation. digital relays. Development of information for non-SCADA functions.. 4. 3.14 ADVANCED DEVELOPMENTS FOR INTEGRATED SUBSTATION AUTOMATION As the substation integration and automation technology is fairly new.~ Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 'iii Cl ~ e 0- () OJ c: en OJ Printer/ logger Substation controller database 0. Reduction of substation operating costs. To accomplish these.~ o c: c: o a n . software. Improved customer relations. 2. For example. Expansion of automated operations at the subtransmission and distribution levels. the planner must consider the following issues: Reduction of substation design and construction costs. electronic multifunction meters.220 c: o ~ 0. According to Sciacca and Block [7]. 5. the SCADA planner must join forces with the substation engineer to become an integrated team. Any device incorporating one or more processors with the capability to receive or send data/control from or to an external source.

station control. control commands. the trouble call management system. Protocols are as numerous as the vendors. The electric utility substation automation (SA) system uses a variety of devices integrated into a functional package by a communications technology for the purpose of monitoring and controlling the substation. The SCADA interface knows which substation automation system points are sent to the SCADA system. A computer system that embodies supplier-independent standards so that software can be applied on many different platforms and can interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems. the global positioning (OPS) satellite clock time reference is shown. including self-check and diagnostics. A library of standard symbols should be used to represent the substation power apparatus on graphical displays. and remote control. reduce panel and control room space. communications. However. a substation automation project prior to the 1990s typically involved three major functional areas: SCADA. gateway. the utility industry has started using IEDs in their systems. According to McDonald [15]. The local area network (LAN)-enabled IEDs can be directly connected to the substation automation LAN. Open Systems. The host processor provides the OUI and the historical information system for achieving operational and nonoperational data. metering and display. largely because hardware interfaces and protocols for IEDs are not standardized. and improved power quality and reliability. meters. The non-LAN-enabled IEDs require a network interface module (NIM) for protocol and physical interface conversion. since products even from same end or often have different protocols. as multiple functions were integrated into a single piece of equipment. this library should be established and used in all substations and coordinated with other systems in the utility. As presented in Chapter I. The term is now applied to any microprocessor-based device with a communications port. control. digital fault recorders. or processor. metering. such as distribution SCADA system. communication. In fact. A substation LAN is typically high speed and extends into the switchyard.interfaces. remote terminal units. The IED can thus be considered as the first level of automation integration. which speeds the transfer of measurements. Additional economies of scale can be obtained by connecting all of the IEDs into a single integrated substation control system. etc. As more and more traditional substation automation functions become integrated into a single piece of equipment. as well as reduced costs for wiring. Substation Automation. Deployment of substation and feeder operating functions and applications ranging from SCADA and alarm processing to integrated volt/var control in order to optimize the management of capital assets and enhance operation and maintenance efficiencies with minimal human intervention. and in fact more so. the geographical information system (GIS). Integration of protection. programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The IED also enabled redundant equipments to be eliminated. the definition of lED began to expand. indications. when interfaced to the potential transformers and current transformers of an individual circuit. the lED could simultaneously handle protection. These IEDs provided additional functions and features. finance offices. the EMS. and therefore includes protection relays. and eliminate redundant equipments and databases. In recent years. and power equipment controllers of various types. as well as the SCADA system protocol. and engineering centers. For example. providing a time reference for the substation automation system and IEDs in the substation. Communications for other users is usually through a bridge. and configuration and historical data . the ability to store historical data. and protection.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 221 lED Integration. Common communication connections include utility operation centers. load survey and operator indicating meters.34 shows the configuration of a substation automation system. the process of implementation has been slow. The use of a fully integrated control system can lead to further streamlining of redundant equipment. and operation. Figure 4. maintenance. and data acquisition functions into a minimal number of platforms to reduce capital and operating costs. and integrated remote terminal unit I/O. revenue meters.

between intelligent devices at the site. Ethernet and Profibus. the type of data required. and support standard protocols being developed. Ethernet is more popular in this country. Also. Other benefits of an open LAN architecture can include creation of a foundation for future upgrades. In the United States. whereas Profibus is widely used in Europe. required for each user. and the frequency of the data. support all communication protocols used by the IEDs. The data warehouse enables users to access substation data while maintaining a firewall to protect substation control and operation functions.34 Configuration of substation automation system. there may be an interface to the EMS that allows system operators to monitor and control each substation and the EMS to receive data from the substation integration and automation system at different time intervals. Besides SCADA. not to mention industry-standard network protocol support. the nature of their application. The devices must have the same protocol and its version implemented. This architecture reduces the amount and complexity of cabling currently required between intelligent devices. it increases the communication bandwidth available to support faster updates and more advanced functions. and sheer quantity of test equipment. The utility has to decide who will use the substation automation system data. Because of these qualifications. Ethernet's great strength is the availability of its hardware and options from a myriad of vendors. determine the operating status of each IED. or update. Any protocol difference will result in . and increased interoperability. There are interfaces to substation IEDs to acquire data.222 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering computer Back-up network master "Data collection" LAN (ethernet) "Loop-thru" bus D Network master "Control" bus GPSTime reference SUBSTATION I/O SOURSES Transformers Circuit breakers Switches Capacitors Batteries Etc. namely. FIGURE 4. A communication protocol permits communication between the two devices. access to third-party equipment. multiple application-layer support and quality. there are two major LAN standards.

Substation control buildings are seldom heated or air-conditioned. a multi-ported gateway interfaces with multiple IEDs. In existing substations there are several alternative approaches. as with a new substation.15 CAPABILITY OF FACILITIES The capability of distribution substations to supply its service area load is usually determined by the capability of substation transformer banks. In summary. self-contained heating orair-conditioning may be recommended. RS-232. Occasionally. Ambient temperatures can range from well below freezing to above JOO°F (40°C). or the protective relay setting. (2) integrate RTU as another substation lED. there are no conventional RTUs in new substations. Also. GUls.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 223 communication errors. However. Two approaches can be used when using gateways to interface to the substation network. To get all IEDs and their heterogeneous protocols onto a common substation LAN and platform. and its communication protocol. such as its physical interface. The environment of a substation is challenging for substation automation equipment. current transformers. and in the other. The utility has three choices for their conventional substation RTUs: (I) integrate RTU with lEDs. The substation integration and automation architecture must permit devices from different suppl ies to communicate employing an industry standard protocol. Ethernet. The pri mary capability of an lED is its stand-alone capability. but also as a protocol converter. they are higher in the warm interior area. The new substation will typically have many IEDs for different functions. Temperature changes stress the stability of measuring components in lEOs. Which approach is more economical will depend on where the intelligent devices are located. The design of the substation integration and automation for new substations is easier than the one for existing substations. . and the majority of operational data for the SCADA system will come from these IEDs. protocols. Its secondary capability is its integration capabilities. and MMS. the capability of the transmission facilities supplying the substation or the capability of distribution feeders emanating from it will impose a lower limit on the amount of load the substation can supply. Each substation transformer bank and each feeder have a normal capability. Modbus Plus. and substation computers) is the foundation of the automated substation. for example. Modbus. or Modbus) into the protocol standard found on the substation's local network. RTUs. In many environments. and transducers. the application building blocks consisting of operating and maintenance software are what produce the really substantial savings that can justify investment in an integrated substation control system. for example. depending on whether the substation has a conventional RTU installed. lOO°F (40°C) and also an emergency capability that is usually higher. the integrated substation control system architecture (which is made up of lEOs. If the IEDs are clustered in a centrallocation then the multi-ported gateway is certainly better. protecting the power system for a relay lED. a single low-cost gateway is used for each IED. 4. RS-485. DNP3. The RTU functionality is addressed using lEDs and PLCs and an integration network. and (3) retire RTU and use IEDs and PLCs. the underground or overhead conductors. Thus. normal and emergency capabilities in kilovoltamperes of both existing and proposed banks should be computed by using a transformer capability assessment computer program. the component that limits the capability of a feeder may be the station breaker or the switches associated with it. UCA2. LANs. for example. Typically. The gateway will act not only as an interface between the local network physical layer and the RS-232/RS-48S ports found on the lEOs. In one. using digital communications. metering. These capabilities are usually determined by the temperature rise limitations and the transformer and feeder components. DNP3. In practice. Metal-clad switchyard substations can reach ambient temperatures in excess of 140°F (SO°C). the gateway approach is best. translating the IED's native protocol (like SEL. The IEDs will be integrated with digital two-way communications.

the human body.92. switches. and 37.73. on the other hand.16 4. the multiplying factor of 0.3 ms to 5 s.6.000. the capabilities of feeder circuit breakers and associated switches that are in good condition are 100% of their nameplate ratings for summer and winter normal conditions and summer emergency conditions. Having established the normal and emergency capabilities of feeders in amps. they can be converted to kilovoltamperes by multiplying by specific factors. For example.) This is the value of current at which a person is just able to detect a slight tingling sensation on the hands or fingers due to current flow.4800.8. Currents of 1 mA or more but less than 6 mA are often defined as the secondary shock currents (let-Ro currents). In most humans.780 V are multiplied by factors of7. its threshold is the main concern in grounding design.16. not voltage [11 j. respectively. shock currents are classified based on the degree of severity of the shock they cause. In general. Furthermore. All the cables in a duct share the heat build-up. it is a good practice to multiply the ampacities of overhead conductors. The 60-Hz minimum required body current leading to possible fatality through ventricular fibrillation can be expressed as f .1 SUBSTATION GROUNDING ElECTRIC SHOCK AND ITs EFFECTS ON HUMANS To properly design a grounding (called equipment grounding) for the high-voltage lines and/or substations. Note that threshold value for a normally healthy person to be able to feel a current is about I rnA. Table 4.109) where t is in seconds in the range from approximately 8. In some cases it will be possible to increase this capability at a relatively small cost by replacing the limiting component or modifying the feeder protective scheme. (Experiments have long ago established the well-known fact that electrical shock effects are due to current.Jt _ 0. steady-state currents are sustained currents of 60 Hz or its harmonics.116 A (4. These shock currents can be either steady state or transient in nature. with fatal results. it may be necessary to establish lower limits or replace the equipment. According to the practices of some utility companies. Currents of higher magnitudes can stop the heart completely or cause severe electrical burns. 17. Therefore. If the equipment is not in good condition.000. so such a multiplier is unnecessary for cables in underground ducts and risers. it is important to understand the electrical characteristics of the most important part of the circuit. . These multiplying factors are based on input voltage to the feeder of 126 V on a 120-V base. 30. 12.82. Whereas currents that cannot produce direct physiological harm but may cause involuntary muscular reactions are called secondary shock currents. a current of 100 mA will cause ventricular fibrillation.224 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Each component should be checked to determine the amount of current it can carry under normal and emergency conditions.95 to account for the effect of phase unbalance is not included. In general. 8.95 to permit for phase unbalance and in cases where the substation is circuit limited multiply by the coincidence factor between feeders. The ventricular fibrillation is a condition where the heart beats in an abnormal and ineffective manner. The let-go current is the maximum current level at which a human holding an energized conductor can control his muscles enough to release it. The transient currents.6 gives the possible effects of electrical shock currents on humans. and 110% of their nameplate ratings for winter emergency conditions. are capacitive discharge currents whose magnitudes diminish rapidly with time. Currents of approximately 10-30 rnA can cause lack of muscular control. For example. and single-phase feeder regulators by 0. In AC power systems. However. nominal circuit voltages of 4160. 4. and 20. the phase unbalance multiplier is not used for oil circuit breakers. currents that produce direct physiological harm are called primary shock currents.21.

6 3.111) (4. respectively.2 9 62 6 10.112) . breathing difficulty 7. However. If the surface of the soil is covered with a layer of crushed rock or some other high-resistivity material. Therefore.ouch = . Since it is much easier to calculate and measure potential than current. the maximum allowable (or tolerable) touch and step potentials.8 9 16 23 0.109.111. Shock-not painful and muscular control not lost 4.7 1.1 1.116(1000 + l. given by Equation 4.110 and 4. Painful shock-painful but muscular control not lost 5. 80-1976 [13] recommends the use of 1000 Q as a reasonable approximation for body resistance.5Ps) V. Possible ventricular fibrillation from short shocks: (a) Shock duration 0. Slight tingling: per caption threshold 3. muscular contractions. its resistivity should be used in Equations 4. No sensation on hand 2.5ps Q for hand-to-foot currents and R = 1000 + 6Ps Q (4. either from one hand to both feet or from one foot to the other one. Experiments have shown that the body can tolerate much more current flowing from one leg to the other than it can when current flows from one hand to the legs.03 sec (b) Shock duration 3.4 1.5 15 51 60 90 1300 500 1375 1000 100 275 1000 100 275 * Threshold for 50% of the males and females tested.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 225 TABLE 4. can be expressed as 0. Treating the foot as a circular plate electrode gives an approximate resistance of 3Ps' where Ps is the soil resistivity.0 sec (c) Almost certain ventricular fibrillation (if shock duration over one heart beat interval) 1300 500 1375 76 5. The body resistance considered is usually between two extremities. The resistance of the body itself is usually used as about 2300 Q hand-to-hand or 1100 Q hand-to-foot [12].5 6 41 0. Therefore..Ji V (4.2 0.6 Effect of Electric Current (in ma) on Men and Women Direct Current Effects Men Women Alternating Current (60 Hz) Men Women I. the total branch resistance can be expressed as R = 1000 + l. and frequency of this current. the fibrillation threshold.110) for foot-to-foot currents.3 0. magnitude. where Ps is the soil resistivity in ohm meters. Painful shock-let-go threshold'" 6. The effects of an electric current passing through the vital parts of a human body depend on the duration. IEEE Std. Painful and severe shock. is usually given in terms of voltage.

0. EXAMPLE 4. Based on the IEEE Std.116(1000 + 1. 0.13 Assume that a human body is part of a 60-Hz electric power circuit for about 0.:::-.25 - 4..5 x 108 and V = 0.116(lOOO+6p) I.116(1000 + I.25 ::= - 267 V .16. either intentional or accidental.116(1000+6pJ = 0.5ps) = 0. ". (b) Using Equation 4.:: -V 0. touch = 0. in practical applications. or device is connected to the earth serving in the place of the former with the purpose of . circuit.25 s and that the soil type is average earth. moisture. determine the following: (a) Tolerable touch potential.116(1000 + 6 x 100) Jt ::= 371 V .113. -V t 1.112. the only way to determine the resistivity of soil is by measuring it. Therefore. (4. Therefore.1 13) Table 4. -V [ t s step V.5 x 100) r. the resistivity of ground also changes as a function of temperature.01-1. 80-1976.0 10 100 1000 1()4 107 109 1. v. and chemical content.2 GROUND RESISTANCE Ground is defined as a conducting connection. p.::. Solution (a) Using Equation 4.7 Resistivity of Different Soils Ground Type Seawater Wet organic soil Moist soil (average earth) Dry soil Bedrock Pure slate Sandstone Crushed rock Resistivity. by which an electric circuit or equipment becomes grounded. V Slep = 0. However.226 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 4. grounded means that a given electric system.7 gives typical values for various ground types. (b) Tolerable step potential.

A means to carry and dissipate electric currents into ground under normal and fault conditions without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting continuity of service.000 53.000 19. from the electrode surface outward. Since there is no simple relation between the resistance of the ground system as a whole and the maximum shock current to which a person might be exposed. a great many people assumed that any object grounded. metal rods or counterpoise (i.000 43. chemical ingredients. a low ground resistance is not. (ii) contact resistance between the electrode and the surrounding soil. however crudely.000 165. TABLE 4. A safe grounding design should provide the following: I. in itself. could be safely touched.g. The first two resistances are very small with respect to soil resistance and therefore may be neglected in some applications..5 5 10 15 20 30 Resistivity (Q-em) Top Soil >109 250.e. This misconception probably contributed to many tragic accidents in the past. For example.8 Effect of Moisture Content on Soil Resistivity Moisture Content (wt %) 0 2. For example. Ground potential rise is a function of fault current magnitude. The current through the ground system multiplied by its resistance measured from a point remote from the substation determines the ground potential rise with respect to the remote ground. and temperature of the soil surrounding the electrode. However. and ground (system) resistance. whereas another system component with very high ground resistance may still be safe or can be made safe by careful design.500 6300 4200 . buried conductors) are used for the lines of the grid system made of copper-stranded copper cable and rods are used for the substations. However. system voltage.8 presents data indicating the effect of moisture contents on the soil resistivity. and (iii) resistance of the surrounding soil. a system or system component (e. substation or tower) of relatively low ground resistance may be dangerous under some conditions. The grounding resistance of a buried electrode is a function of: (i) the resistance of the electrode itself and connections to it. Table 4.000 18.000 12.500 10. the third one is usually very large depending on the type of the soil.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 227 establishing and maintaining the potential of conductors connected to it approximately at the potential of the earth and allowing for conducting electric currents from and to the earth of its equivalent. Assurance for such a degree of human safety so that a person working or walking in the vicinity of grounded facilities is not subjected to the danger of critic electrical shock.000 6400 Sandy loam >109 15.. The resistance of the soil can be measured by using the three-electrode method or by using self-contained instruments such as the Biddle Megger Ground Resistance Tester. a guarantee of safety. The ground resistance can be reduced by using electrodes buried in the ground. 2. moisture level. about three or four decades ago.

distribution of current throughout the grid. diameter and length of conductors used. 4. A multigrounded. as shown in Figure 4.g. If separate primary and secondary neutral conductors are used. The surface of the substation is usually covered with crushed rock or concrete to reduce the potential gradient when large currents are discharged to ground and to increase the contact resistance to the feet of the personnel in the substation. 5. To provide a means of discharging and de-energizing equipment in order to proceed with the maintenance of the equipment. ground system resistance. 2. To provide the ground connection for the grounded neutral for transformers. soil resistivity. system voltage. ·80-1976 [13] provides a formula for a quick simple calculation of the grid resistance to ground after a minimum design has been completed. and similar devices. To provide the discharge path for lightning rods. gaps. All substation fences are built inside the ground grid and attached to the grid in short intervals to protect the public and personnel. structure. or brazing) to form a continuous grid (also called mat) network.3 Grounding at substation has paramount importance. (Mesh voltage is the worst possible value of touch voltage to be found within a mesh of a ground grid if standing at or near the . and installation so that it can provide the means by which grounding currents are connected to remote areas.1 14) . 3. center of the mesh. The substation grounding system is connected to every individual equipment. It is extremely important that the substation ground has a low ground resistance. and safety features for personnel. reactors. proximity of the fault electrodes. It is expressed as (4. Notice that a continuous cable (usually it is 4/0 bare copper cable buried 12-18 in below the surface) surrounds the grid perimeter to enclose as much ground as possible and to prevent current concentration and thus high gradients at the ground cable terminals. IEEE Std.. The purpose of such a grounding system includes the following: 1. To provide a sufficiently low resistance path to ground to minimize rise in ground potential with respect to remote ground [1]. It is crucial to have the substation ground resistance very low so that the total rise of the ground system potential will not reach values that are unsafe for human contact. fault current magnitude. All substation equipment and structures are connected to the ground grid with large conductors to minimize the grounding resistance and limit the potential between equipments and the ground surface to a safe value under all conditions.228 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering SUBSTATION GROUNDING 4. arresters. and the system grounding electrodes to the conductors.35. The ground potential rise depends on grid burial depth.) The substation grounding system normally is made of buried horizontal conductors and driven ground rods interconnected (by clamping. about 10 x 20 ft).16. welding. common neutral conductor used for a primary distribution line is always connected to the substation grounding system where the circuit originates to all grounds along the length of the circuit. spacing between each conductor. Inside the grid. To ensure safety to operating personnel by limiting potential differences that can exist in a substation. and capacitors. cables are buried in parallel lines and with uniform spacing (e. adequate current-carrying capacity. the conductors have to be connected together provided the primary neutral conductor is effectively grounded.

ontrol house Future transformer Riser from subgrade ground mat . 1978.. ' ground rods . (From Fink.Cl I (~YPiCal~__ -"'I'I .I I.. Cable-to-structural steel connection FIGURE 4. (4. and H.. Cable-to-ground rod connection Cable-to-cable connection . " " ' .35 A typical grounding (grid) system for 345-kV substation...'t' 1 __ -L- ~ _ _ :~ Transformer Ground cable run concealed Up to cable trays 345-{.w. ~---------. cable I 1 i . D. McGraw-Hill. .. IEEE Std.-W---+)\+I :: " " . " -Irl--'-~ 4/0 grd.: 1i I 1i i i t--+--+t . : 'Power circuit breaker: : ::: -li--l--t.\ iiii ' .~=~~~~s:::=~.-1 'I.j. 80-1976 also provides formulas to determine the effects of the grid geometry on the step and mesh voltage (which is the worst possible value of the touch voltage) in volts.-~----~-t=\-h-~=~' -: i i) (typl~al) ~able i i i I i i i iii \ I: .. :-it--t--t-0 -t--t-!-. : _ :11 : . Beaty: Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers..t I I I " . :: !I 'I 4/0 grd .KJG L. .. L is the total length of grid conductors in meters.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations Continuous ground wire outside of fence 229 _1.- It. New York.-r - .. I l-~--J) I N LO LO T-tt--t--+!-rr-~:t~~! ... " .G.) where p is the soil resistivity in ohm meters..115) .. +--+-~--t ' " :II I -~---*---fl.~~~1 'Fence : Roadway . and R is the radius of the circle with area equal to that of grid in meters. They can be expressed as v s<cp == PsK. 11th ed.

or three-phase transformers with ratings up to 500 kVA. the losses outgrew any means of seIfcooling that was available at the time. various methods are in use in power transformers to get the heat pot of the tank more effectively. self-cooled/forced-air-cooled. Substation transformers can range from 5 MVA in smaller rural substations to over 80 MVA at Jrban stations (in terms of base ratings). as explained before. power transformers have multiple ratings. lepending on cooli ng methods.116) where K. Today. power transformers are used to provide the conversion from subtransmission circuits to the distribution level. Water was pumped through this cooling coil to get rid off the heat from oil. self-cooled. OAIFA: Oil-immersed.36 shows a typical computerized grounding grid design with all relevant soil and system data. In summary. Km is the mesh coefficient. OAIFAIFOA: Oil-immersed. water-cooled. Most are connected in delta-wye grounded to provide ground source for the distribution neutral and to isolate the distribution grounding system from the . just due to the natural flow o the surrounding air through radiators. In present practice fans are automatically used for the first stage and pumps for the second. The transformer can supply more load with extra cooling urned on. not only is oil forced to circulate through external radiators. This was done by placing metal coil tubing in the top oil. It is known as type FOA. self-cooled/forced-air-cooled/forced-oil-cooled. Figure 4.17 TRANSFORMER CLASSIFICATION In power system applications. The base rating is the self-cooled rating. the single.5 kV are defined as distribution transformers. is the maximum rms current flowing between ground grid and earth in A. OA: OW: In a distribution substation. Another method was circulating the hot oil through an external oil-to-water heat exchanger. FOA: Oil-immersed. thus a water-cooling method was put into practice. Many utilities have computer programs for performing grounding grid studies. around the inside of the tank.5 kV are defined as power transformers. forced-oil-cooled with forced-air cooler. Finally. the most common of these forcedoil-cooled power transformers uses an external bank of oil-to-air heat exchangers through which the oil is continuously pumped. the power transformer classes are: Oil-immersed.230 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering and (4. fG 4. These transformers carry up to about 60% of maximum nameplate rating (i.. at maximum nameplate rating (FOA). Most distribution and power transformers are immersed in a tank of oil for better insulation and cooling purposes. The number of tedious calculations that must be performed to develop an accurate and sophisticated model of a system is no longer a problem. Oil-immersed. is the step coefficient. but fans are also kept on to blow air onto the radiators as well as into the tank itself. as the transformer sizes increased. For example. whereas those transformers with ratings over 500 kVA at voltage levels above 34. and 34. FOA rating) by natural circulation of the oil (OA) and 80% of maximum nameplate rating by forced cooling which consists of fans on the radiators (FA). forced-oil-cooled with water cooler. in triple-rated transformers which are designated as type OAIFAIFOA. FOW: Oil-immersed. As said before.ubtransmission system. and K j is the irregularity coefficient. .e. Today. This method is calledJorced-oil-to-water cooling (FOW). Historically.

1980.36 Computerized grounding grid design: (a) typical grid design with its data.l2. This system has four-letter code that indicates the cooling (IEEE CS7.) However.5 (step) Etouch/worse case = 1121 V Estep/worse case = 2010V o o 1+ I+l l=t (a) (b) II [] Dangerous Marginal Safe .Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 1316Q-m 3000 Q . (d) final refinement of design with no hazardous touch potentials.m Ifault = 1560 A Clearing time = 0. With permission.00-2000): First letter-Internal cooling medium in contact with the windings: 0: Mineral oil or synthetic insulating liquid with fire point = 300°C K: Insulating liquid with fire point >300°C L: Insulating liquid with no measurable fire point . (b) meshes with hazardous potentials as identified by the computer.568 Ks = 0. (From Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power Analysis. 2.305 m Psoil= Psurface = Etouch/tolerable = Estep/tolerable = 231 I+l • Dangerous Marginal Safe I 885V 3 134 V Km= 0.814 K j = 2. IEEE Standard 399-1980. ~ Dangerous Marginal Safe 0 0 (e) (d) FIGURE 4.0 (touch). (c) first refinement of design.5 sec 1+ Depth of burial = 0. the ANSI ratings were revised in the year 2000 to make them more consistent with IEC designations.

Second letter-Circulation mechanism for internal cooling medium: N: Natural convection flow through cooling equipment and in windings F: Forced circulation through cooling equipmcnt (i. OAIFAIFOA is equivalent to ONAAIONAFIOFAF. and Regulating Transformers.1 4.3 Verify Equation 4. IEEE Std.12. Prove that doubling feeder voltage level causes the percent voltage drop in the primary-feeder circuit to be reduced to one-fourth of its previous value. the self-cooled rating (OA or ONAN). C57. Utilities do not overload substation transformers as much as distribution transformers. As with distribution transformers. but they do not run them hot at times. The impedance of substation transformers is normally about 7-10%.00. Table 4. the hottest temperatures are nowhere near this.9 shows equivalent cooling classes in old and new naming schemes. This is the impedance on the base rating. the trade-off is loss of life versus the immediate replacement cost of the transformer. 2000.44.2 4. PROBLEMS 4.9 Equivalent Cooling Classes Year 2000 Designations Designation Prior to Year 2000 ONAN ONAF ONAN/ONAF/ONAF ONAN/ONAF/OFAF OA FA OAIFAIFA OAIFAIFOA OFAF OFWF Source: FOA FOW IEEE Standard General Requirements for LiguidImmersed Distribution. directed from the cooling equipment into at least the main windings Third letter-External cooling medium: A: Air W' Water Fourth letter-Circulation mechanism for external cooling medium: Natural convection Forced circulation: fans (air cooling). The life of a transformer halves for every 8°C increase in operating temperature. Summer peaks are much worse than winter peaks. The hottest-spot-conductor temperature is the critical point where insulation degrades. . pumps (water cooling) N: F: Therefore. coolant pumps). CS7.232 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 4. IEEE Std. Each cooling level typically provides an extra one-third capability: 21/28/35 MVA. With permission.17. Power. Above the hot-spot-conductor temperature of 110°C life expectancy decreases exponentially. Derive Equation 4. natural convection flow in windings (also called nondirectedfiow) D: Forced circulation through cooling equipment. Ambient conditions also affect loading.e.9l-1995 provides detailed loading guidelines and also suggests an approximate adjustment of 1% of the maximum nameplate rating for every °C above or below 30°C.. Most of the time.

5-kY wye-grounded feeder main which has 350-kcmil copper conductors with an equivalent spacing of 37 in between phase conductors and a lagging load power factor of 0. copper conductors with an equivalent spacing of 54 in between phase conductors and a lagging load power factor of 0. Repeat Example 4.5. (c) Repeat part (a) but assume that the load is distributed uniformly along the main.19 Consider the two-transformer bank shown in Figure P3.47-kY wye-grounded feeders.15 4. Based on the IEEE Std. Repeat part (a) of Problem 4. find the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Maximum load per feeder. assuming ACSR conductors.20 A three-phase 12.6.9 4.9. Show the dot markings. assuming ACSR conductors.11 4. Total percent voltage drop from the feed point to the end of the main. Use 50°C and 60 Hz.15 for a load density of 1000 kYA/mi. Repeat part (d) of Example 4. Substation size. (b) Repeat part (a) but assume that the load is a lumped-sum load and connected at the end of the feeder. mi. .13 4. 4. 4. both ways. Repeat Problem 4. Repeat Problem 4.4.11 for a load density of 1000 kYA/mi. assuming a three-phase 34. If the uniformly distributed load has 4 MYA per square mile load density and a lagging load factor of 0. assuming a 13. Repeat Example 4.12 4.0005 per kVA mile. determine the following: (a) The percent voltage drop in the main. Repeat Example 4. Feeder mains are of 2/0 copper conductors are made up of three-phase open-wire overhead lines having a geometric mean spacing of 37 in between phase conductors.21 Suppose that a human being is a part of a 60-Hz electric power circuit for about 0.4 4.5-kY wye-grounded feeder has 500-kcmil ACSR conductors with an equivalent spacing of 60 in between phase conductors and a lagging load power factor of 0. Repeat Example 4. assuming a lagging load power factor of 0.l of Problem 3.7.17 Repeat Problem 4.9-kY voltage level.00001 %VD per kVA .7 4.5 4.8 4.5.10 4. 4. and compute the K constant.3. Substation spacing.Design of Subtransmission Lines and Distribution Substations 233 4. If the K constant of the feeder is given as 0.9 for a load density of 1000 kYA/mi. assuming ACSR conductors. Connect them in open-delta primary and open-delta secondary.8.18 Assume that a 5-mi long feeder is supplying a 2000 kYA load of increasing load density starting at a substation.14 4.16 Repeat Example 4. 4. determine the following: (a) Tolerable touch potential. (a) Draw and label the voltage-phasor diagram required for the open-delta and open-delta secondary on the given 0° reference line.4. Assume a squared-shaped distribution substation service area and that it is served by four three-phase 12.6. (b) Show the connections required for the open-delta primary and open-delta secondary. and conductor ampacity is 360 A. assuming AWG #4/0 conductors. Use 25°C and 25 Hz and find the K constant in % YD per kYA per mile.3. 80-1976.85. 4.9.6 4. The percent voltage drop of the feeder is given as 0. Repeat Example 4.2/22. assuming 300-kcmil ACSR conductors.47-kY wye-grounded feeder main has 250 kcmil with 19 strands. (b) Tolerable step potential.25 sec and that the soil type is dry soil.8.2. assuming ACSR conductors. A three-phase 34. parts (a) and (b). Repeat Example 4.

c. IEEE Comput.. respectively. 2. Introduction to Integrated Resource T&D Planning. McGraw-Hill.. Inst.. New York. December 1963. T.: Effects of Electrical Shock on the Heart. Trans. Baco Raton. 14. Fink. Cary. FL. January 1995. Van Wormer. 31-37. P. Appl.470-V (line-to-line) feeder main and laterals. 55. C. Ganen. pp. July 2001. in The Electrical Engineering Handbook. 1965. Power. 8. and D.22 Consider the square-shaped distribution substation given in Example 4. 8. R. 14. The geometric mean distances are 53 in and 37 in for the main and lateral. N. W.. D. AM. (Explain what is right or wrong in the parameter selection in the previous problem. Seely. T. if the laterals are also three-phase four-wire wye-grounded. pp. and H. .: Power Distribution. 23-30. T. The dimension of the area is 2 x 2 mi and served by a l2. Reps: Distribution Substation and Primary Feeder Planning. 11th ed. 484-99. et al. McGraw-Hill. et al. F. 819-32. June 1955. D.. CRC Press.1994. East Pittsburgh. H. Ganen: Substation Automation Techniques and Advantages. IEEE Standard 80-1976. March 19-21. Proc. 16. 23-28. NC. L.. 749-59. Sciaca. 6. 1988.234 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 4. 9. Power.9. Texas A& M University.. Denton. 1st ed.: Substation Integration and Automation.7 by using MATLAB. 1979. Electr. L. Rubin. Inc. 12. vol. AlEE Trans.: Some Aspects of Distribution Load Area Geometry.. (b) The percent voltage drop at the end of the last lateral. Block: Advanced SCADA Concepts. 4. Apply Morrison's approximation. having a lagging power factor of 0. New York. McDonald. IEEE Control Power Syst. and T. 2003. pp. Appl. Assume that all the quantities remain the same. Wiley. no. 5.. 1.. IEEE Comput. P. 1343-49. pp. 3. 3. Bricker. pp. 3. in Electric Tower Substation Engineering. S. S. pp. Chapter 7. December 1954. Morrison. Wiley. pp. 1936. 11. vol. Academic Press. if the laterals are single-phase two-wire wye-grounded. c. vol. 10.10. G. Electrical Distribution Engineering. PA. determine the following: (a) The percent voltage drop at the end of the last lateral. 2005. and W. AlEE Trans. vol. Ganen.. Texas. IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding. The load density is 1200 kVA/mi2 and is uniformly distributed. 13. 1st ed. respectively. 1930. 1976. operating at 60 Hz and 50°C. for main and laterals.: Modern Power System Analysis. 1990.: Toward Automated Distribution System Planning. Eng . New York. 1. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. Ganen. no. Conf. and 1/0 copper conductors. pp.: Engineering Economy for Engineering Managers: With Computer Applications. Ferris.498-515. College Station.. III (PAS). AlEE Trans. If the width of the service area of a lateral is 528 ft. REFERENCES 1. T.. 1978. 7. A young distribution engineer is considering selection of 4/0 copper conductors with 19 strands.: A Linear Approach to the Problem of Planning New Feed Points into a Distribution System. New York.23 Resolve Example 4. pt. Beaty: Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. W.) Any suggestions? 4. 15. Chapter 6. 1. Ganen. ABB Power T&D Company. New York.

It is made of circuits known as primary feeders or primary distribution feeders. it is more expensive. Earn your ignorance! Learn something about everything before you know nothing about anything. because of growing emphasis on the service reliability. sublaterals may be tapped off the laterals as necessary. This can be achieved through the coordination of the operation of all the fuses and reclosers. The congested and heavy-load locations in metropolitan areas are served by using underground primary feeders. The nature of the load connected 2. In some cases. and branches or laterals.e. the protection schemes in the future will be more sophisticated and complex.1 INTRODUCTION The part of the electric utility system which is between the distribution substation and the distribution transformers is called the primary system. and the repair time is longer than the overhead systems. A given feeder is sectionalized by reclosing devices at various locations in such a manner as to remove as little as possible of the faulted circuit so as to hinder service to as few consumers as possible. It appears that. The cost involved is greater than that of open-wire but much less than that of underground installation. The majority of the distribution transformers are single-phase and connected between the phase and the neutral through fuse cutouts. They are usually radial three-conductor cables. Alhert Einstein The great end of learning is nothing else but to seek for the lost mind. laterals and sublaterals located in residential and rural areas are single-phase and consist of one-phase conductor and the neutral. the cable can be employed as suspended on poles. A feeder includes a "main" or main feeder. TUf"(Jn Gjjllell 5. Mellcius. There are various and yet interrelated factors affecting the selection of a primary-feeder rating.5 Design Considerations of Primary Systems Imagination is more important than knowledge. 299 /J. ranging from manually operated devices to remotely controlled automatic devices based on supervisory controlled or computer-controlled systems. Figure 5. However.1 shows a one-line diagram of a typical primary distribution feeder. Works. The improved appearance and less-frequent trouble expectancy are among the advantages of this method. which usually is a three-phase four-wire circuit. which usually are single-phase or three-phase circuits tapped off the main. The load density of the area served 235 . In general. Also. Examples are: 1.

The use of shunt capacitors also improves the power factor involved which in turn lessens the voltage drops and currents. 5. The voltage conditions on distribution systems can be improved by using shunt capacitors which are connected as near the loads as possible to derive the greatest benefit. four-wire main feeder rY"Y"Y\ f""Y"'("Y' 120/240 V~ _ Normally open switch for emergency ~_~----o---. G. (From Fink.AJ one-phaserY"Y"Y\ Feed point /" ~rals ~istribution tran_sofo". 7.. 9.r. 11th ed.A. McGraw-Hill. D. in the portions of a distribution system between the capacitors and the bulk power buses.47 kV substation bus Reclosing circuit breaker Three-phase. / load R Sectionalizing switches " Underground lateral "'-------<]--0 Switched I / capacitor ) r-------' bank Sectionalizing switch / normally-closed Three-pole recloser R Recloser One-phase branch Normally-open tie to adjacent feeder Residential area: Approximately 1000 homes per square mile Feeder area: 1 to 4 mi 2 depending on load density 15 to 30 single-phase laterals per feeder 150 to 500 MVA short-circuit available at substation bus FIGURE 5. 1978.. With permission.) 3. Standard Handbook/or Electrical Engineers... four-wire express feeder peak load 6000 kVA Fuse cutout Two-wire.1 One-line diagram of typical primary distribution feeders. W. '-A. 8.(m)-e_r-+--0-----0Three-phase.236 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 12. 4.. The growth rate of the load The need for providing spare capacity for emergency operations The type and cost of circuit construction employed The design and capacity of the substation involved The type of regulating equipment used The quality of service required The continuity of service required.()-T ~ J rY"Y"Y\ / rY"Y"Y\ ~ J DT serving 4 to 20 homes ~~_ _ _ _' _ _--<~Three-Phase . The capacitor ratings should be selected carefully to prevent the occurrence . and H. New York. and therefore losses.. 6.o~. Beaty.

current-carrying capacity. A fault occurrence at any location on the radial primary feeder causes a power outage for every consumer on the feeder unless the fault can be isolated from the source by a disconnecting device such as a fuse. But the application of series capacitors does not reduce the currents and therefore losses. 5. the main feeder and subfeeders are three-phase three. the size of the feeder conductors is also reduced. as the current lessens. Distribution substation LV bus Primary main feeder Transformer fuses ___ Distribution transformers FIGURE 5. sectionalizer. However.2 RADIAL-TYPE PRIMARY FEEDER The simplest and the lowest cost and therefore the most common form of primary feeder is the radial-type primary feeder as shown in Figure S. of the feeder.or single-phase. The voltage conditions on distribution systems can also be improved by using series capacitors. The current magnitude is the greatest in the circuit conductors that leave the substation.2 Radial-type primary feeder. In general. or recloser.or four-wire circuits and the laterals are three. The current magnitude continually lessens out toward the end of the feeder as laterals and sublaterals are tapped off the feeder. that is.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 237 of excessive overvoltages at times of light loads because of the voltage rise produced by the capacitor currents. the permissible voltage regulation may restrict any feeder size reduction which is based only on the thermal capability. disconnect switch.2. The reliability of service continuity of the radial primary feeders is low. Usually. in the system. The main primary feeder branches into various primary laterals which in turn separates into several sublaterals to serve all the distribution transformers. .

The fault can be isolated by opening the associated disconnecting devices on each side of the faulted section.4 I \j/ Distribution transformer locations Radial-type primary feeder with express feeder and back feed. [-----1-I Tie switch Sectionalizing switch (n~aIlY open) . . Figure 5. (Data abstracted from Rome Cable Company.3 Radial-type primary feeder with tie and sectionalizing switches. _ _ _ _ .. 4th ed.oa~ea --L----J _ Tie switch (normally open)_ ---------- ----. I I I I I ----~ III I I Feeder 3 load area I .) Figure 5. Figure 5.238 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ ____ L __ Feede~.4 shows another type of radial primary feeder with express feeder and backfeed.3 shows a modified radial-type primary feeder with tie and sectionalizing switches to provide fast restoration of service to customers by switching unfaulted sections of the feeder to an adjacent primary feeder or feeders. The section of the feeder between the substation low-voltage bus and the load center of the service area Load Backfeed rD EXP\SS feeder / I/ nter I FIGURE 5. I I I I---+----t--+~l~. URD Technical Manual.

No subfeeders or laterals are allowed to be tapped off the express feeder. each dot represents a balanced three-phase load lumped at that location..3 LOOP-TYPE PRIMARY FEEDER Figure 5.- - - - - - - - - - - - I Radial-type phase-area feeder. a separate feeder breaker on each end of the loop is preferred. the size of the feeder conductor is kept the same throughout the loop. Figure 5.. Usually. The breaker will remain open until the fault is isolated from both directions.4 and 5. Sometimes the loop tie disconnect switch is replaced by a loop tie breaker because of the load conditions. particularly in underground systems.. 5. A primary fault causes the feeder breaker to be open. It is selected to carry its normal load plus the load of the other half of the loop. Phase C load area L FIGURE 5. In either case. despite the cost involved..Design Considerations of Primary Systems 239 O·IS t·b n U rIon su bstarIon LV bus - - - - - _D_ - - - - - I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Single-phase main I - :l I I I I -l I I I I I I I I I I .5. In addition to main feeder loops.5 is called an express feeder. The parallel feeder paths can also be connected to separate bus sections in the substation and supplied from separate transformers. The loop-type primary feeder arrangement is especially beneficial to provide service for loads where high service reliability is important. .5 shows a radial-type phase-area feeder arrangement in which each phase of the threephase feeder serves its own service area. In general.J / 1 Laterals Three-phasemain- Phase A load area - - - ~ / I 1 - Phase B load area +. normally open lateral loops are also used.6 shows a loop-type primary feeder which loops through the feeder load area and returns back to the bus. a subfeeder is allowed to provide a backfeed toward the substation from the load center. In Figures 5. However. This arrangement provides two parallel paths from the substation to the load when the loop is operated with normally open tie breakers or disconnect switches. the loop can function with the tie disconnect switches or breakers normally open or normally closed.

5 PRIMARY-FEEDER VOLTAGE LEVELS The primary-feeder voltage level is the most important factor affecting the system design..----. · · Loop tie disconnect switch Distribution transformer locations FIGURE 5. 5. it is more difficult to design and operate than the radial or loop systems. -+.6 Loop-type primary feeder. ~'--'--~--+-~__ '~-4·__~·~_·'--4·__~~1I • • . Each tie feeder has two associated circuit breakers at each end in order to have less load interrupted because of a tie-feeder fault.240 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ DlstnbutlOn substation LV bus _ ~e~er breaker tr-+ e -.7. 6. 5.4 PRIMARY NETWORK As shown in Figure 5. The reliability and the quality of service of the primary network arrangement is much higher than the radial and loop arrangements. However. The radial primary feeders can be tapped off the interconnecting tie feeders. cost. and operation. Primary-feeder length Primary-feeder loading Number of distribution substations Rating of distribution substations Number of subtransmission lines Number of customers affected by a specific outage .- • • • • f Laterals -- • • • • =V~. Proper location of transformers to heavy-load centers and regulation of the feeders at the substation buses provide for adequate voltage at utilization points. Some of the design and operation aspects affected by the primary-feeder voltage level are [I]: J. The primary network system supplies a load from several directions. In general. the losses in a primary network are lower than those in a comparable radial system because of load division. 5. 4. 2. a primary network is a system of interconnected feeders supplied by a number of substations. 3. They can also be served directly from the substations.

the 34. The 5-kV class continues to decline in usage. 8.2 kV. System maintenance practices The extent of tree trimming Joint use of utility poles Type of pole-line design and construction Appearance of the pole line. However. primary feeders located in low-load density areas are restricted in length and loading by permissible voltage drop rather than by thermal restrictions. for example. industrial and commercial areas. There are additional factors affecting the decisions for primary-feeder voltage level selection. Three phase four-wire multigrounded common neutral primary systems. . 11. for example. for example.5YI19.2 iii c m .5-kV class is gaining rapid acceptance. 9.1 gives typical primary voltage levels used in the United States. Table 5. The most common primary distribution voltage in use throughout North America is 12. for example. 12. 24.5 kY. Some distribution systems use more than one primary voltage.47 kV and 34. The 15-kV class primary voltage levels are most commonly used. the current trend is toward higher voltages. as each primary lateral has only one insulated phase wire and the bare neutral instead of having two insulated wires.0 ::> UJ . as shown in Figure 5. and 34.47 kY. The fourth wire is used as the multigrounded neutral for both the primary and the secondary systems. Usually.92 kV. are employed almost exclusively. California is one of the few states which has three-phase three-wire primary systems. whereas primary feeders located in high-load density areas.4 kV. may be restricted by the thermal limitations.9YI14. 10.)esign Considerations of Primary Systems 241 Substation A Substation B 0 c Cl . 7. The four-wire system is economical. especially for underground residential distribution (URD) systems.8. 12.7 Primary network.0 ~ iii 0 ::> UJ Substation E FIGURE 5.47Y17.

In general.Y 4W-Y 3W-tl or 4W. the feeder with the increased length feeds TABLE 5. if the feeder voltage is doubled. for a given percent voltage drop. For example.66 kY IS kY 25 kY 34.0kY 2300 2400* 4000 4160* 4330 4400 4600 4800 6600 6900 7200* 7500 8320 11000 11500 12000 12470* 13200* 13800* 14400 2290()* 24940* 3450()* 3¢ Voltage 3W-tl 3 W. it can supply the same power four times the distance. as Lokay [1] explains it clearly.5 kY 5. .Y 3W-tl 3W-tl 4W-Y 4W-Y 4W-Y 8. for the same percent voltage drop. This relationship is known as the voltage-square rule. However.8 Factors affecting primary-feeder voltage-level selection decision. the feeder length and loading are direct functions of the feeder voltage level.1 Typical Primary Voltage Levels Class 2.242 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Voltage drops Load projection Power losses Equipment availability costs Adjacent substation & feeder voltages Feeder lengths Subtransmission voltage Company pOlicies FIGURE 5.5 kY " Most common voltage in the individual classes.tI 3W-tl or 3W-Y 4W-Y 3W-tl 3W-tl 3W-tl 3W-tl 3W-tl 3W-tl or4W-Y 3W-tl or4W-Y 4W-Y 4W-Y 3W-tl 3W-tl 3W-tl or 4W.

With permission. the advantage obtained by the new and higher-voltage level through the voltage-square factor... Lokay [1] defines it as the area-coverage principle. 3. Therefore. the feeder service area is proportional to: 213 VL-N.= . Further. (5. times the distance 1= 1 Double kVA . . V o Itage-square f·actor = (VI.. ncwJVL.- Z=4 1 (-2 )4 VI otage drop= -2-= 1 pu (~)2 times the distance (b) • (1)(2) Voltage drop = -2. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems..4) (5.I0.. PA..N . As illustrated in Figure 5.= 1 pu 1 (11. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.2) new distance =---old distance (5. the same percent voltage drop will always result provided that the following relationship exists: Distance ratio x load ratio = voltage-square factor where Distance ratio and new feeder loading Load ratio = . 2 Same kVA load . for a constant percent voltage drop and a uniformly distributed load.9 Illustration of the voltage-square rule and the feeder distance coverage principle as a function of feeder voltage level and a single load. vol.old (5. new [( VL ..- (e) FIGURE 5. that is.3) The relationship between the voltage-square factor rule and the feeder distance coverage principle is further explained in Figure 5.N..5) • - Voltage drop = .9.= 1 pu IZ VL_ N (1)(1) 1 1= 1 (a) •_ 1=2.= old feeder loading (5. There is a relationship between the area served by a substation and the voltage rule. old )2 j . East Pittsburgh.1 ) has to be allocated between the growth in load and in distance.N .)2 2' V.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 243 more load.) . 1965..

old )2]2/3 = (2 2)213 = 2.52 (5.52 = 2. Some of the factors affecting the design loading of a feeder are: I.N Electric Power Distribution System Engineering =1 Load area [HUJJn (b) Per unit VD = 1 Area = 1 served Load = 1 VD Area served Load VL_ N =2 =1 =2 =2 tJJUHlIJJ1Jj (c) VD Area served Load =1 =2. the new load and area that can be served with the same percentage of voltage drop is [( ~. East Pittsburgh.10 Feeder area coverage principle as related to feeder voltage and a uniformly distributed load.6 PRIMARY-FEEDER LOADING Primary-feeder loading is defined as the loading of a feeder during peak load conditions as measured at the substation I 11.~. if the new feeder voltage level is increased to twice the previous voltage level.32 (5.old 2 )213 = 4. 4. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. the new load and area that can be served with the same percentage of voltage drop is VL-N. vol. 2. new [( VL-N.) provided that both dimensions of the feeder service area change by the same proportion. 5. If the new feeder voltage level is increased to three times the previous voltage level.52 FIGURE 5. The The The The density of the feeder load nature of the feeder load growth rate of the feeder load reserve capacity requirements for emergency . 1965.7) times the original load and area. 3. For example. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.ncw )2]213 = (3 L N. With permission.244 VL. PA.6) times the original load and area. 3.

and feeder conductor size selection. the number of feeders. Usually. 7.l4. 9. 8.12 Factors affecting number of feeders.l3. . as shown in Figure 5. 6. 5. 11. as shown in Figures 5. 10.11 through 5.11 Factors affecting feeder routing decisions.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 245 Load density Physical barriers Voltage drops Future load growth Development pattems Total cost FIGURE 5. The service continuity requirements The service reliability requirements The quality of service The primary-feeder voltage level The type and cost of construction The location and capacity of the distribution substation The voltage regulation requirements There are additional factors affecting the decisions for feeder routing. a tie line provides service for area loads along its Load density Primary voltage levels Feeder length Substation capacity Feeder limitations Conductor size Voltage drops Conductor size FIGURE 5. 5.7 TIE LINES A tie line is a line that connects two supply systems to provide emergency service to one system from another.

Therefore. route as well as emergency service to adjacent areas or substations.-----1 Tie line Normally open r-----. .246 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Voltage drops Load forecast Transformer rating Conductor rating Power losses Total cost FIGURE 5. Substation A . 1-+'---."""'--'.14 One-line diagram of typical two-substation area supply with tie lines. '-----rl' I Tie line Normally open L____ ---l L _ _ _ _ . To provide emergency service for an adjacent feeder for the reduction of outage time to the customers during emergency conditions. i-t-. tie lines are needed to perform either of the following two functions: 1. Il i l .I ~ I Urban customers Rural customers FIGURE 5.13 Factors affecting conductor size selection. Substation B .-J ~ . .

In general.15 D Transformer bank associated with the service area Feeder associated with the service area Rectangular-type development. The addition of new ~~T 1-----+---+----+---+--1---1 "J [ ) [] ® I· 123 3mi-~·1 r 1 Q). Loads between the disconnect switches should be balanced as much as possible so that load transfers between circuits do not adversely affect circuit operation. Usually the substation primary feeders are designed and installed in such an arrangement as to have the feeders supplied from the same transformer extend in opposite directions so that all required ties can be made with circuits supplied from different transformers. a substation with two transformers and four feeders might have the two feeders from one transformer extending north and south. The two feeders from the other transformer may extend east and west. The location of disconnect switches needs to be selected carefully to obtain maximum operating flexibility.18. To provide emergency service for adjacent substation systems. Also assume that at the ultimate development of this substation. Tie lines should be installed when more than one substation is required to serve the area load at one primary distribution voltage. .8 DISTRIBUTION FEEDER EXIT: RECTANGULAR-TYPE DEVELOPMENT The objective of this section is to provide an example for a uniform area development plan to minimize the circuitry changes associated with the systematic expansion of the distribution system. adjacent service areas are served from different transformer banks in order to provide for transfer to adjacent circuits in the event of transformer outages. The optimum voltage conditions are obtained only if the circuit is balanced as closely as possible throughout its length. This would make it much easier to restore service to an area that is affected by a transformer failure. All tie lines should be made to circuits supplied by other transformers. 4 per transformer. a 6-mi 2 service area will be served with a total of 12 feeder circuits. ~l~ ~ ~J ~~l 0· j Substation o FIGURE 5.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 247 2.15 through 5. Assume that underground feeder exits are extended out of a distribution substation into an existing overhead system. thereby eliminating the necessity of having an emergency backup supply at every substation. For example. Disconnect switches are installed at certain intervals in main feeder tie lines to facilitate load transfer and service restoration. This is called the rectangular-type development and is illustrated in Figures 5. 5. Not only the physical arrangement of the circuit but also the size and nature ofloads between switches are important. each of the 12 circuits would serve approximately Y2 mi 2 in a fully developed service area. Assuming uniform load distribution.

16 ~=r-'1~~l Rectangular-type development with two transformers. -I----1r--- FIGURE 5. @ @ -1----1.17 Rectangular-type development with two transformers.. . FIGURE 5.248 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering [J] ~ ~=r'1~ []] ~ FIGURE 5.18 Rectangular-type development with three transformers.-.

As the service area develops. The numbers shown for feeders and transformer banks in the figures represent only the sequence of installation as the substation develops. The center transformer bank is always fully developed when the substation has eight feeder circuits. This method requires the substation to have all three transformer banks before using the larger transformers in order to provide a greater firming capability within the individual substation. 1------+----+--I----+--+---I1~G). As sufficient circuit ties must be available to support the loss of a large transformer unit. 12116/20-MVA. for example. there are two alternatives for further expansion: (i) either remove one of the banks and increase the remaining two bank sizes to the larger. where adjacent substations are not adequately developed and circuit ties are not available because of excessive distances between substations. for example.J 'D-' 0 . 24/32/40 MVA. once three. the 1-2-4-8-12 feeder circuit method and the 1-2-4-6-8-12 feeder circuit method.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 249 feeder circuits and transformer banks requires circuit number changes as the service area develops. transformer units employing the low-side bays of the third transformer as part of the circuitry in the development of the remaining two banks. plus reserve considerations.. the adjacent substations are developed similarly to provide for adequate load transfer capability and service continuity. for example. transformer units and six feeders are reached in the development of this type of substation. Here.1 METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH-LOAD DENSITY AREAS In service areas with high-load density.8.18 show the sequence of installing additional transformers and feeders. C J OJ 0 11--·---3mi---l~1 D Substation FIGURE 5. There are two basic methods of development. depending on the load density of a service area..19 through 5. . a two-transformerbank substation can carry a firm rating of the emergency rating of one bank plus circuit ties.8. These large distances between substations generally limit the amount of load that can be transferred between substations without objectionable outage time because of circuit switching and guarantee that minimum voltage levels are maintained. the remaining transformer banks develop to full capacity.2 METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT FOR Low-LoAD DENSITY AREAS In low-load density areas. As illustrated in Figures 5. 5. namely. Figures 5.19 ~~T . 5. or (ii) completely ignore the third transformer bank area and complete the development of the two remaining sections similar to the previous method. 1 '-1Y~ --+ '1F l -ch~1 o Feeder associated with the service area DTransformer bank associated with the service area The sequence of installing additional transformers and feeders. the 1-2-4-8-12 feeder method is especially desirable for a high-load density area.15 through 5.23. the 1-2-4-6-8-12 circuitdeveloping substation scheme is more suitable.

20 :g::r'1~ :g::r'1~~l []] OJ OJ The sequence of installing additional transformers and feeders. FIGURE 5. ® ® ® :g=r~~~J • G) :g=r~~ OJ OJ 8) FIGURE 5. .21 ® :g::r'1~~l The sequence of installing additionl transformers.250 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ ~ FIGURE 5.22 The sequence of installing additional transformers and feeders.

9 RADIAL-TYPE DEVELOPMENT In addition to the rectangular-type development associated with overhead expansion.24. and as these underground lines extend outward from the substation. and it resembles a wagon wheel with the substation as the hub and the radial spokes as the feeders. as shown in Figure 5.24 Radial-type development. These underground lines extend through the platted service area developments and terminate usually on a remote overhead feeder along a section line. the area load is served. .23 The sequence of installing additionl transformers. (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 5. At these locations the overhead feeders along the quarter section lines are replaced with underground cables. there is a second type of development that is because of the growth of URD subdivisions with underground feeders serving local load as they exit into the adjacent service areas.Design Considerations of Primary Systems 251 FIGURE 5. This type of development is called radial-type development. 5.

252

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

5.10

RADIAL FEEDERS WITH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD

The single-line diagram, shown in Figure 5.25, illustrates a three-phase feeder main having the same construction, that is, in terms of cable size or open-wire size and spacing, along its entire length l. Here, the line impedance is z = r + jx per unit length. The load flow in the main is assumed to be perfectly balanced and uniformly distributed at all locations along the main. In practice, a reasonably good phase balance sometimes is realized when single-phase and open-wye laterals are wisely distributed among the three phases of the main. Assume that there are many closely spaced loads and/or lateral lines connected to the main but not shown in Figure 5.25. Since the load is uniformly distributed along the main, as shown in Figure 5.26, the load current in the main is a function of the distance. Therefore, in view of the many closely spaced small loads, a differential tapped-off load current dT, which corresponds to a dx differential distance, is to be used as an idealization. Here, I is the total length of the feeder and x is the distance of the point 1 on the feeder from the beginning end of the feeder. Therefore, the distance of point 2 on the feeder from the beginning end of the feeder is x + dx. T, is the sendingend current at the feeder breaker, and ~ is the receiving-end current. ~I and /;2 are the currents in the main at points 1 and 2, respectively. Assume that all loads connected to the feeder have the same power factor. The following equations are valid both in per unit or per phase (line-to-neutral) dimensional variables. The circuit voltage is either primary or secondary, and therefore shunt capacitance currents may be neglected.

dV =

zx dx

2
x2 - T

-/,= 0

FIGURE 5.25

A radial feeder.

r----------------j


I I I I I L ______________

I I I I I

I I I I I
I

---l

I I I I I I

14
FIGURE 5.26

·1

A uniformly distributed main feeder.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

253

As the total load is uniformly distributed from x = 0 to x = I,

dl ~ -=k dx '

(5.8)

which is a constant. Therefore 1" that is, the current in the main of som~x distance away from the circuit breaker, can be found as a function of the sending-end current Is and the distance x. This can be accomplished either by inspection or by writing a current equation containing the integration of the dT Therefore, for the dx distance,
(5.9)

or
(5.10)

Prom Equation 5.10,
~ ~ ~dx

1'2 = lrJ - dl elx
(5.11 )

= IrJ --dx

-

dT
dx

.

or
(5.12)

where

k =dx
or, approximately,
(5.] 3)

-

dT

and

Tx! =
Therefore, for the total feeder,

7t2 + kelT

(5.14)

I, = Is - k x I
and

(5.15)

Is
When x = I, from Equation 5.15,

= I, + k x l.

(5.16)

I, = Is - k x 1=0

254

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

hence and since x

(5.17)

= l,
Ir = Is - k x x.
(5.1S)

Therefore, substituting Equation 5.17 into Equation 5.1S,

(5.19)

For a given x distance,

I, =1,
thus Equation 5.19 can be written as:

(5.20)

which gives the current in the main at some x distance away from the circuit breaker. Note that from Equation 5.20,

Is

=

I

I, = 0

atx = l atx = O.

I, = Is

The differential series voltage drop dV and the differential power loss dP LS because of I2R losses can also be found as a function of the sending-end current Is and the distance x in a similar manner. Therefore, the differential series voltage drop can be found as: dV = I, x zdx or substituting Equation 5.20 into Equation 5.21, (5.21)

dV = I, x z ( I -

f)

dx.

(5.22)

Also. the differential power loss can be found as:

dlts = I; x rdx
or substituting Equation 5.20 into Equation 5.23,

(5.23)

(5.24)

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

255

The series voltage drop VDx because of Ix current at any point x on the feeder is

VD, =

f
o

,

dY.

(5.25)

Substituting Equation 5.22 into Equation 5.25,

VD, =

f
o

1, x

Z( I -

T Jdx

(5.26)

or
(5.27)

Therefore, the total series voltage drop IYD x on the main feeder when x

= i is:

or (5.28) The total copper loss per phase in the main because of 12R losses is:

I.
or

PLS =

f
0
2

I

dPLS

(5.29)

I. P

LS =

I "?/s

xr

X

I

(5.30)

Therefore, from Equation 5.28, the distance x from the beginning of the main feeder at which location the total load current Is may be concentrated, that is, lumped for the purpose of calculating the total voltage drop, is

x=whereas, from Equation 5.30, the distance x from the beginning of the main feeder at which location the total load current Is may be lumped for the purpose of calculating the total power loss is

I 2

x=-

I 3

256

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

5.11

RADIAL FEEDERS WITH NONUNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD

The single-line diagram, shown in Figure 5.27, illustrates a three-phase feeder main which has the tapped-off load increasing linearly with the distance x. Note that the load is zero when x = O. The plot of the sending-end current versus the x distance along the feeder main gives the curve shown in Figure 5.28. From Figure 5.28, the negative slope can be written as:
-=dx

dI x

k x Is xx.

(5.31)

Here, the k constant can be found from

Is =

f
I

-d/x
(5.32)

x=o
=

f
I

k x Is x xdx

.<=0

or

12 Is = k x Is x2 From Equation 5.33, the k constant is

(5.33)

FIGURE 5.27

A uniformly increasing load.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

257

c
o

;:J

~

-0 C OJ

,

dl /' -.!!. dx

=negative slope

'6
OJ
({)

c

0,
c

o
FIGURE 5.28

x
x distance

The sending-end current as a function of the distance along a feeder.

k=?

2 1-

(5.34)

Substituting Equation 5.34 into Equation 5.31,

d1, =-21 x '~.
dx
s

1-

(5.35)

Therefore, the current in the main at some x distance away from the circuit breaker can be found as (5.36)

Hence the differential series voltage drop is

dV = Ix x zdx
or

(5.37)

dV = Is x Z ( 1- ;: ) dx.
Also, the differential power loss can be found as
dPLS =

(5.38)

1; x rdx

(5.39)

or

(5.40)

258

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

The series voltage drop because of Ix current at any point x on the feeder is

VDx =

f
x

dV.

(5.41)

o Substituting Equation 5.38 into Equation 5.41 and integrating the result,

(5.42)

Therefore, the total series voltage drop on the main feeder when x = I is

L.

VDx =

%z x I x Is.

(5.43)

The total copper loss per phase in the main as a result of J2 R losses is

L.
or

PLS

=

f
0

I

dPLS

(5.44)

L. P
5.12

LS

8 2 x r = -Is 15 .

X

I.

(5.45)

APPLICATION OF THE A, B, C, D GENERAL CIRCUIT CONSTANTS TO RADIAL FEEDERS

Assume a single-phase or balanced three-phase transmission or distribution circuit characterized by the.4, B, C, jj general circuit constants, as shown in Figure 5.29. The mixed data assumed to be known, as commonly encountered in system design, are P r, and cos e. Assume that all data represent either per phase dimensional values or per unit values. As shown in Figure 5.30, taking phasor I{ as the reference,

IVsl,

(5.46) (5.47)

P + jQs

--------= Ss s

Is

A,B, C,O

- - - -

Pr + jQr Sr

--------=

Ir

FIGURE 5.29

A symbolic representation of a line.

esign Considerations of Primary Systems

259

~:--r:-.:...-.____-=.V!......r.. - - - 0 0
Ir IGURE 5.30 Phasor diagram.

1, = i,L -8,

(5.48)

Ihere V, is the receiving-end voltage phasor, Q is the sending-end voltage phasor, and ~ is the =ceiving-end current phasor. The sending-end voltage in terms of the general circuit constants can be expressed as:
~=AxV,+BxI,

(5.49)

vhere (5.50) (5.51)

Ir

= ir(cos8 r - jsin8,)

(5.52) (5.53) (5.54)

v, = V,LO° = V,
~ = VsCCOSO + jsinO).

Therefore, Equation 5.49 can be written as:

V,cosO + jYssinO = (AI + jA2 )Vr +(BI + jB2)(lrcos8r - ji rsin8,)
from which (5.55) and (5.56) By taking squares of Equations 5.55 and 5.56, and adding them side by side,

260

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

or

(5.58)

Since

P, = VJ rcos8r

(5.59) (5.60)

Qr = VJr sin8 r
and

Qr = p,tan8
Equation 5.58 can be rewritten as:
2 2 2 2 2) (l+tan 28r)V p/ TT2 [B B ) Vr(AJ+A2)+(BJ+B2 2 =v s -2Pr (A J J+A2 2
r

(5.61)

(5.62)

Let (5.63) then Equation 5.62 becomes

(5.64)

or

(5.65)

Therefore, from Equation 5.65, the receiving-end voltage can be found as:

(5.66)

A Iso, from Equal ions 5.55 and 5.56,

esign Considerations of Primary Systems

261

here
/ =

P,

, herefore,

V,cos8,

(5.67)

(5.68)

nd
(5.69)

Iy dividing Equation 5.68 by Equation 5.69,
(5.70)

)r

(5.71)

Equations 5.66 and 5.71 are found for a general transmission system. They could be adapted to he simpler transmission consisting of a short primary voltage feeder where the feeder capacitance s usually negligible, as shown in Figure 5.3l. To achieve the adaptation, Equations 5.63, 5.66, and 5.71 can be written in terms of Rand X. fherefore, for the feeder shown in Figure 5.31,

[I]
or

= [Y][V]

(5.72)

~

~

FIGURE 5.31

A radial feeder.

I

~------------~----------~-

~

Z=R+jX

.2..

I

262

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(5.73)

where

1';, ==

-

I

z
-

(5.74)
1

Y2' = 1';2-=
Z -

-

(5.75) (5.76)

Y22
Therefore,

=Z'

I

(5.77)

or
(5.78) where (5.79)

and
Az =0.

