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The role of the diffuser is that the diffuser serves the purpose of the converting the kinetic energy into the pressure rise and also the diffuser serves collecting the fluid and guiding it smoothly into either the next stage or into the piping system the amount of the dilation in static pressure rise in the diffuser depends on the degree of reaction and the efficiency of the diffusion process. The asymmetric diffuser is mainly used in ducts, wind tunnel etc.
To analyze the Asymmetric Diffuser using CFD. To analyze the Asymmetric Diffuser by changing the dimensional parameters such as
Diffuser Angle, Length, and Diameter.
1.2 Problem Description:
The geometrical description of the 2D asymmetric plane diﬀuser is shown in Figure 1.1. The asymmetric diffuser geometry consists of a 2-D channel of height H entering a onesided diffuser (one straight wall and one oblique wall) 21H in length giving a divergence angle of 10 degrees. The diffuser discharges into a 2-D channel with a separation distance of 4.7H.The flow is characterized by an inlet with fully developed 2-D channel flow, a smooth wall separation, and downstream reattachment and redevelopment of the wall boundary layer. The origin of the x-axis is located at the intersection of the tangents to the straight and inclined walls at the beginning of the asymmetric expansion. The y-axis originates from the bottom wall of the downstream channel.
The problem is to simulate the flow through an asymmetric plane diﬀuser with a Reynolds number Re = 20000. The Reynolds number is based on the centerline velocity and the channel height at the inlet. The complete experimental results were obtained by Buice and Eaton . This is a classical test case for ﬂows dominated by adverse pressure gradient and the boundary-layer separation.
LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
The experimental investigation of flow through an asymmetric plain diffuser by Carl.U. Buiceand John K.Eaton. The objective of his study is to provide careful qualification and detailed measurements in the recreation of the Obi experiment. The work included in his experiment is extensive documentation of the flow in 2 Dimensionality and detailed measurements required for testing of flow computations. The asymmetric diffuser geometry consists of a 2-D channel of height H entering a one-sided diffuser (one straight wall and one oblique wall) 21H in length giving a divergence angle of 10 degrees. The diffuser discharges into a 2-D channel with a separation distance of 4.7H.The flow is characterized by an inlet with fully developed 2-D channel flow, a smooth wall separation, and downstream reattachment and redevelopment of the wall boundary layer. Large Eddy and simulation of the flow in the plane asymmetric diffuser by HansJacob Kaltenbach in his experiment he investigate the flows using large eddy simulation (LES) which have been traditionally studied with the techniques based on the Reynolds averaging this report describes the preliminary results from LES of a plain diffuser flow the long term goal of this works to investigate flow separation as well as controlling ducts and ramp like geometries Investigations of unsteady control concepts using numerical simulation requires in method which computes the spatial as well as temporal evolution of the turbulent fluctuations. Conversely direct numerical simulation (DNS) would be rather expensive at the Reynolds numbers under the considerations.
Predictions of the turbulent flow in a diffuser with commercial CFD codes by Gianluca Iaccarino. The effect computational time step on numerical simulation of the turbulent flow is by CHIO, H and MOIN, P1993. Geometric sensitivity of the 3D separated flows by John K Eaton mechanical engineering department Stanford university Stanford. In his experiments the experiments were performed to determine the mean velocity field in 2D and 3D diffuser with fully developed channel inlet but slight different expansion geometries Solving a diffuser flow separation problem by Reputation Recourses results Tec nodes issue No.9by Ray Sinclair Principal he showed the surface mesh of the computation grid developed for modeling one half of a 2 stage asymmetric plain diffuser with wall suction flow separation control. Experimental and computational study of turbulent separating flow in an asymmetric plane diffuser but OBI,S,AOKI, Kand MASUDA, S1993 Ninth symposium on turbulent shear flows , Kyot Japan August 16,1993P 305.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a computer-based tool for simulating the behavior of systems involving fluid flow, heat transfer, and other related physical processes. It works by solving the equations of fluid flow (in a special form) over a region of interest, with specified (known) conditions on the boundary of that region. Computational Fluid Dynamics, or CFD, is the use of mathematical techniques to model fluid flow. You can use CFD to create a virtual prototype of your product or process in order to better understand its performance and improve its design. Computational Fluid Dynamics has grown from a mathematical curiosity to become an essential tool in almost every branch of fluid dynamics, from aerospace propulsion to weather prediction. CFD is commonly accepted as referring to the broad topic encompassing the numerical solution. As a developing science, Computational Fluid Dynamics has received extensive attention throughout the international community since the advent of the digital computer. The attraction of the subject is twofold. Firstly, the desire to be able to model physical fluid phenomena that cannot be easily simulated or measured with a physical experiment, for example weather systems or hypersonic aerospace vehicles. Secondly, the desire to be able to investigate physical fluid systems more cost effectively and more rapidly than with experimental procedures. Essentially there are three methods for determine the solution to flow problems viz. Experimental, Analytical and Numerical. The Analytical methods aim at getting a closed form solution in the entire domain assuming the process to follow continuum hypothesis. These are generally restricted to simple geometry, simple physics and generally linear problems.
