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Modeling and Simulation of Four-bar Planar Mechanisms Using Adams

# Modeling and Simulation of Four-bar Planar Mechanisms Using Adams

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A mechanical system is made-up of several components, which can be divided into
two major groups namely links and joints. The functionality of a joint relies upon the relative
motion allowed between the connected components. This implies the existence of a clearance
between the mating parts. Various methods including finite element method, lump mass
method, substructure method and continuum mechanics method have been discussed by
various researchers. In this paper, the analysis of a four-bar mechanism is undertaken. In the
analysis and design of mechanisms, kinematic quantities such as velocities and accelerations
are of great engineering importance. Velocities and displacements give an insight into the
functional behaviour of the mechanism. The accelerations, on the other hand, are related to
forces .The main theme of this paper are the modelling, computer-aided dynamic force
analysis and simulation of four-bar planar mechanisms composed of rigid bodies and
massless force and torque producing elements. Modelling of planar four-bar mechanisms will
be done by using the ADAMS software. By this software we can simulate their link at
different positions and find the velocity and acceleration graph and compared with analytical
equations. Motions of the rigid bodies are predicted by numerically integrating DifferentialAlgebraic Equations (DAEs). ADAMS is more reliable software because it considers masses,
center of mass location and inertia properties on the links.
A mechanical system is made-up of several components, which can be divided into
two major groups namely links and joints. The functionality of a joint relies upon the relative
motion allowed between the connected components. This implies the existence of a clearance
between the mating parts. Various methods including finite element method, lump mass
method, substructure method and continuum mechanics method have been discussed by
various researchers. In this paper, the analysis of a four-bar mechanism is undertaken. In the
analysis and design of mechanisms, kinematic quantities such as velocities and accelerations
are of great engineering importance. Velocities and displacements give an insight into the
functional behaviour of the mechanism. The accelerations, on the other hand, are related to
forces .The main theme of this paper are the modelling, computer-aided dynamic force
analysis and simulation of four-bar planar mechanisms composed of rigid bodies and
massless force and torque producing elements. Modelling of planar four-bar mechanisms will
be done by using the ADAMS software. By this software we can simulate their link at
different positions and find the velocity and acceleration graph and compared with analytical
equations. Motions of the rigid bodies are predicted by numerically integrating DifferentialAlgebraic Equations (DAEs). ADAMS is more reliable software because it considers masses,
center of mass location and inertia properties on the links.

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# International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print

), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 429-435 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF FOUR-BAR PLANAR MECHANISMS USING ADAMS
Dr R. P. Sharma *; Chikesh ranjan ** * Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, 835215 India. ** Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, RTC Institute of Technology, Anandi, Ormanjhi, Ranchi, 835213

ABSTRACT A mechanical system is made-up of several components, which can be divided into two major groups namely links and joints. The functionality of a joint relies upon the relative motion allowed between the connected components. This implies the existence of a clearance between the mating parts. Various methods including finite element method, lump mass method, substructure method and continuum mechanics method have been discussed by various researchers. In this paper, the analysis of a four-bar mechanism is undertaken. In the analysis and design of mechanisms, kinematic quantities such as velocities and accelerations are of great engineering importance. Velocities and displacements give an insight into the functional behaviour of the mechanism. The accelerations, on the other hand, are related to forces .The main theme of this paper are the modelling, computer-aided dynamic force analysis and simulation of four-bar planar mechanisms composed of rigid bodies and massless force and torque producing elements. Modelling of planar four-bar mechanisms will be done by using the ADAMS software. By this software we can simulate their link at different positions and find the velocity and acceleration graph and compared with analytical equations. Motions of the rigid bodies are predicted by numerically integrating DifferentialAlgebraic Equations (DAEs). ADAMS is more reliable software because it considers masses, center of mass location and inertia properties on the links. Keyword- ADAMS, CAD, simulation

