EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5

Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
Binary Amplitude Shift Keying


Pages 212
Pages 212
-
-
219
219
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The analytical signal for binary amplitude shift keying
The analytical signal for binary amplitude shift keying
(BASK) is:
(BASK) is:
s
s
BASK BASK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) sin (2
) sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t)
t)
(S&M Eq. 5.1)
(S&M Eq. 5.1)
The signal
The signal
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) can be
) can be
any two
any two
shapes over a bit time
shapes over a bit time
T
T
b b
but
but
it is usually a rectangular signal of amplitude 0 for a
it is usually a rectangular signal of amplitude 0 for a
binary 0 and amplitude A for binary 1. Then BASK is also
binary 0 and amplitude A for binary 1. Then BASK is also
known as
known as
on
on
-
-
off keying
off keying
(OOK).
(OOK).
T
T
b b
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
MS Figure 3.5
MS Figure 3.5
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The binary amplitude shift keying (BASK) signal can be
The binary amplitude shift keying (BASK) signal can be
simulated in
simulated in
Simulink
Simulink
.
.
s
s
BASK BASK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) sin 2
) sin 2
π
π
f
f
C C
t (S&M Eq. 5.1)
t (S&M Eq. 5.1)
baseband binary PAM signal 0,
baseband binary PAM signal 0,
1 V,
1 V,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
Sinusoidal carrier
Sinusoidal carrier
f
f
C C
= 20 kHz, A
= 20 kHz, A
c c
= 5 V
= 5 V
Multiplier
Multiplier
BASK signal
BASK signal
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


A BASK signal is a baseband binary PAM signal multiplied
A BASK signal is a baseband binary PAM signal multiplied
by a carrier (S&M Figure 5
by a carrier (S&M Figure 5
-
-
3).
3).
Unmodulated sinusoidal carrier
Unmodulated sinusoidal carrier
Baseband binary PAM signal
Baseband binary PAM signal
BASK signal
BASK signal
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The unipolar binary PAM signal can be decomposed into a
The unipolar binary PAM signal can be decomposed into a
polar PAM signal and DC level (S&M Figure 5
polar PAM signal and DC level (S&M Figure 5
-
-
4).
4).
Unipolar binary PAM signal
Unipolar binary PAM signal
Polar binary PAM signal
Polar binary PAM signal
DC level
DC level
0
0


1 V
1 V
±
±
0.5 V
0.5 V
0.5 V
0.5 V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The spectrum of the BASK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.2):
The spectrum of the BASK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.2):
S
S
BASK BASK
(f
(f
) =
) =
F
F
(
(
s
s
ASK ASK
(t
(t
) )
) )
=
=
F
F
(
(
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) sin (2
) sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) )
t) )
S
S
BASK BASK
(f
(f
) = 1/2 j
) = 1/2 j (S
baseband
(f – f
C
) + S
baseband
(f + f
C
) )
The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:
The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
PAM PAM
(t
(t
) + A/2
) + A/2
(S&M Eq. 5.3)
(S&M Eq. 5.3)
S
S
baseband baseband
(f
(f
) =
) =
S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) + A/2
) + A/2
δ
δ
(f)
(f)
(S&M Eq. 5.4)
(S&M Eq. 5.4)
Therefore by substitution (S&M Eq. 5.5):
Therefore by substitution (S&M Eq. 5.5):
S
S
BASK BASK
(f
(f
) = 1/ 2j (
) = 1/ 2j (
S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f


f
f
C C
) + A/2
) + A/2
δ
δ
(f
(f


f
f
C C
)
)


S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+
+
f
f
C C
)
)


A/2
A/2
δ
δ
(f +
(f +
f
f
C C
) )
) )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bi
bi
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the BASK
power spectral density PSD of the BASK
signal is (S&M Eq. 5.7):
signal is (S&M Eq. 5.7):
G
G
BASK BASK
(f
(f
) = 1/4
) = 1/4
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f


f
f
C C
) + 1/4
) + 1/4
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+
+
f
f
C C
)
)
+ A
+ A
2 2
/16
/16
δ
δ
(f
(f


f
f
C C
) + A
) + A
2 2
/16
/16
δ
δ
(f +
(f +
f
f
C C
)
)
For a rectangular polar PAM signal (
For a rectangular polar PAM signal (
±
±
A):
A):
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) = (A/2)
) = (A/2)
2 2
/ r
/ r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f /
f /
r
r
b b
)
)
(S&M Eq. 5.8)
(S&M Eq. 5.8)
MS Figure 3.7
MS Figure 3.7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the BASK
power spectral density PSD of the BASK
signal is:
signal is:
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) = (A/2)
) = (A/2)
2 2
/ r
/ r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f / r
f / r
b b
)
)
G
G
BASK BASK
(f
(f
) = 1/2
) = 1/2
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+
+
f
f
C C
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(f +
(f +
f
f
C C
)
)
Carrier 20 kHz
Carrier 20 kHz
sinc
sinc
2 2
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
MS Figure 3.7
MS Figure 3.7
1 kHz
1 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of a BASK signal as a percentage of total
of a BASK signal as a percentage of total
power is
power is
double
double
that for the same bit rate
that for the same bit rate
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
binary
binary
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22)
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22)
(MS Table 3.1 p. 91).
(MS Table 3.1 p. 91).
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2/
2/
T
T
b b
90%
90%
3/
3/
T
T
b b
93%
93%
4/
4/
T
T
b b
95%
95%
6/
6/
T
T
b b
96.5%
96.5%
8/
8/
T
T
b b
97.5%
97.5%
10/
10/
T
T
b b
98%
98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


Binary Phase Shift Keying
Binary Phase Shift Keying


Pages 219
Pages 219
-
-
225
225
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The analytical signal for binary phase shift keying
The analytical signal for binary phase shift keying
(BPSK) is:
(BPSK) is:
s
s
BPSK BPSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband baseband
sin (2
sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t +
t +
θ
θ
) (S&M Eq. 5.11)
) (S&M Eq. 5.11)
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) = + A b
) = + A b
i i
= 1
= 1
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) =
) =


A b
A b
i i
= 0
= 0
0
0
°
°
+180
+180
°
°
+180
+180
°
°
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0
0
MS Figure 3.13
MS Figure 3.13
T
T
b b
0
0
°
°
0
0
°
°
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BPSK signal initial phase
The BPSK signal initial phase
θ
θ
= 0
= 0
°
°
, +A is a phase shift =
, +A is a phase shift =
0
0
°
°
and
and


A is a phase shift = +180
A is a phase shift = +180
°
°
s
s
BPSK BPSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband baseband
sin (2
sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) (S&M Eq. 5.11)
t) (S&M Eq. 5.11)
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) = + A b
) = + A b
i i
= 1
= 1
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) =
) =


