PROJECT REPORT

MT SUSHMA
DESIGN OF A 150,000 t DOUBLE ACTING ICE CLASS TANKER
OF SERVICE SPEED 15.0 KNOTS IN OPEN WATER AND 5.0
KNOTS IN SEVERE ICE CONDITION
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Award of
The Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in
Naval Architecture & Ship Building
by
VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022
APRIL 2008

Certified that this is the bonafide record of the thesis submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor in Technology
in

Naval Architecture & Ship Building
by

VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022

Thesis Approved by

Thesis Accepted by

Cdr P .G Sunil Kumar
Department of Ship Technology
Cochin University of Science &
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala

Dr. Pyarilal S.K
Reader and Head
Department of Ship Technology
Cochin University of Science &
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am deeply indebted to Cdr P.G Sunil Kumar, my guide and mentor for
his immeasurable help he lent me during the course of my project. I would like to
extend my thanks to all other faculty members of the department.
I am grateful to Mr. Muthukrishnan.A, and Mr. Shantanu Neema, my
class mates especially Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh, and Mr. Ujjawal Kumar Vidyarthi,,
with out whose help and assistance; my project would not have been completed. I take
this opportunity to thank all my juniors especially Mr. Ashish Kumar, Mr. Sachin
Kumar for helping me with the project.
Patience, understanding and constant prayers from my family played a
major role in completion of this thesis. The whole hearted cooperation, affection and
timely help of all my classmates are remembered with great appreciation and gratitude
Above all, I would like to thank Maa Durga for harbouring me safely thus
far

VIMAL KUMAR
Batch XXIX

Dedicated to my family

0 m thick Ice) : 5.0 Knots Signature of Project guide .AIM OF THE PROJECT Aim of this project is to prepare a preliminary design of a Double Acting Ice Class Tanker to meet the owner’s requirements given in the assignment sheet: ASSIGNMENT SHEET Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT) DEPT.0 Knots Service speed (1.000 t Service speed (open water) : 15. OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY Ship Design Project work Assignment sheet Student Name : Vimal Kumar Ship Type : Double Acting Tanker (Ice Class 1AS) Deadweight : 150.

0 RESISTANCE AND POWERING 53 5.Tech (NA&SB).0 HULL GEOMETRY 42 4.0 DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 201 .0 FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT 77 6. Batch – XXIX” CONTENTS Sl No: Chapter Page No: 1.“Department of Ship technology. B.0 FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS 7 3.0 OUTLINE SPECIFICATION 195 10.0 INTRODUCTION 1 2.0 DETAILED TRIM & STABILITY CALCULATION 112 8.0 MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN 164 9. CUSAT.0 DETAILED MASS ESTIMATION AND CAPACITY CALCULATIONS 103 7.

Tech (NA&SB).“Department of Ship technology. CUSAT. B. Batch – XXIX” LIST OF DRAWINGS Sl No: Chapter Drg No 1 LINES PLAN XXIX/01 2 BONJEAN CURVES XXIX/02 3 HYDROSTATIC CURVES XXIX/03 4 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT XXIX/04 5 MIDSHIP SECTION XXIX/05 .

1 Russian crude oil export pipelines 8 Fig 2.3 Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation 60 Fig 4.2 Typical GA 15 Fig 2.5 Power vs propeller speed 67 Fig 4.4 Graph to find KQ. CUSAT.1 Ice breaking capability of DAT Page No 1 Chapter 2 Fig 2.8 Performance curves 70 Fig 4.Tech (NA&SB).4 Graph of deadweight v/s length 21 Fig 2.“Department of Ship technology.7 Propeller weight vs propeller diameter 68 Fig 4. J values for 4 bladed propeller 63 Fig 4.2 Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation 59 Fig 4.3 Power requirements of DAT 16 Fig 2.9Graph showing Ice thickness (HICE) vs.1 Ice breaking tanker (hull form) 42 Chapter 4 Fig 4. Batch – XXIX” LIST OF FIGURES Chapter 1 Fig 1.6 Azipod main dimensions 67 Fig 4. B. VICE 76 .1 Graph from guldhammer-harvald method of resistance calculation 58 Fig 4.5 Preliminary GZ curves 35 Chapter 3 Fig 3.

3 Framing system 168 Fig 8.1 Basic Frame Spacing Fig 5.2 Itemization of parts 167 Fig 8.3 GZ Curve for fully loaded departure condition 150 Fig 7.1Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker 164 Fig.4 GZ Curve for fully loaded arrival condition 154 Fig 7. B.2 Arc of light 79 91 Chapter 7 Fig 7. Batch – XXIX” Chapter 5 Fig 5.Tech (NA&SB). CUSAT. 8.1 Weather criteria curves 116 Fig 7.“Department of Ship technology.6 GZ Curve for ballast arrival condition 162 Chapter 8 Fig 8.4 Side shell regions 182 .2 Cross Curves of Stability (Even keel condition) 134 Fig 7.5 GZ Curve for ballast departure condition 158 Fig 7.

1 Offsets of standard BSRA waterlines 44 Table 3.6 Results of final Iteration 22 Table 2.8 Initial stability check with IMO Requirements 35 Table 2.3 Total resistance by BSRA Method 60 . CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology.7 GZ at different angles of heel 34 Table 2. B.1 Principle dimensions estimated by ARCOP 13 Table 2.5 Results of Iterations 21 Table 2.3 Ratio of main dimensions 19 Table 2.6 Hydrostatic parameters 52 Chapter 4 Table 4.9 Final Dimensions 41 Chapter 3 Table 3.2 Double acting Tankers 14 Table 2. Batch – XXIX” LIST OF TABLES Chapter 2 Page No Table 2.harvald Method 58 Table 4.Tech (NA&SB).1 Total resistance by guldhammer .5 Moment table 49 Table 3.3 Faired offsets 46 Table 3.2 Stem and stern offsets 45 Table 3.2 Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method 59 Table 4.4 Area table 48 Table 3.4 Results of first iteration 20 Table 2.

4 Model used for Extrapolation 62 Table 4.Tech (NA&SB). CUSAT.5 KQ. KQ Values from the Graph above 63 Table 4. B.8 Performance values 69 Table 4.10 Ordinates of back 74 Table 4.5 Determination of COG of Steel Mass 111 Table 6. Batch – XXIX” Table 4.11 Ordinates of face 75 Chapter 5 Table 5. J values for 4 bladed propellers 62 Table 4.1 Capacity of cargo Tanks 105 Table 6.7 n.9 t. c.7 Determination of COG of Light Ship 112 .6 J.3 Compliment List 88 Chapter 6 Table 6. xo and xm with varying r/R 74 Table 4.2.4 Capacity of other tanks/compartments 106 Table 6.“Department of Ship technology.6 Determination of COG of Machinery 111 Table 6.Division of Compartments 82 Table 5. PD and η0 for selected models 64 Table 4.1 Basic Frame Spacing 78 Table 5.2 Capacity of Ballast Tanks 105 Table 6.3 Capacity of storage tanks 106 Table 6.

9 Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals 182 Table 8.4-7.34 Summary of all loading condition 163 Chapter 8 Table 8.11 Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal and inner hull longitudinals.2 Value of ho and h 169 Table 8.7 Vertical extension of ice strengthening 173 Table 8.5 Value of la 171 Table 8.2 Windage area 119 Table 7.22-7.12 Section modulus calculation 190-194 .8 Value of mo 174 Table 8. Batch – XXIX” Chapter 7 Table 7.32 Determination of centre of gravity of ballast tanks 144 Table 7.33 Determination of centre of gravity of consumables 145 Table 7.1 Determination of X1 X2 K and s 118 Table 7.3 Down flooding and deck immersion angle 119 Table 7.4 Value of c1 170 Table 8.1 Value of Ka 168 Table 8.21 KN Values (Trimmed condition) 129-133 Table 7.3 Value of a and b 170 Table 8.13-7. B.12 Hydrostatic condition (Trimmed condition) 120-128 Table 7. CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology.31 Determination of centre of gravity of cargo holds 143 Table 7.10 Determination of inner hull and longitudinal bulkhead plating 184 Table 8.6 Extension of ice strengthening at midship 171 Table 8.30 computation of IMO envelop (Trimmed condition) 137-141 Table 7.Tech (NA&SB). 185 Table 8.

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Tech (NA&SB).Department of Ship technology. CUSAT. B. Batch – XXIX”         CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .

Thus another engineering solution was developed in the concept of Double Acting Tankers. The conventional ice breaking tankers had a bow somewhat similar to that of an icebreaker. However due to the modified bow form the efficiency of such tankers were vastly reduced in the open water regions.Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX” 1.1 Introduction Earlier icebreakers used to assist ships navigating in the Arctic Region. B. ice breaking tankers and other concepts were developed. The principle for breaking ice was to sit on the ice and break it by its own weight.1 Ice breaking capability of DAT [34] 1 . This arrangement offers good icebreaking capability with reduced power level and practically access to independent ice operation without compromising the open water performance of the ship. CUSAT. Due to the inherent cost of this practice. Thus the stern and the propulsion units need to be dimensioned and need to be optimised for both conditions. The double-acting concept is based on the idea that the vessel makes its path in heavy ice conditions the stern ahead. Routes were formulated accordingly through the Arctic Ocean depending on seasons and climatic conditions. which will be further enhanced through the pulling mode of the propeller. which will be possible through the use of electrical podded propulsion systems. Experience has demonstrated a reduction in fuel consumption compared to conventional ships. Ice breaking capability of DAT in ahead and astern condition Fig 1.“Department of Ship technology.

The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea. The thickness decreases when moving south. The icecovered area during normal winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia. The surface area is about 377. Freezing begins in the northern coast of Gulf of Bothnia typically in early November.Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX” Advantage of ice class tanker (double acting) a) b) c) d) e) Hull form can be optimized for all conditions. in early January. The Bothnian Sea. the northern basin of the Gulf of Bothnia. More freedom of design. reaching the open waters of Bay of Bothnia. The stern shape is of ice breaking type. It is about 1610 km long. including Baltic basin and the territory of Poland. The maximum depth is 459 m. and an average of 55 m deep.2 Field search: a) b) c) d) Ice conditions Ice properties Route selection Design basis development The Baltic Sea: Areas of northern Europe. freezes on average in late February. Improved Manoeuvrability. The bow shape is designed to be capable of operating in light ice conditions in Baltic Sea. Ice conditions in Baltic Sea: About 45% of surface area Of Baltic sea is covered by ice annually. Low Ice resistance (up to 50% in certain ice conditions) as well as low power requirements (up to 40% less than conventional ice breaking tankers) f) No need to stop propeller for reversing The vessel is designed to follow the Double Acting principle and the hull form is designed accordingly. The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January. an average of 193 km wide. B.“Department of Ship technology. Gulf of Riga and Vainameri in the Estonian archipelago.000 km² and the periphery is about 8000 km of coastline. 2 . The vessel will be fitted with a bulbous bow. 1. the Gulf of Finland. planned to operate independently in the most severe ice conditions of the Baltic Sea. were repeatedly covered by ice sheets. the basin south of it. the largest body of brackish water in the world. Total economy has improved. CUSAT.

Batch – XXIX” Severe (337.“Department of Ship technology.Tech (NA&SB). slush and shuga. and on rare cases the whole sea is frozen. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water. There are various types of ice defined by WMO (World Metrological Organization) in Baltic Sea are as follows: New ice: A general term for recently formed ice which includes frazil ice. grease ice.-0. 3 . • Grease ice: A later stage of freezing than frazil ice when the crystals have coagulated to form a soupy layer on the surface.000 km2) Average (206. Because of this seawater freezes at. These types of ice are composed of ice crystals which are only weakly frozen together (if at all) and have a definite form only while they are afloat. as in estuaries.20o C in the Bothnian. the largest body of brackish water in the world. but not as salty as sea water. Temperature Range: In general ice forms in marine waters when temperatures are below zero on the Celsius grade.20o C Ice properties in Baltic Sea: The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea.5 and 30 grams of salt per liter. Grease ice reflects little light. exact freezing temperature depending on the salinity of the water. suspended in water. • Frazil ice: Fine spicules or plates of ice. or as a viscous floating mass in water after a heavy snowfall. Minimum temperature observed in this region is . more saline water freezes at lower temperatures. Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water. Severe winters can ice the regions around Denmark and southern Sweden. • Slush: Snow which is saturated and mixed with water on land or ice surfaces. moderate or severe. giving the sea a matt appearance. or it may occur as in brackish fossil aquifers. Technically. B.000 km2) Mild (122. brackish water contains between 0.000 km2) The ice extent depends on whether the winter is mild. CUSAT.

Because it is thicker than first-year ice. Most topographic features are smoother than on first-year ice. • Dark nilas: Nilas which is under 5 cm in thickness and is very dark in colour. Less elastic than nilas and breaks on swell. Second-year ice: Old ice which has survived only one summer's melts. they are formed from grease ice or slush and sometimes from anchor ice rising to the surface. Maybe subdivided into second-year ice and multi-year ice. • Ice rind: A brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or from grease ice. • Light Nilas: Nilas which is more than 5 cm in thickness and rather lighter in colour than dark nilas. a few centimetres across.5 m and sometimes more. typical thickness up to 3m or more. Maybe subdivided into grey ice and grey-white ice.“Department of Ship technology. Under pressure more likely to ridge than to raft. Old ice: Sea ice which has survived at least one summer's melt. Usually rafts under pressure. it stands higher out of the water. • Grey-white ice: Young ice 15-30 cm thick. Nilas: A thin elastic crust of ice. commonly breaking in rectangular pieces. First-year ice: • Thin first-year ice/white ice: First-year ice 30-70 cm thick. CUSAT. easily bending on waves and swell and under pressure. • Thick first-year ice: First-year ice over 120 cm thick. Has a matt surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness. thrusting in a pattern of interlocking 'fingers' (finger rafting). 10-30 cm in thickness. Batch – XXIX” • Shuga: An accumulation of spongy white ice lumps. Maybe subdivided into dark nilas and light nilas. usually in water of low salinity.Tech (NA&SB). • Grey ice: Young ice 10-15 cm thick. typical thickness up to 2. Thin first-year ice/white ice second stage: 50-70cm thick • Medium first-year ice: First-year ice 70-120 cm thick. Thickness to about 5 cm. Young ice: Ice in the transition stage between nilas and first-year ice. B. Thin first-year ice/white ice first stage: 30-50 cm thick. Easily broken by wind or swell. 4 .

Bulbous bow can reduce resistance of the ship by about 15% from ordinary ice breaking ship with ice breaking bow (fuel economy 20%). Melt pattern consists of large interconnecting irregular puddles and a well-developed drainage system The basic requirements set for the project are: ICE CLASS: Finnish-Swedish 1A super SIZE: ~ 150000 t dwt. The Azipod can be equipped with skewed propellers. which one bow is a bulbous bow and another is an ice breaking bow. ideal even in harsh arctic and offshore environments. • Operational flexibility leads to lower fuel consumption.“Department of Ship technology. • The Azipod unit itself has a flexible design. is usually blue. Colour. • Multi-year ice: Old ice up to 3 m or more thick which has survived at least two summers' melts. where bare. summer melting produces a regular pattern of numerous small puddles. less downtime. B. open water or ice conditions. CUSAT. and in addition during navigation on ice sea area. • Eliminates the need for long shaft lines. • Excellent wake field due to improved hydrodynamics. CP-propellers and reduction gears • Combined with the power plant principle. double acting tanker (DAT) was built at Sumitomo Heavy Industries. rudders. it offers not only new dimensions to the design of machinery and cargo spaces. Batch – XXIX” In contrast to multi-year ice. reduced maintenance costs. Hummocks even smoother than in second-year ice and the ice are almost salt-free. broken pieces of ice can be separated from hull by propeller flow and thus high ice breaking efficiency is expected Main Advantages of the Azipod Propulsion • Excellent dynamic performance and maneuvering characteristics. with or without a nozzle. It can be built for pushing or pulling. Utilizing this characteristic.Tech (NA&SB). but also reduced levels of noise and vibration. Ltd. DAT is a double-bow tanker. as well as increase safety and redundancy. It can generate thrust to arbitrary directions of 360 degrees. 5 . Bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.3 Type of Propulsion System: Pod propulsion system without any rudder and shafting is normally employed for double acting tanker. transverse stern thrusters. less exhaust emissions and increased redundancy with less installed power. ICEBREAKING CAPABILITY: Baltic conditions 1.

November ‘2004 (after amendments to the old rules) is used. Air/water temperature) • Chartered requirements.“Department of Ship technology.6 Classification: The selection of classification depends on specific oceans and sea areas in the context of current and earlier commercial shipping developments for ice operation. CUSAT. The above selection of classification is done on the basis of: • Requirements of Administrations • Area of operation (Ice level. Type of operation. Batch – XXIX” 1. Combined.(Ice class rules as reference) 1. 1.4 Hull Strengthening: Hull strengthening due to Ice Load is dependent on: • • • • • Ice conditions. The ship will perform pendulum service between the two ports.5 Trade Route: The trade route is decided to carry crude oil from Belokamenka (Murmansk Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands) via Baltic Sea. For Baltic Sea region FSICR (Finnish .Tech (NA&SB). B. Direct Calculations. and • Future flexibility 6 . Ice classification Rules.Swedish Ice Class Rules) 1A/1C.

Batch – XXIX” 2.production: 10. 7 . Plans major energy infrastructure investments to keep up with increasing demand in European countries.5 million barrels/day (2006 est. Various European countries shares the Russian oil Export.“Department of Ship technology.) [26] Oil . The Republic of Russia.6 million barrels/day (2006 est. Presently 20% of all Russian oil export is finding its way to world market through the port of Murmansk.4%. 100-150 million tons per year of oil transport is estimated for the future in the arctic and far eastern areas of Russia. Western Siberia – Usinsk – Murmansk via the White Sea (2500 km). The North Baltic. Italy 6. China 6%. Germany 8%.) Oil . four largest Russian oil companies signed an MoU on the development of an oil pipeline system via the sea bulk oil terminal in the area of Murmansk.1 Preliminary Investigation: The Baltic is as a export outlet for Russian crude/products and increasing its importance in Europe’s energy needs.9 million barrels/day (2006 est. One of the major driving factors behind the development of the terminal is the expected export growth.2%. when it will be put to operation. like Netherlands 9. US 5% etc. is set to double its output in next five years.1%.The Russian Arctic region has oil reserves of about 100 Billion tons for the future which is 75% of total Russian oil reserves. B.exports: 7. .consumption: 2. Need of Ice Class Tankers up to Aframax/Suezmax size. Ukraine 6. Shipments in North Baltic: • • • Export set to double in next 5 years. There has been two pipeline routes under consideration: Western Siberia – Ukhta – Murmansk (3600 km). The oil statistics of Russia: Oil . with a particular focus on the Port of Murmansk. has become second largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia in world. MURMANSK PIPELINE PROJECT In November 2002. CUSAT. The construction started in 2004 and is to be completed by 2008. especially in the USA.) Oil imports from Russia to Europe have increased. The yearly oil flow volume from the west Siberian – Murmansk oil pipeline is expected to be 80 million tons.Tech (NA&SB).

“Department of Ship technology. B. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX” Russian crude oil export pipelines Fig 2.1 [26] 8 .Tech (NA&SB).

B.Department of Ship technology. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX”   CHAPTER 2 FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS .Tech (NA&SB).

Tech (NA&SB). SOLAS.1.000 t 15 Kn (open water) and 5 Kn (1. LRS 3800 Nautical Miles BSRA Form like the Bow of a normal Ice Breaker Bulbous bow is provided as per normal tankers Before starting the design. heating coils. speed. heaters.3 Super structure & deck house Superstructures are usually arranged towards the ends. inert gas system (IGS). navigation. The forecastle is helpful in preventing the shipping of green water.1. Engine room is located in the aft region. Normal sheer is not given to the ship. 1.0 m thick Ice) FSICR.1. for ease of construction.1. the design problem is defined analyzing the different frontiers that will influence the entire design.1. CUSAT. 2. MARPOL FSICR etc 150. 9 . System operational requirements include cargo and ballast pumping capabilities.13 to 1.1.“Department of Ship technology. Engine plant should be capable of providing power for propulsion as well as lighting. crude oil washing (COW) system. B. Batch – XXIX” 2.24 m3/t 2. emissions. steering gear etc.1.1 Mission Analysis: Type : Type of cargo Trade Route : : Feature of trade : Relevant Rules and Regulations: Dead weight : Service speed : Classification : Radius of Action : Shape of Hull : Shape of Stern : Shape of Stem : Double skin segregated ballast crude oil double acting Ice Class Tanker Crude oil Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands) Pendulum Service IMO.2 Engine Plant Space necessary for the engine plant and the mass of engine plant and the fitting of the podded thrusters are the deciding factors. All of these systems must work together in a safe manner. ILLC. Constraints include: a) Propulsion power b) Machinery c) Deckhouse volume d) Cargo block volume e) Deadweight f) tonnage g) Stores capacity 2.1 Hold Capacity Hold capacity depends on stowage factor for crude oil. and possibly ballast water exchange in the future.

it includes • Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil • Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances • Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged form • Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships • Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Most important factors to be incorporated are as follow.5 + dwt/20000 m or 2 m whichever is lesser. a) Minimization of Resistance . Stern: As the stern part is to be capable of breaking the ice.1. it should be shaped like bow of an icebreaker with necessary arrangements to fit the Azipod. 2. The following are the some of the important points in relation with shaping the hull. Block Coefficient. Stem: The stem is as per the normal conventional tankers provided with a bulbous bow. d) Favourable hull in connection with production e) Favourable hull related to stability. (i) Wing tanks w = 0. a) Classification Society Rules b) IMO Regulations c) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.“Department of Ship technology. Stem must be able to accommodate two bow thrusters. and Depth to Draft ratio. c) Favourable hull in connection with behaviour in both Ice and Open water. B. Length to Beam Ratio.5 Rules & Regulations Governing Double Hull Tanker Construction The different rules and regulations governing double hull tanker construction are.Tech (NA&SB). b) Interaction between hull and propeller.1. The min value of w = 1 m (ii) Double Bottom tanks At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank space shall be such that the distance “h” between the bottom of cargo tanks and the moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is given by. CUSAT. These allow the optimizer to choose a variety of ship shapes and size. Batch – XXIX” 2. stem The parameters describe the actual hull form with coefficients: Beam to Draft Ratio. 10 . A bulbous bow is provided at aft in the vicinity of propeller.4 Shape of the hull.1.1. stern.

Originally oil tankers were permitted to discharge oil or oily mixtures at the rate of 60 litres per nautical mile. 1966 The important parts of this convention are. Batch – XXIX” h = B/15 or 2 m. The amendments reduced this to 30 litres. d) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).Subdivision and stability.000t deadweight and above. the aggregate capacity of wing tanks.Management for the Safe Operation of Ships • Chapter X .Safety of navigation • Chapter IX .Conditions of assignment of freeboard Chapter III . For non tankers of 400 grt and above the permitted oil content of the effluent which may be discharged into the sea is cut from 100 parts per million to 15 parts per million. CUSAT.Construction . fore peak tanks and aft peak tanks shall not be less than the capacity of segregated ballast tanks required to meet the requirements (iv) Ballast and cargo piping Ballast piping and other piping such as sounding and vent piping shall not pass through cargo tanks.Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards 11 .Life-saving appliances and arrangements • Chapter IV . 1974 The important parts of this convention are.Fire protection.General Chapter II .Safety measures for high-speed craft • Chapter XI-2 . whichever is lesser The min value is of “h” 1m.Tech (NA&SB).Radio communications • Chapter V . (iii) The aggregate capacity of ballast tanks. On crude oil tankers of 20. double bottom tanks. • Chapter II-2 . Chapter I . fire detection and fire extinction • Chapter III . B.Special measures to enhance maritime security • • • • e) International Convention on Load Lines. • Chapter II-1 . The amendments also considerably reduced the amount of oil which can be discharged into the sea from ships (for example.“Department of Ship technology. following the cleaning of cargo tanks or from engine room bilges).Freeboards Chapter IV . machinery and electrical installations.

coal and ores. containers. It has been fixed over there to overcome the draft restriction of Murmansk port. following factors has been considered. Russia) Belokamenka is an ULCC currently used as a storage tanker in the vicinity of Murmansk port.Tech (NA&SB).1. IMO NO : 7708314 Latitude: 69° 07'N. CUSAT. and refrigerated cargoes. (1) Size of vessel : Suezmax (2) Route : Baltic Sea (3) Main engine output : Based on charts or model tests (4) Ice conditions around the route : statistical data between 1999-2005 12 . Port of Rotterdam ideally located for the transshipment of cargo. Maximum draft allowed is 22. chemicals. Longitude: 004° 26. fruit.100'N. B. UNTAD Code: NLRTM Latitude: 51° 54. agricultural products.6 Trade routes Vessel Belokamenka (Murmansk. Different particulars of vessel have been provided below. crude oil.100'E There are no restrictions regarding length and beam of the ship. cars.“Department of Ship technology.1.55 m. It will impart pendulum services between origin and destination ports 2.2 Evaluation of DAT In order to evaluate the new concept DAT in a more realistic way. Batch – XXIX” 2.1. The port of Rotterdam is well equipped for handling bulk and general cargoes. Longitude: 033° 16'E Flag . Russian federation DNV ID : 11713 GT : 188728 NT : 125883 Capacity : 350000 Dwt Draft : 23 meters Port of Rotterdam (Netherlands) Code: NL0051. This ice class tanker is meant to operate between these two ports.

0 Table 2.0 22.0 22.0 228.0 40.1 Principal particulars of the Tempera/Mastera: Ship type: Crude oil and oil product carrier LOA:.0 34.Tech (NA&SB).50 m Speed: 13.5 202.000 219.2. B.0 14.00 m Dm: 19.1.000 289.00m LBP: 228.0 268.1 [22] Principal dimensions as estimated by ARCOP 2.5 knots in open water and 3 knots in 1 m thick Ice condition (Ice class 1AS) Propulsive power: 21MW Power: nominal output is 16 MW Size of the DAT influences by • Limitations for the Draught • Icebreaking assistance • the Beam of the ship 13 .0 19.0 46.0 17.5 90.0 13.0 14.000 252.0 15.0 120. CUSAT.00 m Bm : 40.00 m TScantling: 14. Principal dimensions of ice class tanker estimated by ARCOP DWT (t) LOA (m) LBP (m) B (m) T (m) D (m) Power 63.0 18. Batch – XXIX” The principal dimensions of DAT are almost the same as a conventional tanker because of its geometrical similarity with the conventional Tankers.00 m TDesigned: 14. 252.“Department of Ship technology.

00 50. DAT is having more or less same deadweight as conventional tankers with more breadth for Suezmax size tankers because of the increased Engine plant mass and space for HFO and Stores and long operation time.10 23.00 15.40 23. Beam of the DAT is more because of good Ice breaking capability.“Department of Ship technology.50 Table 2.00 24. CUSAT.76 261.00 50.79 260.80 263.10 14. The sketches are not to the scale.00 D(m) 21.60 16. also the smaller length reduces the lightship weight by some amount and subsequent reduction in cost.00 22. For the same length of tankers. Batch – XXIX” Double acting tankers.90 48.2 Some Ice class ships (DAT): T(m) 14. B.70 23. 14 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IMO NO 9305568 9000584 hull 5310 9290385 9311622 9320726 Dwt(t) 114639 117153 154970 157300 159062 162362 166546 LBP(m) 240.00 16.90 240.Tech (NA&SB).00 14.00 44.00 17.30 [37] Above data shows: • • • The Double Acting Tankers have more breadth than the conventional tankers of same deadweight.80 15.50 16.50 V (Kn) 15.41 B(m) 44.50 270. Sketches Typical general arrangement of the vessel is given below. S.00 15.40 17.00 22.00 261.00 43.52 17.00 48.37 15. No.

Batch – XXIX X” Fig g 2.2 Typic cal GA 15 .“D Department of Ship S technology gy.T Tech (NA&SB). CUSAT. B.

02 t 2.78 KW Fig 2. Displacement = 150000/0.567 × VT3. PD = Where VT = Trial speed PD = 16471. the value of CD is taken as 0. (Δ0. Batch – XXIX” 2.“Department of Ship technology.2 First estimates of displacement/volume Preliminary calculation of displacement is based on the displacement coefficient CD CD = Deadweight/Displacement For DAT.6)/1000 (Volker’s Formula) Power delivered. CUSAT.823 = 182260.823 (Parent ship data).3 Minimum required propulsion SMCR power demand (CP-propeller) for averagesize tankers with Finnish-Swedish ice class notation (for FP-propeller add +11%) [34] 16 .3 Preliminary selection of main & auxiliary machinery From empirical relation for calculating power delivered for conventional tanker.Tech (NA&SB). B.

1 Symbols list and their units Dwt Δ LBP V g B - Dead weight (t) Displacement (t) Length between perpendiculars (m) Velocity (kn) Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Moulded breadth of the ship (m) 17 . capacity etc is necessitated.4 First estimate of main dimensions and coefficients The main dimensions have a decisive effect on the ship’s characteristics. 2. The shipment of crude oil over the last two decades has increased tremendously.3G/KWH Greatest weight/piece: 270T [34] [33] Auxiliary Machinery As an approximation the power of auxiliary engines is taken as 15 % of the main engine power. CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology.3+0. Hence the need for economic optimality in design. B. 15 % of main engine power = 0. Batch – XXIX” SMCR of engine considering FP Propeller =32000kw Selected Engine Type: 9TM620 Number: 3 Manufacture: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO.750KW Rated speed: 428rpm Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5% Consumption of lube oil: 1. manoeuvring.75x3 = 5737 KW. proportions and form coefficients is one of the most important phases of overall design. [35] 2. Crude oil tankers are essentially slow speed ships carrying imperishable cargo.4. sea keeping Economic efficiency Initial cost Determining the main dimensions.Tech (NA&SB). Holland Rated output: 12. It affects ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Stability Hold capacity Hydro dynamic qualities such as resistance.15*12.

817 to 0.66 m [3] Range of length selected: From the lengths obtained by the above formulae a range of length is selected.98 m to 290. Range of CB is from 0. Iterate the length found to satisfy the required deadweight. Select the ratios. Estimation of Block Coefficient (CB) CB = 0.975-(0.837 18 .15×Δ×10-5)×Δ1/3 LBP = 267.000 ton.1. B.4. Estimate the Block coefficient. Determination of B.000 tonnes deadweight. B/T and L/D) obtained from the registered ice class ships ranging form 115. Batch – XXIX” D T CB Fn PD ΔEP ΔSE Δou E - - - Moulded depth of the ship (m) Draft of the ship (m) Block coefficient of the ship Froude number Power delivered (KW) Engine plant mass (t) Steel mass (t) Out fit mass (t) Lloyd’s equipment number 2. T and D from the ratios (L/B.000 to 160. The ratios must be chosen to provide more breadth than conventional tankers or L/B and L/D ratios should be comparable to Tempera/Mastera.000 ton DAT can be summarized as below: • • • • • Find Range of length by Danckwardt formula for a conventional tanker of 150. Danckwardt formula: LBP = (5.2 The stepwise procedure to find the length of a 150.0.“Department of Ship technology.2-0.02 Danckwardt Formula Fn = V/√ (gL) [4] [4] CB corresponding to the length found above is thus calculated.2. CUSAT.Tech (NA&SB).857 Selected CB = 0.2 ±0.9×Fn) +.4. The range is from 260 m to 290 m 2.

38 15.884 – 16.85L (D-T) + 250 = 18605 Steel mass ΔSE Δ7SE [2] = 7 Δ SE [1+0. D B.16 Table 2.71 B/T 2.006 is for skin correction) Equipment Number (E) E = L (B + T) + 0.05 T/D 0.3 Ratios of Main Dimensions First Iteration Selected length is L = 260 m Breadth We have the value of L/B = 5.799 -2.“Department of Ship technology.27-5.CB × 1.E1.Tech (NA&SB).222 2.035 for tankers with 1500 < E <40.70 T = 16.05 D = 23. T.2.5× = K.736 0.6 t (1.15 m Draught We have the value of L/T = 15.T.36 (CB8 – 0.006 = 175958.148 – 0.03 2.49 m Displacement Δ = L. T and D are calculated from the ratios (L/B.94 5. L/D) obtained from parent ships. Ratio Range Taken L/B 5. CUSAT.40 B = 48.B. Batch – XXIX” 2.163 0.86 L/T 14.70 Fn 0.40 B/D 1.700 .56 m Depth We have the value of B/D = 2.506 – 3.0.000) E = 1500 – 40000 for tankers 19 . Determination of B.7)] + 900 t (addition for Ice Class 1A) (K= 0. B.2.4.008 × 1.029 to 0. B/T.

31t LBP 260.02. ΔLS Dwt = = (ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP) X1.6 = Block Coefficient at 0.15 m T 16.Tech (NA&SB).8D = CB + (1.78 2351.44 t [35] = 32000 KW [34] = 0.837 Δ 17598. [35] Delivered Power SMCR Engine Plant mass ΔEP = Light ship weight.24 3104.“Department of Ship technology.6 t ΔSE 24933.CB) (0.49m CB 0. Batch – XXIX” Take K Δ7SE CB8 ΔSE = = 0.331 t = = Δ .3 t DWT 144961.ΔLS 144961.4 t ΔEP 2351.72 X (SMCR) 0.843 24933.6 t ΔOU 3104.3 t Table 2. CUSAT.5 t Out fit mass ΔOU = MOU× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for Helipad and helicopter) MOU ΔOU = = 0.5 t ΔLS 30997.52 t.0m B 48.035 22426.8D – T) /3T = = 0.4 Results of First Iteration 20 . B. 30997.56m D 23.

B.“Department of Ship technology.00 264. Dwt in Y. In X-axis length is plotted.5 Results of Iterations DWT V/S Length.00 257.00 263.15 48.836 23227 0.76 23.75 16.axis 150000 Dwt (t) LENGHT(m) Fig 2.839 26217 ΔOU ΔEP(t) (t) 2945 2352 2990 2352 3036 2352 3104 2352 3128 2352 3151 2352 3174 2352 3198 2352 3221 2352 ΔLS (t) 29094 29626 30165 30997 31275 31565 31846 32129 32425 Dwt(t) 132838 136177 139570 144961 146722 148700 150491 152296 154326 Table 2.24 16. a graph is plotted got from several iterations.33 48.85 23.836 23703 0.00 262.836 24186 0. Batch – XXIX” Similar iterations were done using the same procedure.00 B (m) 46.838 25696 0.94 T (m) 16.82 16.62 16.00 255.837 25182 0. Results are given in the table below LBP (m) 253.85 23.Tech (NA&SB).837 24934 0.22 23.07 D (m) 22.22 47.00 261.89 49.52 48. The graph is given below.58 23. CUSAT.838 25444 0.69 16.59 48.04 23.49 23.838 25950 0.85 47.37 16.00 260.67 23.11 16.70 48.00 265.56 16.88 Δsteel(t) CB 0.4 Graph for DWT V/S Length 21 263 .

273 = 0.4.75 m CB 0.6 Results of Final Iteration The Dwt obtained satisfies the requirements with an extra safety of margin 2.838 + 0.“Department of Ship technology. volume and freeboard.76*0.1* CB [4] 0.76 m T 16.91 [4] 2.273 = 0.4 Midship Section Coefficient: CM = = 0.5 Prismatic Coefficient: CP = = CB / C M 0. Batch – XXIX” LBP 263.9 + 0.838 Δse 25696 t ΔOU 3174 t ΔEP 2352 t ΔLS 31846 t DWT 150491t Table 2.76CB + 0.7 m D 23. B.852 [7] 2.3 Water Plane Area Coefficient CW = 0.984 2.4. CUSAT.Tech (NA&SB).5 Development of preliminary lines Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all the aspects of ship performance like: a) Trim & stability b) Resistance c) Controllability d) Sea keeping It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement. 22 .0 m B 48.4.

Batch – XXIX” 2. As a result of this even if the hull is damaged the oil out flow will be considerably reduced. w = 0. oil out flow will not occur. To distribute the ice loads. a) Wing Tanks or Spaces Wing tanks or spaces should extend for the full length of ships side. w is taken as 3.0 m to satisfy the ballast requirements.5. CUSAT. Double hull is mandatory for tanker above 500grt.Tech (NA&SB). They should be arranged such that the cargo tanks are located in board of the moulded line of side shell plating nowhere less than the distance W at any cross section is measured at right angles to the side shell. w = 2 m.6.“Department of Ship technology. The Mid Deck arrangement makes use of a horizontal subdivision (mid deck) of the cargo spaces so that the oil pressure is reduced to a level less than the hydrostatic pressure.1 Stem Design: Stem is designed as per the conventional tankers with a bulbous bow. the vessel may encounter severe ice loads while moving aft. Because of its smooth curvature it is more suitable for running aft. so that even if the outer hull is damaged. Double hull construction is the modern trend.5 + Δ / 20000 m = 9. 2. 2.1 Ballast Tanks or Spaces According to regulations 13F and 13G of MARPOL 73/78. from the top of the double bottom to the upper most deck. as specified below.6 Preliminary General Arrangement The allocation and dimensions of main spaces like length of cargo tanks. The minimum value of w is 1m. Double hull construction makes use of wing tanks and double bottom spaces throughout the cargo region. width of double skin and height of double bottom etc of double hull tankers are determined by the regulation 13 F MARPOL 73/78.61 m or. which ever is the lesser. 2.5. cruiser stern is more suitable. B. 23 . the entire cargo length should be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other than cargo and fuel oil tanks.2 Stern Design Cruiser stern designed because of operation in ice.

21 X22 .046X12 +16. stores and cargo Range = 3773 nm Speed = 15.5 0.6 Hrs Hours in port = 48 Hrs No of officers = 21 No of crew = 23 2.001 × Dwt = 150.7 Initial estimates of consumables.31X1.2.2 Volume of diesel oil (VDO) SFC = 220 g /KWh Power of auxiliary machinery. whichever is lesser The minimum value of h is 1. 2.Tech (NA&SB).7.90 = 5955 m3 2.“Department of Ship technology. MHFO = SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20% (Allowance) = 5360 t Volume of HFO.0m Therefore h = 3. Batch – XXIX” b) Double Bottom Tanks or Spaces At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank or space is such that the distance h between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is not less than specified below. H = 754.0 m to satisfy the ballast requirements. HANSA 114 (1977) NO 23 P 2117) 0. PB = 32000 KW Mass of heavy fuel oil.0 Knot (open water) = 5. CUSAT. SFC = 185 g / KWh.45 10522 KW 24 . h = B /15 = 3.7.76 (H. B.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions) Max Hours of travel.4 X1 – 0. PAUX = Where X1 X2 ∴ PAUX = = = (1554 + 38.001 PB’ ≈ 18. SCHREIBER.X2) 0.269 X2 + 0. (Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine) Brake power.25 m OR h = 2 m. VHFO = MHFO /0.1 Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO) Specific fuel consumption.

