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, Rev. 00, 02/93 Prepared by: D. Gamlen et al. Approved by: A. J. Reidy
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 PURPOSE CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION CONSTRUCTION FEATURES APPLICATIONS REFERENCES LIST OF PREFERRED VENDORS TYPICAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION
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2 3 4 5 5 5 8 13 19 26
APPENDIX A APPENDIX B
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 3.1 TABLE 4.0
COMPRESSOR FAMILY TREE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS
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LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES 3.1, 3.5, 3.6 COURTESY OF EQUIPMENT DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS, BY FRANK L. EVANS, JR. (PAGE 42, FIG. 2.5) AND (PAGE 41, FIG. 2.4 AND FIG 2.3) FIGURE 3.2 COURTESY OF SULZER GROUP, TECHNICAL REVIEW 2/1988. FIGURES 3.3, 3.4, 3.7 COURTESY OF COMPRESSED AIR-GAS HANDBOOK, 5TH EDITION BY COMPRESSED AIR-GAS INSTITUTE, (PAGE 143, FIG. 2.49 AND FIG. 2.50) AND (PAGE 164, FIG. 2.64) FIGURE 5.1 FIGURE 5.2 FIGURE 5.3 FIGURE 5.4 FIGURE 5.5 FIGURE 6.1 COURTESY OF A-C COMPRESSOR COURTESY OF ATLAS COPCO COURTESY OF DRESSER COURTESY OF A-C COMPRESSOR COURTESY OF SIEMENS ENERGY AUTOMATION, INC. TYPICAL COMPRESSOR COVERAGE CHART
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LIST OF SYMBOLS
ACFM AGMA API ICFM
ACTUAL CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (TAKEN AT ANY LOCATION) AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURER'S ASSOCIATION AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE INLET CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (TAKEN AT COMPRESSOR INLET CONDITIONS) FEET PER SECOND GROSS HORSEPOWER (OFTEN SEEN AS GAS HORSPOWER) MERCURY LBS PER SQUARE INCH GAGE SUCTION PRESSURE DISCHARGE PRESSURE STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER MINUTE (AT 60°F, 14.7 psia) AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
FPS GHP HG PSIG Ps Pd SCFM ANSI ASME NEMA
FOR ADDITIONAL COMPRESSOR RELATED ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS, REFER TO "COMPRESSED AIR AND GAS DATA" BOOK, 3RD EDITION, 1982.
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PURPOSE The purpose of this design guide is to provide general information and to assist an equipment engineer to select appropriate equipment types based on different operating parameters such as pressure requirements, gas compositions and mechanical seal requirements etc. Scope of this design guide is limited to Rotary Positive Displacement blowers and compressors. Other compressor type machines shall be covered in other design guides. The guide primarily provides an overview of applications and construction features for different types of rotary blowers/compressors. It provides check lists to assist the equipment engineer for generating Technical Specifications, equipment data sheets and technical notes for Material Requisitions.
CODES, STANDARDS AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS • API Standard 619, Second Edition, May 1985. Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services.
Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers by Baumeister & Marks, Seventh Edition. Compressed Air-Gas Handbook, 5th Edition, by Compressed Air-Gas Institute. Equipment Design Handbook for Refineries and Chemical Plants by Frank L. Evans, Jr.
GENERAL Not too many years ago, it was common practice to use reciprocating compressors when high pressures were required. Dynamic type machines were used only where larger volumes and lower pressures were involved. Dynamic compressors were usually called blowers when air/gas was compressed to approximately 15-20 40 psig, and the term compressor was
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Dynamic compressors are classified as centrifugal.3.2. b.4 of this guide.3.1 Rotary Screw Compressors (Figures 3. Industry now uses the term compressor for all type of machines compressing air or gas. and 3. Four general types of rotary positive displacement compressors are available. 3. Figure 3. 3. axial or mixed flow machines. positive displacement machines are for small capacities. Comparison of constant speed characteristics of different types of compressors is shown in Figure 3. c. Oil-injected rotary screw compressors Liquid-injected rotary single screw compressors Oil-free rotary screw compressors.1 shows the compressor family tree.1. variablepressure machines. These basic characteristics. As a general rule. Positive-displacement type compressors are machines in which volumes of air or gas are confined within a closed space. however.2 shows capacity ranges of various compressor types. the axial compressor and the positive-displacement compressors are essentially constant-capacity. 3.1. Equally important is the capacity range that can be built into a single machine. Table 3. There are two basic types of compressors: dynamic type and positive displacement type. 3.DOC PAGE 6 OF 60 . constant pressure machine. centrifugals are for medium capacities and axial are for large capacities per machine. however. They are briefly discussed in Sections 3. O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. In recent years. The centrifugal compressor is essentially a variable-capacity. represent only part of the process of selecting the type of compressor best suited to a specific application. this differentiation has become insignificant.applied to any such machines where air or gas was compressed to a final pressure about 20 psig. it must be realized that there is considerable overlap of capacity range between these different types of compressors. The pressure is increased as the volume of the closed space is decreased. As in all other general statements.4) They are further classified as: a.
