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Day 1_Session 2_Mapping Social Protection Systems

Day 1_Session 2_Mapping Social Protection Systems

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Capacity Development Workshop on Measuring Social Protection
14−16 May 2013
BPS – Statistics Indonesia, 3rd Building, 1st Floor, JL. Dr. Soetomo No. 6 - 8 Jakpus, Jakarta

Capacity Development Workshop on Measuring Social Protection
14−16 May 2013
BPS – Statistics Indonesia, 3rd Building, 1st Floor, JL. Dr. Soetomo No. 6 - 8 Jakpus, Jakarta

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Published by: ADBSocialDevelopment on May 29, 2013
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Mapping Existing Social Protection System and Estimating Coverage Gaps

Capacity Development Workshop on Measuring Social Protection 14−16 May 2013 BPS – Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Céline Peyron Bista et Florence Bonnet Social Protection Department, International Labour Office, Geneva
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Slide | 1

Outline of the presentation
1. Mapping national social protection system & identify coverage gaps
   1.1. Main questions to be answered 1.2. How to? Main steps and data requirements 1.3 A tool: the ILO social security inquiry

2. Some results & a key issue
  2.1. Example of categorization tree of schemes and benefits allowing the construction of meaningful data and indicators 2.2 From the categorization to examples of specific indicators

3. Concluding remarks:

Slide | 2

international initiative for the harmonization (& standardization) of social protection data

 1. Mapping national social protection system and identify gaps of coverage
1.1 Main questions to be answered
Slide | 3

Mapping | Questions to ask about the overall social protection system

Mapping national social protection system | Main questions Coverage

Mapping national social protection system | Source and tool

Who is covered: How many (poornon poor, workers in formal/ informal employment and other vulnerable groups)? What are the benefits provided (risks covered) and what is the amount? What are the (potential/actual) impacts of these benefits?

Inventory of existing social protection schemes and programmes in the country

Collect information on delivered benefits, coverage, spending and financing

Spending and financing
Who is paying (financing sources);  How much (how much for the benefits, how much for the administration)?

Sources: administrative data from social security schemes as primary source (coverage, impacts)
Slide | 4

Tool: ILO social security inquiry

Mapping | Questions to ask about the overall social protection coverage
Estimate coverage gaps and identify coverage needs | Main questions
Since the identification of gaps in coverage, together with the reasons for their existence and ways of filling them, are the main objectives, the following questions need to be answered:  Who are those not currently covered but in need of coverage?  What are their needs?  What are the risks they are exposed to?  What are the options for the coverage extension?  What are their employment situation?  In what measure can they contribute?  What is the potential cost of the coverage extension?

Estimate coverage gaps & identify coverage needs
Mainly household surveys
(household income & expenditure surveys, Labour force surveys)

Considering those who are not covered: identification of different groups and coverage needs in order to provide useful info for adequate options for social security extension Key factors regarding social security extension
 Labour market structure  Ability to work and Status in employment  Capacity to contribute;  Poverty status; etc

Slide | 5

 1. Mapping national social protection system 1.2. Main steps |Inventory of schemes
and data required

Slide | 6

Diagnostic (1)| Classical data gathering method required on social protection (1)

Step 1 | List of existing national social protection schemes and characteristics of each of them
    Contributory, non contributory or universal Public versus private schemes, Statutory scheme or not Compulsory or voluntary

Step 2 | For each scheme, identify and define benefits provided
 Covered risk or function (health, old age, disability, survivor, work injury, unemployment, family/children, maternity, poverty and social exclusion) => link with floor guarantees  Benefits in cash or in kind  Periodicity: periodic benefits versus lump sum benefits  Means-tested or non means-tested social benefits  Complementary or non complementary benefits

Slide | 7

Diagnostic (1)| Classical data gathering method required on social protection (2) Steps 3 & 4 | Data collection at scheme and benefit levels  Financial data: scheme spending and revenue
 Expenditure at a scheme level  Benefits (in cash or in kind), Administrative costs, Transfer to other schemes, Other spending  Revenue at a scheme level  Social contributions (employers, employees/protected persons); Contributions from the government; Transfers from other schemes; Transfers from the rest of the world; Other receipts

Financial (expenditure) data at the benefit level
Slide | 8

 Benefit expenditure  Minimum benefit if exists  Average benefit

Diagnostic (1)| Classical data gathering method required on social protection (2)

Steps 3 & 4 (cont’d.) | Data collection at scheme and benefit levels

Data on coverage  Information on the beneficiary level
 Target groups of the scheme Statutory coverage (Qualitative & Quantitative)  Protected persons (scheme level)  Number of persons affiliated by age groups and sex  Number of active contributors by age groups and sex

« Scope of coverage» and « Extent of statutory» coverage

Slide | 9

Effective coverage « Extent of effective coverage» (1) Effective coverage « Extent of  Information on benefit level  Actual beneficiaries of the benefit (by sex & age) effective coverage « Level of » (2)  Benefit amount (by sex & age) coverage»