They involve the discretization of the governing mathematical equations in a way such that the numerical solutions can be obtained. time and operating costs. This leads them to be used as a check on the accuracy of a numerical procedure but makes them mainly unsuitable for the analysis of real engineering problems However. The popularity of CFD has been possible due to great developments in computing algorithms that have enabled fast Graphic User Interface that makes the interpretation and Visualization of the results easier. commonly known as CFD. entails loss of accuracy of the critical parameter of interest. heat and mass transfer are known as the Navier-Stokes equations. can also be solved in conjunction with the Navier-Stoke’s equations. These are partial differential equations which were derived in the early nineteenth century. and they need large resources of hardware. right choice of turbulence models and parameters. Equations describing other processes. They have no known general analytical solution but can be discretised and solved numerically. they give the direction and general nature of the solution. an approximating model is used to derive these additional equations. that they are equipment oriented. Numerical methods have emerged as a third method and have overcome the restrictions in both experimental and analytical methods. Their applications are also limited due to scaling considerations. These experimental techniques have their inherent problems viz. 6 . scientists and engineers have resorted to experimental techniques concentrating in the regions of interest. Often. The set of equations which describe the processes of momentum. right choice of discretization method etc.Once the problem becomes complex. Hence over the years. CFD methods have their own disadvantage in terms of specifications of proper boundary conditions. the various assumptions that are needed to be made to obtain a closed form solution. convergence problems. This applications of CFD to practice problems need understanding of basic theory to overcome the above mentioned problems. such as combustion. turbulence models being a particularly important example. truncation errors. This approach forms the core of Computational Fluid Dynamics. Further theses involve certain measurement difficulties and handling of large quantity of data.
Experimental fluid dynamics has played an important role in validating and delineating the limits of the various approximations to the governing equations.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of determining a numerical solution to the governing equations of fluid flow whilst advancing the solution through space or time to obtain a numerical description of the complete flow field of interest. The governing equations for Newtonian fluid dynamics. the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In this technique. called control volumes. have been known for over a century. for example the aerodynamic design of an aircraft. an approximation of the value of each variable at specific points throughout the domain can be obtained. As a result. In this way. For non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. the region of interest is divided into small sub-regions. full-scale measurement. which in their most general form are usually partial differential equations (PDE). as part of the design process is economically impractical. 7 . and the one on which CFX is based. However. However. The most common. The equations are discretised and solved iteratively for each control volume. Traditionally this has provided a cost effective alternative to full-scale measurement. one derives a full picture of the behavior of the flow 3. in the design of equipment that depends critically on the flow behaviour. is known as the finite volume technique.There are a number of different solution methods which are used in CFD codes. chemically reaction and multiphase flows theoretical developments are at a less advanced stage. the analytical investigation of reduced forms of these equations is still an active area of research as is the problem of turbulent closure for the Reynolds averaged form of the equations. The Physical aspects of any fluid flow are governed by three fundamental principles: Law of Conservation of mass Law of conservation of momentum Law of conservation of energy These fundamental principles can be expressed in terms of mathematical equations.
the velocity and pressure at every of the infinite number of points of interest. If these phenomena are neglected. Traditionally this has provided a cost effective alternative to full scale measurement. for example the aerodynamic design of an aircraft. Experimental fluid dynamics has played an important role in validating and delineating the limits of the various approximations to the governing equations. thermal conduction and/ or mass diffusion is included. As such it offers the means of testing theoretical advances for conditions unavailable on an experimental basis. the Navier-Stokes equations are broken down into pieces. The necessary step is the reduction of the continuum. Here. These transport phenomena are dissipative. 8 . The steady improvement in the speed of computers and the available memory size since the 1950s has led to the emergence of computational fluid dynamics. 3.2 DISCRETIZATION The role of CFD in engineering predictions has become so strong that today it may be viewed as a new third dimension of fluid dynamics. the flow is called “inviscid flow” and for this “Euler” equations are applied. for example. In the last 40 years. This branch of fluid dynamics complements experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics by providing an alternative cost effective means of simulating real flows. So they always increase the entropy of the flow. each simpler to analyse. For this type of viscous flow modeling the “Navier-stokes” equations are applied. However. which is finite.e. provides an effective means of simulating real flows. This situation has led to an increasing interest in the development of a numerical wind tunnel. it became possible to approximately solve the Navier-Stokes equations using a brand-new computational approach. the other two dimensions being the above stated classical cases of pure experiment and pure theory. which can number in the millions. The wind tunnel. These pieces. to the discrete set of values. are then put together with the help of a computer to form a coherent whole. in the design of equipment that depends critically on the flow behaviour. as a piece of experimental equipment. i.A viscous flow is one where transport phenomenon of friction. full scale measurement as part of the design process is economically impractical.