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME 1.0 LITERATURE SURVEY Mechanisms are used in a great variety machines and devices. The simplest closed-loop linkage is the four-bar linkage, which has three moving links, one fixed link (a linkage with one link fixed is a mechanism) and four revolute. J. García de Jalon et. al.[1]“Improved Dynamic Formulations for the Dynamic Simulation of Multibody Systems”, The ideas behind these improvements of global formulations are used to improve the topological formulations when they are applied to closed-loop Multibody systems. Waseem A. Khan[2]“Distributed Dynamics of Systems with Closed Kinematic Chains”, have examined the formulation of modular and distributed models and evaluated their performance as applied to mechanical systems with closed kinematic chains. Bryan J. Bergelin and Philip A. Voglewede [3] 2012 “Design of an Active Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Utilizing a Four-Bar Mechanism” have discussed the design and testing of powered ankle prosthesis. Chikesh ranjan and. Sharma R P[4] 2013 “Modeling, Simulation & DynamicAnalysis Of Four-Bar Planar Mechanisms Using Catia V5r21” have discussed Modelling of planar four-bar mechanisms using the CATIAV5R21 software. V.K. Gupta[7](1974) in his paper “Dynamic Analysis of MultiRigid-Body Systems” have presented a method for formulating and solving the Newton-Euler equations of motion of a system of interconnected rigid bodies. R. R. Allen et.al.[8](1982) have presented “Connection Force Analysis of Mechanisms Described by Explicit Equations of Motion in Generalized Coordinates” they clearly found that the connection forces acting at the joints of a kinematic mechanism. 2.0 MATHEMATICAL MODELING The modeling process itself is (or should be) most often an iterative process. The following are the assumptions and restrictions imposed for getting solution. 1. Global deformations are not allowed when a rigid body is exposed to varying force fields. 2. Point contact is assumed to simplify the modeling process. 3. Mass of each body is assumed to be concentrated at its canter of gravity and connection elements like springs, dampers, actuators and joints are assumed to be massless. 4. Impulse is not allowed to formulate system dynamics. 5. All friction effects are neglected in the analysis. To different the values of velocity and acceleration at different positions of a crank, analytical expressions in terms of general parameters are derived.

Figure2.0 -Four bar chain mechanism

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME

Figure -3.4 Adams GUI with Geometry A specification of four bar linkage for analysis is as follows: Link No. 1(Ground) 2 3 4 Length(m) 1.241 1.241 1.200 1.200 Center of Mass(m) -NA1.2 0.6 0.6 Mass(Kg) -NA20.15 8.25 8.25 Inertia(Kgm2) -NA9.6 0.06 0.06

The initial configuration of the mechanism is when the driven link is at 10°. The mechanism is driven by a preloaded torsion spring of stiffness 0.1N/radian kept at the driving joint between link 1 (ground) and link 2. The preload is 1.96Nm and as the mechanism is released, the spring starts unwinding. The requirement is to compute the motion of the mechanism till (or just before) the mechanism reaches it next singular configuration. 4.0 FOLLOWING STEPS USED PROCESS OF PERFORMING A MODEL SIMULATION IN ADAMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Create a New ADAMS Database Define the Units and Working Grid size Import or Create the Geometry Define moving parts in the Model Connect the moving parts with Joint connections Apply motion to a Joint Run a Kinematic Simulation Animate Simulation Results Plot result values from the Simulation run

5.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION In this paper four bar mechanisms are modelled, assembled and simulated to obtain the result at different position of links. During that different nature of graph in ADAMS on angle of link, speed of link and angular acceleration verses time in both clock wise and anticlockwise movement of links are studied and following graphs are obtained from software. We get that the graph movement will be linear. Figures -5.2, constant, Figure -5.3
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME

and Figure-5.4 are variables . It provides the critical time and data needed to explore design alternatives and increase product innovation. it considers masses, center of mass location, inertia properties on the links.

Figure-5.1

Figures -5.2

Figure -5.3

Figures -5.4

Figure -5.5

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) © IAEME

6.

CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of result and analysis, it is concluded that its result is more reliable than other softwares like CATIA because it considers masses, center of mass location, inertia properties on the links. The simulating software ADAMS is very fast and less laborious and very efficient than graphical and analytical methods. Also errors due to the graphical and analytical methods are eliminated by this present method which gives better result. The study reveals following conclusions: • For four bar mechanism the coupler point location and output angle is greatly affected by joint clearances and flexibility in linkages. • Errors due to the graphical and analytical methods are eliminated by this present method which gives better result. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. REFERENCES J. Garcia de Jalon, E. Alvarez, F. A. de Ribera, (2000) “Improved Dynamic Formulations for the Dynamic Simulation of Multibody Systems”. Waseem A. Khan, (2002) “Distributed Dynamics of Systems with Closed Kinematic Chains”. Bryan J. Bergelin and Philip A. Voglewede “Design of an Active Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Utilizing a Four-Bar Mechanism” published in a journal ASME JUNE 2012. Chikesh ranjan and DR.R.P Sharma “Modeling, Simulation & DynamicAnalysis Of Four-Bar Planar Mechanisms Using Catia V5r21 published in a journal IJMET 2013. R.Gurpude and Prof.P.Dhopte “Design Synthesis & Simulation of Four Bar Mechanism for Wheels for Climbing” published in a journal IJCTEE 2012. Manish Mehta and P M George(2012), “Rigid Dynamics Analysis Of Four Bar Mechanism InAnsys And C++ Programme” published in a journal International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD )2 June. V.K. Gupta,“Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Rigid-Body Systems”, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Trans. ASME, pp. 886-891, 1974. R. R. Allen and Harrell, J. P., “ Connection Force Analysis of Mechanisms Described by Explicit Equations of Motion in Generalized Coordinates”, Journal of Mechanical Design, Trans. ASME, Vol. 104, pp. 168-174, 1982.

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