(5.80)

Similarly, (5.81)

or B, + jB2 = R + jX
where (5.83) (5.82)

and
(5.84) Substituting Equations 5.79, 5.80, 5.83, and 5.84 into 5.66,

(5.85)

)esign Considerations of Primary Systems
)f

263

(5.86)

)r

v, = K11 ±
2

I _ [_2ZP, ) 112]1/2 Kcose,

(5.87)

where
K. = V,- - 2 x P,(R + X x tane,).
1

(5.88)

Also, from Equation 5.71, tanu
s:

=

P,(X - R x tane,)

V/ + P,(R + X x tane,)

.

(5.89)

EXAMPLE

5.1

Assume that the radial express feeder, shown in Figure 5.31, is used on rural distribution and is connected to a lumped-sum (or concentrated) load at the receiving end. Assume that the feeder impedance is 0.10 + j0.10 per unit (pu), the sending-end voltage is 1.0 pu, P, is 1.0 pu constant power load, and the power factor at the receiving end is 0.80 lagging. Use the given data and the exact equations for K, P" and tan (j given previously and determine the following:
(a) ComputeV" and (j by using the exact equations and find also the corresponding values of

the I, and Is currents.
(b) Verify the numerical results found in part a by using those results in

~

= v, + (R + jX)I,

(5.90)

Solution
(a) From Equation 5.88,

K=v,,- - 2xPr (R+Xxtane,)

-

1

=1.0 2 -2xl[0.lO+O.1 x tan(cos-10.80)] =O.65pu.

264

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

From Equation 5.87,

Vr=[Kj1± 1_[~2ZP,
2 KcosOr
=[0.65!1 2

)1/2)1/2

± [1-

(2 x0.65 0.141 x 1.0)1 x 0.8

1/2 )]1/2

= 0.7731pu. From Equation 5.89,
5: Pr(X - R x tan Or) tan u = ----;:-....:-:.------'-'V/ + Pr(R + X x tan Or)

1.0[0.lO - 0.10 x tan(cos 10.80)]

0.773f + 1.0[0.10 + 0.10 x tan(cos-10.80)] = 0.0323. Therefore,

8 == 1.85°.
Ir

= Is

-

=

p. r L. - Or VrcosOr
1.0 L. -36.8° 0.7731 xO.80

=

= 1.617L. -36.8° pu.

(b) From the given equation,

v, = v, - (R + jX)!,
= 1. OL. I. 85" - (0.10 + jO. 10)(1.6 I 7 L. - 36.8")
== 0.773 I L.O" pu.

5.13

THE DESIGN OF RADIAL PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

The radial primary distribution systems are designed in several different ways: (i) overhead primaries with overhead laterals or (ii) URD, for example, with mixed distribution of overhead primaries and underground laterals.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

265

5.13.1

OVERHEAD PRIMARIES

For the sake of illustration, Figure 5.32 shows an arrangement for overhead distribution which includes a main feeder and 10 laterals connected to the main with sectionalizing fuses. Assume that the distribution substation, shown in the figure, is arbitrarily located; it may also serve a second area, which is not shown in the flgure, that is equal to the area being considered and, for example, located "below" the shown substation site. Here, the feeder mains are three-phase and of 10 short blocks length or less. The laterals, on the other hand, are all of six long blocks length and are protected with sectionalizing fuses. In general, the laterals may be either single-phase, open wye-grounded, or three-phase. Here, in the event of a permanent fault on a lateral line, only a relatively small fraction of the total area is outaged. Ordinarily permanent faults on the overhead line can be found and repaired quickly.

5.13.2

UNDERGROUND RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

Although an URD costs somewhere between 1.25 and 10 times more than a comparable overhead system, because of its certain advantages it is used commonly [3,4]. Among the advantages of the underground system are: 1. The lack of outages caused by the abnormal weather conditions such as ice, sleet, snow, severe rain and storms, and lightning. 2. The lack of outages caused by accidents, flres, and foreign objects. 3. The lack of tree trimming and other preventative maintenance tasks. 4. The aesthetic improvement. For the sake of illustration, Figure 5.33 shows an underground residential distribution for a typical overhead and underground primary distribution system of the two-way feed type.

aI ----..e.fv-+---'\...~~--Ia bi----~~---- - - - - - - - - - - - l b ,

----7-----

144 services (518kVA)

Laterals

144 services (518kVA)

-----~----l ,

cl---------f-----------~

-----------jc'
-----~~~---J d'
---

el

d~---------- -----------J
____ -_-_____

L__________
I
~----------

~----------

-----------1 -----------1
-----------l
Circuit breaker 6 blocks (5760 tt)

-----------1

le'~~ ~ g
0

8

I

L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

~---------- ~~---------i
6 blocks

I
FIGURE 5.32

r-(5760tt)

'I"

~I

An overhead radial distribution system.

266

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Normally open
12 blocks (11,52011)

FIGURE 5.33

A two-way feed-type underground residential distribution system.

The two arbitrarily located substations are assumed to be supplied from the same subtransmission line, which is not shown in the figure, so that the low-voltage buses of the two substations are nominally in phase. In the figure, the two overhead primary feeder mains carry the total load of the area being considered, that is, the area of the 12 block by 10 block. The other two overhead feeder mains carry the other equally large area. Therefore, in this example, each area has 120 blocks. The laterals, in residential areas, typically are single-phase and consist of directly buried (rather than located in ducts) concentric neutral-type cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)-insulated cable. Such a cable is usually insulated for IS-kY line-to-line solidly grounded neutral service and the commonly used single-phase line-to-neutral operating voltages are nominally 7200 or 7620 Y. The installation of long lengths of cable capable of being plowed directly into the ground or placed in narrow and shallow trenches, without the need for ducts and manholes, naturally reduces

sign Considerations of Primary Systems

267

tallation and maintenance costs. The heavy three-phase teeders are overhead along the periphery a residential development, and the laterals to the pad-mount transformers are buried about inches deep. The secondary service lines then run to the individual dwellings at a depth of about inches, and come up into the dwelling meter through a conduit. The service conductors run along ;ements and do not cross adjacent property lines. The distribution transformers now often used are of the pad-mounted or submersible type. The J-mounted distribution transformers are completely enclosed in strong, locked sheet metal enclores and mounted on grade on a concrete slab. The submersible-type distribution transformers are Iced in a cylindrical excavation that is lined with a concrete, bituminized fiber or corrugated sheet ~tal tube. The tubular liner is secured after near-grade level with a locked cover. Ordinarily each lateral line is operated normally open (NO) at or near the center as Figure 5.33 ggests. An excessive amount of time may be required to locate and repair a fault in a directly burl URD cable. Therefore, it is desirable to provide switching so that anyone run of primary cable n be deenergized for cable repair or replacement while still maintaining service to all (or nearly I) distribution transformers. Figure 5.34 shows apparatus, suggested by Lokay [1], that is or has been used to accomplish e desired switching or sectionalizing. This figure shows a single-line diagram of loop-type imary-feeder circuit for a low-cost underground distribution system in residential areas. gure 5.34(1 shows it with a disconnect switch at each transformer, whereas Figure 5.34b shows the :nilar setup without a disconnect switch at each transformer. In Figure 5.34(1, if the cable "above" is faulted, the switch at C and the switch or cutout "above" C are opened, and, at the same time, e sectionalizing switch at B is closed. Therefore, the faulted cable above C and the distribution ,l!1sformer at C are then out of service.

Overhead primary feeder

Overhead primary feeder

. Underground pnmary

Lightning arresters

Normally closed

B

Normally open sectionalizing switch (a)

t

Normally open sectionalizing switch (b)

t

Single-line diagram of loop-type primary-feeder circuits: (a) with a disconnect switch at each ransformer and (b) without a disconnect switch at each transformer. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporaion, Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems, vol. 3, East Pittsburgh, PA, 1965. rVith permission.)

:IGURE 5.34

268

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Plug-in type HV load break connectors

------~)7>---~~--~~(------

FIGURE 5.35

A distribution transformer with internal high-voltage fuse and load break connectors.
'.

Figure 5.35 shows a distribution transformer with internal high-voltage fuse and with stickoperated plug-in type of high-voltage load break connectors. Some of the commonly used plug-in types of load break connector ratings include 8.66-kV line-to-neutral, 200-A continuous 200-A load break, and 1O,000-A symmetrical fault close-in rating. Figure 5.36 shows a distribution transformer with internal high-voltage fuse and with stickoperated high-voltage load break switches that can be used in Figure 5.34a to allow four modes of operation, namely: I. 2. 3. 4. The transformer is energized and the loop is closed The transformer is energized and the loop is open to the right The transformer is energized and the loop is open to the left The transformer is deenergized and the loop is open.

In Figure 5.33, note that, in case of trouble, the open may be located near one of the underground feed points. Therefore, at least in this illustrative design, the single-phase underground cables should be at least ampacity-sized for the load of 12 blocks, not merely 6 blocks. In Figure 5.33, note further the difficulty in providing abundant overvoltage protection to cable and distribution transformers by placing lightning arresters at the open cable ends. The location of the open moves because of switching, whether for repair purposes or for load balancing.
EXAMPLE

5.2

Consider the layout of the area and the annual peak demands shown in Figure 5.32. Note that the peak demand per lateral is found as: 144 customers x 3.6 kVAlcustomer == 518 kVA Assume a lagging load power factor of 0.90 at all locations in all primary circuits at the time of the annual peak load. For purposes of computing voltage drop in mains and in three-phase laterals,
HV load break switches

FIGURE 5.36

A distribution transformer with internal high-voltage fuses and load break switches.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

269

assume that the single-phase load is perfectly balanced among the three phases. Idealize the voltage drop calculations further by assuming uniformly distributed load along all laterals. Assume nominal operating voltage when computing current from the kilovoltampere load. For the open-wire overhead copper lines, compute the percent voltage drops, using the precalculated percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile curves given in Chapter 4. Note that Dill = 37 inches is assumed. The joint EEI-NEMA report [51 defines.tclvorahle voltages at the point of utilization, inside the buildings, to be from 110 to 125 V. Here, for illustrative purposes, the lower limit is arbitrarily raised to 116 V at the meter, that is, at the end of the service-drop cable. This allowance may compensate for additional voltage drops, not calculated, as a result of: I. 2. 3. 4. Unbalanced loading in three-wire single-phase secondaries Unbalanced loading in four-wire three-phase primaries Load growth Voltage drops in building wiring.

Therefore, the voltage criteria that are to be used in this problem are
Villa, = 125 V = 1.0417 pu

and Vmin

= 116 V = 0.9667 pu

at the meter. The maximum voltage drop, from the low-voltage bus of the distribution substation to the most remote meter, is 7.50%. It is assumed that a 3.5% maximum steady-state voltage drop in the secondary distribution system is reasonably achievable. Therefore, the maximum allowable primary voltage drop for this problem is limited to 4.0%. Assume open-wire overhead primaries with three-phase four-wire laterals, and that the nominal voltage is used as the base voltage and is equal to 2400/4160 V for the three-phase four-wire grounded-wye primary system with copper conductors and Dm = 37 inches Consider only the "longest" primary circuit, consisting of a 3300-ft main and the two most remote laterals (note that the whole area is not considered here, but only the last two laterals, for practice), like the laterals a and a' of Figure 5.32. Use ampacity-sized conductors but in no case smaller than AWG #6 for reasons of mechanical strength. Determine the following:
(a) The percent voltage drops at the ends of the laterals and the main. (b) If the 4% maximum voltage drop criterion is exceeded, find a reasonable combination of

larger conductors for the main and for the laterals that will meet the voltage drop criterion.
Solution
(a) Figure 5.37 shows the "longest" primary circuit, consisting of the 3300-ft main and

the most remote laterals a and a'. In Figure 5.37, the signs / / / / indicate that there are three-phase and one neutral conductors in that portion of the one-line diagram. The current in the lateral is:

(5.9\)

Jj x4.16

518

== 72 A.

270
5760 ft

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
5760 ft

~------"------~v~--------'~-----~

a.-----~T-T-----~~-----~~L7~------a'

- - - 518 kVA

518 kVA---

- - - 72A

72A---

;:::

o o cry

cry

FIGURE 5.37

The "longest" primary circuit.

Thus, from Table A.l, AWG #6 copper conductor '.'lith 130-A ampacity is selected for the laterals. The current in the main is:

(5.92)

J3 x4.16

1036

== 144A.

Hence, from Table A.I, AWG #4 copper conductor with ISO-A ampacity is selected for the mains. Here, note that the AWG #5 copper conductors with 150-A ampacity is not selected because of the resultant too-high total voltage drop. From Figure 4.17, the K constants for the AWG #6 laterals and the AWG #4 mains can be found to be 0.015 and 0.01, respectively. Therefore, as the load is assumed to be uniformly distributed along the lateral,
% VDlatcral = I x K x S 2

=.~x
2 = 4.24

5760ft xO.015x51SkVA 52S0ftl mi

(5.93)

and since the main is considered to have a lumped-sum load of 1036 kVA at the end of its length, %VDmain=lxKxS
= .--.-.---- x 0.0 I x 1036 kV A

3300ft 52S0ftJmi

(5.94)

= 6.48.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

271

Therefore, the total percent primary voltage drop is

= 6.48 + 4.24

(5.95 )

= 10.72
which exceeds the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%. Here, note that if single-phase laterals were used instead of the three-phase laterals, according to Morrison [6 J the percent voltage drop of a single-phase circuit is approximately four ti mes that for a three-phase circuit, assuming thc use of the samc size conductors. Hence, for the laterals,

L % YD

= 4(% YO:1,,}

= 4 x 4.24
= 16.96.

(5.96)

Therefore, from Equation 5.95, the new total percent voltage drop would be

L

% YO = % YO main + % YOlarer,,1 = 6.48 + 16.96
= 23.44

which would be far exceeding the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%. (b) Therefore, to meet the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%, from Table A.I select 4/0 and AWG #1 copper conductors with ampacities of 480 A and 270 A for the main and laterals, respectively. Hence, from Equation 5.93,

% YOlareral = I x K x S 2

=.!..x 5760ft xO.006x518kYA 2 5280ftlmi = l.695. and from Equation 5.94,
%VO main = I x K x S

3300ft x 0.003 x 1036kYA 5280ftlmi = l.943.

272

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Therefore, from Equation 5.95,

L % VD

= % VD main + % VD1a,eral
= 1.943 + 1.695

= 3.638

which meets the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%.
EXAMPLE

5.3

Repeat Example 5.2 but assume that, instead of the open-wire overhead primary system, a selfsupporting aerial messenger cable with aluminum conductors is being used. This is to be considered one step toward the improvement of the esthetics of the overhead primary system, since, in general, very few cross-arms are required. Consider again only the "longest" primary circuit, consisting of a 3300-ft main and the two most remote laterals (note that the whole area is not considered here again, but only the last two laterals, for practice), like the laterals a and at of Figure 5.32. For the voltage drop calculations in the self-supporting aerial messenger cable, use Table A.23 for its resistance and reactance values. For ampacities, use Table 5.2 which gives data for XLPE-insulated aluminum conductor, grounded neutral +3/0 aerial cables. These ampacities are based on 40°C ambient and 90°C conductor temperatures and are taken from the General Electric Company's Publication No. PD-16.
Solution
(a) The voltage drop, because of the uniformly distributed load, at the lateral is:

VD'a,eral = l(r x cos 8 +

XL

x sin 8)

i2 V

(5.97)

TABLE 5.2

Current-Carrying Capacity of Cross-Linked Polyethylene Aerial Cables
Ampacity, A

Conductor Size

5·kV Cable

15·kV Cable

6AWG 4AWG 2AWG IAWG I/OAWG 2/0AWG 3/OAWG 4/0AWG 250 kClllil 350 kClllil 500 kClllil

75 99 130 151
174

201 231 268 297 368 459

135 155 178 205 237 273 302 372 462

)esign Considerations of Primary Systems

273

.vhere 1= 72 A, from Example 5.2; r=4.13 Q/mi, for AWG #6 aluminum conductors from fable A.23; XL = 0.258 Q/mi, for AWG #6 aluminum conductors from Table A.23; cose= 0.90 1l1d sine 0.436. Therefore, 5760 ft VDI",,,r,,1 =72(4.13 x 0.9+0.258 x 0.436)S280-t:tlmi x = 150.4 V
Jr,

"2

in percent, 150.4 V % VDI",,,r,,1 = 2400 V
= 6.27.

The voltage drop because of the lumped sum load at the end of main is: VD main = I(r x cose +
XL

x sine)! V,

(5.98)

where 1== 144 A, from Example 5.2; r = 1.29 A/mi, for AWG # I aluminum conductors from Table A.23 and XL == 0.211 Q/mi, for AWG # I aluminum conductors from Table A.23. Therefore, 3300 ft VD main = 144(1.29 x 0.9 + 0.211 x 0.436)--5280 ftlmi _ 112.8 V or, in percent, % VD . = 112.8V main 2400 V
= 4.7.

Thus, from Equation 5.95, the total percent primary voltage drop is

I. % VD = % VD main + % VDla,cral
= 4.7

+ 6.27

= 10.97 which far exceeds the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%. (b) Therefore, to meet the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%, from Tables 5.2 and A.23, select 4/0 and 110 aluminum conductors with ampacities of 268 A and 174 A for the main and laterals, respectively.

274

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Hence, from Equation 5.97, VDlateral == 72(1.03 x 0.9 + 0.207 x 0.436) ==39.95V or, in percent, 39.95 V %VDlateral == - - 2400 V
== 1.66.

5760 ft 1 . x 5280 ftlml 2

From Equation 5.98, VD main == 144(0.518

x 0.9 + 0.l91 x 0.436)

3300 ft == 49.45 V 5280 ftlmi

or, in percent, % VD . == 49.45V maIO 2400 V
== 2.06.

Thus, from Equation 5.95, the total percent primary voltage drop is

I. % VD

== 2.06 + 1.66 == 3.72

which meets the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%.
EXAMPLE

5.4

Repeat Example 5.2 but assume that the nominal operating voltage is used as the base voltage and is equal to 7200112,470 V for the three-phase four-wire grounded-wye primary system with copper conductors. Use DOl == 37 inches although Dill == 53 inches is more realistic for this voltage class. This simplification allows the use of the precalculated percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile curves given in Chapter 4. Consider serving the total area of 12 x 10 == 120 - block area, shown in Figure 5.32, with two feeder mains so that the longest of the two feeders would consist of a 3300-ft main and 10 laterals, that is, the laterals a through e and the laterals a ' through e'. Use ampacity-sized conductors, but not smaller than AWG #6, and determine the following:
(a) Repeat part (a) of Example 5.2. (b) Repeat part (b) of Example 5.2. (c) The deliberate use of very small D leads to small errors in what and why?

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

275

Solution
(a) The assumed load on the longer feeder is

518 kVA/lateral x 10 laterals/feeder = 5180 kVA Therefore, the current in the main is 5180 kVA Illlain = .J3 x 12.47 kV = 240.1 A. Thus, from Table A.I, AWG #2, three-strand copper conductor, is selected for the mains. The current in the lateral is 518kVA Ila,eral = .J3x 12.47kV =24.1 A. Hence, from Table A.I, AWG #6 copper conductor is selected for the laterals. From Figure 4.17, the K constants for the AWG #6 laterals and the AWG #2 mains can be found to be 0.00175 and 0.0008, respectively. Therefore, as the load is assumed to be uniformly distributed along the lateral, from Equation 5.93, % VDlaleral =

"2 x K x S
2 5760ft xO.00175x518kVA 5280ftlmi

I

=i. x
=0.50,

and since, due to the peculiarity of this new problem, one-half of the main has to be considered as an express feeder and the other half is connected to a uniformly distributed load of 5180 kVA,
% VD main

3 ="4 xlxK x S

=~x 3300ft xO.0008x5180kVA
4 5280ftlmi
= 1.94.

(5.99)

Therefore, from Equation 5.95, the total percent primary voltage drop is

L

%VD = 1.94 + 0.50 = 2.44.

(b) It meets the maximum primary voltage drop criterion of 4.00%.

276
(c) Since the inductive reactance of the line is

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

XL

= 0.1213

x In_l_ + 0.1213 x In Dm .Q/mi
Ds

or

when Dm = 37 inches,
= 0.1213

Xd

x In---

37 in 12 inlft

= 0.1366 Wmi

and when Dm = 53 inches,
= 0.1213

Xd

x

In~
12 inlft

= 0.1802 Wmi.

Hence, there is a difference of fud = 0.0436 Wmi, which calculates a smaller voltage drop value than it really is.

EXAMPLE

5.5

Consider the layout of the area and the annual peak demands shown in Figure 5.33. The primary distribution system in the figure is a mixed system with overhead mains and URD system. Assume that open-wire overhead mains are used with n00I12,470-V three-phase four-wire grounded-wye aluminum conductors steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors and that Dill = 53 inches. Also assume that concentric neutral XLPE-insulated underground cable with aluminum conductors is used for single-phase and noo-v underground cable laterals. For voltage drop calculations and ampacity of concentric neutral XLPE-insulated URD cable with aluminum conductors, use Table 5.3. The foregoing data are for a currently used l5-kV solidly grounded neutral class of cable construction consisting of: (i) AI phase conductor, (ii) extruded semiconducting conductor shield, (iii) 175-mil thickness of cross-linked PE insulation, (iv) extruded semiconducting sheath and insulation shield, and (v) bare copper wires spirally appl ied around the outside to serve as the current-carrying grounded neutral. The data given are for a cable intended for single-phase service, hence the number and size of concentric neutral are selected to have "100% neutral" ampacity. When three such cables are to be installed to make a three-phase circuit, the number and/or size of copper concentric neutral strands on each cable are reduced to 33% (or less) neutral ampacity per cable. Another type of insulation in current use is high-molecular weight PE (HMWPE). It is rated for only 75°C conductor temperature and, therefore, provides a little less ampacity than XLPE insulation

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

277

TABLE 5.3

15-kV Concentric Neutral Cross-Linked Polyethylene-Insulated Aluminum Underground Residential Distribution Cable
i2/1000 ft*
"".--..
--~.~--"---.-.

Ampacity, A
~-~-.--~-~~~~--------

Aluminum Conductor Size 4AWG 2AWG IAWG IIOAWG 210AWG 3/0AWG 410AWG 250 kcmil 300 kcmil 350 kcmil

Copper Neutral 6-#14 10414 13-#14 16-114 134 12 16-#12 20-#12 25-112 IS-1110 20410

r"* 0.526 0.:\31 0.262 0.208 0.166 0.132 0.105 0.089 0.074 {l.O63

Xl
0.0345 0.0300 0.0290 0.0275 0.0260 0.0240 0.0230 0.0220 0.0215 0.0210

Direct Burial 12X 168 193 218 248 284 324 360 403 440

In Duct 91 119 137 155 177 201 230 257 291 315

" For single-phase circuitry. ** At 90°C conductor temperature. Source: Data abstracted from Rome Cable Company, URD Technical Mantlal, 4th ed., Rome, New York, 1995.

on the same conductor size. The HMWPE requires 220 mils insulation thickness in lieu of 175 mil. Cable reactances are, therefore, slightly higher when HMWPE is used. However, the f:,.X;L is negligible for ordinary purposes. The determination of correct r + jXL values of these relatively new concentric-neutral cables is a subject of current concern and research. A portion of the neutral current remains in the bare concentric-neutral conductors; the remainder returns in the earth (Carson's equivalent conductor). More detailed information about this matter is available in references [8] and [9]. Use the given data and determine the following:
(a) Size each of the overhead mains 1 and 2, of Figure 5.33, with enough ampacity to serve the entire 12 x 10 block area. Size each single-phase lateral URD cable with ampacity for the load of 12 blocks. (b) Find the percent voltage drop at the ends of the most remote laterals under normal operation; that is, all laterals open at the center and both mains are energized. (c) Find the percent voltage drop at the most remote lateral under the worst possible emergency operation; that is, one main is outaged and all laterals are fed full length from the one energized main. (d) Is the voltage drop criterion met for normal operation and for the worst emergency operation? Solution (a) Since under the emergency operation the remaining energized main supplies the doubled number of laterals, the assumed load is

2 x 518 kVAllateral x 10 laterals/feeder = 10,360 kVA.

278
Therefore, the current in the main is I . = maIn

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

.J3 X 12.47kV

10,360kVA

= 480.2 A. Thus, from Table A.5, 300-kcmil ACSR conductors, with 500-A ampacity, are selected for the mains. Since under the emergency operation, because of doubled load, the current in the lateral is doubled, I _2x518kVA lateral 7.2kV
= 144A.

Therefore, from Table 5.3, AWG #2 XLPE Al URD cable, with 168-A ampacity, is selected for the laterals. (b) Under normal operation, all laterals are open at the center and both mains are energized. Thus the voltage drop, because of uniformly distributed load, at the main is VD main = I[r x cose + or VD main = l(r x cos
XL

x sine]i V 2

(5.100)

e + (x"

+

Xd)

x sine] I V 2

(5.101)

where I = 480.212 = 240.1 A, r = 0.342 Q/mi for 300-kcmil ACSR conductors from Table A.5, x" = 0.458 Q/mi for 300-kcmil ACSR conductors from Table A.5, Xd = 0.1802 Q/mi for Dm = 53 in from Table A.lO, cose= 0.90, and sine= 0.436. Therefore, 3300 ft I VDm"in = 240.1[0.342 x 0.9 + (0.458 + 0.1802)0.436] 5280 ft/mi x

2

== 44 V.
or, in percent, O/OVD . = 44V malll 7200V
= 0.61.

The voltage drop at the lateral, because of the uniformly distributed load, from Equation 5.97 is VDla.cr;Ii = /(r x cose +
X X Sin

. e) 2 I V

where / = 14412 = 72 A, r = 0.331 Q/lOOO ft for AWG #2 XLPE AI URD cable from Table 5.3, and x, = 0.0300 ftllOOO ft for AWG #2 XLPE Al URD cable from Table 5.3.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

279

Therefore,
_ / l 5760 f~ _~ VDlate,al - 7_(0.331 x 0.9 + 0.0300 x 0.436) 1000 ft x 2

= 64.5 V.

or, in percent, % VOlateral = 64.5 V 7200 V
= 0.9.

Thus, from Equation 5.95, the total percent primary voltage drop is L%VO=0.61 +0.9
= 1.5 I.

(c) Under the worst possible emergency operation, one main is outaged and all laterals are supplied full length from the remaining energized main. Thus the voltage drop in the main, because of uniformly distributed load, from Equation 5.101 is
YO main = 480.2(0.3078 + 0.2783) = 88Y or, in percent, % YO main = 1.22. The voltage drop at the lateral, because of uniformly distributed load, from Equation 5.97 is 5760 ft VOlateral = 144(0.331 x 0.9 + 0.03 x 0.435)-1000 ft
= 258 V

3300 ft 1 . x 5280 fUm! 2

or, in percent, %VO = 258Y 7200 Y

lateral

= 3.5.
Therefore, from Equation 5.95, the total percent primary voltage drop is

L

% YO =l.22 + 3.5
= 4.72.

280

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

(d) The primary voltage drop criterion is met for normal operation but is not met for the worst emergency operation.

5.14

PRIMARY SYSTEM COSTS

Based on the 1994 prices, construction of three-phase, overhead, wooden pole cross-arm type feeders of normal, large conductor (e.g., 600 kcmil per phase) of about 12.47-kV voltage level costs about $150,000 per mile. However, cost can vary greatly because of variations in labor, filing, and permit costs among utilities, as well as differences in design standards, and very real differences in terrain and geology. The aforementioned feeder would be rated with a thermal capacity of about 15 MVA and a recommended economic peak loading of about 10 MVA peal, depending on losses and other costs. At $150,000 per mile, this provides a cost of $10 to $15 per kW mile. Underground construction of three-phase primary is more expensive, requiring buried ductwork and cable, and usually works out to a range of $30 to $50 per kW mile. The costs of lateral lines vary from between about $5 and $15 per kW mole overhead. The underground lateral lines cost between $5 and $15 per kW mile for direct buried cables and $30 and $100 per kW mile for ducted cables. Costs of other distribution equipments, including regulators, capacitor banks and their switches, sectionalizers, line switches, and so on varies greatly depending on specifics to each application. In general, the cost of the distribution system will vary from between $10 and $30 per kW mile.

PROBLEMS
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Repeat Example 5.2, assuming a 30-min annual maximum demand of 4.4 kVA per customer. Repeat Example 5.3, assuming the nominal operating voltage to be 7200112,470 V. Repeat Example 5.3, assuming a 30-min annual maximum demand of 4.4 kVA per customer for a 12.47-kV system. Repeat Example 5.4, and find the exact solution by using Dm = 53 inches. Repeat Example 5.5, assuming a lagging load power factor of 0.80 at all locations. Assume that a radial express feeder used in rural distribution is connected to a concentrated and static load at the receiving end. Assume that the feeder impedance is 0.15 + jO.30 pu, the sending end voltage is 1.0 pu, the constant power load at the receiving end is 1.0 pu with a lagging power factor of 0.85. Use the given data and the exact equations for K, v" and tano given in Section 5.12 and determine the following:
(a) The values \I, and 0 by using the exact equations. (b) The corresponding values of the and currents.

r;

I:

5.7

Use the results found in Problem 5.6 and Equation 5.90 and determine the receiving-end voltage t;. 5.8 Assume that a three-phase 34.5-kV radial express feeder is used in rural distribution and that the receiving-end voltages at full load and no load are 34.5 and 36.9 kV, respectively. Determine the percent voltage regulation of the feeder. 5.9 A three-phase radial express feeder has a line-to-line voltage of 22.9 kV at the receiving end, a total impedance of 5.25 + jlO.95 .Q per phase, and a load of 5 MW with a lagging power factor of 0.90. Determine the following:
(a)

The line-to-neutral and line-to-line voltages at the sending end.

(b) The load angle.

5.10

Use the results of Problem 5.9 and determine the percent voltage regulation of the feeder.

Design Considerations of Primary Systems

281

5.11

Assume that a wye-connected three-phase load is made up of three impedances of 50 L 25° Q each and that the load is supplied by a three-phase four-wire primary express feeder. The balanced line-to-neutral voltages at the receiving end are:
V = 7630 LO° V
UII

VII = 7630 L 240° V

V n , = 7630 L
Determine the following:

J20' V

(a) The phasor currents in each line. (b) The line-to-line phasor voltages. (c) The total active and reactive power supplied to the load.

5.12 5.13

5.14

5.15

Repeat Problem 5.11, if the same three load impedances are connected in a delta connection. Assume that the service area of a given feeder is increasing as a result of new residential developments. Determine the new load and area that can be served with the same percent voltage drop if the new feeder voltage level is increased to 34.5 kV from the previous voltage level of 12.47 kY. Assume that the feeder in Problem 5.13 has a length of 2 mi and that the new feeder uniform loading has increased to three times the old feeder loading. Determine the new maximum length of the feeder with the same percent voltage drop. Consider a 12.47 kV three-phase four-wire grounded-wye overhead radial distribution system, similar to the one shown in Figure 5.32. The uniformly distributed area of 12x 10 = 120-block area is served by one main located in the middle of the service area. There are 10 laterals (six blocks each) on each side of the main. The lengths of the main and the laterals are 3300 ft and 5760 ft, respectively. From Table A.l, arbitrarily select 4/0 copper conductor with 12 strands for the main and AWG # 6 copper conductor for the laterals. The K constants for the main and lateral are 0.0032 and 0.00175 %VD per kVA-mi, respectively. If the maximum diversified demand per lateral is 518.4 kVA, consider the total service area and determine the following: The total load of the main feeder in kVA. The amount of current in the main feeder. The amount of current in the lateral. The percent voltage drop at the end of the lateral. The percent voltage drop at the end of the main. if) The total voltage drop for the last lateral. Is it acceptable if the 4% maximum voltage drop criterion is used?
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

5.16

After solving Problem 5.15, use the results obtained but assume that the main is made up of 500 kcmil, 19-strand copper conductors with Dm = 37 inches and determine the following:
(a) The percent voltage drop at the end of the main. (b) The total voltage drop to the end of the last lateral. Is it acceptable and why?

5.17

After solving Problem 5.15, use the results obtained but assume that the main is made up of 350 kcmil, 12-strand copper conductors with Dm = 37 inches and determine the following:
(a) The percent voltage drop at the end of the main. (b) The total voltage drop to the end of the last lateral. Is it acceptable and why?

282

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

5.18

After solving Problem 5.l5, use the results obtained but assume that the main is made up of 250 kcmil, 12-strand copper conductors with Dm == 37 inches and determine the following:
(a) The percent voltage drop at the end of the main. (b) The total voltage drop to the end of the last lateral. Is it acceptable and why?

Resolve Example 5.2 by using MATLAB. Use the same selected conductors and their parameters. 5.20 Resolve Example 5.3 by using MATLAB, assuming the nominal operating voltage to be 7200/12,470 V. Use the same selected conductors and their parameters.

5.19

REFERENCES
1. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems, vol. 3, East Pittsburgh, PA, 1965. 2. Gonen, T. et al.: Development ofAdvanced Methodsfor Planning Electric Energy Distribution Systems, U.S. Department of Energy. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, October 1979. 3. Edison Electric Institute: Underground Systems Reference Book, 2nd ed., New York, 1957. 4. ,t.,ndrews, F. E.: Residential Underground Distribution Adaptable, Electr. World, December 12, 1955, pp.107-13. 5. EEI-NEMA: Preferred Voltage Ratings for AC Systems and Equipment, EEl Publication No. R-6, NEMA Publication No. 117, May 1949. 6. Morrison, c.: A Linear Approach to the Problem of Planning New Feed Points into a Distribution System, AlEE Trans., pt. III (PAS), December 1963, pp. 819-32. 7. Smith, D. R., and 1. V. Barger: Impedance and Circulating Current Calculations for URD Multi-Wire Concentric Neutral Circuits, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., vol. PAS-91, no. 3, May/June 1972, pp. 992-1006. 8. Stone, D. L.: Mathematical Analysis of Direct Buried Rural Distribution Cable Impedance, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., vol. PAS-91, no. 3, May/June 1972, pp. 1015-22. 9. Gonen, T.: High-Temperature Superconductors, in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th ed., vol. 7, 1992, pp. 127-29. 10. Gonen, T., and D.C. You: A Comparative Analysis of Distribution Feeder Costs, Proc. Southwest Electrical Exposition IEEE Conj, Houston, Texas, January 22-24, 1980. 11. Gonen, T.: Power Distribution, chapter 6, in The Electrical Engineering Handbook, 1st ed., Academic Press, New York, 2005, pp. 749-59.

6

Design Considerations of Secondary Systems
Egyptian Proverb: The worst things: To be in bed and sleep not, To want for one who comes not, To try to please and please not.
Frallcis Scott Fitz.gerald, Note/Jook.\', 1925

6.1

INTRODUCTION

A realistic view of the power distribution systems should be based on gathering_functions rather than on distributing as the size and locations of the customer demands are not determined by the distribution engineer but by the customers. Customers install all types of energy-consuming devices which can be connected in every conceivable combination and at times of customers' choice. This concept of distribution starts with the individual customers and loads, and proceeds through several gathering stages where each stage includes various groups of increasing numbers of customers and their loads. Ultimately the generating stations themselves are reached through services, secondaries, distribution transformers, primary feeders, distribution substation, subtransmission and bulk power stations, and transmission lines. In designing a system, distribution engineers should consider not only the immediate, that is, short-range, factors but also the long-range problems. The designed system should not only solve the problems of economically building and operating the systems to serve the loads of today but also should require a long-range projection into the future to determine the most economical distribution system components and practices to serve the higher levels of the customers' demands which will then exist. Therefore, the present design practice should be influenced by the requirements of the future system. Distribution engineers, who have to consider the many factors, variables, and alternative solutions of the complex distribution design problems, need a technique that will enable them to select the most economical size combination of distribution transformers, secondary conductors, and service drops (SDs). The recent developments in high-speed digital computers, through the use of computer programs, have provided the following: (i) fast and economic consideration of many feasible alternatives and (ii) the economic and engineering evaluation of these alternatives as they evolve with different strategies throughout the study period. The strategies may include, for example, cutting the secondary, changing the transformers, and possibly adding capacitors. Naturally, each designed system should meet a specified performance criterion throughout the study period. The most optimum, that is, most economical, system design which corresponds to a load-growth projection schedule can be selected. Also, through periodic use of the programs, distribution engineers can determine whether strategies adopted continue to be desirable or whether they require some modification as a result of some changes in economic considerations and loadgrowth projections.

283

284

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

To minimize the secondary-circuit lengths, distribution engineers locate the distribution transformers close to the load centers and try to have the secondary SDs to the individual customers as short as possible. Since only a small percentage of the total service interruptions are because of failures in the secondary system, distribution engineers, in their system design decisions of the secondary 2 distribution, are primarily motivated by the considerations of economy, copper losses (1 R) in the transformer and secondary circuit, permissible voltage drops, and voltage flicker of the system. Of course, there are some other engineering and economic factors affecting the selection of the distribution transformer and the secondary configurations, such as permissible transformer loading, balanced phase loads for the primary system, investment costs of the various secondary system components, cost of labor, cost of capital, and inflation rates. Distribution transformers represent a significant part of the secondary system cost. Therefore, one of the major concerns of distribution engineers is to minimize the investment in distribution transformers. In general, the present practice in the power industry is to plan the distribution transformer loading on the basis that there should not be excessive spare capacity installed, and transformers should be exchanged, or banked, as the secondary load grows. Usually, a transformer load management (TLM) system is desirable for consistent loading practices and economical expansion plans. Distribution engineers, recognizing the impracticality of obtaining complete demand information on ali customers, have attempted to combine a limited amount of demand data with the more complete, and readily available, energy consumption data available in the customer account files. A typical demand curve is scaled according to the energy consumed, and the resultant information is used to estimate the peak loading on specific pieces of equipment, such as distribution transformers, in which case it is known as TLM, feeders, and substations [3-6]. However, in general, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are categorized in customer files by rate classification only; that is, potentially useful and important subclassifications are not distinguished. Therefore, demand data is generally collected for the purpose of generating typical curves only for each rate of classification.

6.2

SECONDARY VOLTAGE LEVElS

Today, the standard (or preferred) voltage levels for the electric power systems are given by the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard CS4.1-1977, entitled Voltage Ratings/or Electric Power Systems and Equipment (60 Hz). Accordingly, the standard voltage level for single-phase residential loads is 120/240 V. It is supplied through three-wire single-phase services, from which both 120-V lighting and 240-V single-phase power connections are made to large household appliances such as ranges, clothes dryers, and water heaters. For grid- or mesh-type secondary network systems, used usually in the areas of commercial and residential customers with high-load densities, the voltage level is 208YII20 V. It is also supplied through three-wire single-phase services, from which both 120-V lighting and 20S-V single-phase power connections are made. For "spot" networks used in downtown areas for high-rise buildings with superhigh-Ioad densities, and also for areas of industrial and/or commercial customers, the voltage level is 4S0Y/277 V. It is supplied through four-wire three-phase services, from which both 277 V for fluorescent lighting and other single-phase loads and 4S0-V three-phase power connections are made. Today, one can also find other voltage levels in use contrary to the ANSI standards, for example, 120/240-V four-wire three-phase; 240-V three-wire three-phase; 4S0-V three-wire three-phase; 240/416-V four-wire three-phase; or 240/4S0-V four-wire three-phase. To increase the service reliability for critical loads, such as hospitals, computer centers, crucial industrial loads, some backup systems, for example, emergency generators and/or batteries, with automatic switching devices are provided.

depending on the load types and the number of consumers. rural. The types of the secondary distribution systems include: 1. that is. many utilities prefer to keep the secondary of each distribution transformer separate from all others. or. 4. The separate service system for each consumer with separate distribution transformer and secondary connection. at low cost. by providing parallel supply paths for motor-starting currents. This method also simplifies the coordination with primary-feeder sectionalizing fuses by . induces a savings in the required transformer kilovoltamperes.4 SECONDARY BANKING The banking of distribution transformers. secondary banking is a special form of network configuration on a radial distribution system. and therefore the required spacing between transformers is little. possible increase in the average loading of transformers without corresponding increase in the peak load.or rural-type service areas. In a sense. This savings can be as large as 35% according to Lokay [2]. of the secondary sides of two or more distribution transformers which are supplied from the same primary feeder is sometimes practised in residential and light-commercial areas where the services are relatively close to each other. It has a low cost and is simple to operate. The separate service system is seldom used and serves industrial. Improved service continuity or reliability. the secondary distribution systems are designed in single-phase for areas of residential customers and in three-phase for areas of industrial or commercial customers with high-load densities. 2. most of the secondary systems for serving residential. The secondary network system with a common grid-type main that is supplied by a large number of distribution transformers which may be connected to various feeders for their supplies. secondary circuits (secondary mains). which. 2.2a is commonly used and is generally preferred because it permits the use of a lower-rated fuse on the high-voltage side of the transformer. and lightcommercial areas are radial-designed. Generally. interconnection. The advantages of the banking of distribution transformers include: 1. However.2 shows two different methods of banking secondaries. Improved voltage regulation. Banking the secondaries of distribution transformers allows us to take advantage of the load diversity existing among the greater number of consumers. in other words. and it prevents the occurrence of cascading of the fuses. parallel connection. consumer services (or SDs). that is. Figure 6. The method illustrated in Figure 6. 6. 3. I shows the one-line diagram of a radial secondary system. 3.3 THE PRESENT DESIGN PRACTICE The part of the electric utility system which is between the primary system and the consumer's property is called the secondary system. and meters to measure consumer energy consumption. Improved flexibility in accommodating load growth. in turn. Generally speaking. Figure 6. Reduced voltage dip or light flicker due to motor starting. The radial system with a common secondary main which is supplied by one distribution transformer and feeding a group of consumers. The secondary bank system with a common secondary main that is supplied by several distribution transformers which are all fed by the same primary feeder. Secondary distribution systems include step-down distribution transformers. 4.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 285 6.

286 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Distribution substation 12. Primary main I ~ Primary fuses Dlstnbutlon transformers I ~ I _____________ ~ _____________.J Services to consumers Services to consumers (a) (b) FIGURE 6.2 Two different methods of banking secondaries.20/240 V Secondary circuit (secondary main) (Serving 4 to 20 houses) FIGURE 6. .47-kV bus Feeder circuit breaker Primary feeder main Lateral Lateral / ' fuse Lateral Fuse cutout (Primary fuse) ----'V rv-r rv-y-y-"\ Distribution transformer .1 One-line diagram of a simple radial secondary system.J Banked secondary mains I Secondary fuse _____________ ~ _____________.

transformers may be within two sizes of each other to prevent excessive overload in case the primary fuse of an adjacent larger transformer should blow. Primary main Primary main Primary fuses Distribution transformers Secondary fuses Banked secondary mains Primary fuses Distribution transformers rv-Y'Y'\ Secondary Services to consumers ~----------~~~------------~ Services to consumers nmn (b) ?. the method illustrated in Figure 6. However. it provides the most economical system. a built-in high-voltage protective link.3b. and all transformers in a bank must be supplied from the same phase of the primary feeder. signal lights for overload warnings. Therefore. Figure 6. It is desirable that transformers whose secondaries are banked in a straight line be within one size of each other. secondary breakers. as a result of the aforementioned difficulties. 2. Today.2b has the additional disadvantage of being difficult to restore service after a number of fuses on adjacent transformers have been blown. b. the methods illustrated in Figures 6. in general. 3.2a. all the methods of secondary banking have an inherent disadvantage: the difficulty in performing TLM to keep up with changing load conditions. the service interruption will be minimum and restricted only to those consumers who are supplied from the secondary section which is in fault. Today. the primary protective links and the secondary breakers will both open. The special distribution transformer known as the completely self-protecting-bank (CSPB) transformer has. Furthermore. In case of a transformer failure. Therefore.3 gives two other methods of banking secondaries. many utilities prefer the method given in Figure 6. CSPB transformers are built in both single-phase and three-phase. The difficulty in coordination of secondary fuses.3b offers the greatest protection. and lightning protection.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 287 having a lower-rated fuse on the higher side of the transformer. The main concern when designing a banked secondary system is the equitable load division among the transformers. in its unit. The requirement for careful policing of the secondary system of the banked transformers to detect blown fuses. . They have two identical secondary breakers which trip independently of each other upon excessive current flows. Furthermore.3a is the oldest one and offers the least protection.: -L -L r-trl (a) FIGURE 6. whereas the method shown in 6. For other types of banking. The method shown in Figure 6. and 6.3a have some definite disadvantages which include: I.3 1\vo additional methods of banking secondaries. the banking is applied to the secondaries of single-phase transformers.

5 kY. it also justifies a secondary network system. these are radial-type primary feeders. the usually low-voltage (208Y1l20 V) grid.16-34. some military installations. Therefore.4 shows a one-line diagram of a small segment of a secondary network supplied by three primary feeders.4 One-line diagram of the small segment of a secondary network system.or mesh-type secondary network system is supplied through network-type transformers by two or more primary feeders to increase the service reliability. However. the 15-kV class is predominating. Currently. most of the secondary systems are radial-designed except for some specific service areas (e. Figure 6. The overhead low-voltage secondary networks are economically preferable over underground low-voltage secondary networks in the areas of medium-load density.288 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 6..or mesh-type network configurations in those areas. In general. the underground secondary networks give a very high degree of service reliability. where the load density justifies an underground system. . As a resuit of this arrangement. In general. there is a tendency toward the use of higher primary voltages. the remaining feeders can feed the load without overloading and without any objectionable voltage drop. The primary feeders are interlaced in a way to prevent the supply to any two adjacent transformer banks from the same feeder. However. downtown areas or business districts. In general.g. They can also be built underground to avoid overhead congestion. The low-voltage secondary networks are particularly well justified in the areas of high-load density. the loop-type primary feeders are also in use to a very limited extent. The secondary network must be designed in such a manner as to provide at least one of the primary feeders as a spare capacity together with its Switch Network protector breaker '" Network transformer Network Substation low-voltage bus Primary feeders Circuit breakers ___ Secondary mains ICURE 6. However.5 THE SECONDARY NETWORKS Generally speaking. if one primary feeder is out of service for any reason (single contingency). and hospitals) where the reliability and service continuity considerations are far more important than the cost and economic considerations. The primary feeder voltage levels are in the range of 4. the secondary systems may be designed in grid.

the factors affecting the probability of occurence of double outages are: I. bulk power substations. 2. The conductor sizes depend on the network transformer ratings. the secondary mains usually consist of single-conductor cables which may be either metallic. and. 6. Manholes at the street intersections are constructed with enough space to provide for various cable connections and limiters and to permit any necessary repair activities by workers. The selection of the sizes of the m~ins is also affected by the consideration of burning faults clear. However.1 SECONDARY MAINS Seelye [8] suggested that the proper size and arrangemet of the secondary mains should provide for: 1. the outage of one primary feeder. but polyethylene (PE) cables are now used to a considerable extent. As explained previously. . larger secondary network systems must be designed based on double contingency or secol/d contingency. Also. The total number of primary feeders The total mileage of the primary-feeder outages per year The nUlnber of accidental feeder outages per year The scheduled feeder outage time per year The time duration of a feeder outage. In case of a phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground short circuit. 350 and 500 kcmil. during light-load periods. the secondary network is designed to burn itself clear without using sectionalizing fuses or other overload protective devices.or nonmetallic-sheathed. They are installed in duct lines or duct banks. To achieve even load distribution between transformers and minimum voltage drop in the network. the network transformers must be located accordingly throughout the secondary network. All secondary mains (underground or overhead) are routed along the streets and are three-phase four-wire wye-connected with solidly grounded neutral conductor. or generating plants. that is. This percentage is much less for the underground secondary mains. the smaller secondary networks are designed based on single contingency.5. In the underground networks. Although theoretically the primary feeders may be supplied from different sources such as distribution substations. s. The proper division of the normal load among the network transformers The proper division of the fault current among the network transformers Good voltage regulation to all consumers Burning off short circuits or grounds at any point without interrupting service. burning clear of a faulted secondary network cable refers to a burning away of the metal forming the contact between phases or from phase to ground until the low voltage of the secondary network can no longer support the arc. to a certain extent. 4. The secondary mains in the overhead secondary networks usually are open-wire circuits with weatherproof conductors. For a grid-type secondary main. 2. Secondary cables commonly are rubber-insulated. 3. 4.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 289 transformers. which can cause a decrease in the capacities of the associated transformers due to improper load division among them. 3. it is generally preferred to have the feeders supplied from the same substation to prevent voltage magnitude and phase-angle differences among the feeders. According to Reps 12]. the minimum conductor size must be able to carry about 60% of the fullload current to the largest network transformer. having two feeder outages simultaneously. The most frequently used cable sizes for secondary mains are 4/0 or 250 kcmil. Here. that is. the power flow in a reverse direction in some feeders connected to separate sources is an additional concern.

under some circumstances. conductors of 500 kcmil are about the largest conductors used for secondary network mains. The limiter is a high-capacity fuse with a restricted copper section. The NP consists of an air circuit breaker with a closing and tripping mechanism controlled by a network master and phasing relay. To provide automatic closure under the predetermined conditions. extensive cable damage. To provide automatic isolation of faults occurring in the network transformer or in the primary feeder. The limiter's fusing or time-current characteristics are designed to allow the normal network load current to pass without melting but to operate and clear a faulted section of main before the cable insulation is damaged by the heat generated in the cable by the fault current. and. Therefore. the secondary network must be able to provide for high current values to the fault. it causes the feeder circuit breaker. for example. the time-current characteristics of the selected limiters should be coordinated with the time-current characteristics of the NP and the insulation damage characteristics of the cable. so that the voltage drop along the mains under normal load conditions does not exceed a maximum of 3%. The fault should be cleared away by the limiters rapidly. Figure 6. particularly at higher voltages. when a fault occurs in one of the high-voltage feeders. at the substation. 6. gives good results without loss of service. Therefore. the transformer voltage should be slightly higher (about 2 V) than the secondary network voltage in order to achieve power flow from the network . The functions of an NP include: 1. The distribution engineer's decision of using limiters should be based on two considerations: (i) minimum service interruption. At the same time.5.2 LIMITERS Most of the time the method permitting secondary network conductors to burn clear. to open. 480 V. so-called limiters are used.5. To have fast clearing of such faults. For example. Therefore. before the network protector (NP) fuses blow. the network transformer is connected to the secondary network through an NP. 6. and it is installed in each phase conductor of the secondary main at each junction point. and (ii) whether the saving in damage to cables pays more than the cost of the limiters. The larger the cable. This reverse power flow triggers the circuit breakers of the NP connected to the faulty feeder to open. the fault becomes isolated without any service interruption to any of the consumers connected to the network. The conductor size is also selected keeping in mind the voltage drop criterion. that is. a current flows to the feeder fault point from the secondary network through the network transformers normally supplied by the faulted feeder.4. manhole fires. 2. the higher the short-circuit current value that is needed to achieve the burning clear of the faulted cable. especially in 120/208 V. when the primary-feeder voltage magnitude and the phase relation with respect to the network voltage are correct. However. as a result.290 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering To achieve fast clearing. and service interruptions may occur. The fuses provide backup protection to disconnect the network transformer from the network if the NP fails to do so during a fault. and backup fuses. For example.5 shows the time-current characteristics of limiters used in 120/ 208-V systems and the insulation damage characteristics of the underground network cables (paperor rubber-insulated).3 NETWORK PROTECTORS As shown in Figure 6. this method may not clear the fault due to insufficient fault current. All these are enclosed in a metal case which may be mounted on the transformer or separately mounted.

) transformer to the secondary network system. each network contains backup fuses. Also. or leading.5 Limiter fusing characteristics .000 50. this is important for the protection against line-to-line faults occurring in unigrounded three-wire primary feeders feeding network transformers with delta connections. For example. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book Distribution Systems. the low-side transfer voltage should be in phase with.1 indicates the required action or operation of each protective equipment under different fault conditions associated with the secondary network system. the network voltage. and not the reverse. Here.E .1 L -_ _ _ _~_ _~~_ _ _ _L-~_ _ _ _ _ _~~ 100 500 1000 500010. under certain conditions the power may flow from one substation to the other through the secondary network and network transformers. These fuses provide backup protection for the network transformer if the NP breakers fail to operate. Ol U <ii ~ 10 5 1000 MCM 750 MCM 500 MCM 400 MCM 350 MCM 300 MCM 250 MCM 4/0 MCM 1 .000 5000 291 1\\ II \ \ 1000 500 \ \\ \\ Insulation damage characteristics balanced circuit conditions three-phases and neutral in duct 1000 MCM 750 MCM 500 MCM 400 MCM 350 MCM 300 MCM 250MCM 4/0MCM if) . vol... For example.5 Limiter characteristics in terms of time to fuse versus current and insulation damage characteristics of the underground network cables. A FIGURE 6. only the associated limiters should isolate the fault. Therefore.000 100.S ai 100 50 . when a network is fed from two different substations. the best protection is not to employ more than one substation as the source. in case of a fault in a given secondary main. the NP should be able to detect this reverse power flow and open. To provide protection against the reverse power flow in some feeders connected to separate sources. The coordination is achieved by proper selection of time delays for the successive protective devices placed in series. Table 6. With permission. Figure 6. one per phase. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation. .6 illustrates an ideal coordination of secondary network protective apparatus. For example.000 Current. 3. PA. 1965.S ill . East Pittsburgh.. To provide its reverse power relay to be adequately sensitive to trip the circuit breaker with currents as small as the exciting current of the transformer. As previously explained. 4. . 3.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 10.

vol. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book Distribution Systems. TABLE 6.7.S ai E f= '\ Idea limiter l\ 4/0 conductor 1'\ \ ~ "\ \ \ \ I'\. both the NP breaker and the substation breaker should trip. With permission. network protector. 6.) whereas in case of a transformer internal fault..000 Class L 260 5000 ~~nSulation 4/0 1\ conductor 3000 2000 \\ 1000 500 300 200 100 50 30 20 10 5 Station breaker ~ ~ (/) \\ :-. In any case the switch is manually operated and is not designed to interrupt current. East Pittsburgh.292 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 10. After taking the unit out.6 An ideal coordination of secondary network overcurrent protection devices. The first step is to open the primary-feeder circuit breaker at the substation before opening the switch and taking the network unit out of service.7 show three-position switches electrically located at the high-voltage side of the network transformers. Network protector fuse \ " FIGURE 6. position 3 is for disconnecting the network transformer. PA. and position I is for grounding the primary circuit.4 HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCH Figures 6. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.1 The Required Operation of the Protective Apparatus Fault Type Mains Low-voltage bus Transformer internal fault Primary feeder NP. Limiter Yes Yes No No NP Fuse No Yes No No Substation NP Breaker No No Trips Trips Circuit Breaker No No Trips Trips .4 and 6. 1965. the feeder circuit breaker may be closed to reestablish service to the rest of the network. 3.5. position 2 is for normal operation. As shown in Figure 6. \ \ Station breaker - Primary feeder . They are physically mounted on one end of the network transformer.

Therefore. the switch cannot be opened unless the load is first removed by the NP from the network transformer.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems Primary feeder 293 1 = 1 I Interlock I pi 1 / High-voltage switch 30 Distribution transformer I:> I + y~ I t- Potential transformer L Limiters To large load Limiters FIGURE 6.5 NETWORK TRANSFORMERS In the overhead secondary networks. with a low voltage rating of 2l6YI125 V. The NP is mounted on one side of the transformer and the three-position high-voltage switch on the other side.2 gives standard ratings for three-phase transformers which are used as secondary network transformers. the switch cannot be operated. network transformers are now built as three-phase units. The transformers are either single-phase or three-phase distribution transformers. whereas larger transformers (300 kVA) are mounted on platforms. However. This type of arrangement is called a network unit. the transformers can be mounted on poles or platforms. The grounding position provides safety for the workers during any work on the deenergized primary feeders. unless the network transformer is first deenergized. 6. askarel is not used as an insulating medium in new installations any more.5. the network transformers are submersible and oil.7. In the underground secondary networks. Depending on the locale of the installation. and can be as large as 1000 kVA. In general. To facilitate the disconnection of the transformer from an energized feeder. the network transformers can also be ventilated dry-type or sealed dry-type. Table 6. as shown in Figure 6. However. For example. sometimes a special disconnecting switch which has an interlock with the associated NP is used. depending on their sizes. A typical network transformer is three-phase. submersible. due to an electric interlock system. small ones (75 or 150 kVA) can be mounted on poles. the transformers are installed in vaults.or askarel-cooled. Because of the savings in vault space and in installation costs.7 High-voltage switch. . because of environmental concerns.

750.800 4330 4330Y/2500 t 4800 120O 1200 5000 7200' 7500 II.000 95 150 300.000' 12.470Y 13.406113.294 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 6.870/12.500 25.700/11.30012 1. The number of primary feeders used.190/1 1.900' 24.875/11. According to Reps [7].500.870/12. t High-voltage and low-voltage neutrals are internally connected by a removable link. 1960.500.250 12.500. by the same token.500 12.2 Transformer High Voltage Standard Ratings for Three-Phase Secondary Network Transformers Preferred Nominal System Voltage 2400/4160Y Taps Bll (kV) 60 Standard kVA Ratings for low-Voltage Rating of 216Y1125 V 300. 500." Therefore.5651l 1.000 60 75 95 95 95 95 300.7 I9112. Application factor = (6. Source: From Westinghouse Electric Corporation. 2. East Pittsburgh. PA.40011 1.100/10. 6. 750.926/10.375 13.960 22.063112. Preferred ratings which should be used when establishing new networks.200 7620113. The application factor is based on single contingency.750.800 12.320112.540112.200Y 14. where ZM is the impedance of each section of secondary main and is the impedance of the secondary network transformer. Zr· .540/12.200YI7620'! 13.7 I 9/12. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book Distribution Systems.675/12. The ratio of ZM/Zr.500.200124.213110. 750.025111.600 Below None None None None 4875/4750/4625/4500 7020/6840/6660/6480 73 I 317126/6939/6752 I 1.700 23.500 13.040/13. 1000 12.1) where 'LST is the total capacity of the network transformers and 'LSL is the total load of the secondary network.21011 1. 1000 Note: All windings are delta-connected unless otherwise indicated.440 23.000YI7500t 13.750 Rating 4160" 4160Y/2400"t Above None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None 24.400/22. 1000 300.000 nOO/12.700 12. 500.21011 1.6 TRANSFORMER ApPLICATION FACTOR Reps [2] defines the application factor as "the ratio of installed network transformers to load. 1000 500.880 12.375 14. I00/23.750 300. 500. With permission.5.200' 13.750Y17940 t 14. 750.750 13.400' 22.750. 1000 300. that is. 3. the application factor is a function of the following: I.750 300.639/10.500. vol.352 11. the loss of one of the primary feeders.880 13.406113.350112.063/12.680113. 1000 300.

3 1.1 1. The spot networks are likely to be found in new highrise commercial buildings. For a given number of feeders and a given ZM/ZT ratio.8 (f) E ill ~ c -----.S gives the plots of the transformer application factor versus the ratio of ZM/ZT for different numbers of feeders.9 shows a one-line diagram of the primary system for the John Hancock Center. PA. is zero in the spot networks. 1965. the commonly used nominal low voltage of the spot networks is 4S0Y/277 V.5 1. .) 3. East Pittsburgh.--- I-" FivT' feeders - ~ I-- ~ Ten feeders 4 o 2 3 5 FIGURE 6. Naturally.8 1.9 1.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 2. it is hoped that a design for satisfactory voltage drop and voltage dip performance will agree at least reasonably well with the design which yields minimum TAC.7 ECONOMIC DESIGN OF SECONDARIES In this section a method for (at least approximately) minimizing the total annual cost (TAC) of owning and operating the secondary portion of a three-wire single-phase distribution system in a residential area is presented. Although spot networks with light loads can utilize 20SYJl20 V as the nominal low voltage. The transformer capacity utilization is better in the spot networks than in the distributed networks due to equal load division among the transformers regardless of a single-contingency condition. Figure 6. Figure 6. With permission. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation.6 SPOT NETWORKS A spot network is a special type of network which may have two or more network units feeding a common bus from which services are tapped.6 1. the required capacity of network transformers to supply a given amount of load can be found by using Figure 6. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems.1 2. The extent of nonuniformity in load distribution among the network transformers under the single contingency.0 295 ---V V I---"" 1Two feeders - $ 13 c 0 0 1. .4 1.2 2. 3.8 Network transformer application factors as a function of ZM/Zr ratio and number of feeders used.2 1. The method can be applied either to overhead (OH) or underground residential distribution (URD) construction.3 2. 6. vol. between transformers.7 1. 6. The impedance of the secondary main.S.0 .2 <0 ~ 0- --~ ~f-Three feeders 0.

2 kV supply lines FIGURE 6. (From Fink. The system is assumed to be built in a straight line along an alley or along rear lot lines. and H. Beaty. then there is a distribution transformer on every pole.10 Illustration of a typical pattern..) 6. 10 illustrates the layout and one particular pattern having one span of secondary line (SL) each way from the distribution transformer. Standard Handbook/or Electrical Engineers.. W. McGrawHill. 11th ed. If SL are not used.296 480 Y/277 V Spot networks Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I.9 One-line diagram of the multiple primary system for the John Hancock Center.47 Y/7. G.7.H 480 Y/277 V 480 Y/2 77V 208 Y/1 20V I Switch room I ~~ 2 Transformers or commercial ustomers 80 Y/277 V 08 Y/120 V 12.I 12-kV risers ~~ 27 Transformers for apartment customers 120/240 V I Spot networks ~ t=i H ~ sformers ~:14Tran office c ustomers 480 Y/277 V I Spot networks I=i t=. With permission. 1978. D. Pole or underground pad-mounted submersible transformer so so SL so SO SO SO SL Alley or rear lot line SO Pedestal or handhole (on pole or underground) \ SO SO SO SO SO -d--+-----d--- FIGURE 6. OH construction. . New York.1 THE PATTERNS AND SOME OF THE VARIABLES Figure 6. . The lots are assumed to be of uniform width d so that each span of SL is of length 2d.

OCT.2) . IC sD + I . Cll + I . that is. All loads have the same (and constant) power factor. or equivalent material. The SL has the parameters defined in the following: ASL = conductor area. usually 240 V. that is. The annual peak-load kilovoltampere loading in any element of the pattern. the transformer is grade-mounted on a concrete slab and completely enclosed in a grounded metal housing. continuously rated kYA per unit exciting current (based on 5T ) transformer core loss at rated voltage and rated frequency. The annual loss factor is estimated by using Equation 2. OC SL. with its arrester(s) and fuse cutout(s). kW. Current flows are estimated in kilovoltamperes and nominal operating voltage. The SL and the SD may be of either open-wire or triplex cable construction. Perfectly balanced loading obtained in all three-wire circuits. p The SD have the parameters ASD and p with meanings that correspond to those given for SL. FLS = 0.10 represents an OH system. SD. Sometimes no SL is used in high-load density areas. is pole-mounted.OC exc + I . Both SL and SD are triplexed or twin concentric neutral direct-burial cable laid in narrow trenches which are backfilled after the installation of the cable.7. that is. the transformer. Fe + I .3FLD + jO. 8760 hlyr.10 represents a typical URD design. 4. is estimated by using the maximum diversified demand of the particular number of customers located downstream from the circuit element in question. The number of spans of SL each way from a transformer is an important variable. three or more spans of SL each way from the transformer may be encountered in practice. Cll = = = = transformer capacity. TAC = I. 6. or transformer. 3.40. Cll + I . (Q cmil)/ft = 20. 2. 6. kW transformer copper loss at rated kYA load. IC sL + I . Fe PT. This point is illustrated later.2 1. section of SL.IC T + I . If Figure 6. In light-load density areas.40) 5. OC SD.3 THE GENERAL TAC EQUATION The TAC of owning and operating one pattern of the secondary system is a summation of investment (fixed) costs (IC) and operating (variable) costs (OC)' The costs to be considered are contained in the equation that follows next. is not shown in Figure 6. kcmil = conductor resistivity. 6. OCT. 7. which obviously must be installed along the alley. Cll' (6. If Figure 6. or else it is submersibly installed in a hole lined with concrete.5 at 65°C for aluminum cable. The distribution transformers have the parameters defined in the following: 5T Iexc PT. The system is energized 100% of the time.10.7. IC PH + I.7F~D· (2. The primary line. transite. FURTHER ASSUMPTIONS All secondaries and services are single-phase three-wire and nominally 120/240 V.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 297 and every transformer supplies four SDs.