A b
A b
i i
= 0
= 0
0
0
°
°
+180
+180
°
°
+180
+180
°
°
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
0
0
MS Figure 3.13
MS Figure 3.13
T
T
b b
0
0
°
°
0
0
°
°
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal can be
The binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal can be
simulated in
simulated in
Simulink
Simulink
.
.
baseband binary PAM signal
baseband binary PAM signal
0,1 V,
0,1 V,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
PM modulator
PM modulator
BPSK
BPSK
signal
signal
Fig312.mdl
Fig312.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Phase Modulator
The Phase Modulator
block is in the
block is in the
Modulation,
Modulation,
Communication
Communication
Blockset
Blockset
but as an
but as an
analog
analog
passband
passband
modulator
modulator
not
not
a digital
a digital
baseband
baseband
modulator.
modulator.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Phase Modulator block has the parameters of a
The Phase Modulator block has the parameters of a
carrier frequency
carrier frequency
f
f
C C
in Hz,
in Hz,
initial phase
initial phase
in radians and the
in radians and the
phase deviation constant
phase deviation constant
in radians per volt (
in radians per volt (
rad
rad
/ V).
/ V).
f
f
C C
= 20 kHz
= 20 kHz
initial phase
initial phase
φ
φ
o o
=
=
π
π
phase deviation
phase deviation
k
k
p p
=
=
π
π
/ V
/ V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V and with a
The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V and with a
initial phase =
initial phase =
π
π
and a
and a
phase deviation constant =
phase deviation constant =
π
π
/V,
/V,
the phase output
the phase output
φ
φ
of the BPSK signal is:
of the BPSK signal is:
b
b
i i
= 0
= 0
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
+ 0(
+ 0(
π
π
/V) =
/V) =
π
π
b
b
i i
= 1
= 1
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
+ 1(
+ 1(
π
π
/V) = 2
/V) = 2
π
π
= 0
= 0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The spectrum of the BPSK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13):
The spectrum of the BPSK signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13):
S
S
BPSK BPSK
(f
(f
) =
) =
F
F
(
(
s
s
PSK PSK
(t
(t
) )
) )
=
=
F
F
(s
(s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) sin 2
) sin 2
π
π
f
f
C C
t)
t)
S
S
BPSK BPSK
(f
(f
) = 1/2 j
) = 1/2 j (S
baseband
(f – f
c
) + S
baseband
(f + f
C
) )
The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:
The analytical signal for the baseband binary PAM signal is:
s
s
baseband baseband
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
PAM PAM
(t
(t
)
)
(S&M Eq. 5.12)
(S&M Eq. 5.12)
S
S
baseband baseband
(f
(f
) =
) =
S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f
)
)
Note that there is
Note that there is
no DC level
no DC level
in
in
s
s
PAM PAM
(t
(t
) and therefore by
) and therefore by
substitution:
substitution:
S
S
BPSK BPSK
(f
(f
) = 1/ 2j (
) = 1/ 2j (
S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f


f
f
C C
)
)


S
S
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+
+
f
f
C C
) )
) )
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bi
bi
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the BPSK
power spectral density PSD of the BPSK
signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13)
signal is (S&M Eq. 5.13)
G
G
BPSK BPSK
(f) = 1/4
(f) = 1/4
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f


f
f
C C
) + 1/4
) + 1/4
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+
+
f
f
C C
)
)
For a rectangular polar PAM signal (
For a rectangular polar PAM signal (
±
±
A):
A):
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) = A
) = A
2 2
/
/
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f /
f /
r
r
b b
) (S&M Eq. 5.8 modified)
) (S&M Eq. 5.8 modified)
MS Figure 3.14
MS Figure 3.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the BPSK
power spectral density PSD of the BPSK
signal is:
signal is:
G
G
BPSK BPSK
(f) = 1/2
(f) = 1/2
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
+ f
+ f
C C
)
)
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) = A
) = A
2 2
/ r
/ r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f / r
f / r
b b
)
)
No carrier
No carrier
sinc
sinc
2 2
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
MS Figure 3.14
MS Figure 3.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of a BPSK signal as a percentage of total
of a BPSK signal as a percentage of total
power is
power is
double
double
that for the same bit rate
that for the same bit rate
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
binary
binary
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22) and the same as
rectangular PAM (MS Table 2.1 p. 22) and the same as
BASK (MS Table 3.1 p. 91)
BASK (MS Table 3.1 p. 91)
(MS Tabl
(MS Tabl
e 3.5 p. 100)
e 3.5 p. 100)
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2/
2/
T
T
b b
90%
90%
3/
3/
T
T
b b
93%
93%
4/
4/
T
T
b b
95%
95%
6/
6/
T
T
b b
96.5%
96.5%
8/
8/
T
T
b b
97.5%
97.5%
10/
10/
T
T
b b
98%
98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


Binary Frequency Shift Keying
Binary Frequency Shift Keying


Pages 219
Pages 219
-
-
225
225
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The analytical signal for binary frequency shift keying
The analytical signal for binary frequency shift keying
(BFSK) is:
(BFSK) is:
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
A sin (2
A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i
= 1
= 1
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) = A sin (2
) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i
= 0
= 0
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0
0
T
T
b b
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
MS Figure 3.9
MS Figure 3.9
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BFSK signal initial phase
The BFSK signal initial phase
θ
θ
= 0
= 0
°
°
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
A sin (2
A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t) if b
) t) if b
i i
= 1
= 1
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) = A sin (2
) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t) if b
) t) if b
i i
= 0
= 0
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0
0
T
T
b b
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
MS Figure 3.9
MS Figure 3.9
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) signal can be
The binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) signal can be
simulated in
simulated in
Simulink
Simulink
.
.
baseband binary PAM signal
baseband binary PAM signal
0,1 V,
0,1 V,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
FM Modulator
FM Modulator
BFSK
BFSK
signal
signal
Fig38.mdl
Fig38.mdl
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Frequency Modulator
The Frequency Modulator
block is in the
block is in the
Modulation,
Modulation,
Communication
Communication
Blockset
Blockset
but as an
but as an
analog
analog
passband
passband
modulator
modulator
not
not
a digital
a digital
baseband
baseband
modulator.
modulator.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Frequency Modulator block has the parameters of a
The Frequency Modulator block has the parameters of a
carrier frequency
carrier frequency
f
f
C C
in Hz,
in Hz,
initial phase
initial phase
in radians and the
in radians and the
frequency deviation constant
frequency deviation constant
in Hertz per volt (Hz/V).
in Hertz per volt (Hz/V).
f
f
C C
= 20 kHz
= 20 kHz
initial phase =
initial phase =
0
0
frequency deviation =
frequency deviation =
2000
2000
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V but is offset
The Random Integer Generator outputs 0,1 V but is offset
to
to
±
±
1
1
and with a initial phase =
and with a initial phase =
0 and a
0 and a
frequency
frequency
deviation constant =
deviation constant =
2000
2000
Hz/V, the frequency shift
Hz/V, the frequency shift


f
f
of
of
the BFSK signal is:
the BFSK signal is:
b
b
i i
= 0 d
= 0 d
i i
=
=


1
1


f
f
=
=
0
0


1(2000 Hz/V) =
1(2000 Hz/V) =


2000 Hz
2000 Hz
b
b
i i
= 1 d
= 1 d
i i
= +1
= +1


f
f
= 0 + 1(2000 Hz/V) = +2000 Hz
= 0 + 1(2000 Hz/V) = +2000 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BFSK signal can be
The BFSK signal can be
decomposed
decomposed
as (S&M Eq. 5.14):
as (S&M Eq. 5.14):
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband1 baseband1
(t) sin (2
(t) sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) +
) +
s
s
baseband2 baseband2
(t) sin (2
(t) sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
)
)
f
f
c c




f
f
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1
1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BFSK signal is the
The BFSK signal is the
sum
sum
of two BASK signals:
of two BASK signals:
s
s
BFSK BFSK
(t
(t
) =
) =
s
s
baseband1 baseband1
(t) sin (2
(t) sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) +
) +
s
s
baseband2 baseband2
(t) sin (2
(t) sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
)
)
From the
From the
linearity property
linearity property
, the resulting
, the resulting
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
PSD
PSD
of the BFSK signal
of the BFSK signal
G
G
BFSK BFSK
(f
(f
) is the
) is the
sum
sum
of two
of two
G
G
BASK BASK
(f
(f
)
)
PSDs with f =
PSDs with f =
f
f
C C
±
±