1. Mapping national social protection system

1.3 A tool: the ILO social security inquiry (2-3 slides)
Slide | 10

Screen shots| A “guided tour in the inquiry”

Levels of information & sources

Scheme level
 Inventory of schemes & benefits: qualitatiive mapping of social protection provision  Data collected at the scheme and benefit levels on:  Expenditure and financing  Coverage (protected persons & beneficiaries) and level of benefit National aggregate indicators

Slide | 11

Screen shots | A “guided tour in the inquiry” Armenia - An tentative Inventory of schemes

Step 1 |

Inventory of social security schemes & definition of each scheme
Step 1 | List of existing national social protection schemes and characteristics of each of them  Contributory, not contributory or universal  Public versus private schemes,  Statutory scheme or not  Compulsory or voluntary

Slide | 12

Screen shots | A “guided tour in the inquiry” Armenia - An tentative Inventory of schemes
First pat | Textual information & direct

links

For each indentified scheme

Description of the scheme incl. information from SSPTW

Step 2
Data collection of coverage data and Financial data at the scheme level Step 3 | Identify and define benefits provided
 Covered risk or function
(health, old age, disability, survivor, work injury, unemployment, family/children, maternity, poverty and social exclusion) => can be linked

with the SPF guarantees And collect for each of them data on  Expenditure by benefit  Beneficiaries  Level of benefits

Slide | 13

Benefit level | Armenia– Old age pension data collected
3. | Beneficiaries , function, if possible by sex & or in| Expenditure at the benefit level 1. | 2. Definition of benefit: periodicity, cash 4. | Benefit level, if possible by sex &
age group kind, means tested not age of group
A benefit is defined by: Effective level of old age, coverage  Effective The function covered: coverage: averageetc. level « Extent of effective survivors, maternity, Social protection of benefit related to benefit [2]  coverage» Basic or supplementary expenditure by function, as a average wage, minimum beneficiaries  Actual The periodicity: (periodic or not) percentage of wage, poverty line …  The type: cash or in kind Total social protection  Beneficiaries: expenditure individuals or households  GDP  Means-tested or not

Slide | 14

Results| Aggregate indicators online
 age pension beneficiaries as a proportion  Old Unemployed receiving unemployment benefitsof Indicators can be consulted persons retirement age (periodicabove cash benefits) from 1. the indicators section (mainly
tables)  Consultation of all indicators for a given country  Depending on availability, data available from 2000 to 2012 for expenditure and coverage related indicators

Slide | 15

 Consultation of All countries for a given indicator 2. From the from page: maps for a selected number of indicators

 2. Some results & a key issue:
example of categorization of schemes and benefits allowing the construction of meaningful data and indicators

Slide | 16

How to categorize and “qualify” schemes and benefits

Objectives
 

To structure data collection and allows the calculation of sound and meaningful indicators To enhance compatibility and comparability of data among countries and among international organizations  To allow switching between the different classifications used by various countries or organizations by creating bridges between these different classifications. To allow each of organizations to calculate its respective indicators according to its mandates and needs.

Which criteria? What categories?

Slide | 17

Some established methods (Eurostat, OECD, ILO, ..) propose some classifications with bridges from one to the other… The ILO social protection data are structured as follows

Categorisation of schemes & benefits
Schemes/ programmes definition
Contributory
Statutory Public Non contributory

Benefits features
Cash periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc Inkind periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc

Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested

Older persons
 Old age  Survivors*

SP system

Private

Contributory
Non contributory Contributory Non contributory Contributory

Family / child
benefit

Active age
      Sickness Disability/ Invalidity Unemployment Employment injury Maternity Survivors*

Non statutory

Public

Private

Health care benefit
Function Type of benefit

Periodicity

Meanstested or not

Slide | 18

Non contributory

 ALMP  Housing *  Other social assistance*

Other criteria  Mandatory / voluntary benefit  Complementary / main benefit  Any other?

From data to indicators | Public social protection expenditure on benefits for older persons
Schemes/ programmes definition
Contributory
Statutory Public Non contributory

Benefits features
Cash periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc Inkind periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc

Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested

Older persons
 Old age  Survivors*

SP system

Private

Contributory
Non contributory Contributory Non contributory Contributory

Family / child
benefit

Active age
      Sickness Disability/ Invalidity Unemployment Employment injury Maternity Survivors*

Non statutory

Public

Private

Health care benefit
Function Type of benefit

Periodicity

Meanstested or not

Slide | 19

Non contributory

 ALMP  Housing *  Other social assistance*

Other criteria  Mandatory / voluntary benefit  Complementary / main benefit  Any other?