5) These machines are used extensively for high vacuum and low compression. A two stage unit can compress air to approximately 250 psig. providing small to moderate capacities at high heads. The rotor tip speed of heavy duty two-lobe compressors is limited to approximately 57 fps. It also supplements low specific speeds centrifugal compressors with more favorable efficiency. However. 3. The slippage or internal recirculation varies directly as the square root of the change in absolute pressure and inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature and specific gravity. Generally. These are constant-volume variable-pressure machines. light models range from 25 to 30 fps.6) The rotor runs eccentrically within the casing.DOC PAGE 7 OF 60 . Radial slots in the rotor carry sliding vanes which form a series of longitudinal cells.3 Rotary-Sliding Vane Compressors (Figure 3. In some cases the best solution is a warm jacket and the use of a lubricant heavily loaded with a solvent resistant inhibitor such as rapeseed oil. A single stage sliding vane compressor can produce a 28 inch Hg vacuum or compresses to approximately pump 50 psig. Installation is simplified. 3. Cold jackets increase the cylinder wall condensation. lanolin or tallow. space and vibration. maintenance.4 Rotary Liquid Ring Compressors (Figure 3. requires four sets of shaft bearings and seals. The cell volume diminishes as the rotor approaches the discharge chamber. 3. This machine is normally furnished as totally engineered skid mounted packaged unit. and is particularly inapt for cold jackets. and it minimizes maintenance and vibration problems and does not require an extensive foundation.7) O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. It provides the characteristics of reciprocating piston machinery without the problems of a pulsating discharge flow. It. the unit is not suited for handling saturated and super-saturated vapor.2 Rotary Lobe Compressors (Figure 3. however. each application should be looked at on a case by case basis before selecting this type of machine.Rotary screw compressor has relatively high efficiency at low specific speeds.
DOC Adiabatic Operating Maximum PAGE 8 OF 60 . then reducing the volume and thereby increasing the pressure.0 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Positive displacement compression occurs when successive volumes of gas are confined within a closed space and elevated to a higher pressure. lobe. This liquid ring contains and compresses the gas flow between the entrance and the discharge port. Second Edition. sliding vane. The increase in pressure can come from either trapping the gas in an enclosure. or the trapped gas may be carried in the enclosure without a change in volume to the discharge opening. along with the action of centrifugal force throw the liquid sealant fluid in a cylindrical form within the casing forming a liquid ring. Typical operating characteristics are: TABLE 4 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Maximum Discharge Inlet O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. All the "modifications". should be addressed in the Technical Specification. May 1985. and liquid piston. and all other design requirements for rotary screw and rotary lobe compressors.0 and 6. "additions". The units are more commonly used as vacuum pumps with maximum absolute discharge pressure of 2 inch of Hg in single stage and 0. and "decisions" for specific paragraphs of API Standard 619.In this type of compressor. This compressor is used to handle highly saturated vapor. construction features and application of these machines are discussed in Sections 4. It is indispensable for handling exothermic gases like chlorine. thus allowing the backflow from the discharge system to do the compression.0 respectively. 4. 5. Principles of operation. Positive displacement rotary compressors types include screw. more corrosive and volatile gases in chemical plants. Rotary screw compressors and rotary lobe compressors are specified in API Standard 619. Compressor efficiency is generally less than 50 percent. the vanes. oxygen and acetylene.78 inch of Hg in two stages.0. "deletions".