Fe is the annual operating cost of transformer due to core (iron) losses = (IC. OCexe is the annual operating cost of transformer exciting current = lexc x ST X IC cap x i $/transformer (6.015 pu. severe inflation.7) where IC cap is the total installed cost of primary-voltage shunt capacitors = $5. but excluding transformer and transformer protective equipment = $160 x i $/pole (6. triplex aluminum cable. ST:::.is the annual transformer core loss. ICT is the annual installed cost of distribution transformer + associated protective equipment = (250 + 7. 1.3) where 15 kVA:::.8) where IC.6) in case of URD design. 3. IC PH is the annual installed cost of pole and hardware on it.7.004 X ST' where 15 kVA :::.y. kcmil and i is the per unit (pu) fixed charge rate on investment.50 x ASL) x i $/1000 ft (6. but modified appropriately for the number of spans of SL being considered. and PT.5 are alike because the same material. 100 kVA. like Figure 6. is assumed to be used for both SL and SD construction.26 x ST) x i $/transformer (6. OCT.4) where ASL is the conductor area. Note that this cost is 1000 ft of cable.y.298 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The summations are to be taken for the one standard pattern being considered. 5. the cost item IC P11 would designate the annual IC of a secondary pedestal or handhole.4 and 6. 6. is the average investment cost of power system upstream. from distribution transformers =$350/kVA. (6. F. ST:::. 4. that is. x i + 8760 X EC off )PT. Some of the cost data given may be quite inaccurate because of recent. 2. IC sD is the annual installed cost of triplex aluminum SD cable = (60 + 4. ECoff is the incremental cost of electric energy (off-peak) = $0.. kW =0. IC sL = annual installed cost of triplex aluminum SL cable = (60 + 4. 100 kVA and ST is the transformer-rated kVA. The important aspect of the following procedures is the finding of equations for all costs so that analytical methods can be employed to minimize the TAC. that is.008/ kWh.50 x A SD ) x i $/1000 ft.5) In this example Equations 6. The data are intended to represent an OH system using three-conductor triplex aluminum cable for both SL and SD. It is apparent that the TAC so found may be divided by the number of customers per pattern so that the TAC can be allocated on a per customer basis. 3000 ft of the conductor. toward generator. 6.10. Fe $/transformer (6. that is.00/kvar and Icxc is the average value of the transformer exciting current based on ST kVA rating = 0.4 ILLUSTRATING THE ASSEMBLY OF COST DATA The following cost data are sufficient for illustrative purposes but not necessarily of the accuracy required for engineering design in commercial practice. .

kW.. It is apparent that the data could be plotted and the demand per customer for intermediate numbers of customers could then be read from the curve.7.7.5 ILLUSTRATING THE ESTIMATION OF CIRCUIT LOADING Simplifying assumptions Sand 6 mentioned before describe one method for estimating the loading of each element of the pattern.11.11 ) where P SL.10) and F LS is the annual loss factor. Reps. 9. a linear interpolation might reasonably be used to estimate the per customer demand for intermediate numbers of customers. When developing IpCSD. OCSD. it is necessary to have data for the annual maximum diversified kilovoltampere demand per customer versus the number of customers being diversified.2.6 THE DEVElOPED TAC EQUATION Upon expanding all the cost items 1 to 9 in Section 6.3 have been taken from Lawrence. I-Distribution Transformers and Secondaries (Fig.cu as described in Equation 6.:X r x Pr. Smax is the annual maximum kYA demand on transformer. OCSD. therefore. 3) [9]. 6. Cn is the transformer copper loss.0090S x ST where IS kYA::. en is the annual operating cost of transformer due to copper losses = (lCsys x i + 8760 x EC on x FLs ) lS:~I. Cu' To proceed.073 + 0. Alternately. The illustrative data tabulated in Table 6. 100 kYA.cu properly to the total length of SD in the entire pattern. cu is an J2R loss. 8. different P SL. in each section of SL. CU' LOCSL. OCr. if a digital computer is programmed to perform the work described here.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 299 7. one has to remember that different sections of SL may have different values of current and. Cu (6. and in the transformer sothat reasonable approximations will be used for the copper loss costs OCT. and introducing the results into Equation 6. and it must be related to conductor areaA SL with R = pLIA sL . the maximum diversified demand data were developed with the appliance diversity curves and the hourly variation factors.11. The reader can apply the foregoing data and with linear interpolation find the flows shown in Figure 6. One has to decide carefully whether L should represent length of conductor or length of cable. and Patton's paper entitled Distribution System Planning Through Optimized Design.4. ST::. As explained in that paper. taking the correct summations for the pattern being used. PT. Cu is the power loss in a unil of SL at time of annual peak load due to copper losses. PSL . 6.cu is the annual operating cost of copper loss in a unit length of SD.11 shows a pattern having two SLs each way from the transformer.9) where EC lln is the incremental cost of electric energy (on-peak) = $O. one finds that . Cu.cu is handled like OCSL. Cu for the particular pattern being used. It is important to find reasonable estimates for the current loads in each SD.cu it is important to relate P SD. Cn is the annual operating cost of copper loss in a unit length of SL = (ICsys x i + 8760 x EC"n x FLS)PSL . Figure 6.OIO/kWh. CU' and LOC sD . When establishing LOC sL . OCSL . The nominal voltage used is 240 Y. (6.. kW at rated kYA load = 0.7.Cn $/transformer (6.

The same ideas apply to conductor sizes for ASL and A SD ' ~ so 20x2. III. that is. N.0 = 12 kVA 8 x 2. D. Reps.+ . the coefficients A to H are numerical constants.11 Estimated circuit loading for copper loss determinations. With permission. are contained in coefficients A to H. .2 2. "Distribution System Planning Through Optimal Design.300 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 6. It should be further noted that the variables ST.1 =42kVA so SO \ Each SO is 5. of Customer Being Diversified Annual Maximum Demand.13) However." AlEE Trans. For example. D. A SD ' and ASL are in fact discrete variables.12. transformer core and copper losses. pp.. if theory indicates that ST = 31 kVA is the optimum transformer size. PAS-79 (June 1960). (6.0 kVA 20. It is important to note that TAC has been reduced to a function of three design variables. TAC = A + ---. installed costs of poles and lines..3 A FIGURE 6. Patton.47 2.8 A so so so SOA SO 4 x 3. one has to remember that many parameters.3 Illustrative Load Data* No. the designer must choose rather arbitrarily between the standard commercial sizes of 25 and 37.8 2 4 8 10 20 30 100 * From Lawrence.1 2. such as the fixed charge rate i. 199-204.12) In Equation 6.76 kVA 82. I-Distribution Transformers and Secondaries.+ D X ST + E X ~ ~ B C ASD +- F ~ +GX ASL +- H ~ .. E.5 kVA. and A.0 3.0 2.0 1. R.47 = 19. They are not continuous variables. kVA/Customer 5. (6.8 3. pI.

.16. The problem is continued by computing TAC for the standard commercial sizes of equipment nearest to the results of Equations 6. whether or not minimum TAC is realized. in per unit of the transformer continuous rating. (6. that is.1 This example deals with the costs of a single-phase overhead secondary distribution system in a residential area. There is no assurance that the true. The results at this point are a reasonable number of computed TAC values. The calculations should be performed for one block of the residential area.15) (6. 2. Figures 6.14 through 6. and similarly for only ASL and Aso variables. are assumed. there are two transformers per block which are at poles 2 and 5.14 through 6. 6.12. grant minimum of TAC will be achieved if the results of Equations 6. all close to the idealized.8 OTHER CONSTRAINTS There are additional criteria which must be met in the total design of the distribution system. should not be exceeded by the designer.16) The work required by Equation 6. The roots of a cubic must be found. one now discards continuous variable methods. At this point one has the minimum TAC if only ST is varied.16 and then for one (or more?) standard sizes both larger and smaller than those indicated by Equations 6.16 are applied simultaneously. 3. 4.7. Ordinarily the ampacity of no section of SLs or SDs should be exceeded by the designer. A maximum allowable motor-starting voltage dip at the most remote service entrance similarly may have been established. The results of Equations 6.14) (6. EXAMPLE 6. = 0. Having in fact discrete variables in this problem. Note that equal lot widths. = O. The further criteria involve quality of utility service. assume that there are 12 services per transformers.16 are used henceforth merely as indicators of the region that contains the minimum TAC achievable with standard commercial equipment sizes. A minimum allowable steady-state voltage at the most remote service entrance may have been set by law.12.14 through 6.7 MINIMIZATION OF THE lAC One may commence by using Equation 6. or company policy.14 is formidable.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 301 6. hence uniform load spacings. as shown in Figure 6. continuous variable TAC. Designers can easily scan these final few TAC results and select the (ST' A SL ' and Aso) combinations that they think best. The maximum allowable distribution transformer loading. In case of overhead secondary distribution system. and selling each derivative to zero: J(TAC) JST J(TAC) JA sL J(TAC) JAso = 0. taking three partial derivatives.13 show the layouts and the service arrangement to be considered. All SDs are assumed to be 70-ft long. public utility commission order.7.14 through 6.12 and 6. Minimum TAC designs may be encountered which will violate one or more of the commonly used criteria: 1.

~ 135 It 11-'-------.---.---.. Use 30-min annual maximum demands for customer class 2 for this problem.---.---.302 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I- 960 It ·1 SO SO SO SO SO 330 It 1 FIGURE 6.---.520 It --------1·1 1-----"1----1---1---1---+---+---+--\---+---+----+---1 or 3300 It 10 blocks FIGURE 6.13 Residential area lot layout and utility casement arrangement.960 It --------1·1 L Street v Utility ealemet t ~ 13 ---.---60 It ~ T 135 It -~ ---.. Table 6..12 T SO SO SO SO SO SO SO Poles (il SLs are OH) so so so so so so so so so so so so ----175 It I- ----175 It I- Residential area lot layout and service arrangement.---.---.---.OJ -751t--Street 1 -751t- II 1 .---.---.---.4 gives load data to be used in this example problem.----.1il 330 It ---..---.----..---. Naturally it is hoped that a design for satisfactory voltage drop performance will agree at least reasonably well with the design for minimum TAC..----.---.---. Subsequent problems of succeeding chapters will deal with the voJtagedrop constraints which are used to set a minimum standard of quality of service. ...---.1 2 blocks or 11..

. Source: Data based on figure 3 of the reference Lawrence. that is.4 100 * The kilovoltampere demands cited have been doubled arbitrarily in an effort to modernize the data. Assume a fixed charge (capitalization) rate of 0.3 FLD + 0. D. Assume that the annual peak load copper losses are properly evaluated ing the given class 2 loads as: (a) (b) (c) (2: [2 R) by apply- One consumer per SD Four consumers per section of SL Twelve consumers per transformer [2 R Here. III. and the amount of SL for which P SL. 8760 h/yr. R. two transformers . Assume a 90% power factor for all loads 9. It is explained in the reference cited that the original maximum demand data were developed from appliance diversity curves and hourly variation factors.6 6. of Customers Being Diversified Class 1 18.8 1.4 12. Assume that the system is energized 100% of the time.0 4. All secondaries and services are single-phase three-wire.5 (Q. pI. 2. Patton. 3. and L is the length of the conductor wire involved (not cable length).4 3.15 Using the given data and assumptions.4 load Data for Example 6. Cll is evaluated. 1000 xA SL where ASL is the conductor area (kcmil).0 10. cmil)/ft at 65°C for aluminum cable.1 2 4 12 14. Cu is an loss.2 1. N.7 FeD 6. p = 20. (The designer must be careful to establish a correct relation between 2: OCSL. Assume perfectly balanced loading in all single-phase three-wire circuits. kV A/Customer No. and it must be related to conductor area ASL with R= pxL .. 5. PAS-79 (June 1960).0 7. "Distribution System Planning Through Optimal Design. Reps.35.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 303 TABLE 6. I-Distribution Transformers and Secondaries.5 1. the annual operating cost per block. PSL.5 1. that is. Assume nominal operating voltage of 240 V when computing currents 8.6 Class 3 2. and A.0 Class 2 10. Cu' that is. develop a numerical TAC equation applicable to one block of these residential areas for the case of 12 services per transformer.0 8. Assume the annual load factor to be FLD = 0. Assume the annual loss factor to be F LS = 0. F. 4. nominally 120/240 V.) 7. Use the following data and assumptions: 1. D." AlEE Trails.1 * 30-Min Annual Maximum Demands.

(h) The variable (operating) costs per customer per month for the design using the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment.12 + 1.5.2) cu' As there are two transformers per block and 12 services per transformer. From Equation 6.50 x A ) x 0. the TAC is: TAC = LICr + LICsL + LICsD + LICPH + LOCexc + L OCr. the annual IC of the triplex aluminum cable used for 300 ft per transformer (since there is 150-ft SL on each side of each transformer) in the SLs is IC sL = 2(60 + 4.2. the annual cost of pole and hardware for the six poles per block is: rC plI = $160 x i x 6 poles/block =$160xO. the annual IC of triplex aluminum 24-SDs per block (each SD is 70-ft long) is: IC sD = 2(60 + 4. A SD ' and ASL ' Also. + L OCSL.17) From Equation 6.50 x A Sl ) x i = 2(60 + 4. + L OCSD. (c) The most economical distribution transformer size (Sr) and the nearest larger standard transformer size.20) . Cu CU (6. from Equation 6.4. determine the following: (a) The most economical SD size (A SD ) and the nearest larger standard American Wire Guage (AWG) wire size. I7 Sr $/block. Fe + L OCr.3 the annual IC of the two distribution transformers and associated protective equipment is: IC r = 2(250 + 7. (e) The TAC per block for the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment. Solution From Equation 6.134A~D 12 x 70 ft/SD 1000 ft (6. (6.15 x 300 ftltransformer SL 1000ft = 5.15x6 = $144/block.19) $/block. (d) The TAC per block for the theoretically most economical sizes of the equipment.304 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering per block. (6.6.26 x Sr) x i = 2(250 + 7. (b) The most economical SL size (A SL) and the nearest larger standard AWG wire size.405A sL $/block.15 = 75 + 2.15 x = 15.50 x A sD ) x i = 2(60 + 4. (f) The TAC per block for the nearest larger transformer size and for the second larger sizes of ASD and ASL ' (g) Fixed charges per customer per month for the design using the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment.18) (6. From Equation 6.26 x Sr) x 0. The equation should contain the variables of Sr.50 x AsD ) x 0.4 + 0.

oI/kWh) x 0.073 + 0. Sr From Equation 6.7(0.5(Q· cmil)/ft x 300 ft wire x 2 1000 X ASL = 12.015) = Srx $5/kvar x 0. Here.4 kYA/customer = 52. Cli F LS = 0.00905 x ST) (6. the figure of 4.Cll = 2[($350/kYA) x 0.' = 2(xo X ST X IC cap x i X = 2(0. From Equation 6.23) = 28. kcmil)/transformer.7. the transformer copper loss in kilowatts at rated kilovoltampere load is found as PT.1904] x ( 52. Smax = 12 customers/transformer x 4.4 kYAlcustomer is found from Table 6.15 + 8760 x $0..)0.00905ST· Therefore.4 for 12 class 2 customers. OCT.8 kY AI.1904.008/kWh)0'()04 x ST = 0. Cli = 2(ICsys x i + 8760 X EC on x F LS ) where ( SS~x r x PT.0225 ST $/block.Cll is the copper loss in two SLs at time of annual peak load.8 kYA/transformer.3(0. From Equation 6.170 r si + 3492 $ / block.22) = 2($350/kYA x 0.15 + 8760 x ($O.11.3 (Q. ASL . From Equation 6.:ansformer (0.9.004 x Sr (6. the annual OC of transformer copper losses of the two transformers per block is: OCr.35) + 0.3FLD + 0.35)2 = 0.21) 0. the annual OC of core (iron) losses of the two transformers per block is: OCT Fe = 2(IC sys x i + 8760 x EC o.15 (6. the annual OC of transformer exciting current per block is: OC c .14) = J2 x R where R= PxL 1000 X ASL 20.8.10.98ST $/block. the annual OC of copper losses in the four SLs is OCSL..Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 305 From Equation 6.Cll = 2(IC sys x i + 8760 x EC on x FLS)PSL.073 + 0. Cll = 0.7 F~D = 0.Cll where P SL . kW/transformer (see Figure 6.

0 ' =.11.88.15 + 8760 x ($O.CU 240 V ) .0· cmil/ft)(70 ft) x (24 SDlblock) x (2 wires/SD) 1000 x A so 68.Cu = 2[($350/kVA) x 0.14 Illustration of the secondary lines. Cll is the copper loss in the 24 SDs at the time of annual peak load.306 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering so (6 kVA) SO (6 kVA) SO SO (6kVA) SO (6 kVA) (6 kVA) SO SO 4 x6 kVA 24 kVA 100A - SL = SO SD 4x 6 kVA 24 kVA 100A -- = SD (6 kVA) SO Cable length = 150 It Wire length = 300 It Cable length = 150 It Wire length = 300 It FIGURE 6.OllkWh) x 0. OCSL. kW = where /2 X R R= Px L 1000 X A so 20. Cll' X EC oll x F LS)Pso.018 $Iblock.5(. =(24 kVA x 12.1904] ~23 SL = Y 17. ASL (6.24) Also from Equation 6.4. Aso From Table 6. ASL Thus. ASL 1000 123 =kW/transfonner. . 179)Pso. Therefore. the 30-min annual maximum demand for one SD per one class 2 customer can be found as 10 kVA.kcmIl)/block.3 x _1_ LS. Cll where Pso. the annual OC of copper losses in the 24 SDs is OCso. Cll = (IC sys x i + 8760 = (69.( . P.

1805 x ST + .58 kW/block. 8(TAC) = 1 134.134 x ASD + 8273 ASL (a) ASD By partially differentiating Equation 6.26) + 17.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 1 307 p. _(_~OkVA). that is.500 emil.2.70 _ 3492) + 17.l) as 1/0.134 x A sD ) + (144 + 0.134 )"2 = 85. ASD Thus.018 + 1.12 + 1.8~ 0... Therefore. ASD Substituting Equations 6. 3492 28.17 through 6.179 119.405_17.405 ST X ASL Sf (6.0225 x ST) + (0.. 105.4 + 0.$/block. OCSD.108 + 8273...98 x ST) + (28.x 68. the nearest larger standard AWG wire size can be found from the copper conductor table (see Table A.+ .58 x-ASD (6.+ 0.405 x AsL) + (15.8273 = 0 8AsD . the TAC equation can be found as: TAC = (75 + 2.~18 =0 8AsL ASL .25) 8273 == . the most economical SL size can be found from 8(TAC) =0.clI =69. A~D from which the most economical SD size can be found as A SD = ( 8273 1.170 TAC = 239.41 kcmil.25 into Equation 6.52 + 3.0.ell - 1000 = 119. (b) Similarly.26 with respect to ASD and equating the resultant to zero. ST ST ASL ASD After simplifying.240 k V ASD x __ 1_ SD.178 x ST) + (5.

Therefore.I34x(8SAI)+ 8273 :=$838lblock. the TAC per block for the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment can be found as 3492 28170 TAC = 239.180Sx(SO)+--+-'-2-+0AOSx(21 1. the TAC per block for the theoretically most economical sizes of the equipment can be found as TAC 3492 28170 = 239.S2+3. (204.018 +I.2 _ S6.018)112 ( OAOS = 204.180S _ 34.26.S) en The second larger sizes of ASD and Therefore. A sL . (d) By substituting the determined values of A sD .1 kcmil and 2S0 kcmil.99) (8SA1) (e) By substituting the determined standard values of A sD .180Sx(39)+--+-'-2-+0AOSx(204.1805 x (50) + 3492 + 28. and ST into Equation 6. (211. (250) (133.. Therefore. 1.6) (SO) (SO) + 17.+ 1. TAC ASL are 133. 211.1) (g) The fixed charges per customer per month for the design using the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment is .018 8273 + .52 + 3.1)+ .0 + OA05 x (2S0) (SO) (SO-) 17.99 kcmil.. the nearest larger AWG wire size is 4/0. and ST into Equation 6. the nearest larger standard transformer size is SO kVA. (c) The most economical distribution transformer size can be found from 8(TAC) =3. that is.018 +1.: = $862lblock.6) (lOS.~40 =0 8S T or ST ST ST:= 39 kVA.308 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering as 17.99) (39) (39) + 17.26.S)+ 8273 :=$844lblock. respectively. = 239.134x(133.6 kcmil. A sL .134x(lOS.S2+3.

both the mutual impedance methods and the flux linkage methods are applicable as alternative methods for computing the voltage drops in the SL.6 105. The result is unsymmetrical current and voltages and a nonzero current in the neutral line.018 + 8273] x I (50 2 ) 50 211. CU ) x 24 ~ 12 = [0. In that case. Assume that the distribution transformer used for this ~ jw'i:. + L OCr. (h) The variable (operating) costs per customer per month for the design using the nearest larger standard commercial sizes of equipment is T AC = (L OCm + L OCT.15 An unbalanced single-phase three-wire secondary circuit. Cli + L OCSD.2 This example and Examples 6. Here. and n.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 309 TAC=(LICT + LICs!.98(50)+ 28. + L1CSD + LICP'. 6. This happens when the loads connected. Note that the fixed charges are larger than the OCs. + L OC Fe Cu SL.a R FIGURE 6.3 and 6.8 UNBALANCED LOAD AND VOLTAGES A single-phase three-wire circuit is regarded as unbalanced if the neutral current is not zero.0225(50)+0. for example.170 + 3492 + 17.4 deal with the computation of voltages in unbalanced singlephase three-wire secondary circuits. the necessary calculations can be performed by using the method of symmetrical components. EXAMPLE 6.9225/customer/mo. b.5 24 x 12 = $1. between line and neutral. .') x I 24 customerslblock x 12 mo/yr == $1.15.0084/customerimo. This example deals with the computation of the complex linkages due to the line currents in the conductors a. as shown in Figure 6. are not equal.

the single-phase three-wire secondaries are unbalanced. D'm m (6. assum~ that: (i) the load impedances Zb and Zb are independent of voltage.x In . The vertical spacing between the secondary wires is as illustrated in Figure 6. 60 Hz. a a D(Ja Dab n Dan m (6. J X 10-7 (I x I nI.+ I Dllh 11 X Wb . in the equation (6. 25 kYA. and the n) and n 2 turns ratios are 60 and 30. T. _ _ Furthermore.29) . Use the given information and develop numerical equations for the phasor expressions of the flux linkages Ia.16 Vertical spacing between the secondary wires. b.+ I" DI/o (l X I nI.T A = 2 x 10-7 ( I x In .1 + I . and In in terms of T" and 4. Therefore. I n1 -) -Dill! m (6. I b . I b . numerically.I ) Wb . In other words.1 + I -. and n can be written as: Io. the two halves of the low-voltage winding of the distribution transformer are independently loaded with unequal secondary loads.= 2 A.27) Solution The phasor expressions of the complex flux linkages conductors a. find the coefficient matrix. Assume that the secondary wires are made of #4/0 sevenstrand hard-drawn aluminum conductors and 400 ft of line length. As Figure 6.b x In .16.15 suggests. T ---. . and (iii) the line capacitances and transformer exciting current are negligible. Use 50°C resistance in finding the line impedances. and In due to the line currents in the . (ii) the primary-side voltage is Vb = 7272 Y and is maintained constant.30) n@------'-t 12in a@----+--+ 12in t b@~+ FIGURE 6.28) A" = 2 x 10- - 7 (- Ia X 1 I In D + I" x In D + In ah aa X In - 1 ) Wb .310 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering single-phase three-wire distribution is rated as 72001120-240 Y.

7 o 9.x In~ D 10..7 x In~ D"" D"b D Thus.30.7 10.7 10. the coefficient matrix can be found numerically as 2 Coefficient matrix 2 X X 10.7 x In~ 1 2xlO." Since (6.7 (1 x In-'"' "D" Dlib I/{/ (6.7 x In~ D"b X X D D D D X D (6.7 10.36) Dbb 10.36.7 x In 0.0. D + 1 ..31) the current in the neutral conductor can be written as --1" == -1" -1".01577 2 X 10.7 X In~ I 2 x 10.01577 1 10.x In~ D 10.35) Therefore.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 311 The notation "In" in these equations is used for "log to the base e. I.x In ~ D 10.01577 2 8.7 x In~ + 2 x 10.7 (1 x In ~ "D " Dbb a/J > JWb T' .7 Wb· T m X .7 xln 2 X 2 0.7 x In 0.32 into Equations 6.- m' (6. from Equations 6. C =2 X D + 1 . 2 2 2 10.2992 == X X 10..m' JWb· T. (6.2992 10.34) A.28 through 6.3862 -8.7 x In~ +2 x 10. -m (6. from Equation 6. " =2 X =2 X D + 1 .7 x In~ +2 x 10.7 x In~ D(W Doh 10.7 x I n .33 through 6. substituting Equation 6.01577 10.6855 X X 1.7 (1 x In-'-'" "D" DIIh (Ill JWb T' .32) Thus.6855 -9. A.35.33) A.

. EXAMPLE 6.37) Here..40.jwX" + RCI" + 7. the impedances.15. Solution Since the transformation ratio of the distribution transformer is n=-=- EI EI Ea = Eb noov l20V =60.312 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Note that the elements in the coefficient matrix can be converted to Weber-Tesla per foot if they are multiplied by 0. -£" + Z2 1" + RI" + jWX" + ~. in Example 6.39 into 6.) = o. EI = - ~ - _2 1 _"_ _ " n .1 -I (6.42) .l. (6.41 ) By writing a loop equation for the secondary side of the equivalent network of Figure 6.39) Also.. (6. are specified but not the load impedances 'la and 'lbDevelop symbolic equations that will give solutions for the load voltages ~. E =Eb =-. and ~.38) Substituting Equation 6.37 into 6.3048 m/ft..3 Assume that. ~b' and ~ in terms of the voltage C. (6. (J - - £ n (6.38. la' lb. and the flux linkages.2.40) Substituting Equation 6. the primary-side current can be written as (6.

.. (6.4 \ssume that in Example 6.41 into 6.45.43) Iso.) == 0 11- v == ~ +(21_R)T _(21 +2 +2R)T -l·w(i n(/ 11 ') b 11- ') 2 II (/ --l).80 + jO.80 + jO. (6. from Figure 6.sign Considerations of Secondary Systems bstituting Equation 6.I. + I.L n + z -.60 Q and 21 = 14. /I (6.44) lbstituting Equation 6.008064 + jO. (6.60 Q 2b = 0. The secondary neutral current 1". .0027648 Q determine the following: (a) (b) The secondary currents 1.47) EXAMPLE 6.42.45 into 6. 313 v .-----.jWA" + R«(.45) [owever. substituting Equations 6..43 and 6.15.----+ (/" .-.5152 + j19..46.) + Z "I" + RI" + jWA" + V.46) 1erefore..90656 Q 22 = 0. by writing a second loop equation. and 7. (6..3 the given voltages are: VI == 7272LO° V Ea == 120LO° V Eb== 120LO° V and the load impedances are 2a = 0. ..41 into 6..

) 121.-(l Ia - -.50) Also.027648 ..3048)( 400) x 10.49._ R I .48. Vb = . Solution From Equation 6.686T.49) Substituting the given values into Equation 6.2 = I" (-O'(J3279 .)R I" + Il n + 22 + 2" + 2R I" + jmn" .1..5(267). ..2(400)(0.486)] 60 2 + T.(3899) + I" (-0. f)-V n n2 a .43) or -L = v.R Ib + j·m(A. (0.1..A. -A. ) ? an" n- (6. 727_~=7[14.2 = 1. + 9.. (2 -+ .386f~.(2 -+ .90656 60 "60 2 . -L = Il v.5152+ .[ 7 =-L_ -. + 8. - -- v. -- or 121.43.03899).(2 ).+ 2 2 + 2R+ 2 ') -).90~56 -0.jO.314 (c) Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (d) The secondary voltages ~ and ~.2991" or + 9.7 .1.88574 + jO. ).45.jO. The secondary voltage ~'b. n (2 n- -.14.511 52 . substituting the given values into Equation 6. (2 )- or (6..008064 60- .6 .48) Similarly.j 60- 19.486)]_ j377(0.8 + jO.).I 60 2 (400)(0. 5280 x (J .8857 + jO. (6.l.6846) + "4 (0. (6.[-0.51) .6867...03279 + jO.19. from Equation 6. - - (6.

\07.2 121.9815 A.63° = 232.53) From Equation 6.24° A.09° + 124. The nominal voltage is 208 V.5885 A.sign Considerations of Secondary Systems 315 erefore.24°)(1L-36.03279 + jO. /a 89.8347 . 1[ (6. 121.78° A Id T" = .295L2\O.997L-2.87°) = 124. EXAMPLE 6. solving Equation (6.j62.03899 .52) 1/.5523 + j124. the secondary voltage Vab is Vab=Va+Vb = 109.376 L -34.8857 + jO.09° V nd = -(124.78°)(1 L36.295L21O.376L2.29SL-6.295L -6.63° V.387 -j62.03279 .50267 la (6.8347 .S5° V.17 shows an AC secondary network which has been adapted from Reference [7].jO. = -107.52).17 are in three-phase kilowatts and kilovars.85.50 and 6. from Equations 6.87") = 109. The loads shown in Figure 6.393 ] [ ~.5 Figure 6. with .j62. All distribution transformers are rated 500 kVA three-phase. the secondary neutral current is = 17.0.51.5885 = 124. (b) Therefore.2 . (c) The secondary voltages are = (1 09.34.376L2.376L .53. (a) 0. the secondary currents are la = 89. (d) Therefore.88574 + jO.03899 0.6846 -0.387 _ j62.393 = 109. with a lagging power factor of 0.

2400/4160 V. 1251216 V. In this study.04687 Q. Three single-conductor 500-kcmiI5-kV shieldedcopper PE-insulated underground cables are used at 90° conductor temperature. Their impedances within the small area of the network are neglected.181 + jO. . Using the given data. Therefore. 2666. Normal loads. In this example. They have leakage impedance Zy of 0.. It has been distributed arbitrarily throughout the network in standard sizes. 3.017 pu on a 1000-kVA base for I.28 Q.316 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 97kW 60 kvar Substation bus 2 .tubs from the network. 0. and all shunt capacitors are off. The approximate ampacities are 473 A for one circuit per duct bank and 402 A for four equally loaded circuits per duct bank. and it is assumed :hat off-peak load is one-third of peak load.1/4. and 120 kvar. The positive sequence impedance ZM of 500 ft of main is 0.01 + jO. 138. Therefore. 16-kV base V =1. 17. Normal loads.7 A. and all shunt capacitors are on. The positive sequence impedance ZF of the feeder cable is 0.02LO° pu FIGURE 6.he larger capacitor banks generally being located at the larger-load buses and at the ends of radial . or 1050 kvar. Ordinarily it is desired that distribution circuits not get into leading power factor operation during off-peak load periods. 1965.) 4160-V delta high voltage and 1251216-V wye-grounded low voltage. the total reactive load is 3150 kvar at peak load. All secondary underground mains have copper 3-#4/0 per phase and 3-#3/0 neutral cables in nonmagnetic conduits. and (iii) for primaries. vol.l IS pu on a 1000-kVA base. All primary feeder circuits are I. these capacitors are not switched.9 A. a total capacitor size of960 kvar las been used. (ii) for secondaries. PA. the total magnetizing vars generated by unswitched shunt capacitors should not exceed the total magnetizing vars taken by the )ff-peak load. East Pittsburgh. four separate load flow solutions have been obtained for the following )perating conditions in the example secondary network: :::ase 1: :::ase 2: Normal switching.25-mi long feeders. The standard 1251216-V network capacitor sizes used are: 40.25-mi long.0492 pu based on transformer ratings. Normal switching. but with .17 (Adapted from Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. 80.0086 + jO. The bases used are: (i) three-phase power base of 1000 kVA.

864 0.973 0.8. Solution (a) The lowest favorable voltage per unit is 114 V and the lowest tolerable voltage per unit is III V 12SV =0.962 0.976 0.890 0. Normal loads and all shunt capacitors are on. what are the pu voltages. find the value of the application factor for this example network and make an approximate judgment about the sufficiency of the design of this network.954 0.964 Case 2 0. respectively.974 0.5 Bus Voltage Value. Find ZM/ZT . II2(ZM/0). Use the given data and determine the following: (a) If the lowest favorable and the lowest tolerable voltages are defined as 114 V and (b) (c) (d) 111 V.954 0.960 0.sign Considerations of Secondary Systems 317 se 3: se 4: First contingency outage. the buses selected for • study are the ones located at the ends of radials or else the ones which are badly disturbed by : second contingency outage of case 4.976 0. List the buses given in Table 6.860 0.951 0.924 0.898 C J K N P R S .967 0.955 0.958 0. Second contingency outage.977 0.888 u.951 Case 4 0.958 0.959 0.966 0.926 0.938 0. based on 125 V. that correspond to the lowest favorable voltage and the lowest tolerable voltage for nominally 1201208Y systems? List the buses given in Table 6. causing the largest load (at bus 5) to lose two-thirds of its transformer capacity. Note that this second contingency outage is very severe. and using Figure 6. Here.986 0. To make a voltage study. Primary feeder I is out.945 0. P TABLE 6.873 0.954 0.975 0.966 0.963 0.984 0. pu Buses A B Case 1 0.5 for the first contingency outage that have: (i) less than favorable voltage and (ii) less than tolerable voltage. Primary feeders I and 4 are out.875 0.5 has been developed based on the load flow studies for the Ir cases.915 0. Normal loads and all shunt capacitors are on.972 Case 3 0. The values given in the table are per unit bus voltage values. Table 6.5 for the second contingency outage that have: (i) less than favorable voltage and (ii) less than tolerable voltage.

5 for the first contingency outage that have: (i) less than favorable voltage or (ii) less than tolerable voltage. Usually new hardware is required. · . Therefore. K. the ratios are ZM = _0_. C. Upgrading an existing SL entails removing the old conductor and installing new._ll_5_ ZT 0." total load 19 transformers x 500 kVA/transformer 5096 + j3158 = 1.0172 + jO...0= 0. and Sand (ii) less than tolerable voltage are B.47-kV overhead.... J. 6. the secondary circuits that operate at utilization voltage. For the second contingency outage. The given transformer impedance of 0.5846. The annual costs of operating.0172 + jO. J. f total installed network transformer capacity ActuaI app IlcatlOn actor = . To verify this value for the given design.. maintenance. It has been also estimated that to build the feeder with 600-kcmiI conductor instead and a . it corresponds to .. Therefore. the corresponding average transformer application factor for four feeders can be found as 1..9 SECONDARY SYSTEM COSTS As discussed previously. from Figure 6.000 per mile.' .6. three-phase feeder with 336 kcmil cost $120. it costs more to upgrade given equipment to a higher capacity than to build to that capacity in the first place. Many utilities develop cost estimates for this equipment on a per customer basis.0086 + jO..318 (b) (c) Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (d) There are no buses in Table 6. C.. the secondary system consists of the service transformers that convert primary voltage to utilization voltage.. and the SDs that feed power directly to each customer.. and taxes for a secondary system is typically between 118 and 1/30 of the capital cost.. and K. usually the cost of this conversion greatly exceeds the cost of building to the higher capacity design in the first place. R.8.. and sometimes poles and cross-arms must be replaced.147 or Thus. the design of this network is sufficient. Therefore._18_1_+--. In general. the buses in Table 6.0492 pu is based on 500 kVA. Therefore. which is based on 1000 kVA...-jO_.0984 pu Q. T&D engineers have an incentive to look at longterm needs carefully.. and to install extra capacity for future growth.5 that have (i) less than favorable voltage are B. Because of this.0984 = 2. the actual application factor can be recalculated as follows.6 It has been estimated that a l2. EXAMPLE 6..

when judged against the additional capacity (15 MVA minus 9 MVA).. Repeat Example 6. SO/LIt ion «(I) The cost of building the 9-MVA capacity line is C ost<)~tV'\lille= $120. (b) The most economical SL size (AsJ and the nearest larger standard transformer size.•"" 1. assuming that the load impedances are 6.0 + jO. Determine the following: «(I) (b) (e) The cost of building the 9-MVA capacity line in dollars per kVA mile. over $33 per kVA mile. PROBLEMS 6.3 6.4. The cost of the upgrade in dollars per kVA mile. (e) The cost of the upgrade is C ostupgraue $200.000 .4. p As it can be seen. one transformer on each pole so that there are six transformers per block. .O Q and Zb = 3. .O Q.2 6.1. The cost of building the IS-MVA capacity line in dollars per kVA mile. Assume that the annual load factor is 0.65. Assume that the annual load factor is 0.000-9000) kVA = $33..000 per mile.5 + jO. Repeat Problem 6.0 + jO.1 per .1 and find the following: (a) The most economical SD size (Aso) and the nearest larger commercial wire size. 6. (b) The cost of building the IS-MVA capacity is Cost 15 ~IVA line -$150. that is. Assume that there are four services per transformer. 9. Repeat Example 6.1 6.000 per mile. mle. that is. the upgrade option is very costly. The cost of upgrade is $200.1 .4 Repeat Example 6.000 kVA per kVA'1 ml e.O Q. Consider Problem 6. assuming that the load impedances are Z" = 1.1.1.33 er kVA ml'le .5 and Zb = 1. Upgrading existing 9-MVA capacity line later to IS-M VA capacity entai Is removing the old conductor and installing new.000 . (e) The TAC per block for the nearest larger standard sizes of the equipment.6 Repeat Example 6.$10 15.000 kVA $1" kVA'1 =.65.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 319 IS-MVA capacity would cost about $150..000 = (15.= .

0.1854 -jO.365 35R.475 Transformer 3 374.5965 .8131 1.320 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 6.31 509.3341-jO.00 352.4587 Feeder 3 1.3575 -jO. Percent of Ampacity Rating Case No.4.80+ jO.19263 0.7285 Feeder 4 1. Bear in mind that the total P + jQ power delivered to the loads is identical in all cases. 6.3.38807 0. P+ iQ.5.938 1 1.5. Case No.9 The following table gives the primary-feeder circuit loading for the primary feeders given in Example 6.3278 -jO. kVA Case No.6308 1.5347 -j1.186 -jO.952 2.8468 2.82477 2 3 4 6. for Example 6.6936 1.8495 -j0.3496 -jO.14160 0.8427 -j0.375 50R.16379 0.5.5894 1. assuming that the load impedances are Za = 0. Transformer 1 3RO.375 -jO.9354 Out Determine the ampere loads of each feeder and complete the following table.36271 0.60 Q and Zb = 1.33142 0. pu MVA Case No.9012 1.921 2 3 4 . Transformer Loading.10 Assume that the following table gives the transformer loading for transformers 1. and 4.O Q. Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Feeder 3 Feeder 4 2 3 4 Out Out 6.3822 -jO.7 Repeat Example 6.61 Transformer 4 3R5.8 The following table gives the total real and reactive power losses for the secondary network given in Example 6. Explain the circumstances which cause minimum and maximum losses.450 363. 2 3 4 Feeder 1 1.924 -)1.5 + jO.jO .46648 0.8857 1.42 R12. using bus S data.6540 Out Out Feeder 2 1.

58-59. 5-R 0. pu MVA Case No.1662 0. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book. Syst.: "Loading Distribution Transformers. pp. August 1974. E.0872 R-Q 0. . 1282-84.2560 0. 9-14 July. Power Appar. 1972. Palo Alto.S. Department of Energy. et al.: Development of Advanced Methodsfor Planning Electric Energy Distribution Systems. Department of Commerce. 6.1975..1065 0. N.0816 0. loading Percent of Transformer Rating Case No. Transformer 1 Transformer 3 Transformer 4 2 3 4 6. East Pittsburgh.0364 0.: "Practical Application of Weather Sensitive Load Forecasting to System Planning. loading of Secondary Mains.0699 0." Proc IEEE PES Summer Meeting." IEEE Trans. CA. I 5-R R-Q 5-6 6-7 5-G 2 3 4 REFERENCES 1. Chang.3778 5-6 0. vol. EPRI Report 329. Davey. October 1979. % of Rated Ampacity Case No.0945 0. Note that bus S not only has the largest load but also loses two-thirds of its transformer capacity in the event of the second contingency outage being considered here. loading of Secondary Mains.1430 2 3 4 Determine the ampere loading of the mains close to bus S and also complete the following table. pp. 26. PA.0361 0. San Francisco. July/August 1970. 2. U. no.1072 0.5.Design Considerations of Secondary Systems 321 Complete the following table.11 Assume that the following table gives the loading of the secondary mains close to bus S in Example 6. VA. et al. PAS-89. T.1901 5-G 0. E. N. U. Springfield. Electric Power Research Institute: Analysis of Distribution R&D Planning. National Technical Information Service.3110 0." Transmission Distribution. 4. Chang.: "Determination and Evaluation of Distribution Transformer Losses of the Electric System Through Transformer Load Monitoring.0187 6-7 0.0692 0. 3. CA. Ganen.1. 5.0545 0.2516 0.1715 0.S. 1964.1252 0.

10.: ECDES Program User Manual. Lawrence. N. T.: Electrical Distribution Engineering. Ames. . 1957. vol.. Iowa State University. Power System Computer Service. Seelye." AlEE Trans. PA. III.. 9. Patton: "Distribution System Planning Through Optimal Design. EEl Publication no. D. 12. 1990. pp. June 1960.: Economic Design of Secondary Distribution System by Computer. S. D. Reps. 13.: Engineering Economy for Engineering Managers: With Computer Applications. F. Wiley.S. vol. H. PAS-79. P. Chang. D. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book Distribution Systems. 1974. New York. 8. M. 57-7. Ganen. 11. Edison Electric Institute-National Electric Manufacturers Association: EEI-NEMA Standards for Secondary Network Transformers. and A. H. Ames. 3. McGraw-Hili. pt. thesis. Robb. 1930. 1965. R. NEMA Publication No.322 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 7. 1st ed. I-Distribution Transformers and Secondaries. East Pittsburgh. 199-204. 1975. New York. D. Iowa State University.. TR4.

51 /J. (iv) single-phase with line-to-neutral voltage. or (v) two-phase plus neutral.1) where the subscripts I</> and 3</> refer to the single-phase and three-phase circuits. 7. When others agree with me. Therefore. (7. from Equation 7. is the line-to-neutral voltage.1 THREE-PHASE BALANCED PRIMARY LINES As discussed in Chapter 5. The laterals can be either (i) three-phase three-wire. (iii) single-phase with line-to-line voltage. (7. respectively.2) where V. Cicero. holding the load constant.2 NONTHREE-PHASE PRIMARY LINES Usually there are many laterals on a primary feeder which are not necessarily in three-phase. 450/J.e. ungrounded.1 SINGLE-PHASE TWO-WIRE LATERALS WITH UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL Assume that an overloaded single-phase lateral is to be changed to an equivalent three-phase three-wire and balanced lateral. grounded. none but a fool will stick to it. M. Equation 7. Time is the wisest counselor.e.2.1 shows a primary system with either a three-phase three-wire or a three-phase four-wire main.7 Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations Any man may make a mistake. Pericles. Figure 7. T.1 can be rewritten as (7.2. I wonder what is wrong! Author Unkllowll 7. single-phase which causes the voltage drop (VD) and power loss due to load current not only in the phase conductor but also in the return path. for example. As the power input to the lateral is the same as before.3) 323 . (ii) three-phase four-wire. open-wye. a utility company strives to achieve a well-balanced distribution system in order to improve system voltage regulation by means of equal loading of each phase. 7.

VOlt!> = 2Y3 X /)¢ (R cos e + X sin e) (7. I.0 Kx= 2.324 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Laterals three-phase 3 W or three-phase 4 W or one-phase.6) or substituting Equation 7.7) By dividing Equation 7.6. line-to-neutral V.1 Various lateral types that exist in the United States.a b or FIGURE 7. 13¢ (R cos e + X sin fJ) (7. Therefore.0 when underground cable is used when overhead line is used.> = and in the single-phase lateral as (7. ungrounded one-phase. which means that the current in the single-phase lateral is 1.5 can be rewritten as VOlt!> = 13t!> (2R cos e + 2X sin e) (7. (7. grounded two-phase + neutral.4 side by side.73 times larger than the one in the equivalent three-phase lateral.46 times larger than the one in the equivalent three-phase lateral.-N (7.3 into Equation 7.0 Kx= 2.5) where K Rand K x are conversion constants of R and X and are used to convert them from their threephase values to the equivalent single-phase values.7 by Equation 7. Equation 7. line-to-line V. with approximately ±10% accuracy. The YO in the three-phase latera! can be expressed as V0 3 \. open Y r---~~-----n~--------~~~~-.4) KR = 2. Since base voltages for the single-phase and three-phase laterals are VBII ¢) = 13 x V.9) .8) which means that the VD in the single-phase ungrounded lateral is approximately 3.

There is no earth current in this system.3 into Equation 7.16) or (7. I¢.12) and (7.10.2. Substituting Equation 7.0 YD pll . PLS . one can conclude that by changing a single-phase lateral to an equivalent threephase lateral both the pu VD and the power loss due to copper losses in the primary line are approximately halved. For example.15) which means that the power loss due to the load currents in the conductors of the single-phase lateral is two times larger than the one in the equivalent three-phase lateral.2 SINGLE-PHASE TWO-WIRE UNIGROUNDED LATERALS In general.14 by Equation 7. It can be compared with a three-phase four-wire balanced lateral in the following manner.0 PLS . = 2.18) . (7.05 in the equivalent three-phase lateral.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations and 325 (7.8 can be expressed in per units (pu) as VD plI . if the pu YD in the single-phase lateral is 0. The power losses due to the load currents in the conductors of the single-phase lateral and the equivalent three-phase lateral are (7.10) Equation 7. 7. Therefore. As the power input to the lateral is the same as before. (7.13) respectively.11) which means that the pit VD in the sin~le-phase ungrounded lateral is two times lar~er than the olle ill the equivalent three-phase lateral. 3¢ (7. it would be 0. this system is presently not used due to the following disadvantages.13 side by side.14) and dividing the resultant Equation 7.17) from which (7. 1¢ = 2. 1¢ (7.12.

0 when a overhead line is used.18 into Equation 7. Substituting Equation 7.24) and (7.26 by Equation 7. P LS . PI. 1¢ ~.24.19 side by side. VD 1¢ = 6 X 13¢ (R cos 8 + X sin 8) (7.23a) or VD pU • I 4> VD pu • 3¢ = 2J3 = 3.0.326 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The VD in the three-phase lateral can be expressed as VD3¢ = 13¢ (R cos 8 + X sin 8) (7.25) respectively. if KR = 2. (7. and Kx == 2.0 when a reduced capacity neutral is used. S . that is.0 and Kx = 2.s.22 by Equation 7.26) and dividing Equation 7. Equation 7.P (2R) (7.21.20) where KR = 2.20 can be rewritten as VD I 4> = I1¢ (2R cos 8 + 2X sin 8) (7. KR > 2. The power losses due to the load currents in the conductors of the single-phase two-wire unigrounded lateral with full-capacity neutral and the equivalent three-phase four-wire balanced lateral are (7. 1¢ = (3 xI".0.23b) which means that the VD in the single-phase two-wire unigrounded lateral with full-capacity neutral is six times larger than the one in the equivalent three-phase four-wire balanced lateral.0 when a full-capacity neutral is used. if the wire size used for the neutral conductor is the same as the size of the phase wire.46 (7.27) .21) or substituting Equation 7.25 side by side. Therefore. (7.19) and in the single-phase lateral as (7.."¢ =6.22) Dividing Equation 7.18 into Equation 7.

(7..25 to 0.e. As shown in the figure.33.0 because of conflictingly large Dm (i.e.3 SINGLE-PHASE TWO-WIRE LATERALS WITH MULTIGROUNDED COMMON NEUTRALS Figure 7. multigrounded) with the ground wire at various places through ground electrodes in order to reduce the current in the neutral. the constant KI/ is less than 2.25 to 0.25 to 0.. Morrison's data [I] (probably empirical) indicate that where and P LS. 3¢ where [.30) fa f. is the return current in the neutral wire.0 and the constant Kx is more or less equal to 2. 7.33 (7. '" = [.33 (7..2. I".2. According to Morrison rI]. and I" is the return current in the Carson's equivalent ground conductor. I" is the current in the phase conductor. Therefore.\ Phase ~ conductor Neutral wire with multiple ground -8 Large Q Os Equivalent of Carson's grounded neutral conductor and neutral wire FIGURE 7. mutual geometric mean distance or geometric mean radius.2 shows a single-phase two-wire lateral with multigrounded common neutral.2 A single-phase lateral with multi-grounded common neutral.28) and it is almost independent of the size of the neutral conductor. . = 0. In Figure 7.3 = 0.2 = 0. the neutral wire is connected in parallel (i. the return current in the neutral wire is where [. the power loss dlle to load currents in the conductors oj'the single-phase two-wire unigrounded lateral withjitll-capacity Ileutral is six times larger thall the one in the equivalent threephase four-wire lateral.29) P LS. GMR) of the Carson's equivalent ground (neutral) conductor.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 327 Therefore.3 X [.

. assuming that the data from Morrison [1] are accurate.0 the pu VDs and the power losses due to load currents can be approximated as VD pu • II/> == 4.328 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Therefore.3 An open-wye connected lateral. ----..33) Va = Za1a· V.31) for the illustrative problems. KR < 2.4 TWO-PHASE PLUS NEUTRAL (OPEN-WYE) LATERALS Figure 7.. + 7. . it can be expressed that V=ZI where (7.2.34) (7. 7.. Assuming equal load division among phases. If the neutral is unigrounded.36) or 2VJ21/> = 3VJ3<1> (7.32) <1> (7. all neutral current is in the neutral conductor itself.37) a b R + jWAa ----. but because of disadvantages the unigrounded neutral is generally not used. the two-phase plus neutral lateral can be compared with an equivalent three-phase lateral. (7. R + jWAb 7. no-------------~~r_------~ T" FIGURE 7..=ZJb' (7.0 and Kx < 2.. holding the total kilovoltampere load constant.35) It is correct for equal load division between the two phases. Therefore.0 x VD pU • 3 and (7. The neutral conductor can be unigrounded or multigrounded. Theoretically. ----.3 shows an open-wye connected lateral with two-phase and neutral.

) is zero. 31/1 (7. (7. Therefore.) is larger than zero.45) when a reduced capacity neutral (i.Voltage Drop and Power loss Calculations from which 329 (7. .42) However. if the neutral is multigrounded and Zn > 0.0 x VD pu .31/1 (7. VD2¢ VD 3q> 3 2 --=- (7.0.38 into Equation 7.19.44) when a full capacity neutral is used and VD pu . if the neutral is unigrounded and the neutral conductor impedance (Z. (7. side by side.40) or substituting Equation 7.0 when a full capacity neutral is used and KR > 3. If the neutral is unigrounded and the neutral conductor impedance (Z. VD 2¢ = 121/! (R cos e+ X sin e) (7. 2¢ = 2.0. the power loss is (7. if KR = 3. 2¢ = 2. the VD in each phase is (7. the data from Morrison [1] indicate that the pu VD in each phase is VD pu ..43) therefore in this case some unbalanced voltages are inherent. If the neutral is unigrounded. VD21/! = ~ 1)1/1 (R cos e+ X sin e). The power loss analysis also depends on whether the neutral is unigrounded or multi grounded.40. = 1.39) where KR = 1.0 when a reduced capacity neutral is used.e" when the neutral conductor employed is one or two sizes smaller than the phase conductors) is used.38) The voltage drop analysis can be performed depending on whether the neutral is unigrounded or multigrounded.0 and Kx Therefore.4 I) Dividing Equation 7.1 x VD pu ..41 by Equation 7.46) where KR = 3. However.

the approximate value of this ratio is (7.2112. There are six laterals on each side of the main.47 kY. The K constant of a #6 AWG copper conductor is 0. Each lateral is IO mi long and is made up of a #6 AWG copper conductors serving a uniformly distributed peak load of SOO kYA.2¢ < 2.1 Assume that a uniformly distributed area is served by a three-phase four-wire multigrounded 6-mi long main located in the middle of the service area. EXAMPLE 7.2¢ PLS . (7.330 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering PLS . Each lateral is 1 mi apart with respect to each other and the first lateral is located on the main 1 mi away from the substation so that the total three-phase load on the main is 6000 kYA.2S. 2 kYA-ml .2¢ = 2.49) PLS .2S.48) On the other hand. if the lateral is a two-phase plus full capacity multigrounded neutral (open-wye) lateral.0016 %YD---:-)(SOOkYA)=4.64 times larger than the one in the equivalent three-phase lateral. % Y01~ = -" I xK xS 2 =(IOmi)(0.3¢ (7.3¢ or _ 3Ii¢R 3I.0016 per kYA mi.¢R (7. Determine the following: (a) The maximum YO to the end of any and each lateral in a three-phase lateral with multi- grounded common neutrals. LS. (c) The maximum YD to the end of each lateral.47) PLS . P. if the lateral is a single-phase two-wire lateral with multigrounded common neutrals. (b) The maximum YD to the end of each lateral. at 7.S0) which means that the power loss due to load currents in the conductors of the two-phase three-wire lateral with multigrounded neutral is approximately 1. iJthe neutral is multigrounded. PLS . Solution (a) For the three-phase four-wire lateral with multigrounded common neutrals.3¢ Based on the data from Morrison [1].

S3 A J3(13. EXAMPLE 7.S.9 LO° V II. (d) The power at the sending end in kW.. the line-toline voltage is 13.200 kW = 62.e.2 A three-phase express fceder has an impedance of 6 + j20Q per phase. (/'0VD 2\. (e) For thc singlc-phase two-wire latcral with multigroundcd common ncutrals.S7° A = 62.S - jO.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 331 (b) For the two-phase plus full capacity multigrounded neutral (open-wye) lateral.\\ = 4(% YD 3¢) = 4(4%) = 16.6) .S kY and the total three-phase power is 1200 kW at a lagging power hlctor of O. (c) The copper loss (i. at the substation low voltage bus). Using this as the reference voltage.S3 L-36.SOO V = 7976. dctermine the following: (a) The line-to-line voltage at the sending-end of thc feeder (i.S and V R(L-L) = vR(L-L) J3 = 13. 2(% VD.. Soiution (a) Since in an express feeder. %YD . the sending-end voltage is found from where VR(L-N) = 7976.S3(0. according to the results of Morrison.S kV)O. I L - I S - I R - J3V P. according to thc rcsults of Morrison.R(3¢) (L_L) R cose 1.e.¢) = 2(4£)0 = iI. the transmission loss) of the feeder. At the load cnd. the line current is the same at thc beginning or at the end of the line. By using the iine-to-neufral method. (b) The power factor at the sending end. = Is = IR = IL (cos eR - sin eR) =62.9 Y.

83) 0.7 L (b) = 15.684. the single-phase equivalent current is found from P3¢ Ieq(l¢) = -V-- R(L-L) = 1200 kW = 62..9~-1-36.83 L-36.95)L4.09 L34.83 A (13.93° + 30° = 15.3° n.09) (62. (L-N) = -.057 = 1271..87°1 =41.96 W == 71.~ ..j3vs.. V • (~ I ) - er . = 0. (d) P S(3¢) = P R(3¢) + P joss (3¢) = 1200 + 71. Solution Here.88 L73.056. • .j3 (15.800 LO° + (108.3 = 10~ A 3 = 62.684.057 kW.76 L4.3 Repeat Example 7.83)2 x 6 = 71.88 L73.8° and cos Bs =0.3°) = 9065.8) where or 1]~=ll =~ Icq(j¢) .9 LO° + (62..073 kW. Bs = By I' I .3°) -- = 13.) + Icq(l¢)Z/. EXAMPLE 7.8° so that cos B. .8 kV)(0. (b) (c) Bs = 1BYS(L_N) -I ersl =4.93° V.\.j3VS(L_L/sCOS Bs = .2 by using the single-phase equivalent method. PjOS S(3¢) = 3tiR = 3(62.057 kW. or PS(3¢) = -.88 L73.745 lagging.95 L4._/.332 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Z L = 6 + j20 = 20. -36.) = VR(I..87°)(20.93° V VS(L_L) = -.745 lagging.9°)(20.8A.j3 (9065. I.684.93°V.745 == 1270.= 41. (aJ - V~(/. (a) and VS(L-N) = 7976.

~ Assorted secondaries. 4-W open Il 120/208 V. for example. either (i) 120/240-V single-phase three-wire.g. ..-------------.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations (c) 333 == IJq (I¢I R == 108. The secondary neutral is also grounded at the distribution transformer and the service drops (SDs).. (iii) l20/240-V three-phase four-wire connected in open-delta. and to water pipes or driven ground electrodes at each user's service entrance. three-phase. 4-W Yv Multiple services and consumer rounds per distribution transformer bank FIGURE 7.4 shows a typical four-wire multigrounded common neutral distribution system. Where primary and secondary systems are both existent. this system is used extensively.O¢) == 1200 + 70.= ttok) a------~~----~--_4~--~------------_4~------- ~ -------------E-----------------*-----------------7-7<~---.89 kW. the same conductor is used as the common neutral for both systems.89 kW. a typical metal water pipe system has a resistance A-------------------------------8-----------------------------. 10.w¢) + I\". 4-W Il 120/240 V.7 2 X 6 == 70.. two-transformer open Y HV and Yv Yv) For 120/208 V Three-phase 4-W (1. The assorted secondaries can be. Usually.. three-phase.4 A four-wire multigrounded common neutral distribution system. Typical values of the resistances of the ground electrodes are 5.. at various places where no transformers are connected. or (iv) 120/208-V three-phase four-wire connected in grounded-wye. The neutral is grounded at each distribution transformer. N---------------To phase I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.-------------.(3¢1 (d) Pm¢1 == p.. (ii) 120/240-V three-phase four-wire connected in delta.. Because of the economic and operating advantages. e.L arrester T I I . 7.3 FOUR-WIRE MULTIGROUNDED COMMON NEUTRAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Figure 7. 120/240 V. or 15 Q. three-phase. one-phase 3-W 120/240 V.89 == 1270.----J I I I I I I I -i w L ______ J Source generator or substation transformer Dozens of distribution transformers each with ground (mixed one-phase. C-----------------------------.J I Surge . Under no circumstances should they be larger than 25 Q. F\".

. The power factor of the load is cos e = cos( 8y .5 'M. --=I(Rcose + X sme)=o ae or X R sine = tane.334 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering value of less than 3 n. the load power factor for which the VD is maximum is PF = cos8max = ') (RR (7. EXAMPLE 7. and the remaining part flows in the ground and/or the water system.. By taking its partial derivative with respect to the a(VD) eangle and equating the result to zero. 8 = max tan-I X R and from the impedance triangle shown in Figure 7. A part of the unbalanced.e'j). t'----------'1 .51) 2 1/2 +X ) f FIGURE 7. or zero sequence. R Solution The line VD is VD = f(R cos e+ X sin e).4 Assume that the circuit shown in Figure 7. load current flows in the neutral wire. Usually the same conductor size is used for both phase and neutral conductors. it represents a balanced three-phase circuit if pu variables are used.5 represents a single-phase circuit if dimensional variables are used.------'rooo''-----f R+jx __ A single-phase circuit..6. Find the load power factor for which the VD is maximum. case therefore.. The R + jX represents the total impedance of lines and/or transformers.

(d) Calculate the total (three-phase) kilovoltampere output and load power factor of the distribution transformer.OW/¢ A 0.436) = 10.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 335 x !:Imax R FIGURE 7. B. .5 V.0 + 0.5 e = 1.1 + jO.08 x 0. Solution (a) Using the approximate voltage drop equation. (c) Calculate the reactive power per phase for each load. voltage regulation.02 Q/¢ B 0.7 0. (b) Calculate the real power per phase for each load. or as it is sometimes called.52) EXAMPLE 7.S Consider the three-phase four-wire 416-V secondary system with balanced per-phase loads at A.9 + 0. in one phase of the lateral by using the approximate method.05 x 1.6 Impedance triangle.7. F. and C as shown in Figure 7. Determine the following: (a) Calculate the total VD.05 + jO.01 x 0) VDs = 20(0.9 lagging One-line diagram of a three-phase four-wire secondary system.02 V.866) = 2.15 x 0. + 0. 20A cos!:Ib = 0.20 x 0. also (7.5 lagging 50A cOS!:Ic= 0.744 V.05 + jO.03 x 0. that is. VD = /(R cos + X sin fJ) the VD for each load can be calculated as VDA = 30(0. ---t FIGURE 7. VDc = 50(0.05 Q/¢ C Distribution transformer 30A unity P.

QB = 240 x 20 x 0.457 kVA/phase.156 + 5.436 = 5.336 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Therefore. Therefore. the total VD is IVD = VDA + VD B + VDc = 1. the total per phase real power is Ip= P +P + Pc A B = 7. the per phase kilovoltampere output of the distribution transformer is s = (P2 + Q2)1/2 = (20.4 + 10.42 + 9.8 kW Therefore.4 kW Pc = 240 x 50 x 0.02 + 10.389 2 )1/2 == 22.866 = 4.232 kvar.5 + 2.389 kvar.744 = 14.9 = 10. P (b) The per phase real power for each load can be calculated from P= VI cose or PA = 240 x 30 x 1.264 V 240 V = 0. .2 + 2.0594 u V.156 kvar.2 kW PB = 240 x 20 x 0.4 kW (c) The reactive power per phase for each load can be calculated from Q = Vlsine or QA = 240 x 30 x 0 = 0 kvar.5 = 2.0 = 7.8 = 20. the total per phase reactive power is IQ = QA + QII + Q c = 0 + 4. (d) Therefore.232 = 9.264 V or 14. Qc = 240 x 50 x 0.

The following information and data have been abstracted from recent cable catalogs.0138 0. a single-phase three-wire 1201240-V directly buried underground residential distribution (URD) secondary system will be analyzed. The 2400-V class transformers of the sizes being considered have about 15% less R and about 7% less X than the nOO-Y transformers.083 0.0123 0.0107 0. Much of the 600-V class cable now commonly used for secondary lines (SLs) and services has aluminum Al conductor and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation which can stand 90°C TABLE 7. Assume that the cable impedances given in Table 7. URD Secondary Cable Data. the total (or three-phase) kilovoltampere output of the distribution transformer is 3 x 22. the load power factor of the distribution transformer is 337 cos8=-- P L S 20. especially for high-voltage cables.457 = 67.014 00400 0.4 kW 22.280 0. It deals with VDs in the secondary distribution system.335 Copper losst (kW) 0.755 0. Hence.0101 0. The data given in Table 7.1 Single-Phase 7200-120/240-V Distribution Transformer Data at 65°C Rated kVA (kW) 15 25 37. EXAMPLE 7.014 0.0139 0. The data were taken from a recent catalog of a manufacturer.309 R (pu) 0.0130 0.0098 X (pu) 0.015 0.014 0. and calculations will be made for motor-starting voltage dip (YDIP) and for steady-state YDs at the time of annual peak load. t At rated voltage and kilovoltampere load. Therefore.0094 0. .2 are correct for a typical URD secondary cable.1.0145 Excitation Current (A) 0.0143 0. Ignore the small variation of impedance with rated voltage and assume that the YD calculated with the given data will suffice for whichever primary voltage is used.37 kVA. All given pu values are based on the transformer-rated kilovolt amperes and voltages. any cable data soon become obsolete. Cable insulations and manufacture are constantly being improved.014 0.014 0.170 0.0126 0.457 kVA = 0.0107 0.5 50 75 100 Core loss' (kW) 0.1 are for modern single-phase 65°C oil-immersed self-cooled (OISC) distribution transformers of the nOO-1201240-V class.6 This example is a continuation of Example 6.194 0. In this and the following examples.908 lagging.115 0. Transformer Data.975 At rated voltage and frequency.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations Thus.178 0.537 0.

9 has two insulated copper or aluminum phase conductors plus several spirally served small bare copper binding conductors which act as the current-carrying grounded neutral.01092 0. The reactances of those cables should be increased by about 25% if they are installed in iron conduit. The reactances given next are valid only for balanced loading (where the neutral current is zero).8 Triplcxcd cable assembly. The neutral conductor typically is two AWG sizes smaller than the phase conductors.0260 180 205 230 265 300 340 370 445 540 Per unit voltage drop per 104 A .338 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 7. The difference in reactances is too small to be noted unless precise computations are undertaken for some special purpose. When copper is used.00458 0.00905 0.00752 0.00636 0.00424 50% PF 0.044 0.066 0. .0280 0. The twin concentric cable assembly shown in Figure 7. The triplex assembly has very slightly higher reactance than the concentric assembly. conductor temperature. The triplexed cable assembly shown in Figure 7. ft (amperes per conductor times feet of cable) based on 120-V line-to-neutral or 240 V line-to-line. the one grounded neutral conductor is bare.00573 0.211 0. The ampacities given are for 90°C conductor FIGURE 7.01608 0.0280 0.2 Twin-Concentric Aluminum/Copper Cross-Linked Polyethylene 600-V Cable Data R (Q/l 000 ft) Per Conductor j(* 90% PF 0.0299 0.01360 0.02098 0. Table 7. but the exact amount of reduction varies with wire size.334 0.01089 0.02613 0.265 0.063 0. The triplex and twin concentric assemblies obviously have the same resistance for a given size of the phase conductors.2 gives data for twin concentric aluminum/copper XLPE 600-V class cable.0290 0.0270 0.133 0.561 0.105 0.259 0.0305 0. Valid for the two power factors (PF) shown and for perfectly balanced three-wire loading. The number and size of the spiral neutral wires vary so that the ampacity of the neutral circuit is equivalent to two AWG wire sizes smaller than the phase conductors.085 0.01324 0.337 0.167 0.00888 0.00769 0.0297 0.419 0. The triplex assembly has about 15% smaller ampacity than the concentric assembly.01683 0.0275 0.132 0.00571 0.8 (quadruplexed for three-phase four-wire service) has three or four insulated conductors when aluminum is used.168 0.210 0.00371 Size 2AWG IAWG l/OAWG 2/0AWG 3/0AWG 4/0AWG 250 kcmil 350 kcmil 500 kcmil X (Q/l 000 ft) Direct Burial Phase Conductor Neutral Conductor 80°C Per Phase Conductor Ampacity (A) 90°C 0.089 0.

