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V RESPONSE SHEET NO- 1
Q.1. What is training need and how does it get recognized? Ans: A requirement of maintaining the efficiency, productivity and safety of a system or an individual signifies a training need. Training is a tool of effective management. Training need analysis is the first step to effective training. Training need analysis means measuring the gap between skills available and skills required for employees and provide measures so that those gaps can be reduced. When training need analysis is done, it is possible to focus attention on the target and identify the means for reaching the target. The need analysis process also involves others and helps them to understand the issues which they come across. There are five essential reasons for doing need analysis: The business world is changing rapidly and organizations require keeping pace with this change. As result everyone is being asked to stretch and to do more than ever and to do it faster. To ensure solution addresses the issue. To focus resources, time and effort effectively towards a targeted training solution. To eliminate the necessity of looking for another job. A training need occurs whenever the procedures, processes and methods of work in an organization are changed. Training can also offer the management an assessment of those within its labor force who might be well suited for new jobs and responsibilities. These needs can be recognized on the basis of: Analysis of processes of change Analysis of work problems and Analysis of the manpower skills of an organization The management and human resource systems must be willing to accept the change. The organization must change itself to adjust to the changing outside world. Change would require orienting and training the people to the new techniques, skills and adjustments to new situations.
Training needs can be recognized in four sectionsTechnological changesWhenever there is some introduction of new ideas in equipment and technology, a technological change is said to take place. E.g. introduction of computers. People have to be oriented to new knowledge; new skills and also they must appreciate the change process.
Environmental changesThere is constant change in consumer’s i.e. user’s habit and taste. For this, new products and services will require change in systems. Survival of any organization lies in understanding and an awareness of the changes in outside world.
Legislative changesIn many basic industries like steel, coal and textiles, there is a legal framework, shape and application to their concepts of social growth. The Legislators at central or local level give such frameworks which can be in area of policy, planning, pricing, wages, and employment policies. Training has to be designed to respond to these.
Manpower composition changesChanges in the staff composition due to resignations, dismissals, layovers, retirement and other factors result in changes in internal ratios of manpower. This not only alters the demographic ratio and quality of experience but also may change the education level. Hence training need is justified. ‘Training needs’ also need to be identified because of the changed character of managerial work force Investigate Training needs
Assess effectiveness of training
Conduct Training Q.3. Discuss the various steps involved in designing training program. Ans: A training design is a detailed plan for what you will do, why you will be doing it, and the best ways to reach your objectives. The eight steps to an effective training program are-
Step One- Define purpose of training and target audience Be clear about what your training needs hope to accomplish. Be clear who will be your target audience.
Step Two- Determine participant’s needThe more accurately you know the needs of your participants the better your training design will be. Find out their needs and expectations. Tell the participants to complete a brief written survey or survey a random number of participants by phone to get detailed information. Ask them about Current roles and responsibilities Previous training on this topic Reason for attendance Specific need and expectation of the event At the end review past evaluation and feedback forms.
Step Three- Defining training objectivesClearly defined objective provide criteria for Clarifying expected outcomes Outlining training contents Planning specific training activities Selecting / developing material Designing evaluation procedure Communicating program intent to participants and others Ensuring training is realistic and appropriate
Step Four- Outline training contentTraining has three components- an introduction; a learning component and a wrap-up and evaluation component. Introduction- Establish a positive learning environment; develop interest; reduce anxiety and make good relations. Include some content into introductory activities. Learning component- Concepts and ideas taught and explored; skills demonstrated are practiced and discussed. Activities should actively involve the participants in acquiring knowledge or practicing skills.
Wrap-up & evaluation component- Here ‘pull it all together’. Highlight essential learning; summarize central concepts and describe steps. Open up for questions, concerns and feedback. Step Five- Develop instructional activities.
Organize activities so that outcomes identified are achieved. Activities should have an introduction, a main segment and a wrap-up segment. Select training strategies that meet the objectives. E.g. skill development is best achieved through modeling, practice and feedback while information is achieved through discussion and collaborative group work. Effective training design takes into account principles of adult learning; group size; participant learning style; prior experience/ education level of the participants, type of skill and information to be presented, and so on. Strategies that promote active learning can be brainstorming, games, mini-lectures, small work group, simulations, role-playing, and case-studies.
Step Six- Prepare a written training design.
Write a detailed plan of the training session including goals and objectives, the sequence of specific learning activities and time allotted for each; directions and key points to be covered for each activity and the trainer who will be responsible for the activity. Consider the skill, expert knowledge, training style and comfort level of each trainer.
Step Seven-Prepare participant evaluation form.
Evaluation determines if the training has achieved its objectives and to identify what needs to be improved. The evaluation form should ask the following Did the participants acquire the skills and knowledge that they were supposed to? Were the trainers had enough knowledge about the training contents? Were the activities interesting and effective? Was the training format appropriate? Was the training on this topic adequate and satisfactory?
Step Eight- Determine follow-up activities for the event.
Follow-up activities provide continued support and feedback. Prepare follow-up activities as you develop your training design and these activities should make the participants reflect on what they have learnt and the process of implementation. Some activities include Peer observations and coaching Newsletters and web-site postings Mentoring Study groups
On going communication between participants and trainees .
How can evaluation help the design of training programs? Ans: Evaluation is an essential step in the effective implementation and continuous up gradation of training programs. . Discuss the need for evaluation of training. To justify the costs incurred in training We all know that when money is tight. Without formal evaluation. To help improve the design of training Training programs should be continuously improved to provide better value and increased benefits and advantages for an organization. quantitative analysis training departments can resist these cuts. Only if training is properly evaluated it can be compared with the other methods and thus its merits and demerits can be easily seen. Only by thorough. training budgets are amongst the first to be sacrificed. Reasons for evaluation can be summarized under three headings Conclusive Feedback: It tells the effectiveness of training investment which is essential for the policy makers and those who control costs. Using comparative evaluation techniques. It involves a total analysis of the organization structure and whether the objectives and future plans are fulfilled or not.NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR PAPER NO.2 Q. including a variety of classroom. It also helps to know whether the training was effective or not. To help in selecting training methods These days there are many alternative approaches available to training departments.4. organizations can make decisions based on reasons about the methods to be adopted. the basis for changes can only be subjective and thus do not have good effect. on-job and self-study methods. V RESPONSE SHEET NO. Training needs to be evaluated for the following reasons: To validate training as a business tool Training is one of many actions that an organization can take to improve its performance and its profits.