In this style. gas will flow back into the compressor momentarily when the rotor lobes open the discharge port. These units have internal compression. rotor.1 Screw Compressor (Helical or Spiral-Lobe) This compressor is a rotary positive displacement machine in which two intermeshing rotors.500 200-3.500 50-25. or driven. each with a helical form.DOC PAGE 9 OF 60 . The male. or gate.000 300-4.600 Horsepower (GHP) 400 800 200 450 300 4. the timing gears may be omitted and the second rotor is driven from the first.000 15-30. so no lubrication is necessary. The lobes of the two rotors are not identical. There are no valves. About 85 to 90 percent of the power is used by the main rotor.000 400-1. There are two types. The dry screw compressor uses timing gears to properly phase the two rotors at all times. The built-in or design compression ratio is predetermined by the location of the opening edges of the discharge port and the wrap angle of the lobes. compress and displace the gas.000 CFM. the gate requiring only 10 to 15% of the total power at the most.000 10-3. The basic element is the housing with its enclosed rotor assemblies. usually considered "wet" or "dry" screws. If the discharge pressure is higher than the maximum pressure developed by the compressor.Capacity (ACFM) Screw (Wet) Screw (Dry) Rotary Lobe Sliding Vane Liquid Ring 50-3. rotor has a form that fits into the pocket of the female. dry screw capacities range from 50 to 25. The maximum efficiency is obtained when the discharge pressure corresponds to the maximum pressure developed within the compressor.500 Pressure (PSIG) 300 15-400 15-30 130 80-150 Efficiency (%) 60-70 55-65 55-65 40-70 25-50 Speed (RPM) 3600 2500-5. The wet screw compressor uses a mist of oil through the machine to lubricate and seal and to cool the compressed gas. The rotors do not come into contact with each other and sealing is by close tolerances. the compressed gas will expand O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.000 5-2. If the discharge pressure is lower than the maximum pressure developed within the compressor. Wet screws have capacities from 50 to 3500 CFM.
There is no internal compression. The operation can be visualized from figure 3. Compression is by backflow into the casing from the discharge line at the time the discharge port is uncovered. A two-impeller straight lobe positive displacement compressor element consists of a casing containing duplicate symmetrical rotors or impellers usually having a figure eight cross section.DOC PAGE 10 OF 60 . These two conditions decrease the efficiency of the compressor and create high frequency pressure waves in the discharge line resulting in excessive noise. Cross section diagrams for single stage and double stage compressors are shown in figures 3. 4. One impeller is driven directly while the other is driven through phasing gears.5.44. There are no valves. There is no compression or reduction of gas volume during the turning of the rotors.inefficiently into the discharge line when the discharge port is initially exposed. 4. The rotors merely move the gas from the inlet to the discharge. Designs vary in the helix angle and the contour of the lobes.2 Rotary Lobe Compressor (Two Impeller Straight Lobe) This compressor is a rotary positive displacement machine in which two straight mating lobed impellers trap gas and carry it from intake to discharge. Sealing is by close clearances and lubrication is not required within the gas chamber.3 Sliding Vane Compressor O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. The rotors may or may not have the same number of lobes. Some have three lobes. Both impellers do the same amount of work. There is no contact between the impellers or between the impellers and the casing. Displacement of the compressed gas into the discharge system then takes place. The term "cycloidal" occasionally is used for this type even though the impellers may have other than cycloidal form.3 and 3. Usually the main rotor has fewer than the gate and therefore operates at a higher speed. and rotate in opposite directions. are kept in phase by timing gears. These intermesh.
decreasing the volume and increasing the pressure of the gas. then gas will momentarily reverse flow into the pocket before the gas is discharged.This is a rotary positive displacement machine in which vanes slide radially in a rotor eccentrically mounted in a cylindrical casing. the O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. discharge pressure always occurs at the design point. inlet and discharge is determined by the ports over which the vanes pass. 4. If the discharge pressure is lower than the receiver. If the discharge pressure is higher than the receiver. Either of these two offdesign conditions lowers the adiabatic efficiency and can contribute to excessive noise. and the bending forces acting on the vane when in an extended position. vanes are pressed inward toward the rotor by the eccentrical casing.7). This compressor has a rather narrow range of capacity and pressure because of inherent limits imposed by vane length. Due to the fixed location of the inlet and discharge ports in the compression cycle.4 Liquid Ring (Liquid Piston) Compressor This is a rotary positive displacement machine in which a ring of liquid (usually water) forms a variable volume chamber to compress and displace the gas handled.DOC PAGE 11 OF 60 . A rotary liquid piston or liquid ring compressor uses an eccentrically mounted rotor with multiple fixed forward turned blades turning about a central cone (a characteristic of Nash compressors) containing inlet and discharge ports. The vanes are free to move radially within slots and maintain contact with the cylindrical casing by the centrifugal force generated as the rotor turns.6). regardless of the pressure of the receiver into which it is discharging. (see Figure 3. (see figure 3.000 SCFM. Flows range from 50 to 3. The inlet port is normally wide and is designed to admit gas up to the point when the pocket between the two vanes is the largest. As the rotor turns. The compressed gas then exits the discharge port when the leading edge of the vane passes over the port. There are no valves. gas will expand inefficiently into the receiver. Gas enters through the inlet port and is trapped between vanes between the rotor and the casing. The rotary sliding vane compressor has as its basic element the cylindrical casing with its heads and rotor assembly. Gas trapped between vanes is compressed and displaced. The pocket is closed when the following vane of each pocket passes over the edge of the inlet port. rubbing speed on the cylinder wall.