Distribution of public social protection expenditure Expenditure for older persons are the highest
Active Child benefits age (either social in kind or Health andincludes elderly (pensions security in expenditure represents less in case thanof in cash particular) represent the sickness, 0.5% of proportions GDP disability, employment biggest in total injury, unemployment publicmaternity, social protection (1.6%) 1.4% of as GDP well in ashigh general income social expenditure. assistance countries and (0.7%) 0.1% in low income group of countries Public social security expenditure on Unemployment represents 0.3% 0.5% of GDP worldwide (1.1% in high income 0.1% countries; 0.2% in middle income countries and 0.02% in low income group) 1.4%

Children Active age
Older persons

0.5% 2.3% 3.4% 2.9%

Health

Slide | 20

Elderly| Distribution of the population aged 65 and over and distribution of public SP expenditure for elderly

In Western In Asia Europe  14% 52% of the world population aged 65 and over &  35 23 % of the world public social protection expenditure for elderly (in 2010)  In North America, less than 9 % and close to 24% respectively.

Slide | 21

From data to indicators | Older persons* receiving an old age pension above statutory pensionable age
Schemes/ programmes definition
Contributory
Statutory Public Non contributory

Benefits features
Cash periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc Inkind periodic Lump-sum/ ad hoc

Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested Means-tested Not means tested

Older persons
 Old age  Survivors*

SP system

Private

Contributory
Non contributory Contributory Non contributory Contributory

Family / child
benefit

Active age
      Sickness Disability/ Invalidity Unemployment Employment injury Maternity Survivors*

Non statutory

Public

Private

Health care benefit
Function Type of benefit

Periodicity

Meanstested or not

Slide | 22

Non contributory

 ALMP  Housing *  Other social assistance*

Other criteria  Mandatory / voluntary benefit  Complementary / main benefit  Any other?

Extent of statutory coverage| Old age pensions | Extent of effective coverage
Two dimensions of coverage: Persons protected (future beneficiaries of an old age pension) and the actual beneficiaries

Worldwide 29.9% of the working age, contribute to an old age pension scheme (entitled to pension cash benefits one reaching pensionable age) 54.6% of the elderly above retirement age receive an old age pension (45.1% without China)

Slide | 23

Extent of effective coverage | Old age
Asia | Active contributors to an old age pension scheme as a proportion of the working age population

Slide | 24

100

Timor-Leste Mongolia Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan New Zealand China Georgia Maldives Brunei Darussalam Azerbaijan Australia Japan Tajikistan Armenia Korea, Republic of Israel Hong Kong, China Marshall Islands Nepal Nauru Iraq Palau Thailand Jordan Bahrain Viet Nam Bangladesh Philippines Kuwait Iran, Islamic Rep. of Oman India Lebanon Malaysia Tuvalu Sri Lanka Syrian Arab Republic Solomon Islands Afghanistan Fiji Yemen Indonesia West Bank and Gaza Qatar Lao People's Dem.… Cambodia Samoa Vanuatu Bhutan Pakistan Tonga Papua New Guinea
90 70 60 40 30 100 10
80 50 20

Extent of effective coverage | Old age Asia | Old-age pensioners as a proportion of populationabove retirement age (%)

Total Female

Old-age pensioners as a proportion of populationabove retirement age (%)

0

Slide | 25

90

70

60

40

30

10 0

80

50

0,9 1,0 2,3 3,2 3,5 3,7 5,0 5,6 7,9 8,0 8,1 8,5 10,6 10,7 13,1 16,7 17,1 19,5 19,8 23,1 24,1 24,7 26,4 27,3 28,5 31,7 34,5 40,1 42,2 47,4 48,0 56,0 56,5 62,5 64,2

20

72,9 73,6 77,6 80,0 80,2 80,3 83,0 83,3 87,0 89,2 89,8 91,4 95,2 95,9 98,1 100,0 100,0 100,0

Concluding remarks (1)

Significant growth in the provision of social protection benefits over recent decades in many countries
The recent adoption of the ILO SPFs Recommendation will contribute to this process of extension & calls explicitly for the monitoring of social protection systems both at national and international levels. Even though national dissemination of social protection data have already improved in recent years,

as of today there no consistent and systematic methods regarding the gathering of data and information on provision, coverage, cost or impact at national level, many countries face real difficulties in assessing current social protection provision gaps and needs at the global level, there is a lack of consistent and readily comparable analysis of provision across countries.

Recent initiative for the harmonization of international social protection data

Slide | 26

In 2011, the G20 called for greater coordination between agencies on social protection  SPIAC-B was subsequently created and agreed to put some cooperation efforts towards social protection data and statistics

Concluding remarks (2)
 Harmonization process should aim at
 an agreement on core standards in defining social protection programs  a set of individual data to be collected at the agreed statistical unit levels and on their "definition" or "qualification".  ensuring comparability and allow switching between the different classifications used by various organizations and creating bridges between these different classifications  allows each of organizations to calculate its respective indicators according to its mandates & needs.  facilitate inter-organisations/ agencies closer collaboration at the country level with the focus on their areas of strength.  Result in key principles and guidelines regarding social security/protection statistics and indicators which should be taken into account not just by international organizations but also by provide clear guidelines to countries.  In a way …… formalising and progressively improve what ADB, OECD and ILO started to do on the SPI project

Slide | 27

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