Tech (NA&SB).95 1956 m3 = 2.7. M FW = = Volume of fresh water. CUSAT.9 = 240.4 t Volume of washing water. VFW 20 litres / person / day 27. MDO = = 1858 t Volume of diesel oil. Batch – XXIX” SFC × PAUX × H/1000000 Mass of diesel oil.4 Volume of fresh water. B.7.3 Volume of lubricating oil (VLO) Mass of lube oil.7 Mass of Provision Assume 8 kg/officer/day and 6 kg/crew/day Mass of provision = 9.“Department of Ship technology.91 t Mcrew 2.7.6 t 27.Total mass of stores & crew = 150491 – 7609 = 142882 t 25 .7. (VFW) Consumption of fresh water = Mass of fresh water.7.7.5 Volume of washing water (VWW) Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers 60 liters /person/ day for crew Mass of washing water.6 Mass of crew and effects Assume 150 kg per officers and 120 kg per crew = 150*21 + 23*120 = 5.03 (MHFO + MDO) = 216.6 t Volume of lube oil = 59/0. VDO = MDO/0.6 m3 2. MLO = 0.6 t Mass of stores & crew = = MHFO + MDO + MLO + MFW + MWW + MCRW +MPRO 7609 t 2.8 Mass of Cargo Mass of cargo.4 m3 2. MWW = 130. VWW = 130.6 m3 2. MCR = Dwt .

0745 0.05 LBP = 13. [3] CB + 0.33 AB/L –0.Tech (NA&SB).72 BSRA REPORT NO 333 1.1 Volume of hold VHD = (VDD + VSH + VCA + VHT + VHS)-(VFP + VAP + VER + VDB + VTA + VSS + VCOF) Where: VHD VDD VSH VCA VHT VHS VFP VAP VER VDB VTA VSS = = = = = = = = = = = = volume of hold volume up to upper deck volume of sheer volume of camber.667 = 1.76×CB+0.838 247196 m3 (4) VAP = Where KAP K = AB = KAP = LAP = CBD = = = ∴ VAP = [3] KAP (LAP/LBP)2 L. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX” 2.523 L when CB > 0.B.CBD [3] = 2. CW = 0.92 (3) CB VDD = = 0.“Department of Ship technology. 2. B.25/T (D-T)*(1-CB) 0.998 0.8. volume of hatchway trunks volume of holds in superstructure volume of forepeak tank volume of aft peak tank volume of engine volume of double bottom volume of tank in the hold volume of side tanks (1) VSH = VHT = VHS = VTA = 0 (2) VDD = LBT CB (D/T)CB/CW .D.15 m block coefficient at uppermost deck.8 Checks on hold and tank capacity The total capacity of the ship is the volume required for cargo plus the minimum volume required for ballast.855 1299 m3 26 .16 (2-K) 3.273= 0.

Batch – XXIX” (5) VFP = Where KFP b = KFP = LFP = ∴ VFP = (6) VER = Where LER KERA = XERA = KERA = KERF = XERF = ∴VER = (6) VCA = Where C3 = ∴VCA = (7) VCOF = = KFP (LFP/LBP) 2 .4 (with bulbous bow) 2.15 m 0. to get the actual volume available for the carriage of cargo.26 m. Regulation 13.78 m.56 m.17*L = 39. 5. Minimum draft. Tm = 2+0.75 m. Tmean > Tm 27 . Maximum trim by stern. Draft at aft.05*L = 13.LER .11 = 1.D.“Department of Ship technology.4 XERF /L +0.725 m.L.b 1.41 m 3260 m3 B.07 L = 18.Tech (NA&SB).5573 0. Tmean = (Ta + Tf)/2 = 9. tm = 0.02L = 7. T f = Ta–tm = 7.015L = 3.4 XERA /L +0.LFP – LCOF) × B/50 × B × C3 [3] 0.945 m.12 L = 31.76CB + 0.909 0 m3 (Camber has not been considered) LCOF ×B×D 3471m3 (Length of Cofferdam taken as 3 m) In segregated ballast tankers the ballast water is carried in the wing tanks and the double bottom tanks.7 K.273 = 0.CBD [3] = 1.7T (for full propeller immersion) = 11. 2.028 0. Therefore the volume required for ballast water must be subtracted from the volume of hold.9.2 Volume of Required Minimum Segregated Ballast Water The minimum volume of ballast water that the vessel should carry is given by the MARPOL 73/78.B.LER K ((KERA+KERF)/2) = 0.066 24717 m3 (2/3) × (L-LAP.(D-DDB). B.38 5. Ta = 0. CUSAT. Mean draft.11 0. Draft at fore.

ΔB = (Tmin /T) (CW/CB)* Δ ∴ΔB = 73548 t Mass of ballast water = ΔB-ΔLS = 41702 t Minimum volume of ballast water = 41702 /1.88*6*20.9.76 – 3 = 20.76*0.LAP .85 =168096 m3 2.0 m Volume of double bottom = = LDB*BDB*DDB*0.85 = 142882/0.88m Width of side skin = 6 m Depth of side skin = 23.95 = 23297 m3 Total ballast volume available = Volume of double bottom + Volume of side skin + Volume of Aft peak tank = 20135 + 23297 + 1299 = 44731 m3 Available volume of ballast water is greater than the minimum required.9.008 = 41371 m3 Available volume of ballast water Total length of double bottom = LBP.LER . B.88 m Depth of double bottom = 3.LCOF ≈ 196.Tech (NA&SB).3 Volume of Cargo Required Volume of Cargo required = (Mass of cargo.98 The cargo hold is filled up to 98% of the capacity in order to account for the expansion of the oil [9] VHD = (247196) – (3260 + 24717/(D .LER .88*48.DDB) + 3471 + 1299) = 248735 m3 28 . MCR)/0. CUSAT.0 m Width of side skin = 3. Batch – XXIX” Ballast displacement.LAP . 2.VBALLAST)*0.76 m Volume of side skin = 196.“Department of Ship technology.7 = 20135 m3 Total length of side skin = LBP.7 196.7*3*0.LFP .LCOF ≈ 196.LFP .4 Volume of Cargo Available Volume of Cargo available = (VHOLD .

Tech (NA&SB).1* CBL = 0.75-2. 2. 3) Shape correction Assuming section not extremely U no correction is applied 4) Bulbous bow correction Assuming ABT/AX = 0.5 103 CR = 1.“Department of Ship technology.hence no correction is required.03 = 0.7*16. 29 .9 + 0. Where ABT is the area of the bulbous bow at the fore perpendicular and AX is the area of midship section.89 m CBL = (LBP / LWL) * CB = 0.5) = 1. B.98 = 199924 m3 Available volume is greater than required volume.39 m3 / t 2.03*229.838/ 1.828 Various corrections applied are 1) B/T correction 103CR corrected = 103 CR +0. CUSAT.813 ∇ = 263*48.694/182337 1/3 = 4.5) = 1.79 103 CR ≈ 1.79 From graph LWL/∇1/3 = 5 103 CR = 1.8 = 270.1 no corrections are made. Batch – XXIX” Volume of ballast water in cargo space = Volume of ballast water in double bottom and wing tank = 33259 m3 Volume of cargo available = (248735 – 44731)*0.77 CML = 0.9813 CP = CBL / CML = 0.95 LWL/∇1/3 = 4.10.10 Preliminary resistance calculation and propeller performance The preliminary powering estimation is done by the Guldhammer and Harvald method.006 = 182337 m3 LWL/∇1/3 = 236.77 + 0. Stowage factor = Available volume/Mass of cargo = 199924/142882 ≈ 1.838*1.1 Residual Resistance Coefficient = 263 m LBP LWL = 103 % LBP = 1.16(48.16(B/T-2.75*0.7/16.58 LWL/∇1/3 = 4.835 2) LCB correction Assuming LCB aft of midship .

CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology.2 Frictional Resistance Coefficient CF Frictional resistance coefficient is calculated using the ITTC 1957 formula.3 Total resistance = CT*1/2ρSV2 where S is wetted surface area and it is calculated by RT using the following formula S = 1.8 m ν = 1.5*1. Batch – XXIX” 5) Appendages No rudder and bilge keel corrections are made 6) Incremental Resistance For L = 200.07 103 CR = 1. Frictional resistance = 0.001745 2.008*18513*(7.2 = 1. CF =0.07= 1.075/ (log10 Rn -2)2 Rn .10.7LWL T + ∇/T = 18513 m2 (Mumford’s Formula) There fore total resistance RT = 3.705 + 0.10. Total resistance = 0.165 x 10-3 2.Tech (NA&SB). B. Reynolds number = VLWL/ν V = 15.04 = 1. 103 CA = -0.705 8) Steering Resistance 103 CAS = 0. 103 CA = -0.0 Knot = 7.04 103 CR = 1.001745 = 3.2 For L = 263.00142 +0.00142 CT.165 x 10-3*0.635+ 0.01 * 108 CF.745 CR = 0.2 Therefore 103 CR = 1. 103 CA = 0 L = 250.835 – 0.16*10-6 m2s-1 at T = 0 0C Rn = 18.716)2 = 1758 KN 30 .635 7) Air Resistance 103 CAA = 0.716 m/s LWL = 270.

Thus higher freeboard is inevitable Tabular freeboard (for type A ship) for L = 263 m is 3089 mm (After interpolation from table given in Ship Design and Construction by Taggard) This is the basic freeboard to which various corrections wherever applicable is applied a) Correction for CB When CB is greater than 0.9 ηm = Efficiency of motor = 0.68)/1.97 ηg = Efficiency of generator = 0. B.32 mm 31 . Batch – XXIX” 2109 RT (with allowance of 20 %) = PE = RT V = 2109*7.96 η0 = Efficiency of propeller = 0. which remains empty in the loaded condition.716KW = 16279 KW PB = PE /( ηm x ηt x ηg x ηH ) = Hull efficiency (Twin screw ships) ηH = 0.1 Freeboard Check (Practical Ship Design by DGM Watson) Minimum freeboard is a statutory requirement for all vessels under the Merchant Shipping Act 1968.11. It is observed that double hull tankers have excess freeboard.“Department of Ship technology. The conventional tankers fall into IMO’s type A ship with regard to freeboard.116 Corrected freeboard = 3089 x 1.116 = 3447.11 Initial stability and Freeboard calculations 2. CUSAT.Tech (NA&SB).76 (assumed) PB =26623 KW 2. This is due to segregated ballast tank volume.36 = 1.68. The freeboard assigned should be in accordance with the IMO Load line Convention Rules1966.96 ηt = Efficiency of transformer (ABB Finland) = 0. the basic freeboard is multiplied by = (CBD +0.

23L + 667 SAft = 6513. the standard height of superstructure is 2.99 mm d) Correction for Sheer No sheer is given. Assuming standard height of superstructure for the ship.0 L the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount 1070 mm (from table). So there is sheer deficiency and penalty for no sheer is to be applied. Batch – XXIX” b) Correction for Depth Freeboard is increased by (D – L/15) R.07L = 0.99 = 4835.Tech (NA&SB). R = 250.07 LBP Length of superstructure = 0.98 mm c) Correction for Superstructure For lengths 125m and above.66 mm Corrected freeboard = 3447. CUSAT. the length of superstructure is taken from a similar ship as 0.“Department of Ship technology.99mm Corrected freeboard = 5003.0 L the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount x % of 1070 mm Therefore Correction x =15.6 mm 32 .98 – 167.15 LBP and the length of forecastle is assumed to be 0.7% Therefore Correction factor to be added = 0. since D>L/15 = (23.76-263/15)×250 = 1556.5 mm = 44.15L + 0.32 + 1556. Sheer Deficiency = (SAft+SFor’d)/16 = 22. where R is 250 for ships with L > 120m.07L Effective length of superstructure = 0. since L>120m Correction to be added = (D-L/15)×R.3 m. the effective length of a superstructure of standard height can be taken as its length itself. When the effective length of superstructure and trunks is less than 1.47×L+1334 SFor’d = 13029.66 = 5003.157*1070 = 167. B.15 L Length of forecastle = 0.22 L When the effective length of superstructure and trunks of a ship is 1.

3*CM – 0. CHAPTER 3.8 = 6506.0) = 888.2 Preliminary Stability Check Preliminary Stability check is done by Prohaska’s first approximate method (Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects. Where E is the effective length Of super structure = + 781.6 + 888.5 +13029.36/ (CB+0.Tech (NA&SB).11.4 mm SD {0. GZ = h*BM+GMSinθ GM = KB+ BM. KB = T* (0.4 mm Available freeboard = 7010 mm Sheer Deficiency (SD) = = = Correction = Hence the vessel has sufficient free board as per load line regulations 1966 e) Minimum Bow Height Minimum bow height = 56*L (1-L/500)*(1. 1947) h* A non dimensional parameter referred to as residuary stability coefficient.75. Available freeboard = 7010 mm Total bow height = = Available freeboard + 2300 9320 mm Hence minimum bow height required is satisfied.KG [14] 1).1*CB) CM = 0. B.1* CB = 0. 2.6)/16 1221.68)) mm (LRS PART 3.73 m [4] 33 .6 mm Correction for Ice thickness of 1000 mm = 8/9*(1.983 KB = 8. CUSAT.8 mm Corrected freeboard = 4835.E/2L}. Batch – XXIX” (SAft+SFor’d)/8×1/2 (6513.9-0.99 + 781. SECTION 6) = 6254 mm A forecastle deck is 2.3 m high above main deck.9+0.“Department of Ship technology.

60º.76 90 -0.42 m GM/B = 6. For the given values of T/B and D/B h* is read for the six angles of heel Viz.89*CW2 (Normand’s Formula) CW = 0.83 75 -0.44 0.475 6.Tech (NA&SB).815 BM = 11. 30º. CUSAT.103 1.42/48.55 -3.7 GZ at different angles of heel 34 .73 + 11. 3).325 5.78 m GM = 8. Hence roll period has to be checked for crew comfort.20 -5.17*(1-CP)1/3 = 0.47 m KG = 0.05 to 0.15º.763 30 0.47 – 13.58 D = 13. BM = IT/Volume displacement = (f (CW)*B2)/ (12*T* CB ) f (CW) = 0.62 6. 75º.899 f (CW) = 0.24 45 -0.72 1.“Department of Ship technology.783 = 6.096+0. 45º. B. Angle of Heel h* BM x h* GZ (m) GM Sinθ (θ) 0 0 0 0 0 15 0.21 1.12 2.009 1.11 -0.03 4. the calculated value is out of range.7 = 0. Batch – XXIX” 2).185 4.95* CP + 0.66 0.09 3.1.41 60 -0.69 Table 2.131 [4] [4] [3] [3] Required range of GM/B is 0. 90º.53 -2.42 -7.

26 m 31.Tech (NA&SB). GZmax Angle of GZmax Should be at least 0. B. Batch – XXIX” The curve of intact stability is plotted and checked according to the guidelines set by IMO A.8 4.8 5 10 15 20 30 50 40 60 70 80 ANGLE OF HEEL(deg) Fig 2.2 6.66 m-rad Area under GZ between 30° & 40° Maximum righting lever.6 4.8 IMO Requirements The IMO conditions are satisfied.“Department of Ship technology.021 m-rad Area under GZ curve upto 40° Should not be less than 0.03 m rad .5 Preliminary GZ curve Description Requirement Available Area under GZ curve upto 30° Should not be less than 0.0 3.6 0.15 m Table 2.5o 6.2 2.2 m at angle of heel greater than 30° Should occur at an angle greater than 30° Initial GM Should not be less than 0.0 RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m) 7.055 m rad 1. 749 8.09 m rad 1. 35 4. CUSAT.4 1.4 5.69 m-rad Should not be less than 0.42 m .

CUSAT.12 Flowchart of Design Process: The flowchart of design process given below is not standard flowchart of any ship design process. SPEED AND RANGE A INPUT. B. The flowchart is prepared based on the direction given by the project coordinator and comply with the design guidelines given to us.“Department of Ship technology. FLOW CHART OF DESIGN READ DEADWEIGHT. Batch – XXIX” 2.Tech (NA&SB). DIMENSIONAL RATIOS FROM CALCULATE THE MAIN DIMENSIONS ESTIMATE DISPLACEMENT FROM – L x B x T x CB x ρSW x k ESTIMATE LIGHT SHIP WEIGHT DWT = DISPLACEMENT – LIGHTWEIGHT B 36 .

A YES CALCULATE INITIAL STABILITY A NO CHECK WITH IMO REQUIREMENTS YES C 37 .“Department of Ship technology. Batch – XXIX” B DWT ≥ GIVEN DWT A YES FBD. B.Tech (NA&SB). ≥ REQUIRED FBD. CUSAT.

CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology. Batch – XXIX” C ESTIMATE CAPACITY NO A STOWAGE FACTOR WITHIN THE REQUIRED RANGE YES PRELIMINARY GENERAL ARRANGEMENT RESISTANCE AND POWERING SELECTION OF MAIN ENGINE. POD AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY DETAILED GENERAL ARRANGEMENT D 38 . B.Tech (NA&SB).

Tech (NA&SB). B. Batch – XXIX” D DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION YES CHECK FOR VOLUME REQUIREMENTS NO D YES DETAIL CALCULATION OF STABILITY AND TRIM FOR MOST SEVERE CONDITION A NO CHECK WITH IMO CRITERIA YES E 39 .“Department of Ship technology. CUSAT.

Tech (NA&SB). B. CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology. Batch – XXIX” E MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN NO CHECK WITH MIN CALCULATED SECTION MODULUS YES DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION STOP 40 .

LBP 263.76 m T 16.9 Final Dimensions Hence the final dimensions of the ship are fixed.Tech (NA&SB). the final dimensions are fixed and are shown in following table given below.7 m D 23.838 Δse 25696 t ΔOU 3174 t ΔEP 2352 t ΔLS 31846 t DWT 150491t Table 2. CUSAT. Now the next step is to generate the hull form that satisfies the above dimensions.“Department of Ship technology. B.75 m CB 0. Batch – XXIX” 2. 41 .0 m B 48.13 Final Main dimensions: Considering all the requirements.

Tech (NA&SB). B. Batch – XXIX”   CHAPTER 3 HULL GEOMETRY .Department of Ship technology. CUSAT.

B.1 Lines Design After fixing main dimensions and coefficients the next step is to develop the lines plan of ship. HULL GEOMETRY 3. which is beyond the scope of this project.Tech (NA&SB).“Department of Ship technology. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX” 3. Body plan of ice breaking tanker [34] Fig 3. Hence lines plan is designed using the standard data available.1 42 . Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all aspects of ship performance like: a) Trim & stability b) Resistance c) Controllability d) Sea keeping It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement. Design of hull form using first principle should be tested in towing tank to determine its resistance and propulsion characteristics. volume and freeboard.

S. So design of separate bulbous bow not required. 2) Fairing of lines is minimized. This can be avoided by selecting a standard hull form. 3) Standard lines are tested in towing tank and found satisfactory in resistance & sea keeping qualities. Batch – XXIX” A standard hull form has been selected from B.A (British Ship Research Association) report no.“Department of Ship technology. B.R. Other advantages in choosing a BSRA standard hull forms are: 1) Development of lines by first principles involves a lot of trial and error and quality of lines depends largely on experience. CUSAT. Standard lines give offsets for bulbous bow. 43 . 333.Tech (NA&SB).

Table 3.82 20.35 24.35 24.35 24.84 21.3 16.35 18 17.73 0.35 24.56 24.28 17. Stn/ WL A B C D E % of T Real WL 7.8 1.35 24.87 15.73 20.37 10.04 19.35 24.68 13.58 3.35 24.35 24.69 15.08 3.26 9.43 6.51 8.46 53.35 24.35 24.87 23.51 3.62 23.12 18.35 24.S. Batch – XXIX” 3.35 24.4 130.“Department of Ship technology.85 9.17 16.33 11.47 11. Also the Icebreaking stern is designed like a bow of an Icebreaker.27 12.A presents waterline offsets for normal forms and bulbous bow forms on a base of block coefficient.2 12.4 8.57 0.26 21.R.14 7.07 17. A.5 3.16 18.09 2.33 21.16 23.67 1. 44 .R.9 24. CUSAT.13 24.35 23.S.35 8 23.22 24.61 20 1.57 18.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 F G J K 69.71 2.53 3 10.3 17.35 24.62 22.44 9.79 24.35 24.01 24.35 24.23 0 0.87 6.14 16.35 24.13 24. B. R.84 14.5 m.35 24.35 24.35 24.67 23.6 13.65 15.Tech (NA&SB).71 .56 11.1 Offsets of standard B.97 7. waterlines b) Stern Design Stern is designed with a O-type bulbous bow with assumed height of 4.78 20.31 22.35 24.96 24.57 1.9 0.72 22.35 24.33 24.A water lines as shown in table 3.9 23.97 9.08 38.97 13.11 22.75 19.36 16.1.23 84.44 23.12 20.76 19.35 24.1.57 H 100 5.3 17.43 6.35 24.35 24.5 0.35 24.57 0.21 22.37 7.11 16.65 15.19 23.5 18.77 11.19 24.35 24. S.36 13.03 1.35 24.24 24.82 20.16 19.35 24.31 7.65 23.23 9.41 14.68 12.13 4 16.84 24.68 11.67 23.14 0.45 24.19 23.86 4.5 13.95 20. The offsets are presented in terms of the ratio (waterline ordinate/full half breadth) for each of the standard B.19 24.13 23.57 1.35 6 22.62 115.31 9. the shape of bulb is given by iteration on AutoCAD after drawing the half breadth plan and cross checking of all three views until the design is not satisfactory.35 24.6 14.1 Design Procedure B.35 24.5 4.19 18.35 5 20.71 3.79 24.82 21.35 24.17 7.92 20.78 19.85 1.53 9 -16 19 9.2 5.35 24.49 22.85 19.29 22.75 22.22 15.01 19.35 24.35 24.92 6.3 4.82 5.35 7 23.41 13.08 15.97 2 6.72 5.35 17 21.71 1 1.35 24.48 16.9 18.31 13.29 2.35 24.38 23.18 6.13 18.

5 6 6.75 m above the base line.2 8 7.3 m with some geometrical assumptions.2 m.59 0.6 1.9 4. CUSAT.2 WL spacing = 2.62 -4.41 1. Actual diameter can only be decided after the final selection of the pod) 3.5 11 11 7.Tech (NA&SB).5 Stem offsets (m) with respect to FP wl offset 0 0.54 3. STN spacing = 13.76 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 offset 14 7.1 Final Lines The offset values obtained by plotting body plan from BSRA Offsets.06 4.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 MDK 1.7 Table 3.2 Stem Stern offsets c) Pod Dimensions (calculated from a scaled drawing Assumed pod diameter = 4. The station curves are extended up to the main deck / forecastle deck.“Department of Ship technology.56 3.6 0. B.9 2.15 m. Φ1 = 27o.84 9 12. MDK is 23.8 2.41 0. Batch – XXIX” Stern offsets (m) with respect to AP wl 0 0. Offsets at regular intervals of waterline are measured.76 m above the base line.1.29 10 17 11 18 MDK -19.0 m LWL is 16.1 10. α = 70o (all values are under allowable limits) Measured flare angle (ψ) = tan-1[tan(Φ2)/sin(α)] = 45 45 . The fairness is to be checked by drawing the half-breadth plan and profile plan. The offsets so obtained are presented in table 3. Φ2 = 24o (buttock angles).3 4. and STN 8 to STN 16 is parallel middle body = 105.

91 24.88 20.91 10.26 16.84 13.51 23.62 7.35 24.35 24.82 17.73 24.11 13.74 1 - 2.31 23.35 24.65 13.46 19.55 3.8 9.99 13.81 24.11 0 0.76 17.4 22.89 22.73 13.94 15.78 18.52 12.56 7.19 19.69 12.37 21.35 24.94 10.84 24.05 24.16 24.06 24.35 24.16 17.81 5.4 23.86 22.72 23.63 20.56 14.27 6.55 5.35 24.11 13.35 24.06 7.69 23.79 15.58 19.5 1 1.27 23.23 10.6 23.68 21.5 16.35 24.75 8.44 14.81 18.35 24.51 19.84 11.51 23.9 2 3.62 18.98 15.21 24.55 7.5 - - - - - - - - - 13.39 3.3 46 .69 0.25 23.57 2.16 24.09 10.19 19.09 18.58 12.8 19.33 21.02 19.66 18.4 16.08 24.72 17.01 17.09 5.67 21.99 23.15 3.06 24.23 23.14 7.23 Half Breadth ordinates (m) Table 3.6 23.35 24.35 24.15 24.01 0.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lwl 9 10 11 MDK -1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.38 22.29 24.71 15.94 23.86 -0.88 8.88 14.56 4. Batch – XXIX” FAIRED OFFSETS Station Spacing=13.26 24.73 21.34 3.3 20.35 24.51 23.78 18.27 19.93 23.15 4.06 8.91 24.29 1.44 14.58 19 5.93 10.84 21.35 24.08 23.42 11.15m waterline Spacing=2m stn/wl 0 0.45 22.35 24.7 15.71 15.45 17.35 24.84 18.7 14.48 0.07 15.35 24.22 22.5 1.69 16.89 17.08 18.72 24.5 18.35 24.67 15.35 24.97 17.31 20.86 18.32 8.35 18 14.03 21.Tech (NA&SB).62 11.34 21.35 24.67 16.27 18.35 8 to 16 19.65 13.76 23.34 13.35 7 18.06 21.35 24.3 4.35 24.7 13.35 17 18.16 20.45 12.7 23.32 22.41 19.36 2.47 14 0 - - - - - - - - - 11.2 7.35 24.97 20.25 8.66 22.7 1.35 24.35 6 16.3 23.69 23.82 22.95 16.72 23.3 24.9 4.88 6.45 22.67 17.61 20.17 11.“Department of Ship technology.68 22.51 21.13 22.86 15.39 13.45 16.25 19.35 24.4 10.1 7.5 1.57 14.49 23.75 20 0 1.5 10.74 6.81 19.23 21.19 24.02 22.61 19.26 21.21 14.06 14.39 16.62 4 11.23 22.14 20.3 18.35 24.77 19.88 19.12 15.79 12.35 24.32 23.43 15.58 22.26 20.23 24.3 12.85 5 14.99 21.3 18.35 7.55 21.41 10.64 17.78 20.35 24.28 24. CUSAT.48 1.09 21.7 3.96 9.16 24.51 16.91 3 7.86 8.5 - - - - - - - - - - 7.91 24. B.

3) Launching calculations 4) Longitudinal strength calculations.Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX” 3. B.2. 47 .2 BONJEANS AND HYDROSTATIC CURVES 3. The uses of Bonjean are: 1) Hydrostatic calculations 2) For floodable length calculations. LCB and VCB for any waterline for even keel. Bonjean Calculations. This enables the calculation of displacement. CUSAT. Bonjean calculation is calculation of sectional area and moment of each station up to each waterline about keel.it has been checked with the help of SPAN software.4 (area table) and table 3.5 (moment table).1. The results are given in the table 3.“Department of Ship technology. The calculations are done by MS-excel 2007 using Simpson’s and trapezoidal rules of integration.

35 79.29 71.98 83.71 69.93 8to16 0 41.34 474.93 417.68 540.61 50.93 129.90 757.94 561.40 25.03 327.53 233.06 620.08 185.62 48.26 463.59 4 0 28.55 253.87 310.1 50.73 76.96 47.69 73.99 262.86 19.5 - - - - - - - - - 0.40 43.5 - - - - - - - - 0.51 452.49 483.18 203.23 558.85 17 0 40.87 790.49 70.00 11.14 669.54 839.29 1123.49 624.86 268.07 223.04 129.60 134.65 305.34 454.52 76.41 229.63 267.77 245.55 175.Tech (NA&SB).39 135.86 332.41 776.01 119.36 5 0 33.78 53.48 90.97 271.00 569.65 657.75 402.01 588.51 46.80 151.15 817.89 1037.66 627.35 870.12 58.65 333.14 199.86 183.53 178.97 19 0 16.47 596.77 578.14 1144.55 245.74 19.99 175.54 766.63 842.4 Sectional Areas in m2 48 .41 5.61 495.10 242.94 176.14 84.27 948.91 554.27 18.5 0 5.61 112.68 391.09 107.81 489.03 90.40 114.28 133.79 358.79 18 0 32.43 311.09 36.00 10.00 584.5 1 1.63 33.74 1059.99 256.81 1012.45 309.46 864.49 939.25 745.50 98.86 68.28 62. Batch – XXIX” BONJEAN AREAS wl/stn 0 0.93 965.45 45.40 116.92 6 0 37.15m 4 5 6 7 8 Waterline Spacing=2m 9 10 11 MDK - 0.47 648.81 279.34 961.82 1048.03 365.88 49.39 927.5 0 24.34 312.23 459.16 3 0 20.41 108.63 344.04 243.22 658.50 80.13 717.01 549.32 527.57 433.39 759.74 572.38 18.19 123.37 848.87 82.49 0 - - - - - - - - 0.83 81.29 682.69 414.55 753.43 660.25 216.54 347.11 870.98 106.75 2 3 -1 - - - - - - - - - - - lwl -0.39 311.21 1097.67 1046.4 851.34 702.25 193.93 402.33 11.80 8.90 551.13 379.08 775.41 720.42 490.79 499.51 708.48 76. CUSAT.79 527.48 79.72 74.53 158.75 275.05 424.98 15.69 28.53 367.76 62.5 150.01 461.00 7 0 39.94 803.82 182.13 528.89 397.60 26.99 184.62 385.51 128.62 147.88 86.30 348.80 290.37 84.44 15.55 254.14 747.40 20 0 1.69 1049.42 950.69 474.94 377.5 0 7.34 673.38 462.42 139.98 1.92 0.53 178.“Department of Ship technology.40 82.61 76.10 99.40 168.67 34.60 1018.79 155.94 87. B.07 1131.00 35.18 781.00 29.48 933.08 305.96 671.59 338.54 853.5 Station Spacing=13.65 656.93 106.22 1133.61 2 0 10.99 100.54 145.43 Table 3.43 793.38 604.62 756.52 400.80 280.73 1 0 2.93 24.59 406.65 914.43 108.44 237.13 211.68 691.02 792.54 616.

61 838.45 3449.75 168.35 3978.82 39.03 22.29 9515.98 104.5 1 1.09 2 0 5.08 328.5 0 3.25 11728.64 22.08 583.5 - - - - - - - - - 0.73 4483.72 7129.83 2063.36 13098.64 2340.97 13522.45 1155.23 1500.59 1117.20 9194.75 6618.3 4447.57 6219.33 2379.2 7397.55 1224.91 78.20 8257.91 778.65 479.65 9683.64 862.57 3203.52 6373.57 1544.05 511.11 3226.99 5 0 17.40 49.Tech (NA&SB).83 810.85 6774.52 1492.72 810.83 431.04 2533.89 4748.97 3492.57 11560. B.97 2280.4 850.00 625.97 11771.10 307.29 4577.81 1115.92 13682.2 7669.52 1725.88 11045.72 8849.46 17 0 20.52 11720.84 56.48 298.58 362.59 3825.43 2557.6 7875.2 7824.5 Moments in m^3 49 .80 5678.37 12643.01 18 0 16.60 1037.79 3437.75 201.65 1311.01 2647.32 673.6 2498.64 9262.93 5639.20 1 0 1.09 4387.81 8727.08 Table 3.15m 4 5 6 7 8 lwl Waterline Spacing=2m 9 10 11 MDK -1 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.63 3489.78 -0.77 3352.48 13646.92 1167.65 13689.00 6024.25 1340.95 119.97 3422.82 10.23 6353.20 2126.16 75.64 29.31 29.80 239.40 11184.12 1109.92 125.85 71.00 588.24 5417.39 2944.59 6162.73 90.65 4715.12 5452.57 1674 2317.63 338.81 5795.77 721.27 156.17 6732 7789.89 178.65 86.36 7482.72 1929.36 10127.43 3175.39 433.16 8604.7 2094.74 8to16 0 21.85 6176.95 1269.00 166.92 4142.37 4758.24 3689.00 393.15 1826.00 237.95 1491.2 4088.6 508.82 352.12 1302.37 13732.27 4622.24 6169.05 3781.00 471.80 1406.02 238.66 20 0 0.37 2420.9 4926.52 376.57 6817.45 208.16 178.43 9556.91 66.9 7832.73 10705.80 366.12 6767.96 10522.77 5753.28 61.20 509.5 2 3 Station Spacing=13.41 3484.71 3005.55 4832.07 1085.96 4681.17 4131.27 787.06 6 0 19.39 3 0 10.08 1985.40 401.47 1770.28 272.45 506.80 301. CUSAT.45 415.3 6979.9 5606.75 4 0 14.16 18.43 5119.35 0 - - - - - - - - 0.“Department of Ship technology.7 5943.33 5108.36 1429.27 192.5 - - - - - - - - 0.82 0.79 200.94 50.39 7970.18 47.24 1785.28 586.50 86.37 9725.6 6585. Batch – XXIX” BONJEAN MOMENTS wl/stn 0 0.56 3122.83 4269.25 174.73 1509.92 9675.79 111.89 1476.28 8421.75 4140.60 826.72 1852.67 822.80 19 0 8.27 6135.33 82.96 1882.21 159.28 11939.08 11685.46 18.59 358.57 7 0 20.23 94.67 2871.64 7132.59 6000.93 19.44 4709.33 2360.64 799.63 717.20 6932.48 2158.79 57.48 9640.68 1.48 2168.67 248.75 2730.37 3416.13 133.89 7.84 3330.5 0 4.5 0 12.91 5095.

(Integration is performed using Simpson’s rule for port side and then doubled to get the total volume) 2/3 h Σ f (A) AWP = LCF = IL = IФ – AWP x LCF2 IT = (2h/9)Σ f (IT) TPC = ∇ = 100 (h/3) Σ f (∇) Δ = ∇ x 1.008 x 1.Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX” 3.008 ∇ IL ∇ ΔxBML 100 LWL ∇ CB = CM = LBP xBxT A⊗ BxT 50 .2 Hydrostatic Calculations Hydrostatic calculation is mandatory in the design phase of a ship for various drafts at different trim conditions.“Department of Ship technology.006 KB = BMT = (h/3) Σ f (MT)/∇ IT BML = MCT1cm = KM = BM +KB LCB = (h2/3) Σ f (ML)/∇ h × Σ f (M) Σ f (A) AWP × 1. CUSAT. Any of hydrostatic particulars can be estimated with the table or graph obtained from hydrostatic calculation. B.5 List of formulae used. The calculations are done with MS-Excel and the results are given in the table 3.2.

∇ = 180.113 m3 Δ = 182.“Department of Ship technology.Tech (NA&SB).01m (Aft of midship) LCB = 4. 51 . Batch – XXIX” AWP CW = LxB CB CP = CM Hydrostatic parameters at designed load water are as below.5 m IL = 59988798 m4 IT = 2095122 m4 TPC = 118.985 The value of CB and Displacement are approximately same and hence the lines design is satisfactory.840 CP = 0.643 t. KB = 8.79m (Fwd of midship) CB = 0.81 t MCT1cm = 2311.14 t-m LCF = -2.852 CW = 0.36 m KML = 341. CUSAT.73 m KMT = 20.920 CM = 0. B.

90 66662641 2161410 10.899 0.20 1923.29 22.16 -3.745 0.88 61530147 2118420 9.880 0.763 0.17 594.Tech (NA&SB).26 48.858 10 219.923 0. CUSAT.52 4124.784 4.827 6 125.643 4.17 34.27 383.416 8.975 0.13 124.817 0.86 1610.795 0.23 68593246 2196343 11.849 LWL 180.350 60.49 75.525 6.97 0.96 0.45 0.51 56704169 2045824 7.16 0.57 1498.836 7 147.194 2.53 119.5 27.24 124.33 0.759 127.985 0.29 2008.29 102.67 2.124 11.962 0.02 1690.873 18.818 0.582 0.51 2636.190 38.840 8 171.195 82.21 0.76 1861.769 247.51 85.58 4.71 20.34 46884418 1858004 3.48 0. B.80 20.989 0.30 -4.26 60.04 2176.22 0.920 0.01 118.501 3.875 MDK 264.44 20.375 2.09 0.66 52175224 2019406 6.72 110.984 0.854 0.836 0.044 197.41 260.79 -2.15 -1.534 12.6 1) + means Fwd of midship 2) .30 2560.92 0.24 2369.45 302.873 28.806 4 81.48 7.668 7.ve means aft of midship HYDROSTATIC PROPERTIES 52 .861 0.33 344.5 8.50 280.218 104.49 2274.73 332.60 42638410 1652580 1.11 -2.“Department of Ship technology.17 27343723 770144 CB CW CM CP 0.879 NOTE Table 3.44 21.76 27.870 0.39 24.846 0.20 483.184 9.710 0.986 0.35 11.776 1.966 0.726 10.81 2654.58 5.657 268.938 0.929 0.113 182.969 0.79 0.763 1 17.989 0.14 0.987 0.38 8.839 0.867 11 243.78 0.36 2311.38 315.867 149.42 44609236 1753947 2.99 1338.48 20.786 2 38.794 3 59.806 0.46 122.825 0.979 0.944 6.45 39922567 1504622 1.86 0.792 0.958 0.23 414.725 0.335 8.852 9 195.72 118.56 113.74 50079080 1961168 5.683 5.51 105.865 0.698 0.81 59988798 2095122 8.52 10.12 780.915 0. Batch – XXIX” WL/PROP V Δ LCBФ LCFФ TPC IL IT KB BML KMT MCT1cm (m^3) (t) m (m) (t/cm) (m^4) (m^4) (m) (m) (m) (tm/cm) 0 13.902 0.818 5 103.419 222.43 1785.67 35917441 1268909 0.264 10.277 173.03 -4.982 0.88 9.11 2186.35 108.08 20.840 0.08 111.76 152.64 0.26 -0.11 20.09 1148.865 0.16 59028911 2082660 8.51 91.23 1499.857 0.66 68960547 2224990 12.26 48649183 1915912 4.772 0.75 116.23 98.657 0.952 0.

