This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Yang, The use of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to confer the behavioral model of 3G mobile telecommunication users, Journal of Statistics and Management Systems, Vol.11, No.5, 919–949, 2008
Investigating the consumer behavior of T a i w a n ’ s 3G mobile telecommunication services
Yu-Lung Wu1, Yu-Hui Tao2, Pei-Chi Yang1 1 Department of Information Management, I-Shou University: ISU96-01-14 No.1, Sec 1,Syuecheng Rd.,Dashu Township Kaohsiung County 840 email@example.com, 2 Department of Information Management, National University of Kaohsiung Kaohsiung (833, Taiwan) firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract A l t h o u g hT a i w a n ’ s3 Gs e r v i c e ss t a r t e di t so p e r a t i o ni n2 0 0 3 , t h em a i np r o f i t source for every telecommunication company is still the cheaper fees of airtime minutes. Therefore, this study is directed on how these companies design the m a r k e t i n gt a c t i c sc l o s e rt ot h ec o n s u m e r s ’ n e e du n d e rt h ed u a l i n f l u e n c e so ft h e d e c r e a s i n gi n d i v i d u a l ’ sc o n t r i b u t i o na n dt h el o wu tility rate, as well as how to i m p r o v ec u s t o m e r s ’ w i l l i n g n e s st oa d o p t3 Gm o b i l et e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o ns e r v i c e s . Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is used as the model to carry out the investigation of expert interview a n dc o n s u m e r s ’ survey. This study f o u n dt h a t t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l yi n f l u e n c e dt h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” i n c l u d e “ p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a n c y , ” “ s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , ” a n d “ f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , ” w h i l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a lk n o w n“ e f f o r te x p e c t a n c y ”d i dn o t .Mo r e o v e r ,t h r e e non-assumed relationships were discovered during the Structural Equation Model analysis, which helped to revise the UTAUT model for the adoption of 3G telecommunication services in Taiwan. T h er e s u l t so ft h i ss t u d yc a nb eh e l p f u l t oT a i w a n ’ sm o b i l e telecommunication companies to adjust their corporate strategies and tactics for providing customer-oriented 3G services to both existing and potential customers, such that the overall 3G market can be expanded as well as a win-win situation for the 3G industry and their consumers can be achieved. Key words - 3G Mobile Telecommunication, Unified Theory of Acceptance and
Use of Technology (UTAUT), Structural Equation Modeling
1999). and the popularity of cell-phone number was up to 100%. Meanwhile.. the highest one is 8% by Far EasTone. which accounted for 42. Igbaria et al. the global application of 3G has just officially started in 2005. In the past. there were 3. picture and ring tone downloading. which only accounts for 5% to 10% of t h e p r o f i t o f T a i w a n ’ s mobile telecommunication industry (Institute for Information Industry，2006a) In the p a s t . In contrast. data and video services. The behavioral intention that is adopted to discuss technology acceptance is always the an emergent topic in contemporary management (Davis. the cell phone was unable to send information rapidly and safely. 1989..2970. besides Japan and Korea. A m o n gT a i w a n ’ s m o b i l ed a t as e r v i c e s .I. Davis et al. Jackson et al. This is a general bottleneck faced by the worldwide mobile phones suppliers. Liao et al. 1993.. and then 6% by Chunghwa Telecom and Taiwan Mob i l e . such as voice. it is used as the . 1989. and this value continued to grow with 10 % every year (GSM Association. Mykytyn & Harrison. Now the 3G cell phone can not only greatly improves the deficiency of data transmission speed of 2G cell phones.840. T a i w a n ’ s c e l l p h o n em a r k e t i s r e l a t i v e l ys m a l l o nt h ed a t as e r v i c e s . In Taiwan. 1989). 1991. The annual output value of global mobile telecommunication market has already reached US$700 Billion. and thus deserves a further investigation o nt h ec o n s u m e r ’ sa d o p t i o nb e h a v i o rregarding 3G mobile service adoption. the number of global mobile telecommunication users will surpass 5 billion in 2015. Even when facing such a great business opportunity of huge market. the mobile value-added services have been at a low level at the same time. 1997. The above figures show that the numbers of cell-phone and mobile Internet of Taiwan usage have always kept at a high level. limited to the software and hardware abilities of 2G cell phones. Mathieson.7% of the total users of network Internet. 1997.000 users for 3G data services and PHS users in the third quarter of 2006. game and friend-meeting are the most popular mobile value-added services besides messaging. Because Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) has the best explanatory power in behavior for information technology.000 users in the third quarter of 2006. cell-phone number users had reached 2. which reflects that the current mobile services has not been widely accepted by the consumers.. but also offer diversified services. which is twice of the number in 2000. which is three times the current number. among the technology acceptance models (Davis. 2006). the coverage of the mobile network has already reached 80% of the global population. INTRODUCTION According to the latest research report of GSM Association. F o r u s e r ’ s contribution to data-service profit.
main framework in this study. The third generation of mobile telecommunication system must possess enough bandwidth and transmission speed in order to offer this kind of multimedia service (Topology Research Institute. and mobile e-commerce. In particular. 2005). Strategy -4- . and video conference.3 billion by 2011 (Informa Telecoms et al.8 billion in 2006. and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management.2006). copes with many kinds of media. and focuses on d i f f e r e n t u s e r s ’ characteristics. 2G. Zeng. A noteworthy point is that the mobile telecommunication system is not only evolved and developed unilaterally. the Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market is up to US$18. but the 1G. the so-called third generation mobile telecommunication system is the mobile telecommunication system that combines the multimedia communications. 3G that this study mentioned are also the classifications of the current mobile telecommunication system according to their transmission speeds and applications. understands consumers ’ relevant factors of behavioral intention with regard to mobile telecommunications service. video conference. In order to identify the adoption factors of 3G mobile service issues. the purpose of this study verifies the suitability of UTAUT under the background of mobile telecommunications. “ Wo r l d w i d e C e l l u l a r U s e r Forecasts. using habits. The current situation of 3G mobile telecommunication industry Mobile telecommunication system continuously progresses with the a d v a n c e m e n t o f t e c h n o l o g ya n dt h eu s e r s ’ d e m a n d s t o w a r d s t r a n s m i s s i o ns p e e d and application services.C.5 billion users before the end of 2010. such as picture. such as wireless communication and global Internet. t h e n e wr e s e a r c hr e p o r t . and it is expected to be up to US$39. According to the investigation report of Global System for Mobile Entertainment Services Market of Informa Telecoms & Media. and offers diversified information services including Internet surfing. In t e r m s o f t h e u s e r p o p u l a t i o n . 2002). 2005-2 0 1 0 ” .5 billion by the end of 2006. audio-visual. and reaches 3.. such that customers can have the best quality of receiving environment in any place and any time (S. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A. b y S t r a t e g y A n a l y t i c s Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k S t r a t e g i e s S e r v i c e points out that the global mobile users will be up to 2. II. In addition.