each system must be self –sufficient.5. Intervention Feedback: It would facilitate transfer of training to the job by identifying support systems required by training utilizers. the trainer has an idea of what is real training specification. All GOOD consultants must be TRAINED LICENSORS. If the preceding analyses have been performed effectively. time. Ans: Ideally. which. In this there should be consideration of cost. aids organizational development and generate strategies for system problems. It is a systematic effort to identify and understand exactly what types of training shall be required. The resultant training needs that emerge could be subject to a topic or skills analysis etc. design and delivery of the present and future training. The external consultants are needed to support business growth. social or political influences and organizational priorities that might require removing some unnecessary details of the initial plans for training content. The analysis either undertaken earlier or at any stage indicates some of the tasks or task elements which require training treatment. Directive Feedback: It tells the effectiveness of the training activities so as to improve quality. Analysis of the job and its various conditions will indicate the skills and training required to perform the job according to the standards. however cannot be achieved without external intervention. Discuss the role of an outside consultant in training. . Nature of objectives Constraints Learning principles Target population Other factors Strategy Tactics Sequencing Training program design Q.
he may generate alternative choices but in no case should he impose or attempt to impose his solutions. Use of outside consultants would be particularly useful to organize if a match between the skill of the consultant and needs of organization could be properly identified.Reasons for using external consultants’ are: Consulting. An outside consultant can combine with internal consultant to form an effective team. He may provide a focus on the problem already recognized by the client. advising and designing programs to fill the gaps between the actual situation and the desired one Coaching and guiding Developing management and supervisory skills Defining the company’s missions. Essentially the end product of consultancy efforts is the self generating and growing individual with skills to diagnose his own strengths and weaknesses as well as that of the organization. direct and cut through effective views and practices People are more likely to be open in their contributions and trust that they are given confidence They can open communication channels across the organization They can provide networking and benchmarking with other organizations There is often a greater acceptance of recommendations from outside They can introduce new ideas and draw upon a wide experience of different organizations . Advantages of external consultants: They are impartial and independent of influences of the organization They have credibility through being independent They can have wide access within the organization They can be more challenging. He may diagnose it for him. A consultant must acknowledge to himself and then to the client whether he is equipped with the right tools and has expert knowledge to solve the problem and accomplish the necessary changes and improvements. That must be a factor of internal choice and decision. goals and objectives Assessing the actual situation Improving organizational communication Increasing employee motivation Raising the levels of organization performance and achievements Achieving customer’s satisfaction and customer loyalty Identifying training and operational needs. The consultant should possess the ability to give advice without creating long term dependence and helping to eliminate all the issues in their relationship between advisor and the advisee.
Disadvantages of external consultants: They may need more time that can be afforded to learn about the organization They may have only sufficient time to identify and explore part of the problem Recommendations may be accepted too readily Recommendations may be rejected if they are considered to be too radical for the organization Contracted time may expire before the recommendations are implemented fully They may encourage the client to become dependant on outside consultancy services The costs of external consultancy are high .
Training is always done with specific objectives. Ans: Evaluation literally means the assessment of value or worth. “Evaluation of training is a process of gathering information with which to make decisions about training activities.” Evaluation is systematic determination of merit. evaluation of training is very important. WHY TRAINING EVALUATION? The process of examining the training program is called training evaluation. Hence. It also indicates the extent to which learners have learnt from the program and The extent they have transferred their learning into their daily job. Evaluation is the integral part of the whole process of training and development.” Bramley (1966) writes.NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR PAPER NO.Hamblin (1970) defined evaluation of training as “Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on effects of training program and to assess the value of training in the light of that information for improving further training. worth.1 Q.1. PURPOSE OF TRAINING EVALUATION . Training Evaluation ensure that whether the candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces or to the regular work routines. It is important because: It tells us about the quality of training and the effect it has created on the learners. VI RESPONSE SHEET NO. and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Definition. Systematic evaluations also help us in pointing out the weaknesses of the training program so that in future such things can be taken care of. Training Evaluation checks whether training had has the desired effect. Define Evaluation and explain the concept in your own words.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Power Games: At times. 5. anticipate and plan contingency to deal with variation.The five main purposes of training evaluation are: 1. transfer of knowledge at the workplace and training. On the one hand there are people who work hard to measure training’s impact. then it can be dealt with accordingly. people and money are available for validation/evaluation purposes? (Within this. and on the other. there are people who are happy to invest in training simply because they believe it is the right thing to do. the top management uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. There are the two principal factors which need to be resolved: Who is responsible for the validation and evaluation processes? What resources of time. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to the learning outcomes.) The 'Training Evaluation Quintet' advocated consists of: . consider the effect of variation to these. 4. In other words. Understanding the impact of training. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. 2. for instance an unexpected cut in budget or manpower. 3. especially development training (focused on attitudes and behaviors) is a complex issue.
Ans: Principles of evaluation are1) Trainer / evaluator must be clear about the purpose of evaluation. Post-training Q. 2) A good trainer / evaluator must demonstrate objectivity. Senior management The trainer Line management The training manager The trainee Models of evaluation: Hamblin’s model Kirkpatrick’s design Warr’s framework Virmani & Premila’s model Peter Bramley’s model David Reay’s approach Stages of evaluation: 1. Enumerate the principles of evaluation. For this there should be: Measurable standards of assessment. Detached analysis & interpretation of data. 3) For evaluation to be reliable the results should confirm: Irrespective of the method used to gather the data When repeated by the same trainer again . Valid & reliable research instruments. Pre-training 2. During training 3.2.
it is very important that training objectives are carefully thought and framed. 9) Always use more than one method of data gathering and data information. 8) Evaluation design should be tailor-made to suit specific training levels and standards. 5) Evaluation has to begin before the actual training activity and must end much after conclusion of visible training activity. 2. 4. the principal significant questions should be: 1. 6) It must be comprehensive enough to provide qualitative data that is directive.4) Evaluation has to be accepted as a process rather than an end. and there should be utility of data. Generalizations drawn from one evaluation design may not identify the needs of training meant for different set of objectives. 3. To what extent the identified training needs objectives achieved by the program? To what extent were the learner’s objective achieved? What did the learner’s learn? What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their work? . 7) It guides the trainers for the current training effectiveness and to improve subsequent training.product of training. practical. For the evaluation to be effective. For feasible evaluation design it should be cost effective. It has to be continuous as a process.