Batch – XXIX”   CHAPTER 4 RESISTANCE AND POWERING .Tech (NA&SB). B. CUSAT.Department of Ship technology.

4 m2 (approx.7 (from VTT.4 m2 (approx. is given only as qualitative information of the test results and the hull.0 m. RESISTANCE CALCULATION 4. Finland) The form factor. The approximate values are: S body = 136. considering no interference from towing ship. The resistance of a DAT can be given by: Total resistance RT (DAT) = R bare + R bow thrusters + R pod 4. R body = ½ ρV2 S body [C body (1+ k body) + ΔCF body] R fin = ½ ρV2 S fin [C fin (1+ k fin) + ΔC Ffin] The parameters of podded propulsion system can be assumed from the parent ship data. Batch – XXIX” 4. which is defined in pod setup and test location.001556 (from ITTC-57 line) ΔCF body = ΔC fin =[105(ks/L)1/3 – 0. III.) CF body = C fin = 0.2 Resistance Calculation of POD: R pod can be calculated by using the equation: (from proceedings of 24th ITTC – Vol.1. S fin = 8.) Diameter of shaft = 1.1 Introduction The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the ship at that speed in smooth water.Tech (NA$SB).64] x 10-3 = 0. B. The resistance will be equal to the components of fluid forces acting parallel to the ship centreline. 53 . CUSAT.015 m and L is the length of the ship) K body = K fin = 0. Specialist committee on Azimuthing podded propulsion) Rpod = Rbody + Rfin Where. k.00358 (for ks = 0.“Department of Ship Technology.

001138 0.52 KN The sum of the separately measured nominal total resistance (bare hull + pod drag) compared to the directly measured total resistance deviate only approximately 2 % from each other.109 0.93e9 2.189 -----1.002681 0.001118 0.000195 0.000188 0.001294 0.001448 0.00 Fn Rn Cf [Cform] [Cw] Cr Ct ----0.000942 0.45e9 1.002989 0.00012 [ ]Net : [X]Roughness: 0. and the bow has a U-shape.00 14.00 19. we can follow different methods of calculating resistance and assume the maximum of all to decide the powering requirements.00 17.001322 0.003188 54 . [X]Bare-hull: Holtrop-1984 method [X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method Technique: Prediction [ ]Wind : Cf type : ITTC [ ]Seas : Align to : [ ]Channel : File : [ ]Barge : Correlation allow(Ca): 0.001424 0.001123 0.00 16.001393 0.002700 0.1e.100 0.15mm dCa: %-7.001403 0.hull interaction despite the rather large sized pod units.000189 0.001156 0.169 0.81e9 1.001159 0.Tech (NA$SB).) Therefore. R pod = R body + R fin = 26.001478 0.30e9 -------0.002733 0.149 0.000181 -------0.129 0.000963 0.00 12.001462 0.001220 0.000191 0.57e9 1. Saltwater properties and the speed range are detailed in the vessel condition section of NAVCAD.001495 0.139 0.001413 0.000927 0.002774 0.179 0.001113 0.002753 0.18e9 2.000193 0.001135 0.21e9 1.119 0. The ship stern shape is considered to be normal.69e9 1.0 Knots) For bare hull and bow thrusters resistance calculation. Thus it can be concluded that there are no significant pod .05e9 2.81 KN R fin = 1.33e9 1.000186 0.000183 0. (Source: VTT technical research center of Finland.159 0.000970 0.001384 -------0.001035 0.000923 0.000185 0.00 18.00 11.002701 0.002844 0.Prediction results ----------------------------------------Vel kts ----10.5 [X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1. Batch – XXIX” R body = 24.33 KN (for V = 15.001503 -------0.000935 0. The input parameters for calculating resistance by any of the methods given in NAVCAD v3.00 15.001435 0. CUSAT. B.000182 0.“Department of Ship Technology.001684 -------0.001476 0.00 13.002678 0.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction ---------.

00 0.00 0.150 15.00 19.00057 0.14 417.00 0.00024 0.00 0.00 0.35 490.00 12.00 0.00 11.00039 0.00041 0.90..00033 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.00 0.00 0..00 Rw/W Rr/W Rbare/W ------0.59 PEbare kW ------3816.38 10.00033 0.57 Rr kN ------309.16e-06 m2/s ---------.08 1624.00049 0.43 14.33 583.82 3098.Hull data -------------------------------------------------Primary: Length between PP: WL aft of FP: Length on WL: Max beam on WL: Draft at mid WL: Displacement bare: Max area coef(Cx): Waterplane coef: Wetted surface: Loading: 263.00068 0.1 24148.000 m 0.00 16.00 Rtotal kN ------747.700 m 16.90 17.0 19227.91 55 0.90] 5.00] 2.00 0.00 18.18 1414.00 16.72 1884.00091 0.00 0.00 0.00 Rapp kN ------5.10.11 15.00 18.“Department of Ship Technology.500 m 48.00 0.25 1021.00 0.2 10112.00071 0.00 Rchan kN ------0.76 8.60 6.91 588. B.00091 Vel kts ----10.0.00 0.00 0.3 15629.00 19.21 1211.00028 0.6 8104.86 367.000 m 272. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX” Vel kts ----10.76 502..4 30284.25 Rbare kN ------741.86 1626.10* Fn-high [0.19 Cp(Lwl) [0.00 12.00 0.0.0.00 0.00023 0.68 2198.00020 0.94 1637.64 1278.00 0.00 0.81 357.5 ------0.00 17.150 42.00049 0.4 5043.00 0.6 5005.50 2590.820 6.08 1451.82 708.00145 0.000 52.80 1404.7 12633.00 0.95 1121.68 695.00 14.00 0.78 Rwind kN ------0.00 13.00058 0.1 8167.00123 0.00 0.83 879.00047 0.00017 0.00 15.0 10190.00040 0.0 m2 Load draft Secondary: Trim by stern: LCB aft of FP: Bulb ext fwd FP: Bulb area at FP: Bulb ctr abv BL: Transom area: Half ent angle: Stern shapes: Bow shape: Parameters: Holtrop-1984 method Fn(Lwl) [0.00 0.00 11.920 20052.85] 0.23 1221.00027 0.85 12.10.00 0.88 884.03 3078.83 Lwl/Bwl [3..1 23983.00063 0.00 0.5 12537.80] 0.00 15.00 14.02 9.10.4.00 0.00078 0.79 2214.985 0.22 1048.0 t 0.Tech (NA$SB).00172 Rw kN ------257.00081 ------0.80] 0.37 PEtotal kW ------3845.40 2607.00014 0.14.00 0..000 U-shape Normal m m m m2 m m2 deg .1 6421.00 17.55.8 Condition data Water type: Custom Mass density: 1008 kg/m3 Kinematic visc: 1.79 19.79 835.4 15513.00017 0.32 430.000 126.750 m 182642.00 0.49 891.7 30091.3 6471.00 Rother kN ------0.000 6.00 0.00 0.60 Bwl/T [2.00 0.59 304.00105 0.00 Rseas kN ------0.00021 0.46 1040.15 1898.1 19366.

Batch – XXIX” Appendages Total wetted surface (ex... Hull bossing: 0...000 deg 0......007 Page 3 ---------.Environment data ------------------------------------------Wind: Wind speed: Angle off bow: Tran hull area: VCE above WL: Tran superst area: VCE above WL: Total longl area: VCE above WL: Wind speed: Arrangement: 60. Stabilizer fins: 0.. Dome: 0..000 .“Department of Ship Technology..000 m 0.000 .000 m 0..000 m2 0.....Tech (NA$SB)...000 kts 30. Exposed shafts: 0.000 sec Channel: Channel Channel Side Wetted hull 0.... Bow thruster diam: 2.............000 0.. Skeg: 0.000 0..000 .....000 0....000 ...000 ..000 1................. B...000 0... thruster): Rudders: 0...000 m2 Drag coefficient: Shaft brackets: 0.000 0... Application: Resistance Hull type : Displacement Description: 7 Feb 08 19:25 File name: untitled...000 0........000 0......000 .......000 m Free stream Tanker/Bulk Seas: Sig..........000 ...................nc3 0...........500 m ..... CUSAT.. wave height: Modal wave period: 0..400 0.000 Vel Fn Rn Cf [Cform] [Cw] Cr Ct Symbols and values Ship speed Froude number Reynolds number Frictional resistance coefficient Viscous form resistance coefficient Wave-making resistance coefficient Residuary resistance coefficient Bare-hull resistance coefficient Rw/W Rr/W Rbare/W Rw Rr Rbare PEbare Wave-making resist-displ merit ratio Residuary resist-displ merit ratio Bare-hull resist-displ merit ratio Wave-making resistance component Residuary resistance component Bare-hull resistance Bare-hull effective power Rapp Rwind Rseas Rchan Rother Rtotal PEtotal * Additional appendage resistance Additional wind resistance Additional sea-state resistance Additional channel resistance Other added resistance Total vessel resistance Total effective power Exceeds speed parameter 56 width: depth: slope: girth: m m deg m ....000 0.. Strut bossing: 0.000 0....000 ....000 0......000 m 0.000 m2 0...... Bilge keels: 60.000 m2 0.

00* 15.21 975.00 0.7 9617.001366 0.30e9 Prediction results Cf [Cform] -------0.9 11812.33e9 1.119 0.00* 15.00016 0.00066 0.000992 0.00 18.00096 0.00 0.00 0.000801 0.6 17934.000979 0.000793 0.000182 0.000829 0.002519 0.139 0.00 0.000195 0.61 2034.00040 0.00036 0.00 Rother kN ------0.05e9 2.00 0.001495 0.93e9 2.54 Rr kN ------221.00 0.57e9 1.39 548.55 292.3 30353.1 23102.00025 0.00 0.001384 -------0.00 16.18e9 2.00 0.5 7710.5 17795.5 9695.000706 0.00 0.00* 14.34 PEtotal kW ------3391.000793 0.002523 0.002547 0.07 519.001691 -------0.43 14.0 7773.00020 0.39 1518.6 Rseas kN ------0.51 421.001184 0.00 0.Tech (NA$SB).00 0.00 0.00 Rapp kN ------5.00009 0.00013 0.76 2494.15mm dCa: %-7.55 PEbare kW ------3362.60 6.00* 13.66 358.00 Rchan kN ------0.00 17.00139 0.79 19.000804 0.00* 13.000191 0.00 0.002533 0.5 [X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1.28 444.179 0.00 0.45e9 1.002444 0.001403 0.6 30159.2 14195.00 Rtotal kN ------659.00057 0.76 716.78 Rwind kN ------0.00 19.000185 0.000181 Vel kts ----10.149 0.000188 0.21e9 1.001413 0.00* 11.189 -----1.69e9 1.1 23267.000927 0.00033 0.00 Fn Rn ----0.93 1458.41 228.000986 0.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction Vel kts ----10.00 0.00 Rw/W Rr/W Rbare/W ------0.67 3105.68 291.64 477.00* 13.00064 0. The results are shown below: Analysis parameters [X]Bare-hull: BSRA series [X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method Technique: Prediction [ ]Wind : Cf type : ITTC [ ]Seas : Align to : [ ]Channel : File : [ ]Barge : Correlation allow(Ca): 0.000760 0.000982 0.24 1530.00024 0.81e9 1.99 589.76 8.00 0.70 808.00 18.00012 [ ]Net : [X]Roughness: 0.00* 15.8 4611.003196 ------0.73 1152.00 0.90 1183.00* 11.00 0.00016 0.00 17.002551 0.00* 14.002879 0.9 4573.00 0.000189 0.00* 11.00 0.000193 0.8 6073.00 0.00* 12.18 857.1e.38 10.00* 14.001393 0.00081 ------0.001110 0.00 16.71 1633.00012 0.8 11716.00 19.31 814.6 6023.00 0.000633 0.00 0.00 17.00 0.00 0.72 1738.29 1724.00 0.00 19.00 0.00172 Rw kN ------169. CUSAT.72 2050.000899 0.21 1025.00075 0.75 1162.“Department of Ship Technology.00031 0.001448 0.66 2512.02 9.00048 0.000186 0.11 15. B.00* 12.00 0.00114 0.00 0.00 16.97 983.00 0.000951 0.00 0.00020 0.00 0.88 3085.001511 -------0.00029 0.00 [Cw] Cr Ct -------0.159 0.002632 0.00 0.001478 0.00 0.00085 0.90 17.00045 0.96 1335.1 14311.00 0.00091 Vel kts ----10.85 12.07 366.00 18.001435 0.00038 0.00027 0.37 675.34 1346.000183 0.00 0.169 0.100 0.00* 12.109 0.22 Rbare kN ------653. Batch – XXIX” BSRA METHOD The bare hull resistance and the resistance of bow thrusters of the vessel is calculated by using the software NavCAD v3.001424 0.00054 0.001462 0.129 0.0 57 .002497 0.

44 24121.18 thrusters (KN) 11.00 15305.18 22.25 4507.98 37. 58 .20 13. for V =15 Knots (from Holltorp Menon .46 2126.82 2191.22 31.91 2605.70 662. Batch – XXIX” The above data give resistance of bare hull and the resistance offered by one bow thrusters Hence the total resistance.34 KN Total resistance by Guldhammer – Harvald Method: 2 x Rbow Speed (Knots) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Rbare (KN) 640.33 1538.93 1294.95 1859.58 16.75 29.33 KN = 1688.“Department of Ship Technology.20 26.90 909.88 Table 4.77 1108.04 18.00 19.58 PE (DAT) (KW) 3410.1 Graph from Guldhammer.38 5814. CUSAT.43+ 26.Tech (NA$SB).63 33.77 7410.65 9320.16 796.69 Rpod RT (DAT) (KN) (KN) 11.85 942.15+ 2 x 12.57 1487.1984 Method) RT (DAT) = Rbare + 2 x Rbow thrusters + Rpod For V = 15.06 768.76 21.36 2531.70 24.11 1069.0 knots (From Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method) RT (DAT) = 1637.65 1249.80 35.1 Total resistance Guldhammer – Harvald Method: 25 20 15 P E(MW) R T(10^5N) 10 RT 5 10 PE 12 16 14 18 Fig 4.52 16. B.56 1801.96 14.32 11873.Harvald method of resistance calculation.86 28.53 19168.

82 37.54 8423.95 33.23 1221.49 891.12 1259.86 28.Tech (NA$SB).32 24826.79 Table 4. Batch – XXIX” Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method: 2 x Rbow Speed (Knots) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Rbare (KN) 747.15 1898.16 16.82 Rpod (KN) 11.2 Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation. B.94 1637.22 31.79 2214.34 1956.96 2280.39 918.50 6673.91 thrusters (KN) 11.20 13.70 24.80 35.71 1459.85 19.24 13027.70 14.23 16106.89 5199.2 Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method: 25 20 15 P E(MW) R T(10^5N) 10 RT PE 5 10 12 14 16 18 Fig 4.22 1048.76 21.58 RT (DAT) (KN) 770. 59 .56 19938.04 18.93 10511. CUSAT.33 29.52 16.31 PE (DAT) (KW) 3962.4 2607.77 22.18 1414.93 26.02 2681.“Department of Ship Technology.90 1081.57 1688.

From these three methods.99 17 2034.43 11 808.16 835.04 16.70 22.78 14672.91 2568.21 13.70 676.88 35.“Department of Ship Technology.77 1191.73 14 1335.76 31.73 16.11 16 1724.61 28.29 24.Tech (NA$SB).52 14. B.01 13 1152.3 Total resistance by BSRA Method 25 20 15 P E(MW) R T( 1 0 ^ 5 N ) 10 RT PE 5 10 12 14 16 18 Fig 4.96 18. Batch – XXIX” Total resistance by BSRA Method: 2 x Rbow (KN) Rpod (KN) RT (DAT) (KN) PE (DAT) (KW) 653.7 11.89 4729.20 11.58 37.80 33.86 26.48 12110. 60 .76 19.05 Speed (Knots) Rbare (KN) 10 thrusters Table 4.60 3480.49 7967.40 18 2494.93 1380. CUSAT.35 15 1518.62 6226.85 1008.3 Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation.39 21.38 18367.22 29.82 2100. Holltrop and Menon 1984 have the max value of resistance.80 12 975.33 1569.02 9938.95 1782.37 23781.

A preliminary design of the podded machinery can be done which would deliver the required thrust.2.20 = 0. Vol.1 Introduction This deals with the selection of the main engine.326 = 1688.261) m/s = 5.702 m/s 61 .“Department of Ship Technology. Batch – XXIX” 4.5 KN Thrust calculation Required thrust = = RT/ (1-t) 3131. RT = 1688. The main engine is selected according to this parameter. The selection of the pod is done on the basis of model test results carried out in the proceedings of 24th ITTC. B. – II (Special committee on Podded Propulsion).2 Powering Calculation 4.5144(1-0.25w RT = 0 .34KN [36] An allowance of 25% is provided to get service condition resistance. The derivation of the engine power starts from resistance at service speed.Tech (NA$SB). Propeller design is done with the help of T-J and P-J charts.34 *1.261 [36] Thrust deduction factor (t) t = 1.3 KN Velocity of advance (VA) VA = V (1-w) = 15.55CB-0. The Model tests were carried out for the Ice capable ships Mewis (2001) and Ukon et al (2003). CUSAT. Wake fraction (w) w = 0.0 × 0.25 = 2110.

This is done for AE/AO = 0.4 0.70 Graphs are drawn with J and KQ versus AE/AO .Then the values of J and KQ for AE/AO = 0.104 0.04 0. Batch – XXIX” Diameter of propeller D = 2/3 T = 11.7 0.4 Values of J.65 /1. 0.Volume II) Particulars (AE/AO) Diameter (mm) Pitch Ratio Boss Ratio No.“Department of Ship Technology.55 and 0.850 0.89 In this case Td From Model results: (Model used for Extrapolation) (24th ITTC .008) = 0.0225 0.537 200 0.55 200 0.89 line intersects the optimum efficiency line for optimizing n.166 m T = draft D selected = 7.800 0. 0. KQ are read off from T-J chart where the Td=0. B. CUSAT.278 4 Right 0.47 0.515 0.031 Table 4.75 m (twin Azipod propeller) Td = √T/ρ/ (D × VA) = (1/7.58 are found out for z = 4. AE/A0 J KQ 0. J values for 4 bladed propellers 62 .15 1.276 4 Right Table 4.Tech (NA$SB). TU032 (VTT) Mewis 0.280 4 Right 0.58 215.55 0. of Blades Rotation direction Ukon et al.537 and 0.565 0.4.7021) √(1565.75× 5.5 KQ.55.

564 0.04 0.0398 0.0395 Table 4.Tech (NA$SB).4 Graph to find KQ. KQ Values from the Graph above 63 . CUSAT. J values for 4 bladed propeller From the above graph: AE/A0 J KQ 0.58 0.563 0.537 0.6 J.565 0.55 0. Batch – XXIX” Graph to find KQ.“Department of Ship Technology. B. J values for 4 bladed propeller Fig 4.

7 n.1 57. J= 0.537.580 J 0.0395 1.550 0.306 2π×ρ×n3×D5× KQ = 15698.2.563 0.“Department of Ship Technology.6 KW 64 [28] .62 KW = T× VA /PD = 0.565 0.304 PD (KW) 15698.Tech (NA$SB).97 ηg = Efficiency of generator = 0.82 η0(%) 56.97x0.82 KW PB = PD / (η m x η t x η g) ηm = Efficiency of motor = 0.98 15508.62 15632.0398 AE/A0 0.96x0.537 0.58 can be selected 4.563 VA/J×D = 1.563 J n PD = = = 0.306 0. Batch – XXIX” For AE/AO = 0.86 57.302 0.564 KQ n 0.2 Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition) PD = 15508.5 Table 4. CUSAT.86 % η0 KQ = 0.5686 = 56.96) = 17348. PD and η0 for the models: The FP propeller with BAR of 0.96 PB = 15508.0398 1.96 ηt = Efficiency of transformer = 0. B.82/ (0.0400 1.

B. Batch – XXIX” 4. CUSAT.Tech (NA$SB). Holland Rated output: 12.“Department of Ship Technology. which minimizes the spare parts inventories.8 Frequency: 50 HZ Rated current: 815A Rated voltage: 11KV Greatest weight/piece: 55T Rated speed: 429 rpm Rated output: 12.5 Engine selection In order to utilize Azipod propulsion system.3+0. Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV Weight: 58T Auxiliary engines Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305. In case of diesel electric power plant all the diesel engines can be of the same type as of the conventional vessel.7 kW (1458. the ship should have electric power plants.3G/KWH Greatest weight/piece: 270T [33] Generators Type: HSG 1600 S14 Number: 3 Rated capacity: 15.3 kVA) 50 Hz 65 . including Azipod propulsion.43 MW Transformers Number: 2 Type: STROD/BTRD. Diesel Engines Type: 9TM620 Number: 3 Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO.2. Model 1400 GQKA Number: 3 Manufacturer: Cummins Rated output: 1400 kW Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166. The number of vulnerable auxiliary systems is reduced to a minimum. Generator sets are connected to the main electric switchboard to distribute electric power for all power consumers onboard.750KW Rated speed: 428rpm Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5% Consumption of lube oil: 1.537 KVA Cos Factor: 0.

It can be built for pushing or pulling in open water or in ice conditions.8 KW 110 66 . PD = 17096. V25 type Azipod can be selected with special material requirements of Ice class operations. B. Pre-fabricated pod including strut and motor are delivered.96 ηt = Efficiency of transformer [28] = 0.96 = PB x (η m x η t x η g) PD = 17096.8 KW 4.“Department of Ship Technology. CUSAT. Pod parameters are as follows PD = RPM = 17096. The Azipod unit itself has a flexible design.8 KW Hence from Azipod performance curve. installed and connected to the power and steering module separately on the most suitable phase only just before launching of the ship. Batch – XXIX” The engine is well suited for operation on low-quality fuels and intended to drive the generator directly without any speed changing device. Normally generators are running at higher rpm. hence selected engine is medium speed engine using heavy fuel oil.Tech (NA$SB). Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition) PB ηm = 19125 KW = Efficiency of motor = 0.3 Selection of POD: Power transmission and steering module is installed to the ship hull at a convenient phase of ship construction. This engine has been especially designed for such specific purpose only.97 ηg = Efficiency of generator PD = 0.

CUSAT.5 Power (KW) Vs Propeller speed [28] Fig 4. Batch – XXIX” Fig 4.Tech (NA$SB). B.“Department of Ship Technology.6 Azipod main dimension drawing [28] 67 .

B.7 [28] Weight of V25 Standard Azipod = Complete weight excluding propeller + Weight of AZU (Azipod unit) + Weight of STU (Steering unit) + Weight of SRP (Slip ring unit) + Weight of CAU (cooling air unit) + Weight of HPY (Hydraulic power unit) + other ancillaries + weight of propeller [28] = 315 + 175 + 85 + 4 + 10 + 5 + 8 + 60 = 662 tons 68 . Batch – XXIX” For V25 type (ABB) [Project A B C D E F G H J K L Tilt angle = = = = = = = = = = = = [28] 13500 mm 7050 mm 6500 mm 7750 mm (Assumed propeller diameter) 1600 mm 3355 mm 4900 mm 550 mm 2500 mm 2600 mm 6445 mm 0o to 6o. Selected = 3o Fig 4.Tech (NA$SB).“Department of Ship Technology. CUSAT.

CUSAT.6 1533.43 J' (=J*1.702)1/2 = 1.175 0.70after Interpolating the values of J’ and KT from the P-J charts AE/Ao 0.008 × 5.522 0.70 J 0.06).208 P/D 0.7021 m/s PN = (n/ VA 2) (P/2π × ρ × VA)1/2 PN = 1.833 VA = 5.75 0.408 0. B.14 Table 4.635 7.158 0.702)2 × (17096.55 0. Batch – XXIX” 4.204 6.68 0.568 ηO 60.836 T 1812.4 Design of propeller to match the selected pod PD = 17096.456 KT 0.06) 0.432 0. d) At this J’=J(1.45 53.8 /2π × 1.55 and 0.“Department of Ship Technology. find the propeller characteristic where J’ meets e) For PN = 1. 4 .8 KW RPM = 1.833/ (5. P-J a) Find the point of intersection of PN = 1.385 0.4 0.22 Steps to get performance values for Wageningen B-Series propeller using charts.8 Performance values 69 .3 AE/Ao(min) 0.22 From J’ we can find the value of KT for given (AE/AO) = 0. where J = Advance coefficient c) Increase J by 6 %.0.22 line with the η optimum for PN constant b) Read off J.4 1591.77 D 7.476 0.08 51.408 0.Tech (NA$SB).

001 2 3 N0 P/D 1cm=0.366 kN/m2 P = 1.6 0.55 .1 for double screw propellers ρ = 1.001 5 j* 1cm=0.4 0.3Z) T) / ((P 2 atm + ρgh – P ) D )]+ K [Auf’en Keller formula] V Where K = 0.3 + 0.5 no P/D 0.4 .704 kN/m2 V h = 8.6 0.3 J* 0. Batch – XXIX” Minimum blade area ratio to avoid capitation (A /A ) E O min = [((1.1 0.6 N0 0.81 m/s ) =0.2 0.7 0.6 D(m) P/D T(KN) 0.008 t/m 3 2 g = acceleration due to gravity (9.001 .47 Performance curves 1900 T 1700 0.002 6 T 1cm=2KN 1cm=0.2 j* KT 0.7 Fig 4.“Department of Ship Technology.5 0.001 4 Ae/Ao 1cm=0. CUSAT.7 D AE/A0 0.8 0.75 m K = 0.0 m D = 7.Tech (NA$SB).1 for twin screw propellers Z = number of blades h = height of LWL above shaft central line in meters P atm = 101.7 0. B.8 Performance curves 70 1 Kt 1cm=0.8 1500 0.3 0.4 Ae/Ao kt 0.

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Particulars of selected propellers
D

:

7.26 m

Z

:

4

AE/AO

:

0.527

P/D

:

0.742

T

:

1612.56 KN

ηO

:

53.8

Material

:

Lloyd’s grade Cu 4
Manganese Aluminium Bronze

Type

:

Wageningen B –series Fixed pitch

Tensile strength N/mm2 minimum: 630N/mm2
Chemical composition of propeller and propeller blade castings
Sn 70-80%,
Pb-6%
Ni-0.05%,
Fe-1.-3%
Al- 5-9%,
Mn-8-20%
Zn -1%

4.5 Determination of ice torque [FSICR]
Dimensions of propellers, shafting and gearing are determined by formulae taking
into account the impact when a propeller blade hits ice. The ensuing load is
hereinafter called the ice torque M.
M = m ‫ ڄ‬D2 ton meters where:
D = diameter of propeller in meters
m = 2.15 for ice class IA Super
= 1.60 (IA)
= 1.33 (IB)
= 1.22 (IC

71

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

If the propeller is not fully submerged when the ship is in ballast condition,
the ice torque for ice class IA is to be used for ice classes IB and IC.
M =
=

2.15X7.262
113.32 ton meters

The elongation of the material used is not to be less than 19%, preferably
less than 22% for a test piece length = 5 d and the value for the Charpy V-notch test
is not to be less than 2.1 kpm at –10°C.
Width c and thickness t of propeller blade sections are to be determined so that:
a) at the radius 0.25 D/2, for solid propellers

t = 23.85 cm
b) at the radius 0.35 D/2 for FP-propellers

t = 20.31 cm
c) at the radius 0.6 D/2

t = 13.06 cm
Where:
c = length in cm of the expanded cylindrical section of the blade, at the radius in
question
t = the corresponding maximum blade thickness in cm
H = propeller pitch in meters at the radius in question.
= 5.386
(For controllable pitch propellers 0.7 H nominal is to be used.)
Ps = shaft engine output according to 3.1, but expressed in horsepower [hp]
= 22927.18hp
n = propeller revolutions [rpm]
= 110

72

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

M = ice torque
=113.32 ton meters
Z = number of blades
=4
σ b = tensile strength in kp/mm2 of the material
=31.5kp/mm2
The blade tip thickness t at the radius 1.0 D/2 is to be determined by the following
Formulae:
Ice Class IA Super

t = 43.49 mm
Ice Classes IA, IB and IC

Where D and σb are as defined previously
Other important aspects to be covered are as follow
a) The thickness of other sections is governed by a smooth curve connecting the
above section thicknesses.
b) Where the blade thickness derived is less than the class rule thickness, the latter
is to be used.
c) The thickness of blade edges is not to be less than 50% of the derived tip
thickness t, measured at 1.25 t from the edge. For controllable pitch propellers
this applies only to the leading edge.
d) The strength of mechanisms in the boss of a controllable pitch propeller is to be
1.5 times that of the blade when a load is applied at the radius 0.9 D/2 in the
weakest direction of the blade.
Screw shaft
The diameter of the screw shaft at the aft bearing is not to be less than:

73

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where
σb = tensile strength of the blade in kp/mm2 (49.0kp/mm2)
ct2 = value derived =94667.3
σy = yield stress of the shaft in kp/mm2 (31.5kp/mm2)
ds=570.3mm

4.6 Propeller Geometry
r/R
Dis from CL TO
TE
Dis from CL TO
LE
chord length
tmax
LE-Tmax

PROPELLER OFFSETS
(all dimensions in m)
0.20
0.30
0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

0.599 0.684 0.766 0.837 0.901

0.958 0.992 0.965 0.413

0.963
1.562
0.267
0.547

1.055
2.013
0.114
0.892

1.080
1.764
0.236
0.618

1.156
1.922
0.206
0.673

1.182
2.019
0.175
0.717

1.151
2.053
0.144
0.798

0.855
1.847
0.083
0.885

0.520
1.485
0.052
0.742

*
0.413
0.045
*

Tables 4.9
Propeller geometry

Ordinates for the
back
(As distance in meters)
From maximum thickness to trailing From maximum thickness to leading
edge
edge
r/R
100
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
80
90
95 100
0.2 *
0.14 0.19 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.15 *
0.3 *
0.12 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.13 *
0.4 *
0.10 0.14 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.11 *
0.5 *
0.08 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.09 *
0.6 *
0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.06 *
0.7 *
0.04 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 *
0.8 *
0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 *
0.9 *
0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.01 *
1
*
0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 *

Tables 4.10

74

00 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.85 (for brackish Ice) CH = Hull condition coefficient = 1.6][1 + 0.00074σF][1 + 0.03 0.0083(t + 30)][0.75 m H = Thickness of Ice t = Ice surface air temperature = taken as -10oC (most severe condition) ψ = flare angle = 65 o φ = buttock angle = 24o σF = 270 KPa (for Baltic Ice) R1 = Level Ice resistance at 1 m/s for rounded type icebreakers 75 .4 0.2 0.02 0.003(φ – 5)1.01 0. B.7L0. Batch – XXIX” Ordinates for the face (As distance in meters) From maximum thickness to From maximum thickness to leading trailing edge edge r/R 100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 90 95 0.06 0. CS = Salinity coefficient = 0.01 0.00 0.0018(90 – ψ)1.3 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.1H1.00 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0. Colin R Revill and Ian M Bayly.02 0.01 0.07 0.05 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.02 0.5] x 103 KN Where.00 0 0 0 0.6 0.015CSCHB0.04 0.03 0.25[1-0.07 0. SNAME [30] R1 = 0.03 0.63 + 0.04 0.05 0.01 Tables 4.00 0.04 0.5 m T = Designed draft = 16.02 0. CUSAT.“Department of Ship Technology.33 (for new steel) B = Beam of ship = 48.5 0.00 0.00 0 0.2T0.7 Power requirement for Ice operations (Astern running condition): For Ice breaking speed of 1 m/s (“Icebreaker performance prediction” by Arno Keinomen.01 0. Robin P Brown.05 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.11 4.09 0.00 0.7 m L = Length of ship at LWL = 272.Tech (NA$SB).00 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0.01 0.

008 Knots 8.8 1.0 0.0 Knots in 1. R α V2 For Designed Ice speed of 5. 76 .0 5.0 m. CUSAT.0 1.0 6.4 0.4 1.576 m/s VICE (Maximum) = 5.“Department of Ship Technology.56X5.93 VICE2 ηH = PE ASTERN SPEED IN KNOTS VICE (maximum) (1-t)/(1-w) = 0.85 (assume 15% reduction for a DAT) = 980.912 = PT X ηH KW = (1612.0 4.Tech (NA$SB).0 m thick Ice R 1154. B.912 (Twin Azipod) = 16771.6 0.05 x VICE2 = Required delivered power = R x VICE2 x 0.3 KW = (PE/980.2 1.0 7.93)1/3 = 2.05 KN (for H = 1. most severe Ice condition thickness) Since.6 THICKNESS OF ICE IN m Fig 4. VICE Hence for minimum Ice speed of 5 Knots is achievable with the selected model of Pod and the brake power calculation. Batch – XXIX” = 1154.9 Ice thickness (HICE) vs.702X2) X 0.

Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX”       CHAPTER 5 FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT                             . CUSAT.Department of Ship technology. B.

Batch – XXIX” 5. CUSAT. a) Volume requirements b) Adequate trim and stability c) Structural integrity d) Watertight subdivision and integrity e) Adequate access to spaces. The requirements that must be met are. whichever is the Taken s = 600 mm 77 . aft peak region and machinery space region. inner bottom. FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT 5. Part 3.Tech (NA&SB). properly coordinated for location and access. Transverse framing is adopted in fore peak region.1.1. a) Aft Ice breaking region: 500 mm (taken from trends in Russian Ice class 1A ships) b) Aft of 0. = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm. deck.2 Basic Hull Framing The bottom shell. The different regions along with their rule spacing [LRS.“Department of Ship technology.1 Introduction The general Arrangement of a ship can be defined as the assignment of spaces for all the required functions and equipments. inner hull bulkheads and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally framed. and Chapter 5.05 L from AP s = (470 + L / 0. The volume below deck is subdivided into: a) Machinery space b) Cargo spaces c) Ballast spaces d) Pump room e) Slop Tank 5. Frame Spacing and Bulkhead Disposition 5. 6] are given below.1. side shell.6) lesser. B.

2 L from FP s = (470 + L / 0.05 L and 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) lesser. CUSAT. B.“Department of Ship technology. Batch – XXIX” c) Between 0.Tech (NA&SB).05 L from FP s = (470 + L / 0.1 Basic Frame Spacing 78 . whichever is the lesser. Taken s = 850 mm d) Forward of 0. whichever is the Taken s = 700 mm f) Rest of spaces. The maximum frame spacing as permitted by the rules has been calculated.6) = 948 mm (where L = 263 m) or 850 mm. whichever is the Taken s = 600 mm e) Between 0.15 L from AP s = (510 + L / 0. Region Spacing (mm) a b c d e Rest o space 500 600 850 600 700 850 Table 5. The final frame spacing along the length in accordance with the rules is shown in the table.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) lesser. or 700 mm. or 600 mm. s = 850mm is adopted.05 L & 0.

“Department of Ship technology. B. Batch – XXIX” Fig 5.Tech (NA&SB).1 Basic Frame Spacing 79 . CUSAT.

56 m. 0.015 LL m. Section 4] and LL ≥ 200. or as the length from foreside of the stem to the AP on that WL. Part 3.56 m Here. Let’s take distance of fore peak bulkhead at a distance of 11. = = = 2.28 m.“Department of Ship technology.37 m. Chapter 3. LL G Whence f2 Minimum distance Maximum distance = = 270. CUSAT. Chapter 3&4].1.1.6 m from AP. 80 . 10 – f2 = 7.65 m. 10 – f2 (minimum) 0. the distance of collision bulkhead aft of fore end of LL in m is. whichever is the lesser G = projection of bulbous bow forward of fore end of LL in m = 4. if that is greater f2 = G/2 or 0. 4. Minimum number of bulkheads = 9 Number of bulkheads taken = 9 5. As provided in the parent ship.4 Forward Collision Bulkhead For ships with bulbous bow [LRS. B. Part3.3 Number and Disposition of Bulkheads The disposition of transverse bulkheads is to comply with the requirements of LRS [LRS.08 LL – f2 = 19.1. is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL at 85% of least moulded depth. aft peak bulkhead is provided at a distance of 12.4 m from FP.5 Aft Peak Bulkhead All ships should have one aft peak bulkhead generally enclosing the stern tube and the rudderpost. as applicable to ships with machinery located aft.Tech (NA&SB).08 LL– f2 (maximum) Where: LL = load line length. 5.72 m. Batch – XXIX” 5.

81 .25 bi/B + 0.1.Tech (NA&SB).2.1.25m. type and whether it is a slow-speed.6.55 m.15) LL m. Batch – XXIX” 5. Chapter 9] should not exceed. Holland Rated output: 12. Length of pump room is 4. Where bi = minimum distance from side shell to inner hull of tank measured inboard at right angles to the center line at load water line.1. whichever is the greater.1.6.2 Cofferdams Cofferdams are to be provided at the forward and aft ends of the oil cargo space. hence length of slop tank taken is 5. These cofferdams should be at least 760 mm in length and should cover the whole area of the bulkheads of the cargo space.7 Length of Cargo Tanks The structural configuration has been adopted with one centreline longitudinal bulkhead. Pump room has been incorporated as the aft cofferdam.1m 5. medium-speed or high-speed engine. slop tank should be provided with a minimum capacity of 3% of cargo carrying capacity. 5.1 Length of Engine Room The length of engine room is determined by the power and size of the engine. 5400 m3 capacity is required for the slop tank. The fore peak tank forms the forward cofferdam.750KW Rated speed: 428rpm [33] Considering the frame spacing and the information from built ships the length of engine room is fixed as 31.6.3 Slop Tank According to LRS rule. For such a configuration the length of the hold [Part 4.“Department of Ship technology. 5. B. 3% of cargo carrying capacity = 3% of 150000 = 4500 t Assuming a stowage factor of 1. 10 m or (0. CUSAT. Main engine particulars: Type: 9TM620 Number: 3 Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO.