but the 3G services of the main 3G subscribers started to operate continually until May 2005. Take South Korea as another example.945~1. etc.125~2. since the third quarter of 2006 in Japan. such as e-book. though the first 3G subscriber (Asia Pacific Telecom) in Taiwan set up the 3G services earlier than the subscribers in Hong Kong and Singapore.845 0. are put forward successively. 2006).000 Far Eastone Telecom WCDMA 1.809 37 countries 300.825~0.150 5 countries.000 -5- . With the gradual progress of technology and the mobile device of downloading. B .The present using condition of 3G telecommunications service in Taiwan With respect to the development of 3G telecommunication services in Asia.975 2. For example.135 Asia Pacific Telecom CDMA 2000 0. 3G technology will be commercialized successively. mobile music.935 2.150 25 countries. The market of 3G becomes gradually clear in other countries. mobile TV (audio-visual steam). the industry of the mobile telephone will produce the service profit of US$800 billion.Analytics also predicts that in the following ten years.020~2. WCDMA 1. the 3G user population has already been up to 57 million..960 2. Korea.960~1.000 Taiwan Mobile Co. the starting time of Taiwan had not only fallen behind Japan and Korea. the transmitting rate of 3G technology increases from 384bps to 2Mbps.135 14 countries. In addition. and the last subscriber. so that the potential multimedia network services.000 VIBO Telecom WCDMA 1. the 3G subscribers of Japan.000 X 990.020 2.125~2. set up the 3G services until December 2005 (Table 1).945~1. 22 networks 300. Table 1 – The general situation of 3G mobile telecommunication s u b s c r i b e r s ’ s y s t e m s in Taiwan 3G mobile telecommunicati on companies System Frequency bands(GHz) 3G image roaming The number of Chunghwa Telecom WCDMA 1. it also has a gap with Hong Kong and Singapore (Institute for Information Industry. mobile game.135~2. VIBO Telecom.870~0.915~1. the consumers are charged for about US$15 per month for the service of watching TV though the cell phone. electronic comic.025 2.015~2. 9 networks 490. and Hong Kong have already set up 3G services before June of 2005.135~2. Singapore.960 2. 41 networks 850.
and none of above-mentioned conditions can be dispensed with.5% more than the same period of last year. A c c o r d i n gt o“ T h eb e h a v i o r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o no f t h eu s a g eo f T a i w a nm o b i l ed a t a s e r v i c e ”c o n d u c t e db yt h eI n s t i t u t ef o rI n f o r m a t i o nI n d u s t r y .3G users in November 2006 The time of setting up commercial service July 2005 September 2005 July 2005 December 2005 September 2003 Source of materials: Telecommunication Bureau(2006/12) However. the growth was astonishing. Thus it can be seen that the increasing power of 3G users is considerable. The cell phone subscribers in Taiwan are full of expectation towards mobile value-added services. This polarized response has been shown on the -6- . In other words. until the forth quarter of 2006. but they are currently not satisfied in the actual applications. 2002). which is still incomparable with 20% in Japan and Korea(Institute for Information Industry. the mobile telecommunication users of Taiwan shift to 3G specifications progressively. B. If the companies of the third generation of communication s e r v i c ec a nu n d e r s t a n dt h ec o n s u m e r s ’ b e h a v i o r o f u s i n g3 Gs e r v i c e si nd e p t h . the number of users broke 3. but also can o b t a i n a b u n d a n tc o n s u m e r s ’i n f ormation (N. the 3G users in the forth quarter of 2006 has increased 157. Green. the profit of Taiwan mobile data service accounts for only 8. 2007). t h ep o p u l a r i t yo f mobile data service for Taiwanese was 59% in 2006. the number of 3G of users has increased 26. which is only relatively fair compared with 2004 and 2005.097. terminal device.000.000. the success of mobile value-added service market must be established under the prerequisites of complete customers. then they can not only promote the quality of communication service. The third generation of communication service has the same advantage of the traditional e-commerce as well as the unique service characteristics and value-added benefits. Accordingly. Nohria. marketing service and operational models. the number of 3G users has increased 2. content. i n v e s t i g a t i n gt h ec u s t o m e r s ’b e h a v i o ro fu s i n g3 Gs e r v i c e sc a ni m p r o v et h e effective customer service and expand the using market (R. the mobile data service has not been significantly improved as the rapidly growth of 3G user population. Compared with the end of 2005.2001).3% of average profit per user. In addition.7% comparing to last season. service platform. but the fact is not so. However.420.
Therefore. In other words. 2003). the latter includes four dimensions. how to u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e m a n d s a n d i n t e n t i o n / b e h a v i o r a n d t h e nb r i n go u t t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o no f m o b i l e s e r v i c e s . which a r e “ J o bR e l e v a n c e ” . The former includes three dimensions . it also brings them into the dimensions that are -7- . Besides forward extending the TAM framework and improving the completeness of theory. the more important thing is that TAM2 expands the study field to the internal parts of actual enterprises. “ V o l u n t a r i n e s s ”a n d“ I m a g e ” . i t s method is simple a n dc l e a r . et al. The Evidence-based study shows that the explanatory power of two forward e x t e n d i n g v a r i a b l e s w i t h r e g a r d t o “ P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s ” h a s r e a c h e d 5 1 %. C.w h i c ha r e“ S u b jective n o r m ” . The reason why TAM is generally valued and adopted by researchers is b e c a u s ei t u s e su s e r s ’ p e r c e p t i o nt oi n f e r B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n( B I ) d i r e c t l y . this is the main purpose of this study. so as to propose Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). At the same time. L e g r i se t a l .content and application of the mobile value-added services and paying desire. 1995a). it can be regarded as TRA and then applied to explain the specific model that is adopted by information technology (Taylor & Todd. It also allows the manager to use TAM to weigh the introduction of new technology. T A M2 . Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Davis (1989) uses Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) from Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) as the foundation and cooperates with the application situation that is used by information system. Venkatesh and Davis (2000) have proposed a new structure. “ R e s u l t D e m o n s t r a b i l i t y ” a n d“ P e r c e i v e d E a s eo f U s e ” . a n d the entire model has 49% of explanatory p o w e r f o r “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” .. a n dt h e yc l a i m e dt h a t “ S o c i a l i n f l u e n c e ”a n d “ C o g n i t i v ei n s t r u m e n t a l ”a r et h et w om a i nv a r i a b l e st h a ti n f l u e n c eu s e r s ’ consciousness. thus. “ O u t p u t Q u a l i t y ” . TAM2 has omitted behavioral attitude (ATU) because ATU does not have significant influential effect towards BI and actual system usage (AU). The purpose of TAM is to simplify TRA and provide a generalization model that possesses theoretical foundation & parsimony and the tools that a manager uses. ( 2 0 0 3 ) s u g g e s t e dt h a t other variables should be added to TAM so as to provide a more complete model structure. attitude and desire when using the technology.。So. w h i c he x t e n d sf o r w a r d . the researcher can understand the external factors th a t a f f e c t r e s e a r c h e r ’ s i n t e r n a l faith. and then predicts and explains the user’ sbehavior of accepting information technology (Venkatesh. b u t q u e s t i o n s s u c ha s “ w h i c hf a c t o r s w o u l di n f l u e n c e u s e r s ’ p e r c e p t i o n ”h a v en o t b e e nd i s c u s s e d .
Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB). D. and advertisement User has the feeling to perform certain behaviors because he wants to. The discussion of the eight relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories is shown in Table 2. salary. Motivational Model (MM). such as Job Relevance.Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Core Structure Attitude Toward Behavior Subjective Norm Perceived Usefulness Definition The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance The degree that an individual believes its easy to use the system An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors User has the feeling to perform some actions because of some activities.Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioral Control -8- . hence he integrated the eight models from previous documents: TRA. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Wi t ht h e v i g o r o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f T A M2 ’ s r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s . addressing the new framework of Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology(UTAUT). not because of any obvious stimulus The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The restriction that an individual has 2. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). TAM. Model of PC Utilization(MPCU). m o r e a n dm o r e external variables that focus on different fields have been brought up. Social Cognitive Theory(SCT).Motivational Model (MM) Intrinsic Motivation Attitude Toward Behavior 4. Its theoretical structure is shown in Figure 1. Table 2 – The discussion of relevant individual behavioral acceptance models and theories Theory 1. Venkatesh has finished a review in accordance with the relevant studies over the years. Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT). each of the models also had been verified in its own field and category respectively.closely related to the business. he found out the previous evidence-based models have their own characteristics.Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Perceived Ease of Use Subjective Norm Extrinsic Motivation 3. improvement of work.
The user experiences the innovation of the new system and begins to have voluntariness and freedom. The degree of using new system and make people feel difficult to use.Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) Perceived Behavioral Control Perceived Usefulness Job-fit Complexity Long-term Consequences 6.Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) Compatibility Results Demonstrability Voluntariness of Use 8. The degree that using new system can stre n g t h e n o t h e r s ’ i m p r e s s i o n The degree that one can observe different users to use the new system in the organization The degree that user feels the new system is in chorus with the value of existence. depressed and detesting towards s certain behavior.Attitude Toward Behavior Subjective Norm 5. demand. The individual expectancy is related to the result of behavior. happy. The performance expectancy is related to the result of behavior. The substantial result of using new system includes the things that are visible and can be expressed by languages. and experience. The internalization of individual towards team culture and the agreement with the group The subjective factor that makes people feel it is easy to take action under a certain environment The degree of using new method and can do better. especially the performance expectancy that is related to work.Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) Affect Towards Use Social Factors Facilitating Conditions Relative Advantage Ease of Use Image Visibility 7. The judgment ability that an individual .Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Outcome ExpectationsPerformance Outcome ExpectationsPersonal Self-efficacy -9- experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior The positive or negative feeling that an individual has towards certain behavior An individual experiences others thinking that he should or should not have what kind of behaviors The restriction that an individual has experienced from inside and outside towards his behavior The degree that the user believes that using the information system can improve work performance The degree that the system can strength e n a n i n d i v i d u a l ’ s w o r k performance The degree that the system is difficult to understand and use The result will be somewhat benefited in the future An individual feels joyful. especially personal respect and achievement feeling.
Social Influence (SI). Source of the materials: Venkatesh. which are “ G e n d e r ” . and four control variables.10 - . Facilitating Conditions (FC). Personal interest towards a special behavior The anxiety or emotional response that an individual has when performance behavior is involved. “ E x p e r i e n c e ” . Table 3 THE FOUR CORE DETERMINANTS OF UTAUT UTAUT Determinant The Sub-Determinant Perceived Usefulness Performance Expectancy/PE Extrinsic Motivation Job-fit Relative Advantage Outcome Expectations Effort Expectancy/EE Perceived Ease of Use Complexity The Source of Integrated Model TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB MM MPCU IDT SCT TAＭ/TAM2 MPCU . “ A g e ” .Affect Anxiety has when using a kind of technique to complete a specific work or assignment. a n d“ Voluntariness o f U s e ” . (2003) Fig. (2003) UTAUT model integrates the issues that are mentioned in the relevant documents into four main core determinants: Performance Expectancy (PE).1. et al. Its four main dimensions are shown in Table 3. UTAUT model Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al. Effort Expectancy (EE).
. 2. 2006). and wireless network (Hong-Chang Zhang. Cang-Yi Guo. one found that the explanatory power of this UTAUT model is up to 70% with regard to technology using behavior. Ming-Hong Siao.(Ease of Use Subjective Norm Social Influence/SI Social Factors Image Facilitating Conditions/FC Perceived Behavioral Control Facilitating Conditions Compatibility IDT TRA 、 TAM2 、 TPB/DPTB 、 C-TAM/TPB MPCU IDT TPB/DTPB、C-TAM-TPB MPCU IDT Source of the materials: Venkatesh et al. it is more effective than any of the models that are known before. it is no longer confined to the discussion of the use of information system. a g e .. voluntariness of use. online learning (Yi-Yuan Zeng. and level of education is added. and the study problem of this study takes user’ s desire and behavior as the core. and the use of UTAUT model has become more extensive in recent years. . the control variables are in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e U T A U Tm o d e l ’ s v a r i a b l e s .11 - . Research Model and Hypothesis Development A. (2003) thinks that the purpose of UTAUT model is to offer the manager with using tools. The external variables are formed by the four core determinants in UTAUT model. Mei-Chi Lai. so this study uses UTAUT model as the theoretical foundation of this study.(2003) Venkates et al. III. the manager can use UTAUT to weigh the introduction of new technology and predict & e x p l a i nt h eu s e r ’ sb e h a v i o ro f accepting information technology. the framework of this study can be integrated and shown in Fig. 2005). i n c l u d i n g g e n d e r .2006. 2004). From the previous test result. The Study Framework Synthesizing the above-mentioned literature reviews. such as mobile commerce (Carlsson et al. e x p e r i e n c e .
because Venkatesh et al. Each dimension is defined referring to relevant documents. (2003) focused on the specific application software to train the same participant.The major differences between this study and the original UTAUT study (Venkatesh et al. the explanation is as follows: (1) Performance Expectancy/PE I t r e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e et h a t t h eu s e rb e l i e v e st h a t u s i n gt h ei n f o r m a t i o n . “ u s i n ge x p e r i e n c e ” i nt h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t ot h e i n d i v i d u a l ’ s using habit in the past (Venkatesh et al. t h i s c a n b e u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f “ u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e ” t o w a r d s e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t ..12 - . Finally. and Facilitating Conditions. This study only has one test because it is designed to survey participants at different stages of the temporal dimension all at once. The Study Framework B. T h e r e f o r e . which includes Performance Expectancy. Also. it was required to carry out three tests in three periods of time before and after training. The Study Dimensions This study uses the four main dimensions of UTAUT.2. Effort Expectancy. 1996). education is added into the control variable group because it is conjectured to be relevant as the other control variables in mobile communication adoption. 2003) lie in the temporal dimension and the connotation of d e t e r m i n a n t sb y“ e x t e r n a lv a r i a b l e s ” . External variables Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Conditions Behavioral Intention Use Behavior Control Variables Gender Age Experienc e Education Voluntariness of Use Fig.. Social Influence.F o rt h et e m p o r a ld i m e n s i o n . and the control variables. b e c a u s e t h e u s e r ’ s “ f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n ” w ith regard to that software will change with t i m e .