f
f
:
:
G
G
BFSK BFSK
(f
(f
) = (A/2)
) = (A/2)
2 2
/ 2
/ 2
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f /
f /
r
r
b b
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(f)
(f)
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
f
f
c c




f
f
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the BFSK
power spectral density PSD of the BFSK
signal is:
signal is:
G
G
BFSK BFSK
(f
(f
) = (A/2)
) = (A/2)
2 2
/ 2
/ 2
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
)
)
/
/
r
r
b b
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
)
)
+ (A/2)
+ (A/2)
2 2
/ 2
/ 2
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f)
/
/
r
r
b b
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
)
)
carriers
carriers
sinc
sinc
2 2
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
MS Figure 3.10
MS Figure 3.10


f
f
= 2 kHz
= 2 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Minimum frequency shift keying (MFSK) for BFSK occurs
Minimum frequency shift keying (MFSK) for BFSK occurs
when
when


f
f = 1/2T
b
= r
b
/2 Hz.
G
G
BFSK BFSK
(f
(f
) = (A/2)
) = (A/2)
2 2
/ 2
/ 2
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
)
)
/
/
r
r
b b
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
)
)
+ (A/2)
+ (A/2)
2 2
/ 2
/ 2
r
r
b b
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f)
/
/
r
r
b b
) + A
) + A
2 2
/8
/8
δ
δ
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
)
)
carriers
carriers
sinc
sinc
2 2
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
MS Figure 3.11
MS Figure 3.11


f
f
= 500 Hz
= 500 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


This BFSK
This BFSK
carrier frequency separation
carrier frequency separation
2
2


f
f
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
=
=
r
r
b b
Hz is
Hz is
the
the
minimum possible
minimum possible
because each carrier spectral impulse
because each carrier spectral impulse
is at the
is at the
null
null
of the PSD of the other decomposed BASK
of the PSD of the other decomposed BASK
signal and thus is called
signal and thus is called
minimum frequency shift keying
minimum frequency shift keying
(MFSK).
(MFSK).
MS Figure 3.11
MS Figure 3.11
2
2


f
f
= 1000 Hz
= 1000 Hz
sinc
sinc
2 2
carriers
carriers
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of a BFSK signal as a percentage of total
of a BFSK signal as a percentage of total
power is
power is
greater
greater
than that of either BASK or BPSK by 2
than that of either BASK or BPSK by 2


f
f
Hz for the same bit rate
Hz for the same bit rate
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
(MS Table 3.3 p. 95).
(MS Table 3.3 p. 95).
For MFSK 2
For MFSK 2


f
f =
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
Hz.
Hz.
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2
2


f
f
+
+
2/
2/
T
T
b b
90%
90%
2
2


f
f
+
+
3/
3/
T
T
b b
93%
93%
2
2


f
f
+
+
4/
4/
T
T
b b
95%
95%
2
2


f
f
+
+
6/
6/
T
T
b b
96.5%
96.5%
2
2


f
f
+
+
8/
8/
T
T
b b
97.5%
97.5%
2
2


f
f
+
+
10/
10/
T
T
b b
98%
98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


Coherent Demodulation of
Coherent Demodulation of
Bandpass Signals
Bandpass Signals


Pages 225
Pages 225
-
-
236
236
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The development of the optimum receiver for
The development of the optimum receiver for
bandpass
bandpass
signals
signals
utilizes the
utilizes the
same concepts
same concepts
as that for the optimum
as that for the optimum
baseband receiver
baseband receiver
:
:
Optimum Filter
Optimum Filter −
o b
h (t) = k s(iT t)
Correlation Receiver
Correlation Receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The optimum filter
The optimum filter
H
H
o o
(f
(f
) and the correlation receiver
) and the correlation receiver
are equivalent here also, with s
are equivalent here also, with s
1 1
(t) =
(t) =
s(t
s(t
) for
) for
symmetrical
symmetrical
signals
signals
and
and
r(t
r(t
) =
) =
γ
γ
s(t
s(t
) +
) +
n(t
n(t
) where
) where
γ
γ
is the communication
is the communication
channel attenuation and
channel attenuation and
n(t
n(t
) is AWGN. The energy per bit
) is AWGN. The energy per bit
E
E
b b
and the probability of bit error
and the probability of bit error
P
P
b b
is (S&M p. 226):
is (S&M p. 226):
∫ ∫
b b
b b
iT iT
2 2
(i-1)T (i-1)T
= γ s(t) γ s(t) dt = γ s (t) dt
b
E
| |
|
|
\ .
2
= Q
b
b
o
E
P
N
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The matched filter or correlation receiver is a
The matched filter or correlation receiver is a
coherent
coherent
demodulation
demodulation
process for bandpass signals because not
process for bandpass signals because not
only is bit time (
only is bit time (
T
T
b b
) as for baseband signals required but
) as for baseband signals required but
carrier
carrier
synchronization
synchronization
is also needed. Carrier
is also needed. Carrier
synchronization requires an estimate of the
synchronization requires an estimate of the
transmitted
transmitted
frequency
frequency
(
(
f
f
C C
) and the
) and the
arrival phase
arrival phase
at the receiver (
at the receiver (
θ
θ
):
):
1
s (t) = sin(2π t + θ)
C
f
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
s
s
1T 1T
(t) =
(t) =


s
s
2T 2T
(t) = A sin(2
(t) = A sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t) S&M
t) S&M
Eqs
Eqs
. 5.15
. 5.15
-
-
5.19
5.19
| |
| |



i
2
(i-1)
i
2 2 2 2
(i-1)
= ± A γ sin (2π t) dt
γ A γ A
= 1 cos (4π t) dt =
2 2
b
b
b
b
T
b, BPSK C
T
T
b
b, BPSK C
T
E f
T
E f
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2 γ A
= Q = Q
b b
b, BPSK
o o
E T
P
N N
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


For this analysis of
For this analysis of
E
E
b, PSK b, PSK
for BPSK signals it is assumed
for BPSK signals it is assumed
that the transmitter produces an
that the transmitter produces an
integer number
integer number
of cycles
of cycles
within one bit period
within one bit period
T
T
b b
:
:
| |




i
2 2
(i-1)
i
2 2 2 2
(i-1)
γ A
= 1 cos (4π t) dt
2
γ A γ A
= cos (4π t) dt
2 2
b
b
b
b
T
b, BPSK C
T
T
b
b, BPSK C
T
E f
T
E f
0
0
S&M Eq. 5.17
S&M Eq. 5.17
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


However, even for a non
However, even for a non
-
-
integer number of cycles within
integer number of cycles within
one bit period
one bit period
T
T
b b
if 1 /
if 1 /
f
f
C C
=
=
T
T
C C
<<
<<
T
T
b b
:
:



i
(i-1)
i
2 2 2 2
(i-1)
cos (4π t) dt <<
γ A γ A
= cos (4π t) dt
2 2
b
b
b
b
T
C b
T
T
b
b, BPSK C
T
f T
T
E f
insignificant
insignificant
S&M Eq. 5.17
S&M Eq. 5.17
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
s
s
1T 1T
(t) =
(t) =


s
s
2T 2T
(t) = A sin(2
(t) = A sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t) S&M
t) S&M
Eqs
Eqs
. 5.15
. 5.15
-
-
5.19
5.19
and s
and s
1 1
(t) = sin (2
(t) = sin (2
π
π
f
f
c c
t)
t)

i
i i 1
(i-1)
a (i ) = γ s (t) s (t) dt
b
b
T
b
T
T

=
2 1
opt
a (i ) +a (i )
τ = 0
2
b b
T T
S&M Eq. 4.67
S&M Eq. 4.67
S&M Eq. 4.71
S&M Eq. 4.71
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
BPSK signals are symmetrical with:
s
s
1T 1T
(t) =
(t) =


s
s
2T 2T
(t) = A sin(2
(t) = A sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t) S&M
t) S&M
Eqs
Eqs
. 5.15
. 5.15
-
-
5.19
5.19
=
opt
τ 0
S&M Figure 4
S&M Figure 4
-
-
16
16
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