regardless of the pressure of the receiver.DOC PAGE 12 OF 60 . The liquid orients itself in a ring like manner as the rotor turns. The cooling of a liquid ring compressor is direct rather than through the walls of a casing. two compression cycles are completed in each rotor chamber. heads. Since the port location must be designed and built for a specific compression ratio. The excess liquid is discharged with the gas. The amount of liquid that may be passed through the compressor is not critical and can be varied to obtain the desired results. in effect. Because of the intimate contact of gas and liquid. Gas is admitted to the rotor through and removed through ports within the ends of the casing. the discharge will always be at the design point. the compressed gas is discharged.blades driving a captive ring of liquid around the inside of an elliptical or circular casing. There is compression within the pockets or chambers between the blades before the discharge port is uncovered. a liquid piston. two eccentric sweeps usually are provided to form the elliptical casing. These are opposed diametrically and thus balance out radial thrust loads. the final discharge temperature can be held close to the temperature of the inlet cooling water. the discharge gas is saturated at the discharge temperature of the compressing liquid. However. The ring seals off the inlet port. The required additional cooling liquid is fed into the casing where it comes into direct contact with the gas being compressed. This creates. and as the rotor turns it carries the gas from the maximum clearance side to the minimum clearance. The unit can handle saturated vapors. the liquid face follows the circumferential contour of the casing and forces the liquid to enter and recede from the motor chambers. Whirling liquid partially fills the casing and is trapped between adjacent blades. and rotor assembly. there are no valves. entrained liquid and occasional foreign matter. In those liquid ring compressors with elliptical casings. A unique characteristic O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. As the rotor turns. The basic element of the liquid piston compressor are the casing. The discharged mixture is passed through a conventional baffle or centrifugal type separator to remove the free liquid. Porting in the central cone is built-in and fixed. The center of the ring forms a gas pocket around the admitted gas. For every revolution.
1.3 The male and female rotors are generally made from a forging.of this type of compressor. 5. or stainless steel. refer to API Standard 619. alloy steel. Since the rotors do not touch the case or each other. is that the unit will not be damaged if a large quantity of liquid enters its suction. 5. there is no need for lubrication in the compression chamber.2 Bearings 5. radial bearings. O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. Second Edition. Appendix B. and timing gear.4 The timing gears are generally made of chrome molybdenum steel and heat treated for added strength. May 1985.0 5. male and female rotors.1. either made of carbon steel. the rotor can be plated with special materials such as nickel. Lubrication is required only in the bearings which are generally located external to the casing. 5.1 Materials 5.DOC PAGE 13 OF 60 .1.1.1 The major components of an oil free rotary screw compressor are the case. For special application services.1.1. 5.1. The compressor case can either be vertical or horizontal split depending upon the manufacturer's design.1.2 The compressor case is generally a casting and can be made of ductile steel. Lubrication is only required for the bearings and timing gears. The liquid itself acts as a lubricant.1. thrust bearings. sealing medium and coolant for the stuffing boxes. The gas or air being compressed is therefore oil free.1 The radial bearings are a sleeve type and are pressure lubricated to support the radial loads imposed upon the rotors. 5. The gears are pressed onto the rotors and doweled in place to obtain proper rotor-to-rotor clearance and timing gear backlash.1.1 CONSTRUCTION FEATURES Oil Free Screw Compressor 5.1.2. The bearings are located outboard the compressor chamber to prevent oil entrainment into the process stream. Refer to figure 5-1 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component.
