How to Use a

Brenda Hoddinott
J06 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETS
OK! So your drawing subject is lightly sketched. You now want to add shading. But, how do you know where to add each of those light, medium, and dark values? A little tool called a value map is used by many accomplished artists to figure out the correct placement of values in drawings (or paintings)! This article is divided into the following five sections: 9 INTRODUCTION: A shading map (often called a value map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put different values in a drawing. 9 STEP 1: SKETCHING OUTLINES: The first step is to lightly outline the subject proportionately correct. 9 STEP 2: SEEING VALUES AS SHAPES: Close examination of a subject reveals where to find the highlights, and light and dark values. This step is extremely important in any drawing needing shading. 9 STEP 3: OUTLINING THE SHAPES OF VALUES: The shapes of each value are sketched very faintly. 9 STEP 4: ADDING SHADING: The shading map shows where to draw each value.

5 PAGES - 8 ILLUSTRATIONS
This article is recommended for artists of all levels, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.

Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008

An integral aspect of working with a value map is being able to find the shapes of the different values on your subject. FIGURE 303 4. The four‐step process includes: 1. a highlight can be a circle and a shadow can be a crescent shape. and follow along with me as I take you through the basic process of mapping values. Lightly sketching their shapes on my line drawing and marking each with letters. the first step is to lightly outline the subject proportionately correct. in fact. STEP 1: SKETCHING OUTLINES As in most drawings.com Web sites http://www.-2- FIGURE 301 INTRODUCTION A shading map (often called a value map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put different values in a drawing. The sketch in Figure 303 appears much darker than the actual sketch. text. Hence. my sketch is so faint that you can barely see the lines. For example. Visually identifying the locations and shapes of the various values. I’ve darkened it in Photoshop so you can see the outlines of the various parts of her face. FIGURE 302 Figure 302 (a digitally enhanced version of Figure 301) provides a little insight into what I see when I squint while looking at this photo.com . If you have difficulty seeing different values. Creating a detailed line drawing based on my photo. Add shading with crosshatching graduations. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott. 2. lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. try squinting your eyes a little. The illustrations used in this discussion are based on a photo of a section of a young lady’s face (Figure 301). projects. Curl up in a comfortable chair. relax.drawspace. images. 3. Different aspects of light and shadows assume various shapes.finearteducation.com and http://www. Copyright to all articles.

STEP 3: OUTLINING THE SHAPES OF VALUES Outline the shapes of each value very faintly on your sketch. Figure 307 shows my shading map. 9 Dark values are in the shadow sections of the subject and/or in various cast shadows (outlined green in Figure 306). The jumble of outlines and letters isn’t very pretty. this step is extremely important for shading any drawing.-3- FIGURE 304 STEP 2: SEEING VALUES AS SHAPES Even if you decide to not use a shading map on a regular basis. beginning with the highlights. Copyright to all articles. but you do get to erase them before you add each section of shading. In this drawing. projects.com Web sites http://www. lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott. Examine your subject and identify the following: 9 Highlights tend to be easy to find because they are the lightest and brightest sections (outlined blue in Figure 304). images. because their shapes and locations automatically become obvious when all others are identified. 9 Light values are the sections closest to the light source. they simply graduate from one marked value to another and fill in the spaces between the lights and darks. FIGURE 305 FIGURE 306 9 Medium values tend to fall in between the light and dark values. I use H for highlights. L for light values and D for the dark. text. mark each of the various shapes with a letter (or number).drawspace.com and http://www. the light source is from the upper right. As you work.com . You don’t really need to mark the medium values. I don’t bother looking for medium values at this stage.finearteducation. often adjacent to or in the sections surrounding the highlights (outlined pink in Figure 305).

4. (I rarely do. Shade in the D sections with dark values. Use darker pencils to graduate the middle values into the D sections. 5. refer to J06 Intermediate: Crosshatching with a Value Map (published December 2008). With your lightest pencil. Eventually.com FIGURE 308 . Eventually you'll discover the perfect method for your unique needs. HB and 2B pencils work well for graduating the middle values in between the lights and darks. projects. images. text. The center section of a highlight is left white. FIGURE 307 STEP 4: ADDING SHADING Follow the shading map to draw values. For a step-by-step lesson on using a value map. With various H pencils and an HB. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott. add shading lines very lightly and far apart. Dark values are best rendered with 2B to 6B pencils. make sure you lighten your mapping lines and erase the letters. drawing graduations based on the various shapes becomes second nature.) With practice. 2.-4- Experiment with different approaches to shading. Graduate the light values (L) toward the darks (D) to fill in the medium values. If you also enjoy this approach you need to do the following: 1.com and http://www. around the edges of the highlight. Use a 4H or 2H to add shading around the highlights (H) with very light values.drawspace. Before you begin. lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. Follow the outlines of their shapes on your map.com Web sites http://www. I prefer to work from light to dark. 3. add light shading to the sections marked L.finearteducation. Copyright to all articles. you may not feel a need to mark letters on your map. especially if mapping values doesn't appeal to you.

chalk pastel. lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. and illustrator. home schooling programs. colored pencil. and oil paints. and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development.. During Brenda’s twenty‐five year career as a self‐educated civilian forensic artist. numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills. drawing. Hence. Brenda hired and trained teachers. this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. text. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators. New.-5- BRENDA HODDINOTT . Her home‐based art career included graphic design.com Web sites http://www. in creating a passion for the subject matter.com .finearteducation. the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda chose to end her eighteen‐year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing. images. Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.drawspace. Indianapolis. NY. portraitist. she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 1992. Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite. Newfoundland. In 1998. visual artist. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. painting. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department. IN. and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. Students of all ages. this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT 9 Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing. Alpha ‐ Pearson Education – Macmillan. and developing her websites. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. conté crayon. technical pen. and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. York. Inc. levels and abilities have praised the simple step‐by‐step instructional approach.drawspace.com and http://www. John’s. Drawspace http://www. and in 1994. Copyright to all articles.BIOGRAPHY As a self‐educated teacher. projects. Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. charcoal. 9 The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha‐Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004. including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. forensic artist. and educational facilities throughout the world. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.

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