V e n k a t e s h h a sa r r a n g e d f i v e sub-dimensions from the documents in the past. (3) Social Influence/SI I t r e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e et h a t a ni n d i v i d u a l s e n s e st h a t t h ep e r s o nw h oi s i m p o r t a n tt oh i mt h i n k st h a t h es h o u l du s et h en e ws y s t e m ” . TPB/DPTB. (2003) thinks that expected e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e f e r s t o “ a b l e t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e w a r d sa f t e r u s i n gt h es y s t e m ” .13 - . The so-c a l l e d“ s u b j e c t i v en o r m ”r e f e r st o“ ac e r t a i nk i n do f i m a g eo f t h e p a r t y t h a t i s g i v e n b y t h e p e o p l e a r o u n dh i m ” . Venkatesh et al. which are Perceived Usefulness (TAM/TAM2/C-TAM-TPB).“ S u b j e c t i v en o r m ”w i l lu r g et h ep a r t yt op r o d u c et h ep o i n to f behavioral intention (BI). C-TAM/TPB). for instance: whether the operation of cell-phone functions is clear and easy to be understood. therefore. V e n k a t e s hh a s arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past. TAM2. o r “ p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t h o wt h e p a r t y s h o u l dd o ” . but these influences will be reduced as the using experience increases. “ social factor” (MPCU). T a y l o r &T o d d( 1 9 9 5 ) f o u n do u t “ s u b j e c t i v en o r m ”w o u l dr e a l l y . external motivation (MM). and from the previous studies. work correlation (MPCU). a n d “ o p e r a t i n g s i m p l i c i t y ” ( I D T ) . w h i c h a r e “ c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e a s y t o u s e ” ( T A M/ T A M2 ) . one could know that the influence that the difference between Gender and Age has towards performance expectancy is relatively significant. (2003) believes that the diligent expectation of an individual towards the use of system would be somewhat different because of gender and age. relative advantage (IDT). “ s y s t e m a t i c c o m p l e x i t y ” ( MP C U ) . this was first proposed by Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) in TRA. the male worker or young worker who pursues performance will be more outstanding than other groups. T h i s m e a n s t h a t w h e t h e r t h e d e s i g n o f information system can allow the user to use it easily or not is one of the key factors of accepting information technology. a n d “ public image” (IDT). (2) Effort Expectancy/EE I t r e f e r s t o “ T h e e a s i n e s s t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s o f w h e n u s i n g t h e s y s t e m ” . whether it is easy for the user to use 3G mobile telecommunication to access Internet. different results have also appeared. Venkatesh has arranged three sub-dimensions from the documents in the past. thereafter through the discussions of a lot of scholars. which are “ subjective norm” (TRA.s y s t e m c a n i m p r o v ew o r k p e r f o r m a n c e ” . all of these are the factors that determine whether the system is easy to use or not. women or old people are usually more significant. Venkatesh et al. and expectancy to the achievement (SCT).
. V e n k a t e s h has arranged three sub-d i m e n s i o n s f r o mt h e d o c u m e n t s i n t h e p a s t . In conclusion. experience and use voluntarily.C -TAM-T P B ) . 1991). 1 9 8 9 ) . because the image or impression that the party hopes to establish is usually related to role model that the group identifies. 1991).“ p r o m o t i n g c o n d i t i o n ”( MP C U ) .a n d“ c o m p a t i b i l i t y ”( I D T ) .14 - .. one must consider these interfering factors and correct the implemented strategy appropriately. and Mathieson (1991) & Davis et al (1989) believed that the relationship between them is not significant. w h i c h a r e “ t h e c o n t r o lo fc o n s c i o u sb e h a v i o r ” ( T P B / D T P B . (4) Facilitating Conditions/FC I tr e f e r st o“ t h ed e g r e eo fs u p p o r t i n gt h a ta ni n d i v i d u a lf e e l sf r o mt h e organizational and technical relevant equipment towards sys t e mu s e ” . age. after using for a while. But these influences would usually happen only at the beginning of use. “ p r o m o t i n gc o n d i t i o n ” r e f e r s t ot h e t e c h n o l o g ya s s i s t a n c e t h a t i s p r o v i d e db yt h e o b j e c t i v ee n v i r o n m e n t . women workers will be easily influenced by the attitudes of senior managers and colleagues. .A m o n gt h e m . According to the view of Davis (Davis et al. (2003) believes the relationship between social influence and use intention would be influenced by the interfering factors such as gender. In addition. Thompson et al. t h e s t r o n go r w e a ks t r e n g t ho f “ s u b j e c t i v e n o r m ”i sc l o s e l yr e l a t e dt ot h ee n v i r o n m e n t t h a t t h ed i s c u s s i o ns u b j e c t i si n . gender. social influence does not have significant influence on behavioral intention. . Therefore. It arranges the sub-dimensions of UTAUT’ s e a c h d i m e n s i o n a n d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s . social influence has very significant influence towards old workers. (2003) considers the purpose of experience. 2000). Venkatesh et al.. age. w h i c hi st h eu s e r ’ sj u d g m e n to fa b l et oo p e r a t et h es y s t e mo rn o t . “ Public image”r e f e r s t o“ the party thinks a certain image helps to maintain or improve his own position in the group” (Moore and Banbasat. 2003. if use gender to distinguish.make party produce the behavioral intention. including the support of computer software and hardware or the assistance on systematic operation (Venkatesh et al.t h es o -called “ c o n t r o l o fc o n s c i o u sb e h a v i o r ”r e f e r st ou s e r ’ ss e l f -efficacy to the system in g e n e r a l . cooperating situation means that the organization and technical framework support the user to use the system. et al. Experience and age are the interfering factors between cooperating situation and behavior. Venkates et al. and user is to emphasize that there is difference between personal acceptance and the strategy of using IT under different situation. so there is significantly positive relation between the so-called “ public image”a n d“ role model identificat i o n ”(Venkatesh.“ c o m p a t i b i l i t y ”i st h ec o n s i s t e n c yo fs y s t e m a n d organization value.
take Gender as an example. female is more significant than male. C. Study Assumptions According to the structure of this study. especially the young female who is lack of the experience of using computer. For example. and the intensity of this influence will decrease progressively with the accumulation of use experience (Venkatesh. maybe SI has more significant influence towards older age employees.(5) Moderators Besides the above-mentioned four core determinants. just like the influence that Performance Expectancy (PE) has towards Behavioral Intention (BI). the result of study finds out the complex interaction of two or more variables will make the influence even more significant. there are still four significant moderators in the theoretical structure of UTAUT: Gender.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ s o c i a l e x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” o f t h e3 G .. and in the mean time because female cares about o t h e r s ’ p o i n t o f v i e wm o r e . then young male is more significant than other groups. 2003). female is more significant than male. Hypothesis 2 . s o S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ( S I ) i s m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t ( V e n k a t e s h and Morris. i nP E ’ s i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s BI. in case of only considering Gender. especially under involuntary situation and the older female who is lack of the experience of using computer.15 - . i nS I ’ s i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s B I . Experience and Voluntariness of Use. male is more significant than female. UTAUT further cross-analyzes the roles of other relevant variables (such as Age). 2000).The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ e f f o r t e x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ”o f t h e3 G mobile telecommunication services. the variables are divided into external variables and control variables in order to establish the following assumptions: (1) External Variables Hypothesis 1 –The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ p e r f o r m a n c ee x p e c t a n c y ”w i l l l i f t t h e“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ”of the 3G mobile telecommunication services. Hypothesis 3 . f e m a l ei s m o r e significant than male. Age. In the influence of “ Effort Expectancy”(EE) towards BI. if adding Age factor. et al. a lot of studies point out the influence of different dimensions towards BI is related to Gender. There is no lack of the discussions of these variables in the previous relevant studies.