3.3 The labyrinth seal has the advantage of being able to handle particulate contained in the process gas.1. These types of seals are considered special types and additional engineering is required for each particular application. A tapered-land or fixed wedge type thrust plate should be provided to reduce the reverse thrust loads during startup or shutdown.3.1 Materials O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.1. The seal can be designed with options for eductor system or with a combination clean gas buffer and eductor system for use in hazardous or toxic gas services.2.5. 5.DOC PAGE 14 OF 60 .188.8.131.52 Oil Flooded Screw Compressor 184.108.40.206 Mechanical Seals 5. and labyrinth type. Each seal has its own unique application and should be reviewed carefully.1 The main types of mechanical seals available are mechanical contact type.4 The mechanical contact seal is used for applications where toxic or hazardous gases are not permitted to leak into the atmosphere or into the compressor. It is a close clearance type seal easily replaceable as a unit for maintenance service. A clean buffer gas can be added to fill the seal chamber and separate the leakage oil from the process gas.2 The restrictive-ring type seal is generally used for air and non-hazardous or non-toxic gas applications within the maximum pressure limits of the compressor.2 The thrust bearings are generally a tilting pad type design to carry the axial loads imposed by the compression gas loads and the thrust reaction of the synchronizing gear teeth upon the rotors. 5. 5. It typically has a higher leakage rate than the restrictive-ring type seal. A positive pressure oil film is provided between the shoulder which rotates with the shaft and the stationary pressure balanced face seal ring. 5.1. 5. Dry running gas-buffered mechanical seals are now available where no oil film is required to operate the seal.2. The seal can be designed with options for eductor system or with a combination clean gas buffer and eductor system for use in hazardous or toxic gas services. restrictive-ring type.
5.1.2. refer to API Standard 618 Second Edition.1 Each rotor and shaft is supported by antifriction type bearings located near the ends of the rotor body. Refer to Figure 5-3 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. The bearings at one end.3. and timing gear. The oil flooded screw compressor typically has drive gears which compensate the axial thrust loads during the compression cycle. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component.3.2. usually the discharge end. 5. Appendix B.2.1 The major components of a lobe compressor are the case.3 Mechanical Seals 5. Refer to Figure 5-2 for a typical assembly view of the compressor.2. May 1985.2. The oil provides a film and prevents any contact between the rotors.1. May 1985. shaft.2 The compressor case is generally a casting and can be made of ductile iron or cast iron. lobe. there typically is not any timing gears required to maintain tolerances between the male and female rotor. 5.3 Lobe Compressor 5.1. take the rotor axial thrust and support the radial loads.2 The compressor case is generally a one piece cast construction with separate head plates.3. To determine specific materials recommended for each major component.2.DOC PAGE 15 OF 60 .3 The male and female rotors are generally made from a forging either made of carbon steel or alloy steel.1. 5.2. refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition.1 The oil flooded screw compressor is generally designed the same as an oil free screw compressor with exception. bearings. This is a general purpose seal used for air or nonhazardous gas applications. 5.3. 5.2 Bearings 5.1 Materials 5.5.1 The typical mechanical seal supplied for an oil flooded screw compressor is a restrictive-ring type seal.2.1. The typical metallurgy of the compressor case with head O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. Appendix B.
5.1. or coated carbon steel. 5. 5.1 There are various type of seals which are available for use in compressors to provide oil-free process systems. no inherent axial thrust loads are created by the rotor as in rotary-screw designs. The compressor has a constant slippage or recirculation rate for a fixed set of clearances.3.3. 5.DOC PAGE 16 OF 60 . These include labyrinth seals. Proper cooling of the air end is important to assure dimensional stability and to allow operation over a wide range of temperatures. the same principle can be applied as noted for the screw compressor where a buffer or inert gas can be injected into the seal. and bearings.3. between the intermeshing rotor lobes.220.127.116.11. These clearances are located between the housing and facing. The profiles have computer-generated shapes that optimize the compression and minimize the discharge port lobes. restrictive-ring type seal. 5. pressure.3 Mechanical Seals 5.1. stainless steel.5 The timing gears are generally made from a forging and manufactured to AGMA standards.4 SLIDING VANE COMPRESSOR 5.3.4 The lobes are made from ductile iron. Refer to figure 5-4 for a typical assembly view of the compressor. 5. these gears can operate either independent from the drive gears or perform a dual function or timing and drive.plates is ductile iron.3 The compressor shafts are generally made form alloy steel forging. heads.1.1 Materials 5. blades.3.4. and between the rotor outside diameter and the compressor housing. The profile consists of either one or two lobes extending form a center hub section. Depending on the manufacturer.2 To prevent lubrication from migrating along the rotor shaft and into the rotor chamber. temperature and gas molecular weight.3. Since the profile is a plane figure.1 The major component of a sliding vane compressor are the cylinder. rotor and shaft. The castings can either be air cooled or internally jacketed and water cooled. To determine specific materials recommended for O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. and mechanical contact seal.