A manager will also need to fill out an evaluation form on the employee’s progress and proficiency in the skill or skills that were focused on during the training program. Proficiency tests can be used to measure the employee’s abilities. if there are any areas that need improvement. if there are any areas that seemed not needed or unnecessary. VI RESPONSE SHEET NO.NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR PAPER NO. If you notice that there are still areas that need to be trained in. or physical observation of the employees’ performance can be used.1. Briefly enumerate any five methods available to you for measuring the outcome of training. if they found the training helpful. then you should make the changes to the training program as soon as possible. and if there are any other skills that they feel that they need to perform their jobs. Also you can use the evaluation forms to identify areas that really don’t need to be covered and you can eliminate these things from your training program and save your company time and money spent on employee training. The common methods are:- .2 Q. Ans: After an employee has completed a training program you will want to have them fill out an evaluation form of the program that goes over how well the information was presented.
6) Action planning. business documents. periodicals.1) Direct Observation: It should be done without preconceived notions. and production figures all have a role to play. 5) Daily feedback & incident analysis: This can be done on a three dimensional response What is it that I have learned today? Ideas that I have had today? One thing that is not clear to me? This enables a regular review. The trainer would be interested in ensuring these documents covered. A questionnaire can be administered via personal interviews.It consists of a list of prioritized statements drawn by the trainee at the end of training program. 2) Interviews: The use of structured and unstructured interview methods can very often lead to closing the gap in the information. It is a process between interviewer and interviewee which can often lead to animated response. The types of documents which are usable in a training system include local. statistical data of reports. 3) Questionnaire: In this method a set of scientifically structured questions are given to respondents. graphs. mail or phone. 4) Documents from survey and other related records: Documents are designed in such a way that one can get a lot of information about a single subject. personal. It is often inaccurate if the evaluator does not have adequate information. research journals and unpublished informative material or data. How much of action plan had been implemented? What skills had been put into practice? Other techniques include Rating scales Paper and pencil test Work samples Simulation . The interviewer has to motivate respondents with valuable ideas in terms of needs and skills of the respondents. Similarly.
Job performance Individual and group behavior measures Performance appraisal and self-appraisal PRESENT/REACTIVE Questionnaire survey LEVEL FUTURE/PROACTIVE Corporate objectives Manpower planning Organizational Organizational records Attitude survey Consumer survey Functional audit Organizational review New technology Telephone Group discussion Behavioral analysis Algorithms Job/Occupational New products services New legislation Training needs survey Functional audit Succession planning Exit interviews Performance appraisal Critical incident technique Structured/Unstructured review Individual Observation Participation Career planning and development Management development using assessment centers Probation review On-the-job training-coaching Achievement/proficiency training .
etc. A) Design and development costs The first category of cost to be considered is the design and development of the training program. This second category takes promotional costs into account: Internal days of promotional activity Costs of external agencies Other direct costs of promotion (posters. expenses.) C) Administration costs An allowance must be made for the time taken by the training department in administrating the training program. Investing in people is locking up money which is portable if trained people walk out of company. Learning achieved may be latent or encapsulated or require little time before it gets converted to financial returns. Lead time of training is high and therefore it is difficult to measure the returns immediately after training. You will need to consider: Internal days of design and development Costs of external designers and developers. travel.) Outright purchase of off-the-shelf materials B) Promotional costs Most organizations devote effort to promoting their training programs. 2) Calculating training costs Ans: Costs are defined as charges incurred for training. Training operates on a long time scale than other investments. Other direct design and development costs (purchase of copyrights. This will typically be a factor of the number of students: .2. brochures.g. it can be attributed to other factors besides training. Training is an investment in creating human capital. simple coaching sessions or some combination. Sometimes when the results are seen for e. Write short notes on: 1) Major hurdles in cost-benefit analysis: Ans: Major difficulties of measurement are: Training costs are easy to calculate than benefits. increase in sales. self-study materials.Q. etc. whether this comprises classroom events.
online training. coaches.e. etc. Hours of administration required per student Direct administration costs per student (joining materials. the organization does not only have to pay that person’s payroll costs.). When an employee goes through a training program in work time. they are not bringing in new business. online) Hours of self-study training Additional faculty hours (preparation time. video conferencing link or in real-time. etc. instructors. Let’s start with the information needed to calculate faculty costs: The number of students who will be going through the program Hours of group training (whether classroom-based or delivered in real time. . CBT. registration fees.) E) Materials Then there are the cost of materials: Cost per student of training materials (books.) License cost per student for use off-the-shelf materials F) Facilities You will also need to allow for the cost of your training facilities. etc.) or is self-administered (workbooks.) D) Faculty costs The next category of costs relates to the delivery of the training. breaks or outside work hours. whether this is mediated by faculty (tutors. but could conceivably be conducted by telephone. whether these are internal or external. i. Similarly. the time needed to review or mark submitted work or the time needed to correspond by email or bulletin boards with online students) Faculty expenses (travel. not in slack time. so you only need to estimate the amount of travel and training that is undertaken in productive work time. they are also losing the opportunity for that person to add value to the organization. etc. It is only necessary to charge a student’s cost against the program if training is undertaken in time that would otherwise be productive and paid for. a production line worker is not creating products. manuals. consumables. etc. Make sure to include the rental or notional internal cost of the following: Training rooms Open learning / self-study rooms Equipment used G) Student costs Probably the most significant delivery cost relates to the students themselves. When a salesperson is on a course. subsistence. a researcher is not developing new ideas and an accountant is not finding ways to save money. online) Hours of one-to-one training (typically face-to-face. accommodation.