2. For load factors less than 100%.50% = 0. consult current literature or cable standards. Using the given data and assumptions.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 339 FIGURE 7.03 pu = 3.Q .035 pu = 4. the resistance and reactance values for 100 ft of cable can be found as R = 0. 4. utility practices vary. regulatory commission rules and utility practices vary. Maximum allowable motor-starting VDIP = 3% = 0. Obtain all voltage drop answers in pu based on 240 V. Assume perfectly balanced loading in all three-wire single-phase circuits.9 Twin concentric cable assembly. and 10% daily load factor.Q/1000ft x 100ft 1000ft = 0. 2. VD = f(R cos e+ X sin fJ) and adapt it to pu data when computing transformer VDs and adapt it to ampere and ohm data when computing SD and SL VDs. Also let the I current be 100 A and the length of the SL be 100 ft. 5. Maximum allowable steady-state VD in the secondary system (transformer + SL + SD) = 3. 3. The increased ampacities are significantly large. Assume nominal operating voltage of 240 V when computing currents from kilovoltampere loads. Arbitrary Criteria 1. Assumptions 1. More information about favorable and tolerable amounts of VD will be discussed in connection with subsequent examples. direct burial in earth. Solution Let the secondary cable size be #2 AWG. hoping to verify one of the given values in Table 7. temperature. 20°C ambient earth temperature. As loading data for transient motor-starting VDIP. Assume 90% lagging power factor for all loads. assume an air-conditioning compressor motor located most unfavorably. The loading data for computation of steady-state VD is given in Table 7. which will involve VDs in the primary lines. Use the approximate voltage drop equation.2. calculate the K constant for anyone of the secondary cable sizes.2. arbitrarily.2 V based on 120 V.334.3. 3. It has a 3-hp single-phase 240-V 80-A locked rotor current. When installed in buried duct. This figure is arbitrary. with a 50% power factor locked rotor. This figure also is quite arbitrary. Using the values from Table 7. that is.0334.6 V based on 120 V. the ampacities are about 70% of those listed in the following.

02613 pu V/(104 A . Therefore. VD = f(R cos 8 + X sin 8) = 100(0. EXAMPLE 7. Service pedestals are at the locations of poles I.2 for the K constant. and A.0299 Q/I000ft x 100ft 1000ft = 0. and x= 0. E.12 are made of underground (UG) secondary cables. PAS-79..7 Use the information and data given in Examples 6.3.136 V 1. 0. Assume that the selected equipment sizes (for ST' As!. 3.340 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 7. N. using the approximate voltage drop equation.4 kVA each) From [Reference 9 of Chapter 6]. (a) . pt. Patton. ft) of cable.9 = 3. R. D. that is.0334 x 0. A sD ) are of the nearest standard size which are larger than the theoretically most economical sizes and determine the following: Find the steady-state VD in pu at the most remote consumer's meter for the annual maximum system loads given in Table 7. Therefore. Reps. III. and 6.20V 0.3. Assume an URD system.00299 Q.1 and 7. AlEE Trans.435) or. Source: From Lawrence. Assume 12 services per distribution transformer and two transformers per block which are at the locations of poles 2 and 5.0 kVA each) One class 2 load (10 kVA) + either three diversified class 2 loads (6. 4. (b) Find the VDIP in pu for motor starting at the most L1nt~lVorable location.3 Load Data Circuit Element Service drop Secondary line Transformer load (kV) One class 2 load (10 kVA) One class 2 load (10 kVA) + three diversified class 2 loads (6. in pu volts. 3. the SLs shown in Figure 6.. D.0261 pu V which is very close to the value given in Table 7.00299 x 0. as shown in Figure 6.0 kVA each) or 11 diversified class 2 loads (4. June 1960.12. With permission.136 V + 0.

immediately select the largest sizes of ST' As!.0088 from Table 7. and ASD equipments and call that a worthwhile design. The load on each SD is given to be 10 kVA or 41. contemplate the data and results and attempt to be wise in selecting As!.7 x 150ft) 10 4 = 0..435) 0.10. For example.7 A.2.168 pu A)(0. the load on each SL (that portion of the wiring between the transformer and the service pedestal) is calculated similarly as SL load = 10 + 3 x 6 =28 kVA or 116. select larger equipment and find a design that will meet these arbitrary criteria.9 = + 0. SLs.0088( 116.0183 pu Y. If each SO of70-ft length is selected to be #110 AWG with the K constant of 0.168 pu A. the = 0.6 A from Table 7. and transformers.4 kVA 50kVA = 1. selecting a 50-kVA transformer.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 341 (c) If the voltage drop and/or VDIP criteria are not met. As shown in Figure 7. Do not.3 are different for SDs.4 kVA. the pu VD in the transformer is VDT = I(R cos 8+ X sin 8) = (1.3. or ASD (or both) for enlarging to meet the voltage criteria.2. the load on the transformer is selected as Transformer load = 10 + II = x 4. In addition. Therefore.01683 from Table 7.0139 x 0.4 58. Thus.01554 pu V. Solution (a) Due to the diversity t~lctors involved.4 kV A/240 V ST1240 V 58. If the SL is selected to be #4/0 AWG with the pu VD in each SL is K constant of 0. the load values given in Table 7.0107 x 0. however. I = 58. the pu VD in each SD is VD sD = K -(IXl) 10 4 .

866) = 0.01683( = 41.035 pu V. the total steady-state VD in pu at the most remote consumer's meter is LVD = VDT + VD SL + VD SD = 0.0183 + 0.5+0. (b) To find the VDIP in pu for motor starting at the most unfavorable location.2 kVA (80 A x 240 V).7A -SL (6 kVA) SO SO (6 kVA) (6kVA) Cable length = 150 ft Wire length = 300 ft Cable length = 150 ft Wire length = 300 ft FIGURE 7. the given starting current of 80 A can be converted to a kilovoltampere load of 19.342 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ so (6 kVA) Service pedestal 70 ft SO (10 kVA) SL SO 12 consumers per transformer SO SO (10 kVA) Service pedestal SO (6 kVA) 3x6+10= 28 kVA SO 116.7 A SO (6kVA) -- SO 3x6+10= 28kVA 116.0049 pu V.0388 pu V which exceeds the given criterion of 0. Therefore.2kVA) ( 50kVA The pu VDIP in the SL of #4/0 AWG cable is VDn~ = K( 80 A x 4150 ft ) SL 10 .0139xO. = 0.10 Calculation of the secondary-line currents.6~0~70ft) 0.2 kV A) 50kVA = (0.01554 + 0. Therefore. the pu VDIP in the 50-kVA transformer is VDIPT = (R cosO+ X sin 0) (19.0107xO.0068 pu V.0049 = 0. 19.

1 ) = 0. (c) Since in part (a) the voltage drop criterion has not been met. Therefore.00396 = 0. and SDs are of # l/O aluminum/copper . the new pu VD in the SD becomes VDSD = 0.00396 pu V. ~_I. that is. all secondaries and services are single-phase three-wire.024 pu V which meets the given criterion of 0. keeping the size of the transformer the same.VOIP = VOIP T + VOIP sL + VOIP sD = 0.6 A x 70 ft) ft] 104 = 0. selecting one-size larger cable. 250 kcmil.01347 + 0.11 shows a residential secondary distribution system. #2/0 AWG.0061 =0. Therefore.00636 (~.00668 + 0.0061 pu V.0183 + 0. Also.00769 (116. that is. the total VOIP in pu due to motor starting at the most unfavorable location is 2.03573 pu V which is still larger than the criterion.03 pu Y. for the SD. select the SL cable size to be one size large r than the previous #4/0 AWG size. Thus.1). and all SLs are of #2/0 aluminum/copper XLPE cable.01347 pu V.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 343 = 0. Assume that the distribution transformer capacity is 75 kVA (see Table 7.00763 + 0.0 .7 A x 150 10 4 = 0. EXAMPLE 7.01089(80 x 470] 10 = 0. the new pu VD in the SL becomes VDSL = 0. Therefore.00763 pu V.0136 (41.?() 10. nominally 1201240 V.8 Figure 7. the new total steady-state VD in pu at the most remote consumer's meter is VD = VDT + VD SL + VD SD = 0. select 350-kcmil cable size for the SLs and #2/0 AWG cable size for the SDs to meet the criteria. The pu VOIP in the SD of #1/0 AWG cable is =0.

(b) Find the total steady-state VD in pu at the most remote and severe customer's meter for the given annual maximum system loads. Therefore. and all SLs are 2oo-ft long. the total load on the transformer is ST = (3 + 2 + 8 + 6) + (5 + 6 + 7 + 4) + (6 + 7 + 8 + 10) =19+22+31 =72 kVA or. and the SO of the most remote and severe customer. _--. VDT = I(R cos () + X sin 8) . In pu.9 and 100% load diversity factors and detennine the following: (a) Find the total load on the transformer in kilovolt amperes and in pu. calculate the pu VOs in the transformer..96 pu A.200 ft ----i~. Sr 1=- Sn 72 kVA 75 kVA 0. Assume an average lagging load power factor of 0. Solution (a) Assuming a diversity factor of 100%.-jl FIGURE 7. XLPE cable (see Table 7.344 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 3kVA 2kVA SkVA 6kVA 6 kVA 7kVA --SL 8kVA 6 kVA 7kVA 4 kVA SL 8 kVA 10 kVA 200 ft ----i~~I . (h) To find the total VO in pu at the most remote and severe customer's meter. All SDs are loo-ft long.2). Lhe service line.11 A residential secondary distribution system.

YD pu • ba' Note that the equations to be developed should contain the constants D. = 0.0147 + 0.01683(41. unit length).0143 x 0. Use the given information and data and determine the following: (a) Assume that the laterals are in three-phase and find the pu YD expressions for: (i) The express feeder fe.67 A x 100ft) 10 4 = 0. unit length).17 A x 200ft) =0. Main lengths are equal to eb = ee = sl2. serves an area of length s and width d. In the figure./c (ii) The main eb. VL_L> and so on.0568 pu Y. s. is the impedance of a three-phase lateral line in Q/(phase .0070 T = 0.4359) = ()'()147 pu Y. and all loads are presumed to have the same lagging power factor. the total YD is I. YD pu . YD pu • cb ' (iii) The primary lateral ba. VL-Lis the nominal operating voltage which is also the base voltage (line-to-line kY). that is. such as ba. impedances. power factor angle.90 + 0. The number of the primary laterals can be found as sid. that is. Use Morrison's approximations and modify the equations derived in part (a). . d. 7.0136( 129.0101 x 0. Therefore. The square-shaped service area (S2) has a uniformly distributed load density. where s is much larger than d. + jx. d and s are the width and length of a primary lateral.96(0. YD SL = K( ~~/) 10 4 = 0. that is. and r.YD = YD = EXAMPLE + YDSL + YDSD 0. e load (b) Change all the laterals from the three-phase four-wire system to an open-wye system so that investment costs will be reduced but three-phase secondary service can stilI be rendered where needed.03513 + 0. Each primary lateral. supplied by an express feeder and mains. rm + jXm is the impedance of three-phase express and mains in Q/(phase .12 shows a three-phase four-wire grounded-wye distribution system with multigrounded neutral.0070 pu Y.03513 puY.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 345 = 0. but not variable current I. Assume that the phasing connections of the many laterals are well-balanced on the mains.9 Figure 7. Assume that D is the uniformly distributed load density in kYAJ(unit length)2.

53) Current at point f = Dxs 2 r.346 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Express feeder .. I fi Dxs 2 . (r" cosB+x Sin B).55) (i) YO pU.+ jx. ..-I. (7.s Main I I I I I (.( r cosB+x SInB)---.. fi s = sX Dxs' 1 (7. (7.9.54) YO=/xzxl cff • Therefore.12 The distribution system of Example 7. 11/ ..l_.56) 1000x V -' I.. 11/ 11/ 1000 x V I.3 X VI. llii--l--t-_--j---~Laterals--___1.( xs) X VI.J I I I I I I I I Service area of a lateral ! I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I j I I I I I I I I I I I I I i _L __ L ____________ J ___ L I I I r-d+dja _L_ ~ FIGURE 7.· .-I.... . Solution (a) Total kYA load served = D x S2 kYA. (7._ ._1.jc = ._ _i___I_..

= r:. b. .200 V and grounded-wye-rated low voltage of 277/480 V.05 pu impedance based on the transformer ratings.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 347 (i i) VD plL..95. SUbstation I I I I I I r- Uniformlydistributed load in a square area "I I I I T 1 mi o b 4 Cu c II )S 4/0 Cu ~ ________ J~ I I 1 mi 1mi~2mi FIGURE 7.. 2000 x VI~_L J3 (-Xs I ) 2 (7. from a to b.13 shows a square-shaped service area (.". There are many closely spaced primary laterals which are not shown in the square-shaped service area of the figure. In this VD study._ L 1000 x V L-L DxdxS2 e .1') • VD plL . Assume that at peak loading the load density is 1000 kVAlmi2 and the lumped load is 2000 kVA. c.d> DXs = 2 J3 J3XV . (b) The pu voltages at the points a.58) (b) There would not be any change in the equations given in part (a). '" '" (iii) D(d x .17 when applicable. ---c:-. c.Jl A square-shaped service area and a lumped-sum load.(r cose+x sine) 1000xV Dxs -(r cose+x Sine).. from b to c. 0 I I . and that at offpeak loading the load density is 333 kVA/mi2 and the lumped load is still 2000 kVA.3 x VI .-I. and d. It is tapped up to raise the low voltage 5._ L '" '" L _ L (~Xs) 4 (7.025 pu V of 7620 base volts at peak load and 1.4 = 4 mi2) with a uniformly distributed load density of D kVA/mi2 and 2 mi of #410 AWG copper overhead main from a to b.620113. (licose+xISIne) . The lumped load is of a small industrial plant working three shifts a day. It has o + jO. and d on the main. Use the given information and data for peak loading and determine the following: (a) The percent VD from the substation to point a. EXAMPLE 7. .. b.13 J ~:ped load 2 mi _ _ _.(Ii cos + XI Sin e). Use the nominal primary voltage of 7. and from c to d on the main. The substation bus voltages are 1. The transformer located between buses c and d has a three-phase rating of 2000 kVA and a delta-rated high voltage of 13.000 pu V during off-peak load.57) 1 • ---7 0 8000xVI.10 Figure 7... that is.200 V for a three-phase four-wire wye-grounded system...0% relative to the high voltage. the equivalent turns ratio in use is (76201277) x 0. use the precalculated VD curves of Figure 4. (c) The line-to-neutral voltages at the points a.

= 1. . From Figure 4. The percent VD from point b to point c is % VDbc = Kx Slump X I = 0.373A.4% V or 0.2 kV) = 92. I _ H - 2000 kVA 13 x13. the K constant is found to be 0.0003 x 6000 x 1 = 148 %V or 0.0003.348 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Solution (a) The load connected in the square-shaped service area is S"=DxA. The percent VD from point a to point b is % VDab= Kx S" xl +Kx Slump xl = 0.024 pu V. Thus.0003 x 4000 x 1 + 0.036 pu V. = 1000 x 4 =4000kVA.6% V or 0..018 pu V.0009 x 2000 x 2 = 3.0003 x 2000 x 2 = 2. for #4/0 copper.2 kV = 87.056pu A. the total kilovoltampere load on the main is S". Therefore.947 x 13. 1= J3 x V .17.J3 2000 kVA at point c _ L L 2000 kVA x (0. To find the percent VD from point c to bus d.477 A. = 4000 + 2000 = 6000 kVA. the percent VD from the substation to point a is % VDOa = K x Sm x 1 = 0.

947 .05 pu Q and cos B = 0.7% Y. to lind the percent YD at bus d.983 .036 = 0.025 . (b) The pu voltages at the points a. = 0 + jO. the negative sign of the YD indicates that it is in fact a voltage rise rather than a YD.84 ° pu A. Since ~.0 pu A rather than 1.0. Vb = Va .3% Y.05 pu Y .024 = 0. and d on the main are Va = Vo .018 = 1.0. VIJ Therefore.947 pu Y or 94.Vab = 1.Ved = 0.983 pu Y or 98.Vb.7% Y.05 x 0.056 pu A. Thus.007 . YD ~ = I(RcosB+XsinB) -0 .37% Y. the pu current would be 1. Vd= Vc .007 pu Y or 100. b.0 = -0.9 + 0.4359) _ 0.056(0 x 0. Vc = Vb .9737 pu Y or 97.9 or B = 25. for example.84° lagging therefore IplI = 1.05 1.VOa = 1. .0267) = 0.67% y.0. Here. YC cd = 1. c. = 0.(-0.056 L25.0267 pu Y or %YD cd =-2. first it can be found in pu as YD ~ = I(RcosB+XsinB) V IJ P uY but since the low voltage has been tapped up 5%.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 349 [n Note that usually in a simple problem like this the reduced voltage at point c is ignored. pll that case.

Thus.3 V.0003 X 3332 X I = 1. Also write the necessary codes to solve the prohlem in MATLAR Solution (a) At off-peak loading. and find the Vd voltage at bus d in line-to-neutral volts. the percent VD from the substation to point a is % VD o.10 for off-peak loading and repeat Example 7.0003 1 X 2000 X 2 = 1.007 = 7673. The percent VD from point a to point h is % VD"" = K x S" x + K X Slump X 1 = 0. The percent VD from point b to point c is VD.5 V.1 V..983 = 7490. . Vb = 7620 X 0.6% V or 0.= KxS I1l x 1 = 0..0 % V or 0. = K X Slump X I = 0.016 pu V. = 1332 + 2000 =3332 kVA. EXAMPLE 7.10.7 V.01 pu V.947 = 7216.003 x 1332 X 1 + 0. the total kilovoltampere load on the main is S".6 % V or 0'()36 pu V.350 (c) The line-to-neutral voltages are Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Va = 7620 X 1.. Therefore.11 Use the relevant information and data given in Example 7. Vd = 277 X 0.0009 X 2000 X 2 = 3.. Vc = 7620 X 0.9737 = 269. the load connected in the square-shaped service area is Sn =D xAn = 333 X 4 = 1332 kVA.

938 pu V or 93. % in kVA/miA2 An = 4. % from Figure 4. (c) The line-to-neutral voltages are Va = 7620 X 0. = 0.17 for 4/0 AWG K4 0.0003.47% Y. and d on the main are = 1.0. % from Figure 4.974 pu V or 97. Vc = 7620 X 0.016 = 0.974 . the percent VD at bus d can be found as before Ok) VDed = -0. Vd = 277 X 0.036 = 0.938 . (b) The pu voltages at points a.. Vd= V'.(-0.99 pu V or 99% Y. b. = 0.9647 = 267.938 == 7147. % in kVA D = 1000.974 = 7421.0009.9647 pu V or 96.Vcd = 0.9 Y.99 .0..0.8% Y.99 == 7543. Note that the voltages at bus d during peak and off-peak loading are nearly the same.2 Y.01 == 0. Here is the MATLAB script: clc clear % System parameters St == 2000.0 .67% Y. Vb = 7620 X 0.6 Y. % distanced from substation to point a in miles .17 for 4 AWG L1 = 1.4% Y. c.0267) = 0.0267 pu V or -2.8 Y. % in mi A2 K40 = 0.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 351 To tind the percent VD from point c to bus d.

If the loads are single-phase.2.05.08. Assume that the uniform (or linear) distribution of the connected load along the length 1 is The 30-min annual demand factor (OF) of all loads is 0.s) is 0. VBp 7620.947*kV). Vopu := 1. Ipu := I/IB % Per unit voltage drop from point c to point d VDcdpu = Ipu*(Xt*sin(acos(PF»)-0.05 % Solution for part b in per units Vapu :=Vopu-VDoapu Vbpu =Vapu-VDabpu Vcpu =Vbpu-VDbcpu Vdpu =Vcpu-VDcdpu % Solution for part c in per units Va Vb VC Vd Vapu*VBp Vbpu*VBp Vcpu*VBp Vdpu*VBs EXAMPLE 7.2-kY primary line is to be built along the length 1and fed through a distribution substation transformer from a high-voltage transmission line.352 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering L2 2.62/13.025. % distanced from point a to b in miles kV 13. the diversity factor (F[) among all loads is I .60.12 Figure 7. and the annual loss factor (Fl.9. % Voltage base primary VBs := 277. Assuming a lagging power factor of 0. IB = St/(sqrt(3)*kV).9 for all loads . A three-phase four-wire wye-grounded 7. they are assumed to be well-balanced among the three phases. PF 0. % Voltage base secondary % Solution for part a Sn = D*An % Total kVA on main Sm = Sn + St % Per unit voltage drop from substation to point a VDoapu = (K40*Sm*L1)/100 % Per unit voltage drop from point a to point b VDabpu = (K40*Sn*(L2/2)+K40*St*L2)/100 % Per unit voltage drop from point b to point c VDbcpu = (K4*St*L2)/100 I := St/(sqrt(3)*0.20. Xt 0.14 shows that a large number of small loads are closely spaced along the length I.

use Figure 4.=. .. (b) The percent VD at the location having the lowest voltage at the time of the annual peak load.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations I I I 353 Distribution ~ substation rYJY' transformer I I I I I I I r r r r r r r r r r r r r· r I.08 = 0.000 ft = 3750 kVA .60 1.250 kV Alft.- 0.D . and a 37-in geometric mean spacing of phase conductors.XDF. (c) Also write the necessary codes to solve the problem in MATLAB. FIGURE 7.14 1= 30.. Solution To achieve mInImum VD. the peak load of each main on the substation transformer is SPK = 0..1 The distribution system of Example 7. Dg = --.12.000 « .-1.2-kV system. Thus. and therefore: (a) From Equation 2.13.45 kV Alfl x 0..-.250 kVA/ft x 15. the substation should be located at the middle of the line l. Use the relevant tables in Appendix A for additional data about copper and ACSR conductors and determine the following: Locate the distribution substation where you think it would be the most economical.F . and then find: (a) The minimum ampacity-sized copper and ACSR phase conductors. using the ampacity-sized copper conductor found in part (a).17 for VD calculations for copper conductors. considering only the 13. the diversified maximum demand of the group of the load is II LTCD.

2 A in each main out of the substation. (c) Here is the MATLAB script: clc clear % System parameters D = 333. % distanced from point a to b in miles St 2000. from the tables of Appendix A.0009.2 kV x I hence 1= 3750kVA x13. % Solution for part a Sn = D*An % Total kVA on main Sm = Sn + St % Per unit voltage drop from substation to point a VDoapu = (K40*Sm*L1)/100 % Per unit voltage drop from point a to point b VDabpu = (K40*Sn*(L2/2)+K40*St*L2)/100 . % from Figure 4. % in mi A2 K40 = 0. VBp 7620. % from Figure 4. 1ft 1 % VD = [K % VD/(kV A· ml)] x [SpK kV A] x --:::. VBs = 277. Therefore.0.17 for 4 AWG L1 1. the percent VD at the time of the annual peak load is .000 2x 5280 =S. % distanced from substation to point a in miles L2 2.354 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering or 3750 kVA = ~x 13.3%V. (b) Assuming that #4 AWG copper conductor is used. it can be recommended that either #4 AWG copper conductor or #2 AWG ACSR conductor be used. L )280ttlml = 0.2 kV J3 = 164.17 for 4/0 AWG K4 0. % off-peak load density in kVA/miA2 An = 4._ ~ .0009 x 3750 x 15. % in kVA Vopu = 1.0003.

Assume that all loads are balanced three-phase and all have 90 percent power factor.027 % as before % Solution for part b in per units Vapu =Vopu-VDoapu Vbpu =Vapu-VDabpu Vcpu =Vbpu-VDbcpu Vdpu =Vcpu-VDcdpu 355 % Solution for part c in per units Va Vapu*VBp Vb Vbpu*VBp Vc Vcpu*VBp Vd = Vdpu*VBs EXAMPLE 7. the total I2 R energy loss is TAELcu = [(I/2R)FLs Jc8760 h/yr) 10 3 = 158. 7.470 V. lagging.68 9. b. Assume 50°C conductor temperature and find the total annual J2R energy loss (TAELcu ).Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations % Per unit voltage drop from point b to point c VDbcpu (K4*St*L2)jlOO VDcdpu = 0. and d.15 shows a single-line diagram of a simple three-phase four-wire wye-grounded primary feeder. Therefore. c.2)2(0.592 Wmi) = 90. .2 x 0.2 W.4 are based on 7200112. The given values of the constant K in Table 7.20 x 8760 EXAMPLE Figure 7.4 kWh. Use the given data and determine the following: (a) Find the total percent VD at points a.13 Now suppose that the line in Example 7. in the entire line length. Solution The total I2 R loss in the entire line length is 2>2 R = 31 2 (r X ~) 30.14 = 90. in kilowatt-hours. The nominal operating voltage and the base voltage is given as 7200112.12 is arbitrarily constructed with #4/0 AWG ACSR phase conductor and that the substation remains where you place it in part (a).470 V. There is a total of a 3000-kVA uniformly distributed load over a 4-mi line between band c.887.689.000 ft 3x5280 fUmi = 3(164.

to (J (J Conductor Type Distance (mi) 1. what are the line-to-neutral and line-to-line voltages at point a? Solution (a) The total load flowing through the line between points 0 and a is "Is = 2000 kVA + 3000 kVA = 5000 kVA therefore the percent VD at point a is % VDa= K(IS)1 = 0.4 The K Constants Run Sub.0 K.0 = 2.0010 toh a to c alod .0 2.0010 0. % VD/(kVA'mi) #410 ACSR # I ACSR #1 ACSR #IACSR 0.0005 x 5000 x 1.0 2. Therefore.650 V. % VD" = K x S x ~ + % VD" TABLE 7. the load flowing through the line between points a and b is S = 1500 kVA.300/12. Similarly.0005 0.14.5% V.0010 0.356 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering d Lumped load (2000 kVA) FIGURE 7. (b) If the substation bus voltages are regulated to 7.0 2.15 The distribution system of Example 7.

and it is given by the following approximate expression: %I2R cos</> =----'--% VD cose xcos(</> -e) (7.7300 x 0.0010 x 2000 x 2 + 2.025 = 7117.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations = 0. L-N = 7300 . L-L = 12. L-L = 12. The cost analysis for each feeder size should include: (1) investment cost of the installed feeder.5% = 6.5 A METHOD TO ANALYZE DISTRIBUTION COSTS To make any meaningful feeder size selection.5% Y.5 V and the line-to-line voltage is V".12.650 . (2) cost of energy lost due . %VD" = K x Slump X l + % VD" = 0.6 can readily be found from Table 7.. the ratio of percent power.59) where P LS is the power loss of a circuit (kW) = J2R and Pr is the power delivered by the circuit (kW). At times.025 = 12.= 4% Y. % VD is the percent voltage drop of the circuit. e 7. = % VD.650 V at point a the line-to-neutral voltage is v".650 .333. loss to percent voltage regulation can be used. L-N= 7300 - VD". the distribution engineer should make a cost study associated with feeders in addition to the VD and power loss considerations.8 Y.l (XIR).60) where % J2R is the percent power loss of a circuit.0010 x 1500 x 1 + 2. in AC circuits.650 x 0. </> is the impedance angle = tan.VDa . The conductor J2R losses at a load factor of 0.5% 357 =4% Y. or conductor. and is the power factor angle. (b) If the substation bus voltages are regulated to 7300112.5 for various voltage levels. %VD.4 PERCENT POWER (OR COPPER) LOSS The percent power (or conductor) loss of a circuit can be expressed as (7. 7.

at 7.500 21.400 13.300 18.200 21.400 12.800 25. 3 :::l m (]Q .700 27 109 246 437 682 982 1340 1750 2210 2730 3450 4260 5160 6140 7210 8360 9590 10.. Peak Load (kW) 6 Copper 4 ACSR "V"..600 19 75 168 298 466 671 913 1190 1510 1860 2360 2910 3520 4190 4920 5710 6550 7450 9430 11.100 14.600 14.600 24.U1 w co TABLE 7.900 18.300 14.400 15. :::l (]Q ro ro :::l .700 13.600 14..800 14...700 19.900 12.. 0- -< til ro Vl .. 0 ~ ro "1j ri' ro .400 16 63 141 250 391 563 766 1000 1270 1560 1980 2440 2960 3520 4130 4790 5500 6260 7920 9780 11.900 13.400 16. c . Phase Ann.300 12.900 16.700 19..:!.Phase 2 Copper 1/0 ACSR 8 Copper 6 Copper 4 ACSR Three·Phase 2 Copper 6 Copper 4 Copper 2 Copper 1 Copper 1/0 Copper 2/0 Copper 1/0 ACSR 4 ACSR 2 ACSR 1/0 ACSR 2/0 ACSR 3/0 ACSR 4/0 ACSR 4 Copper 2 ACSR 4 Copper 2 ACSR 8 Copper 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 450 500 550 600 124 495 1110 1980 3100 4460 6070 7920 10.900 21.500 18.800 41 164 370 658 1030 1480 2010 2630 3330 4110 5200 6420 7770 9250 10.. kWh/(mi'yr).5 kV and a Load Factor of 0.100 16.900 23..5 Conductor J2R Losses.2/12.300 62 248 557 990 1550 2230 3030 3960 5010 6190 7830 9670 11.100 10 39 88 157 245 353 481 628 795 982 1240 1530 1860 2210 2590 3010 3450 3930 4970 6140 7420 8840 31 70 125 195 280 382 498 631 779 986 1220 1470 1750 2060 2380 2740 3120 3940 4870 5890 7010 56 99 154 222 302 395 500 617 780 964 1170 1390 1630 1890 2170 2470 3120 3850 4660 5550 78 122 176 240 313 396 489 619 764 925 1100 1280 1500 1720 1960 2480 3060 3700 4400 m () .100 20.700 55 218 491 873 1360 1960 2670 3490 4420 5460 6910 8530 10.800 37 149 335 596 932 1340 1830 2390 3020 3730 4720 5820 7050 8390 9840 11. 0' :::l :::!...800 22. .800 24.400 16. 0 til ..400 20.6 Single.800 15.000 12..600 15.400 82 329 740 1320 2060 2960 4030 5260 6660 8220 10.500 18.800 25 99 224 398 621 895 1220 1590 2010 2490 3150 3880 4700 5590 6560 7610 8740 9940 12.800 17.300 23.

100 15.100 62.600 50.300 77.200 70.200 89.500 14.700 19.700 22.62/13.650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 Note: 28.200 IIS.700 35.600 28.600 88.300 66.500 44.700 22.100 30. U.800 17.300 31.200 24.25: This table is calculated for a power factor (PF) of 90%.500 29.100 13S.4/24.000 28.200 34.000 25. Source: From Rural Electrification Administration.200 4S.000 16.800 8220 9540 10.100 47.800 104.800 56..200 112.100 75.800 70.300 39.800 17.300 56.500 19. REA Bulletin 60-9.700 35.900 50.700 24.000 55. Multiply these values by 0..200 26. With permission.300 56.500 105.900 59.100 76.: ('[) .800 5170 6000 6880 7830 8840 9900 11. ""0 0 ::. w V1 <J:) .800 49.800 26.700 17.700 42.500 88.700 37...200 22.800 33.600 98.000 32..700 61.400 19.700 39.500 48.500 31.100 70.200 29.600 88. Multiply by 0.300 39.300 35.300 63.000 26.900 79.800 33.300 41.500 13.9 kY.000 12.900 39.900 110.800 15.000 27.S.700 95.900 94. Department of Agriculture: Ecollomic Design of Primary Lines for Rural Distributioll Systems.900 38.900 15AOO 18.200 62.+00 82.2 kY. (]Q ('[) 0 (3 "0 Q) :::l Q.100 10AOO 12.200 14.600 44.600 19.700 74. May 1960.600 20.893: for 14. multiply these values by the factor k =(90)2/(PFj2.200 43.000 0 < . V> V> 0 r- n Q) (') c (5 ::l V> ~ For 7.000 100.100 6510 7550 8670 9870 11.900 12.800 44.200 120.400 34. To adjust for a different PF.000 13.100 55.200 30.500 23.900 22.100 12.

in order to maintain adequate system capacity to supply the j2 R losses in the distribution feeder conductors.61) where TAC is the total annual equivalent cost of the feeder ($/mi). . that is. the total annual feeder cost (TAC) of a given size feeder can be expressed as TAC = AIC + AEC + ADC $/mi (7.2 ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OF ENERGY COST The annual equivalent of energy cost due to PR losses in feeder conductors can be expressed as AEC = 3J2R x ECxFLL x F LSA x 8760 $/mi (7.63) where AEC is the annual equivalent of energy cost due to J2R losses in the feeder conductors ($/mi). taxes. and iF is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to the feeder. AEC is the annual equivalent of energy cost due to PR losses in the feeder conductors ($/mi). the cost of useful system capacity lost (including generation.1 ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OF INVESTMENT COST The annual equivalent of investment cost of a given size feeder can be expressed as AIC = IC F x iF $/mi (7. The general utility practice is to include cost of capital. The load location factor of a feeder with uniformly distributed load can be defined as (7. FLS = 0. s is the distance of point on feeder where the total feeder load can be assumed to be concentrated for purpose of calculating P R losses. depreciation. 7.84 FiJ). It is given as a decimal. EC is the cost of energy ($/kWh).62) where AIC is the annual equivalent of the investment cost of a given size feeder ($/mi). The loss allowance factor is an allocation factor that allows for the additional losses incurred in the total power system due to the transmission of power from the generating plant to the distribution substation. FLL is the load location factor. The loss factor can be defined as the ratio of the average annual power loss to the peak annual power loss and can be found approximately for urban areas from (7. Therefore.64) where FLL is the load location factor in decimal.65) and for rural areas [6]. AIC is the annual equivalent of the investment cost of the installed feeder ($/mi). and ADC is the annual equivalent of the demand cost incurred to maintain adequate system capacity to supply PR losses in feeder conductors ($/mi). IC F is the cost of the installed feeder ($/mi). and (3) cost of demand lost.16 FLO + 0. transmission. and I is the total feeder length (mi). F LS is the loss factor.5.5. and F LSA is the loss allowance factor.360 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering to j2 R losses in the feeder conductors. 7. and distribution systems). insurance. and operation and maintenance (O&M) expenses in the annual fixed charge rate or so-called carrying charge rate.

2 3 (7. FR is the reserve factor.. as shown in Figure 7.16a.l6a.5.l.. 7. The peak responsibility factor is a pu value of the peak feeder losses that are coincident with the system peak demand. therefore it becomes necessary to levelize these costs over the expected economic life of the feeder.(PIF)\ + F2(PIF)2 + F3(PIF)~ + . is the cost of (peaking) generation system ($/kYA). F PR is the peak responsibility factor. + Fn(PIF)~](AlP)..16b. iG is the annual fixed charge rate appl icable to the generation system. F LSA is the loss allowance factor. iT is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to transmission system. " Also called the annual equivalent or annual worth.66) + (Crx iT) + (Csx is)] $/mi where ADC is the annual equivalent of demand cost incurred to maintain adequate system capacity to supply PR losses in feeder conductors ($/mi). FI. The levelized annual cost* of equal amounts can be calculated as A = [F.67) • 4 5 n F1 ~ F2 I 3 F3 ~ F4 II F5 Fn -1 (a) Fn 5 • I I I I A A 2 4 A (b) A r--n n A A A (b) FIGURE 7.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 361 7. the costs of energy and demand and even O&M expenses vary from year-to-year during a given time.4 lEVElIZED ANNUAL COST In general. The reserve factor is the ratio of total generation capability to the total load and losses to be supplied.3 ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OF DEMAND COST The annual equivalent of demand cost incurred to maintain adequate system capacity to supply the PR losses in the feeder conductors can be expressed as ADC = 3J2R x FI. Cc.5. is the load location factor. as shown in Figure 7.LX F pR X FR x FLSAf(Cu x i(J (7. Assume that the costs occur discretely at the end of each year.16 Illustration of the levelized annual cost concept: (a) unlevelized annual cost flow diagram and levelized cost flow diagram. . and is is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to the distribution substation. Cs is the cost of the distribution substation ($/kYA). as shown in Figure 7. CT is the cost of the transmission system ($/kYA).

82 Table 7. n is the economic life (yr).6 gives cost data for typical ACSR conductors used in rural areas at 12.69) and (AIp)i = n i(l + i)" . SO/lIlion Using the given and additional data and appropriate equations from Section 7. also known as capital recovery factO/: The single-payment discount factor and the capital recovery factor can be found from the compounded interest tables or from the following equations.03 Reserve factor = 1. also known as single-payment discount factor.25 I nterest rate == 12% Load factor = 0. respectively. is the present worth (or present equivalent) of a future sum factor (with i interest rate and n years of economic life). (PIF):.7 gives cost data for typical ACSR conductors used in urban areas at 12.68) where A is the levelized annual cost ($/yr). . Feeder length = I mi Cost of energy = 20 milkWh (or $0.15 Assume that the following data have been gathered for the system of the NL&NP Company.70) EXAMPLE 7.18 Annual fixed charge rate for substation = 0.362 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering or (7. ( PIFi =_1_ n (l+i)" (7. develop nomographs that can be readily used to calculate the the total annual equivalent cost of the feeder in dollars per mile.02/kWh) Cost of generation system = $200/kW Cost of transmission system = $65/kW Cost of distribution substation = $20/kW Annual fixed charge rate for generation = 0. Fi is the unequal (or actual or unlevelized) annual cost ($/yr).5 kYo Using the given data. the following nomographs have been developed.4 Loss allowance factor == 1.5 and 24.15 Peak responsibility factor == 0.5.18 Annual fixed charge rate for feeders = 0. in thousands of dollars per mile. (1 + i)" -1 (7. and (AIP)~ is the uniform series worth of a present sum factor. respectively. i is the interest rate. Figures 7.21 Annual fixed charge rate for transmission = 0.9 kYo Table 7.18 give nomographs to calculate the total annual equivalent cost of ACSR feeders of various sizes for rural and urban areas.5 and 34.17 and 7.

967 7800 8900 10.815 28.6 0. Route A is I8-mi long and goes around a lake.9 kY #4 I/O 310 4/0 266.6 0.537 22.7 Typical ACSR Conductors Used in Urban Areas Total Conductor Wize Ground Wire size Conductor Wire wt (lb) Installation Ground Wire and Hardware Total Installed Weight (Ib) Cost ($/lb) Cost ($) Feeder Cost ($) At 12.2 8217.6 21.547 8460 9580 10. It has been estimated that the required overhead power line will cost $8000 per mile to build and $350 per mile per year to maintain.400 II. Its salvage value will be $1500 per mile at the end of its useful life of 20 yrs.6 0.5 kY 0.660 356 769 1223 356 566 769 769 769 769 I/O I/O I/O 1542 1802 3462 0.6 Typical ACSR Conductors Used in Rural Areas Total Conductor Size Ground Wire Conductor wt(lb) Size Ground Wire Weight (I b) At 12.6 0.6 0.230 35. route B is 6-mi long and is an underwater line that goes across the lake.585 28.5 kV #4 lIO 3/0 477 kcmil #4 356 769 1223 3462 356 356 356 769 At 34. On the other hand.000 24.307 22.690 17.6 0.2 7737.2 24.402. It has been estimated that the required underwater line using submarine power cables will cost Table 7.000 27.6 0.145.SOO 13.000 35.230 27.632.6 0.375.6 22.880 11.6 0.2 24.16 The NP&NL power and light company is required to serve a newly developed residential area.6 7605.240 EXAMPLE 7.6 0.6 22.8 kcmil 477 kcmil #4 #2 I/O Cost ($/lb) Installation and Hardware Installed cost ($) Feeder Cost ($) 0. There are two possible routes for the construction of the necessary power line.6 0.6 0.6 21.6 7856.230 .6 0.8 kcmil 477 kcmil #4 #2 I/O I/O I/O I/O 356 769 1223 1542 IS02 3642 356 566 769 769 769 769 At 24.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 363 TABLE 7.530 13.2 8293 9615 11.6 6945.6 0.230 24.2 8563 9985 10.6 0.6 0.320 18.000 #4 #4 I/O #4 I/O 3/0 477 kcmil #4 #4 #4 I/O 356 769 1223 3462 356 356 356 769 0.6 7176.5 kY #4 I/O 3/0 4/0 266.

. 3/0) (d) (c) FIGURE 7.00 0.00 2.00 10..--'-_-L_-'-_. 21.0018.00 6.00 0..00 18. 12.00 6..00.17 Total annual equivalent east of ACSR feeders for rural areas in thousands of dollars per mile: (a) 477 emil. G...00 I.._ . 26 strands.---l_-'-_-'-_-'-_-'--_-'-----' 0. G.00 0 0 0 15.0012..00 8._ .00 Demand in MVA (266. 26 strands.00 8. :0 c C co cr.--.L.00 2.00 8" o 10..00 35.00 9._ .00 14.0021..' ..0012...00 4.00 l ._ .00 3..00 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 14..00 0._ ..00 12. ->:- 0 0 0 10.00 'V ""~ ~ 8._-'-_-'-_-'-_-'-_-'----' 0.1. G.00 L...00 8.0010..00 2.l _ .00 30. j§ 0.' 0.. 7 strands.00 9.8 emil.00 12.00 ..364 14.26 strands) (a) 14.18 Total annual equivalent eosl of ACSR feeders for urban areas in thousands of dollars per mile: (a) 477 emil.00 25.00 3.00 5.. (b) 266.00 21. .--------------.8 emil. W.' .00 20.' ..--------------.00 8.00 21. (h) AWG 310..' ..00 10.00 1-.00 Demand in MVA (A.00 '----'-_--'-_-'-_-'-_-'-_.--' 0.00 2. G....' ...7 strands) 'V ""~ ~ ]i ~ 2. and (d) AWG 4._ .00 6.00 4.00 12..00 4.00.00 6..00 15....00 6.00 'V ""~ ~ c C j§ co co 0.00..00 6.' . 1/0) (a) (b) FIGURE 7. .JL---'-_-' 0.. 4/0) w 0 ~ t5 () .00 15.L. 6 strands) (b) 14. :0 'V ""~ ~ 8.--------------.00 2.l 0. .00 4.00 6..00 6..0014.00 3. ..00 9.0014.00 Demand in MVA (477 emil.00 15.0010.yO 4) cr...00 Demand in MVA (A.:... W. 12.0012.._ . 4. (e) AWG 110.00 8..00 9.' .l _ ...0015. 6 strands.00 10.00 Demand in MVA (A.00 'V w 0 ~ t5 () ""~ ~ 12.00 4..00 6..00 'V ""~ ~ cr. W._ .00 4.. W.' ..00 4.0010.00 6.' . 12.00 18.00 I .00 3.00 6.00 Demand in MVA (A.00 18.00 12..00 0.00 2.' ...

OOO/mile)(6 miles) = $126.OOO(A/F)~~% = $144. The annual equivalent cost of capital invested in the line is AI = $144. the conclusion would still be the same. Its annual equivalent cost of capital invested is AI = $126.980. Use any engineering economy interest tables and determine the economically preferable alternative. Hence.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 365 $21.000 (A/P)~g% .063(PIA)ig% = $230. The annual equivalent cost of the tax and maintenance is A2 = ($126.OOO(A/P)~g% -$27. the economically preferable alternative is route B.151. For example.414 .000(0. The annual equivalent cost of the tax and maintenance is A2 = ($144.000 and its estimated salvage value is F = ($ISOO/mile) (18 miles) = $27.171 + $lO.000(0. Solution Route A: The first cost of the overhead power line is P = ($8.000.443. Its salvage valuc will be $6000 per mile at the end of 20 yr. Route B: The first cost of the submarine power line is P = ($21.11746) - $27. The total annual equivalent cost of the submarine power line is A =A I +A2 = $14.000.000)(3%) + ($1200/mile)(6 miles) = $lO.171.01746) = $16. the present worths of costs for A and Bare PWA = $27.620. if the present worths of the costs are calculated.000 and its estimated salvage value is F = ($6000/mile)(6 miles) =$36.000 per mile to build and $1200 pcr mile per year to maintain. Assume that the fixed charge rate is 10% and that the annual ad valorem (property) taxes are 3% of the first costs of each power line.980 = $25.OOO/mile)(l8 miles) = $144.$36. Of course.000)(3%) + ($3S0/mile)(l8 miles) = $lO.OOO(A/F)ig% = $14.

845. or carrying.01510)](0.15230) = $18. Solution (a) The annual equivalent cost of 9-MVA capacity line is AI =$120.366 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering and PWB = $25..15 1(PIA)ig% Thus. regardless of the age of the existing unit. (c) The annual equivalent cost of the upgrade option if the upgrade will take place at the end of 10 yr.92.136. However. if one considers the 9-MVA versus the 15-MVA capacities. In other words.15.17 Use the data given in Example 6.718. 7.0000(AIP)~~% (b) A2 =$210.000 (PIF):~o/' + $200. . nowadays it is not uncommon to find out that a transformer with lower losses but higher initial price tag is less expensive than the one with higher losses but lower initial price when total cost over the life of the transformer is considered.6 and assume that the fixed charge rate is 0. (c) The annual equivalent cost of 15-MVA capacity line is A2 = [$120.15230) = $25. in the replacement or retirement decisions. But the salvage value for 9-MVA capacity line is $2000 at the end of the tenth year.2472) .$2.000(0. the carrying charges of the existing equipment do not affect the retirement decision. power or distribution transformers) before making any final decision for purchasing new equipment and/or replacing (or retiring) existing ones.000 (0. charges of an existing equipment must be amortized (written off) whether the unit is retired or not. the fixed.$5.000 (PIF):~% . As it can be seen. Based on the sunk cost concept of engineering economy. equipment.276 per mile per year.15230) = $22. the substantially escalating plant. For example.000 (PIF)~~%](AIP)~~% = [$120. • These phrases are used by some governmental agencies and other organizations to specifically require that bid evaluations or purchase decisions be based not just on first cost but on all factors (such as future operating costs) that influence which alternative is the more economical. Use a study period of 30 yr and determine the following: (a) The annual equivalent cost of 9-MVA capacity line.000(0. (b) The annual equivalent cost of 15-MVA capacity line. =$ 150.2472) + $200. and zero salvage values are expected at the end of useful lives of 30 yr for each alternative. route B is still the preferred route.000(0.$2. energy. building the 15-MVA capacity line from the start is still the best option. Use an average value of $5000 at the end of 20 yr for the new 15 MVA upgrade line.000 .000 . Furthermore.000 (0.6 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF EQUIPMENT LOSSES Today. EXAMPLE = $214. the upgrade option is still the bad option. and capital costs make it increasingly more important to evaluate losses of electric equipment (e.$5. 7.000 (AIP)~~% = $150. the associated cost savings in operating and maintenance costs in a given l{fe-cycle analysis" or !(fe-cycle cost study must be greater than the total purchase price of the more efficient replacement transformer.g.

7. Dodds llO] summarizes the economic evaluation of the cost of losses in an old and a new transformer step-by-step as: I. These annual costs may be different from year-to-year during the econom ical Iifetime of the equipment. 4. Annual Annual Annual Annual Annual cost of copper losses.5. 2. Read Section 6. Obtain the load and no-load losses for the transformers under rated conditions. The total cost is equal to the sum of the transformer carrying charge and the cost of the losses. Calculate the transformer carrying charge and the cost of losses for each transformer. Compare the total cost per year of the old and the new transformers. 6. For the economic replacement study of the power transformers. 3.0 50 A cos 8c= 0.1.8 lagging FIGURE P7. omit the UG SL. Therefore.7 lagging 40 A cos 8 B = 1. Repeat Example 7.5 Repeat Example 7. Determine the power ratings for the trans/ormers as well as the peak and average system loads. the following simplified technique may be sufficient. cost of fixed charges on the first cost of the installed equipment. using a 7S-kVA transformer.4.012 nI'A 0. replacement of the old transformer can be economically justified. Assume that there are six transformers per block.04 WI/> B C Distribution transformer 30A cos8A = 0. cost of regulation. Repeat Example 7.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations 367 The transformer cost study should include the following factors: I. assuming four services per transformer.12 + jO.4 7. 7. PROBLEMS 7. it may be required to levelize them. Determine the original cost of the old transformer and ihe purchase price 01 the !lew O!le. and the energy cost rate for your particular utility. that is. cost of exciting current. 3.1 Consider Figure P7. 4.7 by using a transformer with 7S-kVA capacity.2 7. system capital cost rate. using a 100-kVA transformer and #3/0 AWG and #2 AWG cables for the SLs and SDs. Compare the total cost per year for each transformer. If the total cost per year of the new transformer is less. .12 + jO.5. 5.1 One-line diagram for Problem 7. --i: 0.7. Here. Repeat Problem 7.3.04 nil/> 0.3 7. respectively.7 for further information on the cost study of the distribution transformers.004 + jO.1 and repeat Example 7. 2.8. one transformer at each pole location. The cost of losses is equal to the system carrying charge plus the energy charge. cost of core losses. 5. as explained in Section 7. Obtain the carrying charge rate.

Also assume that this three-phase three-wire 480-V secondary system supplies balanced loads at A. respectively. as shown. 7. (b) The total power delivered to the loads. (b) The line currents when all three lines are connected as shown in the figure. 7. using Equation 7. 85 L~O°.920/34.I.51.-+ 2V _______ vy-l FIGURE P7. B. as shown in Figure P7. 7. and 50 A with a lagging power factor of 0. Iddc) ~ ------.7) is considered to be employed to transmit three-phase three-conductor AC energy at 0. Use the nominal primary voltage of 19. determine the change in the power transmitted in percent.85. 7. (b) The real power per phase for each load. (c) Repeat part (b).368 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 7. The loads at A. (e) The reactive power per phase for each load. Assume that the line-to-line voltage is 69 kV and determine the following: voltage difference between substations 2 and 3 when tie line 23 open-circuited.3.08 + jO. and 0. 7. and C are represented by 50 A with a lagging power factor of 0.l and assume that the impedances of the three line segments from left to right are 0. respectively. (b) The load power factor for which the VD is maximum. and the phase a line voltage has an effective value of 13. Determine the following: (a) The power factor of the load. and C.10. Substations 2 and 3 are connected to each other over a tie line. S.95.500 V and assume that the remaining data are the same. (a) The IS . The receiving-end voltage and load current are 2400 LOOV and 50 L -30 0 A. 0.11. If voltages to ground and transmission line efficiencies are the same for both direct and alternating current.7. (d) The kilovoltampere output and load power factor of the distribution transformer.30 A with a lagging power factor of 0. The load impedances Za.10 Consider Figure P7. and 50L35° Q/phase.7 Illustration for Example 7. using Equation 7. and the load is balanced. respectively.52. through three-phase lines.l2 Q/phase.1 + jO.11 Assume that bulk power substation I supplies substations 2 and 3.1 + jO.8 Assume that a single-phase feeder circuit has a total impedance of 1 + j3 Q for lines and/or transformers.8 kV: use the line-to-neutral voltage of phase a as the reference and determine the following: (a) The line and neutral currents.6 Repeat Example 7.7 Assume that a three-conductor DC overhead line with equal conductor sizes (see Figure P7. Zb' and Zc are given as 70 L30°. respectively. Determine the following: (a) The total VD in one phase of the lateral using the approximate method.90.9 An unbalanced three-phase wye-connected and grounded load is connected to a balanced threephase four-wire source.92 power factor.

. Yu: "A Distribution System Planning Model. U.: Development ofAdvanced Methodsfor Planning Electric Energy Distribution Systems.11 Distribution system for Problem 7. vol. 13. pp. C. 7-8. Yu: "A Comparative Analysis of Distribution Feeder Costs. T. Morrison. U. pp.S.: "New Selection Method Reduces Conductor Losses.. 1965. no.: "Economic Analysis of Electrical Equipment Losses. Klein. pp. et al." AlEE Trans. pt. Ward: "Does Early Distribution Transformer Retirement Make Sense?" Electric. Can! Proc.." Electr. (d) The total power loss in part (b). April 12-14. Oklahoma. New York. 5. October 1979. c. 28-34. July 15. W. 2.85 lag 195 A FIGURE P7. pp. D. 4. 62-80. pp. 1980.. 10. P.S.: "Evaluation of Distribution Transformer Losses and Loss Ratios. 6-9. Rural Electrification Administration.S. 3... East Pittsburgh. July 1980. January 22-24. W. 1960. vol. p. 11. Smith. 25-28. and H. World.11. 11th ed. 74. Houston.Voltage Drop and Power Loss Calculations (c) The total power loss in part (0). G. 56-61. May 1960. 1980. February I. 14.. 6. REA Bulletin 60-9." Southwest Electr Exposition IEEE Can! Proc. no. and D." paper presented at the Missouri Valley Electric Association 49th Annual Engineering Conference. Dodds. H. no. McGraw-Hill. 1978. Beaty: Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. T. R. National Technical Information Service. U.: "A Linear Approach to the Problem of Planning New Feed Points into a Distribution System. PA. Ganen.12 Repeat Example 7." The Line.. 1977..." Control of Power Syst.6. 2. vol. Department of Agriculture: Economic Design of Primary Lines for Rural Distribution Systems. K. 9. c. 8.: "Costs of Losses Can Economically Justify Replacement of an Old Transformer with a New One." The Line. T. January 1952. Department of Energy. 6. 7. Schlegel. 1974. W.: "An Economic Approach to Distribution Conductor Size Selection. 3. Fink. Light Power.43-44. 1. 369 125 A cos e = 0. December 1963. and D. 1980. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. M. 3. Ganen. March 17-18. M. III (PAS). VA. pp. vol. 1978. REFERENCES 1. Department of Commerce." Elecr. Oklahoma City. C.90 lag cos e = 0. Texas." AlEE Trans. III (PAS). Kansas City. Jeynes. Forum. Light. pp. 7. MO. Ganen. pp. 4. T. 819-32. 80. and D. Springfield. Delaney. H. 12.: "Evaluation of Capacity Differences in the Economic Comparison of Alternative Facilities. assuming 50% lagging power factor for all loads. 1. B.

.

capacitors are getting more attention today than ever before. the utilities can make economic loss evaluations in choosing between the presently existing capacitor technologies. even replacement of older capacitors can be justified on the basis of lower loss evaluations of the modern capacitor design. a power capacitor is a highly technical and complex device in that very thin dielectric materials and high electric stresses are involved. partly due to a new dimension added in the analysis: changeout economics. that is. Capacitor Module. Power capacitors have been improved tremendously over the last 30 yr or so. 371 . 8. 438 !J.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS Capacitor Element. but instead functions by being acted upon by electric stress. coupled with highly sophisticated processing techniques.2 POWER CAPACITORS At a casual look a capacitor seems to be a very simple and unsophisticated apparatus.8 Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems Who neglects learning in his youth. Under certain circumstances. A total assembly of capacitor modules electrically connected to each other. An indivisible part of a capacitor consisting of electrodes separated by a dielectric material.ments in the processing techniques involved. as a result. however. loses the past and is dead for the future. partly due to improvements in the dielectric materials and their more efficient utilization and partly due to improy. Where is there dignity unless there is honesty? Cicero 8. In the past. In reality. power capacitors are much more efficient than those of 30 yr ago and are available to the electric utilities at a much lower cost per kilovar. Figure 8.2 shows a typical capacitor utilization in a switched pole-top rack. It has no moving parts. two metal plates separated by a dielectric insulating material. Euripides. Figure 8. Capacitor technology has evolved to extremely low loss designs employing the all-film concept. In general. Capacitor Unit. Nowadays. A three-phase group of capacitor segments. An assembly of one or more capacitor elements in a single container with terminals brought out. Capacitor Bank.1 shows a cutaway view of a power factor correction capacitor. most power capacitors were constructed with two sheets of pure aluminum foil separated by three or more layers of chemically impregnated kraft paper. Capacitor Segment. Capacitor sizes have increased from the IS-2S-kvar range to the 200-300-kvar range (capacitor banks are usually supplied in sizes ranging from 300 to 1800 kvar).e. A single-phase group of capacitor units with protection and control system.

. Capacitor packs Uniformly laminated pack-to-tank insulation completely surrounds packs to establish exceptionally high insulation level between packs and tank. _ _ _ Stainless steel tank FIGURE 8. It keeps in dielectric liquid and keeps out contaminants.1 A cutaway view of a power factor correction capacitor.2 A typical capacitor utilization in a switched pole-top rack. Intemal discharge resistor assembly mwL-l--~- Lifting eyes on each side of tank Stainless steel nameplate Mounting brackets .) FIGURE 8.372 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Bushings Stud-type paragroove terminals Solder sealing hermetically secures bushings to tank cover. (McGraw-Edison Company.

a series capacitor betters the system power factor much less than a shunt capacitor and has little effect on the source current. In other words. Therefore. installed as a single unit or as a bank. in general.3.1 SERIES CAPACITORS Series capacitors. there is a requirement for a large amount of complex engineering investigation. the primary effect of the series capacitor is to minimize. . + I 1'_-1" l' (a) IR cos +~~ (b) r e IXL sin e (d) (e) FIGURE 8. Also. a series capacitor is a negative (capacitive) reactance in series with the circuit's positive (inductive) reactance with the effect of compensating for part or all of it. a series capacitor can even be considered as a voltage regulator that provides for a voltage boost which is proportional to the magnitude and power factor of the through current. uti lities are reluctant to install series capacitors. The shunt capacitor does it by changing the power factor of the load. the voltage drop caused by the inductive reactance in the circuit. a series capacitor produces more net voltage rise than a shunt capacitor at lower power factors.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 373 8. because of the special problems associated with each application. a series capacitor provides for a voltage rise which increases automatically and instantaneously as the load grows. capacitors connected in series with lines. whereas the series capacitor does it by directly off~etting the inductive reactance of the circuit to which it is applied. a series capacitor compensates for inductive reactance.3 EFFECTS OF SERIES AND SHUNT CAPACITORS As mentioned earlier.3. the fundamental function of capacitors. 8. However. Therefore. Therefore. have been used to a very limited extent on distribution circuits due to being a more specialized type of apparatus with a limited range of application. As shown in Figure 8. especially of small sizes. is to regulate the voltage and reactive power flows at the point where they are installed. At times. which creates more voltage drop. that is.3 Voltage-phasor diagrams for a feeder circuit of lagging power factor: (a) and (e) without and (b) and (d) with series capacitors. or even suppress. Also. whether they are series or shunt.

374

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Consider the feeder circuit and its voltage-phasor diagram as shown in Figure 8.3a and c. The voltage drop through the feeder can be expressed approximately as VD = JR cos e + JXL sin e (8.1)

where R is the resistance of the feeder circuit, XL is the inductive reactance of the feeder circuit, cos e is the receiving-end power factor, and sin eis the sine of the receiving-end power factor angle. As can be observed from the phasor diagram, the magnitude of the second term in Equation 8.1 is much larger than the first. The difference gets to be much larger when the power factor is smaller and the ratio of RIXL is small. However, when a series capacitor is applied, as shown in Figure 8.3b and d, the resultant lower voltage drop can be calculated as
VD=JRcos e+J(XL -Xc) sin e

(8.2)

where Xc is the capacitive reactance of the series capacitor. Overcompensation. Usually, the series capacitor size is selected for a distribution feeder application in such a way that the resultant capacitive reactance is smaller than the inductive reactance of the feeder circuit. However, in certain applications (where the resistance of the feeder circuit is larger than its inductive reactance), the reverse might be preferred so that the resultant voltage drop is VD = IR cos e - J(Xc - XL) sin e.
(8.3)

The resultant condition is known as overcompensation. Figure 8.4a shows a voltage-phasor diagram for overcompensation at normal load. At times, when the selected level of overcompensation is strictly based on normal load, the resultant overcompensation of the receiving-end voltage may not be pleasing at all because the lagging current of a large motor at start can produce an extraordinarily large voltage rise, as shown in Figure 8.4b, which is especially harmful to lights (shortening their lives) and causes light flicker, resulting in consumers' complaints. Leading Power Factor. To decrease the voltage drop consigerably between the sending and receiving ends by the application of a series capacitor, the load current must have a lagging power factor. As an example, Figure 8.Sa shows a voltage-phasor diagram with a leading load power factor without having series capacitors in the line. Figure 8.Sb shows the resultant voltage-phasor diagram with the same leading load power factor but this time with series capacitors in the line.

VR

e
Izi

IR

/

Vs

I +~ / I ~CJ
IZ /

/ / / / / /

/

/

/ /
(a)

(b)

FIGURE 8.4 motor.

Overcompensation of the receiving-end voltage: (a) at normal load and (b) at the start of a large

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems

375

Vs

t
1ZI

I

IXL

I
VR
(a)

e
IR

(b)

FIGURE 8.5 Voltage-phasor diagram with leading power factor: (a) without series capacitors and (b) with series capacitors.

As can be seen from the Figure, the receiving-end voltage is reduced as a result of having series capacitors. When cos e = 1.0, sin e:::: 0, and therefore
1 (XL -

XJ sin e::::

°
(8.4)

hence Equation 8.2 becolnes
VD::::IR.

Thus, in such applications, series capacitors practically have no value. Because of the aforementioned reasons and others (e.g., ferroresonance in transformers, subsynchronous resonance during motor starting, shunting of motors during normal operation, and difficulty in protection of capacitors from system fault current), series capacitors do not have large applications in distribution systems. However, they are employed in subtransmission systems to modify the load division between parallel lines. For example, often a new subtransmission line with larger thermal capability is parallel with an already existing line. It may be very difficult, if not impossible, to load the subtransmission line without overloading the old line. Here, series capacitors can be employed to offset some of the line reactance with greater thermal capability. They are also employed in subtransmission systems to decrease the voltage regulation.

8.3.2

SHUNT CAPACITORS

Shunt capacitors, that is, capacitors connected in parallel with lines, are used extensively in distribution systems. Shunt capacitors supply the type of reactive power or current to counteract the out-of-phase component of current required by an inductive load. In a sense, shunt capacitors modify the characteristics of an inductive load by drawing a leading current which counteracts some or all of the lagging component of the inductive load current at the point of installation. Therefore a shunt capacitor has the same effect as an overexcited synchronous condenser, generator, or motor. As shown in Figure 8.6, by the application of shunt capacitor to a feeder, the magnitude of the Source current can be reduced, the power factor can be improved, and consequently the voltage drop between the sending end and the load is also reduced. However, shunt capacitors do not affect current or power factor beyond their point of application. Figure 8.6a and c show the single-line diagram of a line and its voltage-phasor diagram before the addition of the shunt capacitor, and Figure 8.6b and d show them after the addition. Voltage drop in feeders, or in short transmission lines, with lagging power factor can be approximated as
(8.5)

376
z= R+ jXL

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Z= R+ jXL

+

+

Vs

VR

Vs

Ie!

-1
(a)

-j -j
(b)

r
(a)

-I

+

VR

-j

(e)

(d)

FIGURE 8.6
(b)

Voltage-phasor diagrams for a feeder circuit of lagging power factor: and (d) with shunt capacitors.

and

(e)

without and

where R is the total resistance of the feeder circuit (.0), XL is the total inductive reactance of the feeder circuit (.0), IR is the real power (or in-phase) component of the current (A), and I x is the reactive (or out-of-phase) component of current lagging the voltage by 90° (A). When a capacitor is installed at the receiving end of the line, as shown in Figure 8.6b, the resultant voltage drop can be calculated approximately as (8.6) where Ie is the reactive (or out-of-phase) component of current leading the voltage by 90° (A). The difference between the voltage drops calculated by using Equations 8.5 and 8.6 is the voltage rise due to the installation of the capacitor and can be expressed as
(8.7)

8.4
8.4.1

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
Gmeral

A typical utility system would have a reactive load at 80% power factor during summer months. Therefore, in typical distribution loads, the current lags the voltage, as shown in Figure 8.7a. The cosine of the angle between current and sending voltage is known as the powerfactor of the circuit. If the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the current I is multiplied by the receiving-end voltage VR , the resultant relationship can be shown on a triangle known as the power triangle, as shown in Figure 8.7b. Figure 8.7b shows the triangular relationship that exists between kilowatts, kilovoltamperes, and kilovars. Note that, by adding the capacitors, the reactive power component Q of

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems
'R = leas

377
P,kW

e
I I I I
Ilx

VR

cc
'00
/I

e

c

ci

-"
----x
(a)

(b)

FIGURE 8.7

(a) Phasor diagram and (b) power triangle for a typical distribution load.

the apparent power 5 of the load can be reduced or totally suppressed. Figures 8.8 and 8.9 illustrate how the reactive power component Q increases with each 10% change of power factor. Note that, as illustrated in Figure 8.8, even an 80% power factor of the reactive power (kilovar) size is quite large, causing a 25% increase in the total apparent power (kilovoltamperes) of the line. At this power factor, 75 kvar of capacitors is needed to cancel out the 75 kvar of lagging component. As previously mentioned, the generation of reactive power at a power plant and its supply to a load located at a far distance is not economically feasible, but it can easily be provided by capacitors located at the load centers. Figure 8.10 illustrates the power factor correction for a given system. As illustrated in the figure, capacitors draw leading reactive power from the source; that is, they supply lagging reactive power to the load. Assume that a load is supplied with a real power P, lagging reactive power QI' and apparent power 51 at a lagging power factor of

or (8.8)

48.43 kvar

75 kvar

102 kvar

133.33 kvar

~
100 kVA PF = 1.00

111.11 kVA PF = 0.90

125 kVA PF = 0.80

142.86 kVA PF = 0.70

166.67 kVA PF =0.60

FIGURE 8.8 Illustration of the required increase in the apparent and reactive powers as a function of the load power factor, holding the real power of the load constant.

378

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

43.59
kvar

60 kvar

71.41
kvar

180
kvar

100 kVA PF = 1.00

100 kVA PF = 0.90

100 kVA PF = 0.80

100 kVA PF = 0.70

100 kVA PF =0.60

FIGURE 8.9 Illustration of the change in the real and reactive powers as a function of the load power factor, holding the apparent power of the load constant.