A variety of techniques can be used to perform this numerical discretization and. The local form of the equations takes the shape of stencils. and the Navier-Stokes equations are enforced only at these points. west etc. The most common methods in use are i. whilst each technique is based on a different set of principles. this is due to the fact that computers can only recognize and manipulate data in the form of zeros and ones.1 Finite Difference Method 9 . ii. there are many common features in these methods. Finite Difference Method Finite Element Method Finite Volume Method Finite difference method This method is based upon the use of Taylor series to build a library or toolkit of equations. i. iii.e.Digital computers cannot be used directly used to produce a solution to these governing equations. Figure 2. The infinite set of points is replaced by a finite set of points. In this discretization process each term with in a partial differential equation must be translated into a numerical analogue that the computer can be programmed to calculate. east. called nodes. i. Formation of the stencils requires that the nodes be connected in a structured mesh. so that each node is able to identify its neighbors to the south. Producing the transformation of partial differential equations to what is known as numerical analogue of the equation is called as Numerical discretization. binary data. which relate velocity and pressure values at one node to the values at neighboring nodes. north.
This is the approach used by our simulation tools.2 Finite Element Method 10 . Figure 2. and Navier-Stokes equations are used to select the one with best approximation properties. The candidate functions are constructed from simple interpolation functions within each element into which the domain is divided. which can be also unstructured.ii. Finite Element Method A large but finite number of known functions are proposed as the representation of the flow field. The value of the function everywhere inside the element is determined by values at the nodes of that element. The elements combine to form a mesh.
3 Finite Volume Method In the finite-volume method. tetrahedral. The shape of the cells may be irregular. or unstructured. or prisms. cells are usually hexahedral. but some implementation s of it also draw on features taken from finite element method The volume taken by the fluid is divided into a finite number of volumes. In 2D. Finite Volume Method This is the probably the most popular numerical discretization method used in CFD. quadrilateral/triangle is commonly referred to as a “cell” and a grid point as a “node”.iii. All three methods. This is 11 . and Navier-Stokes equations are converted into equivalent integral forms are applied to each cell. if properly applied. The local form of the equations balances mass and momentum fluxes across the faces of each individual cell. this method is similar to in some ways to the finite difference method. or cells. In 3D. Figure 2. the integral form of the conservation equations are applied to the control volume defined by a cell to get the discrete equations for the cell. In the finite-volume approach. will give better and better approximation to the actual solution of Navier-Stokes equation as the number of variables is increased. This method was specially developed to solve the equations of heat transfer and fluid flow. one could also have triangular cells.
Analytical solutions are slow and tedious. but only incrementally.known as convergence of the approximate solution to the real solution. for example. capturing physically important phenomena such as turbulence requires extremely fine meshes in parts of the physical domain. while parallel solution methods are not robust enough to tackle real world problems. going from the continuum to the discrete set of equations is a problem that combines both physics and numerical analysis.000 nodes are common.00. namely finding a minimum edge cut partitioning of the discrete mesh. the power of computers has been growing exponentially. Furthermore. etc. and more recently.000 to 20. the three velocity components. it is important to maintain conservation of mass in the discrete equations. density. and is equivalent to reduction of the approximation error. Domain decomposition is often expressed as a graph partitioning problem. to say the least. leading to systems with up to 4. This is an NP-hard problem. usually domain decomposition methods are applied. with roughly the same number of nodes in each partition set. Obviously.00. Experimental facilities are getting more capable every year. temperature. By contrast. and the improvement in brainpower from century to century is modest. At each node in the mesh. That brings in the research problem of how to partition the data to assign parts of it to different processors. between 3 and 20 variables are associated: the pressure. CFD problems are at the limits of computational power. such as the interior of turbine engine or the radiator system of a car. An additional problem with parallel programming is that the better methods for solving the resultant linear systems often have inherently sequential characteristics. On the discredited mesh the Navier-Stokes equations take the form of a large system of non-linear equations.00. 12 . fuelled at first by weapons and transportation research budgets. by a vast general-purpose computing market Solving a particular problem generally involves first discrediting the physical domain that the flow occurs in. Currently meshes with 20. so rapid heuristics are used to get quick and dirty solutions. as the number of variables grows so does the computer time necessary to compute the approximate solution. so parallel programming methods are used.000 unknowns.