2. the true cost of the employee being trained is the lost opportunity – the 'opportunity cost'.If an employee can be easily replaced while they are undergoing training. In this case. these costs would not be incurred. Direct cost Direct costs are those costs that are incurred directly as a result of a training program– external design and development. They can be as follows:1. If the program did not take place. Many organizations only ever take direct costs into consideration when measuring training costs. External training costs include: Trainer fees Traveling and accommodation costs Cost incurred in connection with trainee’s attendance Trainee’s time Loss due to trainee’s absence In in-house training. so the output that the employee would have generated in the time that they are receiving training will be lost. then there is no lost opportunity – the cost is simply the employee’s payroll costs. say a year. but which would have been incurred anyway. don't forget to include any direct student expenses .These are costs which are permanent. Finally. Any analysis of the true costs of training will include both direct and indirect costs. whether or not the training took place. Costs can also be calculated as1) Fixed costs.travel. Examples are salaries of in-house trainers and students and the costs of rooms and equipment. it is simply not practical to obtain a suitable replacement. Indirect cost Indirect costs are costs that may or may not be directly associated with a training event. accommodation and subsistence. however. In many cases. regular and fixed over a period of time. travel expenses and so on. consultancy fees. exact costs are difficult to calculate and only a reasonable estimate can be made. H) Evaluation costs You also need to make an allowance for the time spent evaluating the training. .
books and aids purchase and other provision and maintenance. The real benefits come from improved performance – traditionally the hardest training outcome to forecast or measure. not even the extent to which behavior may have changed. 3) Opportunity cost. equipment hire. running an advertising campaign.in some respects they provide alternative ways of . They are occasional items. this value is called opportunity cost. If it is any comfort. the learners’ salaries. and bedroom and meals costs for trainers in hotels and conference centers. because all other measures fail to reflect the financial reality that training must pay off – in hard cash. The financial benefits of training can not be measured in terms of student reactions. Note that these categories are not necessarily mutually exclusive . water rates. initiating a research program or changing the pay and benefits policy? Let's look at the major categories of benefits. The above methods can be used to calculate Cost of training function Cost of training per person Total training cost Number of people trained Number of courses conducted Measuring training benefitsAns: Measuring training benefits is much more difficult than calculating its costs. and cleaning and regular maintenance costs. External accommodation cost for training and trainer’s training room hire. Is it any easier to predict the benefits to be obtained from launching a new product. we do the very best we can. insurance and pension contributions for everyone including the guest speakers Cost of training accommodation.While the learners are away on the training course they are not directly contributing to company output. trainers are not alone in finding it difficult to calculate the benefits of what they do. So what do we do when faced with this difficulty – back away and focus our evaluation efforts on easier measures? No. traveling and other subsistence costs for the learners.They are expenditure items for which cost are incurred for the trainers and learners.They include: Salaries. equipment. nor the amount of learning that has been achieved. 2) Supportive cost. Accommodations costs for learners.
then there is no saving. Labor savings will only be realized if the labor applied to a job can really be reduced. Examples of productivity increases include: Improved methodologies reducing the effort required Higher levels of skill leading to faster work Higher levels of motivation leading to increased effort Other cost savings Cost savings can be achieved in a variety of ways. resulting in lower maintenance costs Lower staff turnover. and this category allows you to take account of these. then it might be better to express the benefit as a cost saving. If the time savings simply result in more slack. Examples of labor savings include: Reduced duplication of effort Less time spent correcting mistakes Faster access to information Productivity increases Productivity increases occur where. Because of this.looking at the same underlying benefit. Examples of other income include: A higher success rate in winning competitive pitches. it may be possible for new income to be generated as a direct result of training. leading to increased sales Sales referrals made by non-sales staff . Examples include: Fewer machine breakdowns. less effort is needed to achieve current levels of output. not just through savings in labor. but there will be times when a more direct and specific analysis is required. Labor savings Labor savings occur where. If it does not. transfers of staff to new positions or reallocations of work. We have to assume that savings are realized by a reduction in the amount of labor applied to a particular job. reflected in lower recruitment and training costs A reduction in bad debts Other income generation In some job positions. as a result of the training. as a result of training. not by utilizing the newly available time to achieve further output on the same job. Sometimes this can be satisfactorily recorded as a productivity increase. you should be extremely careful not to include the same basic benefit under more than one of these headings. additional output can be achieved with the same level of effort. Make sure that you offset from the income any variable costs that are incurred as a result – it is the net contribution that you are looking for. whether this comes as a result of redundancies. This implies that the organization requires or desires more output in this particular area.
and after training is able to do the same job in two hours.A learner who required three hours to do a particular job. In such cases of introducing new skills. Indirect benefits Reduction in number of grievances Improvement in punctuality and discipline Better appraisal report and feedback Improvements in organizational climate Reduction in customer complaints Long Term Benefits Problem solving skills Creativity Improved human relations Better communication ability NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR PAPER NO. VII RESPONSE SHEET NO. after training improved work practices. direct benefits are easily seen.1 . in human relations and other areas it is difficult to conclude that the benefit is an out come of training because other factors can contribute to the process. New product ideas leading to successful product launches They may be divided into Direct/ Indirect benefits Immediate benefits/ long term benefits Direct benefits. Proper usage of time. decrease in number of rejections after training are some of direct benefits. and then it can be attributed to training. Whereas.
a CD or DVD. . E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning.Individual learner uses learning resources such as database or a computer assisted learning package offline. serve as specific media to implement the learning process.g. an individual accesses learning resources such as a database or course content online via intranet or the internet.g. and synchronously or asynchronously via networked or standalone computers and other electronic devices. Elearning is essentially the computer and network enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. The letter “e” stands for electronic. What is e-learning? Ans: E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. practice and knowledge.learning offline. it incorporates all educational activities that are carried out by individuals or groups working online or offline. not connected to intranet or internet). learner studying alone or conducting some research on the internet or a local network.Q. Information and communication systems. Individualized self paced e. computer-based learning.e.In this. E-learning modalities Individualized Self-paced E-learning online Individualized Self-paced E-learning offline Group-based E-learning synchronously Group based E-learning asynchronously Individualized self-paced E-learning online. E. learner working alone off a hard drive. virtual classrooms and digital collaboration. which are procedural in character and aim to effect the construction of knowledge with reference to individual experience. (i. E.1. whether networked or not.
