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† School ∗ Department
He Ting-ting∗ , Wang Jing-di∗ , Guo Jie∗ , Huang Hai∗ , Chen Xiang-xian∗ and Pan Jie†
of Instrumentation Science and Engineering,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou,310027,China of Mechanical Engineering,The University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Australia
Large power transformer
Abstract—This paper is concerned with the design and development of an on-line condition monitoring system for large power transformers utilizing signals such as transformer vibration, voltages, currents, temperature and state of switches. The system consists of two parts which communicate each other via Ethernet or series port. The formal is a front-end computer subsystem used for data acquisition and processing, and the latter is a remote computer subsystem for analyzing and monitoring transformer’s operating conditions. It provides a reliable real-time service to power industry by integrating the transformers’ electrical properties with the mechanical properties for detecting potential problems in power transformers. The developed system has became useful platform for an on-going project on the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for large power transformers. Keywords—vibration method; condition monitoring; power transformer
4 vibration signals
Voltage, current transducers
4 current signals
4 voltage signals
The front-end data acquisition subsystem Ethernet RS-232
The remote computer subsystem with the function software
architecture of TCMS
I. I NTRODUCTION Power transformers are one of the most expensive and critical assets in power system. The safe operation of power network relies on the reliability of power transformers. Failures in power transformers can lead to interruptions in electric supply and carry great costs . The condition monitoring and fault diagnosis techniques have been used to detect transformers’ abnormity and faults. They can not only prevent the occurrence of unexpected incidents, but also perform the condition maintenance instead of regular maintenance to prolong transformers’ life and reduce operating costs greatly. Compared with oil chromatographic analysis method, vibration technique has demonstrated potential to detect transformers mechanical fault such as displacement, deformation, looseness or abrasion of core, winding and OLTC (on load tap changer). Further more, the technique can be applied without interfering the normal operation of transformers  . According to the recent literatures, the existing on-line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis systems have some limitations . They were mainly used for experimental studies, not suitable for practical applications. Also only vibration signals were monitored while other parameters which affect transformer vibration were ignored (i.e. voltages, currents, temperature, switch-on or off of air fans and pumps). There is also a lack of study of the general properties of transformer vibration in relation to the transformer fatigue and failures. To effectively implement the practical application and fundamental research in the ﬁeld of transformer condition monitoring, using the advanced embedded system technology and communication network technology, this paper proposes a
vibration-based multi-parameter (including transformer voltages, currents, temperature and switches) power transformer condition monitoring system . II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The target of this system is to judge power transformer’s condition by monitoring and analyzing its vibration.Taking into account the affects of transformer voltages, currents, temperature, air fans and oil pumps on vibration signals, the system will monitor all these signals simultaneously to improve its effectiveness and accuracy. Based on these demands, the architecture of desired Transformer Condition Monitoring System (TCMS) is depicted in Fig.1. TCMS includes the front-end subsystem and the remote computer with functional software. The front-end subsystem can be installed near the transformer to carry out the tasks of sampling, processing, displaying and storage of all signals. The functional software in the remote computer communicates with the front-end subsystem through Ethernet or serial interface and performs displaying, analyzing, storage, management of signals and parameter setting of the whole system. The two subsystems are developed on different platforms. They can be executed in a distributed environment and possible changes made in one of them do not affect the others. III. FRONT-END SUBSYSTEM The front-end subsystem carries out data sampling, processing, displaying, storage and communicating with remote computer. It is designed based on embedded system architecture employing embedded computer and embedded operating