When a shunt capacitor of Qc kVA is installed at the load, the power factor can be improved from cos 81 to cos 82 , where cos8, = S2
P

p

or
(8.9)

Therefore, as can be observed from Figure 8.lOb, the apparent power and the reactive power are decreased from SI kVA to S2 kVA and from QI kvar to Q2 kvar (by providing a reactive power of Q), respectively. The reduction of reactive current results in a reduced total current, which in turn causes less power losses. Thus the power factor correction produces economic savings in capital expenditures and fuel expenses through a release of kilovoltamperage capacity and reduction of power losses in all the apparatus between the point of installation of the capacitors and the source power plants, including distribution lines, substation transformers, and transmission lines. The economic power factor is the point at which the economic benefits of adding shunt capacitors just equals the cost of the capacitors. In the past, this economic power factor was around 95%. Today's high plant and fuel costs have pushed the economic power factor toward unity. However, as the corrected power factor moves nearer to unity, the effectiveness of capacitors in improving the power
p

P

~1-2=-0--Qc-~-I"""--t-Q-l--'[ik
1

p

(a)

(b)

FIGURE 8.10

Illustration of power factor correction.

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems

379

factor, decreasing the line kilovoltamperes transmitted, increasing the load capacity, or reducing line copper losses by decreasing the line current sharply decreases. Therefore, the correction of power factor to unity becomes more expensive with regard [0 [he marginal cost of capacitors installed. Table 8.1 is a power factor correction table to simpl ify the calculations involved in delermini ng the capacitor size necessary to improve the power factor of a given load from the original to the desired value. It gives multiplier to determine kvar requirement. It is based on [he following formula: Q

= P(tan e orig =P (

tan e nc ,,)
-I -I

I --12

PFon!!

PF,;cw

1

where Q is the required compensation in kvar, P is the real power in kW, PForig is [he original power factor, and PFnew is the desired power factor. Furthermore, in order to understand how the power factor of a device can be improved one has to understand what is taking place electrically. Consider an induction motor that is being supplied by the real power P and the reactive power Q. The real power P is lost whereas the reactive power Q is not lost. But, instead it is used to store energy in the magnetic field of the motor. Since the current is alternating, the magnetic field undergoes cycles of building up and breaking down. As the field is building up, the reactive current flows from the supply or source to the motor. As the field is breaking down, the reactive current flows out of the motor back to the supply or source. In such application, what is needed is some type of device that can be used as a temporary storage area for the reactive power when the magnetic field of the motor breaks down. The ideal device for this is a capacitor which also stores energy. However, this energy is stored in an electric field. By connecting a capacitor in parallel with the supply line of the load, the cyclic flow of reactive power takes place between the motor and the capacitor. Here, the supply lines carry only the current supplying real power to the motor. This is only applicable for a unity power factor condition. For other power factors, the supply lines would carry some reactive power.
EXAMPLE

8.1

Assume that a 700-kVA load has a 65% power factor. It is desired to improve the power factor to 92%. Using Table 8.1, determine the following:
(a) The correction factor required. (b) The capacitor size required. (c) What would be the resulting power factor if the next higher standard capacitor size is used?

Solution
(a) From Table 8.1, the correction factor required can be found as 0.74. (b) The 700-kVA load at 65% power factor is

PL = SL xcose

= 700xO.65

(8.10)

= 455kW.

eo

w

o

TABLE 8.1

Determination of kW Multiplies to Calculate kvar Requirement for Power Factor Correction
., I Ongma Power Reactive Factor (%) Factor 0.800 0.791 0.785 0.776 0.768 0.759 0.751 0.744 0.733 0.725 0.714 0.704 0.694 0.682 0.673 0.661 0.650 0.637 60 61 62 63 64 65 Correcting Factor Desired Power Factor (%)
80

81 0.610 0.575 0.541 0.509 0.476 0.445 0.414 0.384 0.355 0.325

82 0.636 0.601 0.567 0.535 0.502 0.471 0.440 0.410 0.381 0.351

83 0.662 0.627 0.593 0.561 0.528 0.479 0.466 0.436 0.407 0.377

84 0.688 0.653 0.619 0.587 0.554 0.523 0.492 0.462 0.433 0.403

85 0.714 0.679 0.645 0.613 0.580 0.549 0.518 0.488 0.459 0.429

86 0.741 0.706 0.672 0.640 0.607 0.576 0.545 0.515 0.486 0.456

87 0.767 0.732 0.698 0.666 0.633 0.602 0.571 0.541 0.512 0.482

88

89 0.822 0.787 0.753 0.721 0.688 0.657 0.626 0.596 0.567 0.537 0.508 0.480 0.451 0.424 0.397

90 0.850 0.815 0.781 0.749 0.716 0.685 0.654 0.624 0.595 0.565 0.536 0.508 0.479 0.452 0.425

91 0.878 0.843 0.809 0.777 0.744 0.713 0.682 0.652 0.623 0.593 0.564 0.536 0.507 0.480 0.453

92 0.905 0.870 0.836 0.804 0.771 0.740 0.709 0.679 0.650 0.620 0.591 0.563 0.534 0.507 0.480

93 0.939 0.904 0.870 0.838 0.805 0.774 0.743 0.713 0.684 0.654 0.625 0.597 0.568 0.541 0.514

94 0.971 0.936 0.902 0.870 0.837 0.806 0.775 0.745 0.716 0.686 0.657 0.629 0.600 0.573 0.546

95

96

97

98

99 1.192 1.157 1.123 1.091 1.058 1.027 0.996 0.966 0.937 0.907 0.878 0.850 0.821 0.794 0.767

100

0.584 0.549 0.515 0.483 0.450 0.419 0.388 0.358 0.329 0.299

0.794 0.759 0.725 0.693 0.660 0.629 0.598 0.568 0.539 0.509

1.005 1.043 1.083 1.311 0.970 1.008 1.048 1.096 0.936 0.974 1.014 1.062 0.904 0.942 0.982 1.030 0.871 0.909 0.949 0.997 0.840 0.809 0.779 0.750 0.720 0.691 0.663 0.634 0.607 0.580 0.878 0.847 0.817 0.788 0.758 0.729 0.700 0.672 0.645 0.618 0.918 0.887 0.857 0.828 0.798 0.769 0.741 0.712 0.685 0.658 0.966 0.935 0.905 0.876 0.840 0.811 0.783 0.754 0.727 0.700

1.334 1.299 1.265 1.233 1.200 1.169 1.138 1.108 1.079 1.049 1.020 0.992 0.963 0.936 0.909

m

CD
~ ...., n ~
"'0

o

66 67
68 69 70 71
72

<'D ....,

,...
<J)

o
:!. 0-

73 74 75

0.270 0.296 0.322 0.348 0.374 0.400 0.427 0.453 0.480 0.242 0.268 0.294 0.320 0.346 0.372 0.399 0.425 0.452 0.213 0.239 0.265 0.291 0.317 0.343 0.370 0.396 0.423 0.186 0.212 0.238 0.264 0.290 0.316 0.343 0.369 0.396 0.1590.1850.2110.2370.2630.2890.3160.3420.369

C ,...

'< <J)

:::l Vl

,... <'D 3
m
:::l

76
77

0.132 0.158 0.184 0.210 0.236 0.262 0.289 0.315 0.342 0.370 0.398 0.426 0.453 0.487 0.519 0.553 0.591 0.631 0.673 0.740 0.882 0.105 0.131 0.157 0.183 0.209 0.235 0.262 0.288 0.315 0.343 0.371 0.399 0.426 0.460 0.492 0.526 0.564 0.604 0.652 0.713 0.855 0.079 0.105 0.131 0.157 0.183 0.209 0.236 0.262 0.289 0.317 0.345 0.373 0.400 0.434 0.466 0.500 0.538 0.578 0.620 0.687 0.829

a.3.
:::l

<'D <'D :!.
:::l

CTO

0.626 0.613 0.600 0.588 0.572 0.559 0.543 0.529 0.510 0.497 0.475 0.455 0.443 0.427 0.392 0.386 0.341 0.327 0.280 0.242 0.199 0.137

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

0.053 0.079 0.105 0.131 0.157 0.183 0.210 0.236 0.263 0.291 0.319 0.347 0.374 0.408 0.440 0.474 0.512 0.552 0.594 0.661 0.803 0.026 0.052 0.Q78 0.104 0.130 0.156 0.183 0.209 0.236 0.264 0.292 0.320 0.347 0.381 OAI3 0.447 0.485 0.525 0.567 0.634 0.776 0.000 0.026 0.052 0.Q78 0.000 0.026 0.052 0.000 0.026 0.000 0.104 0.078 0.052 0.026 0.000 0.130 0.104 0.Q78 0.052 0.026 0.157 0.131 0.105 0.079 0.053 0.183 0.157 0.131 0.105 0.079 0.210 0.184 0.158 0.132 0.106 0.238 0.212 0.186 0.160 0.134 0.266 0.240 0.214 0.188 0.162 0.136 0.109 0.083 0.056 0.028 0.294 0.268 0.242 0.216 0.190 0.164 0.137 0.111 0.083 0.055 0.321 0.295 0.269 0.243 0.217 0.191 0.167 0.141 0.113 0.086 0.355 0.387 0.421 0.459 0.499 0.541 0.608 0.329 0.361 0.395 OA33 OA73 0.515 0.528 0.303 0.335 0.369 0.407 0.447 0.489 0.556 0.277 0.309 0.343 0.381 0.421 0.463 0.530 0.251 0.283 0.317 0.355 0.395 0.437 0.504 0.225 0.198 0.172 0.144 0.117 0.257 0.230 0.204 0.176 0.149 0.121 0.093 0.063 0.032 0.000 0.291 0.329 0.265 0.30 I 0.239 0.275 0.211 0.247 0.183 0.221 0.155 0.127 0.097 0.066 0.035 0.193 0.165 0.135 0.104 0.072 0.369 OAI7 0.342 0.390 0.316 0.364 0.288 0.336 0.262 0.309 0.234 0.281 0.206 0.253 0.176 0.223 0.145 0.192 0.113 0.160 0.478 0.451 0.425 0.397 0.370 0.750 0.724 0.698 0.672 0.646 0.620 0.593 0.567 0.540 0.512

u u

»
n ~
:::J

o -.
()

u

0.000 0.027 0.053 0.080 0.108 0.000 0.026 0.053 0.081 0.000 0.027 0.055 0.000 0.028 0.000

o ..., o
<.r.

Q.

"" ""

o
...,
V>

u c

o
:::J
V>

0.000 0.028 0.058 0.089 0.000 0.030 0.061 0.000 0.031 0.000

0.342 0.484 0.314 0.456 0.284 0.426 0.253 0.395 0.221 0.363 0.186 0.150 0.109 0.061 0.000 0.328 0.292 0.251 0.203 0.142

-< V>
V>

Iii
:3

0.000 0.036 0.078 0.125 0.000 0.041 0.089 0.000 0.048 0.000

co

w

....

382

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

The capacitor size necessary to improve the power factor from 65 to 92% can be found as Capacitor size = PL (correlation factor)
= 455(0.74) = 336.7 kvar.

(8.11)

(c) Assume that the next higher standard capacitor size (or rating) is selected to be 360 kvar.

Therefore, the resulting new correction factor can be found from . f standard capacitor rating New correction actor = -----"-----.::::.
PL

360 kvar 455kW = 0.7912.

(8.12)

From the table by linear interpolation, the resulting corrected percent power factor, with an original power factor of 65% and a correction factor of 0.7912, can be found as 172 New corrected % power factor = 93 + - 320 =93.5.

8.4.2

A COMPUTERIZED

METHOD TO DETERMINE THE ECONOMIC POWER FACTOR

As suggested by Hopkinson [3], a load flow digital computer program can be employed to determine the kilovoltamperes, kilovolts, and kilovars at annual peak level for the entire system (from generation through the distribution substation buses) as the power factor is varied. As a start, shunt capacitors are applied to each substation bus for correcting to an initial power factor, for example, 90%. Then, a load flow run is performed to determine the total system kilovoltamperes, and kilowatt losses (from generator to load) at this level and capacitor kilovars are noted. Later, additional capacitors are applied to each substation bus to increase the power factor by 1%, and another load flow run is made. This process of iteration is repeated until the power factor becomes unity. As a final step, the benefits and costs are calculated at each power factor. The economic power factor is determined as the value at which benefits and costs are equal. After determining the economic power factor, the additional capacitor size required can be calculated as (8.13) where ,6.Qc is the required capacitor size (kvar), PPK is the system demand at annual peak (kW), tan cp is the tangent of the original power factor angle, and tan e is the tangent of economic power factor angle. An illustration of this method is given in Example 8.5.

8.S

APPLICATION OF CAPACITORS

In general, capacitors can be applied at almost any voltage level. As illustrated in Figure 8.11, individual capacitor units can be added in parallel to achieve the desired kilovar capacity and can be

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems
A------~----------------~--------------------_.---

383

2

3

n

-----~T
Capacitor
segment 1

Fuse

V

~

I1

_____ ------LL
-----~T
Capacitor
segment 2

____ ------LL
Capacitor
segment m

*

V

I

2

kV

~ ~ ~ 1. 1. 1.

N----~--------------------~----------------------~---

FIGURE 8.11

Connection of capacitor units for one phase of a three-phase wye-connected bank.

added in series to achieve the required kilovolt voltage. They are employed at or near rated voltage for economic reasons. The cumulative data gathered for the entire utility industry indicate that approximately 60% of the capacitors is applied to the feeders, 30% to the substation buses, and the remaining 10% to the transmission system [3]. The application of capacitors to the secondary systems is very rare due to small economic advantages. Zimmerman [4] has developed a nomograph, shown in Figure 8.12, to determine the economic justification, if any, of the secondary capacitors considering only the savings in distribution transformer cost.
EXAMPLE

8.2

Assume that a three-phase 500-hp 60-Hz 4160-V wye-connected induction motor has a full-load efficiency of 88%, a lagging power factor of 0.75, and is connected to a feeder. If it is desired to correct the power factor of the load to a lagging power factor of 0.9 by connecting three capacitors at the load, determine the following:
(a) The rating of the capacitor bank, in kilovars.

(b) The capacitance of each unit if the capacitors are connected in delta, in microfarads.
(c) The capacitance of each unit if the capacitors are connected in wye, in microfarads.

384
0.9
t--

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
1009080706 05

~ r--... t- factor in percent
!--

60-resultant power

0.9
Q;

1"\ ~ l'-. "
1,\ f":::
I\.

~

L" r--...

0.8 0.7

0.8 0.7
tJ)

70

"-

i"
a

II /
,/11
I-

117 II /
II J

I

V I

17

1/
/
/
e,"

II
~"+ e,

f\. 1'\ t-

!"-' t'... 80
c-.

K

'\

.-

·c

0.6
.-

"0

~.g
0

r~ l";:: -

\

'\
r'\

'" " 1\
\
1\
90

0.5

-

~~
~
~

0.6
I-

-- -

.g "6 0.5
"0
Q) Ul '" >

-I.

~f I-~

bf' b( / ./ / V I V
Ifl,L

-/ ' / J

.:,.'If / 'l-' ,..\\"-1-

;':'$J~ '-!:::-?yo/ C)~- c---

0<:- ~

'I !l( Iji

90

0.4
95 0.3 0.2

iE
"6 ;;
o '"

"'"'" "* 13 '"
~ >,Q)

~ e,'v 'i}-0 Lv '/1/ '']7,<'If "'-o'<!!- 17
~
c;

IY

cP'<>

"-

7

0.3

°

C}q

./v

0.4

0.3
0.2 0.1

\
100 \ 50 60 70 80 100

"'"
0.1

II/; 11/ '/ /
~~ . / / ~ :::::- I--

h 'J / VoZ~11 tv VII IJ / / II IrI'"II i(J!, 1/ / ./ Ii vV'
IJ.....- iIt Ii
J--

'/1 /

'<>

']7<:- /'

./

V

0.2

v

../

V'

~

v

0.1

~ 'l' /

.// I

o

o

--

:-r II i Ii Ii

I I~ I--

1.0

1.25 1.50 1.75

2.0

2.25 2.50 2.75

3.0

Initial power factor in percent

Secondary capacitor cost per kvar/primar'J capacitor cost per kvar

FIGURE 8.12 Secondary capacitor economics considering only savings in distribution transformer cost. (From Zimmerman, R. A., AlEE Trans., 72, 1953,694-97. With permission.)

Solution
(a) The input power of the induction motor can be found as

P = (500 hp)(0.7457 kW/hp)

0.88
= 423.69 kW.

The reactive power of the motor at the uncorrected power factor is

Q,

= Ptanel = 423.69 tan(cos- 0.75) = 423,69xO.8819
I

= 373.7 kvar.

The reactive power of the motor at the corrected power factor is Q2

= Ptane2
= 423.69 tan(cos- I 0.90) = 423.69 x 0.4843 = 205.2 kvar.

Therefore, the reactive power provided by the capacitor bank is

Q,. = Q 1 -Q2
=373.7-205.2

= 168.5 kvar.

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems
a------~---------------b------7---~----------c------~--~~--~------

385
a------~----------------

b-------7---4~--------­
c-------0----7---~------

(a)

-

Ie
(b)

FIGURE 8.13

Capacitors connected: (a) in delta and (b) in wye.

Hence, assuming the losses in the capacitors are negligible, the rating of the capacitor bank is ]68.5 kvar. (b) If the capacitors are connected in delta as shown in Figure 8.l3a, the line current is

.J3 .J3
and therefore

X VIA

168.5

x 4.16

23.39 A

I =
c

IL

,,3

r;:;

23.39

.J3
= 13.5 A.

Thus, the reactance of each capacitor is

VL_ L
Ie 4160 13.5 =308.11 Q
and hence the capacitance of each unit, if the capacitors are connected in delta, is

386

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

or

2n x 60 x 308.11 = 8.61 jiF.
(c) If the capacitors are connected in wye as shown in Figure 8.13b,

and therefore

x
C

= V L-N I
C

4160

.J3 x23.39
= 102.70 Q.

Thus, the capacitance of each unit, if the capacitors are connected in wye, is

2n x 60 x 102.70 = 25.82 jiF.
EXAMPLE

8.3

Assume that a 2.4-kV single-phase circuit feeds a load of 360 kW (measured by a wattmeter) at a lagging load factor and the load current is 200 A. If it is desired to improve the power factor, determine the following:
(0)

The uncorrected power factor and reactive load. 300 kvar. Also write the necessary codes to solve the problem in MATLAB.

(b) The new corrected power factor after installing a shunt capacitor unit with a rating of
(c)

SO/lIliO/l

(0)

Before the power factor correction,
SI

= Vx I
= 2.4 x 200

= 480 kVA,

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems therefore the uncorrected power factor can be found as
P cos81 = 51

387

360kW 480 kVA = 0.75 and the reactive load is QI = 51 x sin(cos- I 8 1)
:=: :=:

480xO.661
317.5 kvar.

(b) After the installation of the 300-kvar capacitors,

Q2 :=:QI-Qc
:=:

317.5 -300 17.5 kvar

=

and therefore, the new power factor can be found from Equation 8.9 as cos82

:=: - - - - - - - : : ; ; -

P

[p2 +(QI_Qj
360 (360 + 17.5 2 )112
2
:=:

0.9989 or 99.89%.

(c) Here is the MATLAB script:

clc clear

% System parameters
V 2.4;

I :=: 200; P = 360; Qc :=: 300;

% Solution for part a
% Before the PF correction, the apparent power in kVA Sl = V*I

% Uncorrected power factor PF1 :=: P/S1

388
% Reactive load in kvar Ql = Sl*sin(acos(P/Sl))

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

% Solution for part b

% After installing capacitor bank
Q2

=

Ql - Qc

% New power factor A PF2 = P/sqrt(p 2 + (Ql - QC)A 2 )
EXAMPLE

8.4

Assume that the Riverside Substation of the NL&NP Company has a bank of three 2000-kVA transformers that supplies a peak load of 7800 kVA at a lagging power factor of 0.89. All three transformers have a thermal capability of 120% of the nameplate rating. It has already been planned to install 1000 kvar of shunt capacitors on the feeder to improve the voltage regulation. Determine the following:
(a) Whether or not to install additional capacitors on the feeder to decrease the load to the

thermal capability of the transformer.
(b) The rating of the additional capacitors.

Solution
(a) Before the installation of the 1000-kvar capacitors,

P = SI xcose

= 7800xO.89 =6942 kW and

QI = SI xsine
= 7800 x 0.456

= 3556.8 kvar.

Therefore, after the installation of the 1000-kvar capacitors,

Q" = QI -Q,
=

3556.8 -1000

= 2556.8 kvar

and using Equation 8.9, cose,
=--------

P

- [P" +(QI-Q.)"
= 0.938 or 93.8%

6942 (6942" + 2556.8")""

Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems

389

and the corrected apparent power is S, -

=-~
cos 0z 6942 0.938 = 7397.9 kVA.

On the other hand, the transformer capability is
ST = 6000 x 1.20
= 7200 kVA.

Therefore, the capacitors installed to improve the voltage regulation are not adequate; additional capacitor installation is required. (b) The new or corrected power factor required can be found as

PF2. new =cosO = . 2. new ST

P

6942 7200 = 0.9642 or 96.42% and thus the new required reactive power can be found as
QZ.ncw

= P x tan 02. new = Pxtan(cos- PF2. ncw )
=
I

6942xO.2752

= 1910 kvar.

Therefore, the rating of the additional capacitors required is

= 2556.8-1910
= 646.7 kvar.
EXAMPLE

8.5

If a power system has 10,000 kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0.7 and the cost of a synchronous capacitor (i.e., synchronous condenser) to correct the power factor is $10 per kVA, find the investment required to correct the power factor to:
(a) 0.85 lagging power factor. (b) Unity power factor.

Solution At original cost:
00ld

= COS-I PF = COS-I 0.7 = 45.57°

390

Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

POld Qold

= SCOS8old = (I 0,000 kYA)0.7 = 7000kW = Ssin80ld = (lO,000kYA)sin45.57° = 7141.43 kvar.

(a) For PF = 0.85 lagging:

Pnew S

= POld = 7000kW
Pnew

(as before)

new

=

cos8new

= 7000 kW = 8235.29 kY A
0.85

Qnew Qc

= Snew sin(cos- I PF) = (8235.29 kYA)sin(cos- 1 0.85) = 4338.21 kvar
Qnew

= Qrequired = Qold -

= 7141.43 -

4338.21 = 2803.22 kvar correction needed.

Hence, the theoretical cost of the synchronous capacitor is Costcapacilor = (2803.22 kYA)($lO/kYA)

= $28,032.20.

Note that it is customary to give the cost of capacitors in dollars per kYA rather than in dollars per kvar. (b) For PF = 1.0: Qc = Qrequired = Qold - Qnew = 7141.43 - 0.0 = 7141.43 kvar. Thus, the theoretical cost of the synchronous capacitor is CostcapaCilOr = (7141.43 kYA)($lO/kYA) = $71,414.30. Note that P new = 7000 kW the same as before.
EXAMPLE

8.6

If a power system has 15,000 kYA capacity, operating at a 0.65 lagging power factor and cost of
synchronous capacitors to correct the power factor is $12.5/kYA, determine the costs involved and also develop a table showing the required (leading) reactive power to increase the power factor to:
(a) 0.85 lagging power factor. (b) 0.95 lagging power factor. (c) Unity power factor.

Solution
At original power factor or 0.65:

= S cos 8 = (15,000 kY A)0.65 = 9750 kW at a power factor angle of 49.46 Q = S sin 8 = (15,000 kY A)sin(cos- ' 0.65) = 11,399 kvar.
P

The following table shows the amount of reactive power that is required to improve the power factor from one level to the next at 0.05 increments.

65 0.399 kvar.85 ' 470 kV A and Q = S sin e= (11.75 0. s= p cose = 9750 kW = II 0.70 0.95) = 3204 kvar.50. The amount of additional reactive power correction required is Additional var correction = 11. It will be the same at a power factor of 0.000 12.250 15.399 (a) For PF = 0. .263 kVA) sin (COS-I 0. S = 9750 kW = 10263 kV A 0.250 12.90 0. The cost of this correction is Cost of correction = (S195 kVA)($12.399 10.S5) = 6042 kvar.399 .000 687 790 922 1098 1364 1854 4684 687 1477 2399 3497 4861 6715 11.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 391 Power Factor P(kW) Q (kvar) 11.S5.500 11.95 ' and Q = (10.962.470 kVA) sin(cos-10.712 9922 9000 7902 6538 4684 0 Q to Correct from Next Lower Power Factor (kvar) Cumulative Q Required for Correction (kvar) 0.500 14. The cost of this correction is Cost of correction (b) For PF = 0.00 9750 10.85 0.43S.S5 lagging: p= s cos e= (15.000 kVA) x 0.3204 = SI95 kvar.399 .5/kVA) (c) For unity power factor: = $102.750 13. The amount of additional reactive power correction required is Additional var correction = 11. The amount of additional reactive power correction required is Additional var correction = 11.65 = 9750 kW.6042 = 5357 kvar.95 lagging: = (5357 kVA)($12.5/kVA) = $66.80 0.95 1.

.14 illustrates the effects of a fixed capacitor on the voltage profiles of a feeder with uniformly distributed load at heavy and light loads. (b) Maximum allowable voltage limit -------------.. the maximum sizes used are about 1800 kvar at IS kV and 3600 kvar at higher voltage levels... capacitors installed on feeders are pole-top banks with necessary group fusing.14 The effects of a fixed capacitor on the voltage profile of: (a) feeder with uniformly distributed load.5/kVA) = $142.. If only fixed-type capacitors are installed. Figure 8... 1.---i I I .Minimum allowable voltage limit Without capacitor V min (l) +.0 pu (c) FIGURE 8. as 01--. Usually. and (c) at light load....0 pu . V max VP. (b) at heavy load.:=. 1 0 Feeder length 1.1 CAPACITOR INSTALLATION TYPES In general. 8..pu Maximum allowable voltage limit Rated voltage Vmin (l) Minimum allowable voltage limit Without capacitor .5...g:J OJ '0 > ro &: >.50.. Therefore.399 kVA)($12.-1--'-1-'-1-""""1-'-1--'-1""'--1-'-'--l (a) .pu ______________ ~ ___ J ......g:J OJ §! ~ E ro >.==---=..-! I A '-----'ll~l I Vmax Vp.392 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering The cost of this correction is Cost of correction = (11..487.. utilities do not install more than four capacitor banks (of equal sizes) on each feeder. The fusing applications restrict the size of the bank that can be used. . E 1 0 I I I I I I Feeder length .--g:::-~--...

: 0 a. some of the capacitors are installed as switched capacitor banks so that they can be switched off during light load conditions. as shown in Figure 8. 1000 ai (l) U ro a: (l) > 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 2 Midnight 4 6 8 10 12 Noon Time 2 6 Midnight FIGURE 8.15. . the utility will experience an excessive leading power factor and voltage rise at that feeder.. However. A system survey is required in choosing the type of capacitor installation. the fixed capacitors are sized for light load and connected permanently.e.-----------------------------------------~ 1300 . in practice. This curve is called the reactive load duration curve and is the cumulative 2000. the number of steps or blocks is selected to be much less than the ones shown in the Figure due to the additional expenses involved in the installation of the required switchgear and control equipment.14c.15 Sizing of the fixed and switched capacitors to meet the daily reactive power demands.. As a result of load flow program runs or manual load studies on feeders or distribution substations. Thus.15. the switched capacitors can be switched as a block or in several consecutive steps as the reactive load becomes greater from light load level to peak load and sized accordingly. the system's lagging reactive loads (i. power demands) can be determined and the results can be plotted on a curve as shown in Figure 8.>:: > ro 1100 . Therefore.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 393 can be observed in Figure 8. As shown in the Figure.

since meeting the kilovar demands of the system from the generator is too expensive and may create problems in the system stability.15) However. Qc. x is the line reactance (D/mi).394 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering sum of the reactive loads (e.15 one can determine that the size of the fixed capacitors required is 600 kvar...::--_ Q xxx! L IOxvL (8. the kilovars needed to raise the voltage at the end of the feeder to the maximum allowable voltage level at minimum load (25% of peak load) is the size of the fixed capacitors that should be used. kvar. and motors) of consumers and the reactive power requirements of the system (e. 1~ xxi L-I. The percent voltage rise can also be found from %VR == xxx! IOXV1A (8. kvar of peak reactive feeder load (8. The approximate value of the percent voltage rise can be calculated from % VR == ----'. if more than one capacitor bank is installed. ! is the length of the feeder from the sending end of the feeder to the fixed capacitor location (mi). Many utilities apply the following rule of thumb to determine the size of the switched capacitors: add switched capacitors until kvar from switched + fixed capacitors ~ 0. the maximum value of the fixed capacitors can be determined from Max Q == 10(% VR)V 2 i~ l •.70. 3¢ is the three-phase reactive power due to fixed capacitors applied (kvar). The remaining kilovar demands of the loads are met by the generator or preferably by the switched capacitors.3:.g. For example. household appliances. Capacitor sizes are selected to match the remaining load characteristics from hour-to-hour... fluorescent lights. then by visual inspection of the curve the size of the fixed capacitors can be determined to meet the minimum reactive load. On the other hand. I f the fixed capacitors are applied to the end of the feeder and if the percent voltage rise already determined.17) where I == ( J3 X V Q.g. that is.. kvar of load center kvar of total feeder kV A of load center kV A of total feeder (8. the size of each capacitor bank at each location should have the same proportion.14) From the voltage regulation point of view. transformers and regulators).3q'J L L (8.16) where % VR is the percent voltage rise.l9~ .18) == current drawn by the fixed capacitor bank. (8. However. and V L _ L is the line-to-Iine voltage (kV).:. the resultant voltage rise must not exceed the light load voltage drop. from Figure 8. Once the daily reactive load duration curve is obtained. capacitors are used.::.-¢_.

voltage. 5. voltage-current. and voltage-current control. 4. Telephone interference considerations. The most popular types are the time-switch control. the single-phase distribution transformers on four-wire systems may be damaged. System type. the total percent voltage rise can be calculated as I%VR = %VR NSW +%VR sw (S. Therefore. and it usually turns out to be the last one-third of the feeder away from the source. The type of connection used depends upon: 1. feeder sections beyond a sectionalizing fuse or single-phase recloser. Some combinations of these controls are also used to follow the reactive load duration curve more closely.3 TYPES OF THREE-PHASE CAPACITOR BANK CONNECTIONS A three-phase capacitor bank on a distribution feeder can be connected in (i) delta. 8. ungrounded-wye capacitor banks are not recommended under the following conditions: 1. Once the kilovars of capacitors necessary for the system is determined. the location of the switched capacitors is basically determined by the voltage regulation requirements. Manual control (at the location or as remote control) can be employed at distribution substations. that is whether it is. The intelligence types that can be used in automatic control include time-switch. Some utilities use the following rule of thumb: The total amount offixed and switched capacitors for a feeder is the amount necessary to raise the receiving-endfeeder voltage to a maximum at 50% of peak feeder load. voltage-time. As a result of this condition. a grounded or an ungrounded system 2. On On On On feeders with single-phase breaker operation at the sending end. there remains only the question of proper location. A resonance condition may occur in delta and ungrounded-wye (floating neutral) banks when there is a one. fixed capacitor banks. 8. Fusing requirements 3. Therefore. The rule of thumb for locating the fixed capacitors on feeders with uniformly distributed loads is to locate them approximately at two-thirds of the distance from the substation to the end of the feeder. voltage control. or (iii) ungrounded-wye.5.16.16 and 8. On feeders with light load where the minimum load per phase beyond the capacitor bank does not exceed 150% of the per phase rating of the capacitor bank.5.or two-line open-type fault that occurs on the source side of the capacitor bank due to the maintained voltage on the open phase which backfeeds any transformer located on the load side of the open conductor through the series capacitor. (ii) groundedwye.2 TYPES OF CONTROlS FOR SWITCHED SHUNT CAPACITORS The switching process of capacitors can be performed by manual control or by automatic control using some type of control intelligence. fixed capacitors are located approximately halfway out on the feeder. 3. The timeswitch control is the least expensive one. % VR NSW is the percent voltage rise due to fixed (or nonswitched) capacitors. current. On the other hand. and % VRsw is the percent voltage rise due to switched capacitors. Capacitor bank location 4. as illustrated in Figure S.20) where L % VR is the total percent voltage rise. once the percent voltage rises due to both fixed and switched capacitors are found.17 can also be used to calculate the percent voltage rise due to the switched capacitors. feeders with emergency load transfers. . 2. and temperature. For the uniformly decreasing loads.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 395 Equations 8.

.:..:.:.. 3.:.:.. capacitor .:..:..:.....:.. Telephone interferences can be minimized.:..:.:..:.. Meeting the reactive power requirements with fixed.:... 600 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 400 300 200 100 0 0 Midnight 2 4 6 8 10 12 Noon Time 2 4 6 8 10 12 Midnight FIGURE 8..:..:.:...:.....:...:.:. and time-control However....:.:.. Usually.:. if a grounded-wye capacitor bank is used on a three-phase three-wire ungroundedwye or delta system. it furnishes a ground current source which may disturb sensitive ground relays.:. the ungrounded-wye capacitor banks are recommended if one or more of the following conditions exist: 1. grounded-wye capacitor banks are used only on four-wire three-phase primary systems.. 2.:.:.:.:..:.:.:.:.396 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering l< 1100 :u 1200 a5 s: 0 t5 «1 a: Q) c- 1000 > O> .:.. Capacitor bank installation can be made with two single-phase switches rather than with three single-pole switches.:. 0.... Excessive harmonic currents in the substation neutral can be precluded...: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 800 rrrrt ~~~~h~.. .:..16 capacitors.tttt~ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ..:..:..~ ....:.:....:....:... Otherwise. voltage-control. :.:.:.

from the voltage regulation point of view. 2. losses and loadings are reduced in distribution lines. and protective equipment) has to be increased in size accordingly.21) (S.6. Additional advantages in distribution system. the current reduction in transformer and distribution equipment and lines reduces the load on these kilovoltampere-limited apparatus and consequently delays the new facility installations. Active power has to be generated at power plants.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 397 8. Released generation capacity.22) Qc xsine . The methods used by the utilities to determine the economic benefits derived from the installation of capacitors vary from companyto-company. 8. In general. As a result. (a) (b) (c) (d) Reduced energy (copper) losses. the installation of capacitors can increase generator and substation capability for additional load by at least 30% and can increase individual circuit capability. Released transmission capacity. It is a well-known fact that shunt power capacitors are the most economical sources to meet the reactive power requirements of inductive loads and transmission lines operating at a lagging power factor. Depending on the uncorrected power factor of the system.1 BENEFITS DUE TO RELEASED GENERATION CAPACITY The released generation capacity due to the installation of capacitors can be calculated approximately from L1SG - _ {[(l.e. generators. 3.Q: X~OS2 e)112 SG +=--xsine -1]SG SG (S. whereas reactive power can be provided by either power plants or capacitors. It is a well-known rule of thumb that the optimum amount of capacitor kilovars to emplov is always the amount at which the economic benefits obtained from the addition of the last kilovar exactly equals the installed cost of the kilovars of capacitors. Postponement or elimination of capital expenditure due to system improvements and/ or expansions. Released capacity of feeder and associated apparatus. 4. Released distribution substation capacity. Reduced voltage drop and consequently improved voltage regulation. transformers. When reactive power is provided only by power plants. substation transformers. (e) Revenue increase due to voltage improvements. switchgear. but the determination of th~ total installed cost of a kilovar of capacitors is easy and straightforward. each system component (i. Capacitors can mitigate these conditions by decreasing the reactive power demand all the way back to the generators. the ecomonic benefits force capacitor banks to be installed on the primary distribution system rather than on the secondary. transmission and distribution lines. the economic benefits that can be derived from capacitor installation can be summarized as: 1.. Line currents are reduced from capacitor locations all the way back to the generation equipment. by approximately 30-100%.6 ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR CAPACITORS Loads on electric utility systems include two components: active power (measured in kilowatts) and reactive power (measured in kilovars). Furthermore. In general. and transmission lines.

1 OST when Qc ::.Q. (3) taxes (includ· ing amount paid currently and amounts deferred to future years).2 X C 0S 2 e )112 + Q. the annual benefits due to the released transmission capacity can be found as (8. Note that the symbol SI now stands for transmission capacity rather than transformer capacity. xST L'lST Qc xsine 2 C 0S 2 e)il2 + Qc x sin e -lj" ST ST when Qc > 0.25) where 6ST is the released transmission capacityt beyond maximum transmission capacity at original power factor (kVA) and ST is the transmission capacity (kVA).24) (8.IOSs Ss (8.6.27) (8. CGis the cost of (peaking) generation ($/kW).26) where L'l$T is the annual benefits due to released transmission capacity ($/yr).xsine ·1· Also called carryil1g charge roll'.1 OSs whenQ. 6SG is the released generation capacity beyond maximum generation capacity at original power factor (kVA).3 BENEFITS DUE TO RELEASED DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION CAPACITY The released distribution substation capacity due to the installation of capacitors can be found approximately from L'lSs - _j[(l 2 1. the annual benefits due to the released generation capacity can be expressed as (8.lOST (8.::.Q. and iG is the annual fixed charge rate* applicable to generation. (4) insurance.28) Q.6. 8. and iT is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to transmission. and (5) operations and maintenance.398 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where 6SG is the released generation capacity beyond maximum generation capacity at original power factor (kVA). 8. Thus.23) where L'l$G is the annual benefits due to released generation capacity ($/yr). (2) book depreciation. Qc is the reactive power due to corrective capacitors applied (kvar). 6ST is the released transmission capacity beyond maximum transmission capacity at original power factor (kVA). x sin e -I]SS Ss when Q. Therefore. O. SG is the generation capacity (kVA). > 0. and cos eis the original (or uncorrected or old) power factor before application of capacitors. It is expressed as a decimal.2 BENEFITS DUE TO RELEASED TRANSMISSION CAPACITY The released transmission capacity due to the installation of capacitors can be calculated approximatelyas _1([(1. CT is the cost of transmission line and associated apparatus ($/kVA).O. Total carrying charges include: (I) return (on equity and debt). . It is defined as that portion of the annual revenue requirements which results from a plant investment.

QL. The conserved energy can be expressed as ~ACE R(2S L . which results in improved voltage regulation. 3". 8. x is the line reactance (O/mi). . three-phase load (kYA).32 is the basis for the application of the capacitors. and consequently both IR and IX L voltage drops are decreased. R is the total line resistance to the load center (Q). r is the line resistance (O/mi).4 BENEFITS DUE TO REDUCED ENERGY LOSSES The annual energy losses are reduced as a result of decreasing copper losses due to the installation of capacitors.29) where ~$s is the annual benefits due to the released substation capacity ($/yr). 31/> is the three-phase reactive power due to corrective capacitors applied (kvar). the annual benefits due to the conserved energy can be calculated as e ~$ACE = ~ACE x EC (8. Therefore.6. uncorrected. The effective line current is reduced. Therefore.5 BENEFITS DUE TO REDUCED VOlTAGE DROPS The following advantages can be obtained by the installation of capacitors into a circuit: 1. l is the length of conductors (mi).3'" y y JOOOxVL L 3'" )8760 y (8. and VL _ L is the line-to-line voltage (kV). After the application of the capacitors. is the three-phase load (kVA).30) where ~ACE is the annual conserved energy (kWh/yr). sin is the sine of original (uncorrected) power factor angle. Qc. 8. the voltage drops due to .6. 3'" sin 8 .Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 399 where ~Ss is the released distribution substation capacity beyond maximum substation capacity at original power factor (kYA) and Ss is the distribution substation capacity (kYA).Q" = Q. and VL _ L is the line-to-line voltage (kV). that is. The voltage drop that can be calculated from Equation 8.32) where % YD is the percent voltage drop. The percent voltage drop that occurs in a given circuit can be expressed as SL 31/> (rcos 8 + xsin 8)l %YD=' 2 lOxVL _ L (8. The power factor improvement further decreases the effect of reactive line voltage drop. 2. 31/> is the original. the system yields a voltage rise due to the improved power factor and the reduced effective line current. C s is the cost of substation and associated apparatus ($/kYA). SL. !15's is the released substation capacity (kYA). and is is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to the substation..31) where ~ACE is the annual benefits due to conserved energy ($/yr) and EC is the cost of energy ($/kWh). Hence the annual benefits due to the released substation capacity can be calculated as (8..

!. energy consumption for lighting increases as the square of the voltage. xsin e + TCOSe (S. feeder capacity is restricted by allowable voltage drop rather than by thermal limitations (as seen in Chapter 4). 8. this additional feeder capacity can be calculated as AS = F (Qc. Without including the released regulator or substation capacity.33) Furthermore. The increased energy consumption depends on the nature of the apparatus used. C F is the cost of the installed feeder ($/kVA).6. The approximate value of the percent voltage rise along the line can be calculated as % VR = _c-. and iF is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to the feeder. Table S.7 FINANCIAL BENEFITS DUE TO VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT The revenues to the utility are increased as a result of increased kilowatt-hour energy consumption due to the voltage rise produced on a system by the addition of the corrective capacitor banks. Therefore. ST. For example.¢_::--_ Q xxxi lOxvL L (S.6. This is especially true for residential feeders. and X T is the percent transformer reactance (approximately equal to transformer's nameplate impedance). As an example.3¢ )x k V A.3.. It is independent of load and power factors of the line and can be expressed as (8. an additional voltage rise phenomenon through every transformer from the generating source to the capacitors occurs due to the application of capacitors. the annual benefits due to the released feeder capacity can be calculated as (S. AS F is the released feeder capacity (kVA).3CP is the total three-phase transformer rating (kVA).-. the installation of capacitors decreases the voltage drop and consequently increases the feeder capacity.34) where %VR T is the percent voltage rise through the transformer.2 gives the additional kilowatt-hour energy increase (in percent) as a function of the ratio of the average voltage after the addition of capacitors to the average voltage before the addition of capacitors (based on a typical load diversity).36) where ~$F is the annual benefits due to released feeder capacity ($/yr).400 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering IR and IXL are minimized.35) Therefore. Thus the increase in revenues due to the increased kilowatt-hour energy consumption can be calculated as ~$BEC = ~BEC x BEC x EC (S.6 BENEFITS DUE TO RElEASED FEEDER CAPACITY In general. 8.37) .

capacitors can provide the utility industry with a very effective cost-reduction instrument. before t.15 1. To improve the power factor to 98%.kWh Increase (%) 0 8 16 25 34 43 52 1. With plant costs and fuel costs continually increasing. and ic is the annual fixed charge rate applicable to capacitors.38) The total benefits obtained from Equation 8. and the results are summarized in Table 8. after YaY.00 1.38 should be compared against the annual equivalent of the total cost of the installed capacitor banks.3. the total benefits due to the installation of capacitor banks can be summarized as L 6$ = (demand reduction) + (energy reduction) + (revenue increase) = (6$G + 6$T + 6$s + 6$F)+ 6$ACE + 6$BEC- (8. 8.39) where 6EICc is the annual equivalent of total cost of installed capacitor banks ($/yr).25 1.30 where 6$BEC is the additional annual revenue due to increased kWh energy consumption ($/yr).20 1. [3]. 6Qc is the required amount of capacitor bank additions (kvar). ICc is the cost of installed capacitor banks ($/kvar). The total cost of the installed capacitor banks can be found from (8. Today.8 TOTAL FINANCIAL BENEFITS DUE TO CAPACITOR INSTALLATIONS Therefore. . electric utilities benefit whenever new plant investment can be deferred or eliminated and energy requirements reduced. Thus.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 401 TABLE 8. utilities in the United States have approximately 1 kvar of power capacitors installed for every 2 kW of installed generation capacity in order to take advantage of the economic benefits involved [5].2 Additional kWh Energy Increase After Capacitor Addition YaY.10 1. 'Based on Ref. capacitors aid in minimizing operating expenses and allow the utilities to serve new loads and customers with a minimum system investment. a number of load flow runs are made. 6BEC is the additional kWh energy consumption increase. In summary. EXAMPLE 8. and BEC is the original (or base) annual kWh energy consumption (kWh/yr).6.05 1.7* Assume that a large power pool is presently operating at 90% power factor. It is desired to improve the power factor to 98%.

(b) The resulting additional savings in kilowatt losses at the 98% power factor when some capacitors are applied to feeders.771 22.3.75/kvar. in dollars per year.213.771 . (0 The total annual cost of the additional capacitors. the system loss factor is 0.856 kW. Determine the following: (a) The resulting additional savings in kilowatt losses at the 98% power factor when all capaci- tors are applied to substation buses. in dollars per year. average demand cost is $250/kW. and an average capacitor cost is $4. U) The total net annual savings.342 = 10.9 for capacitors installed on the substation buses and on feeders.506. (c) The total additional savings in kilowatt losses. the resulting additional savings in kilowatt losses due to the power factor improvement at the substation buses is I1PLS (b) From Table 8.7 Comment At 90% Power Factor At 98% Power Factor Total loss reduction due to capacitors applied to substation buses (kW) Additional loss reduction due to capacitors applied to feeders (kW) Total demand reduction due to capacitors applied to substation buses and feeders (kVA) Total required capacitor additions at buses and feeders (kvar) 495.429 = 13. energy cost is $0. (h) The total annual savings due to the energy loss reduction. = 495. (g) The annual savings due to the additional released transmission capacity.810.297 Assume that the average fixed charge rate is 0.3 for feeders.402 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 8. in dollars per year.17.20.3 For Example 8. respectively.738 = 3427 kW.75. (e) The additional capacitors required. in kilovars.165 - 491. I1P LS = 85. the total additional kilowatt savings is I1P LS = 3427 + 10. if) The total annual savings in demand reduction due to additional capacitors applied to sub- station buses and feeders. (c) Therefore.0 and 0. . in dollars per year.141 491.172. in dollars per year.007 9. Use rcsponsibility factors of 1.738 75. (d) The additional savings in the system kilovoltampere capacity.616 4.342 21.045/kWh. (k) Is the 98% power factor the economic power factor? Solution (a) From Table 8.165 85.429 kW.

141 .350/yr and due to capacitors applied to feeders is (10. (g) The annual savings due to the additional released transmission capacity is (1.655/yr.9)($250/kW)(0.17)($0. Therefore. $640. the additional kilowatt savings due to capacitors applied to the feeders is more than three times that of capacitors applied to the substation buses.20/yr) ::: $5.297 ::: 5. since the total net annual savings is not zero.429 kW)(0.002::: $3.200.007 . (j) The total annual savings is summation of the savings in demand. (e) From Table 8.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 403 As can be observed.391 kVA)($27/kVA)(0.75/kvar)(0.3. the total annual savings in demand reduction is $171.172.305/yr.391 kVA.002/yr. .213. the additional capacitors required are L'lQc::: 9.3. (d) From Table 8.769. (h) The total annual savings due to the energy loss reduction is ($13.4.512 .333. This is due to the fact that power losses are larger at the lower voltages.333.596.20/yr) ::: $171.21.317.317. (j) The annual savings in demand reduction due to capacitors applied to distribution substa- tion buses is approximately (3427 kW)(l.452.655 + $7.20/yr) ::: $7.856 kW)(8760 hr/yr)(0.596. the additional savings in the system kilovoltampere capacity is Msys::: 22. capacity.305 ::: $640.510/yr. (i) The total annual cost of the additional capacitors is (5.350 + $469.5466::: $8.311 + $928.616 ::: 1.045/kWh) ::: $928.844 kvar.O)($250/kW)(O.20/yr) ::: $469.31l/yr.512/yr. (k) No.$5.769.844 kvar)($4. Therefore the total net annual savings is $8.810.546/yr.506. and energy.200.

multiply this correction factor by the total kilowatts of the feeder circuit. kilowatts. then use engineering judgment to locate them for the most effective voltage control appl ication.e. 5. (c) Feeder circuit voltage. 4. Repeat this process for all loads and line sections and add them to find the total inductive line loss. the correction factor) necessary to correct the feeder circuit power factor from the original to the desired power factor. . 2. multiply individual load or groups of loads by their respective reactive factors that can be found from Table 8..1. then the capacitors are installed at the location of mini mum loss. From Table 8. kilovars. (d) A feeder circuit map which shows locations of loads and presently existing capacitor banks. perform the same calculations as in step 6. but this time subtract the capacitive line loss from the total inductive line loss. 6. To determine the kilovars on the line. 8. The general iteration process involved is summarized in the following steps: 1. 7. (b) Desired corrected power of circuit. Determine the kilowatt load of the feeder and the power factor. (a) 9. Develop a nomograph to determine the line loss in watts per thousand feet due to the inductive loads tabulated in steps 4 and 5. (b) If this quotient is still greater than the line section length. If this quotient is greater than the line section length Divide the remaining inductive line loss by capacitive line loss in the next line section to find the location. To determine the kilovars of capacitors required. Determine the individual kilovoltamperes and power factor for each load or group of loads. the best location for capacitors can be found by optimizing power loss and voltage regulation. To find the distance to capacitor location.1. Prepare a voltage profile by hand calculations or by using a computer program for voltage pro/i Ie and load analysis to determine the circuit voltages.404 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 8. In the case of having presently existing capacitors on the feeder. 3. Collect the following circuit and load information: (a) Any two of the following for each load: kilovoltamperes.7 A PRACTICAL PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE BEST CAPACITOR LOCATION In general. Use the capacitor kilovars determined in step 3 and the nomograph developed for step 6 and find the line loss in each line section due to capacitors. and load power factor. A feeder voltage profile study is performed to warrant the most effective location for capacitors and the determination of a voltage which is within recommended limits. If the profile shows that the voltages are inside the recommended limits. Usually. a 2-V rise on circuits used in urban areas and a 3-V rise on circuits used in rural areas are approximately the maximum voltage changes that are allowed when a switched capacitor bank is placed into operation. repeat step 8a. determine the kilovars per kilowatts of load (i. Multiply these line losses by their respective line lengths in thousands of feet. Ir not. divide total inductive line loss by capacitive line loss per thousand feet.

Q) ~ U !\l . Since losses due to the in-phase or active component of the line current are not signficantly affected by the application of shunt capacitors.0 pu C Q :s g.J OJ !\l 12 a:: I. namely: (i) those due to the in-phase or active component of the current and (ii) those due to the out-of-phase or reactive component of the current.. it can be shown that (8. Maxwell [1. the loss reduction as a result of the capacitor addition can be found as (8.17 shows a realistic representation of a feeder which contains a number of line segments with a combination of concentrated (or lumped sum) and uniformly distributed loads. For the sake of convenience.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 405 8. Bae [ lSI... the load or line current and the resulting 12R loss can be assumed to have two components... [21-24]. Figure 8. voltage regulators. Hence (8.40) After adding a shunt capacitor with current Ie' the resultants are a new line current 11 and a new power loss JI2 R. they are not considered.. and reactive current profi Ie before adding capacitor..9]. Schmill r 11]. Each line segment represents a part of the feeder between sectionalizing devices.. as suggested by Chang [13]. Cook [10].17 Primary feeder with lumped-sum (or concentrated) and uniformly distributed loads.41) Therefore.J !\l Q) Primary feeder Lumped-sum load 1= 1. "" Uniformly distributed load "0 . Chang [12-14]. or other points of significance... are caused by a lagging line current 1 flowing through the circuit resistance R.' . Gonen and Djavashi [17]. . ..42) I. This can be verified as follows. - Dr r r r r! II r r r r ~ ' .8 A MATHEMATICAL PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM CAPACITOR ALLOCATION The optimum application of shunt capacitors on distribution feeders to reduce losses has been studied in numerous papers such as those by Neagle and Samson [7]... Therefore. Assume that the J2R losses.. and Grainger et al. FIGURE 8.. Schmidt [8].0 pu length x 'iii 'e:: c 0 -I dx 1.

Therefore. 8. II is the reactive current at the beginning of the feeder segment.17.43) Thus only the out-of-phase or reactive component of line current.48) or substituting Equations 8.45) x=o where P LS is the total J2R loss of the feeder before adding the capacitor.46) or (8. R is the total resistance of the feeder segment.0 dPLS 1. the differential J2 R loss of a dx differential segment located at a distance x can be expressed as (8.406 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering or by substituting Equations 8.47) Thus. the loss equation after adding one capacitor bank can be found as before. as shown in Figure 8.49) . that is.45 and 8.0 per unit (pu) length. Assume that the length of a feeder segment is 1. (8.0 [II -(/1 .40 and 8.8. and x is the pu distance from the beginning of the feeder segment. the pu power loss reduction as a result of adding one capacitor bank can be found from !1P PIS -PI'S = ----=P I.44) Therefore. The current profile of the line current at any given point on the feeder is.I 2)x]2 R dx (8. (8.42. the total J2R loss of the feeder can be found as PLS = = f 3f x=o 1. I sin e. modifies the reactive current profile. as shown in Figure 8.18. should be taken into account for J2R loss reduction as a result of a capacitor addition.1 Loss REDUCTION DUE TO CAPACITOR ALLOCATION Case 1: One Capacitor Bank. and consequently reduces the loss.48. The insertion of one capacitor bank on the primary feeder causes a break in the continuity of the reactive load profile. Therefore.S L~ (8.46 into Equation 8. 12 is the reactive current at the end of the feeder segment.41 into Equation 8. (8. a function of the distance of that point from the beginning end of the feeder.

18 or rearranging Equation 8..50) If c is defined as the ratio of the capacitive kilovoltamperes (ckVA) of the capacitor bank to the total reactive load.... A= --------------=--- Reactive current at the end of the line segment Reactive current at the beginning of the line segment (8. that is.52) and if A is defined as the ratio of the reactive current at the end of the line segment to the reactive current at the beginning of the line segment.--current profile Loss reduction with one capacitor bank.53) .. ~ ______ ~ New -----.51) (8. c= then -----~------- ckV A of capacitor installed total reactive load (8.------ L FIGURE 8.(/1 -/2)x ______ ~ Previous ___ --.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 407 Uniformly distributed load Lumped-sum load 1 .1= 1...Ic /1 ______~.0 pu I I i1 = i-/c =11 ...0 pu length ....49 by dividing its numerator and denominator by IT so that (8./ / ~--------X1----------~ / ~r-----------l ~O I I I 1..(/1 - 1 2 )x . current profile ___ --1= 1 1 . that is....

Table 8.5. however.0 pu).50. assume that the load on the line segment is uniformly distributed and the desired compensation ratio is 0. The associated loss reduction is 0. Capacitor compensation ratio 3.54) Therefore. it can be observed that the maximum loss reduction can be achieved by locating the single capacitor bank at the two-thirds length of the feeder away from the source. the loss reduction would be less than the 85%.58) Figures 8. concentrated or lumped-sum loads (.t = 0). uniformly distributed loads (. the following factors must be known: 1.t + . In other words.56 can also be expressed as (8.23 give the loss reduction that can be accomplished by changing the location of a single capacitor bank with any given size for different capacitor compensation ratios along the feeder for different representative load patterns.55) or (8. there is only one location for any any given size of the capacitor bank to achieve the maximum loss reduction.t2. From the table.t = 0). Original losses due to reactive current 2. substituting Equations 8.54 into Equation 8. or a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (0 < . .19.52 and 8. If the bank is located anywhere else on the feeder.57) then Equation 8. To use these nomographs for a given case. If a is defined as the reciprocal of 1 + .t < I).85 pu or 85%.19 through 8. From Figure 8. for example.t = 1). (8.4 gives the optimum location and percent loss reduction for a given size of the capacitor bank located on a feeder with uniformly distributed load (. The location of the capacitor bank As an example. that is. the pu power loss reduction can be found as (8.408 then Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (8.75 pu length from the source.56) where XI is the pu distance of capacitor bank location from the beginning of the feeder segment (between 0 and 1. it can be found that the maximum loss reduction can be obtained if the capacitor bank is located at 0.

pu FIGURE 8.9 1.8 0.9 ..\ .Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 1.7 ---.5 0..2 0.6 0.2 (f) (f) ..Q U ::J -0 0.4 0.7 ::J Cl.1 0.7 0.2 0..2 O.0 0.3 0...5 c= 0.::::.8 0.20 Loss reduction as a function of the capacitor bank location and capacitor compensation ratio for a line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A.3 0.8 0.8 0..0 Capacitor location. c = 0.1 0. .2 0."..> c =0.. 409 0.5 0.1 0.6 c= 1.9 0.5 c=0.J 0 c= 0.9 1.0 c= 0.7 c= 0.::::::--=::::: c = 0. = 0).3 0.3 C . ~::::.5 0.0 C .6 0.-.9 c=0. pu FIGURE 8.4 0.5 0.:---~__\.19 Loss reduction as a function of the capacitor bank location and capacitor compensation ratio for a line segment with uniformly distributed loads (A.0 0.8 c=OA c= 0. 1.J _ _ _ c=0.1 c= 1.7 0.6 0.Q U -0 ::J ~ J--'<--~ c= 0.6 c=O.2 (f) (f) 0 .3 0..6 0..3 ~ c= 0.c= 0.i c= 0.4 ~.4 0.->. = 1/4).1 0..9 0.7 ::J 0.8 c =0..0 Capacitor location.4 0.

5 0.3 c= 0. pu FIGURE 8.5 c=O.4 0.4 0.1 c= 0.8 0.1 0.4 0.5 c=O.2 0.6 0.6 0.3 "g ~ (f) Co ::J 1:) 0.7 0.22 Loss reduction as a function of the capacitor bank location and capacitor compensation ratio for a line scgmcnt with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 3/4).5 0.5 c= 0.2 ::J TI 0 -l 0.5 0.3 0.21 Loss reduction as a function of the capacitor bank location and capacitor compensation ratio for a line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 1/2).4 0.0 Capacitor location.7 0.9 c= 1.3 0.6 c=0. pu FIGURE 8.1 0.2 rn -' 0 0.1 0.8 c= 0.7 ::J c= 0.6 0.2 0.0 c= 0.6 c= 0.9 0. .9 0.0 c= 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.3 "f5 ~ (f) (f) Co c=0.0 0.0 Capacitor location.7 c= 0.7 0.8 0.410 1.2 0.4 0.1 c= 0. 0.9 1.4 0. ::J Electric Power Distribution System Engineering c= 0.9 1.6 c= 1.1 0.8 0.9 c=0.3 0. 1.

90 0.9 0.3 0- c- '!5 "0 ::::J o .-J 0 ~ en en 0.70 0.7 0.1 0.4 Optimum Location and Optimum Loss Reduction Capacitor Bank Rating (pu) 0. TABLE 8.7 0.7 0. Figure 8.1 0.2 c= 0.5 0.0 Capacitor location.1 0.0 Optimum Location (pu) 1.3 0.8 c= 0.9 1.5 0.0 0.8 0.58.3 0.8 0.60 0.0 0.5 0.25 gives the loss reduction due to an optimum-sized capacitor bank located on a feeder with various combinations of load types.2 0.50 Optimum Loss Reduction (%) 0 27 49 65 77 84 88 89 86 82 75 .5 0.6 0.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems c= c= c= c= 411 1.4 0.7 ::::J c=O.95 0.80 0.75 0.2 0.24 gives the loss reduction for a given capacitor bank of any size and located at the optimum location on a feeder with various combinations of load types based on Equation 8.9 1.23 Loss reduction as a function of the capacitor bank location and capacitor compensation ratio for a line segment with concentrated loads (Ie = 1).6 c= 0.65 0.0 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 c= 0.4 0.9 0.4 c= 0.55 0. pu FIGURE 8. Figure 8.85 0.4 0.2 0.

8 0.7 ::J Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 0. 0.6 0.4 0. pu 0. .8 0. pu 0..3 0.I 0 0..5 0.25 Loss reduction due to an optimum-sized capacitor bank located on a line segment with various combinations of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads.24 Loss reduction due to a capacitor bank located at the optimum location on a line section with various combinations of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads. 0...2 0.0 FIGURE 8.4 0.1 C ~ ~ 0 -0 (/) (/) ::J .9 1..7 0.8 0.1 0. ::J 0.5 0..5 0.3 0.4 0..6 0.3 0.2 C -0 t5 ::J ~ (/) (/) 0 0 .0 FIGURE 8.2 0.0 0.9 0.6 Capacitor location.412 1.9 1..3 0..4 0.7 0.I I I 0.1 0..2 0.6 Capacitor location.5 0.

-------r------l • I i.y diS..59) Therefore.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 413 ' _ X2 . The same procedure can be followed as before.J ell ill > ~ t5 ell a: ill -..-- _/2 New current profile FIGURE 8.. Case 2: 1\vo Capacitor Banks.26.21e () OJ . .59 into Equation 8. ..-:.-L".. Assume that two capacitor banks of equal size are inserted on the feeder.! !_!-\ Lumped- I ~~~ ~ E ~ :::J er -------. and the new loss equation becomes (8.60) or (8.J " " I "I iT ~-!-! I 2I ~! Ie _Iu-:. substituting Equations 8.45 and 8. the new pu loss reduction equation can be found as (8. as shown in Figure 8. o '2 = '1 - .48.O I I Ipu (11 -/2 )x..:m-I..-~ ~ ~! Ie .61) .26 Loss reduction with two capacitor banks.

x2 -3c] +xJ [(2-x J )+A.x1-5c]+X2[(2-X2)+A.5e] (8. Case 3: Three Capacitor Banks.28.(2i -l)c] i=l " (8. Assume that four capacitor banks of equal sizes are inserted on the feeder. can be expressed as Ll~_s = 3acLx.0 pu -----t------. f I Lumpedsum load I I I 1. -7c]+ x 21(2 .xJ -e]). Assume that three capacitor banks of equal sizes are inserted on the feeder. for an n capacitor bank feeder.x) + AX. as shown in Figure 8. the general equation for pu loss reduction. The relevant pu loss reduction equation can be found as LlPLS = 3ac{x. [(2 . the pu loss reduction equations follow a definite pattern as the number of capacitor banks increases. (8.64) .27. Therefore. as shown in Figure 8.x l )+ AX .62) Case 4: Four Capacitor Banks.63) +xJ [(2-x J )+Ax] -3c]+x4 [(2-x 4 )+Ax4 -e]).414 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~--------------~--------------~ 3/c "C j o ------. Case 5: n Capacitor Banks.I(2 . As the aforementioned results indicate. The relevant pu loss reduction equation can be found as Ll~_s =3CXC{XI[(2-XI)+A. I ----~----~----I I I FIGURE 8.27 Loss reduction with three capacitor banks.x 2)+ AX2 . .

By substituting Equation 8.0 pu " FIGURE 8. I 1.Opt = . opt is the optimum location for the ith capacitor bank in pu length. the optimum loss reduction can be found as (8.A x..64. where c is the capacitor compensation ratio at each location (determined from Equation 8. I.28 Loss reduction with four capacitor banks. Xi is the pu distance of the ith capacitor bank location from the source.2 OPTIMUM LOCATION OF A CAPACITOR BANK The optimum location for the ith capacitor bank can be found by taking the first-order partial derivative of Equation 8.65 into Equation 8.---------------- Lumpedsum load I I I I 1. Therefore.65) where Xi..8.A) (8.64 with respect to Xi and setting the resulting expression equal to zero.-'------'-- (2i-l)c 2(1. 8.51).Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 415 ---------------x.66) . and !l is the total number of capacitor banks.

A = () and a = I.67) i=l i> i=! = n(n+1). LS.e.A) of the distance from the source to the end of the feeder. 2 2n+ 1 (8.68) i:/ i=! = n(n+I)(2n+1). LS.416 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Equation 8.72 with respect to c and setting it equal to zero as C=--. the capacitor rating is two-thirds of the total reactive load which is located at 2 x =--I (8.66 is an infinite series of algebraic form which can be simplified by using the following relations: L (2i -1) = n 1/ 2 . For example. M. and the peak loss reduction is t:"P.) 6 4(1-A) 1/ [ (8.72) The capacitor compensation ratio at each location can be found by differentiating Equation 8.69) (8.Opl = 3ac [n-cn2 I-A + c n(4n -I)]. 12 2 2 (8. 12 = 0). for n = I. 2 (8.74) 3(1. (8.A) 2 L'i.73) Equation 8. therefore. .. 6 (8.70) Therefore.75) For a feeder with a uniformly distributed load.Opl 2 =3ac'" _n__ ~+ nc 2 (n+I)(2n+I) _ nc 2 ~ I-A (I-A. =--3(1.71) M. the reactive current at the end of the line is zero (i.73 can be called the 2/(2n + I) rule.Opl (8.

9 0. with various total reactive compensation levels. three. For example.5 0.29 gives a maximum loss reduction comparison for capacitor banks.7 .. for the optimum loss reduction of I1P.6 en en .0 0.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 417 Thus. and 00 number of capacitor banks. located at four-fifths of the 1.8 n== n=3 n=2 n=1 0.2 'E :::J E! 0. 2. The given curves are for one. with four-fifths of the total reactive compensation. 3 2 (8.opl 8 = -9 pu (8.78) Figure 8. . and infinite number of capacitor banks.3 0. based on Equation 8.76) the optimum value of XI is (8.4 0.2 0.Q (3 :::J '0 c 0. <li Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8. Comparison of loss reduction obtainable from n = I. 3.1 Cl. two. from the curve given for one capacitor bank. LS.pu.77) and the optimum value of c is c = . In the case of two capacitor banks.72.29 withA=O. and located optimally on a line segment which has uniformly distributed load (A = 0). it can be observed that a capacitor bank rated two-thirds of the total reactive load and located at two-thirds of the distance out on the feeder from the source provides for a loss reduction of 89%.