including the questions for external variables. t h i s . Questionnaire Design and Data Collection I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e m a n d s a n d i n t e n t i o n / b e h a v i o r . and the questions for use behavior. The tables that this study use mainly adopt the table of technology acceptance model that is developed by Davis (1989) and the items that are a r r a n g e df r o mV e n k a t e s he t a l ’ sU T A U Tm o d e l ( 2 0 0 3 ) s oa st os e r v ea st h e foundation.The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” w i l l l i f t t h e “ u s e b e h a v i o r ” o f t h e 3 Gm o b i l e telecommunication services. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. 2. Hypothesis 10 – Education has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. Hypothesis 9 – Experience has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. Control Variables Hypothesis 6 –Gender has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. because the questionnaire content of UTAUT relies mainly o ni n v e s t i g a t i n g“ t h ef o l l o w -u pB e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o no f d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d ” . Hypothesis 7 –Age has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services. Then interviews were conducted with related units of five domestic 3G mobile telecommunication companies for possible modifications of the final questionnaire.mobile telecommunication services. thus. In the part of Behavioral Intention. a n d then brin g o u tt h e c o n s u m e r s ’a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f 3 G m o b i l e telecommunication service. The questionnaire was initially designed in accordance with the operational definitions referre di n“ 2 0 0 6WMI SG l o b a l Mo b i l eI n t e r n e t I n v e s t i g a t i o n ”i s s u e db yI n s t i t u t ef o rI n f o r m a t i o nI n d u s t r yi n 2006. Hypothesis 5 .The consumers of 3G mobile telecommunication services think t h a t “ f a c i l i t a t i n gc o n d i t i o n s ” w i l l l i f t t h e “ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” o f t h e 3G mobile telecommunication services. the questions for behavioral intention. Hypothesis 4 . D. Hypothesis 8 – Voluntariness of Use has significant difference towards the study variables of 3G mobile telecommunication services.16 - . this study used the questionnaire method to examine the framework of this study. the question about content validity does not exist.
T h e r e f o r e . the pre-questionnaire is produced according to the definitions of this study structure’ s s t u d yv a r i a b l e s a n dthe questionnaire content of relevant documents. in Social Influence 4 questions have been deleted. it investigates the whole acceptance that the users have with regard to the use of every area of 3G mobile telecommunication services. and the questions in the pre-questionnaire are deleted through factor analysis.5 100 28. thus. which summed up to 394 valid responses altogether. In the end. in the acceptance of Use behavior. The retrieved questionnaires are analyzed using SPSS15.5 17. 12 questons have been deleted. and the retrieval rate of questionnaire is 100%.d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n dt ot h e s u b j e c t ’ s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s t u d y . plus another 102 valid responses distributed on-the-spot of telecommunications companies. 5 questions have been deleted. Table 4 The user profile Variables Sex Male Female Total Under 17 17-25 26-35 36-45 Over 46 Total Students .5 15. paying over 400 NT$ monthly fees. Because the study object of this study is mainly the consumer who is already using 3G telecommunication services. having over five years of telephone experience. this study sends 40 questionnaires out at random so as to carry out the pretest of the small sample. in Facilitating Conditions. which indicates majority of them were male. In Performance Expectancy. above college degree level.0 software. 3 questions have been deleted.9 . t h e questionnaire content of Behavioral Intention would refer to TAM2.4 38. 1 question has been deleted. 40 questionnaires have been retrieved.7 0.17 - Categories Age (year) Occupation Frequency 242 152 394 2 70 258 62 2 394 114 Percentage (%) 61. between 26-35 age group. The user profile is summarized in Table 4. 4 questions have been deleted. and spending less than 15 minutes on 3G services. in Behavioral Intention. in Effort Expectancy. living in metropolitan area.8 65. working professionals. this study has received 292 valid responses via online questionnaire lasted for 3 weeks. After completing the tables. besides s u b s t i t u t i n gw i t h t h ep r o p e rw o r d si na c c o r d a n c ew i t h t h es u b j e c t ’ s characteristics.6 100 0. Finally. so in Use behavior. the content has not been revised additionally. there are 29 questions in the formal question table.
t h e K MOv a l u e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a l l h i g h e r t h a n 0 .6 100 28.2 5.4 21. the more the common factors between variables and the more suitable to undertake factor analysis.0 4.1 47.7 57. i t m e a n s t h a t i t i s “ v e r y suitable for fa c t o r a n a l y s i s ” .8 2.5 6.7 100 3.9 100 83.6 40.0 1.6 4.Education Region Use phone time (year) The monthly phone rates (NT$) The daily average amount of time spent online 3G IT industry Manufacturing Financial and insurance/ real estate industry Mounties Services Medical industry Media / advertising industry Others Total Foreign countries High school / grade University / specialist Over Institute Total North Central Southern Eastern Islands region Total Less than a year 1-2 3~4 Over 5 years Total Under 200 201-400 401-600 601-1000 Over 1001 Total 0-15 minutes 16-30 minutes 31-60 minutes Between 1 and 2 hours Between 2 and 3 hours Over 3 hours Total 44 26 16 46 90 8 4 46 394 14 158 188 34 394 114 42 228 4 6 394 2 6 24 362 394 38 60 108 86 102 394 328 20 12 10 8 16 394 11.1 3.0 11.5 100 0. Factor Analysis KMO is Kaiser-Meyer-Oilskin measure of sampling adequacy.9 100 9.18 - .9 1. THE STUDY ANALYSIS AND RESULT A.1 100 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study IV. i f t h e v a l u e o f K MO i s h i g h e r t h a n0 .5 2. the higher the value of KMO. 8 .8 25.2 6.7 8.0 2. 9 .7 22.2 27.1 11. According to the views of Banning and K a i s e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) .9 10.0 1.6 15.1 91. .5 1.
935 . SPSS15 software is used in order to adopt Principal Component Analysis to undertake factor analysis to the 29 questions.000 3 0. First.712 BI 0.K MOa n d B a r t l e t t ’ s T e s t Study variables KMO measure of sampling adequacy Approximate B a r t l e t t ’ s Test of Sphericity Chi-square Distribution Degree of freedom Significance 3 0. from B a r t l e t t ’ sT e s t o f Sphericity. one can find that they all reach the level of significance.9661 UB 0.935 PE2 0. questions UB-3 to UB-1 belong to the question group of measuring Use behavior (UB).936 10.000 6 0. In addition.897 FC 0.505 PE 0.349 15.000 3 0. and the result shows C r o n b a c h ’ s α= 0 . so they are suitable for factor analysis(Table 5). Table 6 – The result of factor analysis Ques Factor tion Cod e PE PE1 I think it is useful to use 3G mobile telecommunication service.690 18.000 16. 9 5 2 1 . questions PE-1 to FC-4 belong to the q u e s t i o ng r o u po f“ e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s ” . and then retest of Reliability Analysis is carried out to these three parts.932 Questions in Questionnaire Factor loading Cronb a c h ’ α value 0.so they are suitable for factor analysis.000 6 0. q u e s t i o n sB I -1 to BI-3 belong to the question group of measuring Behavioral Intention (BI).529 25.808 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study In the Questionnaire of this study. I have new experience in using 3G mobile 0.000 3 0.755 12. representing the common factors exist between the relevant matrixes of population. 29 questions are divided into three parts in accordance with UTAUT model.19 - . the result is shown in Table 6.925 EE 0. Table 5 .824 SI 0.