5 Cargo oil tank-3 164-209 850 38.25 bi / B + 0.55 Pump room 59-64 850 4.0 m = load line length.1 Cargo oil tank-1 70-114 850 37. Component Frame Spacing (mm) Length (m) Aft ballast tank -39-11 500 13. Batch – XXIX” Here bi = 3.2.1 A P tank 9-21 600 7.25 Cargo oil tank-4 209-259 700&850 41.9 Table 5.2 Engine room 21-59 600 & 850 31. is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL LL at 85% of least moulded depth.75 Cargo oil tank-5 259-314 600&700 38.65 m (0. LL = 270. CUSAT. B.Tech (NA&SB).2 Fore peak tank 314 to FE 500&600 19.15) LL= 44.2 Division of Compartments 82 . if that is greater Therefore.76 m According to the above mentioned restrictions the cargo region is divided into ten holds. For length of cargo tanks see table 5.4 Cargo oil tank-2 114-164 850 42.“Department of Ship technology.25 Slop tank 64-70 850 5. or as the length from foreside of the stem to AP on that WL.(5 port and 5 stbd).89 Pod room -11-21 500&600 18.

2 Hull Structure The vessel is to be classed under LRS.1 Introduction The vessel has been designed as a twin screw diesel-electric driven (Podded Propulsion machinery) double skin segregated ballast crude oil tanker with machinery space and all accommodation including Navigation Bridge located aft.2.4 Superstructure External bulkheads and decks of superstructure and deckhouse are of steel construction. inner bottom.2. Longitudinal except at fore part. The vessel has a single continuous deck with forecastle deck and five tiers of deckhouse and has a bulbous bow at the stem and stern.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT 5. All steel for hull construction is of ship building quality High tensile steel (DH32 or DH36) and grade of steel is in accordance with FSICR as par Ice Navigation requirements. longitudinal bulkhead and bottom Longitudinal except at fore part. 5. CUSAT. 83 . Cargo hold region : Forepeak Forecastle deck Engine room : : : Aft peak : Longitudinal framing in way of upper deck. side shell. 5. Longitudinal framing supported by transverse webs has been adopted in way of cargo region.Tech (NA&SB).2. Batch – XXIX” 5. B. Navigation bridge wings have been extended to the full breadth of the vessel.“Department of Ship technology. Longitudinal system in way of upper deck and side shell.2. Adequate changing systems from longitudinal to transverse framing have been provided to avoid abrupt discontinuities. Funnel has sufficient height to prevent smoke nuisance at bridge wings and accommodation areas. Forward and aft ends have been framed transversely. Transverse system in double bottom Transverse system 5. The wheel house is constructed in such a way to meet with the requirements to run the vessel ahead as well as astern.3 Framing Details about major subdivision of cargo and ballast spaces are discussed in the above table 5.2.

5 Deck Machinery Deck machinery has been arranged as shown in the general arrangement plan. Mooring winches are provided as shown in the general arrangement plan.2. 84 . Each windlass provided with two declutch cable wire drums and two warping heads mounted on the shaft. 5.7 Hose Handling Cranes Hose handling cranes are provided on the upper deck for handling cargo oil hose. Windlasses. mooring winches and hose handling cranes are of electro-hydraulic type. double bottom tanks. CUSAT.8 Masts and Posts One unstayed fore mast has been provided as shown in the general arrangement plan. The hatches have been fitted at end of tanks. and have a radius of action (maximum 13 m and min 3.9m). One unstayed aft mast has been provided. cofferdam etc. The hatch is fitted with two vapour controlling valves.2.2. fitted with Navigation lights.5bar is provided which this can be used as bilge pump. ladder and air horn. There are also four tanks that hold drinking water & washing water . Power is supplied by following Generators Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305. The installed crane has capacity 5-ton with the speed of 15m/minute. Batch – XXIX” 5.Cargo pump has been provided in pump room. fuel oil.2. Model 1400 GQKA Number: 3 Manufacture: Cummins Rated output: 1400 kW Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 KVA) 60 Hz or 1166.additionally one provision crane of capacity 1-ton has been provided aft in port side near provision store.Two fire pump of capacity 300 m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.Tech (NA&SB).7 kW (1458. 5. bunker tank and slop tank as shown in the general arrangement plan.2.3 KVA) 50 Hz Additionally two boiler of capacity 1400 KW has been provided for heating purpose.9 Hatch Covers One set of cargo oil tank hatch with neoprene rubber gasket has been provided for each cargo oil tank.“Department of Ship technology. 5. 5. The hatch size should be of sufficient size to insert cargo sampling bottles. peak tanks. B.6 Pumps and Engines The ballast water is transferred by two electric powered pumps. Oil tight or watertight manholes are provided for access to cargo tanks. Emergency fire pump has been provided in fwd .

2.2.14 Foam Monitoring Platform Foam monitoring platforms are provided on the upper deck for the installation of foam guns. are provided on the upper deck as shown in the general arrangement plan. CUSAT.2. of foam monitoring platforms = 7 (on the main deck) 85 .11 Accommodation Ladders Two accommodation ladders.“Department of Ship technology. Guardrails are provided at super structure decks and first tier deckhouse.Tech (NA&SB). No. Material Al alloy Width 800 mm Length Sufficient to reach 700 mm above WL at an angle of 50o. one on each side.0 m height is provided along the boundary of forecastle deck. B.44 m Distance between third and top most rail = 0. 5.30 m Bulwark of 1. Stanchions are provided at the boundaries of exposed freeboard.2. Chapter 9]. 5. Batch – XXIX” 5.12 Windows The sizes of windows fitted are: Windows: 400 x 600 mm in accommodation rooms 600 x 700 mm in public rooms 5.13 Guard Rails and Bulwark Guardrails have been provided in accordance with Lloyd’s Register [Part 3. Heavy weather tight steel doors are to be provided at weather-exposed entrances. All doors are provided with stainless steel and nameplate. Height of Guardrails = 1 m Distance of first and second rail from bottom = 0. They are of the vertical self-stowing type. 5.26 m Distance of second and third rail = 0.10 Doors The sizes of doors fitted are of 850 mm wide.2.

Side scuttles can be opened in sleeping rooms. All bulkheads should be of steel. 4. Crew accommodation aft. Mess room should be able to accommodate all officers at the same time. 11. B.. sanitary space. 2. apprentices etc. 5. 3) Deck ratings including petty officers GRT > 1500 – 10 numbers. gastight. 5. Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels. Batch – XXIX” 5. and recreation rooms. Recreation room should accommodate one third of the officers. Bulkheads connecting crew space with store.“Department of Ship technology. 8.16 Compliment Estimation Compliment is estimated as per the Indian regulations.Tech (NA&SB). 10. Bulkheads connecting two galleys. 9. 2) Radio Officer GRT > 500 – 1 number. 6.15 Accommodation The design of accommodation covers following aspects: 1. laundry etc should be gastight and watertight up to a certain height.2. If in contact with weather they have to be gas tight and watertight.e. 86 . Maritime Law of India. Separate sleeping rooms for officers. 7. mess rooms. Floors to be properly covered.2. i. petty officers. GRT = 84919 (Ref capacity calculation) 1) Deck officers including master For GRT > 1600 – 4 numbers. 3 cadets are carried. Protection should be provided from following : a) Protection of crew against injury b) Protection of crew against weather c) Insulation from heat and cold d) Protection from moisture e) Protection from effluent originating in various compartments f) Protection from noise. CUSAT. cargo spaced tanks etc should be watertight. 3. No direct opening between accommodation and stores.

Engineering officers are: Chief engineer Second engineer Third engineer Fourth engineer Fifth engineer Electrical engineer 87 .Tech (NA&SB). Deck officers are: Captain Chief officer Second officer Third officer Radio officer Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels. Additional 1 or 2 junior engineers are carried in higher-powered vessels 6) Engine ratings including petty officers Foreign going – 5 numbers. Batch – XXIX” 4) Caterers For total crew up to 45 – 3 numbers. CUSAT. 5) Engineering officers including electrical engineer Over 3680 kW – 4 numbers. 7) Stewards For 6 officers 1 numbers. For 10-12 officers2 numbers. B.“Department of Ship technology.

6 m2 (Area/person served = 0.“Department of Ship technology.Tech (NA&SB).5 m2 / radio officer) xi) Galley : 28. And double berth accommodation for seamen.5 m2 (8 + 2. Accommodation for officers and crew is provided based on minimum area requirements. The minimum stipulated areas are as follows: i) Captain and Chief Engineer : 30 m2 + bath 4 m2 or toilet 3 m2 ii) Chief Officer and 2nd Engineer : 14 m2 + toilet 3 m2 iii) Other Officers : 8 m2 + toilet iv) Captain’s office and Chief Engr’s office :7.5 m2 each v) Passages and Stairs : 40 % of sum of (i) to (iv) vi) Petty Officers’ and Crew cabin : 7 m2 single berth cabins vii) Passages and Stairs : 35 % of (vi) : 30 m2 viii) Wheelhouse ix) Chart room : 15 m2 x) Radio room : 10. Batch – XXIX” Rank Deck Part Engine Part Other Part Total Captain Class 1 1 2 4 Senior Class 1 1 - 2 Junior Class 2 4 1 3 Cadet 2 - 1 2 Petty Officers 1 2 1 3 Leading Crew 1 1 1 4 Crew Class 8 5 7 24 Table 5. B. CUSAT.65) 88 .3 Compliment List Grand Total = 42 Single cabin accommodation has been provided for captain and other officers.

2 m Wheel house = 3.55 m2 = 5879 E From the table 13.01m A = 1843.7 m Δ = 183376. in m A is the profile area of hull and super structures above the summer load water line.7. WA Total mass of anchor = 17.04 m2 / person / day) xii) Area in excess of the minimum stipulated area is provided.09 m2 / person / day ) xiii) Refrigerated Stores : 56 m2 (0.Tech (NA&SB). Chapter 13] Equipment number = Δ2/3 + 2 B H + A / 10 Where H is the freeboard amidships plus sum of the heights of each tier of houses. CUSAT.63+439.“Department of Ship technology. in m2 B = 48.2 m C deck tier = 3.17 Anchoring Arrangements Anchor is selected as per LRS.6 t Total length of stud link cable. The heights of various accommodation tiers are: A deck tier = 3.5 m Diameter of stud link cable. Batch – XXIX” General Stores : 125. dc = 102 mm (special grade of steel) 89 .92 = 2283.2 m B deck tier = 3.12 t H = 25.2 m 5. Of anchors = 2 = 17800 kg Mass of anchor.2. B. [Part 3. Chapter 13] Equipment letter = A* Anchor type = Commercial standard stockless No.8 x 2 = 35. Lc = 742.4 m2 ( 0.2 m D deck tier = 3.2 in LRS [Part 3.

5°. CUSAT. 4) Stern light White light at extreme aft having visibility over an arc of horizon of 225°.“Department of Ship technology.2.04 fathom dc = 4. 2) Side lights Red light on port side and green light on starboard.0254 m Lc = 406. visibility over an arc of horizon of 112.0157 inch Volume required = 108. Fitted on the sides of navigating bridge. 5) NUC light Red white and red light at aft navigating mast.18 Navigation Lights Navigational lights provided as follows 1) Masthead light one on forward mast and one on navigational mast.2.0 m 11m (the depth is inclusive of the height of mud 5.) = 4.1 Chain Locker Volume of chain locker = 0. 3) Anchor lights All round white light at forward mast. visibility over an arc of horizon of 225°. visibility over an arc of horizon of 360°. 90 . B.6 Lcdc2 ft3 [5] Where dc in inches and Lc in fathoms 1 fathom = 1.17.8288 m 1 inch = 0.70 m3 A chain locker of rectangular shape of size 4x6x11 is provided on either side Width = Depth box. .Tech (NA&SB). visibility over an arc of horizon of360°. Batch – XXIX” 5.

5 m B = 2. B. Material of construction is GRP.“Department of Ship technology. 91 .58 m CB = 0.2.Tech (NA&SB). The lifeboats are equipped with water spray fire protection system.60 [5] One totally enclosed free fall type.283 m3. CUSAT. diesel engine driven lifeboats capable of 55 person’s capacity is provided on aft of the ship.2 Arc of light 5. Batch – XXIX” Fig 5. Lifeboat particulars should satisfy volume requirement for each person: Volume required per person = 0.19 Life Saving Appliances Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS CHAPTER III.97 m T = 1.25 m H = 8. Total compliment 42 = Lifeboat chosen has following particulars: L = 8.

Eight life buoys are provided. Training manual has been provided in wheel house. c. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space k. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.Tech (NA&SB).compliance list and calculation are as follows. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship. d. l. j. i. b. 55 life jackets have been provided. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat. 55 immersion suits has been provided t. Batch – XXIX” Compliance list of life saving appliances a. p. 2 life jackets for child have been provided f. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region. galley and other public places n. four of which are fitted with self-igniting light e. CUSAT. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations 5. 92 . q. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of the ship. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper deck behind forecastle deck. 4 WT set has been provided. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.“Department of Ship technology. g. B. h. s. r. o. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships m.2.20 Fire Fighting Systems Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS and fire fighting rules 1990. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.

0. ¾ Ship shall be subdivided by thermal and structural boundaries. Cargo Ships. CUSAT. B. Batch – XXIX” SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 Construction – Fire Protection. hydrant should be so placed that it can be easily accessible and avoid the risk of damage to cargo. ¾ Fire integrity of division shall be maintained at openings and penetrations ¾ Fixed fire fighting system should be installed. ¾ To separate the section of fire main within the machinery space. 0.27 N/mm2.25 N/mm2 ¾ Max pressure at hydrant should not exceed that at which effective control of fire hose is demonstrated 93 . Fire Detection and Extinction SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-C (SUPPRESSION OF FIRE) ¾ Fixed fire detection.30 N/mm2. 6000 GT and upwards Under 6000 GT 0. ¾ The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two-fire pump. and upward Under 4000 GT ¾ 0. ¾ Smoke detectors in accommodation spaces. ¾ Fire extinguishing appliances should be readily available. ¾ Fire patrols shall provide an effective means of detecting and locating fire. ¾ installation of automatic and remote control systems in engine room ¾ Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus ¾ Suitable arrangement shall be made to permit the release of smoke. ¾ Pipes and fire hydrants should be so placed that it can be easily coupled to fire hoses.“Department of Ship technology. isolation valve shall be installed for open deck fire main branch. ¾ Isolation valves for tankers. containing the fire main pump or pumps from rest of the fire main shall be fitted in easily accessible position outside machinery space. The following minimum Pressure shall be maintained at all hydrants ¾ Passenger Ships : 4000 GT. from protected space.Tech (NA&SB). suitable drainage sys should be provided for fire main piping.40N/mm2. in event of fire. manually operated call points should be installed. ¾ Valve for each fire hydrant should be fitted to remove fire hoses. fire alarm sys.

arrangement shall be made to ensure that at least one of these pump should be capable to provide water to fire main at capacity and pressure required in above table.but not more than 25 m in machinery space. ¾ Portable fire extinguisher ¾ It should comply with the requirement of the fire safety system code. at least 2 pumps ¾ Access to emergency fire pumps ¾ No direct access shall be permitted between machinery Space & space containing emergency fire pump. ¾ In addition. B. CUSAT. such as general service pumps. ¾ Cargo ships 1000 GT and upwards fire hoses for every 30m of length of ship and one spare no case less than five. ¾ Cargo ship less than 1000 GT hoses to be provided to satisfacti to administration.20 m in other spaces and open decks. ¾ Ventilation of emergency fire pump room. there shall be complete interchange ability of hose couplings and nozzles. fire hose shall have a length of at least 10m. ¾ Unless one hose and nozzle is provided for each hydrant in ship. ¾ Size and type of nozzles ¾ Nozzles standard size 12 mm. 94 . Above connection should be used on either side of the ship. Accommodation and service spaces nozzle size 12mm to be used.“Department of Ship technology. should not be used. Dia. ¾ Capacity of fire mains ¾ Capable of delivering for fire-fighting purpose at pressure specified above. at least 3 pumps ¾ Passenger ship less than 4000 GT at least 2 pumps ¾ Cargo ship of 1000 GT upwards at least 2 pumps ¾ Cargo ships have less than 1000 GT. ¾ Number and diameter of fire hoses ¾ Diameter of fire hose shall be to satisfaction to administration. ¾ Fire pumps ¾ Passenger ship 4000 GT and upwards. ¾ Fire hoses and nozzle ¾ Fire hoses shall be non –perishable material approved by administration. ¾ Machinery space and exterior locations nozzle size greater than 19mm. it should obtain maximum possible discharge from two nozzle at pressure mentioned in table above.Tech (NA&SB). in cargo ships where other pumps. Batch – XXIX” ¾ Ship of 500 gross tonnages and above shall be provided with at least one international shore connection. bilge etc are fitted in a machinery space. 16mm and 19 mm. and25m for open decks on ships with max breadth in excess of 30m. (Door can be provided with air lock arrangement with self-closing doors).

Tech (NA&SB). access doors should open outwards. opening which may admit air to. other than those serving the fire main. ¾ Fire extinguisher shall be situated ready for use at easily visible place . a protected space shall be capable of being closed from outside the protected space. it should be stored in room behind the forward collision bulkhead and not to be used for other purpose. Not more than sixty total spare charges are required. can be treated as fire control.1301. fire extinguisher shall be provided whose extinguishing media is neither electrically conductive nor harmful to the equipment and appliances.“Department of Ship technology. ¾ Storage room for fire extinguishing media ¾ if it is stored outside a protected space. ¾ Steam firefighting system is not permitted by administration in general. or allow gas to escape from. B. ¾ In control station and other space containing electrical equipment necessary for safety of ship. ¾ Ship of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards shall carry at least five portable fire extinguishers. closings should be gas tight. ¾ Fixed fire extinguishing systems ¾ Fixed high expansion foam fire extinguishing system should comply the provisions of the fire safety system code. ¾ Fire extinguishing system using halon 1211. but if it is permitted it shall be used in restricted area and it should complied the provisions of the fire safety system code ¾ Closing appliances for fixed gas fire extinguishing systems. ¾ Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall not be placed in accommodations spaces. Batch – XXIX” ¾ Arrangements of fire extinguisher ¾ Accommodation spaces.it should be provided with device which indicates whether they have been used. CUSAT.and2402 and per fluorocarbon shall be prohibited. 95 . ¾ Water pumps for other fire extinguishing system ¾ Pumps. Portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the entrance to the space. entrance should be preferably from main deck. ¾ Fixed pressure water-spraying fire extinguishing system should comply the provisions of the fire safety system code. Capable of being recharged on board. service spaces and control stations shall be provided with portable fire extinguisher of proper type and in sufficient in number to the satisfaction to administration. their source of power and controls shall be installed outside the space or spaces protected by such systems and so arranged that fire in space will not put such system out of action. ¾ spare charges ¾ Spare charge shall be provided for 100%of the first ten extinguisher and 50%of the remaining fire extinguisher. ¾ Where a fixed fire extinguishing system is used.

¾ Protection of cargo pump room for tanker. ¾ Space containing flammable liquid ¾ Paint locker should be protected by: Carbon dioxide system. ¾ Fire fighter outfits ¾ At least two fire fighter’s outfits should be provided.“Department of Ship technology.. preventing partial loss or whole collapse of the ship due to strength deterioration by heat. a water spraying or sprinkler sys. ¾ The hull. ¾ Should comply according to FSS Code. One in each such space at least one 45 liters capacity or equivalent. designed to give a min volume of free gas equal to 40%of the gross volume. B. an approved portable extinguisher may be substituted as an alternative. ¾ Arrangements of fire extinguishing in cargo space. ¾ At least one set of portable foam equipment complying with the provisions of the fire safety system code. Flammable liquid locker shall be protected by an appropriate fire extinguishing arrangements. Batch – XXIX” ¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boilers or oil fuel units ¾ Space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit. ¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with any of the fixed fire extinguishing system.1m3 sand other approved material in each firing space. ¾ Machinery space containing internal combustion engine. or Dry powder system. structural bulkhead. ¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with any of the fixed fire extinguishing system ¾ Additional fire extinguishing systems ¾ In each boiler room at least one set of portable foam applicator complying with the provisions of the fire safety system code. ¾ Storage of fire fighter outfits ¾ Shall be kept ready for use easily accessible position ¾ Structure integrity ¾ The purpose is to maintain structural integrity of the ship. 96 . ¾ There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers in each firing space in each boiler room ¾ There shall be receptacle containing at least 0. CUSAT. decks and deckhouse shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. ¾ Fixed deck foam fire extinguishing systems. ¾ Two spare charges shall be provided for each breathing apparatus. Foam extinguisher system. ¾ It should be operated from outside the protected space.Tech (NA&SB).

Two dry powder extinguishers having a total capacity of not less than 45 kg. SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-E (OPERATION REQUIREMENTS) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Operational readiness and maintenance. General emergency alarm system should be provided. Means of Escape. Carbon dioxide extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg or equivalent. ¾ A suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or foam-making branch pipes capable of delivering foam to all parts of the helideck in all weather conditions in which helicopters can operate ¾ NO SMOKING’’ signs shall be displayed at appropriate locations. 97 .life boat.“Department of Ship technology. B. Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be properly tested and inspected. ready means of escape to embarkation deck. SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-G (SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Helicopter facilities Helideck structure shall be adequate to protect the ship from the fire hazards. Batch – XXIX” SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-D (ESCAPE) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Notification to crew and passenger. life raft .Tech (NA&SB). Instructions. Stairways and ladders shall be so arrange to provide from all accommodation spaces service spaces. onboard training and drills Fire safety operational booklet should be provided. Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be maintained ready to use. CUSAT.

5bar 98 .066 [√ L (B+D)] ⇒ 1+0. the length is measured from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudderstock if that be the greater. B.5 for ships required to be provided with only one fire pump.11 L = length of the ship in meters on the summer load water line from the foreside of the Stem to the after side of the rudderpost.066√ 263.“Department of Ship technology. and d = 1+ 0.Tech (NA&SB).07 ( 48. CUSAT.06 m3/hr Minimum is 40 m3/hr Provided is 300 m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.76 )] = 10. Batch – XXIX” FIRE PUMP CAPACITY CALCULATIONS Capacity of fire pump Q = Cd2 where C = 5 for ships required to be provided with more than one fire pump (excluding any emergency fire pump) and C= 2.112 =511. Where there is no rudderpost.7 +23. B = greatest moulded breadth of the ship in meters and D = moulded depth of the ship in meters measured to the bulkhead deck amidships Q = Cd2 = 5 x 10.

Loss of Head due to Height (H2 .5bar)(650000N/ m2) Pump Pressure at fire main. l. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g) Loss of Head 0. v22/ d2. Q 200 m3/hr Diameter of fire main. B.“Department of Ship technology. A1 0.78 m B. V2 = A1.Tech (NA&SB). f. Loss of Head due to Bends.59m C. P1 Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3 Capacity of fire pump. Batch – XXIX” PRESSURE AT HIGHEST HYDRANT (6.15 m Diameter of pipe at hydrant.15 m Cross-sectional area of fire main.5 m D. V1 3.H1) Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6.0177 m2 Length of the pipe to hydrant.139 m/s Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses A.78 m Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 33.139 m/s Velocity of water at hydrant.76 N/m2 Required Pressure 270000 N/m2 Conclusion: Satisfactory 99 .0 m Height of highest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 39.0033 Loss of head due to friction 1. 2g) Coefficient of friction 0.08 P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g) Pressure at highest hydrant (P2) 288513. Loss of Head due to Friction (4. Valves and Pipe fittings Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0. d2 0. CUSAT.0177 m2 Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant. d1 0. A2 0. l 36 m Velocity of water at fire main.V1 / A2 3.

B.43 m G. A1 0.5m H.75 kg/cm2) 6. CUSAT.9 N/m2 Required Pressure 270000 N/m2 Conclusion: Satisfactory 100 . Q 200 m3/hr Diameter of fire main.0033 Loss of head due to friction 10.V1 / A2 3.Tech (NA&SB). f. V1 3.0 m Height of farthest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 20. v22/ d2.0177 m2 Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant. l 236 m Velocity of water at fire main. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g) Loss of Head 0.0177 m2 Length of the pipe to hydrant. 2g) Coefficient of friction 0. Loss of Head due to Friction ( 4.76 m Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 14. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 .H1) Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6. Valves and Pipe fittings Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0.76 m F. Batch – XXIX” PRESSURE AT FARTHEST HYDRANT Pump Pressure at fire main.139 m/s Velocity of water at hydrant.139 m/s Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses E. Loss of Head due to Bends. A2 0.15 m Diameter of pipe at hydrant. l. V2 = A1. d1 0. P1 (2.15 m Cross-sectional area of fire main.“Department of Ship technology.52 m P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g) Pressure at farthest hydrant (P2) 386451. d2 0.5 bar Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3 Capacity of fire pump.

Batch – XXIX” JET THROW CALCULATION MS (Fire appliances) Rules 1990 Capacity of fire pump = 200 m3/hr Dia.“Department of Ship technology. of nozzle = 19 mm Cross-sectional area of nozzle = 2.8 x 10-4 m2 Length of the jet throw required = 12 m Jet velocity = 198.8 m/s Projectile Angle = 45˚ Velocity require at nozzle for 12 m throw Using formula R = u2 Sin 2θ / g Where u = Velocity at the nozzle θ = Projectile angle to get maximum range = 45˚ G= (acceleration due to gravity = 9.e. B.Tech (NA&SB).84 m/s Velocity of throw required = 10..4 m/s Percentage loss due to nozzling and air resistance = 30% Net jet velocity = 138. u = √ R g / Sin 2θ = 10. CUSAT.8 m/s2 R = Horizontal distance reached by the throw = 12 m. i.4 m/s Conclusion: Satisfactory 101 .84 m/s Available jet Velocity = 138.

56 =21053 kg 3/ (sp vol =0.2 m3 Weight of Co2 required 11790.Tech (NA&SB).5 kg required 21053/45.56 m kg) No of bottle of 45.53 m3 40% of Gross volume of engine room including pump room 8686.2 m3 Gross volume of co2 required 11790.6 m3 Addition of air receiver 18 m3 Gross volume for co2 protection 11790. B.2 /0. Batch – XXIX” CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CALCULATION Gross volume of engine room including pump room 21716. CUSAT.“Department of Ship technology.612 m3 Gross volume of Azipod room 7714 m3 40% Gross volume of Azipod room 3085.5 =463bottles 102 .

Batch – XXIX”                       CHAPTER 6 DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION AND MASS ESTIMATION        .Department of Ship technology. B.Tech (NA&SB). CUSAT.

H = 760 Hrs (operation in most severe condition) Hours in port = 48 Hrs No of officers = 21 No of crew = 23 Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO) Specific fuel consumption. Volume of HFO. stores and cargo Range = 3800 nm Speed = 15.0 Knot (open water) = 5. VHFO Volume of diesel oil (VDO) = 6449 t = MHFO /0. CUSAT. the volume required is calculated. PB = 38250 KW Mass of heavy fuel oil. SFC = 182 g / KWh. The mass of crew and effects and water ballast necessary for the design are known.Tech (NA$SB).1 Final estimates of consumables. B. 6.“Department of Ship Technology. it is possible to calculate the stowage factor. Batch – XXIX” 6. MHFO = SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20% 20% allowance has been taken into account. The hold capacity can be calculated by subtracting the sum of the wing tank capacity and double bottom volume from the total under deck capacity. Model 1400 GQKA Number: 3 Manufacturer: Cummins Rated output: 1400 kW Rated capacity: 1200 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458. With the capacity determined.3 kVA) 50 Hz SFC 220 g /KWh PAUX 4200KW 103 . DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATIONS The capacity plan is to know the cargo volumes in holds and the disposition of tanks and their position of centre of gravities. Knowing the density of the various liquids.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions) ∴Max Hours of travel.90 = 7154 m3 Auxiliary engines Type: SKU CUIN-1200N305. (Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine) Brake power.

4 indicate the moulded capacities (exclusive of camber volume) of respective tanks/compartments along with their location and centres of gravity. 6. (VFW) Consumption of fresh water = 20 litres / person / day Mass of fresh water.2.6 t = 216.6 m3 Volume of washing water (VWW) Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers 60 liters /person/ day for crew Mass of washing water. The values are found by creating different regions. VBO = SFC × P × H/1000000 SFC = 220 g /KWh = 355 t = 355/0. MDO = = Volume of diesel oil. 6.3 m3 6.6/0. VWW = 131. VFW = 29.2.03 (MHFO + MDO +MBO) = 216. M FW = 29.9 = 241 m3 Volume of fresh water. and the “mass prop” command. B. MLO = Volume of lube oil 0. VDO = = SFC × PAUX × H/1000000 747 t MDO/0.95 786 m3 Volume of boiler fuel oil (VBO) Boiler of capacity 2000KW is selected. CUSAT.Tech (NA$SB). Tables 6. Batch – XXIX” Mass of diesel oil.“Department of Ship Technology.1 Capacity Calculation with allocation of Spaces The capacities of tanks/compartments are determined using the computer software AutoCAD 2007. Mass of boiler oil.6 t Volume of fresh water.3 and 6. MWW = 131.3 t Volume of washing water.95 = 373 m3 Volume of boiler oil Volume of lubricating oil (VLO) Mass of lube oil. In all the above tables LCG is measured from AP.1. VCG from base line and TCG from the centre line 104 .

19 -11.92 2070.41 1722.32 1694.46 16654.99 VCG m 13.94 2821.12 -3.32 1274.63 225.43 -10.43 210.12 -11.57 2390.41 12344.No.Tech (NA$SB).34 228.88 16981.50 12.45 13.86 9.94 2584. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Item CH1(P) CH1(S) CH2(P) CH2(S) CH3(P) CH3(S) CH4(P) CH4(S) CH5(P) CH5(S) Slop tank(P) Slop tank(S) Total Fr.91 18534.90 2969.49 2917.41 2882.50 2553.88 FSM tm 696.39 13350.84 TCG m -10. B.00 2969.36 1034.11 13350.27 1694.20 113.53 228.54 1.29 174294.63 -5.11 210.14 TCG m -7.33 2390.12 302.23 6556.42 Weight (98%vol) 1026.13 1715.43 10.16 2070.99 50.91 2672.69 10.85 14311.01 2575.42 2096.81 46.53 233.95 16654.43 164747.69 -10.15 153.81 42.47 2821. 70-114 70-114 114-164 114-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 64-70 64-70 Vol m^3 16049.50 12.No.02 2607.13 2584.36 6007.57 2933.53 193.03 18867.84 13.02 1715.54 1.91 6556.31 VCG m 18.53 153.18 -21.15 113.No.39 50.01 Table 6.46 18178.50 13.79 2640.50 12.69 -10.18 -18.69 -9.61 LCG m 69.65 119.48 298.66 15621.17 Weight (98%vol) 13526.27 2553.73 41.75 .30 47.00 302.26 41.45 13.29 -18.50 12.No.90 2672.39 18178.82 50223.53 13.91 4390.77 109.63 50.25 149.96 18.69 10.57 47.91 14646.26 -20.36 3791.69 10.22 15621.18 21.36 4390.47 37.00 2420.47 2096.18 21.2 Capacity of Ballast Tanks 105 LCG m -5.63 149.42 1274.16 2787.92 1258.18 21.09 16981.54 1.03 16049.39 12.22 12344.29 -11.49 12.12 18.32 -9.49 12.14 9.88 3.12 1039.85 -21.47 12.26 3791.49 2607.65 153.32 9.25 233. Item Fr.12 18.85 20.86 FSM tm 15475.53 193.51 1034.18 21.53 153.29 11.54 1.01 13.50 2787.00 2420.43 13.53 13.91 2917.85 15901.96 50.1 Capacity of cargo Tanks S.“Department of Ship Technology.79 2933.63 189.12 13526.53 193.31 257.96 12.54 1.19 Table 6. Batch – XXIX” S.45 13.26 7.39 225.29 2067.01 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Aft peak tank(s) Aft peak tank(s) Wing ballast tank1(P) Wing ballast tank1(S) Wing ballast tank2(P) Wing ballast tank2(S) Wing ballast tank3(P) Wing ballast tank3(S) Wing ballast tank4(P) Wing ballast tank4(S) Wing ballast tank5(P) Wing ballast tank5(S) Wing ballast tank6(P) Wing ballast tank6(S) Ballast tank 1(P) Ballast tank 1(S) Ballast tank 2(P) Ballast tank 2(S) Ballast tank 3(P) Ballast tank 3(S) Ballast tank 4(P) Ballast tank 4(S) FP tank(P) FP tank(S) Total AE -16 AE -16 64-70 64-70 70-114 70-114 114-164 114-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 131-164 131-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 314-fe 314-fe Vol m^3 1039.50 12.50 12.48 1026. CUSAT.39 696.88 18867.32 50841.57 42.56 9.25 119.12 15901.33 298.43 13.95 18504.51 45409.18 -21.20 73.18 -21.54 1.19 11.45 13.96 73.23 6007.32 2575.41 2640.09 18534.16 18504.05 146854.53 193.30 37.82 1258.45 13.50 12.90 14646.90 2067.77 69.16 15475.34 257.05 1722.25 109.01 2882.29 11.56 1.73 46.45 13.66 14311.63 189.

15 82.6 2196.75 12.28 1.00 8740.40 1855.38 8.56 -5.18 -8.91 9.19 11. Batch – XXIX” S.62 176.89 30.90 47.18 5.Tech (NA$SB).87 370.06 82.90 1.20 10.22 66.60 4.18 5.25 2.56 857.05 71.93 64.29 4654.00 16.90 15.15 662.19 108.28 2.90 35.54 1.66 1855. 1 1 1 2 1 Location -11 – 21 21 – 64 70 – 71 314 – 322 314-349 Volume 7714 21716 688 528 1093.98 114.64 71.10 3.58 30.98 2045.57 1.38 m 2.67 21.21 8.29 82.66 350.39 798.50 123.38 8.87 114.38 8. B.“Department of Ship Technology.10 35.54 1.19 -7.90 2.00 4.71 398.68 16335.64 Table 6.2 25.05 50.56 189.29 82.20 95.47 47.78 0 Table 6.21 -9.47 11.1 798.60 1.19 371.91 -11.10 44.28 2.50 66.70 123.10 tm 476.00 10.20 44.9 254.40 4654.36 123.72 23.71 189.5 259.3 weight (98%( vol) 370.4 LCG 5.No.72 50.3 53. CUSAT.68 15.2 LCG VCG TCG FSM m 23.57 1.86 2.06 476.68 1.1 2045.70 398.56 7.6 857.26 TCG 0 0 0 0 0 1 21-64 9472 41211 36.62 371.No Item Fr .25 -3.86 1.21 -2.29 2.39 176.64 95.47 8.36 398.50 123.4 Capacity of other tanks/compartments 106 .90 64.21 8.60 1.60 1.93 108.44 350.20 m -5.18 -8.68 8133.22 16.3 Capacity of storage tanks Description Azipod room Engine Room Cofferdam Chain Locker(P&S) Forecastle deck Deck house Total No.07 VCG 17. Vol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HFO tank1(P) HFO tank1(S) HFO tank 2(P) HFO tank 2(S) HFO tank3(P) HFO tank3(S) HFO tank4(P) HFO tank4(S) Boiler fuel tank1(P) Boiler fuel tank1(S) Diesel oil tank 1(P) Diesel oil tank 1(S) Lo tank(P) Lo tank(S) Waste water tank (P) Fresh water tank(S) Waste water tank (P) Fresh water tank(S) Total 21-46 21-46 67-70 67-70 70-114 70-114 114-131 114-131 59-64 59-64 46-59 46-59 64-67 64-67 9---21 9---21 9---21 9---21 m^3 398.28 1.50 2196.44 662.

Tech (NA$SB).2 + 0. Batch – XXIX” 6.“Department of Ship Technology.3087 V = Total volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship in m3 GROSS TONNAGE (GT) 107 = 84919 = 275086.9 m3 .2 GROSS TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS GROSS TONNAGE (GT) = K1 V Where K1 = 0.02 log 10 (267133.2.2 + 0. B. CUSAT.02 log10 (V) Where K1 = 0.34) = 0.

2 + 0.86 N1 = Number of passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths.5 c) NT = K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 + K3 (N1 + N2/10) = 45792.02 * log10 (Vc) = 0. c) "NT" should not be taken as less than "0. b) The term K2 VC(4 d / 3 D )2 shall not be taken as less than "0. N2 = Number of other passengers. Batch – XXIX” 6.5 > 0.25 GT" . K3 = 1.5 NET TONNAGE (NT) = 45793 108 .8835 b) In the expression for Net Tonnage. N1 + N2 shall be taken as zero (no passengers hence zero) In the expression for Net Tonnage.75.3046.30 GT (24723. When N1 + N2 is less than 13. K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 = 45792.3 GT" VC.Tech (NA$SB).76 m. B. the expression (4 d / 3 D )2 =0. CUSAT.18) ∴Net Tonnage is taken as 45792.75 m.5 > 0. ship’s Passenger certificates.2.25 [(GT + 10000) / 10000] = 11.25 GT ∴The term K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 is taken as 45792.“Department of Ship Technology. D = Moulded depth amidships in metres.3 NET TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS NET TONNAGE (NT) = K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 + K3 ( N1 + N2 / 10) In which formula a) The factor (4 d / 3 D)2 shall not be taken as greater than unity. N 1 + N2 = Total number of passengers the ship is permitted to carry as in the D = 23.17m3 (excluding slop tank volume) K2 = 0. d = Moulded draft amidships. K3 (N1 + N2 / 10) = 0 a) Since d = 16. Total volume of cargo spaces =170160. d =16.5 + 0 = 45792.

9 t 7 Δ SE 8 CB ΔSE 109 . Lightship mass was calculated by taking rough values or giving allowance for masses of these quantities. CUSAT.95 = Block Coefficient at 0. Mathematically.5 (CB0.035 = 23126.CB) (0. 6.3.8 –0. Batch – XXIX” 6.7)] + 840 t (addition for Ice Class 1A.8D – T) /3T = 0.“Department of Ship Technology.029 –0. taken from parent ship) ΔSE = Δ7SE = KE1. ΔLS Where.1 Introduction At the initial stages of design. dimensions of superstructures and deckhouses were not known.8D = CB + (1. ΔSE = Steel mass ΔWO = Wood & outfit mass ΔEP = Engine plant mass 6.3.3 Steel Mass Δ7SE [1+ 0. using actual values wherever possible and empirical formulae when the actual mass is not known.846 = 25717.035 L (B + T) + 0.Tech (NA$SB). After designing the general arrangement plan. the lightship mass is estimated more accurately.3 Final Mass Estimation 6. = ΔSE + ΔWO + ΔEP. B.85L (D-T) + 250 19030.3.2 Procedure The light ship mass is split up into various components and their masses are estimated using empirical formulae and summed up.44 E = 1500 – 40000 for tankers Take K = 0.36 K E = = = 0.