For this analysis of
For this analysis of
E
E
d, ASK d, ASK
for BASK signals it is assumed
for BASK signals it is assumed
that the transmitter produces an
that the transmitter produces an
integer number
integer number
of cycles
of cycles
within one bit period:
within one bit period:
| |




i
2 2
(i-1)
i
2 2 2 2
(i-1)
γ A
= 1 cos (4π t) dt
2
γ A γ A
= cos (4π t) dt
2 2
b
b
b
b
T
d, BASK C
T
T
b
d, BASK C
T
E f
T
E f
0
0
S&M Eq. 5.27
S&M Eq. 5.27
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BASK OOK signals are
BASK OOK signals are
not
not
symmetrical with:
symmetrical with:
s
s
1T 1T
(t) = A sin(2
(t) = A sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t
t
)
)
s
s
2T 2T
(t) = 0
(t) = 0
S&M
S&M
Eqs
Eqs
. 5.22, 5.23
. 5.22, 5.23
and s
and s
1 1
(t) = sin(2
(t) = sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t
t
) s
) s
2 2
(t) = 0
(t) = 0
| |



i
i i 1 2
(i-1)
i
2
1 1 2
(i-1)
a (i ) = γ s (t) s (t) s (t) dt
γ A
a (i ) = γ A s (t) dt = a (i ) = 0
2
b
b
b
b
T
b
T
T
b
b b
T
T
T
T T
S&M Eq. 5.24
S&M Eq. 5.24
-
-
5.26
5.26

2 1
opt
a (i ) +a (i ) γ A
τ = =
2 4
b b b
T T T
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BASK signals
BASK signals
in general
in general
may
may
not
not
be symmetrical with:
be symmetrical with:
s
s
1T 1T
(t) = A
(t) = A
1 1
sin(2
sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t) s
t) s
2T 2T
(t) = A
(t) = A
2 2
sin(2
sin(2
π
π
f
f
c c
t)
t)
and s
and s
1 1
(t)
(t)


s
s
2 2
(t) = sin (2
(t) = sin (2
π
π
f
f
c c
t) where the amplitude is arbitrary.
t) where the amplitude is arbitrary.
( )
= =
1 2
2 1
opt
γ A +A
a (i ) +a (i )
τ
2 4
b
b b
T
T T
| |



i
i i 1 2
(i-1)
i
2
i
i i 1
(i-1)
a (i ) = γ s (t) s (t) s (t) dt
γ A
a (i ) = γ A s (t) dt =
2
b
b
b
b
T
b
T
T
b
b
T
T
T
T
S&M Eq. 4.67
S&M Eq. 4.67
S&M Eq. 4.71
S&M Eq. 4.71
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BFSK signals are
BFSK signals are
not
not
symmetrical with:
symmetrical with:
s
s
T T
(t
(t
) = A sin(2
) = A sin(2
π
π
(
(
f
f
c c
±
±


f
f
)
)
t) S&M Eq. 5.30
t) S&M Eq. 5.30
| |
if and
∆ − − ∆
∆ − ∆

b
b
iT
2
(i-1)T
2 2
b 1 2
= A γ (sin (2π + ) t sin (2π ) t )) dt
= γ A T + = n / = n /
d, BFSK C C
d, BFSK C b C b
E f f f f
E f f T f f T
| |
| |
= |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q Q
2 2
d, FSK
b
b, BFSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
S&M Eq. 5.31
S&M Eq. 5.31
S&M Eq. 5.32
S&M Eq. 5.32
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


For this analysis of
For this analysis of
E
E
d, FSK d, FSK
for BFSK signals it is assumed
for BFSK signals it is assumed
that the transmitter produces an
that the transmitter produces an
integer number
integer number
of cycles
of cycles
within one bit period:
within one bit period:
− ∆
− − ∆
− + ∆ − ∆



i
2 2
2 2
(i-1)
i
2 2
(i-1)
i
2 2
(i-1)
γ A
= γ A cos (4π ( + ) t) dt
2
γ A
cos (4π ( ) t) dt
2
γ A sin (2π ( ) t) sin (2π ( ) t) dt
b
b
b
b
b
b
T
d, BFSK b C
T
T
C
T
T
C C
T
E T f f
f f
f f f f
0
0
S&M Eq. 5.31
S&M Eq. 5.31
0
0
0
0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BFSK signals are
BFSK signals are
not
not
symmetrical with:
symmetrical with:
s
s
T T
(t
(t
) = A sin(2
) = A sin(2
π
π
(
(
f
f
c c
±
±


f
f
)
)
t) S&M Eq. 5.30
t) S&M Eq. 5.30
and s
and s
1 1
(t)
(t)


s
s
2 2
(t) = sin(2
(t) = sin(2
π
π
(
(
f
f
c c
+
+


f
f
) t)
) t) –
sin(2
sin(2
π
π
(
(
f
f
c c




f
f
) t)
) t)
S&M Eq. 5.31
S&M Eq. 5.31
S&M Eq. 5.33
S&M Eq. 5.33
| |



i
i i 1 2
(i-1)
i
2
i
i i i
(i-1)
a (i ) = γ s (t) s (t) s (t) dt
γ A
a (i ) = γ A s (t) dt =
2
b
b
b
b
T
b
T
T
b
b
T
T
T
T
( )
if

1 2
2 1
opt
1 2
γ A A
a (i ) +a (i )
τ = = = 0
2 4
A = A
b
b b
T
T T
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


A comparison of coherent BPSK, BFSK and BASK
A comparison of coherent BPSK, BFSK and BASK
illustrates the functional differences, but BFSK and BASK
illustrates the functional differences, but BFSK and BASK
uses
uses
E
E
d d
and not
and not
E
E
b b
:
:
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2 γ A
= Q = Q
b b
b, BPSK
o o
E T
P
N N
2 2
γ A
=
2
b
b, BPSK
T
E
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q = Q
2 2
d, FSK
b
b, BFSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
2 2
= γ A
d, BFSK b
E T
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q =Q
2 4
d, ASK
b
b, BASK
o o
E
T
P
N N
2 2
γ A
=
2
b
d, BASK
T
E
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The normalized
The normalized
E
E
b, FSK b, FSK
=
=
E
E
b, PSK b, PSK
=
=
γ
γ
2 2
A
A
2 2
T
T
b b
/ 2
/ 2
(S&M Eq.
(S&M Eq.
5.24) and
5.24) and
E
E
b, ASK b, ASK
=
=
γ
γ
2 2
A
A
2 2
T
T
b b
/ 4
/ 4
(S&M Eq. 5.36) so that:
(S&M Eq. 5.36) so that:
Thus there are
Thus there are
no practical advantages
no practical advantages
for either coherent
for either coherent
BFSK or BASK and BPSK is preferred (S&M p. 236).
BFSK or BASK and BPSK is preferred (S&M p. 236).
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2
γ A
= Q = Q
b, PSK
b
b, BPSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
2 2
γ A
=
2
b
b, BPSK
T
E
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q = Q
2
b, FSK
b
b, BFSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
2 2
γ A
=
2
b
b, BFSK
T
E
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
γ A
= Q = Q
4
b, ASK
b
b, BASK
o o
E
T
P
N N
2 2
γ A
=
4
b
b, BASK
T
E
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