Comparison of loss reduction obtainable from n == 1.5 0.2 0.xJ(2 .3 ENERGY Loss REDUCTION DUE TO CAPACITORS The pu energy loss reduction in a three-phase line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads due to the allocation of fixed shunt capacitors is II l1EL == 3ac~. Therefore.3 0.2 ~ 0. .9 I 1.3.4.9 0.2.7 I 0.6 0. (8.79) where F(_D is the reactive load factor which is QIS.X)F.30 gives similar curves for a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 114).80) .3 0. Figure 8.1 0.:l 0.8 0.0 0.8 I 0.4 0.6 I 0. The optimum locations for the fixed shunt capacitors for the maximum energy loss reduction can be found by differentiating Equation 8.418 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering n= 1. T is the total time period during which fixed shunt capacitor banks are connected.4 c TI g ~ .. distance out on the feeder. 8.79 with respect to Xi and setting the result equal to zero. and l1EL is the energy loss reduction (pu).:D +XiAF~D -(2i -1)c]T i=1 (8. and 00 number of capacitor banks.2 01V 00 I I I I I I 0.8.30 with A == 114.7 DC is.5 0. the maximum loss reduction is 96%.0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.

so that x· .32 through 8. the optimum capacitor rating to provide for the maximum energy loss reduction is (8.op' =--- I I-A (2i-l)c . the optimum total capacitor rating can be found as C T =~F. Based on Equation 8.' -cn 2 +---'-----'2 2 L.84) This equation gives the well-known two-thirds rule for fixed shunt capacitors.8.85) where CT is the total reactive compensation level which is equal to cn.. it can be observed that if the total number of capacitor banks approaches infinity.83) From Equation 8.4 and 0. gives a zero energy loss reduction.85.83..' LD (8.37 through 8Al show the effects of various reactive load factors on the maximum energy loss reductions for a feeder with different load patterns.31 shows the relationship between the total capacitor compensation ratio and the reactive load factor. 2(l-A)F:D (8.82 into Equation 8. By substituting Equation 8. in order to achieve maximum energy loss reduction.80 to zero. .2 or OA. when reactive load factors are 0. the use of a fixed capacitor bank with corrective ratios of 0.l.36. Figure 8.79. then the optimum total capacitor rating becomes equal to the reactive load facior. for a line segment with uniformly distributed load where A = 0 and a = 1.82) Similarly.' 2n+1 LD· (8. the optimum energy loss reductions with any size capacitor bank located at the optimum location for various reactive load factors have been calculated. and the results have been plotted on Figures 8. for all values of A. Figures 8.C. the optimum energy loss reduction can be found as c n(4n -1)]T =3ac .81) The optimum capacitor location for the maximum energy loss reduction can be found by setting Equation 8.. ACL opt 1_ A LD 12F. respectively.[ n F.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 419 J\~EL)=_2F' (I-A)<O J 2 LO • Xi (8. If only one capacitor bank is used. It is important to note the fact that.

9 1.2 0.6 0.1 A.1 c: ~ U) E () <Il 0...> 0.1 0.=1 2 0.2).6 0.3 Total reactive compensation level 0.9 0. .9 1.420 1.32 Energy loss reduction with any capacitor bank size. 0.5 0.7 0.6 :::> [l! U) U) ~ 0.7 0.2 0. ro ro (ii {5 I- 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.8 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ 0 0 0. 1.0 0.5 0 ill <Il 0> c: 'c :.31 Relationship between the total capacitor compensation ratio and the reactive load factor for uniformly distributed load (Ie = 0 and a = 1).8 c: n TI 0 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.9 0. located at optimum location (FJ'f) = 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.4 ill 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.0 0. 0 c: '0 () .0 FIGURE 8.1 0.0 Reactive load factor FIGURE 8.3 0.5 0.8 0.

located at the optimum location (F~D = 0.1 0.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 1.3 u ~ (f) (f) .7 0. CD 0.7 0.33 Energy loss reduction with any capacitor bank size.2 0.6 0.2 :>.8 c 0 i5 :::l U 0.2 'c '? 0.0 0.5 ~ (f) (f) ~ ill ill 0 e' c 'c '? 0.4).8 0.8 c 421 .5 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.0 0.9 0.1 0. 1..34 Energy loss reduction with any capacitor bank size. located at the optimum location (F. .4 0.6 0.9 1.7 0.0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8. CJ) ill (f) (f) c CD .6).7 0.5 0.2 0.J) = 0.Q U :::l 0.6 0.1 0.~+A~~ o 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.3 0. CD ::~.3 0..9 1.

.4 0..2 n [l: (f) (f) 0 ~ E' c Ql Ql 0 'c ::> 0.35 Energy loss reduction with any capacitor bank size. 'c ? ill Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.8 c 0 A.7 0. ~ 0.L 2 0. 1.5 0.0 0.=0 ::> -0 t5 (f) (f) [l: .0 0.1 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8..0).3 0.8).9 0.1 1.2 0.4 0.7 0. .6 0..Q c Ql Ql E' >. located at the optimum location (F~D = 0.3 0.6 0. located at the optimum location (F~D = 1. 0.9 0.5 0.. =..8 c ::> -0 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 0.422 1.36 Energy loss reduction with any capacitor bank size.

.5 0.0 FIGURE 8.6 F~D= 0.3 0.4 0.6 0. 1. E' 0. ~ :::J F~D =0.4 0.9 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.8 c 0 423 F~D= 1.2 0.38 Effects of reactive load factors on energy loss reduction due to capacitor bank installation on a line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 114).9 1.1 0.7 0.8 0. = 0).Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 1.8 0.2 0.5 0.1 0 t5 :::J ~ (f) (f) ~ OJ Q.2 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.3 0. (]) 0 C 'c 0.0 0.Q (]) (]) :>.6 0.7 Total reactive compensation level 0.6 0. .7 0.0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.4 0.0 0..6 U :::J -0 (f) (f) ~ .0 0.2 0 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.1 c 'c :::J 0.3 0.8 F~D = 0.8 c -0 0 F~D= 0. ~ F~D=0.37 Effects of reactive load factors on energy loss reduction due to capacitor bank installation on a line segment with uniformly distributed load (A..

0 :g 1:l ::J 0 0.0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.7 0.J 1:l ~ (J) C/) .1 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.0 0. . 0..0 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.3 0. ~ 0.5 U ::.424 1.5 0.39 Effects of reactive load factors on energy loss reduction due to capacitor bank installation on a line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 1/2).4 = 0.8 'c 0.40 Effects of reactive load factors on loss reduction due to capacitor bank installation on a line segment with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads (A = 3/4).9 0.7 0.8 0.9 1..4 ~ 0.8 c Electric Power Distribution System Engineering F~D=1.9 0.6 ~ C/) C/) ~ 0. OJ 0 ill c ::J OJ F~D 0.4 0. 1.0 0..5 0 E' OJ OJ c 'c 0.8 F~D c 0 = 1..2 0.1 ::J 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.

.1 F~D = 0.3 0. Ol 0.4 RElATIVE RATINGS OF MULTIPLE FIXED CAPACITORS The total savings due to having two fixed shunt capacitor banks located on a feeder with uniformly distributed load can be found as (8. (8.8 co 425 .0 t5 "CJ :::J ~ (f) (f) .Q <ll co ill >.3 0.8 0.7 0.2 0..0 0.4 0.2 0.8 ~----~ 'c !l.6 0.Q 0.86) or (8.6 F~D = 1.9 1.7 0.8. Since the total capacitor bank rating is equal to the sum of the ratings of the capacitor banks.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 1.87) where K j is a constant to convert energy loss savings to dollars ($/kWh) and K2 is a constant to convert power loss savings to dollars ($/kWh).4 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.41 Effects of reactive load factors on energy loss reduction due to capacitor bank installation on a line segment with a concentrated load (Ie = I).88) .0 Total reactive compensation level FIGURE 8.1 0. 8 . "7 ill 0.

Kl is a constant to convert total fixed capacitor ratings to dollars ($/kvar). K2 is a constant to convert power loss savings to dollars ($/k Wh). so that (8.(2i -I)c] .90 with respect to C 2 .426 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering or (8.:D -(2i -1)c]T .)r.94) The result shows that if mUltiple fixed shunt capacitor banks are to be employed on a feeder with uniformly distributed loads.64 and 8.8. in order to receive the maximum savings all capacitor banks should have the same rating. 11 is the total number of capacitor banks.79.:::1 where KI is a constant to convert energy loss savings to dollars ($/kWh).89 into Equation 8.93) Then (8.K)C r .) + XiA .89) By substituting Equation 8. Xi is the ith capacitor location (pu length). (8.:n + X)lr. the total savings equation in a three-phase primary feeder with a combination of concentrated and uniformly distributed loads can be found as /I L) = 3K. and A is the ratio of reactive current at the end of the line segment to the .92) and since (8.95) Xi [(2 - X. F~[) is the reactive load factor. 8. (8.5 GENERAL SAVINGS EQUATION FOR ANY NUMBER OF FIXED CAPACITORS From Equations 8.87.ac I X i [(2-x.90) The optimum rating of the second fixed capacitor bank as a function of total capacitor bank rating can be found by differentiating Equation 8. c is the capacitor compensation ratio at each location.91) and setting the resultant equation equal to zero. Cr is the total reactive compensation level.=1 + 3K 2 ac·I /I (8.

a = 1/( I +}. When multiple locations are used for fixed shunt capacitor banks. Setting the capacitor bank anywhere else on the feeder would decrease rather than increase the savings from loss reduction. particularly at low reactive load factors.96) . some combination of fixed and switched capacitors gives the greatest energy loss reduction.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 427 reactive load current at the beginning of the line segment.98) where 0 ~ Xi ~ 1. It can be applied only when fixed shunt capacitors are used. to locate a capacitor bank at the optimum location. 7. For a feeder with a uniformly distributed load. 8.. 1 -I) ) Ul + 2(K "+ K I 1'1.97) Setting Equation 8.95 with respect to Xi' .96 equal to zero. One large capacitor bank can provide almost as much savings as two or more capacitor banks of equal size. the tank of the capacitor ruptures.I i (K "+ K I TF. By taking the lirst. In general.J(~$) _~ Jr ~ . 3. The result of the two-thirds rule is particularly useful when the reactive load factor is high. it may be difficult. 5.' )( /\. This energy input could happen under a . 4. in such cases the permanent location of the capacitor bank ends up being SUboptimum.0 pu length.[? _.)aC . if not impossible. the optimum location for any fixed capacitor bank with any rating can be found as (8. Some of the cardinal rules that can be derived for the application of capacitor banks include the following: 1."). and Tis the total time period during whieh fixed shunt capacitor banks are connected. + }. a fixed capacitor bank rated at two-thirds of the total reactive load and located at two-thirds of the distance out on the feeder from the source gives an 89% loss reduction. The location of fixed shunt capacitors should be based on the average reactive load. 2. T) and (X. 6. the banks should have the same rating to be economical.(2i -1)c(K2 + K. There is only one location for each size of the capacitor bank that produces maximum loss reduction. In actual situations.. S.9 CAPACITOR TANK RUPTURE CONSIDERATIONS When the total energy input to the capacitor is larger than the strength of the tank's envelope to withstand such input.' Ul I (X.and second-order partial derivatives of Equation X.

capacitor manufacturers have generated tank rupture curves as a function of fault current available.0 (J) 10 I i= ai E ~ (J) Q) 6 U 1\: 0. Figure 8. The longer it takes for the dielectric material to wear out due to the forces generated by the combination of electric stress and temperature. Currently.3 iOOOOO FIGURE 8.000 60.42 shows the results of tank rupture tests conducted on all-film capacitors. the wearout process or time to failure is a measure of life and reliability.. The resulting tank rupture time-current characteristic curves with which fuse selection is coordinated have furnished comparatively good protection against tank rupture.43 Capacitor reliability cycle.2-kV all-film capacitors.000 I I No rupture 100 \ 6000 \ \i ~ 600 'w ell N Cii' . In other words.0 ai E .6 0.01 . Detection of sound produced by the rupture.1 60 () >. there are numerous methods that can be used to detect the capacitor tank ruptures.005 iOO 1000 Current. Burrage [19] categorizes them as: I.) Time-to-rupture characteristics for 200-kvar 7. (McGraw-Edison Company. the greater is its reliability. Early failure or energization failure Wearout failure region Random failure region O-Several months Capacitor reliability cycle FIGURE 8.428 4000 1000 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 240. Through numerous testing procedures.) .42 Company. \i\ : • • • \It 5 iO i= 6. 2. Figure 8. Observation of smoke and/or vapor from the capacitor tank upon rupture. A 1\ 10000 0.43 shows the capacitor reliability cycle during its lifetime. (McGraw-Edison wide range of current-time conditions.

(ii) switching and lightning surges. Furthermore. protective devices may operate incorrectly or not operate due to the high-magnitude and high-frequency currents. (iv) the type of breaker. However. (iv) the amount of the connected capacitive kilovars in the surge path. and (v) harmonics. 5. But voltage surges resulting from lightning strokes to the distribution line will usually require the most severe design requirements. The factors affecting the magnitude and duration of the resultant voltage transients include: (i) the system impedance characteristics. Observation of ultraviolet light generated by the arc getting outside the capacitor tank. a higherfrequency transient voltage is superimposed on the power frequency recovery voltage. this may change. In the event of a fault on a distribution system. (iii) in-rush and cold-load current transients. if the current trend toward higher distribution voltage levels and reduced insulation levels continues.g. station capacitor banks. Measurement of the distortion generated by gas pressure within the capacitor tank. and (v) the loss mechanism (corona. when motors and other loads draw high starting currents. and (v) the breaker pole-closing angles. and loads generate current transients. whereas in a transformer the magnitude of this in-rush depends on the voltage wave at the time of energization and the residual flux in the core. This may cause a voltage rise on the unfaulted phases due to neutral shift which results in saturation of transformers and increased load current magnitudes. 8. 6. Measurement of the change in arc voltage when the capacitor tank is breached. It is also possible for the current to have a DC offset which is a function of the voltage wave at the time of the fault and the XIR ratio of the circuit.. Serious damage to equipment may be prevented by recognizing the conditions which increase the probability of these overvoltages and taking appropriate . (iii) the sparkover of arresters remote from the converters. skin effect) in the surge path. capacitors draw a high-frequency in-rush based on the instantaneous voltage and the circuit inductance as well as the capacitance. transformers.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 429 3. It is possible to have its crest magnitudes be two or three times nominal system voltage. These capacitive and inductive elements make a seriesresonant circuit that can generate high transient or sustained overvoltages which can damage system equipment. Switching surges are generated when loads. there will be a substantial change in current magnitude on the faulted phase. or feeders are energized or de-energized. These over voltages are more likely to take place where a considerable length of cable is connected to an overloaded three-phase transformer (or bank) and single-phase switching is done at a point remote from the transformer (e. (iii) the location of the capacitor bank on the system. It is important to recognize the fact that low voltage during in-rush can harm the equipments involved and stop the circuit from recovering without sectionalizing. the switching surges on distribution systems have not been taken seriously so far. riser pole). For example. In general. cleared.10. or when faults are initiated. 4. capacitors. This may cause failure to clear or restrikes which may produce substantial switching surges. On the other hand. feeders. The resultant voltage is called the transient recovery voltage (TRV). The energization of motors. (ii) the stroke characteristics and stroke location. (ii) the amount of capacitive kilovars connected at the time of switching. 8.10 DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS The characteristics of the distribution system's dynamic behavior include: (i) fault effects and transient recovery voltage. and reinitiated.1 FERRORESONANCE Ferroresonance is an oscillatory phenomenon caused by the interaction of system capacitance with the nonlinear inductance of a transformer. Detection of a sudden reduction in internal pressure. When a circuit recloser clears the fault at a current zero. (iv) ferroresonance. it may cause a reduction in voltage and load current on the faulted phase. The factors affecting the lightning surge include: (i) the system configuration and the system grounding and shielding.

the circuit is in resonance. The voltage E across the inductor is 180 out of phase with the voltage Ec across the capacitor. Thus. Consider the LC circuit shown in Figure 8. until recently it has not been considered as a serious operating problem on electric distribution systems. (4) three-phase motor reversals. Furthermore. underground system capacitance will be greater (capacitive reactance lower).X ) } c (8. The more serious overvoltages may be evidenced by: (1) flashover or damage to lightning arresters. At the same time.and Ec can be found as = 0. the capacitance of a cable is much greater (Le. capacitive reactance lower) than that of open wire. . Changes in the characteristics of distribution systems and in transformer design have resulted in the increased probability of ferroresonant overvoltages when switching three-phase transformer installations. Also. and (5) high secondary voltages.9. For example. (2) transformer humming with only one phase closed.99) and E - c .44. The voltages EL and Ec can be expressed as 0 EE (X) L . Note that the resistance is neglected for the sake of simplicity. (3) damage to transformers and other equipments. the L + Erv c FIGURE 8. and present trends are toward a greater use of underground cables due to the esthetic considerations. system operation at higher than nominal voltages and trends in transformer design have led to the operation of distribution transformer cores at higher saturation.jX _ jXc } L L E (8.44 The LC circuit for ferroresonance. If the inductive reactance XL of the inductor is equal in magnitude to the capacitive reactance Xc of the capacitor. Although the ferroresonant phenomenon has been recognized for some time.100) For the purpose of illustration assume that XL/XC voltages E1.430 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering preventive measures. the use of higher distribution voltages results in distribution transformers with greater magnetizing reactance..1111. and therefore XC/XL = 1.jX L _ jXc E E (.

Limiting the length of cable serving the three-phase installation. it is obvious that the levels of harmonic voltages and currents on distribution systems are becoming a serious problem. The effects of ferroresonance can be minimized by such measures as: 1. Keeping Xc!X M ratios high (10 or more).10. l3. 5. 3. 10.9 E Therefore. 4. 8. 2. Assuring load is present during switching. Although this is a relatively simple example of a resonant circuit. In a ferroresonant circuit the capacitor is in series with a nonlinear (iron-core) inductor. Using open-wye-open-delta transformer connection. 9. Therefore. 7. the basic concept is very similar to ferroresonance with one notable exception. 11. HARMONICS ON DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 8. 6. However. and metering. Some of the most important power system operational problems caused by harmonics have been reported to include the following [25]: 1. Using switches rather than fuses at the riser pole. A plot of the voltampere or impedance characteristic of an iron-core reactor would have the same general shape as the BH curve of the iron core.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 431 E/. the levels of harmonics on distribution systems have generally been insignificant in the past. in this case the voltage across the capacitor is 10 times the source voltage. Using dummy loads to suppress ferroresonant overvoltages. Capacitor bank failure from dielectric breakdown or reactive power overload. Using grounded-wye-grounded-wye transformer connection. Excessive losses in-and heating of-induction and synchronous machines. If the ironcore reactor is operating at a point near saturation. 1-0. Using only three-phase switching and sectionalizing devices at the terminal pole. 2. Overvoltages and excessive currents on the system from resonance to harmonic voltages or currents on the network. Avoiding switching an unloaded transformer bank at a point remote from the transformers. Installing neutral resistance. a small increase in voltage can cause a large decrease in the effective inductive reactance of the reactor. 4.2 The power industry has recognized the problem of power system harmonics since the 1920s when distorted voltage and current waveforms were observed on power lines. load control. The nearer the circuit to the actual resonance the greater will be the overvoltage. Using single-pole devices only at the transformer location and three-pole devices for remote switching. E ----=-9E I-LIlli E and Ec = E I-XL/Xc = ---. Temporarily grounding the neutral of a floating-wye primary during switching operations. Today. the value of inductive reactance can vary widely and resonance can occur over a range of capacitance values.= JOE. causing misoperation of systems which accomplish remote switching. Using larger transformers. 12. . Interference with ripple control and power-line carrier systems. 3.

6./ ~J ~ Third/" ~ .--- -\ ~ f - - FIGURE 8. 9. Dielectric instability of insulated cables resulting from harmonic over voltages on the system. 7. Network nonlinearities from loads such as rectifiers. These effects depend. arc furnaces. 4.~ -\ X\ \V 1 -~ ~ \\ /1 II 9' V ~ ~ /. 5. Inductive interference with telecommunication systems.. 4. particularly in solid-state and microprocessorcontrolled systems. etc. In general. Nonsinusoidal distribution of the flux in the air-gap of synchronous machines. such as those for improved motor efficiency and load matching.II Ii \\ ~ B. the harmonics sources can be classified as: (i) previously known harmonics sources and (ii) new harmonics sources. inverters. I-A ~ o ----. Errors in induction watt-hour meters.45 Harmonic analysis of peaked no-load current. While the established sources of harmonics are still present on the system. Static-var compensators which have largely replaced synchronous condensors as continuously variable-var sources. 3. which employ power semiconductor devices and switching for their operation. its location on the power system.432 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 5. Interference with large motor controllers and power plant excitation systems (reported to cause motor problems as well as nonuniform output). Transformer magnetizing currents. First + third + fifth I' First + third-:-f! h r Original wave Filrst Fifth o 1'\ Y. Motor control devices such as speed controls for traction. voltage controllers. 6. '{ ~ l. Tooth ripples or ripples in the voltage waveform of rotating machines.- ---. 2. and the network characteristics that promote propagation of harmonics. 5.I-----. 8. These devices often produce irregular voltage and current waveforms that are rich in harmonics. Interconnection of wind and solar power converters with distribution systems. 2. The previously known harmonics sources include: 1. There are numerous sources of harmonics. Flux distortion in the synchronous machine from sudden load changes. High-voltage DC power conversion and transmission. on the harmonics source. the power network is also subjected to new harmonics sources: 1. of course. Signal interference and relay malfunction. welders. Energy conservation measures. frequency converters. 3.--. . Variations in air-gap reluctance over synchronous machine pole pitch.

The characteristics of harmonics on a distribution system are functions of both the harmonic source and the system response. 1 7 . March 15-16. such as magnetohydrodynamics. + . + E. The development and potentially wide use of electric vehicles that require a significant amount of power rectification for battery charging. f2 EI (8..110 . the harmonic components of the exciting current increase dramatically. (From Owen. 0 C e: ~ E 0 '-' ::J 0)'- '-' '-' c c . Los Angeles.. The potential use of direct energy conversion devices.0 . 11 (percent of 1m) / / / //Im (percent of In) -15 (percent of 1 1) . fundamental and harmonic currents. The level of transformer saturation is affected by the magnitude of the applied voltage. Operating Conj. and fuel cells. 15' 1 FIGURE 8. The IEEE Standard 5 19-1981 1281 defines the harmonic factors as the ratio of the root-mean-square value of all the harmonics to the root-mean-square value of the fundamental.. Eng.E. 3 . Therefore. the voltage harmonic factoI: HFI' can be expressed as (E~ + E. CA. The distortions are measured in terms of the voltage or current harmonic factors.45 shows harmonic analysis of a peaked no-load current wave.. utilities are presently installing more and larger transformers to meet ever-increasing power demands. The presence of harmonics causes the distortion of the voltage or current waves.) . Furthermore.102) The presence of the voltage distortion results in harmonic currents. Figure 8. that require DCIAC power converters. storage batteries... Owen [26] has demonstrated this for a typical substation Percent (/) _ EQ) c co. When the applied voltage is above the rated voltage.. R.130 140 150 160 120 Voltage (percent of nominal voltage) In' rated current 1m' magnetizing current 1 1..101) and the current harmonic factor HF.46 Harmonic components of transformer-exciting current. 1979.. Each transformer is a source of harmonics to the distribution system. Transformer saturation results in a nonsinusoidal exciting current in the iron core when a sinusoidal voltage is applied.~ E §. For example. 7.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 433 6... these transformers are being operated closer to the saturation point.c C\l (/) 2 .'=' "0 Cii ro c C\l 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 . Pacific Coast Electro Asso. can be expressed as (8..

8. 3. transformer primary neutral connected to generator neutral. A . Deltalwye. Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P) Line Sine Contains 3d h(P)' Sine Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P)' Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine line Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Phase Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P). and A.. isolated neutral: N.5 The Influence of Three-Phase Transformer Connections on Third Harmonics Primary Currents Connections' I. -< (1) . (P).. four-wire 4.. Wye N..linterconnected wye. Wye N. 3d h in delta (P) Sine Contains 3d h(P).. to G .. 1973. o. teniary deltalwye LN. 5.. Wye LN. :::l v o .. 2. :::l (JQ (1) (1) . ::!. Butterworth. Wye LNJwye LN. S.. Wye LN. Wye LNJinterconnected wye LN.. London. Sine Sine in star.. four-wire 9. C..N .ldelta 6... n (1) o :E (1) -0 c . four-wire 11. '" ::!. 10. Wye LN. Contains 3d h(P)! Sine Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P) Sine Sine Sine No-load Line Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P)' Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P) Sine Line Voltages phase Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(pr Contains 3d h(P)t Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine m Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine Sine GJwye LN. Deltaldelta n ... :::l .. The J&P Trallsformer Book.. to GJdelta 7.w "" "" TABLE 8. Deltalwye LN. to Secondary Volti!ges Currents Flux Contains 3d h(FT) Contains 3d h(FT)t Contains 3d h(FT)1 Sine Sine Sine Contains 3d h(FT) Contains 3d h(FT) Sine Sine Sine Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P) Contains 3d h(P)t Contains 3d h(P)t No-load Sine Contains 3d h(P).. '" m :::l :3 Source: From Stigant. flat-top wave. Franklin.. In all these cases the third-harmonic component is less than it otherwise would be if: (I) the circulating third-harmonic current flowed through a closed delta winding only or (2) the neutral point was isolated. Wye LNJwye.s. o· (J) I. peaked wave. (FT).

47 Combinations of fundamental and third-harmonic waves: (a) harmonic in phase. The impact of harmonics on transformers are numerous. Also. For example.46. and seventh. and (d) harmonic 90° lagging. current harmonics result in increased copper losses and stray flux losses.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems If l/l 435 I II \ 1/ o 1\ II f If \ o 0 \ I \ I I \I~ 1\ o 'i . as the harmonic order increases. which compounds the harmonic problem. the power-line impedance itself plays the role of a controlling factor. 1973.47 shows the shape of the resultant waves obtained when combining the fundamental and the third harmonics along with different positions of the harmonic..5 gives a summary of the conditions obtaining third harmonics with different connections of double-wound three-phase transformers.A. as shown in Figure 8. Butterworth. (c) harmonic in opposition. (b) harmonic 90° leading. The current harmonics of consequence which are produced by transformers are generally in the order of the third. Also.c. Note that at harmonic frequencies the phase angles (due to the various harmonic impedances of each load) can be anything between 0 and 360°. With permission. and A. voltage harmonics result in increased iron losses. Franklin. Figure 8.. London.\ 1\1\ \ \11 . The table is prepared for third harmonics in double-wound single-phase core.and shell-type transformers and in three-phase shell-type transformers for three-phase service. (From Stigant. Table 8. and therefore the harmonic current will have different phase angles at different locations. fifth.) power transformer. The J &P Transformer Book. The losses may in turn cause the transformer to be overheated. some utility companies are overexciting distribution transformers as a matter of policy and practice. The harmonics may also cause insulation stresses and resonances between transformer windings and line capacitances at the harmonic . \' \ \ Ir I' o \ 1\ I \ \ J 1\ \ '\ o 0 I I \\1\ \\ J IV III o \ 1\ 'I I"IV (c) (d) FIGURE 8. S.- " (a) (b) Ir- A Ifl II II !\ 'I I 1\ .

h is the harmonic order. This equal order of harmonic is found from I/? h= Sse ) [ Q eap (8. and Iii is the harmonic current.106) or (8. The possibility of resonance between a shunt capacitor bank and the rest of the system.104) where Sse is the short-circuit power of a system at the point of application (MVA) and capacitor bank size (Mvar). Xsc is the reactance of the power system (pu or Q). and (iv) losses in capacitors. (h . Capacitor bank sizes and locations are critical factors in a distribution system's response to harmonic sources. According to Kimbark 127].l05) Substituting Equation 8.104 into Equation 8. at a harmonic frequency.103) where TECL is the total eddy-current loss. (ii) overvoltage at the capacitor bank. (iii) changed dielectric stress. the increase of losses in capacitors due to harmonics can be expressed as LCDH = I.108) where 11 is the fundamental frequency (Hz). The effects of the harmonics on the capacitor bank include: (i) overheating of the capacitors. may be determined by calculating equal order of harmonic h at which resonance may take place [27]. (8. (C tan 8)" w" V.and parallel-resonant frequencies for the circuit. II is the rated fundamental current.1 07) or (8.105. L" is the inductance of the power system (H).. ECL I is the eddy-current loss at rated fundamental current.436 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering frequencies. The combination of capacitors and the system reactance causes both series.. and C is the capacitance of the capacitor bank (F). The total eddy-current losses are proportional to the harmonic frequencies and can be expressed as TECL = ECL )If. The parallel-resonant frequency Ip can be expressed as Qeap is the (8.1 Ih co ? (8.109) . Xcap is the reactance of the capacitor bank (pu or Q)." (8.

4/4. 8.1 Assume that a feeder supplies an industrial consumer with a cumulative load of: (i) induction motors totaling 300 hp which run at an average efficiency of 89% and a lagging average power factor of 0. Determine the required power factor of the synchronous motors to correct the overall power factor at peak load to: (a) Unity.30 is supplied to a motor which is operated discontinuously. (ii) synchronous motors totaling 100 hp with an average efficiency of 86%. A normal operating current of 15-A. If the connected load is 8816 kYA with a 0. (c) The effects of the capacitors on the voltage regulation and voltage drop in the feeder. and (iii) a heating load of 100 kW.7 connected at the end of the feeder. at a lagging power factor of 0. before the installation of the series capacitor.2 A 2.85. and V" is the root-mean-square voltage of the hth harmonic.96. (d) The power factor at minimum daily load level. (d) The corrected kilovoltampere load at this unity power factor.35 n. determine the following: (a) The necessary kilovar rating of the shunt capacitors located at the load to improve the peakload power factor to 0.50 + j1. (b) The necessary size of the capacitor to restrict the voltage dip at motor start to not more than 3%. determine the following: (a) The kilovar rating of the shunt capacitor bank required to decrease the kilovoltampere load on the transformer to its capability level. The industrial consumer plans to use the synchronous motors to correct its overall power factor.62. If the total impedance of the feeder is 0.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 437 where LCDH is the losses in capacitors due to harmonics. (iv) using shielded cables. is drawn by the motor from the 2. w" is the 2n times the frequency of the hth harmonic. (tan . Assume that a series capacitor is desired to be installed in the feeder to improve the voltage regulation and limit lamp flicker from the intermittent motor starting and determine the following: (a) The voltage dip due to the motor starting. I 6-k Y wye-connected feeder serves a peak load of 300 A at a lagging power factor of 0. The harmonic control techniques include: (i) locating the capacitor banks strategically.80.2. (b) The power factor of the corrected load.3 Assume that a locked-rotor starting current of 90A at a lagging load factor of 0.0. (ii) selecting capacitor bank sizes properly. (v) controlling grounds properly. 8. C is the capacitance. (c) The kilovar rating of the shunt capacitor bank required to correct the load power factor to unity.4/4.16-kY feeder of Problem 8. . PROBLEMS 8.85 lagging power factor. 8. and (vi) using harmonic filters.)" is the loss factor at frequency of hth harmonics.4 Assume that a three-phase distribution substation transformer has a nameplate rating of 7250 kYA and a thermal capability of 120% of the nameplate rating. (iii) ungrounding or deleting the capacitor bank. (b) The reduction in kilovoltamperes and line current due to the capacitors.96 lagging. (b) 0. The minimum daily load is approximately 135A at a power factor of 0.

£ 4( I .. a number of load flow runs have been made and the results are summarized in the following table.7 Verify that the loss reduction with two capacitor banks is 8.824 9512 19.8 8.90 and 0. 8. It is desired to improve the power factor to 98%...A) I . Find the required new total line current and the overall power factor.65. Using the relevant additional information given in Example 8. TABLE PB.75." ___ (2 /1 J.5 Assume that the NP&NL Utility Company is presently operating at 90% power factor. repeat Example 8.Equation 8. 8. (b) Unity power factor. respectively.9 Derive.S Summary of Load Flows At 90% Comment Power Factor At 99% Power Factor Total loss reduction due to capacitors applied to substation buses (kW) Additional loss reduction due to capacitors applied to feeders (kW) Total demand reduction due to capacitors applied to substation buses and feeders (kVA) Total required capacitor additions at buses and feeders (kvar) 496 84 488 72 21. Verify Equation 8.11 8.438 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 8. If a power system has J5.64.4 kV with a lagging power factor and efficiency of 0.A J.93.6 Assume that a manufacturing plant has a three-phase in-plant generator to supply only threephase induction motors totaling 1200 hp at 2.A I. J)c+ /-c.L "I" =3ac t. find the investment required to correct the power factor to: (a) 0.000-kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0.74 from Equation 8.12 Derive Equation 8.10 8.A . To study the power factor improvement. respectively. .85 lagging power factor. "[1 .A 1 • 7 ] ___ c_-__ .65 lagging and the cost of synchronous capacitors is $J5/kVA.65 from Equation 8.93.5.82 and 0. Using the given information. (b) Assume that 500 hp of the 1200-hp load is produced by an overexcited synchronous motor operating with a leading power factor and efficiency of 0. and the required capacity of the generator.5.743 2785 8. determine the following: (a) Find the required line current to serve the 1200-hp load. Verify that the optimum loss reduction is f. (c) Find the required size of shunt capacitors to be installed to achieve the same overall power factor as found in part (b) by replacing the overexcited synchronous motor.

15 If a power system has 25. pp. 3.. 3. 8. and W. L.17 8. pp. 3. PAS-84. Line. 1980. III.20-22. 1965. vol. IEEE Trans.SO.S5 lagging power factor.S5 lagging power factor.. Hopkinson. (ii) synchronous motors totaling 200 hp with an average efficiency of 80%. Resolve Example 8. 4.7 lagging and the cost of synchronous capacitors is $12.4 by using MATLAB.95 lagging power factor. A.13 If a power system has 20. 6. January 1965. A. Wallace. Power Appa/: Syst. M.7 lagging and the cost of synchronous capacitors is $15/kVA. Neagle.14 If a power system has 20. Frederick: A Method of Applying Switched and Fixed Capacitors for Voltage Control. 8. N.000-kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0. H.S5 lagging power factor. 42-48. I.. McGraw-Edison Company: The ABC of Capacitors. Baum. vol. (c) Unity power factor.6 lagging and the cost of synchronous capacitors is $12. 5. (c) Unity power factor. 8.000-kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0. Assume that all the quantities remain the same. find the investment required to correct the power factor to: (a) Unity power factor.SO. vol.50/kVA. develop a table showing the required (leading) reactive power to correct the power factor to: (a) 0.. 8. October 1956. R. PA. pt. vol. Electr. 7. no. The industrial consumer plans to use the synchronous motors to correct its overall power factor.95 lagging power factor. (b) Unity power factor..18 8. Assume that all the quantities remain the same. (b) 0. Forum. Determine the required power factor of synchronous motors to correct the overall power factor at peak load to unity power factor. u. no. R.S5 lagging power factor. 76. fi nd the investment required to correct the power factor to: (0) 0. 2. 75. 694-97.OOO-kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0. pp.16 If a power system has SOOO-kVA capacity and is operating at a power factor of 0. and a lagging average power factor of O. Resolve Example S.19 Assume that a feeder supplies an industrial consumer with a cumulative load of: (i) induction motors totaling 200 hp which run at an average efficiency of 90% and a lagging average power factor of O. R. 1953. 6.: Economic Merits of Secondary Capacitors. REFERENCES 1. 1976. 950-59. W. vol.: Capacitors Reduce System Investment and Losses. develop a table showing the required (leading) reactive power to correct the power factor to: (a) 0. 15-17.50/kVA. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Sys- tems. . Zimmerman. (b) 0. 1968.Application of Capacitors to Distribution Systems 439 8. Samson: Loss Reduction from Capacitors Installed on Primary Feeders. (b) 0. AlEE Trans. R. East Pittsburgh.6 lagging and the cost of synchronous capacitors is $17. Bulletin R230-90-1. AlEE Trans. vol. and D. and (iii) a heating load of 50 kW. pp. pp.50/kVA. I. no. 72.2 by using MATLAB.: Economic Power Factor-Key to kvar Supply.

1981. 1.. Mahmoud: Bibliography of Power System Harmonics. 17. M. Owen: Measuring Voltage and Current Harmonics on Distribution Systems. E. AlEE Trans. Final Report. J. pp.. Emanuel: Power System Harmonics: An Overview.. E. Lee: Optimal Design and Control Scheme for Continuous Capacitive Compensation of Distribution Feeders. pp. Syst. The Line. 1971. A. PAS-91. IEEE MEXICON-80 International Conference. CA. R. January 30-February 4. H. 1. G. PAS-I03. Power Appar.. IEEE PES Summer Meeting. Mahmoud: Bibliography of Power System Harmonics. 2455-60. New York. Syst. 8. Lapp. 9. 1. IEEE Trans. July 1980. H. 1979. IEEE Guidefor Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power Converters. W. N. September/October 1972. 9. Minneapolis. IEEE Trans. 1983. vol. E. E. 25. West Lafayette. 10. E. Paper 80 SM 665-0. Chang. October 22-25. 80. 80. 1. Ganen. vol. Part I. vol. Oklahoma City. A. November 1980. Power Appar. Grainger. 16. McGranaghan. Portland. vol. no.. vol. pp. 24. January/February 1977. EPRI EL-1627. 519-1981. 32. 18. Szabados. 1983. Syst..: Determination of Primary-Feeder Losses.. Sponsler: Digital Simulation of Distribution System Frequency-Response Characteristics.. Eng. 2189-95. R. Syst. A. M. C. vol. 234-239.. 1980. 430-44. Syst. 1. pp. 29. 5. no. Power Appar. July 26-31. August 1983. MN.. H. Part II. Dugan. Shaw. no. Atlanta. PAS-88. 26. Wiley.: Capacitor Tank Ruptures Studied.. 840-48. A. 1976. A. E. Power Appm: S~\'. 27. OR. IEEE Trans. 9. IEEE Trans. Ganen. L. Operating Con!. PAS-100. Paper 81 WM 126-2. Grainger. III. 1. IEEE Trans. vol.. IEEE Std. IEEE PES Summer Meeting. IEEE Trans. R. R. Grainger. vol. PAS-97. no. and A. III. 19-24. vol. 1. Giinen. IS. 2. E. 1232-38. N. Pacific Coast Electr. 12. pt. September 1965.: Generalized Equations on Loss Reduction with Shunt Capacitors. III. 1981. Y. McGranaghan. pp.. Y. 34. M. 13. vol. January 1981.: Locating Shunt Capacitors on Primary Feeder for Voltage Control and Loss Reduction. and S. Mexico City. L.. Schmill. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company: Engineering Guides. Power Appar. Civanlar. T. and A. July 13-18. Electric Power Research Institute: Stlldy of Distribution System Surge and Harmonic Characteristics. pp. 19. vol.: Optimum Size and Location of Shunt Capacitors for Reduction of Losses on Distribution Feeders. and W.: The Impact of Technical Developments on Power Capacitors. 1980. pp. no. IEEE PES Winter Meeting.: Distribution System Harmonics: Effects on Equipment and Operation. Maxwell. F.. 23.. Power Appar. A. 33. 2460-69. Syst. Paper 83 WM 159-1. 30. Syst. 31. no. September 1984. pp. pp. A.: Analytical Method of Capacitor Allocation on Distribution Primary Feeders. 20. E. 10. CA.. pt. and S. Giinen. PAS-100. Vivirito: Distribution System Harmonics: Controls for Large Power Converters. and R. pt. 1574-77. F.440 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 8.. 76. Palo Alto. 4. 9. and S. Burgess. AlEE Trans.: DC Circuit Gives Easy Method of Determining Value of Capacitors in Reducing 12R Losses. Mahmoud. vol. no. January 30-February 4. Noble: Harmonic Interference Corrected by Shunt Capacitors on Distribution Feeders. Bae.. 14. Power Appar. 79. S. M. Grainger: Optimum Placement of Fixed and Switched Capacitors on Primary Distribution Feeders. December 1968.1. H. pp.: The Economic Application of Capacitors to Distribution Feeders. PAS-I03. 35. 75. IEEE Trans Power Appar. October 27-28. Burrage. pp. Lee. pp. T.. vol. E. no. and A. I. Syst. 345-51. . Power Appar. and 1. N. IEEE PES Winter Meeting. pp. and J. R. January 1981. El-Kib. Paper 81 SM 482-9. March 1981. and W. PAS-96. T. February 1-6. 22. New York. March 15-16.. 353-59. R. and F. IEEE Trans. 11. Djavashi: Optimum Shunt Capacitor Allocation on Primary Feeders. 1. Syst. no.: Optimum Size and Location of Shunt Capacitors on Distribution Systems. and F. pp. IEEE Trans. The Line. Lee. 2470-79. AlEE Trans. October 1956. A. Assoc. 28. August 1960. Purdue University.: Optimizing the Application of Shunt Capacitors for Reactive Voltampere Control and Loss Reduction. Syst. T. no. August 1961. 12. E. New York. pp. H.. IEEE Midwest Power Symposium. vol. vol. Cook. Owen.. October 1969. pp. Schmidt. IEEE PES Winter Meeting. Pas-87. PAS-84.rt . Chang. 2-5. E. Owen.. S.. N. McGranaghan. Chang. 1.: Direct Current Transmission. Djavashi: Optimum Loss Reduction from Capacitors Installed on Primary Feeders. Kimbark. vol. 825-32. E.1981. IEEE Trans Power Appal'. 2. Lee: Optimal Capacitor Placement on Three-Phase Primary Feeders: Load and Feeder Unbalance Effects. no. 1980. B. 1991-94. Owen. 21. Paper 83 WM 160-9. July/August 1978. Los Angeles. PAS-l02. September 1984. Power Appar. 1105-18. IN. R. IEEE Trans. GA.

The voltage measured at the ends of the service entrance apparatus.1 BASiC DEFiNiTiONS Voltage Regulation. The largest 5-min average voltage. The Bacc'/we.C. But talk nonsense to a fool and he calls you a genius. The voltage at which performance and operating characteristics of the apparatus are referred.g. Base Voltage. In many states. performance of distribution systems and quality of the service provided are measured in terms of freedom from interruptions and maintenance of satisfactory voltage levels at the customer's premises that is within limits appropriate for this type of service. Rated Voltage.2 QUALITY OF SERVICE AND VOLTAGE STANDARDS In general. Essays. (9. 407 H. De Montaigne. The percent voltage drop of a line (e. Minimum Voltage. The smallest 5-min voltage. M. Voltage Spread. Euripides. Maximum Voltage. Service Voltage. Utilization Voltage. 1580 Talk sense to a fool and he calls you foolish. Due to economic considerations. The nominal value assigned to a line or apparatus or a system of a given voltage class. Therefore. Turall GOllell 9. The difference between the sending-end and the receiving-end voltages of a line. The difference between the maximum and minimum voltages. The voltage measured at the ends of an apparatus. 441 .. % regulation !~!-Jv. usually 120 V. an electric utility company cannot provide each customer with a constant voltage matching exactly the nameplate voltage on the customer's utilization apparatus.9 Distribution System Voltage Regulation Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know. Nominal Voltage. the ANSI standard is the basis for the state regulatory commission rulings on setting forth voltage requirements and limits for various classes of electric service. The reference voltage.1) Voltage Drop. E. Therefore. a common practice among the utilities is to stay with preferred voltage levels and ranges of variation for satisfactory operation of apparatus as set forth by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) [2]. 9.! x 100.! =:: '!V. a feeder) with respect to the receiving-end voltage. without voltage dips due to motor starting.

1 gives typical secondary voltage standards applicable to residential and commercial customers. the customer's apparatus may still be expected to provide dependable operation. However. As can be observed in Table 9. too low steady-state voltage causes lowered illumination levels. if the operating voltage is held within the extreme zone under these conditions.. which necessitates the use of alternative routes or voltage regulators being out of service. The operating voltages in the tolerable zone (i. voltages outside the extreme zone should not be tolerated under any conditions and should be improved right away. the maximum voltage drop in the customer's wiring between the point of delivery and the point of utilization is accepted as 4 V based on J20 V. the actual operating values can vary over a large range. For example. usually within 2 or 3% above or below the tolerable zone. There are numerous ways to improve the distribution system's overall voltage regulation. The extreme or emergency zone includes voltages on the fringes of the tolerable zone.1. These voltage limits may be set by the state regulatory commission as a guide to be followed by the utility. that is. based on experience. (ii) the tolerable zone. and premature failure of some types of apparatus. difficulties in motor starting. However. 4. although not the standard performance. failure of the principal supply line. 3.e. shrinking of TV pictures.3 VOLTAGE CONTROL To keep distribution circuit voltages within permissible limits. Use of generator voltage regulators 2. the voltage should be improved. slow heating of heating devices. Usually. The nominal voltage standards for a majority of the electric utilities in the United States to serve residential and commercial customers are: 1. On the other hand. namely: (i) the favorable zone or preferred zone. can cause the voltages to reach the emergency limits. Application of voltage-regulating equipment in the distribution substations . The tolerable zone contains a band of operating voltages slightly above and below the favorable zone. The distribution engineer tries to keep the voltage of every customer on a given distribution circuit within the favorable zone. This range has been segmented into three zones. Figure 9. the voltage on a distribution circuit varies from a maximum value at the customer nearest to the source (first customer) to a minimum value at the end of the circuit (last customer). to increase the circuit voltage when it is too low and to reduce it when it is too high. means must be provided to control the voltage. The complete list is given by Lokay III as: I. For the purpose of illustration. However. At times. Table 9.1 illustrates the results of such efforts on urban and rural circuits. reduced life of electronic devices. range A) to produce satisfactory operation of the customer's equipment. and overheating and/or burning out of motors. range B) are usually acceptable for most purposes. most equipments and appliances operate satisfactorily over some range of voltage so that a reasonable tolerance is allowable. for any given nominal voltage level.442 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering In general. and (iii) the extreme zone.. 9. the voltage that usually stays within the tolerable zone may infrequently exceed the limits because of some extraordinary conditions. too high steady-state voltage causes reduced light bulb life.1. For example. if the voltage in the tolerable zone results in unsatisfactory service of the customer's apparatus. 2. although its performance may perhaps be less than warranted by the manufacturer. They mayor may not be acceptable depending on the type of application. in this zone the customer's apparatus may be expected to operate satisfactorily. The favorable zone includes the majority of the existing operating voltages and the voltages within this zone (i. 120/240-V three-wire single-phase 2401120-V four-wire three-phase delta 208Y1120-V four-wire three-phase wye 480Y1277-V four-wire three-phase wye As shown in Figure 9. However.e.

-. transformer and service 126 V at first customer __ . 10. (b) voltage profile at peak load conditions. 7. 6.. 8.urban customer 119 V at last rural transformer 4-V drop in last rural transformer._... 12._..-.1 Illustration of voltage spread on a radial primary feeder: (a) one-line diagram of a feeder circuit. FIrst customer rffn t / rffn Last customer =c Rural primary ~ (a) Last rural customer T VL 130 OJ ._. 111 V point of utilization point of utilization .0 ro U) 127 V on primary at first customer > N 6 125 '0 U) .-.0 Q) ro U) 120 ~ i9 OJ 115 (e) FIGURE 9.. 9._.._. secondary and service 0. - t 123 V at last . 4. x OJ OJ Nominal voltage 8-V drop in urban transformer.-. secondary and service ~ i9 g 115 115Vatlasturban ~ 115 Vat last rural / ' customer point of delivery customer point of delivery 111 V at last urban customer at last rural customer . 3.._.-.. 11..Distribution System Voltage Regulation 443 I r-nu =c II rl Primary feeder .s "0 OJ U) U) ~ E 120 . Application of capacitors in the distribution substation Balancing of the loads on the primary feeders Increasing of feeder conductor size Changing of feeder sections from single-phase to multiphase Transferring of loads to new feeders Installing of new substations and primary feeders Increase of primary voltage level Application of voltage regulators on the primary feeders Application of shunt capacitors on the primary feeders Application of series capacitors on the primary feeders .. 110 (b) > N 125 o o C '2 . 5.~. and (e) voltage profile at light load conditions..

However. A fixed capacitor is not a voltage regulator and cannot be directly compared with regulators. In cases where customers are located at long distances from the substation or where voltage drop along the primary circuit is excessive. additional regulators or capacitors. but. or (ii) distribution-type. range A Tolerable zone. Many of these installations have sophisticated controls designed to perform automatic switching. emergency At Point of Utilization Minimum 114/228 110/220 108/216 197Y/I14 191YIlIO I 87YIl08 456Y1263 440Y1254 432Y1249 Minimum 1101220 1061212 1041208 191YIlIO I 84Y/I06 180Y/I04 126/252 127/254 130/260 218Y/126 220YIl27 225YIl30 504Y/29 I 508Y/293 520Y/300 208Y/120-V 3tj>: Favorable zone.4 FEEDER VOLTAGE REGULATORS Feeder voltage regulators are used extensively to regulate the voltage of each feeder separately to maintain a reasonable constant voltage at the point of utilization. emergency 408Y/277-V 3tj>: Favorable zone. in some cases. provide supplementary regulation. Distribution substations are equipped with load-tap changing (LTC) transformers that operate automatically under load or with separate voltage regulators that provide bus regulation.444 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 9. only step-type voltage regulators will be discussed in this chapter.1 Typical Secondary Voltage Standards Applicable to Residential and Commercial Customers Voltage Limits Nominal Voltage Class At Point of Delivery Maximum 1201240-V Itj> and 2401l20-V 3tj> Favorable zone.or three-phase. located at selected points on the feeder. automatic voltage regulation is always provided by: (i) bus regulation at the substation. since today's modern step-type voltage regulators have practically replaced induction-type regulators. the regulating apparatus boosts the voltage at the substation to compensate for the increased voltage drop in the distribution feeder. which can be only single-phase and used pole-mounted on overhead . Step-type voltage regulators can be either: (i) station-type. Many utilities have experienced that the most economical way of regulating the voltage within the required limits is to apply both step voltage regulators and shunt capacitors. range B Extreme zone. range B Extreme zone. range B Extreme zone. However. (ii) individual feeder regulation in the substation. They are either the induction-type or the step-type. As the load increases. Voltage-regulating apparatus are designed to maintain automatically a predetermined level of voltage that would otherwise vary with the load. Capacitors are installed out on the feeders and on the substation bus in adequate quantities to accomplish the economic power factor. which can be single. automatically switched capacitors can replace conventional step-type voltage regulators for voltage control on distribution feeders. and which can be used in substations for bus voltage regulation (BVR) or individual feeder voltage regulation. 9. emergency 440Y/254 424Y1245 416Y1240 The selection of a technique or techniques depends on the particular system requirement. range A Tolerable zone. and (iii) supplementary regulation along the main by regulators mounted on poles. range A Tolerable zone.

(Note that the full voltage regulation range is 20%.5-kV multigrounded-wye. 2. Figure 9. whereas three-phase step-type voltage regulators are available in sizes from 500 to 2000 kYA. the control mechanism provides control of voltage level and bandwidth (BW). Standard voltage ratings are available from 2400 to 19.3 shows its application on a feeder with essential components. Auto-boosters basically are single-phase regulating autotransformers which provide four-step feeder voltage regulation without the high degree of sophistication found in 32-step regulators. A step-type voltage regulator is fundamentally an autotransformer with many taps (or steps) in the series winding.5 LINE-DROP COMPENSATION Voltage regulators located in the substation or on a feeder are used to keep the voltage constant at a fictitious regulation or regulating point (RP) without regard to the magnitude or power factor of the load. as shown in Figure 9.500 Y grounded-wye/19. Figure 9. 9. and therefore if the 20% regulation range is divided by the 32 steps. Figure 9. In addition to its autotransformer component. Most regulators are designed to correct the line voltage from 10% boost to 10% buck (i. as shown in Figure 9.) If two internal coils of a regulator are connected in series. Typical TDs are 10-120 sec. Only when the difference exceeds one-half of the BW will a tap change start. They can be used on circuits rated 2. Each step represents either lYz or 2Yz% voltage change depending on whether the unit has a 6 or 10% regulation range. when they are connected in parallel. this relay has the following three basic settings that control tap changes: I.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 445 primary feeders.920 Y multigrounded-wye.to 19.to 12-kV delta and 2. As illustrated in Figure 9. Each voltage regulator ordinarily is equipped with the necessary controls and accessories so that the taps are changed automatically under load by a tap changer which responds to a voltage-sensing control to maintain a predetermined output voltage.920 Y.16. By receiving its inputs from potential and current transformers. For some units.92/34. allowing regulators to be used on distribution circuits from 2400 to 34. BW: Voltage regulator controls monitor the difference between the measured and the set voltages. Set voltage: It is the desired output of the regulator. Furthermore.4 shows typical platform-mounted voltage regulators. They cost much less than the standard voltage regulators.2. Figure 9.e. Time delay (TD): It is the waiting time between the time when the voltage goes out of the band and when the controller initiates the tap change. a step-type regulator also has two other major components. Individual feeder regulation for a large utility can be provided at the substation by a bank of distribution voltage regulators. the regulator can be used for ±1O% regulation. respectively.. The regulation point is usually selected to be somewhere between the regulator and the end of . Longer TDs reduce the number of tap changes.4/4. namely. Figure 9. 3. ±1O%) in 32 steps. Station-type step voltage regulators for BYR can be up to 69 kY.8 shows a standard direct-drive tap changer. The auto-booster unit can have a continuous current rating of either 50 or 100 A. the current rating of the regulator would increase to 160% but the regulation range would decrease to ±5%.9 shows four-step auto-booster regulators.5.7. with a 5/8% voltage change per step. One such control mechanism is a voltage-regulating relay (VRR) which controls tap changes. as shown in Figure 9. a percent regulation per step is found.6. the standard capacity ratings can be increased by 25-33% by forced air cooling. It is also called the set point or band-center.4. Single-phase step-type voltage regulators are available in sizes from 25 to 833 kYA.2 shows a typical single-phase 32-step pole-type voltage regulator. the tap-changing and the control mechanisms. the control mechanism also provides the ability to adjust line-drop compensation by selecting the resistance and reactance settings.

55 c C rise 65°C insulation. furnishes weatherproof housing for solid-state electronic control FIGURE 9. positively positioned steps at a controlled speed that minimizes arcing and extends contact life Core-and-coil assembly offers efficient operation because of proven construction: has inherent high short-circuit strength. . (McGrawEdison Company.2 Typical single-phase 32-step pole-type voltage regulator used for 167 kVA or below. contains series and shunt windings. indicating the sequence of essential components.446 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Handhole cover Upper filter press connection Oil-level indicator Position indicator accurately Indicates tap position: has resettable drag hands. 12 percent added load at 65°C rise Substation mounting provision Control cabinet mounts integral to or remote from regulator.3 One-line diagram of a feeder. incorporates extemally adjustable limit switches that provide ADD-AMP feature of extra load at reduced regulation range Ufting eye (not shown) permits removal of cover-suspended internal components for convenient inspection and maintenance Self-shorting control cable disconnect Support lugs have jumpproof lips on upper lugs conform to ANSI standards Preventive autotransformer Tap changer provides regulation in smooth.) Circuit breaker Currentlimiting reactor Voltage regulator Feeder Feeding point 'A' I I I Primary lateral I I I ~ To first customer FIGURE 9.

Determination of the appropriate dial settings depends on whether or not any load is tapped off the feeder between the regulator and the regulation point. R. \ . x 12 £1./V'CC' and Reff is the effective resistance of a feeder conductor from regulator station to regulation point (£1). If no load is tapped off the feeder between the regulator and the regulation point.-.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 447 .. PTN is the potential transformer's turns ratio = Vp.) the feeder.. (Siemens-Allis Company. (9. the R dial setting of the line-drop compensator can be determined from (9. This automatic voltage maintenance is achieved by dial settings of the adjustable resistance and reactance elements of a unit called the line-drop compensator (LDC) located on the control panel of the voltage regulator. Figure 9.2) where CT p is the rating of the current transformer's primary..4 Typical platform-mounted voltage regulators.3) .10 shows a simple schematic diagram and phasor diagram of the control circuit and line-drop compensator circuit of a step or induction voltage regulator. FIGURE 9.rr = r.

5) and (9. and time delay.448 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 9. bandwidth.4) where Xcff is the effective reactance of a feeder conductor from regulator to regulation point.5 Individual feeder voltage regulation provided by a bank of distribution voltage regulators. and l is the primary feeder length (mi). Q (9. (Siemens-Allis Company. SI is the length of three-phase feeder between regulator station and substation (mi) (multiply length by 2 if feeder is in single-phase). .6 Regulator tap controls based on the set voltage. Also.6) Set voltage Tapchange Bandwidth 1 FIGURE 9. the X dial setting of the LDC can be determined from (9.) where ra is the resistance of a feeder conductor from regulator station to regulation point (Q/mi per conductor).

Neutral indicating light Reactance~ompensation increments Voltage-level control per mits adjustment of regulated voltage level from 105 to 134.. but the determination of the Reff is somewhat more involved.--'"'M-__ Adjustable time delay range. rather than for a small group of customers. Note that since the R and X settings are determined for the total connected load.5 V Control switch features a "Iower-off-auto-offraise" position sequence knobs provides a range ofOto24Vinl-V increments Resistance~compensatjon knob is continuously adjustable from 0 through 24 V LOC control External source terminals Voltmeter terminals FIGURE 9.7) Q = .. is the inductive reactance spacing factor (Q/mi). Operation counter Band edge indicators Voltage-bandwidth control adjustable from ~ to 4~Vin ~-V . the resistance and reactance values of the transformers are not included in the effective resistance and reactance calculations.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 449 . and XL is the inductive reactance of the feeder conductor (Q/mi). (McGrawEdison Company. 10 through 120 s 1i1I_~I..2.7 Features of the control mechanism of a single-phase 32-step voltage regulator.. If load is tapped off the feeder between the regulator station and the regulation point.l"-j"--. the R dial setting of the LDC can still be determined from Equation 9.) Xd where Xa is the inductive reactance of individual phase conductor of feeder at 12-in spacing (Q/mi). Lokay [1] gives the following equations to calculate the effective resistance: II IIVDRli Reff (9.

arc-resistant. (McGraw-Edison and " 2JYD Ii =I/L.450 Geneva pinion transmits motion to drive.lI R i=1 X . r". IILI is the magnitude of load current at regulator location (A)..2 x 12 +···+IIL. copper-tungsten contacts that make solid connection to series winding Stationary contacts have arc-resistant coppertungsten tips on lowresistance copper base to ensure long life Movable contacts slide on stationary contacts in a strong wiping movement that exerts finm pressure on two suriaces of stationary contact: are constructed of arcresistant copper-tungsten: have individual collector rings mo------. once a tap change is in!liated. I. I/ul is the magnitude of load current in the ith feeder section (A).21 X ':. Also. and Ii is the length of the ith feeder section (mi).8) where IYD Rli is the voltage drop due to line resistance of the ith section of feeder between regulator station and regulation point (Vlsection). x I. the X dial setting of the LDC can still be determined from Equation 9. f Scroll cam imparts. makes one complele revolution for every six revolutions of the pinion Drive motor is reversible single type initiates capacitor type. .8 Company.. operates through 180' per tap change Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Reversing switch has sturdy.."I x ':..:. initiates drive mechanism action. +1/1.dual and ind"oendent for imparting motion through shaft to a particular movable contact FIGURE 9.9) . the holding switch provides an un interruptible power supply through a complete tap change Drive shaft transmits tion through gearing to scroll cam. (9.. Lokay [I] gives the following equations to calculate the effective reactance: (9. but the determination of the Xcrr is again somewhat more involved.. shaft.) Standard direct-drive tap changer used through lS0-kV BIL." x I".~I IVDRl i is the total voltage drop due to line resistance of feeder between regulator station and regulation point (Y). above 219 A.4. i is the resistance of a feeder conductor in the ith section of the feeder (Q/mi). motion to roller plates designed to produce smooth tap changes Roller plates are indr..

+ IIL."I x XL.------~~~~------~~ RL Voltage regulator Regulation IL point XL I Load PT FIGURE 9.=I 1VDx1j is the total voltage drop due to line reactance of _ tsource~-.2lx Xu x 12 + . East Pittsburgh. (9.9 (b) Four-step auto-booster regulators: (a) 50-A unit and (b) IOO-A unit. L.llxXL.I i=l " X II +1/L.) ..Distribution System Voltage Regulation 451 (a) FIGURE 9.10 Simple schematic diagram and phasor diagram of the control circuit and line-drop compensator circuit of a step or induction voltage regulator. (McGraw-Edison Company. 1965. (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems." x I". vol.. 3. PA. With permission.) and IIVDxli =1/L.10) where IVDx!i is the voltage drop due to line reactance of the ith section of feeder between regulator station and regulation point (V/section).

and lightload profile showing fictitious RP for LDC settings.656 = 200 XSC! 120 x 7900 x 0.---\\:-=:::::::::::::::::=' Light-load profile (a) a. Distance to fictitious RP is 3. o I I I I I I I I 2345678 Feeder length beyond regulator.718 Q/mi..9 = 8. Figure 9. and (b) peak.4428 Voltage-regulating relay setting is I20.452 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering feeder between regulator station and regulation point (V).l V.11 Determination of the voltage profiles for: (aJ peak loads and (b) light loads. Lokay [1] suggests an alternative and practical method to measure the current (IJ and voltage at the regulator location and the voltage at the RP. respectively. Since the methods just described to determine the effective R and X are rather involved. . The PT and CT ratios of the voltage regulator are 7960:120 and 200:5.11 gives an example for determining the voltage profiles for the peak and light loads. mi (b) FIGURE 9.2 OJ (/j 130 128 126 124 Firstdistributor transformer I I I I I I I I I I I I I I o ~ ~ 122 120 118 116 > >- . The difference between the two voltage values is the total voltage drop between the regulator and the regulation point.11) from which the Reffand Xeff values can be determined easily if the load power factor of the feeder and the average RIX ratio of the feeder conductors between the regulator and the RP are known. which can also be defined as VD = II Ix L Rcff X cos () + II Ix X cff x sin () L (9.. One-line diagram and voltage profiles of a feeder with distributed load beyond a voltage regulator location: (a) one-line diagram. and XL.:: E ro Regulation point ~~ '-~-~'.9 = 5. [1]. LDC settings are Rse! 120 = 200 x 7900 x 0.718 x 3.l is the inductive reactance (as defined in Equation 9.481 and 0. Voltage regulator ~ Primary feeder ~·f ! ++ ++ + t + t . respectively.481 x 3.6) of the ith section of the feeder (Q/mi). Note that the primary-feeder voltage values are based on a 120-V base. It is assumed that the conductor size between the regulator and the first distribution transformer is #2/0 copper conductor with 44-inch flat spacing with resistance and reactance of 0.9 mi.