Group of learners are working together in real time via an intranet or the internet.g.Group of learners are working on an intranet or internet where exchanges among participants occur with a time delay. online discussions via electronic mailing and text based conferencing within learning managements systems. E. Content Culture E-learning strategy Business needs The dimensions of strategy Technology Elements of e-learning Log on process Registration process Personal profile Competency and skills assessments Course catalogues Course enrolment process Pre-defined learning paths Personal learning path Customizable home page On-line courses Downloadable courses or course elements Electronic performance support systems Peer to Peer message boards Peer to Peer instant messaging Virtual classrooms Online mentoring .Group based e-learning synchronously. real time chat or audio-video conference. Group based e-learning asynchronously. E.g.
Like any other major company initiative. dual or mixed mode setting. e-learning .2. The growth of e-learning is directly related to the increasing access to information and communications technology. How can I determine whether e-learning is right for our organization? Ans: The answer depends on a company's approach and commitment to the design and implementation of e-learning. as well it’s decreasing cost. Web casts Links to public or subscription web sites Online help desks Online help files Telephone help desks The growing interest in e-learning is due to organizations that have traditionally offered distance education programs either in single. Q.
there must be some financial controls on e-learning expenditures. the training director identifies a solution. Some questions to consider when assessing corporate culture and readiness include: . money. Looking at the following five critical success factors--or the five Cs--will help companies make sound e-learning decisions and eliminate some training failures. But if company culture dictates a tightly controlled attendance policy or if learning is for an exclusive group of participants. Any of these factors can derail even the best-intentioned e-learning initiative. and leadership support to be successful. and who is responsible for employee learning? The traditional training model--in which the manager identifies employee development needs. It's important that the business case for e-learning be clearly defined and communicated throughout the organization. development time. or any other Internet. elearning's best-laid plans will wither on the vine. In addition to the unbounded time potential of e-learning. A hollow mandate to implement an e-learning program without the required resources to do so is doomed to failure. Conversely. they're the make or break success factors that determine whether e-learning will persist or perish in an organization. but companies will need to encourage and embrace diverse learning strategies to reap the benefits of e-learning. content. cost. and clients. they can assess individual skill gaps and access information as they need it. Will your corporate culture recognize and support those types of learning? How will your company encourage and reward employees who take responsibility for their own development and complete programs? Clearly.or intranet-accessible location. And like almost every major company training initiative. use and interest will be limited. But companies that recognize only classroom-based training as an instructional strategy may not be receptive to learning that occurs at the employee’s desktop or home. the opportunity for employees to self-identify development needs is touted as one of e-learning's major benefits. Transitioning from instructor-led training to e-learning is a major cultural shift that will not persist without the buy-in and support of senior leadership. Another cultural factor that influences the acceptance and support of e-learning is whether employee development is measured by classroom occupancy rates or by actual changes in employee skills and knowledge. and the employee attends some type of classroom-based program--will not work with e-learning strategies because some control shifts to the individual learner. Employees don't have to wait for a training director to identify a learning need. Learning can occur at the employee’s home. The five Cs of successful programs are culture. there's tremendous pressure to pick a program and run with it before understanding the full range of issues. office. without senior leadership support. capability. Collectively. other benefits include flexibility and portability.strategies require significant up-front analysis. Indeed. Culture Will corporate culture support e-learning? How does a company view employee development.
and online discussions and collaborative whiteboards facilitate interactive experiences among geographically dispersed groups. in particular. the decision to use e-learning starts with a clear and concise statement of the problem. but it does not be the best or only method used to teach this skill. discuss. see videos of. However. For instance. Online videos can provide dramatic representations of key content areas. cognitive skills appropriate for stand alone e-learning programs ask learners to state. or listen to experts describe how to swim. and identification of evaluation metrics. require hands-on practice and interactive demonstrations for learners to achieve mastery. there are still some instructional content areas that may not be suitable for elearning. As in other instructional programs. Determining whether content is suitable for e-learning requires close inspection of the learning objectives. For example. identify. Psychomotor skills. having employees discriminate between two set choices. Each of those skills requires understanding and applying a procedure or information with clear right and wrong choices. good instructional objectives. clarification of instructional content areas. Examples include teaching employees how to use software programs. E-learning programs are especially effective at teaching cognitive skills in well-structured domains where conveying information is a critical part of the instructional process. audio files can reinforce displayed information. and select between two clearly .What is the business case for e-learning? How does e-learning support business goals and objectives? What value does the company place on learning? What is the company's definition of learning? Are learning and training viewed as synonymous terms? Where and how does the company believe learning should occur? Who determines when learning should occur? Who is responsible for identification of employee development needs? Does the company support employees who seek out non-traditional development programs or experiences? Does the company recognize and reward employee learning outside the traditional classroom? Are senior leaders prepared to support e-learning? Content Is the instructional content appropriate for e-learning? Technology has made huge advancements enabling e-learning to mimic a traditional classroom-based learning experience. E-learning can be part of an instructional strategy to teach swimming. but eventually they have to get wet. or providing instructions for completing a benefits enrollment form. understand. people can read about.
practice. Internal capability should support multimedia technology to fully optimize e-learning programs. Other capabilities that need development are instructional design support and follow-up strategies. infrastructure. e-learning programs will need support from additional learning activities if employees are required to analyze.defined alternatives. No amount of streaming video. or motor skills? Is the problem well-defined? What instructional methods are required to deliver the content? What type of follow-up. but what happens if a company doesn't have an internal intranet? Even companies with an intranet or widely available Internet access may have some type of security or firewall protection that limits access to Web-based information. . IT support. attitudinal. formulate. Can an organization’s infrastructure support e-learning programs? Computer access. synthesize. and instructional design. The Internet provides commercial e-learning programs but may not be available to all learners. However. Intranets can distribute e-learning. read information and answer questions about a specific topic. sound bites. is required to capture the full advantage of many e-learning programs. E-learning programs delivered online may include large audio or video files not supported by the existing infrastructure. construct. or develop a procedure or plan. or complete an assignment with clearly defined parameters. predict. It's important to remember that electronic delivery and multimedia should be viewed as an additional instructional strategy. or support is required to achieve mastery? What degree of learning interactivity or collaboration is required? What resources are available or required to achieve the instructional goals? What is the best or most cost-effective venue the company has to deliver this content to the learner? What are the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating e-learning strategies? Capability Capability involves the wide spectrum of computer hardware. Key questions to consider when evaluating e-learning programs for a specific content area include: What are the learning objectives that the company is trying to achieve? What are the skills the company is trying to teach? Are the skills cognitive. in addition to multimedia capability. design. or graphic pictures will compensate for poorly designed programs that fail to foster crucial instructional objectives. evaluate.