For the same
For the same
P
P
b b
BPSK uses the least amount of energy,
BPSK uses the least amount of energy,
BFSK requires twice as much and BASK four times as much
BFSK requires twice as much and BASK four times as much
energy:
energy:
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2
γ A
= Q = Q
b, PSK
b
b, BPSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q = Q
2
b, FSK
b
b, BFSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2

γ A
= Q = Q
4
b, ASK
b
b, BASK
o o
E
T
P
N N
Argument of
Argument of
Q should be
Q should be
as
as
large
large
as
as
possible to
possible to
minimize
minimize
P
P
b b
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Optimum Bandpass Receiver:
Optimum Bandpass Receiver:
The Correlation Receiver
The Correlation Receiver


Pages 81
Pages 81
-
-
85
85
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The matched filter or
The matched filter or
correlation receiver
correlation receiver
for
for
bandpass
bandpass
symmetrical
symmetrical
signals
signals
can be
can be
simulated in
simulated in
Simulink:
Simulink:
MS Figure 3.1
MS Figure 3.1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The matched filter or
The matched filter or
correlation receiver
correlation receiver
for
for
bandpass
bandpass
asymmetrical
asymmetrical
signals
signals
can also
can also
be simulated
be simulated
in
in
Simulink:
Simulink:
MS Figure 3.2
MS Figure 3.2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
alternate
alternate
but
but
universal
universal
structure
structure
which can be used
which can be used
for both asymmetric
for both asymmetric
or symmetric binary
or symmetric binary
bandpass signals can
bandpass signals can
be simulated in
be simulated in
Simulink:
Simulink:
MS Figure 3.3
MS Figure 3.3
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Binary Amplitude Shift Keying
Binary Amplitude Shift Keying


Pages 86
Pages 86
-
-
92
92
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Binary ASK (OOK) coherent digital communication system
Binary ASK (OOK) coherent digital communication system
with BER analysis:
with BER analysis:
MS Figure 3.4
MS Figure 3.4
Threshold
Threshold
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4


The BER and
The BER and
P
P
b b
comparison (MS Table 3.2, p. 91):
comparison (MS Table 3.2, p. 91):
Table 3.2
Table 3.2
Observed BER and Theoretical
Observed BER and Theoretical
P
P
b b
as a
as a
Function of
Function of
E
E
d d
/ N
/ N
o o
in a Binary ASK Digital
in a Binary ASK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
12
12
2.9
2.9
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
2.53
2.53
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
10
10
1.12
1.12
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
8
8
3.46
3.46
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
6
6
7.65
7.65
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
7.93
7.93
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
4
4
1.335
1.335
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.318
1.318
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
2
2
1.863
1.863
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.872
1.872
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
0
0
2.387
2.387
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
2.394
2.394
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Binary Phase Shift Keying
Binary Phase Shift Keying


Pages 98
Pages 98
-
-
103
103
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Binary PSK coherent digital communication system with
Binary PSK coherent digital communication system with
BER analysis:
BER analysis:
MS Figure 3.12
MS Figure 3.12
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 4


The BER and
The BER and
P
P
b b
comparison (SVU Table 3.5, p. 167):
comparison (SVU Table 3.5, p. 167):
Table 3.5
Table 3.5
Observed BER and Theoretical
Observed BER and Theoretical
P
P
b b
as a
as a
Function of
Function of
E
E
b b
/ N
/ N
o o
in a Binary PSK Digital
in a Binary PSK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0
4.05
4.05
×
×
10
10
- -6 6
8
8
1
1
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.06
2.06
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
6
6
2.5
2.5
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.41
2.41
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
4
4
1.31
1.31
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
2
2
3.35
3.35
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
0
0
8.19
8.19
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
7.93
7.93
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Binary Frequency Shift Keying
Binary Frequency Shift Keying


Pages 92
Pages 92
-
-
98
98
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Binary FSK coherent digital communication system with
Binary FSK coherent digital communication system with
BER analysis:
BER analysis:
MS Figure 3.9
MS Figure 3.9
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
f
f
C C




f
f
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BER and P
The BER and P
b b
comparison (MS Table 3.4, p. 98):
comparison (MS Table 3.4, p. 98):
Table 3.4
Table 3.4
Observed BER and Theoretical
Observed BER and Theoretical
P
P
b b
as a
as a
Function of
Function of
E
E
d d
/ N
/ N
o o
in a Binary FSK (MFSK) Digital
in a Binary FSK (MFSK) Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
12
12
2.5
2.5
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
2.5
2.5
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
10
10
1.29
1.29
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
8
8
3.50
3.50
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
6
6
8.04
8.04
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
7.93
7.93
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
4
4
1.352
1.352
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.314
1.314
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
2
2
1.833
1.833
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.872
1.872
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
0
0
2.456
2.456
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
2.393
2.393
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BER and P
The BER and P
b b
performance comparison for BASK,
performance comparison for BASK,
BPSK and BFSK (MFSK):
BPSK and BFSK (MFSK):
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
1.12
1.12
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
BASK
BASK
8
8
3.46
3.46
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
0
0
4.05
4.05
×
×
10
10
- -6 6
BPSK
BPSK
8
8
1
1
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.06
2.06
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
1.29
1.29
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
BFSK
BFSK
8
8
3.50
3.50
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BER and P
BER and P
b b
comparison using
comparison using
E
E
b b
with
with
E
E
b b
,
,
ASK ASK
=
=
γ
γ
2 2
A
A
2 2
T
T
b b
2 2
/ 4
/ 4
and thus reduced by 10 log (0.5)
and thus reduced by 10 log (0.5)




3 dB or
3 dB or
:
:
BASK performs better than BFSK but BPSK is the best.
BASK performs better than BFSK but BPSK is the best.
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
7
7
1.12
1.12
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
BASK
BASK
5
5
3.46
3.46
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
0
0
4.05
4.05
×
×
10
10
- -6 6
BPSK
BPSK
8
8
1
1
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.06
2.06
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
1.29
1.29
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
BFSK
BFSK
8
8
3.50
3.50
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


Differential (Noncoherent) Phase
Differential (Noncoherent) Phase
Shift Keying
Shift Keying


Pages 267
Pages 267
-
-
271
271
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Differential (noncoherent) phase shift keying (DPSK) is
Differential (noncoherent) phase shift keying (DPSK) is
demodulated by using the received signal to derive the
demodulated by using the received signal to derive the
reference signal. The DPSK
reference signal. The DPSK
protocol
protocol
is:
is:
Binary 1
Binary 1
: Transmit the carrier signal with the
: Transmit the carrier signal with the
same phase
same phase
as used for the previous bit.
as used for the previous bit.
Binary 0
Binary 0
: Transmit the carrier signal with its
: Transmit the carrier signal with its
phase shifted
phase shifted
by 180
by 180
°
°
relative to the previous bit.
relative to the previous bit.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The one
The one
-
-
bit delayed reference signal r
bit delayed reference signal r
i i- -1 1
(t) is derived from
(t) is derived from
the received signal
the received signal
r
r
i i
(t
(t
) and if the carrier frequency
) and if the carrier frequency
f
f
C C
is an
is an
integral multiple of the bit rate
integral multiple of the bit rate
r
r
b b
:
:
The output of the integrator for a binary 0 and binary 1
The output of the integrator for a binary 0 and binary 1
then is
then is
z(i
z(i
T
T
b b
) =
) =
±
±
γ
γ
2 2
A
A
2 2
T
T
b b
/ 2 (S&M
/ 2 (S&M
Eqs
Eqs
. 5.91 and 5.93)
. 5.91 and 5.93)



i 1
i 1
r (t) = γ A sin (2π (t ) + θ)
r (t) = γ A sin (2π t + θ)
C b
C
f T
f
S&M
S&M
Eqs
Eqs
.
.
5.88 and 5.89
5.88 and 5.89
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


