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PERALATAN METEOROLOGI KONVENSIONAL
TAHUN AJARAN 2007
OLEH IBNU SOFWAN LUKITO, S.Si
Definisi Tekanan Udara:
Tekanan udara di permukaan bumi adalah gaya per satuan luas berdasarkan atas berat/beban dari atmosphere di atasnya. dengan kata lain, Tekanan udara adalah sepadan dengan berat/beban dari sekolom udara di atas suatu proyeksi permukaan horisontal, membentang hingga batas terluar dari atmosphere.
GayaBerat m.g MassaUdara KonstataGrafitasi ........ gr ms 2 Luas A Luas
Basic dari satuan ukur tekanan atmosfer adalah pascal (Newton per meter2). Namun dalam bidang Meteorologi biasa digunakan istilah milibar (mb) yang nilainya setara dengan hectopascal (hPa), 1 mb = 1 hPa = 100Pa. Dalam kondisi standar, sekolom air raksa/merkuri mempunyai skala ketinggian sebesar 760 (mm Hg) pada tekanan udara standard 1013.250 hPa, temperature standard sebesar 0°C dan gravity standard sebesar 9.80665 ms-2
BAROMETER/BAROGRAPH ANEROID * Barometer * Barograph * Altimeter 3. BAROMETER AIR RAKSA * Mercury Fortin Barometer * Mercury Kew Barometer * Mercury Banjo Barometer 2.JENIS ALAT UKUR TEKANAN UDARA KONVENSIONAL: 1. BAROMETER/BAROGRAPH BOURDON TUBE * Spiral Bourdon-tube pressure * Helical Bourdon-tube pressure .
1 hPa 4. Resolution Pelaporan: 0.B. 2. Range Pengukuran: 500 – 1 80 hPa (station pressure & MSL pressure).primary reference memiliki persyaratan sbb: 1. Output averaging time: 1 minute . Sensor time constant: 20 s 5.Persyaratan Meteorological Untuk Alat Ukur Tekanan Udara Pengukuran Tekanan Udara harus tetap akurat seiring perkembangan teknologi dan harus selalu dilakukan prosedur pengukuran dan kalibrasi yang ditetapkan. Chapter 1. Akurasi Target : 0. untuk Alat ukur tekanan udara .1 hPa 3. WMO Commissions and is outlined in Annex 1.
. or hypsometers. (d) The instrument must be placed in an environment where external effects will not lead to measurement errors. and pressure shocks). mercury barometers. and displacement from the vertical and large pressure variations such as may be encountered during transportation by air. aneroid barometers. shocks and vibrations. the atmospheric pressure is generally measured with electronic barometers.Methods of measurement and observation For meteorological purposes. fluctuations in the electrical power supply. (b) Any variations of the accuracy (long term and short term) must be much smaller than the tolerances. Effects which may alter the calibration of the barometer include mechanical shocks and vibrations. (c) Instrument readings should not be affected by temperature variations. the method of transportation employed must not affect the stability or accuracy of the barometer. radiation/temperature. (effects wind. (f) In the event that the instrument has to be calibrated away from its operational location. (e) The instrument should be quick and easy to read. Meteorological pressure instruments (barometers) are suitable for use as operational instruments for measuring atmospheric pressure if they meet the following requirements: (a) The instruments must be calibrated or controlled regularly against a (working) standard barometer using approved procedures.
the barometer is very delicate and difficult to transport. and other pressure sensors of equivalent accuracy and stability with electronic read-out are now commonly available. special lead glass is required for the tube. free mercury is corrosive of the aluminium alloys used in airframes (and for these reasons there are regulations proscribing the handling or carriage of mercury barometers in some countries).Mercury Barometers There is an increasing move away from the use mercury barometers for the reasons that mercury vapour is highly toxic. the instrument must be read and corrections applied manually. it is difficult to provide for maintenance of the instrument and for cleaning the mercury. .
(d) The bore of the tube should not be less than 7 mm and should preferably be 9 mm.5 hPa. The purity of the mercury is of considerable significance. degreased. It should be double-distilled. (e) The tube should be prepared and filled under vacuum. and filtered. The observers employing these corrections must understand their significance to ensure that the corrections applied are correct and not. the error at any point should not exceed 0. (g) The meniscus should not be flat unless the bore of the tube is large (greater than 20 mm). in fact. (b) It should be quick and easy to read. . causing a deterioration in the accuracy of the readings. (c) It should be transportable without loss of accuracy. should be engraved upon the barometer. repeatedly washed.General requirements The main requirements of a good mercury station barometer include: (a) Its accuracy should not vary over long periods of time. at standard gravity. (f) The actual temperature for which the scale is assumed to give correct readings. In particular. and readings should be corrected for all known effects. (h) For a marine barometer. The scale should preferably be calibrated to give correct readings at 0°C. its hysteresis effects should remain small.