follow-up instruction should be developed to ensure content mastery and employee satisfaction with the learning experience. Is the company looking for a full-scale. Does the company want to convert existing programs to an e-learning format? The cost of videotaping and digitizing existing programs can vary significantly. In addition. Even companies who would like to start with a small pilot e-learning program will require some method of tracking enrollment. The number of features. it's important to identify the degree of implementation for the initiative. participation.Companies can buy off-the-shelf e-learning programs. system capability. What are the key cost factors of an e-learning initiative and how do they compare with existing programs? First. with the former costing thousands or even hundreds of thousands of dollars and the latter costing a few hundred dollars depending on the number of learners. and companies those custom design highly interactive multimedia programs will see a dramatic increase in cost. integrated e-learning and knowledge management system or merely implementation of a commercially available Web-based training program? Obviously the costs of these two initiatives will be exponentially different. but they should be evaluated to determine whether they're suitable for a specific need and target audience. and degree of customization will increase the cost substantially. organizational size. But for appropriate . LMSs range in price from thousands of dollars to hundreds of thousands of dollars. However. the tracking and reporting capabilities may already be available in-house. and completion rates. Learning management systems (LMS) enable companies to track learners and provide a variety of standard or customized reports. The second cost factor is the courseware. Some questions to consider when evaluating internal capability for e-learning initiatives include: Do employees have access to computers? Do computers support multimedia applications? What system factors may limit access to all or parts of e-learning programs? Does the company have the capability to identify and evaluate e-learning programs? Does the company have the capability to design programs or identify appropriate suppliers? Does the company have the capability to develop and implement e-learning follow-up support? Does the company have the capability to track and monitor e-learning usage? Who will provide technical support for employees involved? Cost Can the company afford an e-learning initiative? The truth is that e-learning can be expensive.
The number of companies offering programs swells daily with prices ranging from less than US$10 per user to more than US$100 per user. attitude. or course requirements. or somewhere in-between? Is this a new offering or replacement of an existing program? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using electronic delivery for this program? Are internal resources available for tracking and reporting learners? What internal system capabilities are required for the e-learning initiative? What internal system capabilities does the company have? Are programs commercially available or do they need to be custom designed? Will the program be designed in-house or by an outside supplier? Are design tools or authoring systems available in house or do they need to be purchased? What are the pricing considerations for a commercial program: per use. The same is true for e-learning. Employee acceptance is critical.instructional content and a geographically dispersed population. In addition to individual courseware and LMS costs. Many suppliers provide sample programs or allow one-time use for evaluation purposes. some programs permit a limited degree of product customization. Does the current system support these applications? Critical questions to consider when evaluating the cost of an e-learning initiative include: How extensive is the e-learning initiative: company-wide. and least expensive. For example. and access to e-learning programs. You wouldn't plan a classroom-based training program without informing employees of the location. The third. companies must consider overall technology or system requirements. single program. Price structure varies. option is to purchase existing Web-based programs. In addition. Successful e-learning initiatives require strong internal marketing that begins long before . The state of organizational readiness and potential IT upgrades can be crucial factors for determining cost. and system or library licensing. timebased. audio and video segments may require specific system capabilities for high quality and speed. Trainers need to be aggressive in evaluating the quality and features of commercial programs. including per-user fees. time. agenda. but how do you get employees to embrace e-learning? The key is to address such factors as awareness. or site or library license? What factors will be used to compare the cost of e-learning programs against existing programs? Clients Will clients (employees) use e-learning? E-learning availability doesn't guarantee that employees will seek out or access resources. such as the insertion of a company name or logo. this figure may represent a cost savings over the life of a program. a time-availability price.
staff meetings. email. Employees can earn certifications or college credits at almost any college or university through accredited distance education programs. Initially. Do your employees have access to computers and. enabling greater control over career and promotional opportunities the ability to create customized learning paths and have control over the information they access the availability information to be accessed multiple times. as well as an evaluation of the interplay between factors. more important. Some employees will jump at the chance to control their own development and learning. Communications should stress e-learning benefits to employees. policy and procedure manuals. Some key questions to ask clients or employees when evaluating e-learning include: Do employees take responsibility for their own learning? How will employees be informed of e-learning opportunities and benefits? How will e-learning be integrated into current work responsibilities? Do all employees have access to e-learning programs? Do computers have the hardware capability to support multimedia instructional delivery? Do employees have the required skills to navigate e-learning programs? What initial and follow-up support will employees need to use e-learning programs? Will employees accept e-learning as an instructional strategy or as an alternative to traditional classroom-based programs? What recognition and reward programs are available to encourage and support e-learning? Who will be eligible for e-learning programs? What regulation or limitations need to be implemented in conjunction with elearning opportunities? Each success factor--each of the five Cs--requires individual consideration. The number of employees using computers in their homes and at work is increasing. others will need to be coaxed into using e-learning resources. The ability to complete formal education without having to leave home. Company newsletters. and they need to be encouraged to seek out and complete programs that address their key development needs. anywhere learning the opportunity to assess their own skills and select programs. can they access the full range of multimedia on their computer? To address those issues.the actual implementation date. All employees need to be aware of the rationale for and benefits of e-learning opportunities. issues should be discussed . companies may consider setting up instructional labs or learning environments where employees can access courseware and IT support. and employee mailings should be used to explain the business case for adopting e-learning strategies and to promote the benefits of e-learning. Access to e-learning is another key factor to consider. including any time.