3.81 –CB) (L/D) 2).01D (46.9 – 634.Tech (NA$SB).6 = 25083. Volume of superstructure = 9472 m3 ∴Mass of superstructure = 0.1 Steel Mass Steel mass can be divided into mass of superstructure and that of continuous material. 31694. B.9t 6. frequency convertor &MSB + Weight of Pod + Weight of Auxiliary machinery (3*Cummins Model 1400 GQKA) + Weight of boiler& pump etc 975 + 174 + (662*2) + (3 x 60) + 150 2803 t = ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP.5). VCG = 30. 6.4 Distribution of Masses to Find Centre of Gravity LCG is measured from AP and VCG from keel.“Department of Ship Technology. L ≤ = 0.008D(L/B – 6.89. CUSAT.5 Engine Plant mass ΔEP = = = Light ship weight = Weight of Main engine & generator + Weight of transformer.8 t 6. = 10.01D (46. 4.135(0.6 + 0. Batch – XXIX” 6.4 Wood and Outfit Mass = Co× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for ΔOU Helipad and helicopter) Co =0.6 + 0.135(0.78) (Calculated by AutoCAD Drawing with some geometrical assumptions) 120 m COG of continuous material: VCG hull = 0.3.24 [35] = 3173.6 t ∴Mass of continuous material = Mass of steel – Mass of super structure = 25717.3 t Mass of superstructure is assumed to act at its centroid (LCG = 36.81 – CB) (L/D) 2) + 0.067 × 9472 = 634.96 m 110 120 m < L [35] .

6 10.00 11.78 25083.5 Determination of COG of Steel Mass LCG of Steel mass VCG of Steel mass = = 123. LCG hull LCG VCG = = = ITEM Super structure Longitudinal continuous material TOTAL 125. 4.6 m 125.96 m from keel MASS(t) LCG from AP(m) VCG keel(m) 634.50 8.89 30. propeller shaft mass. main engine mass.96 25717.27 6.2 Engine plant mass The engine plant mass is divided into propeller mass.90 34.6 36.93 6.30 0.70 7.“Department of Ship Technology.3 125.45 Table 6.Tech (NA$SB). Batch – XXIX” The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight is assumed to be located at mid of length over all.41 11. CUSAT. & remainder mass Item Main engine Electric equipment Pod and propeller Aux engine Boiler and pump Total Mass (t) 975 174 1324 180 150 2803 LCG(m) 21.6 m from AP 10.06 .00 33.9 123.6 Determination of COG of machinery 111 VCG(m) 7. B.79 Table 6.00 16.41 m 11.45 m 6. as ship is highly strengthened in fwd and aft to meet with operational requirements.00 8.

3 Wood and outfit mass VCG = D + 1.25. and 37.9 66.06 TOTAL 31694.42m3 7152. 4. Volume of boiler oil.6 11. hence the design is satisfactory.9 125. Volume of washing water Available capacity Cargo Capacity = Ballast water Capacity = HFO tank Capacity = DFO tank Capacity = Boiler fuel tank Capacity = LO tank Capacity = Capacity of FW tank = Capacity of washing water tank= 7154 m3 786 m3 373 m3 241 m3 30 m3 131 m3 168096 m3 = = = = = = = 174294.46 12. L ≤ 125 m = D + 1.25 + 0.63 Table 6. Volume of diesel oil. 112 .1 m3 797.7 Determination of COG of Light Ship 6.01(L-125). B. 125 < L ≤ 250 m = D + 2.Tech (NA$SB).26m [35] LCG = (25% Wo at LCGM. CUSAT.5% at LCG dh.09 26.17 m3 50841.44 m3 All the available capacities of tanks is more than the required.“Department of Ship Technology. Volume of lube oil Volume of fresh water.5 Required capacity: Volume of HFO.79 8. Batch – XXIX” 6.45 Wood & Outfit 3173.42 m3 247 m3 32 m3 132. 250 m < L = 26.09 m ITEM MASS(t) LCG from AP(m) VCG keel(m) Steel 25717. Volume of washing water.26 Engine Plant 2803 11. 37.50.4 m3 379.5% at amidships) [35] LCG = 66.8 107.

Tech (NA&SB). CUSAT.Department of Ship technology. B. Batch – XXIX”   CHAPTER 7 DETAILED TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS         .

The position of the transverse metacentre varies with the draft. Batch – XXIX” 7. is the transverse metacentric height (often called “Initial Stability” ) and is used as an index of stability for the preparation of stability curves. the position of centre of gravity “KG” . the vertical centre of gravity position above the keel point “K”. B. The centre of gravity of a vessel decreases directly when the positioning of weights is lower and increases when positioning of weights is higher.Tech (NA$SB).. water etc. The distance “GM". On the other hand. the draft is determined and the “KMT" value obtained from the Hydrostatic Curves or tables. the point “M”. CUSAT.1 TRANSVERSE STABILITY For small angles of inclination (heel) of the order of 4 or 5 degrees. 113 . depends on the nature & distribution of oil. displacement.“Department of Ship Technology. The center of buoyancy has moved off the vessel’s centerline as the result of inclination. The location of the metacentre has neither to do with the nature nor the distribution of weights onboard. which is in the vessel’s centreline plane. “GZ”. the waterlines before inclination and after inclination intersect at the same point on the vertical centreline of the vessel. The transverse metacentric height is given by the relation: GM = KMT – KG If the displacement of the vessel in the light condition is known. The transverse met centric position for small angles of inclination above the keel point “K”. For small angles of inclination. at a point “M” called the transverse metacentre. A vertical line through the centre of buoyancy will intersect the original vertical through the centre of buoyancy. Corresponding to this displacement. keeping the emerged and immersed volume of water equal. between the vessel’s centre of gravity ‘G’ and M’ when angle of heel is zero degrees. the righting arm. i.e. will remain practically stationary with respect to the vessel’s centreline. can be calculated by taking the vertical moments (weight of the item * centre of gravity of the item) of all items on board and dividing the sum of these moments by the total weight. and the lines along which the resultants of weight and buoyancy act are separated by a distance. denoted as “KG”. denoted as “KM".

Tech (NA$SB). the metacentric height must always be positive and its value must be able to comply with statutory requirements.“Department of Ship Technology.GG0 To maintain positive stability. 21. reducing the righting arm and thus the stability is adversely affected by the “free surface effect". denoted as “GG0 ". as the vessel is inclined. CUSAT. B..2 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY The longitudinal stability of a vessel usually poses no problem as the longitudinal metacentric position is much higher than the center of gravity position The longitudinal metacentre is similar to the transverse metacentre except that it involves longitudinal inclinations. This shift in the liquid causes the vessel’s centre of gravity to move towards the lower side. KGO =KG + GG0 The transverse metacentric height (corrected) is given by. the centre of gravity of the liquid shifts towards one side. but may move forward and aft with changes in draft. the center of buoyancy at various even keel waterlines doesn’t always lie in a fixed transverse plane.”KG "is given by the simple relation. G0M = KMT -KG0 = GM . 114 .e. the transverse metacentre must lie above the centre of gravity i. is divided by the displacement of the vessel to obtain the Free Surface Correction. Since vessel is usually not symmetrical forward and aft. the longitudinal metacentre is defined as the intersection of a vertical line through the center of buoyancy in the even keel position with a vertical line through the position of the center of buoyancy after the vessel has been inclined longitudinally through small angles. not pressed full. Batch – XXIX” The motion of the liquid in a partially filled tank reduces the vessel’s stability because. For a given even keel waterline. The sum of the free surface moments of all liquid items in tanks. 7. The new vertical centre of gravity is denoted as “G” and its position above keel. described in page no.

by aft. must be. B. like the transverse. the vessel will trim by aft.. if present. “LCF”. in which case the vessel will trim by forward or aft. denoted as “LCF”. The “LCB”.Tech (NA$SB). Hence. DRAFTS AND TRIM: The draft “T”. then trim by aft is more recommendable than trim by forward. corresponding to the displacement. the vessel will trim by forward and if the “LCB” is forward of the “LCG” .Tf = ((LCB – LCG) X Displacement ) / (100 X MCT1cm ) Positive “t” implies trim by aft & negative “t” implies trim by forward. is given by: t = T a . is the draft at the longitudinal centre of flotation. and its distance above the vessels center of gravity is called the longitudinal metacentric height. Batch – XXIX” The longitudinal metacentre. oil. obtained from the Hydrostatic Curves or Tables. respectively. etc. 115 . as far as possible.“Department of Ship Technology. In the departure condition the trim. It must be noted that if it is not possible to avoid trim. freshwater. is substantially fixed with respect to the vessel for moderate angles of inclination if there is no abrupt change in the shape of the vessel in the vicinity of waterline. the draft at the fore peak of waterline “Tf " and the draft at the aft peak “T a " will not be equal. i. If the “LCG” is forward of the “LCB”.e. CUSAT. the vessel will “trim“. must be uniform to keep the trim as little as possible and towards aft. and “MCT1cm" (moment to change trim by 1cm) are all obtained from the Hydrostatic Tables The drafts at the extreme ends of waterline are given by the algebraic relation: Ta = T + t * LCF / LBP Tf = T + t * (LCF-LWL) / LBP The position of “LCG” depends on whether the weights are placed more concentrated in the forward or aft of the vessel. the distribution of cargo. The longitudinal centre of gravity “LCG” is obtained by dividing the net longitudinal moment by the displacement. denoted as “t”. If the longitudinal centre of buoyancy “LCB” position does not coincide with “LCG” position. The total trim.

CUSAT. B.Tech (NA$SB). Batch – XXIX” 7. Under these circumstances.1 Weather criteria curves 116 θ . 4. area “ b” should be greater than or equal to area “a”.3 WEATHER CRITERION ACCORDING TO IMO RES. 2. The ship is then subjected to a gust wind pressure which results in a gust wind heeling lever (lw2) 3. θ θ θ Fig 7.“Department of Ship Technology. From the resultant angle of equilibrium (θ0). the ship is assumed to roll owing to wave action to an angle of roll (θ1) to windward. The ship is subjected to a steady wind pressure acting perpendicular to the ship’s centreline which results in a steady wind heeling lever (lw1) 1. A 749 (18) The ability of a ship to withstand the combined effects of beam wind & rolling should be demonstrated for each standard condition of loading. Free surface effect should be accounted for in the standard conditions of loading.

superstructures or deckhouses which cannot be closed watertight. whichever is less θf= Angle of heel at which openings in the hull. r = 0. Batch – XXIX” The angles are defined as follows: θ0 = Angle of heel under action of steady wind.5 * lw1 Where: P= 504 N/m2 A= Projected lateral area of the portion of the ship above waterline in m2. -ve. X1. Z= Vertical distance from the centre of the projected lateral area (A) to the centre of underwater lateral area or approximately to a point at one half the draft in metres. The wind heeling levers lw1 and lw2 are constant values at all angles of inclinations and should be calculated as follows: lw1 = P * A * Z / (1000 * g * Δ (m) lw2 = 1. g= Acceleration due to gravity (g = 9. k & s are factors given in tables 7. CUSAT. B. X2. θ1 = Angle of roll to windward due to wave action θ2= Angle of down flooding ( θf ) or 50 degrees or θc . θc= Angle of second intercept between wind heeling lever ( lw2 ) and GZ curves.1 below. k is a factor depending on type of bilge construction.Tech (NA$SB). Δ= Displacement of the ship in tonnes.6 OG/d OG = distance between centre of gravity and the waterline in metres (+ ve if center of gravity is above WL.“Department of Ship Technology.81 m/s2) The angle of roll (θ1) should be calculated as follows θ1= 109 * k * X1 * X2 * √(r * s) (degrees) Where.73 + 0. if it is below) d= mean draught of the ship (m) 117 .

0 0.93 2.79 Table 7.98 2.00 0.00 1.50 0.97 ≥ 3.89 3.72 ≥ 4.00 16.5 X1 1.038 (Intermediate values in tables should be obtained by linear interpolation) ≥ 20.50 0.75 0.2 0.82 0.88 2. CUSAT.00 0.00 S 0.00 0. or sum of these areas (m2) GM= metacentric height corrected for free surface effect (m) Values of factor X1 B/d ≤ 2.5 0.044 0.00 0.00 18. The symbols in the above tables and formula for the rolling period are defined as follows: L= waterline length of the ship (m) B= moulded breadth of the ship (m) d= mean moulded draft of the ship (m) CB = block coefficient Ak= total overall area of bilge keels.86 0.043 (L / 100).70 1. Batch – XXIX” Rolling period T = 2CB / √ GM (s) Where C= 0.96 2.00 14.093 0.00 3.4 2.00 ≤ 6.95 2.50 0.70 Values of factor s T 7.Tech (NA$SB).023 (B/d) .45 X2 0.95 Values of factor X2 Cb ≤ 0. K and s 118 3.98 2.82 Values of factor k Ak × 100 / L × B 0.6 0.65 0.88 3.90 0.91 3.4 0.373 + 0.55 0.00 12.80 ≥ 0.00 0.00 0.0.“Department of Ship Technology.9 0.74 .098 0.7 0.053 0.00 K 1.065 0.60 0.8 0.95 3.1 Table for X1.00 8.1 0.100 0.50 0. or area of the lateral projection of the bar keel.035 1. B. X2.

58 13. DECK IMMERSION & DRAFT PARTICULARS Draft(m) Deck Immersion(Deg) Down Flooding(Deg) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 42 39 36 33 29 26 22 28 23 9 65 63 60 58 55 52 47 43 37 30 Table 7.26 13.2 WINDAGE AREA TABLE DOWNFLOODING ANGLE.16 13.42 Table 7.2 17.16 16.42 Half Draft m 13.“Department of Ship Technology.23 13.3 119 .87 24.23 18.87 14. Batch – XXIX” VCG Above Draft Wind area m 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 m2 6126 5604 5086 4574 4064 3553 3024 2485 1935 1381 Base line m 14.12 13.58 22.26 19.4 21. B.4 13.Tech (NA$SB).12 15.3 13.2 13.3 20. CUSAT.

279 141.494 2002.329 22.488 20.649 141.275 21.5 4 4.989 1927.81 1946.007 140.679 20.27 119.5 15 15.27 50751.34 109.5 94728.935 4.278 1800.486 3.897 51.6 157680 163615.928 57.821 110.44 21.391 141.77 114.923 22.7 193686.244 110.5 13 13.586 141.617 142.379 MCT1cm (tm) 1548.6 187624.52 67052.509 27.2 117291.232 8.476 114.592 143.786 130.991 2273.504 140. B.416 108.906 140.047 2380.362 4.421 2116.875 3.721 120 TPC (t) 101. CUSAT.657 1757.032 149.5 6 6.156 45.5 5 5.655 111.178 23.Tech (NA$SB).326 1816.644 8.791 7.5 14 14.977 1990.819 118.07 72545.926 20.645 106.72 24.367 35.8 134483.5 7 7.345 103.625 107.882 28.823 4.5 Disp (t) 24468.926 1708.4 140231.075 129.055 146.454 1735.508 105.727 23.799 147.356 134.516 113.6 151806.686 136.324 6.3 Hydrostatic table for trimmed condition Hydrostatic properties(trim=-2m Fwd) (Tables 7.933 8.367 9.056 6.167 3.01 1870.875 141.163 5.896 132.13 139.223 2.682 139.163 140.984 1639.08 144.24 29593.13 56152.5 3 3.739 1779.871 129.101 104.004 1.57 20.“Department of Ship Technology.89 112.525 152.483 5.858 1.395 2249.544 8.335 136.5 8 8.093 108.215 138.7 169583 175572.311 145.38 61586.422 140.19 135.848 143.739 135.868 7.813 20.724 115.066 20.5 17 17.5 11 11.198 7.536 130.133 141.65 1888.585 .643 130.813 5.857 2299.943 139.64 133.301 130.548 117.744 38.164 113.992 138.205 139.5 16 16.729 109.2 105948 111604.64 83596.255 LCF(m) (m) 142.58 1857.4 LCB KB(m) (m) (m) 155.993 135.91 41.3 128741.395 1597.7 123008.5 9 9.502 29.45 100324.86 89153.224 120.735 120.881 6.591 21.6 145994.468 138.827 119.424 20.331 25.973 134.056 137.1 40065.334 2046.336 143.423 138.2 78060.287 148.567 145.435 136.415 111.6 181586.374 31.302 1843.4) Draft (m) 2.173 5.369 1674.543 147.323 3.34 26.36 142.5 12 12.267 114.178 1907.94 2.599 6.65 34798.441 24.777 151.966 2354.769 138.993 21.104 142.383 1963.798 131.6 45386.679 139.506 7.823 144.947 2191.841 2.622 114.995 136.73 138.537 4.379 116.69 137.325 1976.5 10 10.629 33.595 2326.731 1830.048 111. Batch – XXIX” 7.971 142.166 KMT (m) 66.698 121.917 2.

188 1752.459 20.852 29.789 137.73 112.75 10.74 2369.527 139.298 138.25 14.365 LCF(m) (m) 141.238 5.789 139.089 107.681 130.62 36842.721 2037.664 2.75 12.146 144.982 6.1 160217.196 106.75 17.05 8.75 16.94 69243.78 80284.588 129.1 166177.7 148428.269 40.25 8.25 6.75 14.25 3.731 130.75 7.631 145.562 1959.978 2.113 4.25 5.868 108.3 LCB KB(m) (m) (m) 149.444 121 TPCI (t) 103.026 20.25 7.467 135.651 30.539 114.25 11.903 20.098 114.079 136.756 4.838 3.73 58301.339 117.183 .407 136.785 1903.9 125363.493 140.378 3.977 132.257 2106.023 140.241 7.849 21.25 13.75 11.5 154291.75 139.761 129.5) Draft (m) 3.24 112.3 184194.116 147.794 5.158 135.144 110.666 2344.26 85836.171 22.2 172159.4 142624. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.524 120.88 1976. CUSAT.747 32.481 140.75 8.839 138.479 138.097 5.948 25.175 143.Tech (NA$SB).762 22.969 121.374 146.839 137.639 1662.126 1869.“Department of Ship Technology.68 63757.538 109.75 9.508 5.98 23.105 2291.702 114.25 15.267 139.715 1856.086 1726.25 4.25 12.475 2.069 1989.347 3.442 2317.081 134.626 2001.577 138.535 20.689 142.421 137.462 2267.563 110.008 139.974 7.241 49.34 74752.751 140.202 141.418 4.25 9.686 119.314 138.191 21.596 118.475 23.361 1842.536 1884.889 113.75 Disp (t) 31599.945 142.731 6.94 96998.034 2180.1 131108.285 116.644 9.494 4.977 129.957 1813.077 1923.174 8.099 139.889 145.498 114.717 141.903 3.678 110.97 111.221 129.052 138.363 MCT1cm (tm) 1625.404 144.43 KMT (m) 55.747 8.973 25.75 4.71 1697.661 143.544 23.752 135.104 2243.681 7. B.283 21.443 2.39 997714.73 133.75 15.26 52877.74 47490.775 1774.75 6.918 143.5 m for'd) (Tables 7.932 2396.9 190247.138 24.859 148.432 142.709 136.8 136861.9 178165.628 1.255 107.048 120.756 20.945 135.369 37.75 13.336 111.25 16.102 137.75 5.578 120.165 109.25 10.336 28.456 8.459 141.643 1795.401 20.1 196322.599 141.812 115.276 34.079 44.904 9.49 91407.026 1941.975 140.9 113927 119630.48 130.709 1829.949 105.468 21.5 108252.049 26.234 140.25 17.486 6.154 137.633 20.364 7.45 42142.13 119.832 131.

5 174750.082 1650.589 1883.819 140.214 2.479 140.703 1.466 144.336 5.531 141.159 2260.794 121.691 8.428 114.161 137.372 138.2 127729.5 17 17.7 145054.232 113.222 4.095 1685.373 23.846 1791.796 2360.29 82520 88087.322 108.559 25.895 3.687 137.4 110571 116261.7 156823.841 7.132 1955.547 4.051 139.5 14 14.758 47.207 137.636 138.75 93674.5 13 13.2 133486.303 140.355 120.247 1841.746 1899.947 145.72 130.1 1973.854 106.5 16 16.5 5 5.22 104.606 .045 141.242 143.875 2237.95 137.706 20.899 129.273 3.166 129.213 LCF(m) (m) 141.6 121982.26 111.707 135.44 119.9 180772.679 130. CUSAT.895 2.784 23.246 8.136 2.432 20.56 5.805 5.305 116.841 1743.5 12 12.11 55021.024 22.978 109.84 20.76 49611.13 21.921 138.964 8.913 4.273 141.619 4.36 1868. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.637 2.903 131.899 138.417 136.537 108.244 28.59 65944.854 139.0 m for'd) (Tables 7.527 109.652 112.687 3.22 60467.277 33.547 118.147 132.214 117.569 2335.715 139.131 1937.112 36.714 21.888 137.2 186816 192881.13 44240.503 20.235 KMT (m) 60.375 118. B.905 115.7 162776.5 10 10.Tech (NA$SB).64 24.363 21.784 114.105 6.166 136.337 139.421 2032.607 113.005 20.983 143.905 135.657 129.113 139.465 110.989 119.593 20.677 105.84 71446.854 24.374 138.52 137.195 42.48 129.419 7.256 23.75 33633.31 122 TPCI (t) 103.016 142.052 112.508 141.702 1.139 21.187 1715.538 7.885 6.5 142.312 1826.3 139252.428 8.74 76972.688 146.561 140.143 7.892 120.204 2168.828 27.753 2309.328 6.032 1769.5 11 11.745 107.931 31.422 1810.509 1988.885 111.54 99281.071 52.05 104910.826 134.291 2096.5 8 8.019 140.681 39.793 136.207 145.5 4 4.383 MCT1cm (tm) 1606.936 30.9 168752.7 150907.5 Disp (t) 28421.71 38911.19 134.644 2284.526 138.596 139.599 22.724 144.5 9 9.758 142.788 141.426 130.999 110.826 114.064 5.6) Draft (m) 3 3.424 137.844 1855.686 2385.5 6 6.129 135.62 26.“Department of Ship Technology.509 135.5 7 7.078 140.176 9.5 15 15.805 2001.8 LCB KB(m) (m) (m) 147.278 1918.664 6.

998 138.851 119.3 195528.002 4.597 21.252 4.56 101576.759 4.837 6.965 35.332 138.4 171341.472 20.379 109.591 24.5 46355.326 LCF(m) (m) 140.5 107223.987 108. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=-0.82 35692.936 20.152 31.319 110.56 114.221 1913.961 138.113 129.667 135.301 119.858 141.41 20.515 1732.333 2278.2 153435.25 6.636 1759.864 135.639 5.6 112901 118608.89 1838.2 135875.802 1898.466 135.193 25.273 137.036 2158.75 9.776 109.“Department of Ship Technology.71 57181.095 2091.3 159381.538 45.223 37.781 144.25 17.845 129.663 20.51 41002.928 1932.516 .159 114.267 134.891 22.75 5.7 165350.298 7.75 Disp (t) 30444.12 2.374 140.726 8.75 16.65 51748.92 2328.203 118.849 110.182 139.79 111.521 4.008 105.75 14.086 3.98 84767.193 8.201 129.76 90350.313 133.75 12.785 1705.799 136.822 142.208 120.503 KMT (m) 57.285 21.982 21.116 141.966 113.819 1987.84 95953.382 41.288 5.257 29.632 140.747 137.625 121.33 24.598 23.25 16.258 136.3 183392 189449.664 139.044 2.599 141.222 138.75 8.229 117.513 3.25 12.75 6.37 106.01 137.25 9.8 177356.779 130.583 7.25 6.75 13.974 112.563 142.303 143.189 111.442 6.459 9.362 33.25 4.718 1854.063 136.482 140.88 136.215 22.903 2254.75 17.86 68144.254 137.629 130.39 62649.007 7.574 129.25 8.75 15.923 139.205 26.436 21.25 15.406 139.52 1867.25 11.41 73662.119 20.356 27.442 139.05 23.922 134.779 1806.03 123 TPCI (t) 104.25 3.79 3.549 2.25 10.002 139. B.75 7.148 140.614 1968.056 6.575 111.6 130106.743 2.75 10.89 140.5 m for'd) (Tables 7.082 131.241 2230.558 20.874 140.835 1672.376 129.7 LCB KB(m) (m) (m) 144.995 1822.7) Draft (m) 3.536 136.181 2028.41 118.38 79203.958 1882.369 MCT1cm (tm) 1631.001 115.484 138.341 141.737 1950.701 138.25 5.378 112.694 9.666 139.061 5.761 115.746 2376.939 8.845 5.503 136.576 138.403 3.9 141679.064 121.25 7.619 137.147 2001.082 50. CUSAT.042 143.404 107.68 28.624 1.123 135.759 120.337 116.456 8.56 2401.785 20.059 2351.75 4.905 1786.938 137.75 11.1 147529.334 2302.3 124345.081 142.25 13.374 130.Tech (NA$SB).194 107.25 14.

7 103885 109549.111 141.164 119.767 140.733 137.972 135.545 1776.443 3.689 2392.523 20.5 17 17.645 139.631 1946.266 1749.059 2024.881 2.061 129.566 43.44 LCF(m) (m) 140.143 2153.374 116.231 109.897 112.94 75890.293 129.922 128.46 139.572 140.697 106.042 24.828 135.1 126721.582 2321.918 34.62 1.143 2.262 131.195 140.425 135.777 KMT (m) 62.25 1654.346 23.225 137.5 4 4.668 137.856 141.208 135.85 107.404 2. CUSAT.282 138.736 4.3 186025 192095.333 7.678 136.852 21.745 124 TPCI (t) 103.199 135.618 139.913 9.591 136.087 120.103 2224.65 48487. B.714 119.229 1722.579 138.5 161953.896 121.095 128.736 2344.59 92626.062 106.098 115.225 1867.294 113.437 109.273 139.952 138.248 117.323 130.629 29.415 138.961 4.3 112.09 59358.331 139.917 26.953 139.2 173946 179975.893 114.455 137.752 KB (m) 1.174 140.392 30.475 133.179 1964.913 138.268 1912.7 138299 144150.86 8.069 22.106 2367.899 36.507 21.707 113.33 104.997 137.627 135.319 1695.625 1835.275 118.5 8 8.664 2.021 134.621 120.“Department of Ship Technology.506 111.177 9.5 9 9.581 130.183 3.77 6.Tech (NA$SB).36 1851.117 2272.984 137.414 54.35 136.53 32493.875 20.702 110.029 6.382 140.493 115.5 5 5.188 2086.721 140.335 121.955 1928.645 108.548 6.556 2417.994 5.012 139.5 7 7.3 198188.446 20.157 27.38 70355.33 37775.188 136.829 139.5 14 14.274 21.52 53903.764 .17 110.962 130. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(Even keel condition) (Tables 7.726 1819.1 150051.39 141.736 20.924 3.642 111.596 7.219 4.854 25.225 135.9 LCB (m) 142.511 5.98 87027.972 136.744 138.289 6.303 137.5 6 6.672 39.294 1882.521 32.252 5.63 1803.09 81447.089 138.053 2296.5 10 10.123 8.5 13 13.216 118.626 20.5 15 15.328 1982.36 MCT1cm (tm) 1613.849 23.929 136.5 18 Disp (t) 27279.64 98245.515 129.616 141.37 64845.07 7.5 11 11.426 23.65 8.3 132494.211 1897.5 12 12.768 22.435 136.5 167938.1 120967.702 3.043 20.796 2248.362 48.626 138.568 2001.792 129.393 20.481 120.803 25.118 111.478 4.3 115243.387 8.246 21.8) Draft (m) 3 3.9 155991.5 16 16.967 140.809 7.54 43111.

492 110. B.889 109.861 1863.072 1996.095 108.25 12.029 9.591 22.639 125 TPCI (t) 104.183 7.75 13.737 137.029 3.628 114.8 117597.981 134.43 25.167 121.25 9.548 3.715 137.277 130.773 24.7 194753.915 135.026 51.821 20.75 11.662 23.505 107.224 139.289 3.089 1927.301 1816.9 176562.011 129.25 6.043 138.708 1739.396 137.184 134.062 136.018 105.“Department of Ship Technology.883 136.898 1978.293 LCF(m) (m) 140.255 2315. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=0.695 20.353 139.25 14.741 129.833 2360.269 117.658 6.765 9.871 137.55 110.75 16.359 5.3 123338.75 10.7 78130.753 121.586 20.157 1847.261 KB (m) 1.75 7.695 2408.902 138.9) Draft (m) 3.92 7.541 2020.4 140766.05 1959.877 6.251 1793.034 113.456 21.593 135.299 139.146 135.235 129.13 38.425 20.4 146668.325 4.538 24.02 72579.303 108.769 3.711 7.75 Disp (t) 29317.9 182605.25 5.974 8.688 30.541 42.75 14.786 2290.475 26.16 56074.671 27.066 2265.25 7.63 136.147 138.57 138.155 1832.884 .36 139.38 137.77 130.24 139.575 138.664 31.8 152606.961 33.226 112.842 5.712 1942.25 17.581 119.725 1.145 130.656 1912.447 7.227 114.84 34566.7 106205.25 15.137 6.348 138.139 139.937 138.948 120.75 8.397 6.795 139.832 115.269 2148.483 119.25 10.987 2.61 KMT (m) 59.026 119.238 8.25 13.268 22.684 136.023 110.142 136.506 1711.36 120.9 111886.394 139.689 135.976 20.471 135.25 4.9 188668.008 137.25 8.695 35.75 12.232 138.127 23.701 138.046 28.433 111.381 MCT1cm (tm) 1635.8 134914.98 45237.4 164539.634 133.421 116.172 2219.Tech (NA$SB).618 5.25 16.41 89299.25 61549.509 2.968 111.386 135.385 106.189 2383.579 137.25 11.749 21.967 46.88 67053.7 50636.816 128.164 20.033 137.465 129.75 17.4 158561.172 139.296 135. CUSAT.284 118.233 118.527 1676.75 9.066 4.432 138.826 112.05 83704.289 138.75 4.75 15.2 129108.25 3.1 170539.248 2.441 132.585 2242.823 138.5m aft) (Tables 7.28 100550.13 21.565 139.176 1766.914 135.584 4.491 1896.912 2081.101 5.807 4.395 139.936 22.502 8.14 39878.341 2337.75 5.918 1881.493 20.013 128.4 LCB (m) 139.99 94915.384 136.75 6.629 113.

767 137.734 37.078 137.88 2076.064 26.755 134.11 97216.726 40.352 5.987 134.10) KB LCF(m) (m) (m) 1.247 134.554 112.389 4.617 138.753 108.667 6.414 8.32 91585.375 135.231 137.146 128.468 20.397 138.049 135.819 135.Tech (NA$SB).963 114.5 15 15.63 118.345 110.505 28.5 5 5.5 16 16.7 125721.915 137.692 136.563 129.754 44.3 108538.286 1895.1 LCB (m) 136.542 2259.025 121.236 120.013 21.662 137.5 18 Disp (t) 31380.023 2331.371 MCT1cm (tm) 1657.0m aft) Draft (m) 3.5 13 13.851 2.867 110.916 20.954 107.368 113.955 8.956 134.137 138.358 126 TPCI (t) 104.335 137.546 109.45 52801.437 137.779 137.122 1828.243 24.294 118.951 136.508 133.013 2309.966 7.882 128.5 8 8.941 6.735 9.545 137.306 111.174 2.357 139.685 21.5 11 11.327 7.732 137.089 20.52 36661.442 4.22 47380.897 136.551 20.476 1926.88 KMT (m) 56.41 20.626 6.1 4.022 136.433 136.047 2425.873 31.656 137.827 129.49 23.6 185249.2 167139.618 128.925 113.705 105.727 135.3 191325.003 5.56 (Tables 7.525 3.877 138.301 .788 1911.924 23.597 35.77 132.773 20.5 14 14.871 2284.5 131525 137378 143281.1 173155.31 63753.036 32.5 17 17.209 135.347 119.594 135.651 5.5 155174.356 137.653 20.097 139.631 2.5 9 9.359 7.68 137.226 116.263 109.122 22.5 6 6.634 121.298 117.65 80382.034 130.145 5.533 9.072 3.25 118.639 1860.579 1694.864 1782.064 2376.857 2354.565 115.531 137.8 114236.39 2241.269 3.6 179192.812 120.433 22.082 25.521 136.613 137.96 41999.282 2400.443 121.729 137.888 1807.163 134.468 135.931 1728.806 2143.764 3.203 27.513 23.454 1755.751 112.674 137.154 112.819 111.091 129.“Department of Ship Technology.968 106.076 49.766 137. CUSAT.237 2214.691 8.179 8.96 7.4 161145.354 129.73 136.93 102868.48 58261.1 149222.152 1955.882 1941.999 2014.174 137.55 69272.836 1973.5 7 7.801 22. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.488 1844.299 130.836 139.037 29.5 12 12.41 128.285 136.127 137.5 10 10.688 1991.895 119.5 4 4.72 74815.772 4.2 119963.8 197424.609 1878. B.83 85973.359 2.356 21.

095 135.7 116598 122342.331 22.301 21.397 MCT1cm (tm) 1632.75 7.672 111.989 3.75 13.08 44136.177 136.165 117.671 22.158 32.823 136.554 1969.98 38776.007 135. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.5 88255.573 34.867 135.752 26.97 1772.445 135.474 136.964 24.865 113.416 7.628 112.52 82648.318 139.908 121.449 20.11) Draft (m) 3.75 14.887 2278.526 136.999 137.257 21.75 9.092 39.121 128.527 2258.185 137.232 135.736 23.563 136.07 1892.33 49540.023 20.818 134.38 99531.461 134.045 135.838 6.25 14.364 135.301 114.402 108.887 7.248 3.479 135.276 118.678 128.661 133.303 121.933 116.8 145834 151789.31 33466.549 1926.25 17.759 24.475 136.142 30.813 136.4 LCB (m) 133.875 1744.25 3.98 22.098 6.802 5.106 120.818 2325.75 17.218 119.516 120.25 127 TPCI (t) 103.05 KB (m) 1.657 135.717 KMT (m) 60.425 134.32 5.267 23.498 1797.487 136.692 1.25 11.342 136.15 93883.73 77064.25 10.209 8.75 10.75 6.411 136.747 1857.594 110.681 25.615 20.215 2302.6 169753.75 12.884 2348.023 134.903 134.681 7.737 9 9.3 163743.96 109.026 4.03 129.269 136.8 137.306 118.935 21.25 13.253 136.75 15.39 71504.354 1940.5 110883.473 138.75 4.14 136.522 20.204 108.585 21.704 114.25 15.788 138.061 5.544 4.077 112.75 8.459 47.576 1840.856 105.904 119.491 137.699 2416.579 5.619 134.147 130.18 54983.23 2392.285 4.523 .597 2008.518 131.75 11.25 5.359 6.25 6.25 7.35 105197.976 138.581 136.25 9.467 36.647 129.47 2. CUSAT.211 2.547 136.43 60460.863 20.508 3.“Department of Ship Technology.289 2370.3 175783.729 135.655 43.457 130.728 20.978 2138.218 113.5m aft) (Tables 7.723 132.638 1987.473 8.152 7.111 134.307 2069.73 2.25 8.452 128.75 Disp (t) 28222.344 106.282 2241.576 136.951 2.484 112.393 135.363 129.264 LCF(m) (m) 139.969 1819.7 133985 139888.434 29 27.9 181834.7 187904.945 8.2 128132.39 136.25 16.898 128.809 2209.91 65969.75 16.07 136.914 1677.727 118.185 110.285 1711.676 120.594 1910.435 1875.911 53.9 193995.4 157756.235 134.172 111.767 4.795 1954.145 138.Tech (NA$SB). B.75 5.25 4.452 107.25 12.622 6.

292 2061.255 1728.197 118.5 12 12.241 134.951 6. B.5 16 16.813 20.43 134.44 1907.54 35573.536 7.521 135.74 134.34 73749.056 133.015 KMT (m) 57.992 1983.59 1954.7 154370 160352.026 111.814 135.875 133.601 1761.Tech (NA$SB).405 112.5 5 5.563 23.586 2.8 8.754 41.845 3.819 138.356 KB (m) 1.97 96194.362 3.959 2342.5 14 14.696 129.394 1925.5 18 Disp (t) 30298.964 20.581 33.474 2258.328 8.169 127.32 129.872 106.692 5.549 105.19 46290.5 11 11.598 138.18 22.119 2319.856 9.326 25.87 134.861 135.378 2364.648 131.344 31.286 1967.847 22.34 2435.332 26.94 2276.756 51.352 1788.187 121.42 101857.92 110.46 79326.803 113.47 135.301 2132.526 133.456 24.9 166356 172380.12) Draft (m) 3.753 1889.65 133.857 117.064 8.389 120.692 24.138 134.212 6.129 129.433 5.214 134.486 1810.977 120.466 135.0m aft) (Tables 7.509 111.5 148400.2 119.77 68197.5 9 9.57 40907.1 190573.179 135.006 7.939 128 TPCI (t) 104.851 136.5 6 6.5 7 7.8 142440.915 5.174 5.384 LCF(m) (m) 138.75 2409.046 23.327 1871.019 45.917 107.5 4 4.65 84926.686 20.328 2.549 135.997 134.139 4.5 8 8.592 8.257 135.406 138.023 .49 57178.113 133.5 107538.178 134.42 135.813 2.279 133.07 2.549 119.19 51716.834 21.449 2386.517 136.295 109.147 132. CUSAT.839 128.577 134.956 112.307 35.467 29.642 109.73 137.689 2204.12 9.3 113240.085 135.79 121.2 178424.209 21.506 27.104 3.9 118972 124746.69 62672.829 2297.433 20.552 22.065 128.554 135.618 38.5 15 15.647 115.474 21.5 184489.527 114.74 7.189 136.4 196678.1 LCB (m) 131.042 114.621 3.321 135.623 128.522 137.914 137.154 113.787 2241.5 13 13.456 1831.397 4.557 130.849 108.5 17 17.303 1940.“Department of Ship Technology.395 128.7 130587.5 10 10.388 MCT1cm (tm) 1653.38 135.75 132.111 137.959 1853.477 135.824 118.621 134.81 134.581 122.329 118.88 4.52 2002.876 28. Batch – XXIX” Hydrostatic properties(trim=2.656 4.173 20.541 135.93 90549.499 111.995 119.271 7.475 6.89 1694.582 20.699 133.744 138.9 136491.513 135.499 20.345 130.