heads.4 The blades are made of a laminated cloth impregnated with a blended phenolic resin. 5.1. After machining and heat treating. the seal faces can either be oil mist or force lubricated. A seal ring is installed between the bearing and the compression chamber and oil is injected which acts as a buffer to minimize gas leakage to the bearings. shaft. and bearings. The radial slots for the blades must be machined for the full length of the rotor.1.1 Materials 5. Depending on the manufacturer. Appendix B.3 Mechanical Seals 5. refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition. rotor.1 The rotor and shaft is generally supported at each end by anti-friction type bearings.2 The cylinder and heads are generally made from a casting either of ductile iron or gray iron materials.5.4.4. 5.3 The rotor and shaft assembly are generally machined from a single forging or bar stock made typically either of carbon steel or low alloy steel. 5. Each blade in heat treated and then machined to manufacturer's tolerances to allow for thermal growth. 5. port piece(s).2.4. May 1985.4. 5. To determine specific materials recommended for O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.4. 5. The blades also are available in a kevlar material impregnated with a phenolic resin composite.5 Liquid Ring Compressor 5. A liquid film double mechanical contact type seal is also available for applications requiring greater control of toxic or hazardous gases.1.1.4. each blade is checked for warpage and then impregnated with hot oil to maintain manufacture's tolerances.4.each major component.5.3.1 The typical mechanical seal applied for the sliding vane compressor is a liquid film single mechanical contact type. Refer to figure 5-5 for a typical assembly view of the compressor.DOC PAGE 17 OF 60 .1 The major components of a liquid ring compressor are the case.2 Bearings 5.
1. Appendix B as a guide only as API Standard 619 does not include liquid ring compressors. low alloy steel.5.each major component. 5.1 The rotor and shaft is generally supported at each end by anti-friction type bearings. 5. low alloy steel.5. The bearings can either be oil mist or grease lubricated depending on the application requirements.1.2 Depending on the manufacturer and the particular size of the liquid ring compressor.5.0 APPLICATIONS Rotary positive displacement compressors have a wide range of gas compression applications. These machines combine the benefits of positive displacement with simplified rotary motion mechanics. or stainless steel. The rotor is pressed fit onto the shaft and is not keyed.1 The typical seals supplied on the liquid ring compressor are single. or stainless steel. low alloy steel. low alloy steel.18.104.22.168.5.2 Bearings 5. 5. or stainless steel.3 Mechanical Seals 5. or tandem acting mechanical seals. 5.5. O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. This Section will discuss the most common applications of the following types of compressors: 1.1. 2.5 The port pieces and heads are cast and is made of either of carbon steel. the case can either be cast or fabricated in carbon steel. May 1985. double. refer to API Standard 619 Second Edition. or stainless steel.3.DOC ROTARY SCREW (Wet) ROTARY SCREW (Dry) PAGE 18 OF 60 .3 The shaft is generally machined from a single forging or bar stock made typically either of carbon steel.4 The rotor assembly is typically cast and is made of either of carbon steel. 6.5. 5. 5. The seals can be designed with various types of flush plans to detect the failure of a seal face.
These factors involve both process/operation compatibility and economics. The following checklists may be a useful guide to begin the selection process. 6.2.000 rpm) (1 . rotary positive displacement compressors may not be suitable or available. 5. If the normal operating conditions fall outside the above limits. 2.3. may be desirable in some applications. 4. 3. 6. In addition to this chart the following application parameters should be considered: 1. 6.800 hp) The limiting values (min/max) for rotary positive displacement compressors are indicated in parentheses. 6.5.30. 5. with custom designed features.DOC PAGE 19 OF 60 . Typical Compressor Coverage Chart. However. Operating Characteristics.000 cfm) (15 . This chart is based on the normal range of operation of commercially available machines.70 %) (200 .0.1 Application Parameters The typical operating range of rotary positive displacement compressors is shown in Figure 6-1.400 psig) (100 .2 Selection Criteria Many factors influence the selection of a particular type of rotary positive displacement compressor. ROTARY LOBE SLIDING VANE LIQUID RING Variations of the above types of compressors. 4. Inlet Capacity Discharge Pressure Head Efficiency Operating Speed Horsepower (5 .10. this Section will discuss the standard configurations available from established manufacturers.000 ft gas) (25 .1 Process/Operation Compatibility Factors O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. The capabilities of standard equipment based on these parameters is shown in Table 4.