Or. Next. it's important to take a close look at complex interrelationships between the factors to evaluate the merits and feasibility of the whole initiative. Increased competition and the drive for greater productivity are forcing many companies to explore new learning and employee development models. but it may not be right for every company or learning situation. clients that don't have computer access or skills will require resources to support e-learning efforts. Examining corporate culture. organizational capability. instructional content. E-learning is one model that has the potential to enhance employee learning and development programs. affecting the initiative's bottom line. a corporate culture that's supportive of e-learning will need to have internal IT capability and budget support. cost. For example. and clients can determine whether e-learning is the appropriate choice. NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR .separately to provide training professionals and business leaders with a starting point to evaluate e-learning initiatives.
training and information fields. Minimizes travel costs and travel time of students. Q. E-learning supports learning through reflection and discussion. Students are motivated to find information relevant to their personal situation by browsing the hyper links to sites. in part or wholly via a web browser through the internet or intranet. VII RESPONSE SHEET NO. interest and what they need to know to perform an activity effectively. E-learning represents convergence in the education. It is a self paced learning.2 Q. engaging and compelling. Students can select learning materials and contents that meet their level of knowledge. E-learning enables the organization to make better use of its resources. Increases students’ knowledge of internet that may further help them in their career. E-learning allows for access to many relevant views on a problem.1. The interaction created when students exchange questions with others stimulates better understanding and recall of information. or through multimedia platforms such as CDROM or DVD. E-learning makes learning active. Convenience of choice of place and time. It is helping the organizations to recognize that 70% of learning occurs when a person is on the job. Builds self-knowledge and self-confidence and encourages students to take responsibility of their learning. Provides context sensitive help (Electronic performance support systems) to computer users and help them to complete tasks. Why is e-learning popular? Ans: E-learning is instruction that is delivered electronically. E-learning is readily up-dated and distributed to everybody. It includes different styles and various activities for different learning styles.2. It is becoming popular because of following reasons E-learning makes learning exciting. E-learning is convenient and contextualized. What are some of the pitfalls with e-learning? .PAPER NO.
There is E-learning drop-out.Ans: The fundamental obstacle to the growth of e-learning is access to the necessary technology infrastructure. Some of the programs on line are wrong and inaccurate. Poor or insufficient technology infrastructure is just as bad. Initial costs of developing courses may be high depending on the approach taken. e-learning related topics. E-learning enables vendors to decide what our people will learn instead of us. and appropriate training of staff to enable them to make the most of the technology. E-learning is very often not hooked to the personnel management system. for without it there can be no e-learning. as it can lead to unsavory experiences that can cause more damage than good to teachers. copyright. NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR . Instructors need to be aware of various e-learning textbooks. While the costs of the hardware and software are falling. Some people working in e-learning may be pioneers and may not have support of network. E-learning gets hooked on short answers and don’t seem to want to bother with learning. The most important of these include the costs of infrastructure support and its maintenance. Students will have to purchase or rent new computer equipment. Students and instructors will have to undergo computer basics for enhancing their computer knowledge before starting on-line learning-training. High user fees to access internet through telephone lines and internet service providers in many parts of the country. Pitfalls or the disadvantages of e-learning are There may be technical difficulties or operator error. Internet bandwidth may not be robust enough to support the desired level of multimedia. Learners seem to be less enthusiastic than executives and vendors. internet related laws. often there are other costs that have often not been factored into the deployment of e-learning ventures. students and the learning experience. internet based research material. with reflecting.
PAPER NO. Diversity Defined Diversity is generally defined as acknowledging. People no longer live and work in an insular marketplace. Change in the family structure means that there are fewer men and women in traditional family roles (Zweigenhaft and Domhoff. Maximizing and capitalizing on workplace diversity has become an important issue for management today. sexual orientation. and backgrounds than ever before. gender. beliefs. physical and mental ability.. and public assistance status (Est.. which has greatly affected human resource management. they are now part of a worldwide economy with competition coming from nearly every continent. spiritual practice. Therefore. class. VIII RESPONSE SHEET NO. race. reorganizations usually result in fewer people doing more. and celebrating differences among people with respect to age. 1998). valuing. understanding. Women in the Workplace The need to understand diversity is also driven by women in the workplace. diversity issues cut across both race and gender. Today's workforce has the highest levels of employment participation ever by women. Organizational Restructuring There have been significant changes to organizations as a result of downsizing and outsourcing. Changes will increase work performance and customer service. and equal opportunity legislation) will require organizations to review their management practices and develop new and creative approaches to managing people. For this reason. profit and non-profit organizations need diversity to become more creative and open to change.1 Q. Generally speaking. The number of dual income families and single working mothers has increased. 1995). Demographic changes (women in the workplace.1. Companies need to focus on diversity and look for ways to become totally inclusive organizations because diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages (SHRM. Work practices have changed due to the impact of globalization and technology and there is a trend toward longer working hours (Losyk. Diversity issues are now considered important and are projected to become even more important in the future due to increasing differences in the population. 1996). et al. accepting. ethnicity. How has workplace changed in the last ten years according to you? Ans: The world's increasing globalization requires more interaction among people from diverse cultures. 1995). Legislation . organizational restructurings.
and promoting inclusiveness. and discrimination.. Managers may also be challenged with losses in personnel and work productivity due to prejudice and discrimination and complaints and legal actions against the organization (Devoe. recruitment. liberalization and privatization. Information technology and E-learning. there will be people from diverse cultures and value systems. Just in time learning-It is a collective term for identifying. In an era when flexibility and creativity are keys to competitiveness. information technology. which should never be used by management for hiring. It involves recognizing the value of differences. diversity. stereotyping. Diversity in the workplace can reduce lawsuits and increase marketing opportunities.Technologically advanced systems and procedures are implemented to increase the performance of organizations.. combating discrimination. locating. They may include non-skilled youth.Federal and State equal opportunity legislation make discrimination in workplaces illegal. creativity. The increasing need of people and abilities also create e-learning in organizations. Managing diversity is more than simply acknowledging differences in people. Market is becoming client oriented market. and termination practices.2. et al. management and interpersonal interaction. capturing and sharing relevant information in a timely manner. Q. Also. Here training is required. Globalization-Manufacturing sector is changing into service sector. Hence need for training has increased. Challenges of Diversity in the Workplace There are challenges to managing a diverse work population. et al. These laws specify the rights and responsibilities of both associates and employers in the workplace and hold both groups accountable. Hence importance is given to people. retention. This change will demand highly skilled workers and hence increase in training. The past few years has seen the emergence of new trends that include the age of computers. diversity is critical for an organization's success.. Negative attitudes and behaviors can be barriers to organizational diversity because they can harm working relationships and damage morale and work productivity (Est.. 1999). and business image (Est. the consequences (loss of time and money) should not be overlooked. globalization. Negative attitudes and behaviors in the workplace include prejudice. Knowledge management-With the growing globalization and liberalization. 1995). respecting individual differences can increase productivity. Benefits of Diversity in the Workplace Diversity is beneficial to both associates and employers. What is the impact of these changes on training and development functions? . 1995). Although associates are interdependent in the workplace.