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.4 CROSS CURVES (KN) TABLES

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -2m (Aft)
Disp(t)

5o

10o

15o

20o

30o

40o

50o

60o

70o

80o

25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

4.88
4.034
3.192
2.698
2.385
2.184
2.05
1.952
1.882
1.83
1.799
1.783

9.28
7.801
6.32
5.394
4.797
4.387
4.099
3.9
3.768
3.677
3.613
3.575

12.20
10.69
9.189
8.035
7.195
6.596
6.171
5.876
5.673
5.535
5.447
5.388

13.92
12.67
11.41
10.37
9.486
8.792
8.271
7.89
7.616
7.428
7.253
7.008

15.97
15.16
14.35
13.69
13.14
12.68
12.25
11.76
11.22
10.65
10.07
9.498

16.88
16.54
16.19
15.93
15.63
15.18
14.64
14.04
13.4
12.72
12.02
11.32

17.10
17.219
17.335
17.114
16.704
16.205
15.654
15.071
14.466
13.845
13.208
12.557

17.35
17.36
17.38
17.12
16.72
16.27
15.78
15.28
14.78
14.27
13.76
13.23

16.65
16.6
16.5
16.3
15.9
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.5
14.1
13.8
13.4

15.14
15.02
14.91
14.74
14.54
14.32
14.11
13.89
13.69
13.49
13.29
13.09

Tables 7.13

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -1.5m (Aft)
Disp(t)

5o

10o

15o

20o

30o

40o

50o

60o

70o

80o

25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

4.88
4.036
3.194
2.7
2.387
2.185
2.052
1.953
1.885
1.832
1.8
1.783

9.28
7.803
6.323
5.397
4.8
4.391
4.102
3.904
3.771
3.679
3.615
3.576

12.19
10.69
9.191
8.039
7.2
6.601
6.176
5.881
5.677
5.538
5.449
5.392

13.91
12.66
11.42
10.37
9.491
8.798
8.277
7.895
7.621
7.432
7.26
7.018

15.97
15.16
14.35
13.7
13.15
12.68
12.26
11.77
11.23
10.66
10.09
9.511

16.88
16.54
16.19
15.93
15.63
15.19
14.65
14.05
13.41
12.73
12.03
11.34

17.10
17.219
17.336
17.117
16.71
16.212
15.662
15.079
14.475
13.855
13.22
12.571

17.35
17.36
17.38
17.12
16.73
16.27
15.78
15.29
14.79
14.28
13.77
13.24

16.65
16.6
16.5
16.3
16
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.5
14.1
13.8
13.4

15.14
15.03
14.91
14.74
14.54
14.33
14.11
13.9
13.69
13.49
13.3
13.1

Tables 7.14

129

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -1.0 m (Aft)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.037
3.196
2.701
2.388
2.185
2.053
1.954
1.887
1.833
1.8
1.783

10o
9.28
7.805
6.326
5.4
4.802
4.394
4.105
3.907
3.773
3.681
3.616
3.576

15o
12.19
10.69
9.193
8.042
7.204
6.605
6.181
5.886
5.681
5.541
5.45
5.395

20o
13.91
12.66
11.42
10.37
9.496
8.804
8.283
7.9
7.625
7.436
7.267
7.027

30o
15.96
15.16
14.35
13.7
13.15
12.68
12.26
11.78
11.24
10.67
10.1
9.523

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.19
14.66
14.06
13.42
12.74
12.05
11.35

50o
17.10
17.219
17.336
17.12
16.715
16.219
15.669
15.087
14.484
13.865
13.232
12.585

60o
70o
80o
17.35 16.65 15.14
17.37
16.6 15.03
17.39
16.5 14.92
17.13
16.3 14.75
16.74
16 14.55
16.28
15.6 14.33
15.79
15.2 14.12
15.3
14.9
13.9
14.8
14.5
13.7
14.29
14.1
13.5
13.78
13.8
13.3
13.25
13.4 13.11

Tables 7.15

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -0.5m (Aft)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.038
3.197
2.703
2.39
2.187
2.054
1.956
1.889
1.834
1.8
1.783

10o
9.28
7.807
6.33
5.404
4.806
4.397
4.108
3.911
3.777
3.685
3.618
3.576

15o
12.18
10.69
9.194
8.047
7.209
6.61
6.185
5.89
5.685
5.544
5.453
5.397

20o
13.90
12.66
11.42
10.38
9.501
8.811
8.291
7.907
7.631
7.44
7.274
7.035

30o
15.96
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.69
12.27
11.79
11.25
10.68
10.11
9.533

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.2
14.67
14.07
13.43
12.75
12.06
11.36

Tables 7.16

130

50o
17.10
17.218
17.335
17.122
16.72
16.225
15.675
15.094
14.492
13.874
13.243
12.598

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.03
17.39
16.5 14.92
17.13
16.3 14.75
16.74
16 14.55
16.28
15.6 14.34
15.8
15.2 14.12
15.3
14.9 13.91
14.8
14.5
13.7
14.3
14.1
13.5
13.79
13.8 13.31
13.27
13.4 13.12

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 0 m (Even keel)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.04
3.199
2.705
2.392
2.188
2.055
1.959
1.891
1.836
1.801
1.784

10o
9.29
7.809
6.332
5.406
4.808
4.4
4.112
3.916
3.78
3.687
3.621
3.577

15o
12.18
10.69
9.195
8.05
7.214
6.615
6.191
5.896
5.689
5.547
5.455
5.398

20o
13.90
12.66
11.42
10.38
9.505
8.817
8.297
7.913
7.636
7.444
7.28
7.042

30o
15.96
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.69
12.28
11.8
11.26
10.69
10.12
9.543

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.2
14.67
14.08
13.44
12.76
12.07
11.38

50o
17.10
17.219
17.336
17.125
16.725
16.23
15.682
15.101
14.499
13.882
13.253
12.61

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.13
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.56
16.29
15.6 14.35
15.8
15.2 14.13
15.31
14.9 13.91
14.81
14.5 13.71
14.3
14.2 13.51
13.79
13.8 13.31
13.28
13.4 13.12

Tables 7.17

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 0.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.042
3.201
2.706
2.394
2.19
2.056
1.961
1.893
1.838
1.802
1.784

10o
9.29
7.81
6.335
5.409
4.811
4.403
4.116
3.919
3.783
3.689
3.623
3.578

15o
12.18
10.69
9.197
8.054
7.219
6.62
6.197
5.901
5.694
5.551
5.457
5.4

20o
13.89
12.65
11.42
10.38
9.51
8.823
8.304
7.919
7.642
7.449
7.283
7.047

30o
15.95
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.7
12.28
11.8
11.27
10.7
10.13
9.552

40o
16.86
16.53
16.2
15.94
15.64
15.21
14.68
14.08
13.44
12.77
12.08
11.39

Tables 7.18

131

50o
17.10
17.218
17.334
17.126
16.728
16.235
15.687
15.107
14.505
13.889
13.261
12.62

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.14
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.56
16.29
15.6 14.35
15.81
15.3 14.13
15.31
14.9 13.92
14.81
14.5 13.71
14.31
14.2 13.51
13.8
13.8 13.32
13.28
13.4 13.13

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 1.0 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.043
3.202
2.708
2.396
2.191
2.058
1.964
1.895
1.84
1.803
1.785

10o
9.29
7.812
6.338
5.413
4.814
4.407
4.12
3.923
3.787
3.692
3.625
3.58

15o
12.17
10.68
9.198
8.057
7.224
6.626
6.204
5.907
5.699
5.555
5.46
5.402

20o
13.88
12.65
11.41
10.38
9.515
8.83
8.312
7.927
7.648
7.455
7.287
7.051

30o
15.94
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.7
12.28
11.81
11.28
10.71
10.13
9.559

40o
16.86
16.53
16.19
15.94
15.65
15.21
14.68
14.09
13.45
12.78
12.09
11.39

50o
17.10
17.218
17.333
17.128
16.732
16.239
15.692
15.112
14.511
13.896
13.268
12.629

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.36
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.14
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.57
16.3
15.6 14.35
15.81
15.3 14.14
15.32
14.9 13.92
14.82
14.5 13.71
14.32
14.2 13.52
13.81
13.8 13.32
13.29
13.4 13.13

Tables 7.19

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 1.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.89
4.044
3.203
2.71
2.398
2.192
2.059
1.966
1.897
1.841
1.804
1.785

10o
9.29
7.813
6.34
5.416
4.817
4.41
4.124
3.927
3.79
3.694
3.627
3.582

15o
12.16
10.68
9.198
8.06
7.228
6.631
6.21
5.913
5.704
5.559
5.463
5.403

20o
13.88
12.65
11.41
10.39
9.52
8.836
8.319
7.934
7.654
7.46
7.29
7.055

30o
15.94
15.14
14.35
13.71
13.17
12.71
12.29
11.82
11.28
10.72
10.14
9.565

40o
16.85
16.52
16.19
15.94
15.65
15.22
14.69
14.09
13.45
12.78
12.09
11.4

Tables 7.20

132

50o
17.11
17.218
17.331
17.129
16.735
16.243
15.696
15.117
14.517
13.903
13.275
12.638

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.16
17.36
16.6 15.05
17.39
16.5 14.94
17.14
16.3 14.77
16.76
16 14.57
16.3
15.6 14.36
15.82
15.3 14.14
15.32
14.9 13.92
14.82
14.5 13.72
14.32
14.2 13.52
13.82
13.8 13.33
13.3
13.5 13.14

14 15.85 16.82 4.919 5.3 15.8 13.82 11.22 14.129 3.36 15.5 14. B.33 14.737 16.52 16.82 15.216 5.64 11.Tech (NA$SB).697 3.404 20o 13.129 16.53 13.57 16.064 7.36 16.712 2.464 7.637 6. CUSAT.1 11.33 16.14 14.93 14.6 15.326 7.059 1.709 5.69 14.76 16 14.79 12.83 14.844 8.661 7.65 15.35 13.31 13.87 12.3 14.77 16.39 9.806 1.11 17.247 15.19 15.584 15o 12.82 13. Batch – XXIX” CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES Trim= 2.3 14.343 5.399 2.524 8.645 60o 70o 80o 17.794 3.7 15.233 6.71 13.629 3.16 10.206 2.786 10o 9.15 9.329 17.5 13.9 13.814 6.66 15.292 7.056 30o 15.33 14.21 133 50o 17.466 5.419 4.“Department of Ship Technology.194 2.16 17.218 17.41 10.843 1.413 4.281 12.39 16.46 12.563 5.89 4.907 13.121 14.33 13.93 15.5 13.521 13.9 1.6 14.68 9.72 14.932 3.94 15.198 8.969 1.29 7.941 7.2 13.71 12.29 10.57 40o 16.05 17.94 17.29 11.14 .046 3.14 16.1 13.72 10.41 Tables 7.17 12.0 m (For’d) Disp(t) 25000 40000 55000 70000 85000 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 5o 4.

0 5 2. CUSAT.5 60 50 40 70 30 15 80 20 12.5 15 10.5 5.“Department of Ship Technology. Batch – XXIX” 17.Tech (NA$SB). B.2 CROSS CURVES (EVEN KEEL CONDITION) 134 . KN (m) 10 7.5 25000 40000 55000 70000 85000 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 DISP (t) Fig 7.

055 m Condition (1) 0 1 – Cos30 (2) The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.5 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP 1) The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.KG 0 ∫ KG Sinθ dθ = 0. 30 i.055 0 30 KN dθ .055 0 30 ∫ Sinθ dθ 0 30 KG1 = ∫ KN dθ − 0. 0 But for an angle of θ.055 0 30 KG = ∫ KN dθ − 0.055 m-radians upto an angle of heel of 30°.09 m – radians (assuming Flooding angle (θf) is more than 0 40°) Similarly as above. we can arrive at 40 KG2 = ∫ KN ∂θ − 0. B. righting lever is given by GZ = KN – KG Sinθ 30 ∫ (KN – KG Sinθ) dθ = 0.055 0 30 ∫ 30 KN dθ - 0 ∫ 30 ∫ KG Sinθ dθ = 0.09 m-radians to an angle of either 40° or an angle of (θf) (Flooding angle) if that be less 40 ∫ GZ dθ = 0.055 m-rad.09 m Condition (2) 0 1 – Cos40 135 . Batch – XXIX” 7.“Department of Ship Technology.Tech (NA$SB).e ∫ GZ dθ = 0. CUSAT.

Tech (NA$SB).20m KG4 = KN30 – 0. B.20 Sin30 Condition (4) 5) Maximum righting lever (GZ) should occur at an angle exceeding 30° but not less than 25° (say maximum righting lever (GZ) occur at 25°) ∂ (GZ) 25 =0 ∂θ ∂ (KN – KG Sinθ) ∂θ ∂ KN 25 25 – KG ∂ Sinθ) ∂θ ∂θ KG = ∂ KN 1 ∂θ Cos25 KG5 = KN30 – KN20 10 * π 180 6) =0 25 =0 1 Cos25 Condition (5) The initial metacentric height shall be not less than 0.15 m 136 . GZ at 30° = 0.15 metre GM = 0.03 KG3 = m Condition (3) 30 Cos30 – Cos40 4) The maximum righting lever (GZ) shall be at least 0.“Department of Ship Technology.03 m-radians between the angles of heel of 30° and 40° or between 30 and (θf) degrees.e.KG = 0. Batch – XXIX” COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0. CUSAT.15 m KG6 = KMT – 0.15 m KMT .2 metre at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30° i. if it is less than 40 degrees Assuming (θf) (Flooding angle) is more than 40° 40 ∫ KN dθ − 0.

60 21.67 Tables 7.78 27.69 28.11 25.73 20.87 2.28 0.70 23.54 52.92 26.91 26.13 40.29 18.76 20.10 19.15 21.83 19.02 30.41 36.93 20.75 17.00 18.30 24.27 36.15 21.39 35.28 22.72 46.06 23.75 27.67 21.37 20.12 24.57 13.78 20. CUSAT.48 22.29 18.54 13.42 20.44 18.02 65.22 DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 65.77 46.11 31.15 22.65 22.02 52.99 21.62 15.36 23.89 23.91 15.07 25.26 15.60 24.78 27.83 2.22 0.70 23.99 24.06 22.78 21.83 23.96 24.54 36.28 18.84 23. B.24 0.04 22.76 45.60 24.53 23.74 40.15 21.16 23.60 22.14 24.25 22.09 20.60 26.15 21.30 0.0m (For’d) 41.98 26.39 35.41 28.00 19.13 17.15 22.38 23.82 21.64 23.58 29.90 25.60 20.09 20.65 Tables 7.58 22.12 27.09 25.41 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .54 12.61 22.83 19.77 17.59 21.54 34.30 24.68 24.61 22.25 0.99 32.74 20.05 29.37 20.92 15.77 19.74 18.94 17.30 0.41 19.50 22.90 18.26 15.75 20.89 29.54 24.70 36.37 27.12 24.03 30.11 31.60 20.76 21.36 0.75 24.76 21.59 30.75 24.08 12.99 21.50 22.60 15.74 4.22 21.96 53.1.02 9.98 24.5m (For’d) 41.90 23.21 25.74 25.31 28.60 26.60 20.40 21.49 19.73 19.14 23.88 26.53 22.77 30.51 22.10 25.55 24.92 20.98 15.“Department of Ship Technology.12 4.98 18.64 32.73 26.90 20.74 18.96 66.83 23.74 25.70 23.58 29.07 24.71 26.54 17.83 20.95 24.64 23.30 0.63 20.21 29.63 21.37 32.37 27.90 20.73 20.43 21.99 32.15 23.24 21.45 17.87 20.69 28.30 20.76 4.30 0.30 20.Tech (NA$SB).43 30.85 25.41 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM – 2.12 24.13 52.00 25.76 30.26 15.03 9.23 46.60 23.39 20.45 17.21 29. Batch – XXIX” DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 66.23 137 .38 0.

24 24.68 23.47 21.52 36.76 21.30 18.40 18.61 20.13 25.10 23.21 29.01 29.00 18.35 0.65 28.58 29.37 27. Batch – XXIX” DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 66.“Department of Ship Technology.72 12.68 23.01 9.92 20.10 4.84 23.49 19.99 21.96 66.91 36.0 m (For’d) 41.15 25.98 26.91 23.30 24.79 4.Tech (NA$SB).78 20.57 36.88 19.0.96 53.77 30.39 35.12 24.31 21.80 17.37 27.65 15.77 46.69 32.98 24.12 25.51 20.98 17.41 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .15 22.94 20.70 24.40 20.26 21.10 22.69 28.47 20.14 25.25 138 .32 0.72 24.01 9.79 20.71 21.70 27.98 26.40 24.11 4. CUSAT.54 36.30 18.67 15.90 2.52 12.09 23.35 0.00 21.25 24.15 21.92 26.16 24.21 29.90 20.15 21.90 23.46 20.47 17.84 27.54 18.01 30.87 46.60 22.99 32.70 19.83 21.24 DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 66.62 Tables 7.39 35.77 20.15 21.65 22.31 0.26 0.11 27.85 21.79 20.40 0.74 25.70 23.01 31.60 26.46 17.41 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .31 15.90 25.1.82 17.88 19.77 20.77 30.46 36.30 0. B.92 2.66 21.18 24.54 17.99 32.60 22.51 22.78 27.69 21.78 4.65 22.02 66.90 29.26 15.65 22.08 22.12 24.78 25.90 18.83 26.91 15.94 20.15 21.53 22.82 18.41 28.63 Tables 7.02 18.54 22.75 24.35 22.81 27.54 20.44 30.92 26.54 46.70 23.29 18.41 28.95 20.77 46.79 20.15 23.71 19.09 20.11 31.52 13.55 30.77 23.15 22.54 36.41 20.65 22.51 24.47 23.67 21.40 0.00 25.01 30.5m (For’d) 41.78 27.40 0.35 23.10 27.80 26.70 23.91 15.13 25.69 24.02 53.26 15.88 21.58 29.80 32.97 20.87 23.50 22.97 24.79 24.09 20.54 20.49 19.82 19.16 23.32 22.36 0.40 20.10 19.10 19.52 24.36 23.62 20.50 21.54 23.07 24.60 24.39 13.42 15.

59 23.69 15.70 24.34 23.15 22.41 28.43 0.85 17.65 28.93 27.99 24.42 18.92 26.09 27.14 22.58 29.30 24.02 67.40 0.73 36.85 26.35 21.49 24.27 15.01 31.98 2.79 24.50 24.41 28.30 18.78 21.63 20.80 23.01 20.70 23.90 21.54 36.65 20.68 23.45 27.56 22.65 28.70 15.89 23.15 21.77 23.84 4.83 21.30 24.00 21.55 20.30 20.02 18.50 13.0.71 21.81 20.00 25.27 139 .40 21.50 18.15 25.84 20.49 19.78 30.55 22.24 25.94 2.Tech (NA$SB).81 20.60 27.78 27.15 22.20 19.20 13.01 30.78 30.26 DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 67.90 15.65 19.60 27.71 21.34 0.17 23.77 20.49 22.12 25. B.30 0.45 27.32 24.12 25.02 18.19 24.94 20.92 21.99 32.95 32.79 24.21 24.09 36.00 25.78 25.43 0.39 35.12 22.84 17.70 22.21 29. Batch – XXIX” DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 67.5 m (Aft ) 41.“Department of Ship Technology.15 21.47 17.01 21.01 31.19 24.77 24.49 15.02 66.14 23.00 18.35 46.86 27.08 27.21 25.60 22.78 25.60 24.78 46.55 21.30 24.09 4.15 23.98 24.82 19.16 25.01 9.92 23.82 20.60 22.15 21.49 22.21 29.71 21.92 19.58 15.16 20.90 15.11 29.98 26.65 30.98 20.74 24.15 21.03 29.92 23.96 20.50 20.64 36.30 0.83 21.62 20.34 23.54 36.48 17.98 26.43 22.61 Tables 7.08 4.19 24.42 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .20 19.02 54.92 23.02 54.49 19.42 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .92 26.01 30.39 35.78 46.54 18.11 46.92 26.99 20.86 32.73 22.01 9.58 29.40 0.27 15.70 22.58 21.72 23.16 20.30 0.62 23.96 13.54 18.95 20.92 19.33 36.34 0.52 13.56 20.35 0.68 19.57 20.00 18.0 m 41.43 21.77 23.40 22.65 22.30 18.80 20.82 19.78 27.81 4.99 32.57 30. CUSAT.15 23.58 20.58 Tables 7.

17 29.80 23.11 31.53 0.58 29.17 25.92 26.11 31.82 20.68 20.40 0.45 0.01 24.99 30.43 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .76 21.85 23.78 25.40 21.93 21.60 27.06 26.91 21.93 23.87 18.78 27.28 DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 67.46 24.48 24.“Department of Ship Technology.30 18.1.73 22.55 36.53 21.65 15.02 2.55 22.40 21.97 23.95 23.96 19.5m (Aft ) 41.16 20.90 25.81 36.10 19.02 20.00 30.45 22.33 25.39 24. Batch – XXIX” DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 66.41 28.55 22.33 23.59 20.80 24.60 21.48 21.79 46.10 23.78 25.34 23.64 20.06 26.19 24.66 15.78 27.48 13.15 22.73 15.57 Tables 7.88 15.31 35.72 23.42 0.65 28.87 20.15 21.99 10.99 32.84 20.56 19.06 18.00 24.06 27.57 20.93 23.71 30.48 13.58 Tables 7.65 20. CUSAT.15 21.82 24.70 22.42 22.30 25.82 19.79 31.10 18.63 19.54 18.92 26.36 24.00 25.02 67.49 18.87 20.92 19.60 27.44 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .58 36.03 27.00 2.40 0.40 25.Tech (NA$SB).20 19.06 18.07 4.10 18.16 25.31 35.97 20.79 21.23 24.18 25.82 20.70 23.01 20.70 24.21 29.42 13.19 24.65 23.94 21.88 18.57 18.02 20.12 23.55 36.48 0.65 28.94 27.06 4.78 46.87 4.22 24.89 15.82 20.12 24.72 15.34 0.57 21.24 23.00 9.60 24.45 27.15 22.48 22.00 20.17 29.29 140 .57 46.83 24.99 32.29 15.70 22.02 53.45 13.76 21.50 18.45 27.60 46.21 23.60 22.64 19.74 22.58 20.02 54.57 23.85 4.15 21.02 66.16 22.16 20.01 21.63 20.55 18.78 31.02 27. B.49 22.29 18.1.56 18.01 32.72 31.40 0.79 24.0 m (Aft ) 41.33 0.03 32.15 22.83 21.58 29.15 21.82 19.30 0.85 20.56 19.41 28.73 22.99 20.21 29.72 23.03 20.77 23.07 27.80 36.28 15.29 25.54 36.59 20.94 27.

99 32.62 23.60 27. 141 .04 2.85 23.20 19.34 23.06 18.00 18.99 10.36 25.55 36.70 23.91 20.86 20. Batch – XXIX” DISP KMT 25000 40000 5500 70000 8500 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000 67.97 13.12 46.45 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin TRIM .51 18.80 31.16 25.30 15.2.99 30.06 26.05 27.19 24.89 4.05 4.05 20.76 21.01 20.92 26.50 0.40 0.88 15.16 20.80 46.45 27.67 18.80 22.87 24.73 21.18 22.47 22.89 19.94 23.58 21.66 20.27 29.74 27.72 23.96 19.02 23.62 19.07 27.“Department of Ship Technology.07 23.26 23.11 29.43 24.40 25.41 25.47 0.56 Tables 7.50 21.89 20.06 32.83 24. B.04 20.60 20.34 0.51 20.86 36.74 15.74 22.06 27.15 21.24 24.91 21.01 31.54 22.60 22.00 25.55 18.86 20.82 31.18 25.02 66.58 0.61 28.93 21.01 20.31 35.31 28.15 22.02 54.15 21.Tech (NA$SB).30 .10 36.49 22.29 18.46 13.78 25.62 21.56 19.71 15.0 m (Aft ) 41.89 18.66 29.02 24.60 24. CUSAT.

B. & LCF from the hydrostatics tables and above parameters w.3 Determine the LCB.t to the corresponding trim. Step-7 Applying Free Surface correction for partially filled tanks to get the final GM G0 M = GM – GG0.Tech (NA$SB). Step . Cross check the displacement & LCB at this trim & draft and continue the iteration till sufficient accuracy of results are obtained satisfying the conditions -Total Weight of the ship = Displacement and LCG=LCB .1 Identify the loading condition and associated deadweight items and the centres of gravity (KG & LCG). T. This is the trim at which the ship will float in equilibrium.r. Step-6 Metacentric Height (GM) is given by the difference between KMt &KG and expressed as GM = KMt – KG(m). Step – 9 The metacentric height calculated above is valid for smaller angles of heel. Step – 8 The GM obtained through the above calculations should satisfy the maximum permissible KG min permissible GM as specified by the IMO criteria for intact stability. CUSAT. Batch – XXIX” 7. . Step . For larger angles of heel the righting lever (GZ) is to be considered.6 STEP BY STEP GUIDE TO THE TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS Step .“Department of Ship Technology.2 Displacement for this condition along with the vertical (KG) and longitudinal (LCG) centre of gravity is given by the sum of deadweight items and the Lightship weight Step . 142 . Step .4 From the above graphs read off the trim at which LCB = LCG and also the corresponding LCF & T.5 From the trim obtained by the above calculate the draft forward and draft aft.

12 13526.25 109.69 -9.45 13.39 50.85 14311.25 149.84 13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Item CH1(P) CH1(S) CH2(P) CH2(S) CH3(P) CH3(S) CH4(P) CH4(S) CH5(P) CH5(S) Slop tank(P) Slop tank(S) Fr.11 210.99 VCG m 13.63 189.84 Tables 7.85 15901.05 1722.66 14311.7 TANK POSITIONS AND CAPACITIES S.66 15621.43 13.77 109.99 50.69 10.69 10.32 -9.45 13.63 189.41 1722.43 10.95 16654.Tech (NA$SB).53 13.45 13.45 13.39 13350.31 Determination of COG of Cargo holds 143 TCG m -10.69 10. From this curve calculate the areas under different angles to satisfy the IMO intact stability criteria Step – 11 Finally.05 LCG m 69.46 16654.39 18178. CUSAT.86 9.12 15901.No.77 69.11 13350.45 13.95 18504.16 18504. Batch – XXIX” Step – 10 From the GZ values obtained for the different angles of heel plot a curve of Angle of Heel versus GZ.43 -10. the weather criteria as per IMO requirements is to be found satisfactory for different loading conditions.43 13.16 15475.No.43 210.69 -10.63 149.86 FSM tm 15475.45 13.43 .32 9. B.22 12344.“Department of Ship Technology.69 -10.46 18178.53 13.63 225. 70-114 70-114 114-164 114-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 64-70 64-70 Weight (98%vol) 13526.41 12344.22 15621. 7.39 225.

85 20. CUSAT.12 -3.92 1258.81 42.36 6007.53 153.18 -21.No.14 9.18 -21.85 -21.No.34 257.15 113.29 11.51 .26 7.53 193.26 3791.39 12.01 1.36 3791.39 696.31 Tables 7.32 2575.50 12. B.73 41.32 Determination of COG of ballast tank 144 VCG m 18. Weight (98%vol) AE -16 AE -16 64-70 64-70 70-114 70-114 114-164 114-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 131-164 131-164 164-209 164-209 209-259 209-259 259-314 259-314 314-fe 314-fe 1026.18 21.12 18.53 193.15 153.81 46.50 12.51 1034.29 -11.27 2553.57 2933.56 1.91 6556.19 -11.18 -18.16 2787.53 153.49 12.33 2390.63 50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Item Aft peak tank(s) Aft peak tank(s) Wing ballast tank1(P) Wing ballast tank1(S) Wing ballast tank2(P) Wing ballast tank2(S) Wing ballast tank3(P) Wing ballast tank3(S) Wing ballast tank4(P) Wing ballast tank4(S) Wing ballast tank5(P) Wing ballast tank5(S) Wing ballast tank6(P) Wing ballast tank6(S) Ballast tank 1(P) Ballast tank 1(S) Ballast tank 2(P) Ballast tank 2(S) Ballast tank 3(P) Ballast tank 3(S) Ballast tank 4(P) Ballast tank 4(S) FP tank(P) FP tank(S) Fr.50 12.53 193.30 47.32 1694.57 42.54 1.25 233.“Department of Ship Technology.82 LCG m -5.20 73.29 11.92 2070.33 298.27 1694.48 298.50 12.19 11.57 2390.01 2575.23 6556.12 18.88 696.47 37.79 2933.54 1.Tech (NA$SB).20 113.63 -5.18 21.49 12.12 -11.82 1258.54 1.54 1.57 47.48 1026.91 4390.36 4390.79 2640.96 18.36 1034.50 13.18 21.31 257.23 6007. Batch – XXIX” S.54 1.53 228.50 2787.26 41.18 21.53 233.50 12.18 -21.88 3.41 2882.25 119.01 2882.65 119.53 193.01 13.30 37.56 9.50 12.41 2640.47 12.29 -18.34 228.14 TCG m FSM tm -7.65 153.16 2070.96 12.96 50.54 1.96 73.50 12.26 -20.73 46.50 2553.

54 1.21 8.19 11.21 -2.29 4654.29 82.10 44.40 4654.06 2045.15 82.28 2.38 VCG m 2.72 50. 145 TCG m -5.90 15.19 108.06 476.39 798. CUSAT.20 95.No Item Fr.68 LCG m 23.62 371.54 1.29 82.60 4.56 7.33 Determination of COG of Consumable.62 176.15 662.44 662.18 5.90 64. B.25 3.90 1.25 2.91 9.98 114.38 8.28 2.72 23.90 2.47 8.19 -7.56 -5.38 8.6 1855. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 HFO tank1(P) HFO tank1(S) HFO tank 2(P) HFO tank 2(S) HFO tank3(P) HFO tank3(S) HFO tank4(P) HFO tank4(S) Boiler fuel tank1(P) Boiler fuel tank1(S) Diesel oil tank 1(P) Diesel oil tank 1(S) LO tank(P) LO tank(s) Waste water tank (P) Waste water tank(S) Fresh water tank (P) Fresh water tank(S) 21-46 21-46 67-70 67-70 70-114 70-114 114-131 114-131 59-64 59-64 46-59 46-59 64-67 64-67 9---21 9---21 9---21 9---21 Weight (98%vol) 370.47 47.68 .68 1.19 371.57 1.No.60 1.10 3.93 64.90 47.18 -8.05 50.21 -9.98 2045.18 -8.44 350.10 FSM tm 476.21 8.64 95.64 71.57 1. Batch – XXIX” S.60 1.87 114.93 108.60 1.6 350.91 -11.86 1.20 44.86 2.06 798.06 82.90 35.28 1.68 15.38 8.87 370.28 1.“Department of Ship Technology.29 2.39 176.40 1855.00 10.10 35.20 Tables 7.18 5.05 71.Tech (NA$SB).20 10.00 4.

with cargo homogeneously distributed throughout all cargo spaces and with 10 % stores. 4) Ship in ballast arrival condition.0 + 0. Batch – XXIX” 7. without cargo and with 10 % stores and fuel remaining.02L.Tech (NA$SB). Apart from conditions stated above.8 DETAILED TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS According to IMO A 749. 3) Ship in ballast departure condition.58 m 2) The draughts at the forward and after perpendiculars shall correspond to those determined by the draught amidships (dm). in association with the trim by the stern of not greater than 0.“Department of Ship Technology. dm = 6. without cargo but with full stores and fuel. CUSAT.015L. a ship has to be examined for the following four loading conditions. 146 . B. Trim calculations are based upon capacity and longitudinal position of centre of gravity. 1) The moulded draught amidships(dm) in meters (without taking into consideration any ship’s deformation) shall not be less than: dm = 2. 2) Ship in the fully loaded arrival condition. with cargo homogeneously distributed throughout all cargo spaces and with full stores and cargo. 1) Ship in the fully loaded departure condition. the following conditions in MARPOL also have to be satisfied.

94 476.60 1.58 259.06 476.38 8797.76 543.96 7584.43 146509.39 798.39 33 Ice load 395. B.39 176.71 13.MOM VCG V.63 2141453.76 13.16 0.46 9 CH4(P) 15621.11 12 CH5(S) 12344.00 -5.11 5754.94 1.38 13350.90 1.57 1.76 36.47 8.71 13.38 13350.8 182054.81 259.66 1855.06 798.29 82.76 696.45 210105.47 47.83 16654.81 174.38 131.90 64.63 2962252.46 8 CH3(S) 14311.57 13.00 279.72 50.52 142.60 184.40 10.00 -5.77 943717.72 18.66 149.62 543.72 23.76 13.2 159.98 2045.00 9.65 11923.90 1970129.64 71.60 1.82 18504.00 147 .00 TOTAL 152676.93 108.93 0.24 757.87 12.54 1.13 1232.47 18178.38 8.39 2782305.39 10 CH4(S) 15621.20 95. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION .15 662.66 149.28 1.87 370.68 8.96 7584.41 225.29 0.31 13.62 332.1 FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION SL.37 57845.22 189.60 4.57 13.39 15475.54 1.25 1737276.52 3213.90 35.03 3213.76 696.42 24.41 225.12 69.00 11923.83 16654.15 82.49 30.82 18504.57 1.45 213879.00 4.44 662.05 71.53 183008.24 174.58 159.67 146509.57 7789.2 845.62 176.28 2.63 -2253.31 13.68 30 Fresh water tank(S) 15.40 1855.45 210105.89 212.57 1 5.45 192491.10 35.44 350.39 15475.57 76006.97 36.85 109.03 1232.95 6 CH2(S) 15901.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.12 69.45 213879.39 11 CH5(P) 12344.62 131.39 2782305.06 82.16 5 CH2(P) 15901.67 5754.86 1.00 10.28 1.20 44.12 108.79 28.29 2.39 9638.93 64.16 4 CH1(S) 13526.13 334.89 367.25 1737276.35 2.63 2141453.86 2.98 114.Tech (NA$SB).66 350.65 7789.64 95.2 146.39 32 Aft peak tank(S) 400.47 18178.11 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 HFO tank1(p) HFO tank1(s) HFO tank2(p) HFO tank2(s) HFO tank 3(p) HFO tank 3(s) HFO tank4(p) HFO tank4(s) Boiler fuel tank1(P) Boiler fuel tank1(S) Diesel oil tank 1(P) Diesel oil tank 1(S) LO tank(P) LO tank(s) Waste water tank (P) Waste water tank (S) Fresh water tank(P) 370.4 165785.63 2962252.85 109.90 2.90 15.MOM FSM t m tm m tm tm 2 Crew &effects Provision store 3 CH1(P) 13526.77 13.22 21713182.72 18. CUSAT.76 5170.05 50.77 943717.87 114.“Department of Ship Technology.06 2045.53 183008.29 82.40 4654.43 76006.60 1.77 13.12 332.95 7 CH3(P) 14311.28 2.38 8.73 757.22 189.52 184.10 44.68 23.90 47.00 5170.29 4654.78 177.11 8797.60 845.4 165785.63 -2253.45 192491.68 31 Aft peak tank(P) 400.73 334.

63 400305. B.KG 7. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION -1 FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION DEADWEIGHT 152676.00 DISPLACEMENT 184371.32 0.“Department of Ship Technology.90 1970129.87 m DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 16.24 25119106.62 m 13.46 3405923. CUSAT.52 142.87 12.99 m CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0) G0MT = GMT .61 m FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) GG0 = FSM/DISP 0.21 12.22 21713182.14 m 2361.57 DISPLACEMENT 184371.08 12.87 m BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 16.Tech (NA$SB).KG0 * SIN(θ) RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z) 148 m .41 tm METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 20.85 m VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) GMT = KMT .86 m LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) 136.24 m 1.84 182054.GG0 6.24 m LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136.32 136.47 m BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 16.16 182054.90 cm 16.57 LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT 31694.86 m 129.85 m KG0 = KG + GG0 G0Z = KN .32 t 12.86 2370435.80 107.85 m DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 16.

66 degrees GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 75.01 m GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.49 G0Z (m) 0.39 m radians AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 0.5 0.26 1.25 2.77 0.42 m radians 149 .59 7.92 m 0 AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 0 0 ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 33.40 COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT (Z) degrees m2 13.“Department of Ship Technology.49 m radians MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 2.83 2.55 1.20 degrees ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 40.78 11.34 0.41 degrees ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 40.64 0.79 3.84 degrees NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a" 0.87 KN (m) 1.89 2.38 m radians NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b" 1. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION -1 FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° SIN(θ) 0.14 9.49 AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 0.Tech (NA$SB).45 2.02 m ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0. CUSAT.41 degrees ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 25.17 0.90 m radians 1.09 0. B.60 PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) 2247.88 13.16 degrees ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 18.71 m STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.66 12.

0 1.6 1. CUSAT.0 RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m) 3.4 2. B.2 2.4 θ 5 10 15 20 30 θ ANGLEOFHEEL(deg) θ Fig 7.8 4.8 0.2 0.6 3.“Department of Ship Technology.4 4.Tech (NA$SB).8 2.3 150 40 50 60 70 θ 80 . Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION -1 FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION 4.

Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION-2 FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE) SL.31 44.00 50.36 350.Tech (NA$SB).71 1.76 36.86 30 Waste water tank (S) 32.00 137.99 43902.40 21533384.39 11 CH5(P) 12344.86 31 Fresh water tank(P) 7.39 2782305.24 210.90 5961.77 943717.82 18504.00 4.00 -5.47 2585.44 24 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 88.64 73254.20 38003.10 3894.68 32 Fresh water tank(S) 7.63 -4648.00 129.38 271.67 10.71 1.44 23.38 271.20 0.81 4.53 71.40 82.06 1855.83 16654.45 192491.20 38003.56 696.90 36.64 13.66 22 HFO tank4(S) 399.38 13350.45 8.89 212.53 183008.06 17 HFO tank2(P) 57.45 8.31 44.60 92. CUSAT.96 15643.36 1 5.02 13.64 73254.77 13.84 11916.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.45 213879.29 18 HFO tank2(S) 57.52 4654.70 10.19 95.55 2.11 13 Slop tank(P) 861.29 19 HFO tank 3(P) 1022.62 662.46 47.40 82.63 -4648.22 189.78 177.97 1.49 50.34 1.31 13.24 2002776.46 47.12 69.25 1737276.40 21 HFO tank4(P) 399.39 2782305.28 378.39 15475.38 1.95 6 CH2(S) 15901.16 5 CH2(P) 15901.91 142.25 1737276.26 82.66 149.52 4654.28 422.81 4.80 476.82 18504.82 1.40 20 HFO tank 3(S) 1022.66 23 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 88.30 18.06 16 HFO tank1(S) 185.34 1.06 35.05 2877.68 33 Aft peak tank(P) 825.15 27 Lo tank(P) 54.37 57845.60 92.29 29 Waste water tank (P) 32.44 23.55 2.MOM FSM t m tm m tm tm 2 Crew &effects Provision store 3 CH1(P) 13526.26 82.43 15 HFO tank1(P) 185.90 167.56 696.80 476.36 350.00 151 182475.42 24.57 13.MOM VCG V.43 165785.44 25 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 166.15 26 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 166.22 189.57 1606.57 1606.71 13.82 1.38 13350.57 13.00 50.10 3894.85 109.06 1855.84 8.63 2962252.77 943717.99 43902.43 165785.46 8 CH3(S) 14311.54 616.71 13.63 2141453.56 2.41 225.76 28.29 28 Lo tank(S) 54.24 210.38 1.41 225.90 167.00 129.30 18.43 14 Slop tank(S) 861.45 210105.76 13.47 18178.90 5961.95 7 CH3(P) 14311.45 213879.43 .16 4 CH1(S) 13526.2 146.63 2962252.39 35 Ice load 395.96 15643.97 1.49 50.02 13.39 10 CH4(S) 15621.20 79.28 422.56 2. B.72 4398.77 13.53 183008.93 0.85 109.79 2.76 13.45 210105.29 1.60 87.45 192491.39 9638.53 71.29 1.62 662.84 8.47 2585.54 616.84 11916.05 2877.79 2.00 -5.06 35.66 149.19 95.12 69.89 180.63 2141453.49 30.00 TOTAL 151215.38 65.28 378.39 15475.83 16654.46 9 CH4(P) 15621.31 13.60 87.11 12 CH5(S) 12344.39 34 Aft peak tank(S) 825.38 65.“Department of Ship Technology.29 0.47 18178.20 79.72 4398.

35 m FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) 1.09 0.43 LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT 31694.87 KN (m) 1.74 12.“Department of Ship Technology.71 t 13.17 0.33 tm METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 20.23 152 .55 G0Z (m) 0.43 DISPLACEMENT 182910.5 0.68 182475.35 m FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS -2.85 11.68 2. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION-2 FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE) DEADWEIGHT 151215.35 m LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136. B.21 12. CUSAT.14 2403081.95 13.64 0.30 cm CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT 16.Tech (NA$SB).35 24939307.73 m DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 16.17 9.80 107.00 m CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) 6.60 7.77 2.14 m LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) 136.74 m 129.24 2002776.35 m 14.21 m 2355.36 182475.52 1.46 3405923.75 m TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) 7.91 142.71 136.49 m BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 16.64 13.63 400305.19 2.40 21533384.79 3.32 0.73 m BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 16.77 0.00 DISPLACEMENT 182910.36 2.75 m DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 16.85 13.KG0 * SIN(θ) RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z) ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° m 50° 60° SIN(θ) 0.34 0.05 1.14 m VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0) G0Z = KN .

B.95 degrees m2 13. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION-2 FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE) AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 0.Tech (NA$SB).78 degrees ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a" NET AREAABOVE GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b" 26.16 degrees ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 18.35 m radians AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 0.80 degrees ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 40. CUSAT.69 m STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.88 m radians 1.15 degrees 153 0.02 m ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.01 m GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.“Department of Ship Technology.47 m radians MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 2.78 degrees ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 40.79 m AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 0 0 0 ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 33.82 degrees GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 72.36 m radians 1.15 PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT (Z) 2280.36 m radians .

0 1.6 3.4 2.2 0.6 1.“Department of Ship Technology.2 2. CUSAT.4 154 40 θ 50 60 70 80 .8 2.0 RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m) 3.8 4. B. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION-2 FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE) 4.8 0.4 4.Tech (NA$SB).4 θ 5 10 15 20 30 θ ANGLEOFHEEL(deg) θ Fig 7.

05 2877.72 3791.53 71.29 6 HFO tank2(s) 57.50 29882.49 3724.90 5961.26 35 Ballast tank 1(P) 1694.25 600695.64 73254.50 36025.57 696.62 662.53 557741.00 129.MOM VCG V.64 12.72 4398.29 1.97 1.96 15203.49 30.71 1.55 2. CUSAT.28 378.50 36672.38 1.24 41.17 46.44 13 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 166.70 10.89 12.82 1.38 1.15 15 Lo tank(P) 54.03 13.81 30 Wing ballast tank4(S) 2640.45 8.79 2.50 36672.50 33005.60 92.19 95.81 4.96 15203.26 82.00 129.29 7 HFO tank 3(p) 1022.57 696.32 233.15 14 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 166.40 82.55 12.76 36.20 38003.31 44.73 32 Wing ballast tank5(S) 2882.29 18.33 50.32 233.27 119.60 87.3 BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE) SL.79 113.30 27 Wing ballast tank3(P) 2933.29 16 Lo tank(s) 54.34 1.36 350.90 167.05 2877.53 405368.10 3894.47 2585.06 1855.16 37.57 29 Wing ballast tank4(P) 2640.44 12 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 88. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION .29 1.38 65.76 28.89 12.46 12.47 25 Wing ballast tank2(P) 2390.“Department of Ship Technology.80 476.47 24 Wing ballast tank1(S) 298.39 22 Aft peak tank(s) 300.38 271.68 20 Fresh water tank(S) 7.53 405368.06 35.57 73.40 82.20 79.53 71.38 271.00 137.57 28 Wing ballast tank3(S) 2933.01 33498.71 1.09 42.06 4 HFO tank1(s) 185.00 -5.63 -1690. B.30 26 Wing ballast tank2(S) 2390.93 12.45 8.NO ITEM 1 2 WEIGHT LCG L.50 33005.20 0.79 2.84 8.47 2585.25 600695.17 46.63 -1690.33 50.46 12.96 5688.54 616.28 378.46 47.01 193.06 5 HFO tank2(p) 57.68 21 Aft peak tank(P) 300.81 31 Wing ballast tank5(P) 2882.44 23.96 5688.64 12.20 174989.93 12.49 50.79 113.90 5961.06 1855.29 18.39 23 Wing ballast tank1(P) 298.36 350.84 8.65 202719.16 37.67 10.66 10 HFO tank4(s) 399.57 1606.53 557741.03 13.89 1.24 41.MOM FSM t m tm m tm tm 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 Crew &effects Provision store 3 HFO tank1(p) 185.62 662.28 422.82 1.89 212.31 44.06 35.26 34 Wing ballast tank6(S) 2575.55 12.63 12.15 331957.33 47.56 2.19 95.36 155 .15 331957.29 0.52 4654.90 36.09 42.28 422.80 476.00 9 HFO tank4(p) 399.26 82.55 2.33 47.01 33498.49 3724.56 2.41 153.86 19 Fresh water tank(P) 7.57 1606.00 4.34 1.01 193.81 4.20 38003.86 18 Waste water tank (S) 32.29 17 Waste water tank (P) 32.66 11 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 88.57 73.38 65.44 23.78 177.10 3894.64 73254.72 4398.20 174989.54 2614.40 8 HFO tank 3(s) 1022.60 87.00 -5.49 50.54 616.50 29882.89 180.60 92.40 1 5.46 47.52 4654.73 33 Wing ballast tank6(P) 2575.50 36025.63 12.90 167.Tech (NA$SB).97 1.41 153.20 79.

14 11508.88 m BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 9.92 228.84 62166.72 3791.22 6556.53 392026.25 1.21 12.53 539384.54 3932.56 3232.54 4292.53 539384.25 1.81 m DISPLACEMENT VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136.99 43902.82 257.41 9.48 9.39 6007.16 193.24 210.64 8439032.82 257. CUSAT.31 323902.63 400305.42 24.75 m 136. B.GG0 16.56 3232.18 449100.91 4390.36 37 Ballast tank 2(P) 2553.14 11508.42 t 9.36 42 Ballast tank 4(S) 2070. Batch – XXIX” 36 Ballast tank 1(S) 1694.2 146.54 3932.18 449100.KG 17.37 57845.53 m CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0) 156 .02 13.51 44 FP tank(S) 1258.26 86620.30 cm 8.07 m GG0 = FSM/DISP 0.00 50.31 m DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) 7.80 107.20 8.50 153.43 47 Ice load 395.75 11844955.42 1.81 849406.39 9638.25 1034.84 11916.Tech (NA$SB).00 50.60 m 1906.54 4292.99 43902.36 1.62 153.91 40 Ballast tank 3(S) 2787.16 62166.93 TOTAL 54925.20 8.“Department of Ship Technology.42 1.84 11916.26 0.02 13.46 3405923.50 153.84 62166.16 193.91 4390.75 m FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS 142.65 202719.89 m DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 9.48 9.00 DEADWEIGHT LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT 54925.23 38 Ballast tank 2(S) 2553.25 1034.53 392026.26 31694.89 m GMT = KMT .31 m BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 7.23 39 Ballast tank 3(P) 2787.00 DISPLACEMENT 86620.51 45 Slop tank(P) 861.39 6007.34 472882.34 472882.36 43 FP tank(P) 1258.89 1.27 119.31 323902.62 153.35 m KG0 = KG + GG0 10.42 136.91 41 ballast tank 4(P) 2070.24 210.36 1.72 m G0MT = GMT .54 2614.03 tm 26.43 46 Slop tank(S) 861.60 m 136.22 6556.64 8439032.32 0.92 228.

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)
ANGLE (°)

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

SIN(θ)

0.09

0.17

0.34

0.5

0.64

0.77

0.87

KN (m)

2.38

4.77

9.45

13.12

15.60

16.68

16.71

G0Z (m)

1.43

2.98

5.87

7.86

8.86

8.57

7.55

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300

2.25

m radians

3.72

m radians

AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40

1.47

m radians

MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z)

8.94

m

0

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40

0

0

ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS

41.33

PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A)
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF
DRAFT (Z)

4421.77

degrees
m2

13.24

m

STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1)

0.03

m

GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2)

0.05

m

ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0)

0.21

degrees

ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1)

17.48

degrees

GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc)

99.06

degrees

ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2)

50.00

degrees

ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf)

57.11

degrees

ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd)
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "a"
NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "b"

31.81

degrees

157

0.80

m radians

5.19

m radians

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)

9.6
8.8
8.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

7.2
6.4
5.6
4.8
4.0
3.2
2.4
1.6
0.8

θ
5 10 15 20

30

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

θ

Fig 7.5

158

40

50

θ
60

70

80

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)
SL.NO
1
1

ITEM
2

Crew &effects
Provision store

WEIGHT

LCG

L.MOM

VCG

V.MOM

FSM

t

m

tm

m

tm

tm

3

4

5

6

7

8

5.76

36.89

212.49

30.78

177.29

0.00

0.98
37.09
37.09
11.50
11.50
204.51
204.51
79.84
79.84
17.66
17.66
33.21
33.21
10.89
10.89
6.49
6.49

36.89
23.72
23.72
50.05
50.05
71.64
71.64
95.20
95.20
44.10
44.10
35.90
35.90
47.47
47.47
8.38
8.38

36.15
879.71
879.71
575.47
575.47
14650.94
14650.94
7600.66
7600.66
778.96
778.96
1192.24
1192.24
517.08
517.08
54.36
54.36

28.00
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
1.57
1.57
1.54
1.54
1.90
1.90
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
4.00
4.00

27.44
84.56
84.56
18.45
18.45
321.30
321.30
123.21
123.21
33.47
33.47
75.72
75.72
17.48
17.48
25.96
25.96

0.00
476.06
476.06
82.29
82.29
4654.40
4654.40
1855.66
1855.66
350.44
350.44
662.15
662.15
82.29
82.29
2.86
2.86

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

HFO tank1(p)
HFO tank1(s)
HFO tank2(p)
HFO tank2(s)
HFO tank 3(p)
HFO tank 3(s)
HFO tank4(p)
HFO tank4(s)
Boiler fuel tank1(P)
Boiler fuel tank1(S)
Diesel oil tank 1(P)
Diesel oil tank 1(S)
Lo tank(P)
Lo tank(s)
Waste water tank (P)
Waste water tank (S)

19

Fresh water tank(P)

1.57

8.38

13.13

10.20

15.99

1.68

20

Fresh water tank(S)

1.57

8.38

13.14

10.20

15.99

1.68

21

Aft peak tank(P)

600.00

-5.63

-3380.58

18.96

11377.13

696.39

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Aft peak tank(s)
Wing ballast tank1(P)
Wing ballast tank1(S)
Wing ballast tank2(P)
Wing ballast tank2(S)
Wing ballast tank3(P)
Wing ballast tank3(S)
Wing ballast tank4(P)
Wing ballast tank4(S)
Wing ballast tank5(P)
Wing ballast tank5(S)
Wing ballast tank6(P)
Wing ballast tank6(S)
Ballast tank 1(P)

600.00
298.33
298.33
2390.57
2390.57
2933.79
2933.79
2640.41
2640.41
2882.01
2882.01
2575.32
2575.32
1694.27

-5.63
50.96
50.96
73.20
73.20
113.15
113.15
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
233.25
233.25
119.65

-3380.58
15203.46
15203.46
174989.93
174989.93
331957.89
331957.89
405368.55
405368.55
557741.63
557741.63
600695.03
600695.03
202719.89

18.96
12.49
12.49
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
13.01
13.01
1.54

11377.13
3724.64
3724.64
29882.16
29882.16
36672.33
36672.33
33005.09
33005.09
36025.17
36025.17
33498.24
33498.24
2614.72

696.39
12.47
12.47
37.30
37.30
47.57
47.57
42.81
42.81
46.73
46.73
41.26
41.26
3791.36

159

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

36

Ballast tank 1(S)

1694.27

119.65

202719.89

1.54

2614.72

3791.36

37

Ballast tank 2(P)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

38

Ballast tank 2(S)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

39

Ballast tank 3(P)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

40

Ballast tank 3(S)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

41

Ballast tank 4(P)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

42

Ballast tank 4(S)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

43

FP tank(P)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

44

FP tank(S)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

45

Slop tank(P)

1722.00

50.99

87804.04

13.84

23832.48

210.43

46

Slop tank(S)

1722.00

50.99

87804.04

13.84

23832.48

210.43

47

Ice load

395.2

146.37

57845.42

24.39

9638.93

TOTAL

54021.66

153.89

8313209.87

8.86

478471.40

62166.26

DEADWEIGHT
LIGHTSHIP
WEIGHT

54021.66

153.89

8313209.87

8.86

478471.40

62166.26

31694.80

107.46

3405923.21

12.63

400305.32

0.00

DISPLACEMENT

85716.46

136.72

11719133.08

10.25

878776.72

62166.26

DISPLACEMENT

0.00

85716.46

t

10.25

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG)

136.72

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB)

136.72

m

FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS

143.60

cm

8.52

m

136.63

m

1902.31

tm

27.11

m

BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT)

9.24

m

BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD)

7.80

m

DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS

9.24

m

DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS

7.80

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG)

CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF)
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm)
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT)

TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT)

GMT = KMT - KG

16.86

m

FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0)

GG0 = FSM/DISP

0.73

m

CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT)

G0MT = GMT - GG0

16.13

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0)

KG0 = KG + GG0

10.98

m

RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z)

G0Z = KN - KG0 * SIN(θ)

160

m

06 m radians 161 .06 m ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.64 PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT (Z) 4441.63 m radians AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 1.24 m STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.74 15.Tech (NA$SB).17 0. B.94 KN (m) 2.80 9. CUSAT.64 0.77 0.21 degrees 22.27 7.15 degrees ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 50.5 0.72 16.97 G0Z (m) 1.66 8.66 m AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 0 AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 0 0 ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 41.93 5.91 degrees m2 13.“Department of Ship Technology.65 2.39 4.96 degrees ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a" 1.74 degrees 100.40 2.09 0.22 degrees ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 31.63 16.19 5.04 m GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION – 4 BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE) ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70 SIN(θ) 0.21 m radians 3.60 8.42 m radians MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 8.33 m radians NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b" 5.49 13.00 degrees ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 57.76 7.87 0.15 15.34 0.

8 4.8 8. CUSAT.2 6.6 8.4 1.6 4.4 5.0 3.6 162 40 50 60 70 80 .8 θ θ 5 10 15 20 30 θ ANGLEOFHEEL(deg) θ Fig 7.6 0.0 RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m) 7.“Department of Ship Technology. B.Tech (NA$SB).2 2. Batch – XXIX” LOADING CONDITION – 4 BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE) 9.

3 LC . Batch – XXIX” SUMMARY RESULTS OF ALL LOADING CONDITIONS (Tables 7. B.Tech (NA$SB).01 0.02 0.40 2280.48 22.78 50.00 50.72 7 Trim cm 1.42 85716.39 1.1 LC .91 20 Windage Area (A) m 21 m 13.06 100.82 17.47 20.21 25 Angle of roll (θ1) deg 18.60 136.21 16 Area upto 40 1.73 14 G 0 MT 6.80 31694.15 41.80 99.95 4421.99 1.75 136.2 LC .“Department of Ship Technology.04 23 Gust wind heeling lever (lw2) m 0.60 33.80 31694.14 9.25 2.00 0.63 17 Area between 300 & 400 m m rad m rad m rad 0.4 1 Lighship weight t 31694.06 163 .24 22 COG of windage area (Z) Steady wind heeling lever (lw1) m 0.m 2361.05 0.33 41.01 0.90 0.61 7.72 0.66 18.88 2.15 27 Adopted upper limit (θ2) deg 40.66 19 Angle at max G0Z deg 0 33.24 13.80 1.60 8 Mean Draft (T) m 16. NO DESCRIPTION UNIT LOADING CONDITIONS LC .35 16.42 18 Max G0Z m 2.36 5.86 13.75 136.24 136.16 0.25 5 LCG m 136.30 142.20 72.66 3 Displacement t 184371.34) SL.33 31 Area "b" deg m rad m rad 1.71 13.35 136.47 1.38 0.81 10.03 1902.35 136.49 0.41 40.36 0.35 3.21 136.77 4441.02 0.35 17.41 40. CUSAT.41 2355.92 2.22 29 Angle of deck immersion (θd) 25.42 1.96 30 Area "a" 0.19 5.15 31.91 54925.52 151215.21 0.33 1906.63 10 MCT1cm t.62 6.32 182910.07 16.30 143.80 2 Deadweight t 152676.72 6 LCB m 136.74 26 Gust wind 2nd intercept (θc) deg 75.14 129.72 3.78 57.88 27.46 4 VCG m 12.79 8.49 26.90 -2.31 11 KMT m 20.13 15 Area upto 300 0.86 16.81 31.64 2 2247.52 9 LCF m 129.11 12 GMT m 7.84 26.11 57.86 13 GG0 m 0.62 54021.35 16.94 8.74 8.71 86620.00 28 Angle of downflooding (θf) deg 40.03 0.80 31694.16 0.47 1.60 8.24 136.69 13.06 24 Angle of heel due to wind (θ0) deg 0.

B.Department of Ship technology. Batch – XXIX”   CHAPTER 8 MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN                           . CUSAT.Tech (NA&SB).

1. D = 23.00 m 164 .76 m (4) T : T is the Maximum Ice Class draught of the ship. 8. is the distance. Sept 2003 and the rules for classification of ships given by Lloyd’s Registrar of Shipping July 2002. if there is no rudder post. in meters. Fig. in m = 16. if there is no rudder post.39 m (2) B : Breadth at amidships or greatest breadth.“Department of Ship technology.1 INTRODUCTION Midship section design is in accordance with Ice class Rules given by Finnish Maritime Administration. in m. in meters. Definitions (1) L : Rule length. on the summer load water line from the forward side of the stem to the after side of the rudderpost or to the center of the rudder stock. in meters. LPP = 263. Batch – XXIX” MIDSHIP SECTION 8.1 is a typical midship section of a double skin ice class tanker. B = 48. from top of the keel to top of the deck beam at side on the uppermost continuous deck. 97% of extreme length of LWL = 264.75 m (5) LPP : Distance in m on the summer LWL from foreside of the stem to after side of rudder post.1. B. L is neither to be less than 96% nor to be greater than 97% of the extreme length on the summer load water line. at the middle of the length L. CUSAT. or to the centre of the Podded unit. Figure 8.7 m (3) D : Depth is measured.Tech (NA&SB).1 Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker 8.

to summer (20) b : The width of plating supported by the primary member or secondary member.“Department of Ship technology. (23) le : Effective length. between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating. in m. of the primary or secondary member. in m. in m (approx. in m. BWL = Ballast Waterline at Ballast condition. (25) db : The distance. in cm3. between the cargo tank boundary and the moulded line of the side shell plating. in mm. in N/mm2. Batch – XXIX” (6) LPAR = Length of parallel midship body. 105. (26) k : Higher tensile steel factors. k = 0.35 m Awf = Area of the waterline of the bow in m2. based on rule length L and moulded breadth B.2° φ2 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at B/4 = 24. in m. measured between effective span points.84 hG = Ice thickness. B. For HT steels (Lloyd’s AH32. in m.78 (27) s : Spacing in mm of ordinary stiffeners or primary support as applicable. DH32 & EH32). 165 . defined in the table given by FSICR h = 0. (28) S : Overall span of frame. in m (29) t : Thickness of plating. (30) Z : Section modulus. (31) RB : Bilge radius.0 m HB = Thickness of the brash ice layer displaced by the stern ReH = Minimum yield stress.5° DP = Diameter of propeller = 7260 mm HM = Thickness of the brash ice in mid channel. (21) be : The effective width. (24) ds : The distance. (22) bI : The minimum distance from side shell to the inner hull or outer longitudinal bulkhead measured inboard at right angles to the centre line at summer load water line.Tech (NA&SB). in association with an effective width of attached plating.2 m) (7) CB (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) : Block coefficient at draught T corresponding waterline. of the primary or secondary member. in m = 1. of end brackets. in mm. Awf = 3841 m2 α = Angle of the waterline at B/4 = 70° φ1 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at the centreline = 24. CB = 0. at fully loaded condition. of the material defined LWL = Load Waterline. CUSAT. in m.

in mm (36) tB : Thickness of end bracket plating.5 + (150000/20.0 m Whichever is lesser dB = 48.0 m to get the required ballast volume. for longitudinals FB = 0. Fatigue Design Assessment (FDA) and Construction Monitory (CM) are mandatory.3 Cargo Tank Boundary Requirements Minimum double side width (ds) ds = 0.1.0 m Structural configuration adopted has a single centreline longitudinal bulkhead.75.2 Class Notation Vessel is designed to be classed as ✠+100A1 Baltic service Ice class 1A Super Double Hull Oil Tanker ESP. This is for Ice navigating tanker having integral cargo tanks for carriage of crude oil.0 m Minimum double bottom depth (dB) dB = B/15 or dB = 2.’ ESP means Enhanced Survey Program.67. B. for longitudinals (33) dDB : Rule depth of center girder. ∴ ds = 3. the scantlings of the primary supporting structure are to be assessed by direct calculation and the Ship Right notations Structural Design Assessment (SDA).5 + (dwt/20. in mm (34) SS : Span of the vertical web. for plating and 0. [Refer General Arrangement Plan] 166 .1.000) or ds = 2.76/15 = 3.75.25 m A double bottom height of 3. in m (35) tW : Thickness of web. in mm 8. FD = 0.0 m Double side width is taken as 3. Batch – XXIX” (32) FD.“Department of Ship technology.0 m Whichever is lesser But ds should not be less than 1 m. for plating and 0.Tech (NA&SB). ds = 0.67.0 m is provided to get the required ballast volume.000) = 8. 8. For length of cargo tanks and tank boundaries. ∴ dB = 3. CUSAT.FB : Local scantling reduction factor above neutral axis and below neutral axis respectively. Where the length of the ship is greater than 190m.

0 ∴f1 taken as 1 and KL = 0.1. transverses and other supporting members.84 ∴ Z min = 43.5 for 90<L<300m = 10.75 – [(300-L)/100] 1.2. Chapter 9.1 Minimum Hull Section Modulus [LRS Part 3.09 m3 C1 8. 1. Section 1. 3. Chapter 4.2 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 8.Tech (NA&SB). Bottom shell 7.7) x 10-6 m3 Ship’s service factor.10. the inner hull bulkhead is also to be framed longitudinally. Primary members are defined as girders. Bilge 6.3.2 Itemization of parts 167 . inner bottom and deck are longitudinally framed (for L > 75m).537 CB = Block Coefficient = 0. 8.3. Side shell below ice strengthening 5.78 (Grade DH32/EH32) = 10.“Department of Ship technology. 8.2 Hull Envelope Plating 1.2. Ice strengthened shell 4. The side shell. When the side shell in long framed. specially considered depending upon the service restriction and in any event should not be less than 0. CUSAT.5 For unrestricted sea going service f1 = 1.4 Type of Framing System [LRS Part 4. inner hull bulkheads and long bulkheads are also longitudinally framed (L > 150m). at the deck or keel is to be not less than Z min = f1= f1KL C1L2B (CB + 0.11] The bottom shell. Section 5] The hull midship section modulus about the transverse neutral axis. Sheer strake and shell plating above Ice strengthened region. floors. Keel Fig. B. Batch – XXIX” 8. Deck plating 2.

60 RCH is the resistance in Newton of the ship in a channel with brash ice and a consolidated layer: 3 ⎛ LT ⎞ A 2 R CH = C1 + C 2 + C 3C μ (H F + H M ) (B + C ψ H F ) + C 4 L PAR H 2F + C5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ wf ⎝B ⎠ L Cμ = 0.3 Framing system 8.546 Cμ is to be taken equal or larger than 0.115.31 Table 8. and C ψ = 0 if ψ ≤ 45° 168 .1 Values of Ka Ke = 1. CUSAT.44 1.18 1.03 2.60 3 propellers 1.26 2 propellers 1.“Department of Ship technology.15cosϕ2 + sinψsinα = 0.2.047 ⋅ψ − 2.45 C ψ = 0. B.Tech (NA&SB).3 Minimum require Power (R CH / 1000)3 / 2 [kW] . Batch – XXIX” For longitudinally framed system the web structure: Fig 8. P = Ke DP Propeller type or CP or electric or FP propeller machinery hydraulic propulsion machinery 1 propeller 2.

2.6 for ice class IC 1.22 0.2 m HM = = = HM = 1.6 0.Tech (NA&SB).0 [m] 0.26 + (HMB) 0.4 0. Given: C3 = 845 kg/ (m2s2) C4 = 42 kg/ (m2s2) C5 = 825 kg/s2 3 ⎛ LT ⎞ 5 ≤ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ≤ 20 ⎝B ⎠ P = 21. CUSAT. The design height (h) of the area actually under ice pressure at any particular point of time is. Batch – XXIX” ⎛ tanϕ 2 ⎞ o ⎟ = 30.8 1.2 MW (approx) 8.17 sin α ⎝ ⎠ C ψ = 25.8 0. .22 Table 8.2 Values of ho and h 8.89 ψ = arctan ⎜ HF = 0.0 for ice classes IA and IA Super 0. however.0 0.30 0.25 0.8 for ice class IB 0. where 169 .25 0.5 Ice pressure The design ice pressure is determined by the formula: p = cd · c1 · ca · po [MPa]. B.5 = 7.0 C1 and C2 take into account a consolidated upper layer of the brash ice and are to be taken as zero for ice classes IA.6 0.“Department of Ship technology. assumed to be only a fraction of the ice thickness.2.30 0.35 0.4 h [m] h0.35 [m] 0. The values for ho and h are given in the following table. IB and IC. Ice Class IA Super Ice Class IA IA Super IB IA IC IB IC ho [m] ho1.4 Ice load Height of load area An ice-strengthened ship is assumed to operate in open sea conditions corresponding to a level ice thickness not exceeding ho.

75 0.25 . The value of c1 is given in the following table: Ice Class IA Super IA IB IC Forward 1.70 0. a b Region Forward Midship & Aft k ≤ 12 k > 12 k ≤ 12 k > 12 30 6 8 2 230 518 214 286 Table 8.50 Table 8.0 0. Batch – XXIX” cd = a factor which takes account of the influence of the size and engine output of the ship.45 0.85 0.0 1.0 1.75 a =2 b = 286 c1 = a factor which takes account of the probability that the design ice pressure occurs in a certain region of the hull for the ice class in question. B. CUSAT.3 Values of a and b Δ P = the displacement of the ship at maximum ice class draught [t] = 183376.65 0.12 t = the actual continuous engine output of the ship [kW] 38250 KW K = 83.4 Values of c1 170 Aft 0.0 Region Midship 1.Tech (NA&SB).“Department of Ship technology. It is calculated by the formula: cd = a⋅k + b 1000 k= Δ⋅P 1000 a and b are given in the following table: .0 1.

5 Ca [m] 1.260 .1 Vertical extension of Ice Belt The vertical extension of the ice belt shall be as follows: Ice Belt is from 7.00 m to 17. the value 5.102 Table 8.612 1.6 Extension of Ice strengthening at midship 171 P 2.25 8. CUSAT.486 0.4 0.028 0. maximum 1. It is calculated by the formula: 47 .35 m above d ship’s depth from keel. B. Structure Shell Frames Type of framing Transverse Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal Ice stringer Web frame la [m] Frame spacing 2 ⋅ frame spacing Frame spacing Span of frame Span of stringer 2 ⋅ web frame spacing la [m] 0.5 Values of la po = the nominal ice pressure.989 1.6 Mpa shall be used.35 0.028 0.35 4.585 0. 8.5 0.511 2.4 0. Ice Class Above LWL [m] Below BWL [m] IA Super IA IB IC 0.“Department of Ship technology.0 .5 l a .6 ca = 44 la shall be taken as follows: . minimum 0.6 0.6 0.3 Calculations for Ice strengthened part 8.25 4.7 0. Batch – XXIX” c1 = 1 ca = a factor which takes account of the probability that the full length of the area under consideration will be under pressure at the same time.5 0.486 1.3.Tech (NA&SB).585 0.75 0.5 Table 8.612 2.

CUSAT.4 . B. when 1≤ h/s < 1.8 4.0 h = 0.764 0.3.“Department of Ship technology.2 Plate thickness in the ice belt For transverse framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the t = 667 s f1 ⋅ p PL σy + t c [mm] For longitudinal framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the formula: t = 667 s S p PL f 2 ⋅σ + t c [mm ] y = the frame spacing [m] pPL = 0. tc = increment for abrasion and corrosion [mm].0.8) 2 = 0.4 . the actual values may be substituted for the above ones if accepted by the classification society.6 + f2 = 1.75 p [MPa] p = 1.2 .4 (h/s). normally tc shall be 2 mm t = 20.05 mm Taken t = 24 mm 172 .0 (h/s + 1. Batch – XXIX” 8.3 − f2 = 0.88 f1 = 1.Tech (NA&SB).35 σy = yield stress of the material [N/mm2] σy = 235 N/mm2 for normal-strength hull structural steel σy = 315 N/mm2 or higher for high-strength hull structural steel If steels with different yield stress are used. maximum 1. when h/s ≤ 1 (h/s) = 1.

3.6 1. B.7 Vertical extension of ice strengthening The vertical extension of the ice strengthening of the framing shall be at least as Vertical extension of ice strengthening in framing is from 5.0 1.3L from Abaft 0. Ice Class Ice Class IA Super IA Super IA. 8.3 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3L abaft it Abaft 0.Tech (NA&SB).0 1.3 1.6 1.55 m.2 1. IC Region Region From stem to 0. Batch – XXIX” .0 1.3L stem from stem midship aft midship From aft stem to 0.0 1.3L from Abaft stemfrom 0.41 m to 18.2 1. IB. CUSAT.2 1.3L From stem abaft it to 0.2 1.3 1.0 1.3 Transverse frames Section modulus The section modulus of a main or intermediate transverse frame shall be calculated [ ] p⋅s⋅h ⋅l 6 10 cm 3 mt ⋅σ y by the formula: p = ice pressure Z= s = frame spacing [m] h = height of load area l = span of the frame [m] 173 .“Department of Ship technology. IC IA.3L stem Midship Aft Midship Aft Below BWL [m]BWL Below [m] To double bottom or To double below top bottom or of floorstop of below floors 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.3L From stem abaft it to 0.2 1. IB.6 1.3L abaft it Above LWL [m]LWL Above [m] 1.0 1.2 Abaft 0.0 Table 8.2 1.

5h/l = yield stress [N/mm2] mo = values are given in the following table: mt = . Table 8. CUSAT.4 Longitudinal frames The section modulus of a longitudinal frame shall be calculated by the formula: f3 ⋅f 4 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅l 2 6 Z= 10 cm 3 m ⋅σ y [ ] 174 . B.3.4 cm3 8.“Department of Ship technology.8 Values of mo Z = 580. Batch – XXIX” σy 7 mo 7 .Tech (NA&SB).

3 for a continuous beam. f4 = factor which takes account of the concentration of load to the point of support. f4 = 0. m = 13. a smaller boundary factor may be required.62 cm2 Scantling selected 330x15 HB Z = 1100 cm3 A = 65.9 cm2 8.6 p = ice pressure h = height of load area s = frame spacing [m] l = span of frame [m] m = boundary condition factor.3.2 h/s) = 0.“Department of Ship technology. σy = yield stress Z = 1076.3.Tech (NA&SB).0. in an end field.5 cm3 A = 48.1) shall be calculated by the formula: f ⋅p ⋅ h ⋅l2 6 Z= 5 10 cm 3 m ⋅σ y The shear area shall be: [ ] A= [ ] 3 ⋅ f5 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅ l 4 10 cm 2 2σ y 175 . B.8.5 Stringers within the ice belt The section modulus of a stringer situated within the ice belt (see 4. CUSAT.g. e. Batch – XXIX” The shear area of a longitudinal frame shall be: A= 3 ⋅f3 ⋅ p⋅ h ⋅l 4 10 cm 2 2σ y [ ] This formula is valid only if the longitudinal frame is attached to supporting structure by brackets = factor which takes account of the load distribution to adjacent frames f3 f3 = (1 . where the boundary conditions deviate significantly from those of a continuous beam.

9 σy = yield stress Z = 2153 cm3 A = 53.059L1 + 7) √ FB/kL 11.81 mm 176 .4. f5 = factor which takes account of the distribution of load to the transverse frames. to be taken as 0.6 Load on Web frames in Ice Belt The load transferred to a web frame from an ice stringer or from longitudinal framing shall be calculated by the formula: F = p ⋅ h ⋅ S [MN] The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0. CUSAT. B.1 [FSICR] Deck plating: t = 20 mm For Lloyd’s grade DH32.“Department of Ship technology.2 Sheer strake: t = 20 mm For Lloyd’s grade EH32. Batch – XXIX” The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0. 8.76 MN 8. 8.4 Dimensions of non Ice strengthened parts: 8.34 cm2 Wing tank girder has been provided in place of stringer.4.4. [FSICR] 8. and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.30.001s (0.3.30 S = distance between web frames [m] F = 0.Tech (NA&SB). and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.3 Side shell below Ice strengthening: The greatest of the following is to be taken: t = = 0.

(LRS part 4.Tech (NA&SB). 7.0042 s√ hT1k spacing of shell longitudinals = 700 mm hT1 = T + Cw m but need not be taken greater than 1.4.2T = 19.36T hT1 = 23.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) ∴t = 10.005s√ kh1 s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm k = 0.5 Keel Plating Keel plating should not be less than thickness of bottom shell + 2 mm ∴t = 20 mm. B.0052s hT2 = T + 0.6 Inner bottom Plating t = t0 / √ 2-FB t0 = 0.1) 70B = 3409 mm Selected w = 1800 mm 8. and table 1.48 mm 20 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32) 8.5CW m but need not be taken greater than 1.4. in meters.27 mm Selected t = 18 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32) 1.4 Bottom shell and bilge √ hT2k t = 0.93 FB = 0.67 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) k = 0.8-FB 8.5. but need not exceed 1800 mm and is to be not less than 750 mm. Batch – XXIX” But not less than t s = = 0.0044L Cw = 6.37 Selected t ∴t = = 12.“Department of Ship technology.4.12 Cw = a wave head. chapter1.78 177 .08 mm 22 mm Width of keel plate is to be not less than 70B mm. But need not exceed t Selected t = = 25 √ k = 22.71 x 10–2Le–0. CUSAT.

R = 0.00L1 + 0. whichever is greater & need not be taken greater than (0. excluding hatchway. Batch – XXIX” h = distance in m. but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or (0. B. le = 4. Chapter 9.78 (Refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) h1 = (h0 + D1/8).“Department of Ship technology.7) m.5 m else where. CUSAT.22 mm t = 12. excluding hatchway.5 Hull Framing [LRS Part 4. from the midpoint of span of stiffener to highest point of tank.5 m in double bottom and 2.Tech (NA&SB). = 19. at base line of ship.667 h0 178 .133 c1 = 75/(225 – 150FB).75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) ∴c1 = 0.354 b1 = B/2 = 24. Section 5] 8.1 Bottom Longitudinals The section modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less than greater of the following: a) Z = 0. FB = 0. for bottom longitudinals.35 m h1 = 0. = 22 m D1 = 16 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) s = spacing of bottom longitudinals = 700 mm le = effective span of longitudinals which are assumed to be supported by web frames spaced at 5s.25 m F1 = Dc1/(25D-20h) = 0. where s is the basic frame spacing in midship region (850 mm ) not to be taken less than 1. from the plate in consideration to the highest point of the tank.15 t0 = 14.5.056kh1sle2F1FS cm3 K = 0.82m = distance in m.33 mm Selected = 14 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32) 8.75 D + D1/8).72 (h+Rb1) = 21.