20 - 0.926 0.927 PE7 0.929 PE8 0. it is essential to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can lift my work efficiency I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can lift my work quality I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can produce innovativeness for my work I think it is easy to understand 3G mobile telecommunication service I think the using interfaces of 3G mobile telecommunication service is easy to be familiar with I can be skilled at the use method of 3G mobile telecommunication service very quickly The people around me think that I should use 3G mobile telecommunication service I will discuss the feeling of using 3G mobile telecommunication service with family and friends My family and friends can influence me to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I think not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon I think it is an admirable thing for me to be able to use 3G SI5 mobile telecommunication service to engage in various kinds of relevant activities I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service SI6 can help me to maintain or improve my own position in the group FC FC1 When I want to use 3G mobile telecommunication service.729 0.927 PE5 0.811 EE3 0.773 EE EE2 0.794 .929 PE4 0.902 SI2 0.888 0.896 0.810 0.923 PE9 PE1 0 EE1 0.883 SI1 0. .telecommunication service PE3 3G mobile telecommunication service includes a lot of information that is relevant to my work I think 3G mobile telecommunication service can satisfy the demand from work I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can bring some recreation to my work I think the use of 3G mobile telecommunication service can bring convenience to my work To some of my work.932 PE6 0.893 SI3 0.904 0.913 0.900 SI SI4 0.926 0.
903 BI3 0.720 0. “ E f f o r t E x p e c t a n c y ” .801 0. more convenient and faster than using 2G system I would want to use 3G mobile telecommunication service because of some activities. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) i su s e dt oc l a s s i f i e d“ P e r f o r m a n c eE x p e c t a n c y ” . A f t e rr e v i s i n gt h em o d e l . measuring variables and weighing indices. and “ B e h a v i o r a lI n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ Use behavior” a r ei n d e p e n d e n tv a r i a b l e s . Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling According to the above-mentioned of the establishments of UTAUT model.21 - .833 0. the path change of each variable is based on the Modification Indicators (MI) that is recommended by SEM for data analysis. the experience that I used 3G mobile telecommunication service in the past is happy 0.885 0.χ 2i s4 7 9 .859 0.0 software is used to adopt maximum likelihood to undertake overall model fitness test with regard to each dimension. the effect of using 3G mobile telecommunication service makes me feel satisfied Overall speaking. Modification Indicators revise or delete the content of each variable.00 which is .I can search and connect to the Internet easily FC2 I can easily obtain the relevant knowledge of using 3G mobile telecommunication service Once I have encountered difficulty with the use of 3G FC3 mobile telecommunication service. And then.924 UB1 0. I am glad to use 3G mobile telecommunication service I will continue to use 3G mobile telecommunication service in the future Overall speaking. propaganda and fashion trend If the rate is reduced. Internet. friends) FC4 I think using 3G system to surf the Net is better. 7 3 2 . AMOS7.P -value is 0.786 BI1 0.966 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study B. using 3G mobile telecommunication UB UB2 service to engage in various kinds of activities makes me feel satisfied UB3 Overall speaking. “ S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ”a n d“ F a c i l i t a t i n gC o n d i t i o n s ”a st h ei n d e p e n d e n tv a r iables. I can use the information from various areas to solve the problems (books. so as to improve the explanatory power of the model towards the actual behavior.a l s o “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” i s i n t e r m e d i a r y v a r i a b l e .896 BI BI2 0.849 0.
020(>1. Table 7 – Fit indices Fit Standard or Threshold Value P>0. The modified study framework with SEM statistics is shown in Table 8 and fig 3. which means that the overall model fit was good. the assumption of the cause and effect model diagram that this study addressed had obtained the statistical support.22 - Critical Ratio 7. the path diagram of the model fitted well with the actual observed data.000) 2.362 .990 0. G F I v a l u ei s 0 . Moreover. 9 9 0 . these three non-a s s u m e dv a r i a b l e s ’ r e l a t i o n s h i p sw e r ea d d e dt ot h es t u d y framework. thus the assumption of causal model that is mentioned by this study has obtained statistical support. 9 4 0 .046.980. Table 8 – Revised SEM study structure The Relationship of Variables PE→ BI EE→BI SI →BI Path Coefficient 0. which means that the overall model fitness is good.90 >0.419 0.90 <0.192 6.05 >0. namely the fitness between the path plot of the model and the actual observed information is good.“ e f f o r t e x p e c t a n c y / u s e b e h a v i o r ” . NFI value is 0.62 0. a n d“ s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e / u s e b e h a v i o r ” .233 *** Significance Yes No Yes . χ 2 / d f i s 2 .05 (does not reach significant standard) 2 χ and its degree of freedom Test Statistic 2 χ value Data of Test Result 479. In another word. and NNFI value is 0.s i g n i f i c a n t . w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t .940 0.96) 1. A G F I i s 0 . all fit indices ’ d e t e r m i n a t i o n s h a dr e a c h e dt h e desirable standard.993 >2 >0.732(p=0. R ME S Av a l u ei s 0.i n c l u d i n g “ p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a n c y / u s e b e h a v i o r ” .90 Goodness of fit index(GFI) Adjusted goodness of fit index(AGFI) Root mean square error of approximation(RMSEA) Normed fit index (NFI) Non-normed fit index(NNFI) Source of the materials: Arranged by this study After modifying the model.90 >0.057 0. some non-assumed variab l e s ’ r e l a t i o n s h i p s .046 0. The result is shown in Table 7. So. 6 2 .980 0.239 P-value *** 0. The fit indices of all judgments have already reached the standard.993.
only hypothesis 2 was disproved. The direct interpretation of this result was that for users of 3G mobile communication services.53*** 1.001 Figure 3 – The SEM analytical structure that does not consider the control variables Among the 5 hypotheses. .063 5.228*** 0.529 0.FC →BI FC →UB BI →UB PE→UB EE→UB SI →UB 0. *** p-value < 0.141* 0.362*** 0. ** p-value < 0. T h i s i sa ni n t e r e s t i n gc h a r a c t e r i s t i co f 3 Gm o b i l e communications services since most other technology adoption models credited t h ei n f l u e n c e o f “ e a s eo f u s e ” f a c t o r o n“ b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” .05，** represents p value <0.212 1.01.621 *** * *** *** * *** Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes ** p-value < 0.054 -2.179 0.141 0.001 Source of the materials: Arranged by this study PE 0.747 2.18*** SI The study has been FC assumed The study has not been assumed *represents p value <0.01，*** represents p value <0.05.154 6. their "effort expectancy" did not significantly influence t h e i r ” b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ” .243 3.228 -0.23 - .243*** UB 0. T h i s r e v e a l s a n important but uncommon insight for 3G mobile communication services that o n l y “ e a s e o f u s e ” i s n o t e n o u g h t o a t t r a c t t h e u s e r s .42*** BI EE 0.459 3.