5. 2. 9. 2. 4. 7.e. Buffer Fluids.1.3 These checklists should provide a useful guideline.2 Economic Factors 1. Erosion. (Some types i. Fouling) Machinery Interaction with Process Gas (Lubricants. 4.2. Combines positive displacement characteristics with simplified rotary motion mechanics.1 The general advantages and disadvantages of rotary positive displacement compressors are listed below: ADVANTAGES 1. 6. Provides a broad "surge free" range of operation for gases with varying molecular weights. 7. 5. screw types are inefficient in low molecular-weight applications) PAGE 20 OF 60 O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. 6. 2.3. 6.2.3 Advantages/Disadvantages 6. 3. Sealants) Upset or Off Design Operating Conditions Start-Up and Shut-Down Process Conditions Desirability of positive displacement characteristics in the system application. Mass Flow Rate Suction Pressure/Temperature Discharge Pressure Gas Physical Properties Process Gas Interaction with Machinery (Corrosion. 8. 3. 6.DOC . Any checklist that is developed should be continually updated in order to improve the decisionmaking selection process. Safety Standards Capital Costs vs Energy Costs Maintenance Costs vs Capital/Energy Costs Machine Reliability vs Replacement Availability vs spared units Space and Utility Requirements Spare Parts Availability Auxiliary and Accessory Equipment Requirements 6.
2. Smooth operation with no unbalanced forces and no special foundation requirements.3. A discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of each type of compressor follows. 5. Wide range of operating conditions. 4. 4.2 Rotary Screw (Wet) ADVANTAGES 1. 6.000 cfm. but available. DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. Excellent efficiency. 6. Compression ratio limited to about 6:1. Low parts wear due to lubricating design. Gases are not contaminated with oil. Noisy.3.DOC . 3. High capacity-to-size ratio. Very suitable for direct drive applications. Accessory oil separation equipment required. Four shaft seals required. Multistage (3 or more) configurations are not standard. 2. Capacity limited to about 30. 5. Auxiliary skid-mounted accessory equipment may be required.3 Rotary Screw (Dry) ADVANTAGES 1. 3. PAGE 21 OF 60 O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. Less potential erosion damage due to moderate rotative tip speeds. DISADVANTAGES 1. Wide range of applications. Good efficiency. 3. 3. 4.3. 6. Widest capacity-head range of application. may require noise hood and line silencers. High single stage compression ratios. 2.
3. Efficiency and noise level are adversely affected if the machine and process requirements are not precisely matched. 6. Used primarily for air service with very limited process applications.5 Sliding Vane ADVANTAGES 1.3. High capacity range (up to 30. Accessory oil separation equipment required. 3. Very simple construction features.3. 6. 5. 4.000 cfm) Excellent choice for air blower low pressure ratio applications. Limited discharge pressure and compression ratio. DISADVANTAGES 1.4. 2. 3. PAGE 22 OF 60 O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. Multistage configurations are available.. Wide range of process applications. may require noise hood and line silencers. Four shaft seals and timing gears required. 2. Very reliable with high efficiency operation if properly matched with process application. Precision machining tolerances are required to obtain maximum efficiency and avoid mechanical failure. 2.4 Rotary Lobe ADVANTAGES 1. Four shaft seals and timing gears required. 2.DOC . 4. 3. Very suitable for direct drive with common industrial drivers. DISADVANTAGES 1. DISADVANTAGES 1. Simple construction features. Noisy. Minimum amount of auxiliary and accessory equipment is required.
6. 3.3. Petrochemical and Refinery Process Gases Refrigeration Packages Gas Gathering Landfill Gas Fuel Gas Boosting PAGE 23 OF 60 O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.DOC . Sensitive to particulate materials in the gas resulting in excessive wear and/or potential jamming of the vanes. 6.4. Some of the more typical applications are listed below for each type of compressor. High reliability with relatively low maintenance requirements. Relatively low capacity range. 4. Liquid compressant can act as a coolant to control discharge temperature. 4. 3. Smooth operation virtually free of measurable pulsation. 5. Very simple construction features.1 Rotary Screw 1. DISADVANTAGES 1. Corrosive gases may be handled with standard materials. 2. 2. Suction pressure is limited to vapor pressure of sealing liquid. 6.6 Liquid Ring ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 5. Typical Applications Rotary positive displacement compressors have a wide range of industrial applications from simple air blower service to handling corrosive and dangerous gases. 3. 3.2. Limited range of application with respect to capacity (up to 3000 cfm) and discharge pressure (up to 150 psig for small units). Relatively low efficiency. Process gas / Sealing liquid compatibility is critical to application. 5. 4. 6. Wide range of process applications.4 Sealing liquid separation equipment required.