each flow variable is defined at every point in the domain. In the discrete domain. The discrete system is a large set of coupling algebraic equations in the discrete variables. Continuous Domain 0≤x≤1 Discrete Domain x = x1. Coupled algebraic equations in discrete variables In a CFD solution. The values at other locations are determined by interpolating the values at the grid points. each flow variable is defined only at grid points. one would directly solve for the relevant flow variables only at grid points. In the continuous domain. This idea can be applied to any general problem. In the governing equations define the variables in the discrete form.4 TURBULENT FLOW Turbulent fluid motion is an irregular condition of flow in which the various quantities show a random variation with time and space coordinates so statistically distinct average values can be discerned. the variable would be defined only at N grid points. x2. 3.3 STRATEGY OF CFD The strategy of CFD is to replace the continuous domain with a discrete domain using a grid.Xn x=0 x=1 x1 xi Grid point xN Coupled PDEs + boundary conditions in continuous variables. 13 . So in the discrete domain.. Setting up the discrete system and solving it involves a very large number of repetitive calculations. ….3.
and the time steps must be small enough that the small-scale motion can be resolved in a time accurate manner even if the flow is steady in a time-mean sense. A turbulent boundary layer can normally negotiate a more extensive region of unfavourable pressure gradient prior to separation than can a boundary layer. the classical Reynolds averaging and the mass-weighted averaging suggested by Favre. Another approach is large-eddy simulation (LES). The main thrust of present day CFD for turbulent flow is through the Time/mass (Favre) averaged Navier-Stokes equations In computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer in turbulent flow is through the time averaged “Navier-stokes” equations. The method to solve turbulent flows by direct numerical simulation (DNS) requires that all relevant length scales be resolved from the smallest eddies to scales on the order of the physical domain of the problem domain. even LES is beyond present day computing power. Now these are replaced by approximated modeling methods used as the primary design procedure for engineering applications. This process introduces further assumptions and 14 .The differences between laminar and turbulence flow: higher values of friction drag and pressure drop are associated with turbulent flow. The Reynolds equations are derived by decomposing the dependent variables in the conservation equations into time-mean and fluctuating components and then time averaging the entire equation. The diffusion rate of a scalar quantity is usually greater in a turbulent flow rather than laminar flow. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are generally considered to govern turbulent flows in the continuum regime. and turbulent flows are usually noiser. These new quantities must be related to the mean flow variables through turbulence models. which can be interpreted as "apparent" stress gradients and heat flux quantities associated with the turbulent motion. Two types of averaging is presently used. The computation needs to be 3-D even if the time-mean aspects of the flow are 2-D. Time averaging the equations of motion gives rise to new terms. These equations are also referred as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). The grid models required for LES is an order of magnitude less than DNS and for practical engineering problems. The computational effort required for LES is less than DNS. in which large-scale structure of the turbulent flow is computed directly and only the effects of smallest and more nearly isotropic eddies are modeled.
* GAMBIT 2.1 MODELING AND MESHING PACKAGE: GAMBIT 2.2.approximations. meshing. The user activates at the pre-processing stage involve: Definition of the geometry of the region of interest Grid generation (Mesh building) Selection of the physical and chemical phenomena that need to be modeled Definition of fluid properties Specification of appropriate boundary conditions 15 . For flows in which density fluctuations can be neglected.5 INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE PACKAGES In present project following packages are used.2. A structured Map mesh is then applied. Pre-processor consists of the input of a flow to a CFD program by means of an operator –friendly interface and the subsequent transformation of this input into a form suitable for the use by the solver. 3. since additional assumptions must be made to close the system of equations.30 Geometry and grid generation is done using GAMBIT which is the pre-processor bundled with FLUENT. the two formulations become identical.5. yet it is versatile enough to accommodate a wide range of modeling applications. GAMBIT is a software package designed to help analysts and designers build and mesh models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and other scientific applications. The CFD software package FLUENT is used to iterate toward a converged solution 3. GAMBIT receives user input by means of its graphical user interface (GUI).2. it also provides tools for checking the quality of the mesh .30 for Modeling and Meshing * FLUENT 6. The GAMBIT GUI makes the basic steps of building. Thus this method on the turbulent flow problem through solving the Reynolds equations of motion does not follow entirely from first principles. and assigning zone types to a model simple and intuitive.16 for analysis Vertices and edges are created in GAMBIT and a computational domain is created.