BAROMETER AIR RAKSA Prinsip Barometer Air Raksa : Memanfaatkan sifat anomali air raksa dalam tabung hampa. B PA PB mA g PA AA A h2 h1 AIR RAKSA .
ca/GeneralInterest/Harrison/Barometer/Barometer.utoronto. http://www.upscale. dan rancangan originalnya dibuat pada tahun 1810. Prinsip Kerja: Tekanan udara dalam bulb air raksa akan menekan keatas tabung bila tekanan udara naik.html .MERCURY FORTIN BAROMETER Fortin Barometer pertama digunakan oleh Torricelli pada tahun 1643.
Baca ketinggian air raksa menggunakan skala venir yang dapat digerakkan naik-turun.upscale. tidak terlalu yang tinggi atau terlalu rendah. 2.MERCURY FORTIN BAROMETER Langkah-langkah menggunakan Barometer jenis Fortin: 1.utoronto. 3. Gunakan Zero Adjusting Knob sehingga puncak Mercury Reservoir hanyalah menyentuh ujung Zeroing Peg. Putar tab/skrup barometer sehingga ketinggian dari meniskus sejajar dengan tinggi air raksa.ca/GeneralInterest/Harrison/Barometer/Barometer. Baca suhu menggunakan termometer yang berada di barometer. 4. Lakukan penyesuaian ketinggian dari Movable Scale sehingga alas (depan dan belakang dari skala) sama dengan puncak meniskus. http://www. 5.html .
upscale.utoronto.Koreksi Temperature Koreksi Lintang http://www.ca/GeneralInterest/Harrison/Barometer/Barometer.html .
Please note that all precision barometers are supplied in a purposebuilt fibreboard case with a polystyrene cutout inner to support the instruement.co. causing the mercury level in the column to rise or fall. Careful construction of the column and cistern ensures that the ratio of level changes resulting from a given change of pressure remains constant.Kew Barometers Kew-type station barometers to Met Office pattern. http://www. In the Kew barometer atmospheric pressure acts directly on the surface of the mercury in the cistern.uk/barometers/kew_barometers. so that the pressure can be read directly off the scale. using a vernier.russell-scientific.html .
html .Banjo Barometers The deservedly popular and elegant banjo barometer can trace its development back to 1664 when Robert Hooke invented the wheel operating system. The addition of a spirit level allows the instrument to be hung vertically and the model 603A.uk/barometers/banjo_barometers. The designs of the Regency Range date from the latter years of the 18th century. allowed a discreet eye to be kept on proceedings in the hall or dining room.co. with a butler’s mirror.russell-scientific. http://www. Its great advantage was the extended scale that allowed more accurate readings to be made. and mercury column registering or aneroid movements are available as indicated. All these barometers have silvered dials.
3 hPa. Accuracy requirements The chief requirements of a good aneroid barometer are: (a) It should be compensated for temperature so that the reading does not change by more than 0. there will be an equilibrium between the force due to the spring and that of the external pressure. when in normal use. completely or partly evacuated.Aneroid barometers The greatest advantages of conventional aneroid barometers over mercury barometers are their compactness and portability. At any given pressure. which make them particularly convenient for use at sea or in the field. and a strong spring system that prevents the chamber from collapsing due to the external atmospheric pressure. (c) The hysteresis should be sufficiently small to ensure that the difference in reading before a change in pressure of 50 hPa and after return to the original value does not exceed 0. (b) The scale errors at any point should not exceed 0.3 hPa and should remain within this tolerance over periods of at least a year. (d) It should be capable of withstanding ordinary transit risks without introducing inaccuracies beyond the limits specified above . The principal components are a closed metal chamber.3 hPa for a change in temperature of 30 K. The aneroid chamber may be made of materials (steel or beryllium copper) that have elastic properties such that the chamber itself can act as a spring.
Lucien Vidie.BAROMETER ANEROID The aneroid barometer was invented by a Frenchman. meaning “without liquid”. moves an index pointer. in turn. He produced a metallic barometer which he called an aneroid. As the pressure changes. The principle of the aneroid barometer is the change in height of a sealed metallic chamber which has flexible upper and lower surfaces. in 1843. . so the height of the chamber varies which.