3 Sliding Vane 1. 1984. 8.4 Liquid Ring 1. Baumeister and Avallone MARKS' STANDARD HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 4. 6. 8th Ed. 2.0 7. 3. 2. 1978. 4. 7. 3. New York. Perry's CHEMICAL ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK. Air Handling Vacuum Service Pneumatic Service 6. 7. 5.4. PAGE 24 OF 60 2. 7.DOC . McGraw-Hill. 6.. O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00. 5. McGraw-Hill.2 Rotary Lobe 1.4. 3. 2.. Some Process Gases Refrigeration Packages Gas Gathering Landfill Gas Sewage Gas Compression Vapor Recovery Blast Hole Drilling Vacuum Service 6.1 Corrosive/Explosive Gas Handling Fuel Gas Boosting Air Handling Digester Gas Circulation Furnace Flue Gas Compression Vapor Recovery REFERENCES BOOKS 1. Inert Gas Boosting Sewage Gas Compression Vapor Recovery 6.6. 8.4. 6th Ed. New York.
LeROI DIVISION.INC. DRESSER INDUSTRIES. API STANDARD 619.DOC PAGE 25 OF 60 . 2nd Ed.Loomis. Washington. W. A.3 PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION PUBLICATIONS 1.3. A-C COMPRESSOR CORPORATION. Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services. O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.. May 1985..C.J. American Petroleum Institute. 7.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS AND ARTICLES 1. Ingersoll Rand Company Washington. COMPRESSOR CAPABILITIES Catalog. LeROI ROTARY SCREW GAS COMPRESSORS Catalog. 7. 1982.. D. COMPRESSED AIR AND GAS DATA. N. Example of Rotary Type Possitive Displacement Air Compressor Specification with ten page Compressor Data Sheets (attached).4 VENDOR DOCUMENTATION 1. 7. 3RD Ed. 2.
DOC PAGE 26 OF 60 .5 Pd/Pg1 HELICAL LOBE 1.1 COMPRESSOR FAMILY TREE INTERMITTENT FLOW CONTINUOUS FLOW POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT DYNAMIC TYPE RECIPROCATING ROTARY TYPE RADIAL AXIAL FLOW MIXED FLOW CYLINDER LUBRICATED NONLUBRICATED CYLINDER TYPE CENTRIFUGAL AXIAL MIXED FLOW CRANKCASE TYPE CROSSHEAD TYPE CROSSHEAD CYLINDER TYPE DIAPHRAGM HYDRAULIC TYPE CYLINDER LUBRICATED NONLUBRICATED CYLINDER LIQUID PISTON OIL FLOODED SINGLE ECCENTRIC LOBE AND SLIDING VANE SLIDING VANE OIL FLOODED HELICAL LOBE OIL FLOODED VANE STRAIGHT LOBE ROOTS TYPE HELICAL LOBE LYSHOLM 1.0 Pd/Pg 125 PSIG SMALL PLANT AIR AND CONSTRUCTION AIR PORTABLE 125 PSIG SMALL PLANT AIR AND CONSTRUCTION AIR PORTABLE O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.25 TO 2.6 TO 4.5 TO 3.0 Pd/Pg SPIRAXIAL 1.TABLE 3.
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APPENDIX A LIST OF PREFERRED VENDORS Typical manufacturers include: Roots Division of Dresser Industries Gardner-Denver Sutorbilt of Cooper M-D Pneumatics of Tuthill Corp. Spencer Ingersoll Rand Atlas-Copco A-C Compressors Graham Manufacturing Company Mycom Carrier Sullair Howden Dresser Rand Kobelco (Turbomachinery Industries) Siemens Energy and Automation Nash Sihi O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.DOC PAGE 38 OF 60 .
DOC PAGE 39 OF 60 .APPENDIX B Typical Engineering Specification: Specification: CH04035-56-16-501 Rotary Type Positive Displacement Air Compressor Package for Spent Caustic Treatment System (oil flood screw compressor) O:\WINWORD\3DG\M56\002-00.
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