including Fluent. consists of five basic.2.In general governs the accuracy of the CFD solution. etc. The benefits of using Fluent and CFD are better designs. It uses the finite-volume method to solve the governing equations for a fluid.The solution to a flow problem is defined at nodes inside each cell. 3. lower risk and faster time to the market place for products or processes. in viscid or viscous. from supersonic airfoils to fluidized beds. Over 50% of the time spent in industry on CFD project is devoted to the definition of the domain geometry and the grid generation. Fluent's CFD solvers provide a wide range of physical models and numerical techniques. enabling solutions for a broad array of fluid flow and heat transfer phenomenon . but important steps.2 ANALYSIS PACKAGE: FLUENT6. In each of the following steps. the user has to specify the input parameters. is the world's largest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software provider. Fluent provides the physics and numeric needed to get accurate answers and stable calculations. the larger the number of cells the better the solution accuracy.5. At this point it is also helpful to gather the inputs needed for the rest of the simulation and prepare them to be entered into the CFD software. FLUENT is most widely used and this package has been used in most of the analysis purposes. which control the execution of the code and post processing of the results. Step 2 – Flow Parameters: 16 .16 There are many CFD packages in the market now. Inc. From combustion to plastic extrusion. It provides the capability to use different physical models such as incompressible or compressible. Fluent. These steps are described below. The number of cells in the grid . laminar or turbulent. Step 1 – Preliminary Inputs: During this step the user allocates memory for the CFD simulation that is going to be performed. Each simulation using CFD.
Fluent provides output in both visual and numerical form. As in pre-processing a huge amount of development work has recently taken place in the post-processing field. Owing to the increased popularity of engineering workstations. such as density and viscosity are very important to the CFD simulation. It is of the outmost importance that care be taken while entering the input in each of these steps to ensure quality results. these five basic steps are followed. the leading CFD packages are now equipped with versatile data visualization tools. many of which have outstanding graphics capabilities. as well at the mass flow rate.The fluid characteristics. It is during this step that these two parameters. Step 3 – Solve: The user simply tells the program how many calculations to perform and activates the solver. These include: Domain geometry and grid display Vector plots Line and shaded contour plots 2D and 3D surface plots Particle tracking View manipulation Color postscript output More recently these facilities may also include animation for dynamic result display and in addition to graphics. will be set. Step 4 – Post Processing: The final step consists of the analysis of the results as well as interpretation. In every CFD simulation whether simple or complex. 17 . Both are key in understanding the flow results.
This is a classical test case for ﬂows dominated by adverse pressure gradient and the boundary-layer separation. a smooth wall separation. The Reynolds number is based on the centerline velocity and the channel height at the inlet. 18 . and downstream reattachment and redevelopment of the wall boundary layer. The diffuser discharges into a 2-D channel with a separation distance of 4.CHAPTER 4 COMPUTATIONAL DETAILS OF PRESENT WORK The geometrical description of the 2D asymmetric plane diﬀuser is shown in Figure 4. The origin of the x-axis is located at the intersection of the tangents to the straight and inclined walls at the beginning of the asymmetric expansion. The asymmetric diffuser geometry consists of a 2-D channel of height H entering a one-sided diffuser (one straight wall and one oblique wall) 21H in length giving a divergence angle of 10 degrees.The flow is characterized by an inlet with fully developed 2-D channel flow. The complete experimental results were obtained by Buice and Eaton . The y-axis originates from the bottom wall of the downstream channel.1.7H. The problem is to simulate the ﬂow through an asymmetric plane diﬀuser with a Reynolds number Re = 20000.
4.0.4. (-12.7.0). (0. Solver 2.0.0).3. Operation Geometry Vertex FLUENT 5/6 (a) Create the vertices with coordinates: (-184.108.40.206). Create vertices.Figure 4.0).7. (21. (77. (0. 3. Geometry Setup and Mesh Generation Step 1: Geometry Setup 1.7.1.(77.7.7. (21.7.0). Operation Geometry Edge 19 . Connect the vertices together with straight edge to form the outline of the asymmetric diffuser.1 4.4.0). Select the FLUENT 5/6 solver.0).0).