DPSK signals have an equivalent bit interval
DPSK signals have an equivalent bit interval
T
T
DPSK DPSK
= 2
= 2
T
T
b b
.
.
The probability of bit error for DPSK signal is different than
The probability of bit error for DPSK signal is different than
that for coherent demodulation of symmetric or asymmetric
that for coherent demodulation of symmetric or asymmetric
signals and is:
signals and is:
| | | |
− −
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
1 1
= exp = exp
2 2 2
γ A
=
2
b, DPSK
DPSK
b, DPSK
o o
b
b, DPSK
E
E
P
N N
T
E
S&M Eq. 5.102
S&M Eq. 5.102
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Differential Phase Shift Keying
Differential Phase Shift Keying


Pages 130
Pages 130
-
-
135
135
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Binary DPSK
Binary DPSK
noncoherent
noncoherent
digital communication system
digital communication system
with BER analysis:
with BER analysis:
MS Figure 3.33
MS Figure 3.33
one
one
-
-
bit
bit
continuous
continuous
delay
delay
BPF
BPF
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Binary DPSK
Binary DPSK
noncoherent
noncoherent
digital communication system
digital communication system
differential binary encoder
differential binary encoder
Simulink Subsystem
Simulink Subsystem
:
:
MS Figure 3.34
MS Figure 3.34
XOR
XOR
one bit
one bit
sample delay
sample delay
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Simulink Logic and
Simulink Logic and
Bit Operations
Bit Operations
provides the
provides the
Logical Operator
Logical Operator
block:
block:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Simulink Logical Operator
Simulink Logical Operator
blocks can be selected to
blocks can be selected to
provide multiple input AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR,
provide multiple input AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XOR,
NXOR, and NOT functions:
NXOR, and NOT functions:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
Logic and Bit Operations
Logic and Bit Operations
can be configured as
can be configured as
scalar
scalar
Boolean binary (0, 1)
Boolean binary (0, 1)
or
or
M
M
-
-
ary (0, 1
ary (0, 1


M
M


1)
1)
vector
vector
logic functions. Here scalar
logic functions. Here scalar
Boolean binary data is used.
Boolean binary data is used.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The XOR logic generates the DPSK
The XOR logic generates the DPSK
source coding
source coding
:
:
Table 3.16
Table 3.16
Input Binary Data
Input Binary Data
b
b
i i
, Differentially Encoded
, Differentially Encoded
Binary Data
Binary Data
d
d
i i
, and Transmitted Phase
, and Transmitted Phase
φ
φ
i i
(Radians) for a
(Radians) for a
DPSK Signal.
DPSK Signal.
b
b
i i
d
d
i i- -1 1
d
d
i i
φ
φ
i i
one
one
-
-
bit startup
bit startup
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
XOR logic
XOR logic
0
0
1
1
0
0
π
π
0 0 1
0 0 1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0 1 0
0 1 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1 0 0
1 0 0
0
0
1
1
0
0
π
π
1 1 1
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
Signal Processing
Signal Processing
Blockset
Blockset
provides the
provides the
Filtering
Filtering
,
,
Analog Filter
Analog Filter
Design
Design
block:
block:
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
Signal Processing
Signal Processing
Blockset
Blockset
provides the analog
provides the analog
bandpass filter (BPF) specified as a 9
bandpass filter (BPF) specified as a 9
-
-
pole Butterworth
pole Butterworth
filter with cutoff frequencies of 19 kHz and 21 kHz
filter with cutoff frequencies of 19 kHz and 21 kHz
centered
centered
around the carrier frequency
around the carrier frequency
f
f
C C
= 20 kHz.
= 20 kHz.
rad/s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The Butterworth BPF is used for the
The Butterworth BPF is used for the
noncoherent receiver
noncoherent receiver
.
.
The
The
coherent receiver
coherent receiver
uses the
uses the
integrator
integrator
as a
as a
virtual
virtual
BPF
BPF
:
:
MS Figure 3.12
MS Figure 3.12
PSK
PSK
MS Figure 3.33
MS Figure 3.33
DPSK
DPSK
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BER and
The BER and
P
P
b b
comparison (MS Table 3.17, p. 134):
comparison (MS Table 3.17, p. 134):
Table 3.17
Table 3.17
Observed BER and Theoretical
Observed BER and Theoretical
P
P
b b
as a
as a
Function of
Function of
E
E
b b
/ N
/ N
o o
in a Binary DPSK Digital
in a Binary DPSK Digital
Communication System with Noncoherent Correlation
Communication System with Noncoherent Correlation
Receiver
Receiver
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
12
12
0
0


6.6
6.6
×
×
10
10
- -8 8
10
10
2
2
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.3
2.3
×
×
10
10
- -5 5
8
8
5.1
5.1
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
1.8
1.8
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
6
6
2.61
2.61
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
9.3
9.3
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
4
4
7.91
7.91
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
4.06
4.06
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
2
2
1.559
1.559
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.025
1.025
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
0
0
2.393
2.393
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.839
1.839
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
Statistical variation
Statistical variation
due to small sample
due to small sample
size
size
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


BER and
BER and
P
P
b b
comparison between noncoherent, source
comparison between noncoherent, source
coded DPSK and coherent BPSK:
coded DPSK and coherent BPSK:
BPSK performs better than DPSK but requires a coherent
BPSK performs better than DPSK but requires a coherent
reference signal. DPSK performs nearly as well as BPSK
reference signal. DPSK performs nearly as well as BPSK
at high SNR.
at high SNR.
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
12
12
0
0
6.6
6.6
×
×
10
10
- -8 8
DPSK
DPSK
10
10
2
2
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.3
2.3
×
×
10
10
- -5 5
8
8
5.1
5.1
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
1.8
1.8
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b
10
10
0
0
4.05
4.05
×
×
10
10
- -6 6
BPSK
BPSK
8
8
2
2
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
2.06
2.06
×
×
10
10
- -4 4
6
6
2.5
2.5
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
2.41
2.41
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


M
M
-
-
ary Bandpass Techniques:
ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
Quaternary Phase Shift Keying


Pages 274
Pages 274
-
-
286
286
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Quaternary phase shift keying (M
Quaternary phase shift keying (M
-
-
ary, M = 2
ary, M = 2
n n
= 4 or QPSK)
= 4 or QPSK)
source codes
source codes
dibits
dibits
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
as a
as a
symbol
symbol
with one possible
with one possible
protocol
protocol
as:
as:
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
11 A sin(2
11 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 45
t + 45
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
10 A sin(2
10 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 135
t + 135
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
00 A sin(2
00 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 225
t + 225
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
01 A sin(2
01 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 315
t + 315
°
°
)
)
The
The
Gray code
Gray code
is used as
is used as
for M
for M
-
-
ary PAM to improve
ary PAM to improve
the BER performance by
the BER performance by
mitigating adjacent symbol
mitigating adjacent symbol
error. The symbols are best
error. The symbols are best
displayed as a constellation plot
displayed as a constellation plot
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
36
36
modified
modified

+
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Quaternary phase shift
Quaternary phase shift
keying (QPSK) displayed
keying (QPSK) displayed
as a
as a
constellation plot
constellation plot
Note the signs on the
Note the signs on the
sine reference axes.
sine reference axes.
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
36
36
modified
modified