this age is called as computer age. evolving. right from classroom teaching to elearning. Self paced learning is encouraged. Organizations can connect their employees through internet or intranet. The changes in the workplace due to various advances during the last few years have created many changes in training and development. be it in the form of reading books. This builds a learning culture in the organization. technological. Nowadays. organizations in the private and public sectors will need to respond in a timely and flexible way to social. Hence it is advisable to deliver training in parts and parcels. economic and political changes. Any kind of learning imparted to the employees. Incentives are given on basis of learning achieved. they must account for all the money spent. Therefore there is need of highly skilled and efficient labor force. 2001).Ans: In order to survive. E-learning-: . even the hidden expenses and also the short term and long term benefits of training.Due to increased use of computers. which can improve workplace productivity (Black Enterprise. surfing the net. Organizations aim at reducing the cost of training: . A company may provide training to their employees. Hence training costs are high. Human brain can recall only 33% of any knowledge intake. . If a company wants to determine ROI for training. Supervisors and managers must be prepared to teach themselves and others within their organizations to value multicultural differences in both associates and customers so that everyone is treated with dignity. hence one individual will be expected to know multiple tasks.In the past years there is seen a lot of mergers and globalization. Supervisors and managers are the targeted audience for the change because they need to recognize the ways in which the workplace is changing. case studies etc. This will prevent the loss of content delivered and learners will be able to apply these concepts at work. workers and managers. organization focuses on maximizing potentials of employees and emphasizes more on self-directed learning. The costs can be reduced if there is in-house training and if there is a full fledged training department within the company itself. Organizations pay more attention to measurable results than performance improvement: . and diversifying. Training field is also greatly influenced by this. Managing and valuing diversity is a key component of effective people management. The duration should be such that they drive home the point immediately. Since managing diversity remains a significant organizational challenge.There is decreasing workforce. however the ultimate reason for training them would be improve the profits and repeat business of the company.Organizations believe that programs should be conducted for the appropriate time because they get boring if they grow longer. Computers have become a necessity for any organization. need to have an out come that can be measured in figures. Longer programs may involve lot of repetition and may switch off the trainees. managers must learn the managerial skills needed in a multicultural work environment. Time factor has gained utmost importance: . in the sense of training through e-learning.
In this environment. often better than others. and trainers need to examine their own roles and develop them to meet new and differing demands. quality and performance management. to act as agents for change. Adults Technology Learn Perform Learnactivity Manage Capture NAME-SHARAD KAPOOR . to become involved in internal consultancy relating to organizational development. The use of technology and various forms of distance and open learning need to be employed where appropriate. Line managers have become more involved in the development of staff through coaching. mentoring and assessing competencies. and to develop a learning organization. Trainers have received greater recognition as having skills which enable them. the training function too must explore and introduce new strategies and methods of learning to meet the changing needs of the organization and of its learners.
g. ease of use. digital paper and ink. voice recognition and control. computer literacy. and biometric feedback are a few of technologies that provide truly dynamic and adaptive support for learning and performing. that the users are unconscious of the technology itself and focused instead on success.2 Q. VIII RESPONSE SHEET NO. EPSS (Electronic Performance support system) seeks to solve two of the most significant problems—individual job performance and organizational competitiveness. etc. An LCM’s is an application that combines some of the learning management functions of a learning management system with the content management functions of a content management system. the emergence of EPSS and LCM’s has become a platform of choice. Virtual and augmented reality. Relationship between trainer and trainee Offers assessment and reports test scores Offers on line and off line materials Provides certification Communication and collaboration . There is rapid change in the world due to emerging technologies. What factors do you consider while using technology to manage performance? Some examples could be cost. Ans: Technology is human-centric. designed to be transparent. Factors to be considered while using any technology are Speed Content ownership Cost Flexible course design and delivery methods Business benefits Just in time learning Build knowledge Decrease paper documentation Easy access Do performers possess the basics for using the system? E.PAPER NO. simulations.1. Intelligent technology aids our learning because its own ability to learn through memory and pattern recognition. We expect it to actively and adaptively support our performance and productivity. Technology is so natural to use and so supportive of completing the right tasks well the first time. We finally have truly just-in–time learning and performance support for achieving personal and group peak performance. In the last five years of market development.
Learning experiences.2. Documentum. Information Base-On-line documents. What are some of the examples of web-based technologies you use to manage performance? Ans: Two technologies to manage performance are: Electronics performance support systems Learning content management systems EPSS. It handles what happens inside the classroom—course preparation. Some examples are. Out start.Multimedia CBT and Tutorials. A LCMS Allows writing courses using reusable learning object architecture Creates custom courseware Content is delivered page by page Offers sound. and task tools available on the internet/ intranet. Reference materials. and Generation 21. and tracking and itemizing user details.It is an extension of LMS. glossary items. ready-to-use templates Provides content conversion capabilities Uses a company. Components of EPSS. Database.Word processing. LCMS.help files. Advisor.Expert advice and coaching. or in print. course delivery. e. training.g. They are concise. Enterprise security Facilities for content migration Interactivity Practicality Q. Spreadsheet.It is composed of Tools. efficient to use. and monitoring to enhance job performance.wide content repository to store objects Uses the web to identify and locate objects in the repository Two types of training delivery methods are Synchronous Asynchronous . Click2 learn. coaching. and provide clarification on tasks and procedures.It provides task specific information. It is simple and accurate.
Both the methods can be designed to work together. . This balance is achieved by combining the advantages of two learning modalities. Blended learning is a concept that means balanced learning. on a company’s network. and other training knowledge. For e. such as classroom instruction. white boards. with self-paced instruction that is delivered on the net.g. live online training sessions can be archived along with chat logs..