5. (c) Click Apply. and connect it to the vertex of coordinates (0.7 for Radius.0) with a straight edge.0). (d) To get the fillet at the end of the expansion.3. and keep default selection of Trimedges. (a) Create a vertex of coordinates (0. 4. to see fillet icon (a) Select two edges intersecting at the start of the expansion.7. 20 . This edge will be used for splitting. (b) Enter a value of 9.(a) Select all the vertices in the logical order to form the outline of the asymmetric diffuser. (b) Open the Split Edge form in the Edge toolpad under Geometry operations. Operation Geometry Edge You can right click on .4. (b) Click Apply to visualize the outline. Split both the round arcs. perform steps (a) through (c). Create real fillet arc at the beginning of the expansion.
Operation Geometry Edge (c) Select the edge to split in the Edge selection box at the top. Operation Geometry Edge 21 . delete the short edge which lies outside the channel. (d) Select the edge which you just created to split the fillet. (f) After the split. Fillet in this case. (g) Merge the small edge which is created after the split with the larger edge. (e) Keep the default selection of Real connected for Type. enable Bidirectional for Edge and click Apply.
and connect it to vertex (21. Geometry Face (a) Open the Create Face from Wireframe form in the Face toolpad under Geometry (b) Select the edges which form the inlet channel of the diffuser.0). Use wire-frame method to form three faces that makes up the asymmetric plane diffuser. Follow the same procedure to split and merge the second arc.5. 6.-0. Operation operations. Select the edges to be merged and click Apply.4.(i).7. (h) Create a vertex of coordinates (21. (d) Perform step (a) through (c) to form the faces for expansion section and outlet channel of the diffuser. (c) Keep the default settings and click Apply.0). 22 .
Step 2: Mesh Generation 1. (d) Similarly. Operation Mesh Edge (a) Select four vertical edges.02 for both Ratio 1 and Ratio 2. (c) Specify a value of 120 for Interval count. mesh the remaining edges using the values listed in the following table: 23 . Mesh the edges. (b) Enable Double sided and specify a value of 1.
Mesh the faces.0179 Interval Count 100 180 220 Note: For the exit section walls. Operation Mesh Face 24 .03.Edges Inlet Channel Walls Expansion Section Walls Expansion Section Walls Grading and Ratio Double sided: 1. 1.05.03 Single sided: 1. 2. You can use <shift> and middle click to change the direction. 1. make sure the directions of the top and bottom walls are both pointing to the right before meshing.05 Double sided: 1.
(a) Select all the faces. Operation Zones 25 . The total number of cells for the diffuser should be approximately 60000 after this step. Assign the boundary zones. (b) Click Apply with all default values. Step 3: Assign Boundary Zone and Export the Mesh 1.
(b) Enter asymmetric. Ensure that you select WALL as Type for both top and bottom walls. iii. Select the outlet edge of the diffuser. ii. (a) Enable Export 2-D (X-Y) Mesh. 26 . Select PRESSURE OUTLET as Type. ii. Click Apply. Export the mesh.msh as the File Name: in the Export Mesh File panel. Select the inlet edge of the diffuser. Select VELOCITY INLET as Type. File Export Mesh. The final mesh in GAMBIT is as shown in Figure 4. iv. (b) Assign the boundary zone for the outlet edge. Click Apply.2 Figure 4. i. 2. Specify Name as inlet v.2: Mesh 3. Specify Name as outlet. i.(a) Assign the boundary zone for the inlet edge.. (c) Similarly assign the name as wall top and wall bottom for the top and bottom walls respectively. iv. iii.
4.msh. Start FLUENT 2DDP. asymmetric.. (a) Specify a value of 0... 27 . Read Case. Grid Scale.. File 3.2 Fluent Case Setup and Solution Step 1: Grid 1. Read the mesh file. 2. Scale the grid.1 for both X and Y under Scale Factors.
Step 2: Models 1. 4. Make sure that the reported minimum volume is a positive number. Enable the realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. Grid Check FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console window.(b) Click Scale and close the panel. Check the grid. 2. 28 .. Define Models Solver.. Keep the default solver settings.
Use the xy plot tool in FLUENT to verify the adequacy of the near wall mesh. (c) Click OK to close the panel. (b) Enable Realizable under k-epsilon Model and Enhanced Wall Treatment under Near-Wall Treatment..Define Models Viscous. 29 .. Note: You have created a very fine near wall mesh in GAMBIT in anticipation of the use of Enhanced Wall Treatment with the turbulence models. (a) Enable k-epsilon (2 eqn) under Model.