+
cos
cos
sin
sin
constellation points
constellation points
Constellation
Constellation
Gemini
Gemini
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Multilevel (M
Multilevel (M
-
-
ary) Phase Shift
ary) Phase Shift
Keying
Keying


Pages 117
Pages 117
-
-
123
123
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The QPSK signal can be simulated in
The QPSK signal can be simulated in
Simulink
Simulink
using
using
Subsystems
Subsystems
to simplify the design.
to simplify the design.
4
4
-
-
level Gray coded
level Gray coded
symbol to bit
symbol to bit
4
4
-
-
level Gray coded
level Gray coded
bit to symbol
bit to symbol
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
QPSK I
QPSK I
-
-
Q correlation
Q correlation
receiver
receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The random binary data source is converted to an M = 4
The random binary data source is converted to an M = 4
level Gray encoded symbol by a
level Gray encoded symbol by a
Simulink Subsystem
Simulink Subsystem
.
.
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray encoded by
The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray encoded by
a
a
Lookup Table Block
Lookup Table Block
from the
from the
Simulink
Simulink
Blockset
Blockset
.
.
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The M = 4 level symbol
The M = 4 level symbol
(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray
(0, 1, 2 and 3) is Gray
encoded by a
encoded by a
Lookup
Lookup
Table Block
Table Block
from the
from the
Simulink
Simulink
Blockset
Blockset
.
.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, and 3) is Gray encoded by
The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, and 3) is Gray encoded by
a
a
Lookup Table Block
Lookup Table Block
by
by
mapping
mapping
[0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]
[0, 1, 2, 3] to [0, 1, 3, 2]
Gray coding 00 →00
01 →01
10 →11
11 →10
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The M = 4 level symbol
The M = 4 level symbol
is inputted to the Phase
is inputted to the Phase
Modulator block with a
Modulator block with a
carrier frequency
carrier frequency
f
f
C C
=
=
20 kHz, initial phase
20 kHz, initial phase
φ
φ
o o
=
=
π
π
/4
/4
and a phase
and a phase
deviation factor
deviation factor
k
k
p p
=
=
π
π
/2 / V
/2 / V
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, 3) and the carrier
The M = 4 level symbol (0, 1, 2, 3) and the carrier
frequency
frequency
f
f
C C
= 20 kHz, initial phase
= 20 kHz, initial phase
φ
φ
o o
=
=
π
π
/4
/4
and a phase
and a phase
deviation factor
deviation factor
k
k
p p
=
=
π
π
/2 / V produces the phase shifts:
/2 / V produces the phase shifts:
d
d
i i
= 0
= 0
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 0(
/4 + 0(
π
π
/2) =
/2) =
π
π
/4
/4
d
d
i i
= 1
= 1
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 1(
/4 + 1(
π
π
/2) = 3
/2) = 3
π
π
/4
/4
d
d
i i
= 2
= 2
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 2(
/4 + 2(
π
π
/2) = 5
/2) = 5
π
π
/4
/4
d
d
i i
= 3
= 3
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 3(
/4 + 3(
π
π
/2) = 7
/2) = 7
π
π
/4
/4
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The modulation
The modulation
phase shifts are the phase angle
phase shifts are the phase angle
φ
φ
of the
of the
sinusoidal carrier A sin (2
sinusoidal carrier A sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t +
t +
φ
φ
) in QPSK.
) in QPSK.
d
d
i i
= 0
= 0
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 0(
/4 + 0(
π
π
/2) =
/2) =
π
π
/4
/4 45
°
°
d
d
i i
= 1
= 1
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 1(
/4 + 1(
π
π
/2) = 3
/2) = 3
π
π
/4 135
/4 135
°
°
d
d
i i
= 2
= 2
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 2(
/4 + 2(
π
π
/2) = 5
/2) = 5
π
π
/4 225
/4 225
°
°
d
d
i i
= 3
= 3
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 + 3(
/4 + 3(
π
π
/2) = 7
/2) = 7
π
π
/4 315
/4 315
°
°
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The QPSK signal can be resolved into In
The QPSK signal can be resolved into In
-
-
phase (I, cosine)
phase (I, cosine)
and Quadrature (Q, sine)
and Quadrature (Q, sine)
components. For example,
components. For example,
if
if
φ
φ
=
=
π
π
/4 = 45
/4 = 45
°
°
:
:
s
s
1 1
(t) = A sin(2
(t) = A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 45
t + 45
°
°
) =
) =
A /
A /


2 [ I sin (2
2 [ I sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t)
t)
+ Q cos (2
+ Q cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) ] =
t) ] =
A /
A /


2 [ sin (2
2 [ sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t)
t)
+ cos (2
+ cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) ]
t) ]
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
36
36
modified
modified
sin In sin In- -phase phase
cos
Quadrature
constellation
constellation
Plot
Plot
+

EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The QPSK signal is derived from Gray coded dibits with
The QPSK signal is derived from Gray coded dibits with
00
00


00 (0), 01
00 (0), 01


01 (1), 10
01 (1), 10


11 (3) and 11
11 (3) and 11


10 (2)
10 (2)
.
.
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
QPSK signal
QPSK signal
3 2 0 2 0 1 1
3 2 0 2 0 1 1
2
2
±
±
5 V,
5 V,
f
f
C C
= 2 kHz,
= 2 kHz,
r
r
S S
= 500 Hz
= 500 Hz
10 11
10 11
11
11
01
01
01
01
11
11
00
00
00
00
T
T
S S
=
=
2 msec
2 msec
Delay
Delay
M = 4
M = 4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The QPSK signal can be decomposed into I and Q BPSK
The QPSK signal can be decomposed into I and Q BPSK
signals which are
signals which are
orthogonal
orthogonal
to each other.
to each other.
QPSK signal,
QPSK signal,
f
f
C C
= 2 kHz,
= 2 kHz,
r
r
S S
= 500 b/sec
= 500 b/sec
Binary PSK signal, sine carrier
Binary PSK signal, sine carrier
(I)
(I)
Binary PSK signal, cosine carrier (Q)
Binary PSK signal, cosine carrier (Q)
±
±
5 V
5 V
±
±
5 /
5 /


2 = 3.536 V
2 = 3.536 V
±
±
5 /
5 /


2 = 3.536 V
2 = 3.536 V
T
T
S S
= 2 msec
= 2 msec
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
orthogonality
orthogonality
of the I and Q components of the QPSK
of the I and Q components of the QPSK
signal can be exploited by the
signal can be exploited by the
universal coherent receiver
universal coherent receiver
.
.
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
same spectrum
same spectrum
without interference. The coherent
without interference. The coherent
reference signals are:
reference signals are:
Quadrature In
Quadrature In
-
-
phase
phase
s
s
1 1
(t) = cos (2
(t) = cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t +
t +
θ
θ
) s
) s
2 2
(t) = sin (2
(t) = sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t +
t +
θ
θ
)
)
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
40
40
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The orthogonality of the QPSK signals can be shown by
The orthogonality of the QPSK signals can be shown by
observing the output of the quadrature correlator to the I
observing the output of the quadrature correlator to the I
and Q signal.
and Q signal.
(
¸ ¸



i
1 I Q
(i-1)
i
1 I
(i-1)
i
2
Q
(i-1)
1 Q
γ A
z (n ) = d sin(2π t) + d cos(2π t) cos (2π t) dt
2
γ A
z (n ) = d sin(2π t) cos (2π t) dt +
2
γ A
d cos (2π t) dt
2
γ A
z (n ) = d
2 2
S
S
S
S
S
S
T
S C C C
T
T
S C C
T
T
C
T
S
S
T f f f
T f f
f
T
T
z z
1 1
(nT (nT
S S
) )
S&M Eq. 5.109
S&M Eq. 5.109
0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of bit error
The probability of bit error
P
P
b b
and the energy per bit
and the energy per bit
E
E
b b
for a
for a
QPSK signal is the same as that as for a BPSK signal but
QPSK signal is the same as that as for a BPSK signal but
with a I and Q carrier amplitude of A /
with a I and Q carrier amplitude of A /