and 10 are proved.30 0. t h u s H y p o t h e s e s 6 .28 0.36 0. 7.56 0. Influences of control variables This s t u d yf o c u s e so nI n t e r n e tu s e r ’ s“ g e n d e r ” . experience. voluntariness of use.“ e d u c a t i o n ” .75 0.27 0.“ a g e ” . it shows that the external v a r i a b l e s ’i n f l u e n c et o w a r d st h ed e g r e eo fa c c e p t a n c eo f3 G m o b i l e telecommunication service (Behavioral Intention and Use behavior) would have s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n t c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s .52 0.24 - P-value ** ** *** *** * ** *** *** *** *** *** *** ** *** ** *** ** *** *** Significant Ratio Female >Male Female > Male Male Female > Male Female > Male Male >Female Male >Female Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36> under the age of 35 Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36 Over the age of 36 Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness Low voluntariness > high voluntariness > medium voluntariness High voluntariness > medium voluntariness High voluntariness > medium voluntariness Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness Medium voluntariness > high voluntariness High voluntariness > medium Gender Age . the result is shown in Table 9. In accordance with the above-mentioned result.75 0.74 0.22 0.73 0.C. 8.17 0. “ e x p e r i e n c e ” . Table 9 – The SEM study structure of control variables Control Variables The Relationship of Variables PE BI SI BI FC BI PE UB EE UB SI UB BI UB PE BI FC BI EE UB SI UB BI UB PE BI SI BI FC BI Voluntariness of Use PE UB EE UB SI UB BIUB Path Coefficient 0. i n c l u d i n g“ g e n d e r ” . a n d“ v o l u n t a r i n e s s o f u s e ” t oa n a l y z e t h e r e s u l t w i t hr e g a r dt ot h e entire path coefficients. “ e x p e r i e n c e ” . This s t u d ya l s of i n d s o u t t h e f o u r f a c t o r s ’ i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s “ Behavioral Intention” a n d “ a c t u a l u s e ” h a s r e a c h e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t was proven in the previous documents.46 0. age.26 0.29 0. a n d “ v o l u n t a r i n e s s o f u s e ” .55 0. thus their influential degree towards “ Behavioral Intention”a n d“ U s eB e h a v i o r ”i s varied. and education). 9. “ a g e ” .53 0.30 0.31 . “ e d u c a t i o n ” . but they are controlled by different conditions (gender.
45 0.25 - .24 0.PEBI SI BI FC BI Experience PE UB EE UB SI UB BIUB PE BI SI BI FC BI Education PE UB EE UB SI UB BI UB 0. and . u s i n gh a b i t s .01，*** represents p value <0.001 VI .59 0.39 0.44 0. and the connection between service types and key successful factors in order to understand the structure of current users and serve as the reference for the marketing strategies of mobile telecommunications subscribers and the customer relationship management. a n di t s ’ i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s “ r e c r e a t i o n ”i s g r e a t e r . the practicability of system is still the major influential factor that influences the users to use technological service. The m a i np u r p o s eo f t h i s s t u d yf o c u s e s o nd i f f e r e n t u s e r s ’ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .Conclusion and Suggestions 1. expanding cell-phone function differences and creating demand motive have very important influence in the mobile telephone development of new generation. And also. UTAUT is used to measure the influence of using Experience towards each dimension.i th a sp o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h avioral I n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ U s eb e h a v i o r ” .51 0. The important conclusions of this study are generalized and shown as follows: (1)Wi t h r e g a r d st o t h eu s e r s ’“ P e r f o r m a n c e E x p e c t a n c y ” o f3 G m o b i l e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o ns e r v i c e s .20 0.68 0.35 0.39 0.21 ** *** *** * * * ** * *** *** * * *** *** voluntariness 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years Less than 1 year> more than 5 years 1 to 5 years Less than 1 year > 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years 1 to 5 years > more than 5 years > less than 1 year More than 5 years> 1 to 5 years University or above Vocational School or below > university or above Vocational School or below > university or above University or above University or above Vocational School or below > university or above University or above *represents p value <0.53 0.51 0. For this reason.05，** represents p value <0. the most important business opportunity is no longer the cell-phone hardware only. In 3G mobile telecommunication services. u n d e r t h es i t u a t i o nt h a t t h eu s e r s ’ d e g r e eo f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n towards that software would change as time passes.44 0. Conclusion of study In the development of 3G. but it is important to know how to offer more application content services and software to more and more 3G users.
and 3G Internet connection quality can extend the time & place that consumers use and solve the urgent demand. w e b s i t e ’ ss y stem must be accurate. a n d i t s ’ i n f l u e n c e t o w a r d s “ s y s t e mc o m p l e t e n e s s ” i s greater.system that is easy to operate is the important basic ability for the use of 3G mobile value-added services.Consumers’family. this is because 3G service is a kind of technical service product. (3) Wi t hr e g a r d s t ot h eu s e r s ’ “ S o c i a l I n f l u e n c e ” o f 3 Gm o b i l et e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n services. the recreation that 3G mobile telecommunication services brings will improve the consumers’ d e s i r e t ouse 3G services as well. but because of objective factors.Study Limitations Although this study strives to be perfect. (2)Wi t h r e g a r d s t o t h e u s e r s ’“ F a c i l i t a t i n g C o n d i t i o n s ” o f3 G m o b i l e telecommunication services. it n e e d s t op r o v i d e t h e l a t e s t i n f o r m a t i o ni m m e d i a t e l yi no r d e r t oa t t r a c t c o n s u m e r s ’ use. the user will be more willing to use that website.26 - . it ha sp o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” a n d “ U s e b e h a v i o r ” . System completeness is also the important factor that influences the c o n s u m e r st ou s et h es e r v i c e . S e c o n d l y . that is to say the better the connection quality is. the behaviors and manners of the family or friends around the c o n s u m e r s w o u l d a l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n s u m e r s ’ d e s i r e t o u s e 3G telecommunication services. because the functions of 3G services are far more than 2G service functions. T h e r e f o r e . w h i l et h ei n f l u e n c eo f “ r e d u c e dr a t e ”i sg r e a t e r .Every telecommunication subscriber combines the favorable measures that the terminal device offers. and consumers can change telecommunication s u b s c r i b e r a n d c e l l p h o n e b r a n d e a s i l y . c o n s u m e r s ’ preferences towards 3G services would not influence their satisfaction for 3G mobile telecommunication service. i t h a s p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c et o w a r d s “ U s eb e h a v i o r ” . 2. it is easy to attract consumers to use 3G service naturally. and then it can influence the consumers’ d e s i r e t o use and use frequency. Consequently. friends can influence them to use 3G mobile telecommunication services. the . In addition. t h u s c o n s u m e r s ’ initiatives are stronger than before. w e b s i t e ’ s connection quality will influence the desire of consumers’ use. it has p o s i t i v ei n f l u e n c et o w a r d s“ B e h a v i o r a lI n t e n t i o n ”a n d“ U s e b e h a v i o r ” . (4)Wi t h r e g a r d s t o t h e u s e r s ’ “ B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n ” o f 3 Gmobile telecommunication s e r v i c e s . some consumers think that not able to use 3G mobile telecommunication service is really a kind of falling behind phenomenon. H o w e v e r .
