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Data Throughput in CDMA 2000 cellular network

Data Throughput in CDMA 2000 cellular network

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Published by Joseph Shapira
The CDMA 2000 cellular network is originally optimized for voice. The parameters governing data throughput through the cell are reviewed along with techniques for its optimization and validation.
The CDMA 2000 cellular network is originally optimized for voice. The parameters governing data throughput through the cell are reviewed along with techniques for its optimization and validation.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Joseph Shapira on May 29, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/08/2014

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PROPRIETARY

1

Data Throughput in CDMA2000 1X

Dr. Joseph Shapira


PROPRIETARY
2

Throughput
The forward link throughput is limited by the available power.
Link efficiency is the power required to deliver one bit/sec

The power required to support users at location is








( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ; ; ; r PG G G r E r P
R T b T
· · = A
( )
Sector
bits d transmitte of Number
Throughput TP
sec
= =
¢ ; r
( ) ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢ ; ; ; r R r LE r P
b T
· = A
Link efficiency
Energy/bit for this service
Data rate
G
T,R
Antenna gain
PG Path gain (1/path loss)
b
b
R
E
LE


PROPRIETARY
3

Link Efficiency
•Efficiency decreases with 4
th
exponent of the range
•Efficiency depends on the antenna pattern
• Required E
b
depends on the interference
•E
b
/I
t
is a set requirement per type of transmission/service
I
C
W
R
I
E
b
t
b
= ·


PROPRIETARY
4

Throughput is Translated into
Required Eb/It (or C/I) Values
Latency vs. required Eb/It
HARQ allows for higher FER and lower Eb/It, but higher latency
Data rate vs. required Eb/It
Higher data rate requires higher, more sensitive modulation
constellation and less code protection, thus higher E
b
/I
t
,
Each Data Transmission Type/ service
has its Eb/It vs. Max Data-Rate Curve


PROPRIETARY
5

The Power Equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ o ¢ ; ; ; 1 ; r I r PG G G r P r I
OC R T T
+ · · A ÷ =
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ¢ o
¢ ¢ ¢
¢
¢ ¢
; 1 1
1
;
;
; ;
r
I
C
r PG G G
r I
r
I
C
r P
R T
OC
T
÷ ÷
·
· ·
· = A
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ¢ ¢ ¢
¢
¢ ¢
;
;
; ;
r PG G G
r I
r
I
C
r P
R T
T
· ·
· = A
But
( )
m
m
T T
r P n P ¢ ;
¿
A =
The total power is
Where n is the number of
users at point m


PROPRIETARY
6

Types of Data Transmission
Conversational – low end-to-end delay, symmetric traffic.
Mainly circuit-switched voice services, and (circuit or
packet-switched) video telephony.
Streaming – Transmission of data that can be processed as a
steady continuous stream. Asymmetric, latency-tolerant.
Typical services are web broadcast and video on demand.
Interactive – Request response pattern. Short round-trip
delay. Typical applications are web browsing, video
games, location-based services.
Background – Applications that do not require immediate
attention. Starting from SMS, email services and to files
transfer.


PROPRIETARY
7

CDMA2000 FL Configurations
Six forward link Radio Configurations (RC) are defined for 1x,
- Different length Walsh codes, from 4 to 128 chips, to suit the application.
- QPSK modulation
- Turbo codes
- Fast FL power control (800Hz). There are 1, 0.5 and 0.25 dB steps
- Transmit diversity
- Additional channels to accommodate a variety of applications.
- Frame lengths – 20 ms for signaling and user information, 5 ms for control
information.
- Forward Common Auxiliary Pilot Channel (FCAPiCh), and Forward.
- Dedicated Auxiliary Pilot Channel (FDAPiCh) to support smart antenna
transmission