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raw and processed data can be stored and inquired. B. The static one includes peak values. The main components include sensors. harmonic amplitudes from 100 to 800 Hz (vibration). Four current sensors and four voltage sensors are used to monitor currents and voltages. CPU module Since TCMS front-end subsystem is installed near the ﬁeld transformers and requires high reliability. the remote subsystem initiates a communication with the front-end subsystem. Temperature signal is modulated by PT100 sensor’s typical conditioning module. in which a set of bar chart is designed to show static data’s real-time change. current is measured in lowvoltage side).system. 2 eight bits digital input/output channels. air fans and OLTC of the power transformer. operating system. In addition. 50Hz trap ﬁltering and anti-aliasing ﬁltering. the front-end subsystem responds to the request by performing corresponding setting or just returning the wanted data back. TESTS TCMS has been tested on a 220KV power transformer at a transformer substation of Ningbo. In order to get the current conditions of in-service transformers. the eight digital sensors monitor the status of the oil pump. three sensors are positioned on the high-voltage side or lowvoltage side of the A. voltage and current data sampled during transformer’s transient process such as start-up and shut-down) is used to monitor the transient state of transformers while real-time data is used to monitor transformer’s state during continuous running. the remote subsystem performs various analysis and processing of the received data subject to administrator’s requirement. These sensors are relay contacts that show the ON or OFF status of the aforementioned elements. Finally. A. IV. the hardware core is based on PC/104 module up to industrial standard and CPU module is PCM-3350 based on X86 architecture. Software Considering the requirement for real-time ability. After packing needed parameters into a request frame according to a speciﬁed protocol. It is a multithread application where three threads are being executed concurrently (Fig 2). The program interface displays the results of sampling process. the sensitivity and supply voltage of which are 500 MV/g and 24V respectively. alarm will be triggered and detail of the incident will be recorded by front-end subsystem. the measurements are divided into two groups: dynamic and static. V. The function of the circuits used to adjust acceleration signal includes ICP sensors power supply. E. The conditioning circuit for voltage and current transducer outputs which should be converted to 1-5 V or 4-20 mA standard signal by voltage and current Hall sensors ﬁrst performs current / voltage conversion (for current signal). Instantaneous data (vibration. processing and storage of all signals. Data analysis module analyzes instantaneous data. This one is used for measuring the temperature of the coolant oil such that its inﬂuence on vibration can be analyzed and processed. CPU module. REMOTE SUBSYSTEM The remote subsystem performs analysis and management of data from front-end subsystem and parameters setting for the whole system. Vibration on high- . just under each phase where core and winding vibration can be most effectively detected . including day trend and annual trend which was calculated from the real-time data. conditioning circuits. ampliﬁcation. The dynamic one includes vibrations. For all the analog sensors. outputs of the sensors need to be conditioned. For both voltages and currents. Switch signals are isolated from conditioning circuit and converted to TTL level signals by using optocouplers. and application software. real-time data. Communication thread is responsible for receiving and transmitting data (all measurements and parameter setting) with remote subsystem and has been divided into two parts for serial port and network respectively. Acquisition module (A/D module) The data-acquisition card used is a PCM-3718H module from Advantech Company and has the following characteristics: 100 KHz for DMA mode. Conditioning circuit Before sampling. The functional software has been developed using LabVIEW graphic application development environment from National Instruments  . C. voltages and currents’ real-time waveform. D. trend data and alarm data. Trend analysis. The temperature signal is captured by one PT100 sensor which has a temperature coefﬁcient α = 0. Another one is used to capture OLTC’s vibration signal. Along with 10 seconds cycle of sampling and data updates. voltage and temperature) and switch values. 16 analog input channels. the main thread updates the corresponding values. signal anti-aliasing ﬁltering and ampliﬁcation to suit the A/ D module input range. There are four ICP piezoelectric accelerometers for vibration measurement. B. another may be positioned on the other side of a phase. When the real-time vibration’s peak to peak value exceeds threshold value three times. vibration signals isolation. current. voltage is measured in high-voltage side. Three of them are positioned on transformer’s oil tank. so transformer’s current state can be monitored intuitively. C phase (Generally. Then.00392o C −1 . 12 bits resolution. Finally. Sensors TCMS uses 21 external sensors: 13 analog and 8 digital. will show transformer’s state trend in one day and one year. Sampling thread performs the sampling. the frontend subsystem is developed using Windows CE operating system and the Visual C++ programming environment. RMS values (vibration. A/D module. These elements are described more in depth below. 4000 samples are acquired with a sampling rate of 4000 Hz and the interval between two acquisitions is 10 seconds.