. (a) Click Read. you can either extend the channel sufficiently long in the upstream direction. Define Profiles. This fully-developed channel flow uses the inlet velocity (at the centerline) calculated as follows (the given Reynolds number Re = 20000 is based on the channel height and centerline velocity): 1. 30 .prof. the same Reynolds number). Read in the profiles. Profiles of u.. or separately compute a fullydeveloped channel flow using the same turbulence model for this problem (i. k are stored in the file called channelu. Step 4: Boundary Conditions In order to obtain a fully-developed channel flow at the inlet.prof.. So no need to visit the materials and operating conditions panel..e. Take the latter approach in this tutorial to minimize the size and CPU time required by the model.. and select the file channelu.Step 3: Materials and Operating Conditions Use standard air as the fluid. v.
(a) Select Components as the Velocity Specification Method. The name ‘inner’ refers to the zone where the profiles were exported from. (b) Select inner x-velocity for X-Velocity (m/s) and inner y-velocity for Y-Velocity (m/s). 3.(b) Close the panel. (c) Select K and Epsilon as Turbulence Specification Method. Kinetic Energy and inner specific-dissrate for Turb. Set the boundary conditions for velocity inlet (inlet v). 2. 31 . Dissipation Rate. Use the default No-slip boundary conditions for both the walls. (d) Select inner turb-kinetic-energy for Turb.
(a) Set the Under-Relaxation Factors for pressure and Momentum to a value of 0. Step 5: Solution 1.4.3. Set the boundary conditions for pressure outlet (outlet). (b)Specify a value of 10 for both Backflow Turbulence Intensity and Backflow Turbulence Viscosity Ratio... Set the solution controls. Solve Controls Solution. 32 . (a) Select Intensity and Viscosity Ratio for Turbulence Specification Method.
Solve Initialize Initialize. (c) Click OK to close the panel. (a) Select all-zones in the Compute From drop-down list.. 2. Use default convergence criteria for all residuals.. 4. 33 . (b) Click Init and close the panel. Initialize the solution. Solve monitors Surface...(b) Select SIMPLEC in the Pressure-Velocity Coupling drop-down list. Set up a monitor for wall-shear stress on the wall. 3.
. iv.. Click OK to close the panel. enable Plot and Print. Select wall bottom and wall top under Surfaces. (d) Click OK in the Define Surface Monitors panel. Select Wall Fluxes. (b) For monitor-1.. i.. ii.. Select Area-Weighted Average in the Report Type drop-down list.. and Wall Shear Stress in the Report Of drop-down lists.. 34 . Step 6: Define the Custom Field Functions Define Custom Filed Functions.(a) Increase the Surface Monitors to 1. iii. (c) Click Define.
Close the panel. Due to the default convergence criteria based on the reduction of the level of the residuals.. Though the calculation has proceeded smoothly so far. 35 . Switch the discretization scheme for convective terms to second-order upwind. Hence it should not be used for obtaining the final results.. Click the buttons /. Step 7: Iterations and Convergence 1. 2. Select Grid. the solution will converge after about 325 iterations. Specify x/h as the New Function Name and click Define. and X-Coordinate in the Field Functions drop-down list. and 1 in a sequence in the Custom Field Function Calculator pad. Solve Iterate..1. . two things need to be noted: (1) The monitor plot shows that the average surface shear stress (on the walls) has not yet reached a constant value. Start the calculations by requesting 1000 iterations. . 4. and click Select.. (2) You have used the first-order upwind scheme for the convective terms of the governing equations. This scheme is numerically diffusive. 3.
3.921469. (a) Change the Velocity value to 2. Plot the initial results.1.. 36 . (b) Change the Length value to 0. Report Reference Values. Save the case and data files. (c) Click OK to close the panel. Change the reference values. 4..2.
37 ... (c) Select Custom Field Functions. (a) Deselect Node Values and Position on X Axis under Options. and x/h under X Axis Function... i. and select the cf top.xy file and click OK.Plot XY Plot.. Click on Curves. (e) Change the line and symbol style for Curve 0. in the Solution XY Plot panel.... (b) Select Wall Fluxes... (d) Click Load File. and Skin Friction Coefficient under Y Axis Function.