VRP . The BW of the VRR is adjustable within the approximate range from ±% to ±IY2 V based on 120 V. The TD is adjustable between about 10 and 120 sec. the regulator regulates the voltage at its local terminal to the setting of the VRR ± BW. it can be extended farther and/or loaded more heavily if a feeder voltage regulator bank is used wisely. Figure 9. All modern regulators are provided with adjustments to reduce the range to which the motor can drive the tapchanger switching mechanism. If the typical primary-feeder main is voltage-drop-limited. both a larger range of regulation and a larger regulator . if load growth occurs. holding Vp constant as both the subtransmission voltage (VST ) and the IZr voltage drop in the substation transformer vary with load.2 in case the full 10% range of regulation is not required. by means of the LDC.1. ANSI standards provide for regulator overload capacity as listed in Table 9. that is. However. In this example. Good advantage sometimes can be taken of this designed overload type of limited-range operation. is located at the point s = s I' and it varies its boost and buck automatically to hold a set voltage at the RP.12 The elements of a distribution substation for Example 9. 5=1 Feeder regulator station FIGURE 9. The substation LTC transformer can be used to regulate the primary distribution voltage (Vp ) bus.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 453 Subtransmission Base VST =69 kV LTC 5r= 15 MVA Distribution substation transformer Base Vp = 13. The LDC has R and X settings which are both adjustable within the approximate range from oto 24 n [often called volts because the current transformers (CTs) used with regulators have I-A secondaries] .l2 the feeder voltage regulator. The location of the RP is controlled by the R and X settings of the LDC. In Figure 9. The abbreviation VRR stands for voltage-regulating relay (or solid-state equivalent thereof). 12 illustrates the elements of a distribution substation that is supplied from a subtransmission loop and feeds several radial primary feeders.1 This example investigates the use of step-type voltage regulation (control) to improve the voltage profile of distribution systems. at s = SRp.2 kV 5=0 5. EXAMPLE 9. that is. and it is adjustable within the approximate range from 110 to 125 V. SRP = Sl' Overloading of Step-Type Feeder Regulators. If the R and X settings are set to zero. The VRR measures the voltage at the RP. Typical LTC and Feeder Regulator Data. indicated with the symbol shaped as a 0 with an arrow going through it.

the ratio is the high-voltage-side ampere rating hecause the low-voltage rating is 1.5 63.95.2-kV grounded wye and has a per unit (pu) impedance (Zr.62/l3.5 63.45 kV or 1.3 Some Typical Single-Phase Regulator Sizes Single-Phase kVA Volts Amps CTP* PTN** 25 125 38. Assume that the maximum subtransmission voltage (max VST ) is 72. .25 ±5.5 " Ratio of the current transformer contained within the regulator (here.L = 69 kV Primary base V L _ L = 13.2 76.2 Overloading of Step-Type Feeder Regulators Reduced Range of Regulation (%) Percent of Normal load Current 100 110 120 ±1O.2 kV The substation transformer is rated 15 MVA.08 based on its ratings.3 167 250 2500 2500 7620 7620 7620 7620 7620 7620 100 500 50 75 100 150 219 328 100 500 50 75 100 150 250 400 20 20 63. Its three-phase LTC can regulate ±10% voltage in 32 steps of 5/8% each. 69 to 7.5 63.2 114.1 57. Table 9.50 ±6.0 A).25 pu with a leading power factor of 0.454 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 9. Load Flow Data. pu) of 0 + jO. Substation Data.3 gives some typical singlephase regulator sizes. Make the following assumptions: Base MVA 30D = 15 MVA Subtransmission base VL .75 ±7.05 pu which occurs during the off-peak period at which the off-peak kilovoltamperage is 0. ** Ratio of the potential transformer contained within the regulator (all potential transformer secondarics arc 120 V).5 63.5 63.OO ±8. The minimum subtransmission voltage (min VST ) is TABLE 9.00 135 160 size (kilovoltamperes or current) can be expected to be needed.

and that the maximum voltage drop in secondaries is 0. Voltage Data and Voltage Criteria. Solution (a) Since the LDC of the regulator is not used. Assume that the substation transformer LTC is used for BYR. BW being considered.2381 )(0. respectively. the setting of the VRR for the highest allowable primary Voltage.035) considering the most remote secondary.08 pu n. mi) at 0. pu -/ p.(0. Vp . and 0.0.0417 pu Y at zero load and that.(8) = 1.05 . Assume that the annual peak load is 4000 kYA. occurs at the zero load and is VRR = (VP)max . Use 3. Assume that the maximum secondary voltage is 125 Y or 1.88 x 10-6 pu VD/(kVA . The main has 266.pu ST.85. (a) Specify the setting of the VRR for the highest allowable primary voltage (Vp).0767 pu Y (1.(35) considering the nearest secondary to the regulator and the minimum primary voltage is 1. at annual peak load. (b) To find the maximum number of buck and boost which will be required.035 pu Y. P.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 455 69 kY or 1.05 LO° pu V.2381)( cos 0 + jsin 0)(0 + jO.OOO pu Y for the maximum and the minimum primary voltages at peak load. pu is the per unit subtransmission voltage at the primary side of the substation transformer = 1.05 .85 lagging power factor as the K constant.0417 + 0.12) where VST.0083 = 1. at off-peak. BW being considered.0589 pu V + jO. = 0 and X SC1 = 0 Therefore.pu = 1.0417 .9667 pu Y. and is distributed uniformly along the IO-mi long feeder main.3118)(0 + jO. Therefore. (c) Sketch voltage profiles of the feeder being considered for zero load and for the annual peak load. Assume that the maximum primary voltage (max VI') is 1. =v. Label the significant voltage values on the curves. pu is the per unit impedance of substation transformer = 0 + jO.0417 pu Y (based on 120 Y) and the minimum secondary voltage is 116 Y or 0. the maximum primary voltage is 1.2 V. Rse.BW = 1.85. the highest allow- able primary voltages at off-peak and on-peak have to be found. at a lagging power factor of 0.9667 + 0. v.00 pu which occurs during the peak period at which the peak kilovoltamperage is 1. then round the setting to a convenient number. Also use rounded figures of 1:075 and l.08) . Feeder Data. I p.pu (9.0 Y or (lVIl20Y) = 0.2381 pu A. pu is the per unit no-load primary current at the substation (transformer) = 0.00 pu with a lagging power factor of 0.8-kcmil AACs (all-aluminum conductors) with 37 strands and 53-inch geometric mean spacing.(0. (b) Find the maximum number of steps of buck and boost which will be required. Therefore.pu xZT.0017 pu Y (0.0083 pu Y.0334 pu Y == 1. Use a BW of ±1.035 pu V = 124.95 = 1.

Since the LTC of the substation can regulate ±1O% voltage in 32 steps of 5/8% V (or 0.pu= VRRpu - L VDpu = 1.13) and the maximum number of steps of boost required. is Vp pu . Therefore.00625 1. as shown in Figure 9.075 . is Min V. VP.00625 pu V) each.pu = 1.0589 .9574 pu V.85 . at peak.VRRpu (9.00625 1.0. of steps = ---'-'-'-------'--0.0 .1.075 - BW = 1.0776 puV and thus the minimum primary-feeder voltage at the end of the lO-mi feeder.'.456 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering whereas. at on-peak.00)(0.53)(0 + jO.9602 pu V. At the annual peak load.00625 == 3 or 4 steps (9.VRRpu -"-'-'-'=--------''-=- No.(1.16) =0. the maximum number of steps of buck required.15) 2 = 0.0667 pu V .jO.14) (c) To sketch voltage profiles of the primary feeder for the annual peak load.9602 0. the rounded voltage criteria are Max VI'.08) = 0. vi> pu . at off-peak. is No.035 = 0.13. the total voltage drop of the feeder has to be known.88 x 10-6 )(4000 kVA{ 10 mi) (9.035 .00625 == 12 steps.0083 = ).035 .0776 (9. of steps = 0.0. pu = 1. L VDpu = KXSX± = (3.0.

1 .00 + BW = l.035 pu BW = -0.pu =l.0083 pu Forno load -.0083 pu Min VST. .. Therefore. and Min V p. At no-load.13 Feeder voltage profile.pu = 1.L T VRRpu = 1.pu = 1. As can be seen from Figure 9.0083 =1.0083 pu V..035 ~----------I.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 457 Max VST. a voltage regulator has to be used. the minimum primary-feeder voltage at the end of the lO-mi feeder fails to meet the minimum voltage criterion at the annual peak load.9574 pu Fails to meet the minimum voltage criterion o Feeder length s= 10 mi FIGURE 9.0417 .0 For peak load 0.0083 pu V. pu = 1.0083 = 1.035 pu V and Min V p.13. pu = 1.0417 .00 + 0.BW =1. the rounded voltage criteria are Max VP.05 BW = +0.'ffh'ffh'ffh'ffh'ffh'lf-----.0.

000 pu V (c) What is the advantage of part a over part b. determine the sl distance at which the regulator must be located as shown in Figure 9. the total voltage drop of the feeder is L Therefore. for the following two cases.VP.pu o FIGURE 9. pu = 1. is SI' as shown in VD sl = VRRpu . pu = 1.0776 pu V. that is. can be found from the following parabolic formula for the uniformly (9. (9.1 and locate the voltage regulator.18) VRRpU~------------>7)----------------------------' VD s1 Vp. or vice versa? Solution (a) When VP. pu) at the input to the regulator is (a) VP. the distance distributed load SI VDpu = 0.025 pu V.458 EXAMPLE Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 9.pu = 1.01 = 0. pu = 1.1.12. where the peak load primary-feeder voltage (VP.14. the associated voltage drop at the distance Figure 9.010 pu V.2 Use the information and data given in Example 9.14 51 5 == 1== 10 mi Feeder length .035 .010 pu V (b) VP.17) From Example 9.1.

23 mi. which has two solutions. respectively. Previously.-J = VRRpu . the annual peak load and the standard regulation range have been given as 4000 kVA and ±IO%.1.1'1 is VD.1'1 is 3300 kV A = 1100 kV A.00 1.2. The uniformly distributed three-phase load at SI is S .00 pu V in the future.010 pu V as given in Example 9.VI'.035 . Therefore. the distance is 2. Therefore. Therefore.2165 = o. (b) When VI'.18.1'1 + 32. from Equation 9. sf . the VP• pu might be less than 1. Otherwise. taking the acceptable answer. namely. 3¢ (1-~) =4000(1.3 Assume that the peak load primary-feeder voltage at the input to the regulator is 1. Determine the necessary minimum kilovoltampere size of each of the three singlephase feeder regulators.pu = 1. EXAMPLE 9. Sl which has two solutions.00 = 0.00 pu V.6 and 17. Solution From Example 9. the distance .75 mi. is 1. or s~ -20 Sl +45.1031 = 0. (e) The advantage of part a over part b is that it can compensate for future growth. Thus. namely.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 459 or from which the following quadratic equation can be obtained.20. 2. pu = 1. the single-phase load at .75 and 18.75 mi.75 I = 3300 kVA. 1.035 pu V.1'1' taking the acceptable answer.10. 3 . the associated voltage drop at the distance .4 mi.6 mi.2. the distance SI is found to be 1.

the best settings for the LDC of the regulator are when settings for both R and X are zero and VRRpu = VRf'. (b) The voltage drop occurring in the feeder portion between the RP and the end of the feeder is VD Pll = K x S x2 = (3.75 mi found in Example 9. Label significant voltage values on the curves. then S reg = 10 x 1100 kVA 100 IlOkVA.460 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Since the single-phase regulator kilovoltampere rating is given by (9. SRP = SI' or.19) where Sckt is the circuit kilovoltamperage.0528 pu V. the corresponding minimum kilovoltampere size of the regulator size can be found as 114. for example.0528 = 0. Thus.4 Use the distance of Sl = 1.0667-pu value is used. = 1. from Table 9. in other words. the peak load voltage profile is not linear but is parabolic in shape.035 pu V. If.3.20) .15. pu = 1. (a) Specify the best settings for the LDC's R and X.035 .88 x 10-6 )(3300) ( I 8. television sets of those customers located at the vicinity of the RP might be damaged during the off-peak periods because of the too high VRP value. then. the 1. instead. and determine the following. iO m.2 and assume that the distance of the RP is equal to Sl' that is. the RP is located at the regulator station. Thus.~5 ) = 0.0. The voltage-drop valueflH any given point s between the substation and the regulator station can be calculated from VD = K(S s 11/> _ S3¢ I X s)s + K(Sl¢ I X s)S puV 2 (9.3 kVA. and for the VRR. (b) Sketch voltage profiles for zero load and for the annual peak load. I'" used at the regulator point is the no-load value rather than the annual peak load value. pu) criteria met? Solution (a) The XRP = 51 means that the RP is located at the feeder regulator station. the primary-feeder voltage at the end of the feeder for the annual peak load is VI'. As can be seen from Figure 9. Note that the VI'. Therefore. (c) Are the primary-feeder voltage (Vp.9809 pu V. EXAMPLE 9.

0 0. pu V 0.0 1.4 For Annual Peak Load s.01 ::> 0.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 461 1. and s is the distance from the substation (mi).035 1.97 Regulation input (at peak load) For peak load ::::. The voltage-drop value for any given point s between the substation and the regulator station can also be calculated from VDs = I(rXCos8+xxsin8)s(1- . I is the primary feeder length (mi).20. VD = 3.22) TABLE 9.04 At substation transformer Regulator output = VRP /1. .0 • Feeder length.98 0.pu.0: 0.0 I 5. mi 0.0 8. pu can be found. S3¢ is the uniformly distributed three-phase annual peak load (kVA).4000S)s + 3.0 3.0 0.Q25 1.02 1. puv . s 10 10 2 (9.15 I 1.0068 0. as given in Table 9. (9.21) For various values of s the associated values of the voltage drops and VP.0 2.0071 0.00 0.J..99 0.0337 pu For no load --Feeder end 1. 1.0076 0.0135 1.4.SSXI0-6(4000S)3.9809 pu T o FIGURE 9.0 I 9.5 1. Therefore.0 7.0 I 6. voltage drop.75 VD" pu V vP.5 1.0203 1.010 YO.SS x 10-6(4000. mi Feeder voltage profiles for zero load and for the annual peak load.0 10. where K is the percent voltage drop per kilovoltampere-mile characteristic of feeder.0274 1.0 4. from Equation 9.

~ S.0031 .25 8.26) For various values of s the corresponding values of the voltage drops and VP. Therefore.. the voltage profile for the zero load is a horizontal line (with zero slope). VD = 3.9809 0.9840 0.25 4.25.9933 0. Since there is no voltage drop at zero load. VL •N (9. TABLE 9.. l-s l-s 2 y _ pu V. 8..0092 0. and x is the reactance of feeder main (Q/mi per phase). The voltage profiles for the annual peak load can be obtained by plotting the VP• pu values from Tables 9.035 pu.5 For Annual Peak Load 5. the VI'.0157 Vp. mi VD" pu V 0. pu V 1.5.$ x s) s + K (S. 3300S)s + 3.25) where S~¢ is the uniformly distributed three-phase annual peak load at distance Sl (kVA) =S Therefore. as given in Table 9. from Equation 9.25 8.0337 1. pu remains constant at 1. Therefore.0088 0.25 2 pu V .00 0.5. (9.0245 1. (9. pu can be found.25 YD. the voltage drop in pu can be found as VDs VDs = --puV.25 6.88 x 10-6 (3300 s 3¢ (1-~) I kVA and s I is the distance of the feeder regulator station from the substation (mi). om 55 0.75 2.24) The voltage-drop value for any given point s between the regulator station and the end of the feeder can be calculated from the following equation VD = s K(s.4 and 9.88 x 10-6 (3300S)!.$ x s)!.00 0.pu.0093 0..462 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where IL is the load current in the feeder at the substation end (9. voltage drop.23) r is the resistance of the feeder main (Q/mi) per phase.

the R and X dial settings can be found as = -- CTp Rse. From Table A. From Table 9.3 and 9.l'1 as found in part (a) of Example 9. Therefore. respectively. for the regulator size of 114. but the RP has been moved to the end of the feeder so that SRI' = 1= 10 mi.0083 pu V is not met although the regulator voltage has been set as high as possible without exceeding the maximum voltage criterion of 1.6611 x 8.25 2 = 2. PTN x Reff Q = 150 x 1.I-si Rcff 2 = 0. R. the primary rating of the current transformer and the potential transformer ratio are 150 and 63.5.2. From Equations 9. (a) Determine good settings for the values of VRR.3. the inductive-reactance spacing factor for the 53-inch geometric mean spacing is 0.386 x 8.7270Q.035 pu y.6611 Q/mi. = 1'" x .4. (b) Sketch voltage profiles and label the values of significant voltages.6.IO.5923 63. in pll V.1802 Q/ mi. pu voltage criteria will be met. the inductive reactance of the feeder conductor is = 0. Solution (a) From Table A.4809 + O.S Assume that the regulator station is located at the distance.8- kcmil AAC with 37 strands are 0.386 and 0. from Equations 9.4809 Q/mi.4 of Appendix A.25 2 = 1. respectively.2 and 9.Distribution System Voltage Regulation (e) 463 The minimum Vp.0313 pu V .3 kVA found in Example 9.5923 Q and = [-SI XLX-- X eff 2 = 0. I802 = 0.5 = 3. if possible.pucriterion of 1. from Equation 9.761 V or 0. Therefore. the resistance at 50°C and the reactance of the 266. and X so that all VI'. EXAMPLE 9.3.5.

62(3. as shown in Figure 9. Here..0083 At Peak Load 1'()666 At Zero Load 1.035 -1.6 Consider the results of Examples 9. note that the regulator regulates the regulator output voltage automatically according to the load at any given time in order to maintain the RP voltage at the predetermined voltage value. (a) The number of steps of buck and boost the regulators will achieve in Example 9.5 and determine the following.7 (based on Equation 9.N(Rset x cos e + Xset x sin e) CTp xVB pu V (9. _ _ _~Itage Criteria..442 V or 0.0138 At Zero Load 1.00625 = 0. Assume that the voltage at the RP (VRP ) is arbitrarily set to be 1.85 + 6.OOS3 UlI38 .6..0666 pu V..527) 150 x 120 = 1.- CTp PTN X X cff Q = 150 x 2. (b) The number of steps of buck and boost the regulators will achieve in Example 9. /VL.6 and 9. EXAMPLE 9.16.pu values from Tables 9.4. Therefore.464 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering based on 120 V and X set = . pu V Voltage Max VI'.6 Actual Primary Voltages versus Voltage Criteria at Peak and Zero Loads Actual Voltage..0337 I.727 63.761 x 0.4 and 9. the number of steps of buck is _ 1. As can be observed from Table 9.0537 pu V.4..26).0138 1. No.208 TABLE 9. the output voltage of the regulator for the annual peak load can be found from = VRP + SI".6 gives the VP• pu values for the purpose of comparing the actual voltage values against the established voltage criteria for the annual peak and zero loads.0667 1. 0 f steps .. PIJ~ ______ _ At Peak Load 1.27) = 1.5 = 6. the primary voltage criteria are met by using the R and X settings.0l38 pu V using the R and X settings of the LDC of the regulator so that the VRP is always the same for zero load or for the annual peak load.0138 + 110017. (b) The voltage profiles for the annual peak and zero loads can be obtained by plotting the VP. Table 9. 1''' Mill V". 0.442 x 0... Solution (a) For Example 9.0337 .5.

0 IO No.25 8.0337 . voltage drop.035 .99 \ (at no load) Regulator input (at peak load) Re.00 0.oload .00625 =3. 0 f steps = . mi VD" pU V 0.00 0..0093 0. thus it is either zero or one step.pu pU V 1.75 2.035 1.0138 No.16 Voltage profiles.0..0157 0.- ~ VRP = 1.03 a: 1.39 Regulator output 1. 1... ..7 Values Obtained 5.01 1.0155 0..04 1. mi FIGURE 9.0417 1."'atoe O"tp"t o Feeder length. the number of steps of buck is 1.79 therefore it is either three or four steps.25 6.1.0262 1.0138 0.5..0138 pu 1.0.1.0169 1.0092 0.01 pu ~----For.25 YD..Distribution System Voltage Regulation 465 Table 9.00625 = 3. 0 f steps = ..25 4.02 0.0138PU 1.0666 1.0666 pu At substation transforme /' Regulator input I (at no load) For peak load :::> I 11.07 1.. (b) For Example 9. The number of boost is 1.05 1.00 0.06 1.0031 Vp.0574 1.

which is smaller than the required capacity of 110 kVA. that is.466 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering hence it is either three or four steps.S? Explain.2) so that 1.SOO V. 76. The number of steps of boost is 1. Assume that the bases to be used are SOOO kVA.SO Q/mi. This ±S% regulation range would allow the capacity of the regulator to be increased to 160% (see Table 9. but it would allow the capacity of the regulator to be increased only up to 13S% (see Table 9. .92 kVA. Assume that the customer asks that the low-voltage bus be regulated to 24S0/4244 V and determine the following.S (7620: 120).4 as the next smaller-size regulator.S7 kVA. The customer's transformer is rated SOOO kVA in three-phase with a 12.2) so that 1. The nominal voltage at the utility substation low-voltage bus is 7.2S% would provide the ±1O steps of buck and boost.2 kVA = 102. The industrial customer's bus is located at the end of a 3-mi primary line with a resistance of 0.8 Figure 9.2 kVA.06 therefore it is either nine or ten steps.0-0-6-2S-=9. The voltage regulator bank is made up of three single-phase step-type voltage regulators with a potential transformer ratio of 63. and 7390112. Solution (a) Yes. (a) Find the necessary setting of the voltage-setting dial of the VRR of each single-phase regulator in use.2/13. (b) Assume that the ratio of the current transformer in each regulator is 2S0:1 A and find the necessary R and X dial settings of LDCs. The reduced range of regulation at ±6. EXAMPLE 9. It would allow the use ±S steps of buck and boost.010 N 0.17 shows a one-line diagram of a primary feeder supplying an industrial customer.2-kV three-phase wye-grounded. (b) No.30 Q/mi and an inductive reactance of O.7 Consider the results of Examples 9.3S x 76.4 and 9.4? Explain.0 f steps = --0-.2 kVA = 121.OS pu Q based on the rated kilovoltamperes and tap voltages in use. 2400/4160 V. The transformer impedance is 0 + jO.S and answer the following.0666 -1. which is much larger than the required capacity of 110 kVA. (b) Can reduced range of regulation be used gainfully in Example 9.SOO-V primary connected in delta (taps in use) and a 2400/4160-V secondary connected in grounded-wye. at ±S% regulation range can be selected. the reduced range of regulation cannot be used gainfully in Example 9. respectively.6 x 76. the reduced range of regulation can be used gainfully in Example 9. which is more than the required one step of buck and four steps of boost. (a) Can reduced range of regulation be used gainfully in Example 9.S as the required steps of buck and boost are four and ten. EXAMPLE 9.

99 63.02083 pu V.99 = = 118. VRR = 7620 x 0. VRR = 7390 x 1.Distribution System Voltage Regulation Utility substation LV bus 467 Voltage-regulator 1 .bank 1= 3 mi .. Therefore.5 = 120 x 0.5 12.02083 7620 = 0..8 V.. = 1...02083 x 13 x63.17 One-line diagram of a primary feeder supplying an industrial customer. Thus. .800 (9.8 V or.28) == 118. RP - _ 2450 V 2400 V = 1...99 pu V or 7620 V...99 PTN 7620 x 0.. Solution (a) The voltage at the RP which is located at the customer's bus is v. alternatively... j Industrial ~ customer's bus FIGURE 9....

6384 0 =4.5 = 3. PTN X XciI = 250 x 4. Therefore.5433 0 and the X dial setting is CTp Xset = .31) = (0.x Ref!" PTN = 250 x 0.29) Since here the R and X settings are determined for only one customer.30) = (0.8992 n.5 = 15.035 pu V.8 Q/mi)(3 mi) + 1. (9.468 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (b) The applicable impedance base is z _ (kVL.05) x 32.1.pu X ZB = (0 + jO.7680 therefore the transformer impedance is Zr = Zr.6384 O.. the resistance and reactance values of the customer's transformer have to be included in the effective resistance and reactance calculations.8 kV)2 5MVA = 32. Assume that the substation has a BVR with transformer LTC and that the primary feeder voltage (VI') has been set on the VRR to be 1.9 Consider the IO-mi feeder of Example 9. the R dial setting of the LDC is CTp Rset = .0384 63. Reff = r x I + RT (9.03840.768 = 0 + j1.9 63. .d 2 B- MVA (12.90 and X eff = X X I + XT (9. EXAMPLE 9.3 Q/mi)(3 mi) + 0 =0. Thus.

that is.85 and distributed uniformly along the main or.22 (9.5 that the main feeder has an inductive reactance of 0. the pu voltage rise (VRP I'll) due to NSW capacitor bank is =-xlO 1000(kVL.. Thus. Locate the switched capacitor bank. Therefore. in other words. nonswitched (NSW). the uniformly distributed load is S14' = PI + jQ. It has been found in Example 9. the required size of the NSW capacitor bank is QNSW = CR X QL = (0.27)(2100 kvar) (9.32) = 567 kvar per three-phase.41 1000 x 13. that is. (c) Add a switched capacitor bank for voltage control on the feeder. Solution (a) From Figure 8. capacitor bank for the maximum loss reduction.67 mi for the optimum result.27. as found in Example 9. Assume that the annual peak load is 4000 kVA at a lagging power factor of 0.1. QNSW installed. Qsw' at the end of the feeder for the feeder at the annual peak load is 1.661 £2/mi per conductor.0776 pu V and the reactive load factor is 0. the corrective ratio (CR) for the given reactive load factor of 0.18.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 469 Assume that the main feeder is made up of 266.. two single-phase standard 100-kvar size capacitor units are required to be used on each phase and located on the feeder at a distance of s= 2 xI 3 2 3 = 6.d 600 x 4. Therefore.000 pu V." = VD. (a) Design a fixed.0152 pu V. the total voltage drop of the feeder is L VD. Assume that. (b) Sketch the voltage profiles when there is no capacitor (N/C) bank installed and when there is a fixed-capacitor bank.31.= 3400 + j210n kVA. Sketch the associated voltage profiles.40.40 is found to be 0. Use the given data and determine the following. that is. as shown in Figure 9.. .8-kcmil with 37 strands and 53-in geometric mean spacing. I'" =0.33) = 0.

When there is 110 (9.966 pu V. .035 .069 pu V.069 (9.0.. pu = 1.470 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 1-+-----6. pu . the feeder voltage at the ~ I distance is V.35) c([paci/or bank installed.0152 = 0.9812 pu V.67 mi . the voltage at the end of the feeder is = 1.67) 0.34) = 0. (b) When there is no capacitor bank installed. the new voltage at the ~ l distance due to the voltage rise is New V".18) or VDs pu = 6.18 Optimum location of a capacitor bank. pu = V. When there is a fi-red capacitor bank installed.0776 = 0. .0...VD . the voltage drop for the uniformly distributed load at the distance of s = I can be found from Equation 9. pu = 0. pu + VRpu = 0.67 (2 _ 6. I 1-+---------l0mi-------~ s=o S=~I s=1 FIGURE 9. Therefore.0776 10 10 from which VD.966 + 0.035 .pu = VP.18 as t VDs pu = LVDpu ~(2 _ ~) I I (9..9574 pu V.

93 0.19 . The associated voltage profiles are shown in Figure 9.000 .::.07 1.!.9574 + 0. (c) Since the new voltage at the end of the feeder due to the Q.0011 1 1.01 ::> I 1 c\ '" Q\.w installation is 1.-+-----.c=.0 6. the required voltage rise is = 1.19..000 pu V at the annual peak load.38) 1. 2.0 . pLI = VI.035 1.\1 I 9.0 .9574 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 FIGURE 9.02 1.00 0..0. c. 1 1 1 0. 5.. 4.03 1.0502 11.92 2 ~. the new voltage at the end of the feeder due to the voltage rise is new VI.04 1.1. .0 .0502 1. (Zero load + NIC) ~-----"1.o====----.0 10..9726 = 0.0 .94 0.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 471 When there is afixed capacitor bank instal/ed. 3. _ _ _ _-1'1.06 1. (9. mi 1 .0152 = 0. 3/~: .0 .0 .::~=~.95 0. Voltage profiles.0274 pu Y.9726 pu Y.:::.96 0.035 1 1 1 11.:.98 0. 8.97 0.99 0.9726 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.\s'i'I) (le(O loa.0 7. 1.035 1. pli + VRpu = 0.0 Feeder length.0002 --.05 1.

42) = 0..41) = 0.e. pu pu V 2 =3 x 0. at the peak load when both the l1ol1switched (i. assume that the first combination.. (ii) Six single-phase standard 100-kyar capacitor units. sw X XL U 1000(kvL _d p V ..2 kYar. fixed) and the switched capacitor banks are on.611 = 722. pu + VR I . plI = new VI.0285 (9. the required size of the switched capacitor bank can be found from VR pu or = Q3¢.39) Q3¢. the possible combinations of the single-phase standard size capacitor units to make up the capacitor bank are: (i) Fifteen single-phase standard 50-kyar capacitor units.22 X 0.43) = 1.dvR pu XL 1000 X 13.0002 pu V and VI. (9. (9.0190 (9..0285 puV and VR.0274 6.472 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Therefore.pu = VR pu x selected Qsw pu V required Qsw = 0. that is.. plI = new V. sw = --'----=-=-'-----. (iii) Nine single-phase standard 100-kyar capacitor units. For example. I'" + VR s .9812 + 0. Q3¢.SW = 750 kyar is selected. for a total of 750 bar.0274 x 750 k Yar 721 k Yar (9.!= 1000(kVL.40) Hence.. for a total of 900 kYar. the voltage at two-thirds of the line and at the end of the line are V.0190 pu V Therefore. pll pu V . for a total of 600 kYar. plI pu V = 0.. pu = 2 3 VR. The resultant new voltage rises at the distance of I and s = ~ I are VR.

is currently paying a monthly power factor penalty.035 pu Y.10 Consider Example 9. lSI L 28.new = 4000 x tan 28. In other words. Therefore.020 pu Y on the 4-kY bus and (ii) raise the on-peak power factor of the present load to at least 88% lagging power factor. new from which tan 28. and the single-phase voltage regulators are approaching full boost.0285 pu V.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 473 = 0.36° = 4000 x 0.45 kVA.44) respectively. At the zero load when there is no capacitor bank installed. The associated voltage profiles are shown in Figure 9. Select a proper three-phase capacitor bank size (in terms of the multiples of three-phase 150-kvar capacitor units) to be connected to the 4-kY bus that will (i) produce a voltage rise of at least 0. Solution The presently existing ioad is S3¢ = 5000L36. EXAMPLE 9. = 1.19.9726 + 0.97 kvar and hence the magnitude of the new apparent power is lSI = 4545.36° QL. the real power portion will be the same but the reactive power portion will be different.87° kY A or S3¢ = 4000 + j3000 kY A at 80% lagging power factor.03 kvar. Assume that the customer wishes to add some additional load. . When a properly sized capacitor bank is connected to the bus to improve the on-peak power factor to 88%.88 is Q3¢ = 3000 . the voltage at two-thirds of the line and at the end of the line are the same and equal to 1.new 0:: 4000 therefore QL.97 = 841.5397 = 2158.0011 (9.8 and assume that the industrial load at the annual peak is 5000 kYA at 80% lagging power factor.36° = 4000 + jQL. the minimum size of the capacitor bank required to raise the load power factor to 0.2158.

the resultant voltage rise from Equation 9. and var information from the substation.474 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Thus. within a structure that operates as follows: I. capacitors on distribution system were switched on and off mainly by stand-alone controllers that monitored circuit voltage at the capacitor. In the past. using voltage information from meters located at key customer sites.020 pu V. 3. and substation processors. determines the optimal capacitor switching pattern. Intelligent customer meters provide exception reporting on voltages out of set BWs. They also report 5-min average voltages when polled.39 is where = (0. as illustrated in Figure 9. While this system provided adequate peak voltage/var support. . 2.0222 pu V which is larger than the given voltage rise criterion of 0.83 Q/mi)(3 mi) + 1.0384 Q hence VR pu = 900 x 4.6 DISTRIBUTION CAPACITOR AUTOMATION Today. combined with var information integrated into the control scheme. if a 900-kvar capacity bank is used. capacitors were operating independently and were not integrated into a system-wide control scheme. it is proper to install six 150-kvar three-phase units as the capacitor bank to meet the criteria.0384 1000 x 12. Therefore.6384 Q =4. including temperature and/or time bias settings on capacitor controllers. rather than on projected values. and communicates control instructions to capacitor controllers. Various control strategies. Also. radios. capacitor controllers. to the designed capacitor controller.8 2 = 0. Meters communicate via power line carrier to the nearest packed radio. 4. and via radiofrequency packet communication. Each capacitor controller-automation is programmed to receive meter voltages (received from several meters) to a substation processor. it necessarily involved overcompensation to ensure all customers were receiving adequate voltage service. running on an industrial-grade processor at the substation. Distribution capacitor automation integrates field and substation capacitors into a closed-loop control scheme. The distributed capacitor automation takes advantage of distributed processing capabilities of electronic meters.20. system information can be fine-tuned based on the actual measured values at the end point. 9. It uses an algorithm to switch field and substations' capacitors on and off remotely. Thus. The distribution capacitor automation program algorithm. were used to ensure operation during predicted peak loading conditions. intelligent customer meters can now monitor voltage at key customer sites and communicate this information to the utility company.

9. choosing the pattern of capacitor switching to both maintain minimum customer voltage and at the same time meet the substation var requirements. Substation reactive power flow is optimized by using control BW set points in the processor. For example. In cases where distribution substations have LTC transformers. The system aims to maintain every customer's voltage within a tighter BW targeted at a minimum of 114 V.Distribution System Voltage Regulation Circuit voltage 475 Load tap changer~=======? Substation I o o VAR data o Capacitor control algorithm o o \-+-----------' Customer voltage ~----------~--------~ FIGURE 9. the transmission substation processor interfaces with distribution substation processors to derive a subtransmission voltage level for minimum var flow and customer voltages. the control algorithm calculates optimal bus voltage in order to produce unity power factor. voltage fluctuations and lamp flicker on distribution systems are caused by a customer's utilization apparatus. To control subtransmission reactive power flow. and the algorithm would act accordingly. Customer meters are strategically placed to provide a consistent sample of lower voltage customers.20 A distribution capacitor automation algorithm switches capacitors on and off remotely and automatically. the operator may set a desired power factor as measured at the substation transformer.7 VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS In general. using voltage information from customer meters and var information from the substation. Most flickers are caused by the starting of motors. and the processor issues commands to the LTC controller to hold to this optimal voltage level [19]. Lamp flicker can be defined as a sudden change in the intensity of illumination due to an associated abrupt change in the voltage across the lamp. The large momentary in-rush of starting current creates a sudden dip in .

Employing motor starters to reduce the motor in-rush current at the start. service voltage. As mentioned in the beginning of this section. from the figure it can be observed that S-V dips. a utility company tries not to endanger other customers. Choosing a low-starting torque motor if the motor starts under light load. However. distribution engineers try every reasonable means to satisfy the motor-start flicker requirement. they are objectionable to the lighting customers. For example. 2. cyclic flicker is more objectionable. The curve for sinusoidal flicker should be used for the sinusoidal voltage change caused by pump compressors and equipment of similar characteristics. as shown in Figure 9. frequency of the motor starts. Therefore. and arc welders. N )2 = 3. they may choose to satisfy the flicker condition by installing shunt or series capacitors. Usually. loads are considered for both their starting requirements and the change in power requirements per unit time. After exhausting other alternatives. Flickers due to motor starting can be reduced by the following remedies: 1. are satisfactory to lighting customers as long as the number of dips does not exceed three per hour. Distribution engineers strive to keep voltage flickers in the satisfactory zone by securing compliance with the company's flicker standards and requirements. Momentary. at a voltage grcater than their rating by a factor of f3. Thus the momentary effective kilovar rating of the capacitors becomes equal to three times the rated kilovars since (VL-lJV I . The voltage changes resulting in lamp flicker can be either cyclic or noncyclic in nature. that is. the distribution circuits are checked to determine whether or not the flicker caused by the new customer's load in addition to the existing flicker-generating loads will meet the company's voltage-fluctuating standards. Figure 9. they should be installed between the substation transformer and the residential or lighting tap. the pulsating loads. such as grinders. As indicated in this figure. The decision to serve such a customer is based on the load location. that is. in certain cases. and by designing new extensions and rebuilds that will provide service within the satisfactory-flicker zone. more severe flickers result due to the running operation of pulsating loads than the starting loads. hammer mills. the motor's horsepower rating. Replacing the large-size motor with a smaller-size motor or motors. 5. more frequent dips of this magnitude are in the objectionable flicker zone. Thus. and the motor's National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) code considerations. In general. Each utility company develops its own voltage-flicker-limit curve based on its own experiences with customer complaints in the past. load type. reciprocating pumps. If series capacitors are used. Installing the capacitor between the residential load and the fluctuating load would not reduce the flicker voltage since it would not reduce the impedance between the source and the lighting bus. the flicker can be very objectionable and can create great discomfort. not to exceed 10 s. Usually. . the degree of objection to lamp flicker is a function of the frequency of its occurrence and the rate of change of the voltage dip. Therefore. They are removed from the circuit when the motor reaches nominal running speed. Often. from the quality-of-service point of view. flicker values located above the curve are likely to be objectionable to lighting customers.22.. Using shunt or series capacitors to correct the power factor. capacitors rated at line-to-neutral voltage are often connected line-to-line. Using a motor which requires less kilovoltamperes per horsepower to start. At start and for a very short time.21 shows a typical curve used by the utilities to determine the amount of voltage flicker to be allowed on their system. 3. The annoyance created by lamp flicker is a very subjective matter and differs from person to person. based on 120 V. rock crushers. in the process of serving a new customer who could generate excessive flicker by the company's standards. Shunt capacitors compensate for the low power factor of the motor during start.476 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering the illumination level provided by incandescent andlor fluorescent lamps since the illumination is a function of voltage. or pulsating. require additional study. 4.

. 8rl--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. ~ ~ I Number of dips per minute -r _I- Number of dips per second--i " " . '5 c 4 g 2 3 2 o [/ ( ( {( 1 I ( ( ( 4 ( ( /1( ( 4 ( 2 3 5 {! ( r ( ( V ( Y ( { ( v a ( ( ( ( ( <t { 6 7 8 910 15 2030401 2 (V (!( ( ( rIG { ( l ( ( V ( r ( r ( lC a( ( r ( a { 4 ( r {! ( ( ( ( ( (! ( ( { { v ( { a ( ( r ( a( 4 ( ( (V ( (I 3 5 6 7 8 910 152030401 2 3 4 5 6 10 15 1FIGURE 9. (JO ([) ([) ~ o > 5 C\J (JO Objectionable flicker zone c 0' :::l ~ '0.. 7 6 :::l V1 '< V> iii :3 "& p.V> CJ c rr 0' ::. .21 Number of dips per hour Permissible voltage-flicker-limit curve.

Since series capacitors are permanently installed in the primary feeder.11 Assume that a IO-hp single-phase 7. Therefore.1 /\ SHORTCUT Iv1ETHOD TO CALCULATE THE VOLTAGE DiPS DUE TO A SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR START If the starting kilovoltamperage of a single-phase motor is known. N is the line-to-neutral voltage (kV).47) Substituting Equations 9.7.22 Installation of series capacitor to reduce the flicker voltage caused by a fluctuating load.G is the line-to-ground fault current available at point of installation and obtained from fuse coordination (A). I f .47 into Equation 9. is the starting kVA of single-phase motor (kVA). If the starting kilovoltamperes per horsepower for this .45 and 9. I slart = Sstan A V_ L N (9. the motor's starting current can be found as. and VL . ! 1 ~·-------------------6mi----------------~· 1 FIGURE 9.478 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ~ tl-of j-D-= _ _ _ _~Vx-----::--------e~ xl x=1 x=o '.45) and the voltage dip based on 120 V can be calculated from VDIP = 120 x I slart VL _N X ZG V (9. a typical series capacitor installation costs three or four times as much as shunt motor start capacitors.L . If...46) where ZG = VL _N Q. 9. The position of the series capacitors in the circuit is especially important if there are other customers along the line. Series capacitors correct the power factor of the system.l . L. not the motor. the voltage dip can be expressed as 120 X SSI"rt If. QNSW 1---:. L. they require special devices to protect them against overvoltage and resonance conditions.G X VDIP V VL .46.2-kV motor with NEMA code letter "G" starting 15 times per hour is to be served at a certain location.48) SSI"rl where VDIP is the voltage dip due to single-phase motor start expressed in terms of 120-V base (V).4 m i .G (9.. EXAMPLE 9.N (9.

3.51. can be calculated as VDIP = 120 x Sstart If. the voltage dip can be expressed as VDIP = 69.2 A SHORTCUT METHOD TO CALCULATE THE VOLTAGE DIPS DUE TO A THREE-PHASE MOTOR START If the starting kilovoltamperes of a three-phase motor is known.7.21. Solution (a) Since the starting kilovoltamperes per horsepower is given as 6. and the line-to-ground fault at the installation location is calculated to be 1438 A. its starting current can be found as (9. N where (9.3.50) and the voltage dip based on 120 V can be calculated from VDIP = 120 x Istart x 2/ V VI. in volts..36 x Sstart V 13¢ X V/. 9.3 kVA/hp x 10 hp =63 kVA.50 and 9.2 kV = 0. determine the following.48.. (b) From Figure 9.73 V with a frequency of 15 times per hour is in the satisfactory flicker zone and therefore is not objectionable to the immediate customers.49) Therefore.52) Substituting Equations 9.53) ..Distribution System Voltage Regulation 479 motor is given by the manufacturer as 6./.73 V. N 120 x 63 kVA 1438 A x 7.52 into Equation 9. (a) The voltage dip due to the motor start. the voltage dip due to the motor start. L·G X VI. the starting kilovoltam- peres can be found as Sstart = (kVA/hP)slart X hpmotor kVA = 6. (9. it can be found that the voltage dip of 0. (b) Whether or not the resultant voltage dip is objectionable. from Equation 9. (9.51) (9.

Equation 9.20.90.2 9. assuming 336.rt = (kVA/hP)start X hpmotor = 5. Solution (a) Since the starting kilovoltampere per horsepower is given as 5. and V L-L is the line-to-line voltage (kV).4 9. L 69.36 x Ssta" 13¢ X VL . Derive.4. and the three-phase fault current at the installation location is calculated to be 1765 A.90.5 9.6 kVA/hp x 100 hp =560 kVA.4-kcmil ACSR conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0.1.18. the voltage dip due to the motor start. the starting kilovoltam- pere can be found from Equation 9.72 V with a frequency of three times per hour is in the satisfactory flicker zone and therefore is not objectionable to the immediate customers. EXAMPLE 9.76 V. determine the following. Repeat Example 9.6. PROBLEMS 9. Repeat Example 9. (b) Whether or not the resultant voltage dip is objectionable.3 9.12 Assume that a 100-hp three-phase 12. or prove. Equation 9.5.1 9.36 x 560 kV A 1765 A x 12.3.90. If the starting kilovoltampere per horsepower for this motor is given by the manufacturer as 5. Sstart is the starting kVA of the three-phase motor (kVA). Repeat Example 9. assuming 336. it can be found that the voltage dip of 1.47 kV = 1. assuming 336. from Equation 9. or prove.4-kcmil ACSR conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0. 13¢ is the three-phase fault current available at the point of installation and obtained from fuse coordination (A).4-kcmil ACSR conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0. Repeat Example 9.53.4-kcmil aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0.6 9.90. can be calculated as VDIP = 69.90. assuming 336.7 Derive. assuming 336.4-kcmil ACSR conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0. (a) The voltage dip due to the motor start.6. . (b) From Figure 9.480 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where VDIP is the voltage dip due to three-phase motor start expressed in terms of l20-V base (V). Therefore.2.21.49 as Sst. Repeat Example 9.47-kV motor with NEMA code letter "F" starting three times per hour is to be served at a certain location.

r:: I- 800kVA b ~ l' $ ! 'E cry .g.0.8793.r:: cu a.10 Repeat Example 9. 400 kVA 6mi . Specify the necessary series-parallel arrangement of capacitors for each phase.470 V of the threephase four-wire wye-grounded system as the base voltage.0049.9815. respectively.g.r:: cu a ! 'E C\J a.1 E co -III ::.6.. and 0. (/) OJ if) a: 1 . Use the nominal operating voltage of 7200/12. that is. Assume that each phase of the series capacitor bank is to be made up of series and parallel groups of two-bushing 12-kV ISO-kvar shunt power factor correction capacitors. The pu voltages at annual peak load values at the points a.0.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 481 9. 4 ACSR. Assume that the three-phase SIL of the line is 416. $ c\i (/) OJ .. 0 « $2 "1' One-phase 2-W multi ~ OJ .r:: cu a. 0.r:: ~ One-phase 2-W multi -L d I-C I.9 9. In this problem design improvements of the designer choice to correct the undervoltage conditions are investigated on the radial system shown in Figure P9. b.. A 60% series compensation is to be used. e. (/) OJ . "' 0" 0 a: if) "1' . d.90.6 Q/phase. The voltage at the distribution substation low-voltage bus is kept at 1. the capacitive reactance (XJ of the capacitor bank required to be installed is equal to 60% of the total series induct ivc reactance per phase of the transmission line. 0 0 «0 $20 "1'C\J if)"". c OJ 0 « "1' 0 e .8793..:.. 'E C\J t t .5 M VA and its inductive line reactance is 117. E :.1O. 400 kVA 6mi 4 ACSR.8 9.0. Assume that a subtransmission line is required to be designed to carry a contingency peak load of 2 x SIL. c. andfare 1.04 pu V with BVR. Assume that all given kilovoItampere l' $ a:..9605.4-kcmil ACSR conductors and annual peak load of 5000 kVA at a lagging load power factor of 0.8793. assuming 336. <h ~ a: if) 0 « .

040 pu V at zero load.55 0. The location of the capacitor bank(s) on the given system.l0.69 X 10-5 To improve voltage conditions. The loads on the laterals c-d. the pu voltage at the end of the line at annual peak load is 0. determine the following: (a) The location of the regulator bank(s). 2. Minimum primary voltage must be 1. 2. Installation of shunt capacitor bank(s). find the V. Figure P9. and c-fare also uniformly distributed. voltages at the times of peak load and off-peak load. determine the following: (0) (b) The rating of the capacitor bank(s) in three-phase kilovars. 3.07 pu V at peak load. Assume that the offpeak load of the system is about 25% of the on-peak load. If the installation of the voltage regulators' alternative is chosen. When there is no capacitor bank installed on the feeder. The line data for the #4/0 and four ACSR conductors are given in Table P9. location of the RP on the system.8 kY of the three-phase four-wire wye-grounded system as the base voltage. R and X settings of the LDC. pu VD/(kVA· mil 0. Assume that the annual peak load is 5000 kYA at a lagging power factor of 0. each with 400 kVA. W(phase· mil K.482 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering loads are annual peak values at 85% lagging load power factor. If the installation of the capacitors' alternative is chosen.761 0.10 Conductor Size 410 R. (a) . Maximum primary voltage must be 1. W(phase' mil X.SO rll(phase .80 and that the reactive load factor is 0.00 pu V at peak load.592 2. There is a lumped load of 800 kVA at point b.835 5. The The (d) The (e) The (b) (e) standard kilovoltampere rating of each single-phase regulator.9. c-e. Use the nominal operating voltage of7. 9. 3. setting of the YRR.60. The voltage at the distribution substation low-voltage bus is held at 1. The load between the substation bus and point a is a unifonnly distributed load of 2000 kVA. QNSW = 0.12 shows an open-wire primary line with many laterals and uniformly distributed load.85 X 10-0 4 1. (c) Whether or not voltage-controlled automatic switching is required. TABLE P9.10 line Data for Problem 9.97/13.12 Repeat Example 9. Installation of 32-step voltage regulators with a maximum regulation range of ±1O%. Maximum primary voltage must be 1. that is.11 9. consider any or all combinations of the following design remedies: 1.97. Using these remedies attempts to meet the following primary voltage criteria: 1. Also assume that the line reactance is O. Addition of new phase conductors. mi) but the line resistance is not given and determine the following: When the shunt capacitor bank is not used.03 pu Y with BYR.

470 V for the three-phase four-wire wye-grounded system. Assume that the regulator bank is made up of three single-phase 32-step feeder voltage regulators with ±IO% regulation range. bus. pu is as follows. Assume that the precalculated K constant of the line is 1. i. When BVR is in use. with 12. the substation bus voltage Vp. Vp 9.835 Q/(mi . and it varies from nearly 0 to 1000 kVA.970 pu V. at the time of peak load. Using the given information and data. Find the size of the capacitor (QNSW) in three-phase kilovars.Distribution System Voltage Regulation 483 ~~ EJ-p- ____ ~Vx--=-\t _______ ~ QNSW X=! 1r:(b) -4mi--J·I ~·--------------------6mi----------------~· I Apply an unswitched capacitor bank and locate it at the point ofx = 4 mi on the line. The consumer requests the voltage V. when BVR is in Use and BVR is not in use.010 pu and offers to compensate properly the supplying utility company for such high-quality voltage-regulated service. phase). It has an impedance of 0 + jO. VP. three-phase.030 pu V.055 pu based on the transformer ratings. determine and state whether or not the young engineer's proposed design will meet the consumer's requirements.000 ± 0.55 + jO.13 shows a system which has a load connected at the end of a 3. The nominal and base voltage at the consumer's bus is 277/480 V for the three-phase four-wire wye-grounded service. and size the capacitor bank to yield the pu voltage of 1.e.. The feeder impedance is given as 2.) . mi) at 85% power factor. He proposes BW setting of ±1. The nominal and base voltage at the distribution substation low-voltage bus is 7200112. Min VP. Figure P9. Therefore.5 mi #4 ACSR open-wire primary line.05 at point x at the time of zero load. pu = 0. When BVR is out.060 pu V. Max VP.13 ~ >---1-1 Three-phase 4-W 4 ACSR ~ r-----~-+----------~~~ AZT'PHL1~ Vs Load A junior engineer proposes to build the 3.5 mi #4 ACSR line to a nearby distribution substation and to place the feeder voltage regulators there in order to render the service requested. pu = 1.470-V high-voltage rating. pu = 1. His wire size is generous for ampacity. The load requires a closely regulated voltage at the V.0 V based on 120 V.69 x IO-5 pU VD/(kVA . (Check for both cases. and V. Also find the per unit voltage of V. There is BVR at the substation but at times the BVR equipment is disconnected and bypassed for maintenance and repair. The consumer's transformer is rated as 1000 kVA. The load belongs to an important scientific equipment installation. to be equal to 1.

Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company: Engineering Guides.15 Repeat Example 9. no. October 1979.l2. Line. Ganen. E. 7. pp. October 22-25. Power. 75. 12. vol. Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. Ku.. VA. K. Reps. Cook: Distribution System Primary-Feeder Voltage Control: Part IV-A Supplementary Computer Program for Main-Circuit Analysis. S. 856-65. et al. T. 4. 14. 1975. 1980.: Locating Shunt Capacitors on Primary Feeder for Voltage Control and Loss Reduction. Syst. vol.: New 'Simplified' Regulator for Lower-Cost Distribution Voltage Regulation. N. Ganen. F. AlEE Trans. R. Fink. Oklahoma City. pp.. R. IEEE MEXICON-SO International Conference. Voltage Ratings for Electric Power Systems and Equipment. vol. vol. pp. 1. 865-79.S. 1981. pp. 1965. January 1981. 1978.. W. pp. H. 10. no. H. and F. October 1958. 1975. Sealey. M. 25-28. 1. vol. 1980. October 27-28. ANSI C84. 4. 11th ed. 9. Appl. Bovenizer.. III. N. vol.S.: Recap $ Computer Program Aids Voltage Regulation Studies. N. 2. B. D. and D. Hopkinson. 7. U. and H. 6. III.. pp. 3. October 1958.. and R. pt. pt. Power Appar. IEEE Trans.. Mexico City. The Midwest Power Symposium. 2-8.904-13. West Lafayette. Walden: Distribution Automation Strategy for the Future. 1574-77. pt. T. III. October 1958.. 1. 13. Kirk. Repeat Example 9. no. 11. Chang.. 3. AlEE Trans. no. D. 6-9. 845-855. PAS-88. pp. and D. 19. assuming 20 starts per hour and a line-to-ground current of 350 A.20-23. pp. 75. Department of Commerce. 18. 1978.737-42. October 1969.. pt. H. IN. N. American National Standards Institute. N. D. 1. . East Pittsburgh. The Line. PA. W. 891-906. 4. vol. McGraw-Hill. G.: Regulating Voltage on a Major Power System. 15. Lokay.pp. W. Reps: Distribution System Primary-Feeder Voltage Control: Part I-A New Approach Using the Digital Computer. \V. Williams. pp. assuming 10 starts per hour and a three-phase fault current of 750 A. National Technical Information Service. 16-21.: Paralleling Voltage Regulators.. 5.l-1977. Reps. AlEE Trans. no. E. 3.l1. and G. McCrary. pt.: Development ofAdvanced Methods for Planning Electric Energy Distribution Systems. N. Electr. Ganen.: Increased Current Ratings for Step Regulators. no.14 9. Bovenizer. 81. and D. c. III.. and F. Purdue University. AlEE Trans. W. pt. Beaty: Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. Department of Energy.: Distribution System Primary-Feeder Voltage Control: Part II-Digital Computer Program. Line. AlEE Trans. III. IEEE Comput. REFERENCES 1.. J6. Forum. R.. R. T. Reps: Distribution System Primary-Feeder Voltage Control: Part III-Computer Program Application.. Jr. III. 2. Springfield. N. Djavashi: Optimum Shunt Capacitor Allocation on Primary Feeders. Djavashi: Optimum Loss Reduction from Capacitors Installed on Primary Feeders. G.: Economic Comparison of Switched Capacitors and Voltage Regulators for System Voltage Control.. AlEE Trans. 10. Bentzel. 8. 17. October 1958. Amchin. New York. December 1957. pp. U.484 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 9. pp. August 1955. July 1994.

the purpose of a fuse is to clear a permanent fault by removing the defective segment of a line or equipment from the system. A switch designed to disconnect power devices at no-load conditions. breaking.. Fuses designed to be used above 600 V are categorized as distribution cutouts (also known as fuse cutouts) or powerfuses. Circuit Breaker. Disconnect Switch.2. 485 . Fuse.e.1 FUSES Afuse is an overcurrent device with a circuit-opening fusible member (i. A switch designed to interrupt fault currents. A device put on electric power equipment to reduce the voltage of a surge applied to its terminals. Lightning Arrester. A fuse is designed to blow within a specified time for a given value of fault current. Relay.1 gives detailed classification for high-voltage fuses. An overcurrent protective device that trips and recloses a preset number of times to clear transient faults or to isolate permanent faults. 10. Automatic Circuit Reclosers. A switch designed to interrupt load currents but not (greater) fault currents. fuse link) directly heated and destroyed by the passage of overcurrent through it in the event of an overload or short-circuit condition. The total clearing curve is a plot of the maximum time versus the current required to melt the fuse link and extinguish the arc. or changing the connection in an electric current. Load-break Switch. 10.10 Distribution System Protection It is curious that physical courage should be so common in the world and moral courage so rare. automatic circuit reclosers. Mark Twain 10. The time-current characteristics (TeC) of a fuse are represented by two curves: (i) the minimum melt curve and (ii) the total clearing curve. A device that responds to variations in the conditions in one electric circuit to affect the operation of other devices in the same or in another electric circuit.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS Switch. and automatic line sectionalizers. Figure 10. An overcurrent protective device with a circuit-opening fusible member directly heated and destroyed by the passage of overcurrent through it in the event of an overload or short-circuit condition. Mark Twain A lie can travel halfway around the world while the truth is putting on its shoes.2 OVERCURRENT PROTECTION DEVICES The overcurrent protective devices applied to distribution systems include relay-controlled circuit breakers. Automatic line sectionalizer: An overcurrent protective device used only with backup circuit breakers or reclosers but not alone. The minimum melt curve of a fuse is a plot of the minimum time versus the current required to melt the fuse link. fuses. Therefore. A device for making.

n u I Dropout Indlcatmg ..---L.) '< Vl ro :::l Vl 3 :::l OQ :::l m S' OQ . I Nondropout I Dropout Nondropout ' I Nondropout r-'--lI Nondropout Nondropout Nondropout . 1965. vol. 3.. 0- FIGURE 10..---l--.co "" 0'1 High-voltage fuses Distribution cutouts I I I Expulsion I I I I Expulsion Power fuses Liquid-filled I I Current-limiting I I I I Liquid-filled Carbon tetrachloride I in Fibre-tube I Open-link Open I Oil Boric acid Enclosed Fibre-tube I I Sand I Open Single I element Repeater Dropout I I Enclosed Single element I I I I I Vented I I Nonvented Vented Single element Dropout I I Nonvented I I Nonvented . PA. I Dro'pout I Dropout Indicating Indicating Indicating I . East Pitsburgh..catlng Indicating Indicating Nonindicating Nonindicating Indicating Indicating Indicating I I I 6.. I I Single I Single element I Single element !:!! ro ~ :!. I I Sm'gle I element Repeater element Dropout . .. With permission. ro ro .1 Classification of high-voltage fuses..-.. I N~nm~lcatmg Indicating Indicating Nonindicating Nonindicating Nonind... I I I . . (From Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference BookDistribution System. Vl ~ I I o· C o : !. I Single element Double element Single element Nondropout Nondropout I o I ro ...

5 7. Therefore. The use of symmetrical ratings simplified the selection of cutouts as a simple comparison of the calculated system requirements with the available fuse cutout ratings. kV 5. in turn. the melting of the fuse link causes heating of the fiber fuse tube which.0 5.5 15 15 15 15 15 25 Maximum Design Voltage.S 7. The ratings of the distribution fuse cutouts are based on continuous currentcarrying capacity.000 3000 5000 10. for example.1 Interrupting Ratings of Open-Fuse Cutouts Rating of Cutout Continuous Current. safety.2 5.S 7. The maximum available fault current at the point of application. In spite of that. produces deionizing gases to extinguish the arc.8 7. subject to the XIR ratios of the circuit. load growth.2 5. Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book-Distribution Systems. nominal and maximum design voltages.000 4000 12. Figure 10.000 1200 7.Distribution System Protection 487 The liquid-filled (oil-filled) cutouts are mainly used in underground installations and contain the fusible elements in an oil-filled and sealed tank. symmetrical cutout rating tables are prepared on the basis of assumed maximum XIR ratios.1 gives the interrupting ratings of open-fuse cutouts.S 15 15 15 15 15 27 Interrupting Rating in Root-MeanSquare Amperes at 5.0 5. . the fuse cutouts are selected based on the following data: L The type of system for which they are selected. The system voltage for which they are selected. 1965.0 7. 5. and interrupting capacity.2 TABLE 10. PA. 3. vol.kV 5.5 7.2 kV 3000 5000 10. With permission.000 4000 12. for example.5 7.000 2000 4000 SOOO 4000 10. A 100 100 100 200 200 100 100 100 200 200 100 100 100 200 200 100 Nominal Voltage. The XIR ratio at the point of application. In general. Other factors.0 5. Expulsion-type cutouts are classified according to their external appearance and operation methods as: (i) enclosed-fuse cutouts. 3.5 7.S 7. and (iii) open-link-fuse cutouts. In these cutouts.2 5.0 5. overhead or underground.2 7.8 kV 15 kV 27 kV Interrupting Rating Nomenclature Normal duty Heavy duty Extra heavy duty Normal duty Heavy duty Normal duty Heavy duty Extra heavy duty Normal duty Heavy duty Normal duty Heavy duty Extra heavy duty Normal duty Heavy duty Normal duty Source: From Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The expulsion-type distribution cutouts are by far the most common type of protective device applied to overhead primary distribution systems. (ii) open-fuse cutouts. Table 10.2 5. in turn. and changing duty requirements. fuse cutouts still have to be able to interrupt asymmetrical currents which are. delta or grounded-wye system. 2. East Pittsburgh. 4.

Therefore.2!14.3 shows a typical application of open-fuse cutouts in 7.5 shows minimummelting-Tee curves for typical (fast) fuse links. 15. and 200 A.) Typical open-fuse cutout in pole-top style for 7.20.30. 100. respectively. The difference between these two fuse links is in the relative melting time which is defined by the speed ratio as · S pee d ratIo = _.1 and 600 sec are for fuse links rated 140-200 A.1 sec ~. The current ratings of fuse links for preferred sizes are given as 6.65. Furthermore.50. a joint study by the EEl and NEMA established standards specifying preferred and IZollpre[erred current ratings for fuse links of distribution fuse cutouts and their associated Tee in order to provide interchangeability for fuse links. In 1951. the 0. 10. and the 0. and for non preferred sizes as 8. 12. Figure 10. 140. The reason for stating certain ratings to be preferred or nonpreferred is based on the fact that the ordering sequence of the current ratings is set up such that a preferred size fuse link will protect the next higher preferred size. Figure lOA shows typical fuse links.488 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 10. Figure 10.4-kV overhead distribution.40.2 Company.2/l4.4-kV overhead distribution.----melting current at 300 or 600 sec Here. 25. and 10 and 13. This is also true for the non preferred sizes. ----. the speed ratios for type K and type T fuse links are between 6 and 8. .4-kV overhead distribution. the standards also classify the fuse links as (i) type K (fast) and (ii) type T (slow). (S&C Electric shows a typical open-fuse cutout in pole-top style for 7.1 and 300 sec are for fuse lin ks rated 6-100 A. melting current at 0.2!14. and 80A.

It also has . Figure 10. (iii) applicable not only for distribution but also for subtransmission and transmission systems. Figure 10. or (iii) liquid-filled type. They are different from fuse cutouts in terms of: (i) higher interrupting ratings.6 shows a typical transformer protection application of 34. (S&C Electric Power fuses are employed where the system voltage is 34. (ii) current-limiting (silver-sand) type.4-kV overhead distribution. In general.3 Company. 200E or 300E) to specify that their Tee comply with the interchangeability requirements of the standard.5-kV SM-type refill unit.5-kV SM-type power fuses. 10. and (iv) designed and built usually for substation mounting rather than pole and cross-arm mounting.5-kV SM-type power fuses.2114. Its fuse link is called the refill unit..8 shows a cutaway view of a typical 34. A power fuse is made of a fuse mounting and a fuse holder. Power fuses are identified by the letter "E" (e. (ii) larger range of continuous current ratings. they are designed and built as (i) expUlsion [boric acid or other solid material (SM)] type.2.) Typical application of open-fuse cutouts in 7. Figure 10.2 AUTOMATIC CIRCUIT RECLOSERS The automatic circuit recloser is an overcurrent protective device that automatically trips and recIoses a preset number of times to clear temporary faults or isolate permanent faults.Distribution System Protection 489 FIGURE 10.7 shows a feeder protection application of 34.g.5 kV or higher and/or the interrupting requirements are greater than the available fuse cutout ratings.

(5&C Electric Company. from Table 10. The instantaneous and time-delay characteristics of a recloser are a function of its rating.490 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Button Washer Washer Upper terminal Corona shield Fusible element Lower terminal Upper terminal _--'1111 "h)it!----_ Fusible element Strain wire Lower terminal Swaged area of cable Swaged area of cable Cable -t!I!----Cable Sheath Sheath (a) I I (b) FIGURE 10. Recloser ratings range from 5 to 1120A for the ones with series coils and from 100 to 2240A for the ones with nonseries coils.4 Typical fuse links used on outdoor distribution: (a) fuse link rated less than lOA. The reclosers must be able to interrupt asymmetrical fault currents related to their symmetrical rating. The root-mean-square (RMS) asymmetrical current ratings can be determined by multiplying the symmetrical ratings by the asymmetrical factor. (iii) three instantaneous plus one time-delay operations. The minimum pick-up for all ratings is usually set to trip instantaneously at two times the current rating.2. corresponding to the specified XIR circuit ratio. and (b) fuse link rated IO-IOOA.) provisions for manually opening and reclosing the circuit that is connected. Reclosers can be set for a number of different operation sequences such as (i) two instantaneous (trip and reclose) operations followed by two time-delay trip operations prior to lockout.2 are the ratios of . or (v) four time-delay operations. (iv) four instantaneous operations. Note that the asymmetrical factors given in Table 10. (ii) one instantaneous plus three time-delay operations.

9 0... a recloser fulfills the same task as the combination of a circuit breaker. 800 Ampere rating 600 ~101 A 400 102 A 300 103 A 200 100 80 60 40 30 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 .2 0.LU 491 (J) i= E ai Current..5 0.3 0. (S&C Electric Company. However..4 0. A FIGURE 10. and reclosing relay.. so all variations should be +20% in current. In a sense. Curves are plotted to minimum test points.3 .1 l.. Line reclosers are often installed at points on the circuit to reduce the amount of exposure on the substation equipment..7 0. Fundamentally.L.---'_L-l.25..Distribution System Protection 1000.7 .1 0.------------------------... A generally accepted rule of the thumb is to assume that the XIR ratios on distribution feeders are not to surpass 5 and therefore the corresponding asymmetry factor is to be about 1.I.-LJ.L.9 ... overcurrent relay.L..) the asymmetrical to the symmetrical RMS fault currents at 0..>.J. the asymmetry factor for other parts of the system is assumed to be approximately 1.L'-'--_.5 .5 cycle after fault initiation for different circuit XlR ratios.6.2 ... Therefore.J. The maximum fault current available is always an important consideration in the application of line reclosers...5 Minimum-melting-time-current characteristic curves for typical (fast) fuse links... For example..-..4 . a recloser is made of an interrupting chamber and the . the installation of line reclosers will depend on the amount of exposure and operating experience.... a feeder circuit serving both urban and rural loads would probably have reclosers on the main line serving the rural load.

and a lockout mechanism.or three-phase faults. Figures 10. if the three-phase primary circuit is delta-connected. the use of two single-phase reclosers is adequate for protecting the circuit against either single. Reclosers are designed and built in either single-phase or three-phase units. If the three-phase primary circuit is wye-connected. Single-phase reclosers inherently result in better service reliability as compared with three-phase reclosers. .9 shows a typical single-phase hydraulically controlled automatic circuit recloser. (S&C Electric Company.~ I FIGURE 10.5-kY solid material-type power fuses. Figure 10.492 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering t. Single-phase reclosers inherently result in better service reliability as compared with the three-phase reclosers. either a three-phase recloser or three single-phase reclosers are used.6 Typical transformer protection application of 34.) related main contacts which operate in oil.10 and 10.11 show typical three-phase hydraulically controlled and electronically controlled automatic circuit reclosers. an operator integrator. However. a control mechanism to trigger tripping and reclosing. respectively.

3 AUTOMATIC LINE SECTIONALIZERS The automatic line sectionalizer is an overcurrent protective device installed only with backup circuit breakers or reclosers.2. the fault current counter in the sectionalizer will again prepare to count the next opening of the reclosing device. the sectionalizer counter will reset to its normal position after the circuit is reclosed.) Feeder protection application of 34.Distribution System Protection 493 FIGURE 10. 2. If the fault is cleared while the reclosing device is open. It counts the number of interruptions caused by a backup automatic interrupting device and opens during dead circuit time after a preset number (usually two . (S&C Electric 10. Zimmerman [1] summarizes the operation modes of a sectionalizer as follows: 1. . If the fault persists when the circuit is reclosed.S-kV solid material-type power fuses.or three) of tripping operations of the backup device.7 Company.