6. As we can see. current. (HV) voltage side. temperature and switch signals wait alarm data acquisition card initialization day trend points %12=0? Yes No system initialization and startup data processing p-p values. low-voltage side. 2. Three process running within the front-end subsystem Fig.time trend points %30=0? Yes send data vibration p-p values exceed the threshold 3 times No one point value of year trend start sampling Yes wait update graphics day trend calculation end Fig. zero alarm times one point value of day trend start Communication thread data sampling vibration. and other harmonics exist due to power harmonic and magnetostriction’s . spectra of vibration in A. harmonics No reckoning of realtime trend communicate with the remote computer? Yes select data type No No year trend calculation 10 seconds past ? Yes real. vibration of A. 4. (LV) spectra of vibration in B phase. B phase. B phase in lowvoltage side and Fig4 shows their spectra. (LV) Fig. core and winding’s fundamental frequency is 100Hz. RMS values . air fans and oil pumps has been measured.Sampling thread Main thread alarm status recording. The key results are summarized as follows: 1 Fig. voltage . B phase (LV) Fig. spectra of vibration in B phase. switch values. 5.3 shows vibration waveforms of A. Fig. 3. mean values .
no. C. and A. L. signal separation and feature extraction will beneﬁt from the whole system for it’s accuracy and reliablity. Villar. 2126–2131. pp. alarm analysis and data management for power transformer monitoring. China) through Grant No. 2001. and B. temperature and switches status. no. “Transformer tank vibration modeling as a method of detecting winding deformations . and A. no.  LabVIEW User Manual. vol. and F. Garcia. IEEE International.6 shows 100Hz. IEEE Transactions on. the harmonic content is very similar to the vibration of the B phase and C phase (Fig. May 1997. 7. Palacios. Burgos.The harmonic components reveal the cause which leads to vibration and the amplitudes reveal core and winding’s mechnical condition such as displacement. 2 Comparison between Fig.6. Machado. R EFERENCES  F.  M. 200Hz and 300Hz harmonics in low-voltage side have greater amplitude which could be due to winding in lower-voltage side having more severe vibration. Oct.communication and network technology. These data are very useful for further detection of transformer’s mechanical condition. 3. spectra of vibration in A phase side. Burgos. Garcia-Cerrada. As can been seen. M.” Power Delivery. Garcia. vibration of the A phase’s side is showed in Fig. Based on embedded system architecture. VI. 2006. “Research on extraction technique of transformer core fundamental frequency vibration based on olcm. 8. 1. J. 21. vol. R. The system was tested and used in laboratory and in the ﬁeld.” Electric Machines and Drives Conference Record. 157–163. instantaneous analysis. Yanming.3. The functional software of the remote subsystem is designed based on LabVIEW platform and realizes signal real-time analysis. Alonso. Yongfen. 2001. M. pp. “Experiences learned from the on-line internal monitoring of the behaviour of a transformer. J. TC3/11. Moran. The results show that TCMS satisﬁes the requirements of practical on-line monitoring for large power transformers and is also useful as a reliable system platform for the further work of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for power transformers. pp.5 and Fig.deformation. “Programmable electronic instrument for condition monitoring of in service power transformers. 2006. 4.  J.8. This work was supported by the National High-tech R&D Program (863 Program. National Instruments.” Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. P. (HV) ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank all the project group members for their hard work.part ii: Experimental veriﬁcation. Ubeira. A.  LabVIEW Measurements Manual.1–TC3/11. and L. 21. C. this phenomenon is caused by Transformer winding’s natural frequency which is always an important index to judge winding’s deformation  . (HV) nonlinearity . 7) which has largest amplitude in 400Hz. C ONCLUSION We have designed and developed an on-line condition monitoring system for power transformers utilizing the vibration signals and other signals such as voltages. Fig. the front-end subsystem establishes a real-time and reliable interactive control and analysis environment using . Sanz-Bobi. “Transformer tank vibration modeling as a method of detecting winding deformations . Poza. pp.part i: Theoretical foundation. M. J. Rolan. vol. National Instruments. J. Proceedings of the 21st IEEE.” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.  B. 1997. 3 For high-voltage side. May 2004. currents. 164–169.looseness and abrasion. vol. 21. Fig. 2007AA04Z439 and the International Cooperation Project of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. Fig.  B. pp. IMTC 04. Marino. 1981– 1988. Shengchang. 2004. 2006. trend analysis.” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 2008C24004).Further study including modeling. Alonso. 1. spectra of vibration in C phase.
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