in order to u n d e r t a k e t h e s t u d y o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u s e r ’ s b e h a v i o r a l m o d e l t o w a r d s 3 Gm o b i l e telecommunication services further. P . P . pp. ” Ma n a g e m e n t S c i e n c e (35:8) 1989. 279-302. D . . N . a n d C a v a y e . P . Informa Telecoms & Media. D . When the follow-up researchers discuss the same subject. Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: IEEE Computer Society Press. “ P e r c e i v e d U s e f u l n e s s . . M. F . Dec. it is impossible to compare the strengths and weaknesses between the explanatory powers of the model that is constructed by this study and primitive models.Boston. the questionnaires are distributed to the consumers who have used the 3G services of each telecommunication subscriber. C r a g g . the result of study may be unable to be completely applicable to all groups. ” MI SQ u a r t e r l y ( 1 3 : 3 ) 1 9 8 9 . & I.27 - . M. Belief. pp. A . . Attitude. a n d U s e r A c c e p t a n c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y . D a v i s . R .com/ itmgcontent/icoms.following limitations still exist: (1) The design of questionnaire mainly uses the tables o f U T A U Tm o d e l a n dt h e nr e v i s e s& t e s t st h et a b l e ss oa st od i s c u s st h eu s e r s ’ behavioral model towards the acceptance of 3G mobile telecommunication services. References Christer Carlsson & Joanna Carlsson & Kaarina Hyvonen & Jussi Puhakainen & Pirkko Walden(2006). “ U s e r A c c e p t a n c e o f C o m p u t e r T e c h n o l o g y : AC o m p a r i s o n o f T w o T h e o r e t i c a l Mo d e l s .org. Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. R . GSM Association(2006): 4539 http://www. ” MI S Quarterly (21:3) 1997.aspx?page=news&id= I g b a r i a . B a g o z z i . . D a v i s . . Ajzen. p p . 3 1 9 -340. (2) In sample selection. Because the main users of Internet are mostly students. http://www. a n d Wa r s h a w . and also this study mainly distributes network questionnaire. Z i n a t e l l i . F . 2006. Adoption of Mobile Devices/Services– Searching for Answers with the UTAUT. (1975). .find. “ P e r s o n a l C o m p u t i n g Acceptance Factors in Small Firms : AS t r u c t u r a l E q u a t i o n Mo d e l . and the newly added external variables also have positive significant effect.informatm. they can think of adopting the theories of different technology acceptance and weighing models. But it is sure that the model that this study constructed still has certain explanatory power towards the use intention of mobile value-added services. because of limited manpower. (3) Because this study does not focus on the primitive technology acceptance model to undertake discussion. Fishbein. L . Addison-Wesley.tw/find/home. 982-1003. . MA. M. P e r c e i v e d E a s e o f U s e . Frost & Sullivan.
pp.Davis. L . “ D r u m s t i c k i s a zinc finger protein that antagonizes Lines to control patterning and m o r p h o g e n e s i s o f t h e D r o s o p h i l a h i n d g u t .org. T o p o l o g y R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e .Institute for Information Industry. Graduate School of Information Management.28 - .191-204. pp. S . 12. April 14. pp.tw/ Institute for Information Industry. 63-74. J . . Wa n g . MIS Quarterly. & P. Vol. Todd. ” I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s R e s e a r c h (2:3) 1991. Oct 23. pp. a n d H a r r i s o n . M. Y .find. ” MI T Sloan Management Review. N . P . C . ” I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f I n f o r m a t i o n Ma n a g e m e n t ( 1 9 : 1 ) 1999.C . a n d J . . 2007.104. Legris. Moore. A . 1996. ” D e v e l o p m e n t V o l . 1 2 9 .& I. “ T o w a r d a n d U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n t o U s e a n I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m . . Assessing IT usage: the role of prior experience.. September 2005. ” Master Thesis. A . National Sun Yat-sen University. G r e e n . 42. “ T h e R e v i e wa n d a n a l y s i s o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e application trend of cell phones and the competition of 3G t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m a r k e t . . pp. Ma t h i e s o n . H . A . S. 2. Spring 2001. Benbasat (1991) .. 2006. the 40th issue. A . http://www. Vol. 2002. 27. a n d L e i t c h . “ P r e d i c t i n g U s e r I n t e n t i o n s : C o m p a r i n g t h e T e c h n o l o g y A c c e p t a n c e Mo d e l w i t h t h e T h e o r y o f P l a n n e d B e h a v i o r . “ T h e A d o p t i o n o f V i r t u a l B a n k i n g: An E m p i r i c a l S t u d y . 12. S h a o . 15-26. L e e s t m a . X . & P. D . J o h a n s e n . C h o w . P u b l i s h e d b y T o p o l o g y Co. Ltd. B .40. 173-191. .tw/ J a c k s o n . 3645-3656. ” Am o v i n g t a r g e t : T h e m o b i l e -c o m m e r c e c u s t o m e r . R . Z e n g . Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model . pp. ( 1 9 9 1 ) . 2002. a n d C h e n . Venkatesh. . P . V . N o h r i a a n d M. ” D e c i s i o n S c i e n c e s ( 2 8 : 2 ) 1997. Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation.181-196.D.. & J. K . Information Systems Res. Decision Science. . L i u . L e n g y e l . Ingham. A model of antecedents of perceived ease of use :Development and test. “ T h e s t u d y o f t h e t a c t i c s o f 3 Gm o b i l e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m a r k e t . P. F a m i l yWo r k : Wo m e n ’ s s e n s e o f F a i r n e s s . V.org.561-570. http://www. Information & Management.C. . pp. “ T h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f t he Theory of Reasoned A c t i o n t o S e n i o r Ma n a g e m e n t a n d S t r a t e g i c I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s . ” T R I I n d u s t r i a l R e p o r t . 451-481. S. H a t i n i . Collerette. 357-389. Vol. ” Information Resources Management Journal (6:2) 1993. R . . K . T h o m p s o n . (2003). S . L i a o .find. pp. and F. pp. Journal of Family Issues. My k y t y n . G.192-222. A . pp. P . Taylor. (1995). p p .
Master Thesis. Hong-Chang Zhang. Department of Business Studies. Quality Magazine 2004/07. MIS Quarterly. G . User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward A Unified View.V e n k a t e s h . pp. D. M. National Sun Yat-sen University. Cang-Yi Guo. Mei-Chi Lai (2004). Social Influence. 115-139 Venkatesh. G. M.46-49.G. Morris.B. T h es t u d yo fe m p l o y e e s ’a c c e p t a n c et o w a r d se n t e r p r i s e ’ s online-learning system – Take China Steel as an example. V. Davis. 27. . 2000. Ming-Hong Xiao (2006). ” MIS Quarterly.. The new thinking of constructing high-quality enterprise internal network. Yi-Yuan Zeng (2005).29 - . Master Thesis.425-478.Take T. . a n d Mo r r i s . 2003. as an example. Department of Information Management. and Their Role in Technology Acceptance and Usage Beh-a v i o r . pp. V .. “ Wh y D o n ’ t Me n E v e r S t o p t o A s k f o r D i r e c t i o n s ? Gender. National Yunlin University of Science and Technology. Join Transportation Co. Ltd. The acceptance assessment of enterprise who develops mobile-commerce . Vol. 24. pp. Vol. Davis and F.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?