Change the viscous model to SST k-omega. Dissipation Rate to inner specific-diss-rate. Continue the calculation with more iterations until the monitored quantity becomes a constant value. (a) Set the Spec. 10. 5. Disable convergence check for all residuals... Solve Monitors Residual.. 38 . 6.. (f) Select wall top under Surfaces and click Plot. Define Models Viscous. Change the Discretization scheme to Second Order Upwind for all equations. (g) Repeat the same procedure for bottom wall by loading file cf bot and selecting wall bottom under Surfaces. You can see the residuals of all the equations also have dropped below 5 orders of magnitude.ii. Save the case and data files. 9. Continue the calculation with more iterations until the monitored quantity becomes a constant value. 7. so solution can be taken as converged. iii. 8. Make the changes as shown in the panel. 11. Click Apply and close the panel. Set the boundary conditions for inlet v.
Plot the graphs between the skin friction coefficient and x/h. while plotting upload the top wall related experiment values and while plotting bottom wall upload the bottom wall experiment values.12. Save the case and data files. 39 . The related graphs are shown below.
The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 100 is given below 40 .
CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41 .
Case 2: Analysis is done for various diffuser inlet angles (50. 150. (220.127.116.11.0). and then the same analysis is done on asymmetric diffuser for different Asymmetric Diffuser Dimensional parameters.0).0).4. (45. (0. (ii) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 150 is given below.0).0.0). 200) with same outlet diameter.0).7. Case 1: (i) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 50 is given below Vertices: (-12.As the computational analysis values are approximately equal to the experiment values.0). (77. 18.104.22.168. inlet and outlet conditions. 42 . The pressure contours for each diffuser is given below.4. inlet and outlet conditions. Case 1: Analysis is done for various diffuser inlet angles (50.7.0).7.4.3. 200) with same diffuser length. (-12. (0. (45.
7.0).0.0. (10. (0.7. (22.214.171.124.0).126.96.36.199.7. (iii) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 200 is given below Vertices: (-12.0). (-12.4. (77.3.0).0). 43 . (77. (0.3.0).4. (0.0).7. (10.0).0).0.7.7.3.0).7. (0. (14.0). (-12. (77.4.0).0). (77.0).Vertices: (-12.0.0).7.0).7.4.7.
Case 2: (i) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 50 is given below. 44 .
7.0. (21.0.0).3.0). (0.3.0.0). (77.2. (-12.7. (188.8.131.52).0).3.0). 45 .0).0).0). (77.6. (0.0.Vertices: (-12.0).0). (77.0).0).0).0). (0.6. (ii) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 150 is given below Vertices: (-12. (0.7.3. (21. (21. (-12.0). (21.
0).0).8.0).0).9. (0.9.9. (77.0).0). (-12. 46 .0). (21. (21.(iii) The static pressure contours of asymmetric diffuser of angle 200 is given below Vertices: (-12. (0.0.8.0). (77.0.9.
1 m.Case 1: Where H= inlet = 0. 47 .
057396 0. Gauge Pressure (Pascal) 50 100 150 200 21H 21H 21H 21H 3H 4.0728532 0.7H 4.7H 4. Gauge Pressure (Pascal) 50 100 150 200 Case 2: Where H= inlet = 0.Outlet Diameter = 4. Length of Diffuser = 21H= Constant.0045547 Diffuser(m) Diameter(m) Diffuser(m) Diameter(m) Conclusion: Asymmetric diffuser is analyzed with the help of CFD where the geometry consists of a 2-D channel of height H entering a one-sided diffuser (one straight wall and one oblique wall) 21H in length giving a divergence angle of 10 degrees.7H= Constant. Diffuser Angle Length of Outlet Max.7H 7H 9H 0.0176775 0.1345861 0.1 m.005700 45H 21H 14H 10H 4.7H 4. The diffuser discharges into a 248 .017677 0.470559 0. Diffuser Angle Length of Outlet Max.7H 0.
Gauge pressure is 0.1345861 pascal and for case 2.D channel with a separation distance of 4. the divergence angle of 150with a length of 21H gives the Max. Gauge pressure is 0. the divergence angle of 50with a length of 45H gives the Max. Then the diffuser dimensional parameters are changed such as diameter. The different cases observed.The CFD results are compared with the experimental values and it is approximately equal.7H. Bibliography: 49 .470559 pascal. for case 1. length and diffuser angle.
Experimental investigation of flow through an asymmetricplane diffuser.  OBI. Durbin.AOKI. Technical Report No. Stanford University.S. Buice and J.  P.A. TSD-107. Kyot Japan August 16. Kand MASUDA. Dept. Thermosciences Division. Separated flow computations with the k v2 model. of Mechanical Engineering. Eaton. 50 . S1993 Ninth symposium on turbulent shear flows .1993P 305. AIAA Journal. 1995.U. August 1997. CA. USA. C. 33(4):659-664.K. Stanford.
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