PROPRIETARY
8

Radio Configurations
RC Data rate (Kbps) FEC Encoder rate Modulation TD
1 1.2; 2.4; 4.8; 9.6 1/2 BPSK
2 1.8; 3.6; 7.2; 14.4 1/2 BPSK
3 1.2; 1.35; 1.5; 2.4; 2.7; 4.8; 9.6;
19.2; 38.4; 76.8; 153.6
1/4 QPSK +
4 1.2; 1.35; 1.5; 2.4; 2.7; 4.8; 9.6;
19.2; 38.4; 76.8; 153.6; 307.2
1/2 QPSK +
5 1.8; 3.6; 7.2; 14.4; 28.8; 57.6; 115.2; 230.4 1/4 QPSK +
10 81.6; 158.4; 163.2; 312.0; 316.8; 326.4; 465.6; 619.2;
624.0; 633.6; 772.8; 931.2; 1238.4; 1248.0; 1545.6; 1862.4;
2476.8; 3091.2
1/5 QPSK,
8-PSK,
16 QAM


PROPRIETARY
9

FL: Cell Throughput Parameters
Users’ activity requirements
Distribution of the needs per type within the cell coverage.
This is an operator’s input
Cell resources
Power, channel cards, antenna gain
Cell environment
C/I map. Depends on path-gain, antenna pattern, fading,
diversity, neighboring cells


PROPRIETARY
10

C/I vs. range
for different orthogonality values
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0
.
0
5
0
.
1
5
0
.
2
5
0
.
3
5
0
.
4
5
0
.
5
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
7
5
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
5
1
.
0
5
1
.
1
5
r/R
C
/
I
[
d
B
]
al=.99 al=.95 al=.7 al=.5 al=al(r)


PROPRIETARY
11

Addressing the Throughput
1. C/I map (by prediction or drive test)
2. Required C/I - Get the required data rate per service type
in each location (from operator or audit)
3. By comparing maps – get the max DR per service in
each location
4. Power allocation per service type


5. Integrate power over sector
6. Modify coverage/ service mix to meet power limit
( ) ( ) EIRP Pilot I E I C n P
t c Bin
_ * ·


PROPRIETARY
12

Planning/ Optimization Approach
• Divide the cell into bins according to environment and
activity.
• Represent average values per bin
• Trade-off coverage with max throughput per service per
bin, and service mix, to meet power limit.
• Incorporate resource management rules ( vendor
dependent).
• Validate by drive test
• Monitor over time and change the allocations per actual
activity


PROPRIETARY
13

Throughput Enhancement
Enhance C/I in deficient bins by:
1. Distributed access (repeaters)
2. Polarization matching
3. Beam directivity
4. Transmit diversity
5. Load balancing (beam tilt/ shift/ shape)


PROPRIETARY
14

Throughput Validation Methodology
Drive test
• Measure C/I , Ec, Ec/It maps
• Conduct sessions of each type of data
transmission
• Compare with prediction
• Calibrate prediction


PROPRIETARY
15

Attention to Resource Management
Each vendor has its resource management
algorithms:
• AOC for controlling power saturation
• Hashing and channel (FA) transfer for
balancing load and controlling SHO
• Etc.
These have to be reviewed and incorporated
into the optimization.


PROPRIETARY
16

CDMA2000 1X Rev D RL
- Independent fundamental and supplemental
channels.
- Supplemental R-PDCH (after request and grant)
- Scheduler according to data type and link status
- Coherent reverse link with a continuous pilot per
user.
- Frame lengths - 20 ms for signaling and user
information, 5 ms for control information.
- Adaptive threshold Soft Handoff


PROPRIETARY
17

Noise rise considerations
The noise rise is limited
by max. slope (power
control stability).
A data burst shifts the
noise rise.
Admission is based on
the noise rise margin
available.
This is a policy issue
(resource allocation
between services).
q
Nominal full load
S
T
dB
Max. slope
Data burst


PROPRIETARY
18

Thank You
Contact
Dr. Joseph Shapira
President
Comm&Sens
Tel. +972 4 8251653
Cell +972 54 660708
Email:jshapira@comm-and-sens.com

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