785 c2 = 165/ (345-180FB) s = 700 mm le = 4.5.2 Deck Longitudinals (LRS.35 m R = (0.39 0.45+0. Batch – XXIX” h b) = distance of longitudinal below deck at side.5 cm3 Z = 0.1) The modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less than greater of the following: a) Z = 0. at upper deck at side and at the base line. ∴Z = 1459.76 m D = 23. B. Chapter 9. 354 D1 = 16 m h3 = 26. Z = 1459.056kh1sl2eF1FS cm3 k = 0. in meters = 23.8 cm3 Greater of the two is to be taken.01L1 +0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3 k = 0. 0 ( for deck longitudinals) D1 = 16 (h0 + D1/8) = 2 L1 = 190 L1/56 = 3.44 m F2 = Dc2/ (3.18D-2.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) h1 h0 = = (h0 + D1/8).133 FS = 1.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) h3 = 75D+Rb1 b1 = 24. Part 4.3.54 – L/1270) = 0.76 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) ∴F1 = 0.5.1 L/B)(0.25 m ∴Z = 1044.Tech (NA&SB).e.6 179 . CUSAT.7 = 2.18h) = 0. i.5 cm3 Selected 400 x 18 HB Z (Avail) = 1250 cm3 8. but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m.“Department of Ship technology.

39 b) Z = 0.“Department of Ship technology.e.25m = Dc2 / (D + 2. 5. Chapter 9.62 m s = 700 mm le = 4.4 Inner hull and CL bulkhead longitudinals The modulus of side shell longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less than greater of the following: a) Z = 0.5.5.35 m h3 = h0 + Rb1 = 8.5 cm3 250 x 12 HB section is selected Z available = 500 cm3 8.056kh1sle2F1Fs cm3 b) Z = 0.25m F1 = Dc1 / (4D + 20h) h = 0 (for deck longitudinals) c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck FD = 0.18h) F2 = 165 / (345 – 180FD) c2 FD = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3 R = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) ∴c2 = 1. CUSAT. Z = 433.0 ∴Z = 433.148 Fs = 1.Tech (NA&SB).3 Side Shell Longitudinals (LRS Part 4. Design of the longitudinals for each field is done using the information for the lowest longitudinal in each field. at upper deck at side and at baseline of ship ∴Z = 277.4. Batch – XXIX” ∴h1 = L1/56 = s = 700 mm le = 4.0 ∴F2 = 1.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3 180 .3.595 ∴F1 = 0.5 cm3 Greatest of the two is to be taken. i.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’) ∴ c1 = 0.354 bi = B/2 = 24.1) From standardization point of view the side shell is divided into longitudinal fields as shown in fig 8. B. 8.06 cm3 3.

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where,
h1
s

=
=

(h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
0.01L1 +0.7 m whichever is the greater.
700 mm

le

=

4.25 m

k

=

0.78

FD

=

0.75

D1

=

16

L1

=

190 m

L1/56

=

3.39

h

=

distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters

h3

=

h0 + Rb1

For side longitudinals above D/2,
F1

=

Dc1 / (4D + 20h)

F2

=

Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)

For side longitudinals below D/2,
F1

=

Dc1/(25D-20h)

F2

=

Dc2/(3.18D-2.18h)

c1

c2

=

60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

75/ (225 – 150FB), at base line of ship

=

165/ (345 – 180FB) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

165/ (345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

181

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 8.4
Side shell regions

ITEM
ho
D1
h1= h0+D1/8
h3
F1
F2
Fs
a) Z
b) Z
Taken Z (cm3)
Section
Scantling
Z
f kZ(available)
i ( 3)

REG 1

REG 2

5.21
16
7.21
13.83
0.113
0.702
1
450.405
488.61
488.61
HB
260 x 11
488.61
500

20.76
16
22.76
29.38
0.0777
0.5468
1
976.925
808.12
976.92
HB
340 x 13
976.92
1000

Table 8.9
Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals

182

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6 Inner Hull, Inner Bottom and Longitudinal Bulkheads
(LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 6)
The inner hull, inner bottom and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally
framed.
The symbols used in this section are defined as follows:
b1

=

the greatest distance in meters, from the centre of the plate panel
or midpoint of the stiffener span, to the corners at top of the tank
on either side.

c1

=

60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship

=

165/(345 – 180FB) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

165/(345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

=

load height, in meters measured vertically as

c2

h

follows:

(a) for bulkhead plating the distance from a point one third of the height of the
plate panel above its lower edge to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
(b) for bulkhead stiffeners or corrugations, the distance from the midpoint of span
of the stiffener or corrugation to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
h1
=
(h + D1/8), but not less than 0.72 (h + Rb1)
h2
=
(h + D1/8), in meters, but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m
or
(0.01L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater
h3
=
distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters, but is not
to be less than 0
h4
=
h + Rb1
h5
=
h2 but is not to be less than 0.55h4
t0
=
0.005s √kh1
t1
=
t0(0.84 + 0.16(tm/t0)2)
tm
=
minimum value of t0 within 0.4D each side of mid depth of
bulkhead

183

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6.1 Inner Hull Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating
For the determination of scantlings of longitudinal bulkhead plating and
inner hull plating’s areas follows. (Refer fig 8.4)

ITEM
h
D1

Region 1
5.41
16

Region 2
19.09

ice belt
15.35

16

16

h1

10.101

21.09

17.35

h2

7.41

21.09

17.35

h4

14.029

27.7099

23.96

h5

7.7164

21.09

17.35

t0

9.824

14.195

12.875

10.952
12

13.7928
14

12.875
13

t1
taken

Table 8.10
Determination of Inner Hull and Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating
8.6.2 CL Longitudinal Bulk Head Longitudinals and Inner Hull Longitudinals
Inner hull and longitudinal bulkheads are to be longitudinally framed. The modulus
of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:
(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3
The inner hull and bulkhead plating is divided into various strakes for the
determination of center line bulkhead longitudinals and inner hull longitudinals.
s

=

700 mm

le

=

4.25m

184

494 24. from the plate in consideration to the highest point of the tank.15 = 14.7 0.3 Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals The inner bottom is to be longitudinally framed and the inner bottom plating thickness is to be t = t0 / √ 2-FB t0 = 0.35 16 21.030 HB 250 X 13 325 X 17 325 X 12 5.41 24.448 Table.35 16 10.5 23.Tech (NA&SB). B.03 0.71 0.703 456.5 14.“Department of Ship technology.10 7.35 24.6.380 405.923 435.923 HB 751. excluding hatchway = 20.78 h = distance in m.35 m h1 = 0. Batch – XXIX” .354 (refer previous sections) b1 = B/2 = 24.35 17.09 17 27.72 (h+Rb1) = 21.11 Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal and inner hull longitudinal 8.35 13.030 692. ITEM b1 h1 h2 h3 h4 c1 c2 F1 F2 Z1 Z2 Taken Z (cm3) Section Scantling Region 1 Region 2 19.41 6.87 912.21 mm t0 t = 12.87 456.97 1 1 751.32 mm Selected = 14 mm 185 .380 HB 912.8.005s√ kh1 s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm k = 0.35 16 17.09 21.76 m R = 0.7 0.09 Between 1 & 2 15. CUSAT.

709m F2 = 0.6 mm dDB = 3000 mm Given 3.7 Primary Members Supporting the Hull Longitudinal Framing 8.2 cm3.6 mm 10.38 m D1 = 16 m h2 = h + D1 / 8 = 22.2 Floors and Side Girders t = (0.3.008 dDB + 1) √ k = 22.67 cm3 Selected Z = 985.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3 h = 19.078 ∴Z = 985.07 mm Given thickness = 22 mm 8.0 m.2 cm3 (b) Z = 0.“Department of Ship technology.316 ∴Z = 440.007dDB + 1) √ k = 19.76 m F1 = 0. Batch – XXIX” The modulus of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following: (a) Z = 0.1 Centre girder (LRS Part 4.43 mm But not to exceed 12√ k = Given thickness = ∴t = 10.3. B.7.9.Tech (NA&SB).3) (a) Minimum depth of centre girder dDB = 28B + 205√ T mm dDB = 2202.6 mm 16 mm 186 .7.4) t = (0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3 h4 = h + Rb1 = 27. CUSAT. (b) Minimum thickness of centre girder (LRS. Selected HB 330 x 13 Z available = 1000 cm3 8. Section 9. Part 4.

8 l = 90 √ (14 +Z√ Z) 2 -1 187 mm . CUSAT. and is to be measured between end span points.“Department of Ship technology. = 12.8) (ST + 1.7. in meters. 8.75 (0.7. B.25 hs = distance between the lower span point of the vertical web and the moulded deckline at centreline. K3 s = 4. Batch – XXIX” 8.8 Primary Members End Connections [LRS Part 3.3 cm3 Taken T section 1500 X 14 +600 X 20 is selected. in meters = 20 m Ss = span of vertical web.83) k cm3 s = 4.2.75 m ∴Z = 18476.3 Deck Transverses (LRS Part 4.116 m ∴Z = 12871.25 m L = 229. Section 3] The following relations govern the scantlings of bracket: (a + b) ≥ 2l l a ≥ 0.4 Vertical web on centreline longitudinal bulkhead Section modulus of vertical web is to be not less than Z = K3shsSs2k (sm3) = 1.8 m ST = span of transverse = 8.10.0 cm3 Taken T section 1250x 12+ 500x 18 8. Chapter 10.0269sL + 0.8) Section modulus of deck transverses is not to be less than Z = 53.Tech (NA&SB).8 l b ≥ 0.88.

3 / 1000) = 554 mm Taken 750 mm 8. Batch – XXIX” 8.8. but not less than 50mm = 40 (1 + 12871.3 cm3 l = 90 {2 (√12871. but not less than 50mm = 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000) = 624.“Department of Ship technology. CUSAT.8l = 1375 mm b ≥ 0.8 mm a ≥ 0.8l = 1426. B.5 mm b ≥ 0.08 mm Taken 750 mm 188 .8l = 1375 mm Given a = 2300 mm and b = 2000 mm t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm Flange breadth to be not less than bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm.1} mm Z = 14602 cm3 l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1} = 1783.1 Bracket connecting deck transverse and inner hull √ (14 +Z√ Z) l = 90 2 -1 mm Z = 12871.2 Bracket connecting deck transverse and center line bulkhead web √ (14 +Z√ Z) l = 90{ 2 .8.3]) – 1} = 1718.3 / [14 + √ 12871.1 mm a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm Flange breadth to be not less than bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm.Tech (NA&SB).

5 mm b ≥ 0. Batch – XXIX” 8.1} mm Z = 14602cm3 l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1} = 1783.3 Bracket connecting centre line vertical web and inner bottom plating √ (14 +Z√ Z) l = 90{ 2 . B.“Department of Ship technology. CUSAT.8l = 1426.5 mm Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm Flange breadth to be not less than bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm.8.08 mm Taken 750 m 189 . but not less than 50mm = 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000) = 624.Tech (NA&SB).1 mm a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.

32E-07 Wing Tank Girder 3 3 0.0495 Side Girder 3 0.268 0.2E-06 Centre Girder 3 0.072 12 0.5 0.022 1 0.35 0.76 22.90625 3 0.12 Section Modulus Calculation ITEMS Deck Plate L (m) t(m) NO AREA (m2) LEVER A*L L 2 *A (m4) Iown (m4) 23.8 0.5 0.328 4.012 2 0.02 2 0.02 2 0.5138 3 1.38 0.3 0.32E-07 Wing Tank Girder 5 3 0.024529 5 0.066 1.32E-07 Wing Tank Girder 6 3 0.432 2.099 0.35777 0.36 1.6242 4.015 6 0.24 1.32E-07 Wing Tank Girder 2 3 0.03864 4.5112 2.5 0.5 0.26 2.045 19 0.08 16.26 2.5 0.02 2 0.26316 23.1439 50. Batch – XXIX” Table 8.27E-05 6 0.512 31.01 0.864 10.27 1.024 2 0.02 2 0.5512 54.6653 1.024529 Wing Tank Girder 1 3 0.125 13 0.012 2 0.338 12.014 2 0.169 12.5414 4.32E-07 68 0.02 2 0.26 2.06401 0.072 15 1.6 12 7.02 2 0.5696 Sheerstrake Plate Above IceBelt Plate Ice Belt Plate Below Ice Belt Plate Bottom Shell Plate Bottom Bilge Plate Keel Plate CL bhd reg Bb/w 1 &2 CL bhd reg 2 IB hull plate reg 1 IB hull plate reg b/w 1&2 IB hull plate reg 2 Deck Longitudinals 190 .112 4.25 0.76 0.125 13 0.504 2.012 2 0.012 2 0. CUSAT.013 1 0.94 23. B.741285 0.51 1.013 2 0.4 3.2 4.072 9 0.000076 1.011 0.177712 0.072 21 1.380083 2.26 4.1692 0.8268 81.0719 25.Tech (NA&SB).12 21.022 1 0.752 4.79E-06 1.6E-06 Margin Plate 4 0.072 6 0.6 6.76 0.1 19.072 18 1.12 4.012 3 0.26 0.23851 0.32E-07 Wing Tank Girder 4 3 0.368 4.026042 12.40198 2.951 38.5 0.014 2 0.38 0.012 2 0.26 3.045 2.“Department of Ship technology.405 0.0396 0.3385 1.012 250 x 12 2 0.46091 0.592 4.0004 4.6712 59.074667 Inn Bot Plate 18.296 23.2106 146.76 0.334 530.18 21.375 0.12 22.014 2 0.0076 0.380083 2.1485 0.648 5.03375 CL bhd reg 1 5 0.2 86.832 4.012 2 0.07728 4.48257 0.014 1 0.80397 2.6075 0.57E-05 3 0.

0108 11.0108 12.519124 28 325 x 12 2 0.700297 9 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.41 0.1545 2.898938 24 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.956319 35 325 x 12 2 0.447928 6 250 x 13 2 0.886503 191 .0108 16.561684 10 325 x 12 2 0.1243 1.940907 4 250 x 13 2 0.103891 33 325 x 12 2 0.181645 32 325 x 12 2 0.610108 27 325 x 12 2 0.1054 1.466814 2 250 x 13 2 0.01 0.91 0.1508 2.1643 3.11 0.26 0.61 0.06 0.1319 1.430785 29 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.1878 4.0108 13.1167 1.1848 3.147 2.0084 19.425718 11 325 x 12 2 0.1734 2.1702 3.028782 34 325 x 12 2 0.0084 20.0084 21.96 0.161723 13 325 x 12 2 0.0084 23.262046 31 325 x 12 2 0.0978 0.0108 10.1394 1.665484 17 325 x 12 2 0.1923 3.1432 1.0084 22.51 0. B.321088 20 325 x 12 2 0.66 0.0108 17.51 0.76 0.199745 3 250 x 13 2 0.104721 22 325 x 12 2 0.46 0.987877 8 325 x 12 2 0.0108 18.1937 4.0108 14.1356 1.41 0.1819 3.000507 23 325 x 12 2 0.76 0.“Department of Ship technology.1205 1.26 0.Tech (NA&SB).86 0.06 0.0108 15.1281 1.36 0.86 0.0084 18.0108 17.16 0.31 0.81 0.908311 15 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.0108 12.113 1.96 0.0108 11.1659 2.1886 3.1961 3.06 0.0108 17.0108 13.1772 2.292397 12 325 x 12 2 0.71 0.433241 19 325 x 12 2 0.21 0.54804 18 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.56 0.785575 16 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.181 3.0108 16.213786 7 250 x 13 2 0.1583 2.800015 25 325 x 12 2 0.56 0.0108 9.1621 2.345092 30 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.66 0.46 0.690301 5 250 x 13 2 0. Batch – XXIX” Inner Hull Long 1 250 x 13 2 0.16 0.1016 0.81 0.1092 1. CUSAT.1697 2.1999 3.0108 14.1584 2.36 0.0108 15.703739 26 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.0108 11.0084 20.211582 21 325 x 12 2 0.1761 3.0108 18.11 0.033694 14 325 x 12 2 0.

1819 3.0134 4.0084 23.522585 9 330 x 15 2 0.0134 5.0132 17.0705 0.0084 18.81 0.2351 4.35317 10 330 x 15 2 0.71 0.0676 0.0772 0.912 2.0865 0.819332 37 325 x 12 2 0.692929 39 325 x 12 2 0.0132 18.303612 47 325 x 17 2 0.57711 41 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.212 3.189444 400 x 18 64 0.0108 6.0132 16.2166 3.66 0. B.257814 17 330 x 15 2 0.1878 4.16 0.0084 20. Batch – XXIX” Bottom Longitudinals Inner Bottom Longls Side longitudinals 36 325 x 12 2 0.5992 1 250 x 13 2 0.0903 0.0132 17.06 0.0084 22.0638 0.76 0.51 0.0108 8.447928 6 250 x 13 2 0.36 0.243178 48 325 x 17 2 0.66 0.56 0.370746 46 325 x 17 2 0.0132 15.523169 42 325 x 12 2 0.864328 13 330 x 15 2 0.1761 3.0571 0.1937 4.213786 7 250 x 13 2 0.2 0.836886 192 .987877 8 330 x 15 2 0.466814 2 250 x 13 2 0. CUSAT.26 0.32 2.86 0.76 0.0132 15.61 0.128 0.“Department of Ship technology.96 0.2074 3.1702 3.2397 4.2028 3.0132 15.199745 3 250 x 13 2 0.0132 14.0134 4.41 0.0134 5.76 0.0132 16.114271 18 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.71 0.31 0.554603 15 330 x 15 2 0.471875 43 325 x 12 2 0.2259 3.0752 0.0256 330 x 13 50 0.0132 18.0108 8.11 0.66 0.96 0.64 0.690301 5 250 x 13 2 0.1584 2.0827 0.0084 21.0108 7.0134 3.1643 3.973961 19 330 x 15 2 0.940907 4 250 x 13 2 0.85 0.0714 0.2305 4.0504 0.06 0.44458 45 325 x 17 2 0.01 0.754808 38 325 x 12 2 0.26 0.0789 0.423226 44 325 x 17 2 0.0941 0.0108 6.46 0.1981 2.2212 3.186989 11 330 x 15 2 0.2443 4.26 0.1935 2.633696 40 325 x 12 2 0.26 0.707848 14 330 x 15 2 0.404592 16 330 x 15 2 0.0084 19.0108 6.Tech (NA&SB).36 0.36 0.0108 7.0084 20.024041 12 330 x 15 2 0.76 0.01 0.0132 17.

082348 26 330 x 15 2 0.200019 25 330 x 15 2 0.86 0.01 0.856707 28 330 x 15 2 0.0969 2.66 0.012 3. Batch – XXIX” 20 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.0132 7.001406 37 330 x 15 2 0.012 0.0667 0.320924 24 330 x 15 2 0.005227 1 250 x 13 1 0.1196 1.0583 0.1104 0.16 0.36 0.1381 1.11 0.26 0.21 0.091411 49 340 x 13 2 0.96 0.0132 7.06 0.012 2.1612 1.46 0.1288 1.66 0.91 0.444233 32 330 x 15 2 0.0247 0.0163 0.46 0.56 0.012 1.1889 2.1011 0.0415 0.748737 29 330 x 15 2 0.143659 48 340 x 13 2 0.0132 11.175 2.0826 0.26 0.542501 31 330 x 15 2 0.1335 1.0132 12.81 0.0042 23.0132 12.1704 2.31 0.96 0.1242 1.083504 36 330 x 15 2 0.283435 46 340 x 13 2 0.0042 22.703045 21 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.56 0.1658 2.0919 0.517276 44 340 x 13 2 0.76 0.0132 8.0132 10.0079 0.06 0.1473 1.572437 22 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.576736 43 330 x 15 2 0.61 0.76 0.1519 1.012 2.0132 14.“Department of Ship technology.0132 11.0132 13.0132 6.96791 27 330 x 15 2 0.644002 30 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.022195 51 340 x 13 2 0.012 4.3492 33 330 x 15 2 0.1797 2.0132 12.774518 40 330 x 15 2 0.16 0.1566 1.1843 2.1057 0.61 0.012 4.115 1.0132 8.31 0.Tech (NA&SB).0132 9.0132 11.2574 34 330 x 15 2 0.41 0.0499 0.705357 41 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.445064 23 330 x 15 2 0.846913 39 330 x 15 2 0.0331 0.207667 47 340 x 13 2 0.922543 38 330 x 15 2 0.71 0.36 0.06 0.370963 45 340 x 13 2 0. B.050923 50 340 x 13 2 0.0132 9.099872 CL Longl Bulkhead 193 .233407 2 250 x 13 1 0.86 0.0132 10.0939 2.639429 42 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.1427 1.51 0. CUSAT.0965 0.0132 10.012 5.0873 0.36 0.168835 35 330 x 15 2 0.

516847 11 325 x 12 1 0.46 0.237 m I ref I NA =1415.76 0.0716 0.0067 4.0822 1.261585 25 325 x 12 1 0.08021 7.493938 8 325 x 12 1 0.606893 7 250 x 13 1 0.0981 1.0867 1.088 1.064 0.86 0.377404 23 325 x 12 1 0.44 m3 Z keel = 58.85 m3 Z Req = 43.0054 9.0376 0.0054 9.672546 19 325 x 12 1 0.54 m4 Z deck = 44.0905 1.0054 17.26 0.0338 0.75748 10. Batch – XXIX” Total 3 250 x 13 1 0.0792 1.646199 10 325 x 12 1 0.76 0.970454 4 250 x 13 1 0.0054 18.0527 0.443251 22 325 x 12 1 0.0054 8.0042 20.0565 0. B.0414 0.514391 21 325 x 12 1 0.0042 20.16 0.590823 20 325 x 12 1 0.599469 Height of NA =10.66 0.091 1.0326 0.0054 13.115948 29 325 x 17 1 0.0054 11.0042 19.16 0.36 0.416 1405. CUSAT.2374 79.845151 5 250 x 13 1 0.158251 28 325 x 17 1 0.0054 7.56 0.0451 0.0678 0.780842 9 325 x 12 1 0.66 0.06 0.56 0.0067 4.26 0.31m3 Here ZDECK and ZKEEL are getting more than the minimum section modulus required.0232 0.0054 15.0489 0.052361 15 325 x 12 1 0.0054 12.759562 18 325 x 12 1 0.0792 1.0603 0.0054 11.0054 14.36 0.86 0.316848 24 325 x 12 1 0.851869 17 325 x 12 1 0.56 0.06 0.0042 21.0054 16.0042 18.96 0.0851 1.16 0.160544 14 325 x 12 1 0.0754 1.0373 0.0054 16.27402 13 325 x 12 1 0.0054 10.96 0.66 0.46 0.207121 27 325 x 17 1 0. So the design is satisfactory.0054 6.0054 6.0279 0.392787 12 325 x 12 1 0.0054 13.96 0.56 m4 =602.Tech (NA&SB).0067 3. 194 .46 0.0067 5.86 0.963 30 9.“Department of Ship technology.211613 26 325 x 17 1 0.26 0.0943 1.723964 6 250 x 13 1 0.0829 1.949469 16 325 x 12 1 0.

CUSAT. B.Tech (NA&SB). Batch – XXIX”               CHAPTER 9 OUTLINE SPECIFICATION                         .Department of Ship technology.

cranes etc.Tech (NA&SB). Forepeak tank is used for ballasting. Engine room and accommodation is arranged aft. podded type propulsion. 195 . Main Particulars LOA - 290.0 m B (mld) - 48. There are ten holds to carry crude oil. Purpose This double acting type double hull tanker is required to transport crude oil from Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk.7 m D (mld) - 23.5 m LBP - 263.0 m. The double bottom tanks beneath these holds and the wing tanks at the sides are used to carry ballast water. The ship has nine watertight transverse bulkheads. A heavy fuel oil tank is provided in the forward region of the engine room. a slop tank is provided to carry the sludge. longitudinally framed. fore castle.2. Main deck is the freeboard deck.1.86 m CB - 0.1. Azipod room has been provided in aft region. B. superstructure and engine casing (aft). OUTLINE SPECIFICATION 9. which remains after the pumping out of cargo. Batch – XXIX” 9.76 m T (mld) - 16. General 9. Forepeak accommodates the chain locker also. Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands) 9. Additionally one provision crane of capacity 1 tonne has been provided aft in port side. double hull vessel having a main deck.1.“Department of Ship technology. Pump room is provided in between the slop tank and the engine room.75 m Ice draft (fully loaded) - 16. Towards the aft of cargo hold.3. The double bottom height is 3. Description The vessel is a twin screw.1.840 Dead weight - 150.0 Knots Total Complement - 42 Range - 3800 nautical mile 9. A double bottom is arranged from the fore peak bulkhead to the aft peak bulkhead. Two deck cranes of 5t capacity are fitted on either side of the ship to facilitate easy cargo handling hose.1.000 t Speed - 15. CUSAT.

Batch – XXIX” 9.6 Compliment Captain Class : 4 Senior Class : 2 Junior Class : 3 Cadet : 2 Petty Officers : 3 Leading crew : 4 Crew Class : 24 TOTAL : 42 174294.5 Capacities Cargo Capacity = Ballast water Capacity = HFO tank Capacity = DFO tank Capacity = Boiler fuel tank Capacity = LO tank Capacity = Capacity of FW tank = Capacity of Waste water tank= 9.4.Tech (NA&SB).1.2 Hull The ship is made of Higher tensile steel (DH32 and DH36) and is of all welded construction.1. Classification The ships are classified under Lloyds Register of Shipping and FSICR.17 m3 50841. CUSAT.42 m3 247 m3 32 m3 132. 9. Class notation: ✠+100A1double hull oil tanker Baltic service Ice class 1A Super.4 m3 379.1 m3 797.“Department of Ship technology. The wing tanks and double bottom constitute the double hull of the ship.1. 9.3 Life Saving Appliances Life Saving Appliances Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS requirements.44 m3 9. Lifeboat particulars to be satisfied are: 196 .42m3 7152. B.

60 One totally enclosed free fall type. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house. d. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse. h. c. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper deck behind forecastle deck. o. The lifeboats are equipped with water spray fire protection system. i. diesel engine driven lifeboats each capable of 55 persons capacity is provided on aft of the ship. g. Batch – XXIX” Volume required per person = 0. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships m. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space k. COMPLIANCE LIST a. 4 WT set has been provided. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.25 m H = 8.58 m CB = 0. CUSAT.283 m3. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of the ship. j. Total compliment 42 = Lifeboat chosen has following particulars: L = 8.97 m T = 1. 55 life jackets have been provided. 2 life jackets for child have been provided f.Tech (NA&SB). B.“Department of Ship technology. p. Material of construction is GRP. 197 . galley and other public places n.5 m B = 2. Eight life buoys are provided. Training manual has been provided in wheel house. b. l. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house. four of which are fitted with self-igniting light e. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship.

CUSAT.R control room is to have separate air conditioning unit. 55 immersion suits has been provided t.4 Fire Extinguishing Appliances Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS rules. sanitary spaces.5 Ventilation and Air-conditioning Mechanical ventilation is to be arranged for galley. B. Conditioned air to be supplied to all cabins as well as to the wheelhouse (spot cooling). provision store (dry). ¾ Steering wheel. and pantries. 198 . ¾ Chart table with drawer for charts and navigational publication ¾ Voice pipes communication system.“Department of Ship technology. Galley - Portable DCP fire extinguishers Paint store - Portable foam type fire extinguishers. ¾ Locker with locking arrangement for navigational instruments. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region. s. ¾ Navigational radar. ¾ Pod angle indicators. Engine room is to have mechanical ventilation. ¾ Engine control and telegraphs. 9. Batch – XXIX” q.Tech (NA&SB). Accommodation spaces. r. laundry. cooler. Outlets are to enable individual control of air. Air conditioning installations to comprise an automatically controlled air-handling unit with filter. Cargo oil tank deck spaces - Foam fire extinguishing system. 9. One refrigerating plant. ¾ Revolution indicators. Engine room and pump room - CO2 fire extinguishing system. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.6 Navigation and communication equipments Wheel house is fitted with the following equipment:¾ Magnetic compass. and dehumidifier. steam heater. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations 9. E. open deck engine room and pump room - Water hydrant system. comprising one compressor with condenser etc for supply by a single duct system is provided.

8 Frequency: 50 HZ Rated current: 815A Rated voltage: 11KV Greatest weight/piece: 55T Rated speed: 429 rpm Manufacturer: ABB.Tech (NA&SB).7 Propulsion The vessel will be propelled by twin Azipod propeller driven by 3 generators directly coupled to 3 diesel engines separately.3G/KWH Greatest weight/piece: 270T Generators Type: HSG 1600 S14 Number: 3 Rated capacity: 15. FINLAND Rated output: 12. LTD JAPAN Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV Weight: 58T 199 .537 KVA Cos Factor: 0. CUSAT. ¾ 3 NUC light (red white and red) 9. Holland Rated output: 12.750KW Rated speed: 428rpm Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5% Consumption of lube oil: 1. red in port side). B. ¾ Two side lights (green is starboard side.43 MW Transformers Number: 2 Type: STROD/BTRD. ¾ One masthead light aft. ¾ Four all round lights (white). ¾ One stern light (white). Diesel Engines Type: 9TM620 Number: 3 Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Batch – XXIX” Navigational lights: The ship has the following lights used for navigation.“Department of Ship technology. ¾ One masthead light forward.3+0. Manufacturer: TAKAOKA ENGINEERING CO. ¾ Two anchor lights (white).

5 m 102 mm (special grade of steel) 200 . Lc Diameter of stud link cable.56 KN ηO : 53.7 kW (1458.26 m Z : 4 AE/AO : 0. Of anchors Mass of anchor. Batch – XXIX” Auxiliary engines Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305.527 P/D : 0.742 T : 1612.Tech (NA&SB). Model 1400 GQKA Number: 3 Manufacture: Cummins Rated output: 1400 kW Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.“Department of Ship technology.3 kVA) 50 Hz Propeller Particulars Type : Wageningen –B series D : 7. WA Total length of stud link cable. CUSAT. dc = = = = = Commercial standard stockless 2 17800 kg 742.8 Anchoring Arrangement Anchor type No. B.8 Material : Lloyd’s grade Cu 4 Manganese Aluminium Bronze Tensile strength: 630 N/mm2 9.

Department of Ship technology. CUSAT.Tech (NA&SB). B. Batch – XXIX”                       CHAPTER 10 DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION                    .

Economic aspects were not given due importance in all the places. although it requires further analysis. B. The system also includes a four-blade fixed pitch propeller due to its optimal efficiency and minimal fuel rate. It is based on a parent hull form design that has good sea keeping abilities while allowing for 150. The stress distribution of the structure. Ice load has been considered according to IMO resolution.The arrangement of the holds has been made to distribute the cargo evenly in its holds so as to reduce the cargo handling time. A bulbous bow has been utilized to reduce wave making and viscous drag as well as increasing fuel efficiency while moving aft and forward. Technical aspects were only considered and that too only up to the level of obtaining data from available literature. and maintainability. 201 . proven technology.9 is available in Russia. Crude oil with density ranging from 0. The propulsion system within the ice class tanker incorporates a medium -speed diesel engine with diesel electric Podded propulsion for its cost efficiency. This may not be the actual centre of gravity and this can be calculated only after a detailed mass estimation for which the data is unavailable. Hull form was designed using BSRA Charts.Tech (NA&SB).“Department of Ship technology. as specified by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping The structural arrangement is made so as to obtain the maximum unobstructed space below the deck. In the real case importance is given to economic as well as technical aspects. The general arrangement has been done keeping in mind all the major characteristics required for an ice class tanker.8 to 0. Maximum length of cargo holds. Batch – XXIX” 10. The longitudinal in wing tank bulkhead protrude into wing tank so that it does not affect the crude oil stowage. The cargo compositions will very much influence the design. DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The entire project work done till preliminary design stage.749 Righting Energy Criteria with a margin of safety.000 ton Dwt tank carrying capacity. while aft has been designed using aft hull form of ice class tanker . While doing the trim and the stability calculations. various centres of gravity are found using various empirical formulae. The design of a ice class tanker is highly dependent on the owner’s requirement routes and market trend. CUSAT. The tanker has been examined for intact stability in all loading conditions and meets the IMO A. Draft restriction of the loading and unloading ports should be given due importance. predicts a successful design. The structural configuration of the double-bottom hull and cargo tanks results in an effective design that satisfies the owners’ requirements. The scantlings of the structural members are within accepted industry producibility limits.

0 meter double bottom height to provide the most protection against collision and grounding. 202 . and various rooms to provide an excellent crew living environment. The ballast water system is completely segregated from the cargo system to prevent contamination of either system. galleys. allowing any tank to be serviced by any cargo pump. Other components are effectively positioned to provide control of propulsion and electrical systems. Components are positioned to work efficiently in performing their duty.0 meter double side width and a 3. Batch – XXIX” The engine. IGS is necessary for safe storage of cargo while in route and meets all requirements. This system will meet future ballast water exchange requirements. Central stairs and elevator. This also provides easy access to the tanks for inspection and maintenance which increases overall ship safety and life. it can be optimized using 3-D modeling software. Designed ship has 6.0 meter double bottom. produces ample power to propel the ship efficiently and effectively. Oil monitoring systems are utilized to ensure that water-oil mixtures are not discharged into the sea. propulsion. As far as preliminary design is concerned. and supply tanks are positioned within close proximity to their respective tanks. but there is need to provide camber in order to avoid accumulation of ice on deck. COW systems ensure the maximum cargo holding capacity and remove crude oil debris from the tanks. Pumps interacting with cargo. Cargo systems utilize the most advanced equipment available for safe and efficient cargo handling. The cargo piping serves alternative pairs of tanks and is cross-connected for redundancy.0 meter double side and 3. The navigation deck provides outstanding visibility of the ship and surroundings. Capacity of all tanks has been calculated using AUTOCAD. CUSAT. The majority of the equipment surrounds the main engine. The machinery space design optimizes the space arrangements of various components of cargo. exceeding the visibility requirements. The propulsion system satisfies the requirements for endurance speed and range.“Department of Ship technology. To eliminate the possibility of deck spills.Tech (NA&SB). camber has not been considered. The design incorporates the efficient use of five decks. Crew accommodations include individual staterooms. The cargo pumps facilitate the timely loading and unloading of the cargo. and electrical equipment. mess areas. All equipment in the machinery space performs together in an efficient manner to meet the owner’s requirements. All fuel tanks lube oil tanks. in conjunction with the propeller. ballast. and waste oil tanks are contained within the 3. The ballast water exchange system on the ship requires less operation and maintenance of auxiliary equipment. and various exterior entrances allow crew members to move freely through the entire deckhouse. B. Camber volume also has to be incorporated. the cargo is offloaded through discharge headers that run through the cargo tanks. Ballast pumps supply the means for ballasting the ship to ensure stability during the offloading procedures and unloaded voyages.

‘Ship design for Efficiency and Economy’ 5. ‘Ice going ships and recent developments’ 16. Gokaran and Ghose.R. Lloyd’s Register Technical Notes on Cold Climate Navigation. Principles of Naval Architecture Vol II 8. Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. W. Arctic Technology 20. Prohaska C. Kvaerner Masa Yards.G.“Department of Ship technology. Taggart R.RINA 1947 7. ‘Ship Design and Construction’. Reko Antti Suojanen.1978 15. ‘Results of Some Systematic Stability Calculations’. 203 . B. Batch – XXIX” REFERENCES 1. CUSAT. Seminar on ice breaking and ice going ships 19. B. 17. Edward. July 2002 12.Schneekluth . ‘Basic ship propulsion’ 9.Tupper . Mikko Niini..V. Watson D.. Sami Saarinen. Rules and Regulations for Building and Classification of Steel Ships –Lloyds Register of Shipping. Noriyuki Sasaki.C. Dankwardt.Longman . www.fi 23. 1980 6.com 22. Derret.Tech (NA&SB). 21. Strengthening for Russian ICE Tanker.Design and operation Considerations 18. Resistance and Propulsion of ships 13. D R. Proceedings of the 24th ITTC-Volume II and III. SNAME Publications. Some Ship Design Methods.M.A Report No: 333 11. J. Ship Stability for Masters and Mates 10. ‘Double Acting Ship concept and podded propulsion in Ice’. E .W.Lewis. Ship Structures 14. The specialist committee on Azimuthing Podded Propulsion. Harvald. Eyres D. ‘Design of Cargo vessels for Arctic’. ‘Basic Ship Theory – Volume 2’.ship-technology. 3.S. ‘The first Double Acting Aframax Tanker in the world’. Final Reports and Recommendations. 'Entwerfen Von Schiffen' 4. MARPOL 73/78 . New York. www. H.2003 2. RINA 1976. Gilfillan A.arcop. Rawson and E.International Convention on Marine Pollution.

‘Russia-Energy and Security’ 27. Amo Keinomen. SNAME 31. Calm water model tests for propulsive performance prediction. LRS and HUT 28. ‘Requirements concerning Strength of Ships’ 33. Korin Strome.com 26. Propulsion trends in tankers (FSICR) 35.“Department of Ship technology. Unicom Management Services. Robin P Brown. Michael G.wartsila. Growth Project GRD2-2000-30112 “ARCOP”. Ivan Ivanov. www.com 34. Project Guide for Azipod Propulsion System. ABB Marine and Turbo charging 29. IACS. Parsons PARAMETRIC DESIGN 36. Tom Mattsson and Goran Wilkman. Ocean Engineering Senior Design Project 30. Arctic Technology. Cyprus 204 . Batch – XXIX” 24. FSICR Research Report No 53 37. Colin R Revill and Ian M Bayly. ‘Icebreaker performance prediction’. Finland 25. ‘The development of the new Double Acting Ships for Ice operation’. ‘Virginia Tech Shuttle Tanker’.Tech (NA&SB). www. Kvaerner Masa Yards. Kimmo Juurmaa. CUSAT. VTT Technical research centre of Finland 32.distance. B.

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