~~----_ ---ii'iI~..) TABLE 10.-.Outer tube Spring-and-cable assembly attached Auxiliary arcing rod ...20 1..5-kV solid material-type refill unit.30 IA4 X 10 12 14 25 lAX 1.494 Upperterminal Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Fuse-tube plug ----_--0.2 Asymmetrical Factors as Function of X/R Ratios X/R 2 4 Asymmetrical Factor 1. (S&C Electric Company.51 1.as barrier .8 Cutaway view of a typical 34..60 .~I I ~I~ GaSket~...401 Main arcing rod Solid-material arc-extinguishing medium Auxiliary arcing contact ---- "'" > r r------- Fusible element Lower terminal FIGURE 10..06 1.

(b) Type RV. 4E. and so on. RXE. E. V4H.Distribution System Protection 495 (a) (b) FIGURE 10. RX. (McGrawEdison Company.10 Typical three-phase hydraulically controlled automatic circuit reclosers: (a) type 6H or V6H. or DV.) . (b) Type D. 4H. (McGraw-Edison Company.9 (a) Typical single-phase hydraulically controlled automatic circuit recloser: type H.) FIGURE 10. or L. RVE.

2. The minimum fault current has to be greater than the minimum actuating current of the sectionalizer. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation. they are usually installed on poles or cross-arms. Under no circumstances should the sectionalizer's momentary and short-time ratings be exceeded. The application of sectionalizers entails certain requirements: ).11 Typical three-pole automatic circuit recloser.) 3. .496 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 10. If the reclosing device is set to go to lockout on the fourth trip operation. I f there are two backup protective devices connected in series with each other and located ahead of a sectionalizer toward the source. the sectionalizer will be set to trip during the open-circuit time following the third tripping operation of the recIosing device. the first and second backup devices should be set for four and three tripping operations. The backup protective device has to be able to sense the minimum fault current at the end of the sectionalizer's protective zone. 5. a sectionalizer provides coordination (without inserting an additional time-current coordination) with the backup devices associated with very high faull currents and consequently provides an additional sectionalizing point on the circuit. Contrary to expulsion-type fuses. 4. and the sectionalizer should be set to open during the second dead circuit time for a fault beyond the sectionalizer. On overhead distribution systems. respectively. 3. They have to be used in series with other protective devices but not between two recIosers.

. The advantages of using automatic line sectionalizers are: I. The standard continuous current ratings for the line sectionalizers range from 10 to 600 A. -- (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 10. Figure 10.and three-phase automatic line sectionalizers. "--- . they have a lower initial cost and demand less maintenance. respectively.Distribution System Protection 497 6.and three-phase automatic line sectionalizers: (a) type GH. If there are two sectionalizers connected in series with each other and located after a backup protective device that is close to the source. the backup device should be set to lockout after the fourth operation.12 Typical single. When employed as a substitute for reclosers. and the first and second sectionalizers should be set to open following the third and second counting operations. (c) type GN3E.12 shows typical single. (b) type GN3.~' . (d) type Gy.

However.17 shows time-current curves of typical overCUlTent relays with inverse characteristics. IS shows a typical lAC single-phase overcurrent relay unit. as is the case for magnetic blow-out circuit breakers.16 shows typical TCC of overcurrent relays. Usually.4 AUTOMATIC CiRCUIT BREAKERS Circuit breakers are automatic interrupting devices which are capable of breaking and reclosing a circuit under all conditions. in the past. that is. Figure 10.498 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering (e) FIGURE 10. very inverse. In general. design margins.12 (f) (Continuted) (e) type OW. respectively. they are much more expensive than reclosers. They may be employed for interrupting or switching loads within their ratings. or extremely inverse TCC. circuit breakers are rated on the basis of RMS symmetrical current.l4 show typical oil and vacuum circuit breakers. The circuit breakers used at distribution system voltages are of the air circuit breaker or oil circuit breaker type. they do not show the possible coordination difficulties experienced with fused cutouts due to improperly sized replacement fuses. relay-controlled circuit breakers are preferred to reclosers due to their greater flexibility. the arc is extinguished by a blast of compressed air. as is the case for air circuit breakers. Figure 10. For lowvoltage applications molded-case circuit breakers are available. 3. When employed as a substitute for fused cutouts. The primary task of a circuit breaker is to extinguish the arc that develops due to separation of its contacts in an arc-extinguishing medium. accuracy. (McGraw-Edison Company. for example. Figure 10. In general. 10. .) 2. The disadvantages of using automatic line sectionalizers are: 1. faulted or normal operating conditions. they are more costly initially and demand more maintenance. in air. (f) type OWe. as is the case for oil circuit breakers (OCBs). for example. that opens the circuit breaker is generally an overcurrent induction type with inverse. In some types. the overcurrent (CO) relays by Westinghouse or the inverse overcurrent (lAC) relays by General Electric. in SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride). Figures 1O. or fault-sensing device. and esthetics. or in vacuum. their failure rate has been greater than that of fused cutouts. 2.l3 and 1O. in oil. When employed as a substitute for fused cutouts. Oil circuit breakers controlled by protective relays are usually installed at the source substations to provide protection against faults on distribution feeders.2. Currently. The relay. circuit breakers used in the distribution systems have minimum operating times of five cycles.

relay settings.Distribution System Protection 499 '. (ii) removing tree limbs from the line. the fault duration is minimized and unnecessary fuse blowing is prevented by using instantaneous or high-speed tripping and automatic reclosing of a relay-controlled power circuit breaker or the automatic tripping and reclosing of a circuit recloser. Overhead distribution systems are subject to two types of electrical faults. approximately 75-90% of the total number of faults are temporary in nature [2].3 OBJECTIVE OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION The main objectives of distribution system protection are: (i) to minimize the duration of a fault and (ii) to minimize the number of consumers affected by the fault. the number . Here. and recloser characteristics are selected in a manner to interrupt the fault current before a series fuse (i. and (iii) manually reclosing a circuit breaker or recloser to restore service. transformers. birds or other animals. and so on. which would cause the transient fault to become permanent. (iii) to protect the consumers' apparatus. Here..:-:---i Is i 'I I (a) (b) FIGURE 10. (ii) to limit service outages to the smallest possible segment of the system. (McGraw-Edison Company. or any other damaged apparatus. transient (or temporary) faults and permanent faults. Depending on the nature of the system involved. blown fuses.) 10. Usually. lightning.13 Typical oil circuit breakers. The secondary objectives of distribution system protection are: (i) to eliminate safety hazards as fast as possible. the nearest source-side fuse) is blown. and (v) to disconnect faulted lines. (iv) to protect the system from unnecessary service interruptions and disturbances. namely. The breaker speed. or other apparatus. flashovers. Transient faults are cleared by a service interruption of sufficient length of time to extinguish the power arc.e. high winds. transient faults occur when phase conductors electrically contact other phase conductors or ground momentarily due to trees. Permanent faults are those which require repairs by a repair crew in terms of: (i) replacing burned-down conductors.

) of customers affected by a fault is minimized by properly selecting and locating the protective apparatus on the feeder main.t::----Instantaneous unit contact Identification card Time-overcurrent moving contact Control spring Chassis contact block Latch FIGURE 10. .14 Typical vacuum circuit breaker.500 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering FIGURE 10. and at critical locations on branch circuits.15 A lypicallAC single-phase overcurrent relay unit. Instantaneous unit calibration plate Instantaneous unit pickup adjustment Target coil taps Target and seal-in unit Time-overcurrent stationary contact Seal-in contact Operating Coil Damping magnet Induction disk Cradle Current top block Sliding top lead Time dial . at the tap point of each branch. Permanent faults on overhead distribution systems are usually sectionalized by means of fuses. For example. (McGraw-Edison Company. permanent faults are cleared by fuse cutouts installed at submain and lateral tap points.

With permission.--r--------------------------------------~ 360 6 300 Ul '1ij <1l 5 III OJ (3 240 (/) 4 E ai () >- ~ (f) 6 (3 OJ i= 180 >() 3 i= cD E 120 2 60 o FIG URE 10. (From General Electric Company. (General Electric Company.17 2 4 6 7 8 9 10 3 5 Multiples of minimum closing current (tap value) 15 20 Time-current curves of lAC overcurrent relays with inverse characteristics.Extremely . 1979.16 Time-current characteristics of overcurrent relays.) 420 7. Application Manual GET-6450.) . Distribution System Feeder Overcurrent Protection.-.Distribution System Protection 501 I I r-.-.Inverse \ I ~very inverse Q) i= E \\ \\ I ~ \ Inverse ~In~tant~neo:'~~~-=-_ Multiples of pickup current FIGURE 10.-.

this situation may require that a second recloser. Usually. and it must coordinate with load-side transformel fuses or other devices. the minimum available fault current. the only part of the distribution circuit not protected by fuses is the main feeder and feeder tie line. or circuit breaker. The substation is protected from faults on feeder and tie lines by circuit breakers and/or reclosers located inside the substation. Here. or circuit breaker A with reclosing relays. due to the many extras that are available with reclosers but not with circuil breakers. it is a common practice to install a fuse at the head of each lateral (01 branch).18. or internally.18 shows a protection scheme of a distribution feeder circuit. is equal to the smallest value of the current (called minimum pickup current) which will triggel the recloser. they are said to be coordinated or selective. then one or more additional fuses may be installed on the lateral. Also. each distribution transformer has a fuse which is located either externally. in a fuse cutoUI next to the transformer. However. determined by calculation. If the fuse does not dear the faults. thereby minimizing the duration of service outages.4 COORDINATION OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES The process of selecting overcurrent protection devices with certain time-current settings and their appropriate arrangement in series along a distribution circuit in order to clear faults from the lines and apparatus according to a preset sequence of operation is known as coordination. At the limit of the protective zone. Although the number of faults occurring on an underground system is relatively much less than that on the overhead systems. that is. this excess capacity is not always required. Although a circuit breaker provides a greater interrupting capability. to operate. Therefore. Furthermore. the device which is set to operate first to isolate the fault (or interrupt the fault current) is defined as the protectinf!. to operate. or circuit breaker. device. is located at the substation to provide a backup protection. Properly coordinated protective devices help (i) to eliminate service interruptions due to temporary faults. thereby requiring a different protection approach. The fuse must carry the expected load. inside the transformer tank as is the case for a completely self-protected (CSP) transformer. Most of the faults are permanent on an underground distribution system. the lateral fuse i5 usually expected to clear fauHs occurring al lhe ends of the lateral. It clears the temporary faults in its protective zone. It is usually the apparatus closer to the fault. As shown in Figure 10. The major factors which playa role in making a decision to choose a recloseI over a circuit breaker are: (i) the costs of equipment and installation and (ii) the reliability. that is. In general.502 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering This practice limits the number of customers affected by a permanent fault and helps locate the faull point by reducing the area involved. and (iii) to locate the fault. a fault beyond the limit of this protection zone may not trigger the recloser. some distribution engineers prefer reclosers because of their flexibility. Faults occurring on the feeder are cleared by tripping and lockout of the feeder breaker. It is customary to select the rating of each lateral fuse adequately large so thai it is protected from damage by the transformer fuses on the lateral. with a lower pickup current rating be installed at location B. a comparable recloser can be installed for approximately one-third less than a relay-controlled oil circuit breaker. Faults occurring in the underground residential distribution (URD) systems are cleared by the blowing of the nearest sectionalizing fuse or fuses. 10. they are usually permanent and can affeci a larger number of customers. As shown in the figure. Figure 10. When two protective apparatus installed in series have characteristics which provide a specified operating sequence. As coordination is primarily the selection of protective devices and their settings to develop zones that provide temporary fault protection and limit an outage area to the minimum size possible . As shown in the figure. a recloser. The apparatus which furnishes backup protection but operates only when the protecting device fails to operate to clear the fault is defined as the protected device. as shown in the figure. (ii) to minimize the extent of faults in order to reduce the number of customers affected.

Distribution System Protection Substation LV bus 503 f -----l I I I I \ \ \ g\ \ \ \ \ CD ). to coordinate protective devices. Scaled feeder-circuit configuration diagram (map). . Load currents (under normal and emergency conditions). if a fault is permanent. / / I I / / FIGURE 10. 3. 5. 2. the distribution engineer must assemble the following data: 1. 4. TCC curves of protective devices..18 A distribution feeder protection scheme. Locations of the existing protective devices. in general. Fault currents or megavoltamperes (under minimum and maximum generation conditions) at every point where a protective apparatus might be located.

Determine the maximum and minimum values of fault currents (specifically for threephase. and (iv) effec of reclosing cycles. especially where distribution systems are relatively small or simple and therefore only a small number of protective devices are used in series. a~ shown in Figure 10. 3. and the ratings of the protective devices employed. computerized coordination programs developed either by the protective device manufacturers or by the company's own staff. or other means to aid the distribution engineer and field personnel in coordination studies. Pick out the necessary protective devices located at the distribution substation in order to protect the substation transformer properly from any fault that might occur in the distribution circuit. if necessary. that is.. it must have the capability to clear a minimurr fault current within its zone in a predetermined time duration. power flow) studies and/ault studies. There are also some additional factors that need to be considered in the coordination of protectiVe devices (i. manual techniques for coordination are still employed by most utilities.e. 6. some utilities have established standard procedures. branches. . it must have an adequate reach.4]: 1. anc therefore it is the plot* of the minimum time versus current required to melt the fuse. First of all. sectionalizing) devices. L-L. Gather the required and aforementioned data. Some utilities employ semiautomated. These factors affect the adequate margin for selectivity under adverse conditions. 4. reclosers. the values of the load currents and fault currents are usually taken from computer runs called the load flow (or more correctly. it must be sufficiently selective with other protective apparatus in series Furthermore. (iii) ambient temperature. Coordinate the protective devices from the substation outward or from the end of the distribution circuit back to the substation. the selected fuse must be able to carry the expanded load cur rent. The lise of this standard size trans parent paper allows the comparison of curves by superimposing one sheet over another. The minimum melting curve of a fuse represents the minimum time. (ii) preloading conditions of the apparatus. can be summarized as [3. respectively. Select initial locations on the given distribution circuit for protective (i. Reconsider and change. regardless of whether it is manual or computerized. However.. the TCCs of protective devices are gathered from the manufacturers. The TCO of a fuse are represented by two curves. and relays) such as (i) the differences in the TCCs and related manufac· turing tolerances. In general. A fuse is designed to blow within a specified time for a given value of fault current. and L-G faults) at each of the selected locations and at the end of the feeder main. Draw a composite TCC curve showing the coordination of all protective devices employed. and laterals. 2. the initial locations of the protective devices. For example. 9.e. at the same time. fuses. the minimum melting curve and the total clearing curve. these data are not readily available and therefore must be brought together from numerous sources. and.504 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Usually. and so on. A general coordination procedure. 10. S. S. The tota "'TCC curves of overcurrent protective devices are plotted on log-log coordinate paper. with curves drawn for a common base voltage (this step is optional). 7.5 FUSE-TO-FUSE COORDINATION The selection of a fuse rating to provide adequate protection to the circuit beyond its location i~ based on several factors. Draw a circuit diagram which shows the circuit configuration. Re-examine the chosen protective devices for current-carrying capacity. tables. the maximum and minimum values of the fault currents. and minimum pickup rating. interrupting capacity.19.

" that is.19 in series.Distribution System Protection A B Source ----rv~----rv--~)~<--. 2. In the first method. ambient temperature. fuse A. The 25% margin has been selected to take into account some of the operating variables. Using the Tee curves of the fuses. is achieved by comparing the total clearing time-current curve of the "protecting fuse. Therefore the damaging curve (due to the partial melting) is developed by taking 75 percent of the minimum melting time of a specific-size fuse at various current values. as shown in Figure 10. some utilities employ certain rules of thumb as a third type of fuse-to-fuse coordination method. plus manufacturing tolerance. that is. The time unit used in these curves is seconds. fuse B. Furthermore.Load Protected Protecting Fault fuse fuse 505 75 percent of fuse-A curve (in time) QJ i= E curve I~\ Coordination limit: \ \ I Current FIGURE 10. the associated current value at the point of the intersection gives the coordination limit for the partial coordination achieved. and therefore it is the plot of the maximum time versus current required to melt the fuse and extinguish the arc." that is. If there is nO intersection between the aforementioned curves. Fuse-to-fuse coordination. It is also a standard procedure to develop "damaging" time curves from the minimum melting time curves by using a safety factor of 25%.19. Coordinating fuses in series using time-current characteristic curves of the fuses connected clearing (time) curve represents the total time. such as preloading. Here. Using the coordination tables prepared by the fuse manufacturers. can be achieved by two methods: 1. . the coordination of the two fuses connected in series. and the partial melting of a fuse link due to a fault current of short duration. However. it is necessary that the total clearing time of the protecting fuse not exceed 75% of the minimum melting time of the protected fuse. with the damaging time curve of the "protectedJuse. if there is an intersection of the two curves. the coordination between fuses connected in series. a complete coordination in terms of selectivity is achieved.

at least a minimum time margin of 25% must be applied. coordination is established by using the fuse sizes from coordination tables developed by the fuse link manufacturers. The figure also shows the superposition of the Tee curve of the fuse C on the fast and delayed Tee curves of the recloser R. time-delay. respectively. However. the determination of the total clearing curve is not necessary as the maximum value of fault current to which each combination of series fuses can be subjected with guaranteed coordination is given in the tables. the backup recloser can be either the substation feeder recloser. Here.506 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering In the second method of fuse-to-fuse coordination. Employing the same recloser type and operating sequence but using different coil sizes.3 and 10.20. if the fault is a permanent one. To provide protection against permanent faults. depending on the type of fuse link selected.4 are such tables developed by the General Electric Company for fast and slow fuse links. curves represent the instantaneous. However. the instantaneous tripping operations of the recloser protect the fuse from any damage. respectively. If the fault beyond fuse C is temporary. for example. it is cleared by the correct fuse before the recloser can go on time-delay operation following one or two instantaneous operations. 2. Employing the same recloser type and coil sizes but using different operating sequences. Having two single-phase reclosers. To achieve coordination between the delayed tripping curves of two reclosers. The recloser is set to trip for a temporary fault before any of the fuses can blow. Figure 10. or a branch feeder recloser. Here. This can be observed from the figure . Here. Having a three-phase recloser at the substation and a single-phase recIoser on one of the branches of a given feeder. Tables 10. the utility industry prefers to use the first remedy over the other two. usually with an operating sequence of one fast. 10. 3. and extended time-delay (as an alternative) tripping characteristics of a conventional automatic circuit recloser.2\ shows a portion of a distribution system where a recloser is installed ahead of a fuse. fuse cutouts (or power fuses) are installed on overhead feeder taps and laterals. In general.and two delayed-tripping operations. 3. The required coordination between the reclosers can be achieved by using one of the following remedies: 1. 10. there may be some circumstances. having two single-phase recIosers of the same type. Employing different recloser types and some mixture of coil sizes and operating sequences. 2.6 RECLOSER-TO-RECLOSER COORDINATION The need for recloser-to-recloser coordination may arise due to any of the following situations that may exist in a given distribution system: 1.7 RECLOSER-TO-FUSE COORDINATION In Figure \ 0. and the third and fourth openings of the recloser. with two fast. The use of an automatic reclosing device as a backup protection against temporary faults eliminates many unnecessary outages that occur when using fuses only. These tables give the maximum fault currents to achieve coordination between various fuse sizes and are based on the 25% margin described in the first method. Having two three-phase reclosers. the reclosers may do their instantaneous or fast operations at the same time. When the Tee curves of the two recIosers are less than 12 cycles separate from each other. where the second remedy can be applied.and two delayed-tripping operations. and then reclose the circuit. curves A and B symbolize the first and second openings.

000 16.000 16.000 16.000 ro (5 ::J 0 Q RMS.. * GE coordinating fuse links.000 16.000 16. Application Manual GET-1751 A.000 16. Q \11 'l .TABLE 10. 100-..000 16. u -< V> ::J Vl c 0 8K 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 65K 80K 52* 100K 101* 140K 200K 102* 103* :3 v ro Maximum Short-Circuit RMS Amperes to Which Fuse Links Will iJe Protected 1K 2K 3K 5-A series hi-surge 6K 8K IO-A series hi-surge 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 65K 52* 80K lOOK 101* 140K 102* 135 110 80 14 215 195 165 133 37 16 300 300 290 270 145 133 24 395 395 395 395 270 170 260 38 530 530 530 530 460 390 530 285 140 660 660 660 660 620 560 660 470 360 95 820 820 820 820 820 820 820 720 660 410 70 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 960 700 140 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1370 1200 580 215 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1720 1300 700 170 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 1800 1200 195 2750 2750 2750 2750 27:50 27:50 2750 27:50 27:50 2750 2750 2750 2750 2750 1600 330 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3250 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 3600 2300 290 580 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5800 5500 5800 300 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 4300 385 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 9700 7500 2800 1250 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 9500 16.000 16. A 6K 0 ~ .000 16.000 16.000 16.000 16.000 16.000 16..000 16. or 200-A Expulsion Fuse Cutouts and Connected in Series Type "K" Ratings of Protected Fuse Links (A in diagram).000 16.3 Coordination Table for GE Type "K" (Fast) Fuse Links Used in GE 50-. Overcllrrent Protection for Distribution Systems.000 16. A Type "K" Ratings of Protecting Fuse Links (B in Diagram).000 16. root-mean-square.000 16. 1962.000 16. With permission. Source: From General Electric Company.

2T.000 16. 100-.000 15.000 15.000 16. or 3T fuse links. 2N. or 200-a Expulsion Fuse Cutouts and Connected in Series Type "T" Ratings of Protected Fuse Links (A in diagram).000 15.000 16. The IN.000 16. ::J V> c CJ o "< U'> RMS.000 15.000 m (\) "'" ('i' ~ o " (\) ~ o ~ ~.000 16. root-mean-square.000 15. A Type "T" Ratings of Protecting Fuse links (B in Diagram).000 16.000 16.4 Coordination Table for GE Type "T" (Slow) Fuse Links Used in GE 50-.000 16. and 3T ampere ratings respectively.000 15.000 16.000 15.000 15.000 15000 15000 15000 15.000 6600 16.000 15.000 15. :::l CTQ .000 16.000 16.000 16. 2T.000 16. (\) ~.000 16.o \J1 0: TABLE 10.9. Iii :3 :::l :::l (\) m 0. they are recommended for applications requiring IT. Hence. A 6T 8T lOT 12T 15T 20T 25T 30T 40T 50T 65T 80T lOOT 140T 200T 103 Maximum Short-Circuit RMS Amperes to Which Fuse links will be Protected IN' 2N' 250 250 250 3N' 6T 8T 10-A series Hi-surge lOT 12T 1ST 20T 25T 30T 40T SOT 65T 80T lOOT 140T 395 395 395 33 19 540 540 540 365 125 540 710 710 710 650 480 710 74 950 950 950 950 850 950 620 135 1220 1220 1220 1220 1220 1220 1130 770 100 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1400 880 105 1930 1930 1930 1930 1930 1930 1930 1930 1750 1150 190 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2300 1500 115 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 3100 1900 310 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 3950 2350 150 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 4950 3400 270 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 6300 4300 660 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9600 9200 6000 15.000 15. "'" :::!'. and 3N ampere ratings of the GE 5-A series hi-surge fuse links have time-current characteristics closely approaching those established by the American Standards for IT.000 16.000 16.000 15.

21 Recloser time-current characteristic (Tee) curves superimposed on fuse Tee curves. and accumulated heating and cooling of the fuse link during the fast-trip operations of the recloser. b limit of current (maximum) Fuse curve-C OJ i= E Fuse curve I a limit of I current (minimum) B-Time delay recloser curve A-instantaneous recloser curve Current C ~b melting I . 1979. The distance between the intersection points a and b gives the coordination range for the fuse and recloser. a proper coordination of the trip operations of the recloser and the total clearing time of the fuse prevents the fuse link from being damaged during instantaneous trip operations of the recloser. each of the first two (instantaneous) operations takes only two cycles. by the fact that the instantaneous recioser curve A lies below the fuse Tee for currents less than that associated with the intersection point b. I I LImltr--+! FIGURE 10.. As can be observed from the figure. ambient temperature.time delay A . Distribution System Feeder Overcurrent Protection.22 illustrates the temperature cycle of a fuse link during recloser operations.20 Typical recloser tripping characteristics.Distribution System Protection 509 OJ i= E C . However. (From General Electric Company. the fuse clears the fault as the recloser goes through a delayed operation B. if the fault beyond fuse C is a permanent one.extended time delay B . Application Manual GET-6450. preloading. This can be observed from the figure by the fact that the timedelay curve B of the recloser lies above the total clearing curve portion of the fuse Tee for currents greater than that associated with the intersection point a. Therefore. curve tolerances. for example. With permission. Figure 10.) . The required coordination between the recloser and the fuse can be achieved by comparing the respective time-current curves and taking into account other factors.instantaneous Current FIGURE 10.

(From General Electric Company.21 is an approximate one as it does not take into account the effect of the accumulated heating and cooling of the fuse link during recloser operation. point a' is found from the intersection of the fuse total clearing curve with the shifted curve B' (which is equal to 2 x A + 2 x B "in time.5. 1979. As shown in Table 10. two instantaneous recloser operations if the fuse is to be protected from melting during these two openings. Similarly. there are also coordination tables developed by the manufacturers to coordinate reclosers with fuse links in a simpler way. Application Manual GET-64S0. based upon experience. for example." as there are two fast trips). Here. the maximum coordinating current is found by the intersection (at point b') of two curves. the fusedamage curve (which is defined as 75% of the minimum melting time curve of the fuse) and the maximum clearing time curve of the recloser's fast-trip operation (which is equal to 2 x A "in time.23 illustrates a practical yet sufficiently accurate method of coordination. After the fourth operation the recloser locks itself open. Thus." since in addition to the two fast trips there are two delayed trips). the recloser-to-fuse coordination method illustrated in Figure 10.) but each of the last two (delayed) operations last 20 cycles. . Therefore. to allow extra margin in the coordination scheme. Distribution System Feeder Overcurrent Protection. it becomes necessary to compute the heat input to the fuse during. Figure 10. With permission. Some distribution engineers use the rule-of-thumb methods.22 Temperature cycle of fuse link during recloser operation.510 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Heat Heat Heat Heat B' -To lockout A'- AA t 62 63 I-cycles---i I-cycles-J 55 i-cycles-l ::~~ ____ H ~L ~ --iI--I-- 1-I1H11 JL 20 cycles Jl Jl 2 cycles 2 cycles ~~:m~" 20 cycles FIGURE 10.

140-A frame. 11th cd. respectively. and H. 145 480 300 610 RMS. With permission. or 3T fuse links.5 55 68 123 31 110 30 105 50 89 45 152 34 145 50 130 75 220 59 210 50 190 200 300. Application Manual GET-6450. and 3T ampere ratings. 1978. 2N. . A Recloser Rating.5 Automatic Recloser and Fuse Ratings Ratings of GE Type T Fuse Links... RMSA Min Max Min Max' Min Max! Min Max 2N* 3N* 6T 8T lOT 12T 1ST 20T 2ST Range of Coordination.250 84 280 68 265 200 375 105 360 380 450f.) TABLE 10. . single-phase recloser.. RMS A (Continuous) 5 10 15 25 Fuse link Ratings. G. New York. " . * The IN. 2T. Distribution System Feeder Overcurrent Protection. Hence. 1979. D. McGraw-Hill. 2T. With permission. t Where maximum lines have two values. single-phase. (From General Electric Company. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. Coordination with 50-A frame size single-phase reeloser not possible as the maximum interrupting capacity is less than the minimum value. * ... they are recommended for applications requiring IT. three-phase. and three-phase. the smaller value is for the 50-A frame. RMS A 14 55 17. Source: From Fink. Beaty. The larger value is for all others: 50-A frame. B' B OJ =2x A + 2X Bin time i= E I I I I I \ ~\ Limits \ 75 percent of melting curve Current FIGURE 10. root-mean-square. and 3N ampere ratings of the GE 5-A series Hi-surge fuse links have time-current characteristics closely approaching those established by the EEI-NEMA Standards for IT.23 Recloser-to-fuse coordination (corrected for heating and cooling cycle).Distribution System Protection 511 \ \ . W.

To achieve a coordination. relay time plus breaker interrupting time) be less than 75-90% of the minimum melting time of the fuses at all values of current up to the maximum fault current. provides protection for the transformer against the faults in the transformer or at the transformer terminals and also provides backup protection for feeder faults. These fuses have to be coordinated with the reclosers or reclosing circuit breakers located on the secondary side of the transformer to prevent the fuse from any damage during the sequential tripping operations. keeping in mind the cold pickup load. whereas the minimum reclosing time interval for a recloser can be as small as Y2 sec.10 RECLOSER-TO-C1RCUIT-BREAKER COORDINATION The reclosing relay recloses its associated feeder circuit breaker at predetermined intervals (e. A sectionalizing fuse installed at the riser pole to protect underground cables does not have to coordinate with the instantaneous trips as underground lines are usually not subject to transient faults. The effects of the accumulated heating and cooling of the fuse element can be taken into account by adjusting the delayed tripping time of the recloser. there is no need for heating and cooling adjustments. whereas on lateral circuits the fuse size selected is usually the minimum size required to serve the load and coordinate with the transformer fuses. when the fuse is used as the protecting device.1 sec for relay overtravel time. a coordination between the fuse and recloser is achieved. Therefore it is necessary that the relay characteristic curve.e. In summary. lie above the total clearing characteristic curve of the fuse.. it has to clear the fault before the fuse is blown. Thus.. a power fuse. On looped circuits the fuse size selected is usually the minimum size required to serve the entire load of the loop. when the circuit breaker is tripped instantaneously.8 RECLOSER-TO-SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER HIGH-SIDE FUSE COORDINATION Usually. 10. Therefore. In general. If desired. Thus. However. the coordination is achieved if the relay operating time is 150% of the total clearing time of the fuse. the coordination is achieved. it is usually customary to leave a margin between the relay and fuse characteristic curves to include a safety factor of 0. For example. 10.1 to 0. located at the primary side of a delta-wye-connected substation transformer. If the minimum melting time of the fuse is approximately 135% of the combined time of the circuit breaker and related relays. The fuse has to clear the fault before the ciruit breaker trips on time-delay operations.g.3 + 0. to achieve a coordination between a fuse and circuit breaker. at all values of current up to the maximum current available at the fuse location. the reclosing time intervals of a circuit breaker are greater than those of a recloser. The selected fuse must be able to carry 200% of the transformer full-load current continuously in any emergency in order to be able to carry the transformer "magnetizing" in-rush current (which is usually 12-15 times the transformer's full-load current) for 0. The coordination of a substation circuit breaker with substation transformer primary fuses dictates that the total clearing time of the circuit breaker (i. when a fuse is used as the backup or protected device. The minimum melting time curve of the fuse is plotted for a phase-to-phase fault on the secondary side. If the minimum melting time of the backup fuse is greater than the adjusted tripping time of the recloser. the . 5 sec is usually the minimum reclosing time interval for a circuit breaker. or 45-sec cycles) after the breaker has been tripped by overcurrent relays. 15-.1 sec [5]. which is plotted for a phase-to-phase fault that might occur on the secondary side of the transformer. 30-.512 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 10. the adjusted tripping time is compared with the minimum melting time of the fuse element.9 FUSE-TO-CIRCUIT-BREAKER COORDINATION The fuse-to-circuit-breaker (overcurrent relay) coordination is somewhat similar to the fuseto-recloser coordination.

1 Figure 10.24 A An example of recloser-to-relay coordination. during successive recloser operations.03 0. 1000 700 500 300 100 70 50 30 10 7 5 3 1 0. The crucial factor in coordinating the operation of a recloser and a circuit breaker (better yet.5 0.05 0. However.7 0.) * For further information. it starts to travel in the trip direction during the operation of the recloser. see Ref. Assume a permanent fault current of 700A located at point X in the figure. Curve A represents time-current characteristics (TCCs) of one instantaneous recloser opening. (From General Electric Company. if the fault is permanent. the relay can accumulate enough movement (or travel) in the trip direction.07 0. Determine the necessary relay and recloser coordination. Overcurrent Protection for Distributioll Systems. Application Manual GET-175IA. respectively the instantaneous and time-delay TCCs of the 35-A reclosers. the initial reclosing is so fast that customers may not even realize that service has been interrupted.000 Current. the relay that trips the breaker) is the reset time of the overcurrent relays during the tripping and reclosing sequence. If the relay used is of an electromechanical type. . FIGURE 10. rather than a solid-state type. 1962.1 0.01 (IJ i= <Ii E 10 50100 5001000 5000 10.24 gives an example* for proper recloser-to-relay coordination. In the figure. Curve C represents the TCC of the extremely inverse type lAC overcurrent relay set on the number 1. the reclosing relay recloses the breaker the predetermined number of times and then goes to the lockout position. curves A and B represent. If the reset time of the relay is not adjusted properly.3 0.Distribution System Protection 513 reclosing relay can provide an instantaneous initial reclosure plus three time-delay reclosures. (5].0 timedial adjustment and 4-A tap (l60-A primary with 200:5 current transformer). to trigger a false tripping. EXAMPLE 10. Usually. Curve B represents TCCs of one extended time-delay recloser opening. Curve C represents TCCs of the lAC relay.

the percent of total relay travel. Using the signs (+) for trip direction and (-) for reset direction..relay pickup time 0...' recloser pickUp time 0. From the results it can be seen that.14%1 < [16..67%.42 sec Reset = i:g x 60 = 6.42 = 0.03 0.1) -1 6.67%.405 or 40. (-) recloser open time Relay reset travel = ...3) Assuming that the recloser opens for I sec..0714 or 7. the travel percentages during the delayed tripping operations can be calculated in the following manner.. (l0.0 = -16.514 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Solution From Figure 10.17 sec For relay: Pickup (from curve C) = 0.' ' .. can be calculated in the following manner..5%.2) [7. · I recloser time delay Re Iay cIosmg trave = ...17 0.0 = -0. recloser instantaneous time Relay closing travel = ... Re Iay reset trave I = () recloser open time relay reset time 1.0 6..03 sec Time delay (from curve B) =0. During the instantaneous operation (from curve A) of the recloser.... during the operation of the recloser.0 sec assuming a 60-sec reset time for the relay with number 10 time-dial setting [5]. Similarly.14%.24.42 == 0... [Relay closing travel[ < [relay reset travel[ or (10. Assuming that the recloser is open for 1 sec...relay reset time (10.67%[ and therefore the relay will completely reset during the time that the recloser is open following each instantaneous opening.1667 or -16.. During the first time-delay trip operation (from curve B) of the recloser. .. the operating time of the relay and recloser can be found as the following: For recloser: Instantaneous (from curve A) = 0.

After the proper recloser ratings are determined. if the operating time of the relay at any given fault current value is less than twice the delayed tripping time of the recloser. the desired recloser-to-relay coordination is accomplished. Zr = 0. a 0.00.to 0. the net total relay travel is 64.11 FAULT CURRENT CALCULATIONS* There are four possible fault types that might occur in a given distribution system: 1.] * More rigorous and detailed treatment of the subject is given by Anderson (3.15 2L-G faults = 0. circuit configuration. [Here. . number of stormy days per year. and coordinate both with the relay and load-side apparatus. each recloser has to be checked for reach. the reclosers are located at the end of the relay reach. i. For example.10 31/> faults = 0.5%). speed of fault clearing.. have sufficient interrupting capacity for that location. The actual fault current is usually less than the bolted three-phase value.3% (= +40. 10.67% + 40. t One should keep in mind that these probabilities may differ substantially from one system to another in practice. and atmospheric conditions. vee or open-delta) circuits. then the recloser rating has to be increased. Phase-to-phase (or double line-to-ground) grounded fault (MG). the height of ground wires. 3. Therefore. for example. even on these circuits usually only SLG faults will take place due to the multigrounded construction. either the time-dial or pickup settings of the relay must be increased or the recloser has to be relocated until the coordination is achieved. 2. there will be a possible lack of coordination. voltage class.70 L-L faults = 0. and so on.e. Since this net total relay travel is less than 100%. Whenever there is a lack of coordination. method of grounding. Based on Reference [6].16. Phase-to-ground (or single line-to-ground) fault (SLG). additional series reclosers may be installed on the primary main.05 Total = 1.Distribution System Protection 515 During the second time-delay trip of the recloser. and the second and third on three-phase or two-phase (i.5%. the term bolted means that there is no fault impedance (or fault resistance) resulting from the fault arc. Three-phase grounded or ungrounded fault (3$). Relay closing travel = 40. Phase-to-phase (or line-to-line) ungrounded fault (L-L). If there is a lack of coordination with the load-side apparatus. The first type of fault can take place only on three-phase circuits. However.5% .e.8]. Some distribution engineers use a rule-oj-thumb method to determine whether the recloser-torelay coordination is achieved or not.15. The rating of each recloser must be such that it will carry the load current. 4. the probabilities of prevalence of the various types of faults are: t SLG faults = 0. assuming a recloser operation sequence which includes two time-delay trips.. relative insulation levels to ground and between phases. If the reach is insufficient.20-sec safety margin is considered to be adequate for any possible errors that might be involved in terms of curve readings. In general. In general. The relative numbers of the occurrences of different fault types depend on various factors.

ratings) of the fuses. and L-L following in that order. The load is minimum. ')' be equal to zero. that is. 2.NI (10. reclosers. Therefore. In general. The calculated maximum fault current values are used in determining the required interrupting capacities (i. at the same time. In general. it is usually neglected in the distribution system fault calculations [3].11. The fault is not a bolted one. Of course. circuit breakers. that is. the maximum and minimum fault currents are both calculated for a given distribution system. i.e. since the 2L-G fault value is always somewhere in between the maximum and minimum. the fault impedance is not zero but has a value somewhere between 31/> and 40 Q. by using this assumption the system is treated as an infinitely large system. including the substation. for a given system. The minimum current is calculated based on the following assumptions: 1. =lilZ. 3. When this is done. The fault is a bolted one.5) * Anderson 131 recommends letting the positive-sequence Thevcnin impedance of the system. when there is no fault impedance. 10. off-peak load. 2L-G. according to Anderson [8]. All generators are connected. the substation transformer is small. 2.. The most common types of distribution substation transformer connections are (i) delta-wye solidly grounded and (ii) delta-delta. in service. Therefore. Therefore. that is. that is. there are no zero. positive-. . for any given fault on a radial distribution circuit. with the 31/>. the SLG fault often produces a greater fault current than the 31/> fault especially (i) where the associated generators have solidly grounded neutrals or low-impedance neutral impedances.1 THREE-PHASE FAULTS Since this fault type is completely balanced. The maximum fault current is calculated based on the following assumptions: 1. In general. 3. if there is no exact system information available and. the value of the minimum fault current available may be taken as 60-70% of the calculated maximum L-G fault current. or other fault-clearing apparatus. these fault currents are calculated for each sectionalizing point. The load is maximum.516 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering However.. To calculate the fault currents one has to determine the zero-. and negative-sequence Thevenin impedances of the system' at the high-voltage side of the distribution substation transformer looking into the system. and relays. On 4-kV systems. that is. the calculated minimum fault current values are used in coordinating the operations of fuses. and (ii) on the wye-grounded side of delta-wye grounded transformer banks [7]. on-peak load. The number of generators connected is minimum. one can simply add the appropriate impedances to the Thevenin impedances as the fault is moved away from the substation along the circuit. 2.c. the fault impedance is zero. it is usually the case that the SLG fault is the most severe. and for the ends of the longest sections.or negative-sequence currents. These impedances are usually readily available from transmission system fault studies. each fault at each fault location must be calculated based on actual circuit conditions.

21 is the total positive-sequence impedance (Q).9) where Ir..sys I. I is the impedance on V.10) X L _N 1 V ZI + Z2 * Remember that an impedance can be converted from one base voltage to another by using Z. is the impedance on V.l.c = -Ir.. VI.(V.(k' is the positive-sequence impedance of the faulted segment of the distribution circuit (Q). This can be accomplished by using (10. I r.u¢ =1 Z V _ +Z +Z I. T stands for Zr. where II. and lu" = II. and VST. Therefore.5. if there is no fault impedance. base. are the fault currents in a.)'.k' (10.SYs - ~ - + ZI. IF.4 and 10. Note that there has been a shift in notation and the symbol Z.6 into Equations 10.ckt L N IA (10. = Ir.6) where 2 1• sys is the positive-sequence Thevenin equivalent impedance of the system (or source) referred to distribution voltage* (Q). At times.L-L is the line-to-line subtransmission voltage (V). a = 0 If. . = Z. N is the line-to-neutral distribution voltage (V).-l.Distribution System Protection 517 and when there is a fault impedance. and c phases. 3<p is the three-phase fault current referred to subtransmission voltage (A). 10. the three-phase fault current can be expressed as I. respectively." = II.:'¢ is the three-phase hlUlt current (A).b = IjJ3 (10.7 and 10. h. V L _ L is the line-to-line distribution voltage (V). 2r is the fault impedance (Q). where Z. Since the total positive-sequence impedance can be expressed as - ZI = ZI.T l. base and Z.8 are applicable whether the source connection is wye-grounded or delta. 2 1•T is the positive-sequence transformer impedance referred to distribution voltaget (Q). it might be necessary to reflect a three-phase fault on the distribution system as a threephase fault on the subtransmission system. Substituting Equation 10.8) Equations 10. 3~ is the threephase fault current based on distribution voltage (A).11.T + ZI.7) (10.2 l-l FAULTS Assume that a L-L fault exists between phases band c.IV.. and 2 1.

11.L-G is the line-to-ground fault current (A).fj X V L_ N I 2(ZI.L-L = Ij.sys + ZI. if there is a fault impedance. However. ZC is the impedance to ground (0).11. However. L-L is the line-to-line fault current (A) and Z2 is the total negative-sequence impedance (0).fj X L _" V I + ZI.15) where Ir. thus I f..4. (10.17) .N is (10. L-L = j. (10. one can determine a relationship between the three-phase fault and L-L fault currents as (10. If .ckl) + Zf /.14) which is applicable to any point on the distribution system. The equations derived in this section are applicable whether the source connection is wye-grounded or delta.T + ZI.16) or (10.518 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering where I r.13) By comparing Equation 10.Ckl) I.fj2Z x VL_NI 1 (10.T + Z. If there is no fault impedance.3 SLG FAULTS Assume that a SLG fault exists on phase a. 10. T 1 f. (10. VL . and the line-to-neutral distribution voltage (V).11 with Equation 10.6 into Equation 10.SYS i.12) However. L-L I = 2(ZI.11) or substituting Equation 10.

If the primary distribution feeders are supplied by a delta-wye solidly grounded substation transformer. Table 10. In general.15. L.20) where If. by substituting Equation 10. (lO.19) where 20 is the total zero-sequence impedance (Q).21) where Zo is the zero-sequence impedance of distribution circuit (Q). some empirical approaches are possible. and Ko is a constant. Anderson [3] gives the following relationship between the zero.and positive-sequence impedances of a distribution circuit with multigrounded neutral: (10. Therefore. If the source connection is delta.6 gives various possible values for the constant Ko. V L_L is the line-to-line distribution voltage (V).1S and 10.L is the single line-to-ground fault current reflected as a line-to-line fault current on the subtransmission system (A). L_L - r::: x -v3 x VST . However. they are not applicable as the fault current would be equal to zero due to the zero-sequence impedance being infinite.Distribution System Protection 519 since Therefore. 1--(221 + 2 0 ) 3 However. but it is usually larger than its positive-sequence impedance Z. I r. L-L is the line-to-line subtransmission voltage (V).17 into Equation 10.L-c is the single line-to-ground fault current based on distribution voltage (A). Equations 1O. .19 are only applicable if the source connection is wye-grounded. is the positive-sequence impedance of distribution circuit (Q). For example. an SLG fault on the distribution system is reflected as a L-L fault on the subtransmission system. if there is a fault impedance. and VSI. If the earth has a very bad conducting characteristic. the constant Ko is totally established by the neutral-wire impedance. L ..IS) (10. the zero-sequence impedance 20 of a distribution circuit with multi grounded neutral is very hard to determine precisely.L VL _ L Ir. Z.L-c (10. Anderson [3] suggests using an average value of 4 where exact conditions are not known. the low-voltage-side fault current may be referred to the high-voltage side by using the equation _ I r.

Jj X VIA (10.24 and 10. L-L is the line-to-line subtransmission voltage (V). Cyclone Copy Center.6 Estimated Values of the Ko Constant for Various Conditions Condition Perfectly conducting earth (e. 1975.25 can be referred to the base voltage by using Equation 10. Iowa.L-L .9. ST is the positive-sequence impedance of the subtransmission line (D).11. backup impedance.4 COMPONENTS OF THE ASSOCIATED IMPEDANCE TO THE FAULT Impedance of the Source. VST. I.0 4.l¢)max is the maximum three-phase fault current referred to subtransmission voltage (A). the sum of the system impedance and the subtransmission line impedance) represents the impedance up to the high side of the distribution substation transformer. .0 4. If the maximum three-phase fault current on the high-voltage side of the distribution substation transformer is known. Note that the impedances found from Equations 10. Ames.24) If the system impedance is given at the transmission substation bus rather than at the distribution substation bus.JjU. then the subtransmission line impedance has to be involved in the calculations so that the total impedance (i. M. can be calculated as Z I..520 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 10.ST = V~T.g.9 3. and (IF..22) but I _ L - S . the system impedance. If the associated fault duty S given in megavoltamperes at the substation bus is available from transmission system fault studies.y' + Z I.sys = VL _ N I L (10. P. then Z .25) where ZI.23) therefore ZI.sys =~ \7 2 S (10.8-4.6 4.. Elements of Power System Protection..sys is the positive-sequence impedance of the system (D).e. a system with multiple water-pipe grounds) Ground wire same size as phase wire Ground wire one size smaller Ground wire two sizes smaller Finite earth impedance 1. 10.. ZI. ) f-03$ max (10.2 Source: From Anderson. that is.

can be determined as X dp = 0. respectively. the transformer impedance* can be expressed as (10.28) Similarly. The impedance values for the distribution circuits depend on the pole-top conductor configurations and can be calculated by means of symmetrical components.25 Typical pole-top overhead distribution circuit configuration.Distribution System Protection a a 521 bA'f-------+-+-Dbc---~c b c (a) (b) FIGURE 10.e. .29) * Usually the resistance and reactance values of a substation transformer are approximately equal to 2 and 98 percent of its impedance. and is the three-phase transformer rating (kVA). the mutual reactances (spacing factors) for phase wires.05292 loglo dp Q/lOOOft (10.25 shows a typical pole-top overhead distribution circuit configuration. and between phase wires and neutral wire (due to equivalent spacings).27) and (10. mutual geometric mean distance) of phase wires and the equivalent spacing between phase wires and neutral wire can be determined from ST. If the percent impedance of the substation transformer is known. For example. VL _ L is the line-to-line base voltage (kV). Impedance of the Distribution Circuits. Figure 10.3¢ dp=Deq =Dm =(Dab xDbe xD ca )1/3 (10. Impedance of the Substation Transformer.. The equivalent spacing (i.26) where % Zr is the percent transformer impedance.

!'.38) "7 ""'0." + 2x ) Q/I 000 ft..39) ~Jg = 2.4676 QIlOOO ft.and negative-sequence impedances are (10...37) where 2x 2. + -:. and ZO. Xan is the reactance of neutral wire with I-ft spacing (Q/lOOO ft). rail is the resistance of neutral wires (Q/lOOO ft)... + -:.. the positive.0542 Q/lOOO ft.. the positive.". If the distribution circuit is an open-wye and single-phase delta circuit.g Q/1000 ft (10.+ j 2. ( ~J. rap is the resistance of phase wires (Q/WOOft). ZO. -t (10. (10.33) (10.1. = Z ""U O. ( 2x.32) lo.ag = ~.' 2.1Il + r" + j(3xall + xe) Q/l 000 ft where re is the resistance of the earth = 0. If the distribution circuit is a three-phase circuit..36) and the zero-sequence impedance is Zo = <1J" . Xdn is the spacing factor between phase wires and neutral wire (Q/lOOOft).a - ZO.05292 loglO dn Q/lOOOft.a = '~p ~.ag = +re + j(xap +xe -2xdp ) Q/lOOOft (10." = '... Xc is the reactance of the earth = 0.40) . ZO.35) rc + j(xe -3xdn ) Q/lOOOft 3r.+J' 3 (2X 3 _c -xdfl ) Q/IOOOft (10.(/.34) (10.and negative-sequence impedances are (10.+ j x"" + f - X"I' ) Q/I 000 ft (10.ag - Q/1000 ft (10. = _.ag is the ro-sequence mutual impedance between the phase circuit as one group of conductors and the ground wire as the other conductor group (QIlOOO ft). Xdp is the spacing factor for phase wires (Q/lOOO ft).31) and the zero-sequence impedance is -2 7..522 and X dll Electric Power Distribution System Engineering = 0.g with ~..a is the zero-sequence self-impedance of one ground wire (QIlOOOft).a is the zero-sequence self-impedance of phase circuit (Q/lOOO ft). _ <1J. xap is the reactance of the phase wire with I-ft spacing (Q/lOOO ft).30) 1. 2.

The corresponding sequence impedance values at 60 Hz and 50°C are given in Tables 10.. (10. If the system impedance to the regulated 12.47-kV circuit protected by 140-A type L recIosers and 125-A series fuses.37.:::_o.43) 10. If the distribution circuit is a single-phase multigrounded circuit. 38 inches." = x ) WI 000 ft '.41 in Section 10. its impedance is ( 10.).7 through 10.4).6191 + j3. .47-kV bus and the system impedance to the ground are given as 0.. for example. that is. assuming a specific vertical distance between the ground wire and phase wires. -2 - Zo = Zo.26 through 10. 62 inches. spaced 62 inches.e. except the vertical distance is a different one.).3397 £1. It is required to calculate the bolted fault current at point 10.1' + r ~ + j ( x"" +. Therefore.41) where 21¢ = 7.ag = ~ + j r (x.47-kV LTC transformer feeding a three-phase four-wire 12. it is possible to develop precalculated sequence impedance tables for the application of symmetrical components.2 Assume that a rural substation has a 3750-kVA 69/12. for example.1 I.42) 7..g can be expressed as 20 = 2.Distribution System Protection 523 3. Figures 10. EXAMPLE 10. z~ is the equivalent zero-sequence impedance due to combined effects of zero-sequence self-impedance of one ground wire. and zero-sequence mutual impedance between the phase circuit as one group of conductors and the ground wire as another conductor group.a - .and positive-sequence impedances of the line to point 10. 10. (b) The impedance to ground of the line to point 10. 2mi from the substation on circuit 456319.4619 £1 and 0.32.44) (10. - xda )WI 000 ft. and z~ is same as z~.7199 + j3.30 show various overhead pole-top conductor configurations with and without ground wire.5 SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE TABLES FOR THE ApPLICATION OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS The zero-sequence impedance equation (as given in Equations 10. (10. Assume that the sizes of the phase conductors are 336AS37 (i. 336-kcmil bare aluminum steel conductors with 37 strands) and that neutral conductor is OAS7.ag WI 000 ft ~).. or 10.45) where zoo a is the zero-sequence self-impedance of the phase circuit (£11l 000 ft)." + Z. WI 000 ft or (10..). determine the following: (a) The zero.11. For example. respectively.11.

a + Z.28 = 2[(0. ~o = zo... (f) The L-L fault current at point 10.7783 + j4.0385 .47-kV bus. (g) The L-G fault current at point 10. Zo = zo.l1 ck! = 2(0.lO. Zo = zo.524 Electric Power Distribution System Engineerin! 62in ~(e) N (a) (b) FIGURE 10. . (b) witl ground wire." + z.1208)5.0054 n.Ck! = 2 (ZO..27 Various overhead pole-top conductor configurations: (a) without ground wire.2756 n. the positive-sequence impedance of the line to point 10 can be found as .. 88ini 88ini 1 62in 88in " ~(e) N (a) (b) FIGURE 10.1122+ j0.28 = 0. (e) with ground wire.0996)]5..a.) 5. Zo = ZO. (c) The total positive-sequence impedance to point 10 including system impedance to the regulated 12.26 Various overhead pole-top conductor configurations: (a) without ground wire. (e) with ground wire. Similarly. (h) wit ground wire. (e) Solution (a) The zero-sequence impedance of the line to point 10 can be found by using Table 10." + z. Zo = zoo a + z~. Zo = zoo a + z~.6125+ j1.jO.0580+ jO.4789) + (-0..47-kV bus.7 as . (d) The total impedance to ground to point 10 including system impedance of the regulated 12.28 = 0. The three-phase fault current at point 10..

1855 n.28 Various overhead pole-top conductor configurations with ground wire.29 ground wire. the impedance to ground of the line to point 10 is 2(0. i 36in 'I' 79in ·1 72in + + I J (a) (b) FIGURE 10.¢ and (b) zJ¢ =z. + z. a Zo = zo..0054) 3 = 2. Zo = zo .0033 + j2.~. . . (b) with = zoo + z'o· (j + + + + 38in 62in N (a) (b) N FIGURE 10... (b) From Equation 10.).Distribution System Protection 525 FIGURE 10.2756) + (0.30 Single-phase overhead pole-top configurations with ground wires: (a) zJ¢ =z.17. Zo Various overhead pole-top conductor configurations: (a) without ground wire.7783 + j4.6125 + j1..

)0.1366 0.)0.1108 0.0101 .0497 0.0366 .7375 .5187 0.1607 0.0175 -)0.1802 0.Q.0821 0.5206 0.0295 .4981 0.y.2663 +)0.0121 )0.5081 0.0951+ )0.5372 + )0.0543 0.1330 )0.500 I 0.1394 0.0520 .5195 0.1398 0.)0.0513 .1120 0.1466 0.1161 +)0.0255 .4794 0.)0.0342 .)0.1225 0.3156 + )0.0846 0.1313 0.4928 0.5252 Q.1630 0.6125 + j1.1581 0.)0.)0.1610 --0.1122 + )0.0827 0.5153 0.0065 -)0.1541 0.3417 + )0.1613 0.4702 0.1532 0.0468 .1608 0.7739 + )0.0082 .1624 0.26.4619) + (0.3324 + (d) The total impedance to the ground is -- Z(i = ZG.)0.0588 0.1722 -0.)0.)0.3667 + )0.1855) = 2.0016-)0.0008 .0723 + )0.2385 + )0.1703 + )0.0480 . + ZG.4867 + )0.)0.)0.1719 0.1420 0.1372 0.5047 0.2280 + )0.0848 + )0.6224 + j5.1962 + )0.5189 0.)0.4927 0.)0.1208 0.5069 + )0.1843 + )0.2756) j4.)0.4874 0.1617 0.1168 0.1558 Bare Hard-Drawn Copper (X) Bare Hard-Drawn Aluminum (AL) (c) The total positive-sequence impedance is = (0.0972 0.0554 .1830 0.1473 0.0352 .0441 .7194+)0.5123 0.1150 + )0.)0.0535 .3156 + )0.1245 0.)0.5206 0.0543 .0409 + )0.)0.)0.)0.5054 0.1476 -0.0114 .1111 0.)0.0435 .)0.)0.0310 0.1271 +)0.0472 .)0.4789 0.0224 0.1654 0.0493 0.0033 + j2.4976 0.0340 0. .7199 + j3.0949 + )0.1080 0.0859 0.1624 0.1432+)0.4899 0.1919 + )0.526 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 10. = 1.)0.)0.2614 + )0.0385 .)0.0454 .1145 0.2121 +)0.6191 - -- + j3.0432 .5198 0.0786 + )0.1255 0.)0.)0.4527 + )0.0910 0.1624 0.)0.0456 .1384 0.)0.1437 0.0242 .0465 .1663 0.0580 + )0.1537 --0.0092 .)0.0105 .0413 + )0.0244 + )0.0518 .)0.0292 . 0/1000 it Conductor Size and Code 4AS7 4AS8 3AS7 2AS7 2AS8 1AS8 IAS7 OAS7 000AS7 267AS33 336AS37 477AS33 636AS33 795AS33 8X1 6XI 4X1 3X3 2XI 1X1 1X3 OX7 00X7 000X7 0000X7 300X12 OAL7 000AL7 267AL7 477ALl9 Z2 = Z2 zO.1265 + )0.4954 0.0764 0.1605 0.)0.1453 + )0.0047 --0.1110 )0.)0.0574 + )0.2822 + )0.1345 0.0205-)0.0129 .)0.1292 0.0119 .1779 --0..1235 0.4830 + )0.)0.1237 0.4837 0.1747 0.0955 + )0.0970 0.1485 0.1212 0.0685 0.3202 + )0.1807 --0.1636 --0.3743 + )0.3397) + (2.0954 0.a Z' 0 z~ Bare-Aluminum Steel (AS) 0.1587 --0.0033 .)0.7 Sequence Impedance Values Associated with Figure 10.0432 .0020 .4827 0.1346 0.0451 -)0.0398 0.1976 + )0.054 .ckt = (0.0226 .1790 + )0.)0.0533 0.0504 .0115 .1571 0.0277 .4789 0.0535 .1206 0.0996 0.1273 + )0.0747 0.5206 0.1547 0.0283 .3125 + )0.0468 .0306 + )0.)0.0184 .4727 0.)0.2875 + )0.1346 0.)0.0471 .1420 + )0.)0.0548 0.0221 -)0.0041 .)0.5018 0.)0.5409 + )0.0731 + )0.1499 0.0380 .0729 + )0.1462 )0.0056 .0407 + )0.5162 0.1226 0.1317 0.1377+)0.)0.1436 -0.0459 .2614 + )0.0911 + )0.1367 0.1486 --0.1692 + )0.2332 + )0.)0.)0.0620 0.0874 0.3920 + )0.4462 + )0.1465 0.1116 + )0.5384 0.0156 .)0.0395 .)0.

0668 + jO.1214 0. .2121 +}0.2280 + )0.)0.0340 .2975 -+.2121 + jO.4789 0.jO.3693 0.1348 0.)0.jO.)0.jO.)0.0152 .1143 TABLE 10.1674 0.jO.1 071 jO.3562 + jO.0911 +)0.jO.4527 + )0.4727 0.0179 +}0.1182 0.0244 + jO.3667 0.5123 0.1377 + jO.0361 .3540 0.0765 0.130 I 0.jO.0304 + }0.0221 .0240 0.0306 + jO.jO.1664 0.0/1000 it Conductor Size and Code 4AS7 4AS8 3AS7 2AS7 2AS8 I AS8 IAS7 OAS7 000AS7 267AS33 336AS33 477AS33 636AS33 795AS33 8Xl 6XI 4XI 4X3 3X3 2XI IXI IX3 OX7 OOX7 OOOX7 OOOOX7 300X12 OAL7 OOOAL7 267AL7 477ALl9 ZI=Z'l zo .1 089 0.1607 0.03S7 0.0580 + jO.3201 +jO.0220 .a z~ 0.0279 .jO.0386 0.0353 .)0.3586 -0.t z~ z~ Bare-Aluminum Steel (AS) 0.1592 0.391 I 0.}O.1 127 0.3640 -0.1339 0.1489 -D.1558 0.5229 + jO.0911 }0.1434 + jO.2483 + jO.)0.8 Sequence Impedance Values Associated with Figure 10.0449 0.1085 + }0.5189 0.0288 .0299 .0694 jO.)0.1530 0.)0.0265 .}0.4702 0.jO.)0.28.2847 + )0.1 052 0.171 0 0.0196 0.0360 0.0334 .0809 jO.3612 -0.0537 0.1541 0.0479 0.0036 .3486 + jO.0542 0.)0.)0.3714 0.0293 .0608 0.2975 -+.)0.3919 0.0895 0.1698 0.jO.0468 0.0002 .0118 .0099 .3689 0.0289 .II64 0.0987 -0.1611 0.1795 + }0.0223 0.0439 .0774 + }0.0547 0.I 083 0.)0.4888 + )0.}0.jO.0484 0.0282 .0518 0.7197+jO.0731 0.0062 .1092 + }0.0882 0.0967 0.0050 + }0.1706 0..0024 .jO.2663 + }0.7558 + )0.0349 .0335 0.1197 0.0191 .}0.0070 .3236 + )0.}0.0313 0.1487 0.0130 0.0819 0.0409 + jO.1438 0.0057 .3919 0.4830 + jO.jO.3813 0.1150 + jO.0919 -0.3794 0.0753 0.jO.3462 0.0951 + jO.1208 0.1439 0.3875 0.)0.0354 .0830 jO.3208 + )0.0368 .0148 .1492 0.0848 + jO.jO.2151 +)0.1536 -D.1577 .1843 0.2614+jO.0227 .0596 0.5187 0.2642 + )0.Wi3 0.1895 0.1238 -0.0862 0.1513 0.1605 0.032S .jO.0729 + jO.0288 .0708 0.0623 0.}0.0072 + }0.0229 .0086 jO.)0.jO.0941 + jO.0625 0.0118 .4830 + jO.3900 0.3919 0.0281 -)0.jO.0605 + )0.0953 0.3836 0.0770 + jO.1919+}0.0726 0.1411 0.}0.0957 -0.0023 .27.3550 0.1090 + jO.0085 .0233 .3415 Bare Hard-Drawn Copper (X) 0.3902 0.0960 0.0293 .0407 + }0.3507 jO.3907 0.3125 + jO.O 187 .3502 -0.jO.0/1000 it Conductor Size and Code 4AS8 OAS7 000AS7 267AS33 477AS33 636AS33 795AS33 Zl=Z2 zO.1125 0.0014 .1272 + )0.jO.0926 -0.4749 0.jO.1717 0.0723 + }0.0969 0.jO.4867 + jO.0389 0.jO.jO.IOOI -0.0729 + }0.1145 0.1120 0.jO.0010 .)0.3731 0.)0.3640 0.1782 + )0.1511 +}0.jO.0786 + jO.0349 .jO.4097 0.060 I 0.1566 0.)0.jCU)554 0.10 13 0.)0.1377 + }0.0574 + )0.4282 + jO.5191 + jO.0168 .0357 .3760 0.0019 -0.0126 .0164 .0338 .1790 + )0.0143 .1717 0.1122 + jO.0413 Bare Hard-Drawn Aluminum (AL) 0.3767 0.0234 .3920 + jO.0280 .2614 + jO.0811 0.0027 .1466 0.jO.0228 .1738 + jO.0173 .0769 + jO.jO.1306 0.jO.1161 0.0896 0.0289 .1168 0.0123 .1700 0.5372 + jO.0409 + jO.1522 + jO.1169 -D.9 Sequence Impedance Values for Bare-Aluminum Steel (AS) Associated with Figure 10.0695 0.1261 -0.031 0 0.0078 .0935 + )0.0306 + jO.0268 . .0894 -0.0284 .jO.17l7 0.0972 jO.2204 + jO.0636 0.jO.1634 0.1385 0.0091 .2875 + )0.3440 0.1558 -D.3866 0.0240 .0514 0.0766 0.1420 + )0.jO.Distribution System Protection 527 TABLE 10.}0.)0.0040 .0244 + )0.

260 1 0.¢ 0.1824 0.3221 + jO.5372 + jO.2198 0.1132 + )0.1401 +jO.1936 0.2415 0.0040 .2121 + jO.1934 0.3219 +jO. 0.2643 + jO.2611 + jO.0352 + jO.0406 .2393 O.20SI O.1223 0.1880 0.5012 0.0767 + jO.10 Sequence Impedance Values for Bare-Aluminum Steel (AS) Associated with Figure 10.3497 + jO.2433 + jO.0951 + jO.41 Bare Aluminum-Steel (AS) z.jO.0229 .1176 0.2585 0.24 I 5 0.5202 + jO.0786 + jO.1122 + jO.0552 + )0.1423 + jO.5077 0.2326 0.1708 0.2565 0.0931 + jO.248 I 0.0334 .1919 + jO.=Z2 zo . 0/1 000 Conductor Size and Code 4AS7 4AS8 3AS7 2AS7 2AS8 IAS8 IAS7 OAS7 OOOAS7 267AS33 336AS37 477AS33 636AS33 795AS33 8XI 6XI 4XI 4X3 3X3 2XI IXI IX3 OX7 00X7 OOOX7 OOOOX7 300XI2 ft z.4592 z~ 0.1740 0.171S +)0.2026 0.l662 0.29.0559 + jO.253 I 0.4830 + jO.2522 0.jO.2609 0.0729 + jO.2148 0.2516 0.5165 + jO.2957 + jO.4262 + jO.3189 + jO.229 I 0.2338 0.1475 TABLE 10.2640 0.1200 0.0029 .2618 0.OS46 + )0.2432 0.1664 + jO.2973 + jO.11 Impedance Values Associated with Figure 10.2664 0.2096 + jO.130 I 0.0202 -jO.0431 + jO.0306 + jO.3466 + jO.4639 0.0808 + jO.2377 0.1740+)0.1978 (J.30.4895 + jO.7529 + jO.263 I 0.1271 + jO.0551 + jO.2097 0. 1800 0.2464 0.0191-jO.2705 0.5230 + jO.0930 + jO.IISO + jO.2265 0.32SI + jO.4717 0.1724 + jO.1349 -0.1859 0. ill 1 000 Conductor Size and Code 4AS8 OAS7 000AS7 267AS33 336AS37 477AS33 636AS33 795AS33 ft Z.0916 + )0.20S3 0'<)742 + )0.1437 -0.2929 + jO.528 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering TABLE 10.0580 + jO.20 I I 0.1263 0.