Generally. the measured pressure is applied to the interior of the element and no supplemental coil springs are used. . diameter capsule (two plates) will provide about 0. A 2-in. of motion without exceeding the elastic limit of the material. This is usually enough to operate a high-ratio multiplying movement because diaphragm deflection can transmit high force.These spring-loaded bellows gauges generally are used in pressure ranges having spans to 100 psi and to 1 in.060 in. Hg.
Simplified view of spiral Bourdon-tube pressure gage and movement. and single.com/ 2. Three types of elastic chambers are commonly used in gauges for fluid power systems: C-shaped.The majority of gauges for measuring pressure have one characteristic in common: the pressure being measured is the only source of energy required to provide a visual indication of static pressure. Bourdon-tube gauges are not generally used for pressure spans under 12 psi. Some form of elastic chamber inside the gauge case converts the pressure to motion.hydraulicspneumatics. some other form of elastic chamber must be used.2 Fig. http://www. Cutaway view of C-shaped Bourdon-tube pressure gage. Fig. 3. and helical Bourdon tubes bellows. Fig. 2. Pressure-induced strain in the Bourdon tube causes it to deform. a metallic bellows (Aneroid). .1 1. 3. spiral. Fig. Simplified view of helical Bourdon-tube pressure gage and movement. and gearing into movement of a pointer across an indicating scale.3 Fig.and multi-capsule stacks. which is translated through suitable links. For these ranges. Fig. Transmitting this deformation to a pointer through a movement linkage provides a visual indication of pressure. 1. levers.
In addition.Barographs General requirements: Of the various types of barograph. the following requirements are desirable: (a) The barograph should employ a first-class aneroid unit.1 hPa. only the aneroid barograph will be dealt with in detail here.5 cm on the chart. (c) Have a scale factor of 10 hPa to 1. for synoptic purposes. It is recommended that charts for barographs. (b) It should be compensated for temperature. the axis of which should be inclined in such a way that the pen rests on the chart by gravity.5 hPa at any point. so that the reading does not change by more than 1 hPa for a 20 K change in temperature. (b) Readable to 0. . (d) Hysteresis should be sufficiently small to ensure that the difference in reading before a change of pressure of 50 hPa and after return to the original value does not exceed 1 hPa. An adjustment should be provided for setting the position of the pen. (c) Scale errors should not exceed 1. (e) There should be a time-marking arrangement which allows the marks to be made without lifting the cover. be: (a) Graduated in hPa. (f) The pen arm should be pivoted in a “gate”.
BAROGRAPH • • • Barograph adalah istilah lain untuk barometer yang dapat merekam sendiri hasil pengukurannya. Barograph umumnya menggunakan prinsipnya barometer Aneroid. . Semakin banyak kapsul aneroid yang digunakan maka semakin peka.
Pendekatan rumus: H = 221.ALTIMETER • • • Altimeter sebenarnya adalah barometer aneroid yang skala peninjukkannya telah dikonversi terhadap ketinggian. 1 mb ~ 30 feet (9 meter).15 Tm log ( Po / P ) .
yaitu: sebuah tabung tertutup dengan tingkat hampa udara yang dapat diatur (udara didalam tabung dikeluarkan secara perlahan dengan pompa penghisap udara). .KALIBRATOR BAROMETER/BAROGRAPH Alat ini sebenarnya adalah Vacuum Chamber .
gov. (2) Place a finger over the open end of the tube and invert the tube. labelling it from 60cm to 100cm. Clamp the tube to the stand.sg/cms/htdocs/article. (5) Record 1 or 2 pressure readings per day. (4) With the meter ruler. closed at one end Mercury or coloured water Ring stand with a clamp Cardboard strip A meter ruler Method: (1) Fill the glass tube with mercury (or coloured water).nea. bringing clearing or fair weather. (3) Mark a scale of centimeters on the cardboard. which often brings clouds and precipitation.gov. Decreasing air pressure often indicates the apprach of a low pressure area. Increasing air pressure often means that a high pressure area is approaching.sg/cms/mss/images/hydrograph http://app. lowering it into the beaker containing the remainder of the mercury. measure the actual height of the mercury column and attach the scale to the proper spot on the tube. http://www.To make a simple barometer: You would need: 1 glass tube 36 inches long.asp .nea.
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