2
2
.
.
z z
1 1
(nT (nT
S S
) )
S&M Eq. 5.117
S&M Eq. 5.117
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2 2
2
γ A
= Q = Q
2
γ A
= Q = Q
2
b, PSK
b
b, BPSK
o o
b, QPSK
S
b, QPSK
o o
E
T
P
N N
E
T
P
N N
2 2
2 2
γ A
=
2
γ A
=
4
b
b, BPSK
S
b, QPSK
T
E
T
E
note T
S
note T
S
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Since
Since
T
T
S S
= 2
= 2
T
T
b b
BPSK and QPSK have the same
BPSK and QPSK have the same
P
P
b b
but
but
QPSK can have
QPSK can have
twice
twice
the data rate
the data rate
r
r
b b
= 2
= 2
r
r
S S
within the
within the
same
same
bandwidth because of the orthogonal I and Q components.
bandwidth because of the orthogonal I and Q components.
z z
1 1
(nT (nT
S S
) )
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
2 2
2 γ A
= = Q = Q
b b
b, BPSK b, QPSK
o o
E T
P P
N N
2 2
γ A
= =
2
b
b, BPSK b, QPSK
T
E E
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QPSK coherent digital communication system with BER
QPSK coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis:
analysis:
MS Figure 3.22
MS Figure 3.22
4
4
-
-
Level Gray coded
Level Gray coded
bit to symbol
bit to symbol
4
4
-
-
Level Gray coded
Level Gray coded
symbol to bit
symbol to bit
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QPSK coherent digital communication system uses a
QPSK coherent digital communication system uses a
4
4
-
-
level Gray coded bit to symbol converter
level Gray coded bit to symbol converter
Simulink
Simulink
Subsystem
Subsystem
.
.
MS Figure 2.43
MS Figure 2.43
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QPSK coherent receiver uses an I
QPSK coherent receiver uses an I
-
-
Q correlator
Q correlator
Simulink
Simulink
Subsystem
Subsystem
MS Figure 3.24
MS Figure 3.24
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The I
The I
-
-
Q correlation receiver is the
Q correlation receiver is the
universal
universal
structure with
structure with
an integration time equal to the
an integration time equal to the
symbol time T
symbol time T
S S
.
.
MS Figure 3.24
MS Figure 3.24
correlation receiver
correlation receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The output of the I
The output of the I
-
-
Q correlation receiver is a
Q correlation receiver is a
dibit
dibit
and
and
converted to an M = 2
converted to an M = 2
n n
= 4 level symbols (0, 1, 2, and 3).
= 4 level symbols (0, 1, 2, and 3).
dibits M
dibits M
-
-
ary scaling
ary scaling
MS Figure 3.24
MS Figure 3.24
correlation receiver
correlation receiver
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BER and P
The BER and P
b b
comparison for 4
comparison for 4
-
-
PSK (QPSK):
PSK (QPSK):
Table 3.11
Table 3.11
Observed BER and Theoretical Upper
Observed BER and Theoretical Upper
-
-
Bound
Bound
of
of
P
P
b b
as a Function of
as a Function of
E
E
b b
/ N
/ N
o o
in a Gray coded 4
in a Gray coded 4
-
-
PSK
PSK
(QPSK) Digital Communication System with Optimum
(QPSK) Digital Communication System with Optimum
Receiver
Receiver
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
12
12
0
0


10
10
- -8 8
10
10
0
0


10
10
- -6 6
8
8
2
2
×
×
10
10
- -4 4


10
10
- -4 4
6
6
2.3
2.3
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
2.4
2.4
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
4
4
1.20
1.20
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
1.25
1.25
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
2
2
3.62
3.62
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
3.75
3.75
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
0
0
7.65
7.65
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
7.85
7.85
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the QPSK
power spectral density PSD of the QPSK
signal uses
signal uses
r
r
s s
=
=
r
r
b b
/2 and is:
/2 and is:
G
G
QPSK QPSK
(f
(f
) = 1/2
) = 1/2
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
-
-
f
f
C C
)
)
G
G
PAM PAM
(f
(f
) = A
) = A
2 2
/
/
r
r
s s
sinc
sinc
2 2
(
(
π
π
f /
f /
r
r
s s
)
)
No carrier
No carrier
Sinc
Sinc
2 2
r
r
s s
= 500 s/sec,
= 500 s/sec,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
MS Figure 3.25
MS Figure 3.25
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of BPSK has
power spectral density PSD of BPSK has
double
double
the bandwidth than that for QPSK for the same bit
the bandwidth than that for QPSK for the same bit
rate
rate
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b, ,
No carrier
No carrier
Sinc
Sinc
2 2
r
r
b b
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
MS Figure 3.14
MS Figure 3.14
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of a QPSK signal as a percentage of total
of a QPSK signal as a percentage of total
power is
power is
half
half
that for the same bit rate r
that for the same bit rate r
b b
= 1/T
= 1/T
b b
BPSK
BPSK
signal since
signal since
r
r
s s
=
=
r
r
b b
/2 or
/2 or
T
T
s s
= 2
= 2
T
T
b b
(MS Table 3.9).
(MS Table 3.9).
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2/
2/
T
T
s s
1/
1/
T
T
b b
90%
90%
3/
3/
T
T
s s
1.5/
1.5/
T
T
b b
93%
93%
4/
4/
T
T
s s
2/
2/
T
T
b b
95%
95%
6/
6/
T
T
s s
3/
3/
T
T
b b
96.5%
96.5%
8/
8/
T
T
s s
4/
4/
T
T
b b
97.5%
97.5%
10/
10/
T
T
s s
5/
5/
T
T
b b
98%
98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


M
M
-
-
ary Bandpass Techniques:
ary Bandpass Techniques:
8
8
-
-
Phase Shift Keying
Phase Shift Keying


Pages 286
Pages 286
-
-
292
292
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


M
M
-
-
ary phase shift keying (M = 8 or 8PSK) source codes
ary phase shift keying (M = 8 or 8PSK) source codes
tribits
tribits
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
as a
as a
symbol
symbol
with one possible
with one possible
protocol
protocol
as:
as:
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
000 A sin(2
000 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 0
t + 0
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
001 A sin(2
001 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 45
t + 45
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
011 A sin(2
011 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 90
t + 90
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
010 A sin(2
010 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 135
t + 135
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
110 A sin(2
110 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 180
t + 180
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
111 A sin(2
111 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 225
t + 225
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
101 A sin(2
101 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 270
t + 270
°
°
)
)
b
b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
=
=
100 A sin(2
100 A sin(2
π
π
f
f
C C
t + 315
t + 315
°
°
)
)
θ
θ
I, Q = 0,
I, Q = 0,
±
±
1/
1/


2,
2,
±
±
1
1
s(t
s(t
) =
) =
A [ I sin (2
A [ I sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) +
t) +
Q cos (2
Q cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t) ]
t) ]
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
43
43
sin In sin In- -phase phase
Quadrature
cos
Constellation Plot
Constellation Plot
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The correlation receiver
The correlation receiver
for 8
for 8
-
-
PSK uses four
PSK uses four
reference signals:
reference signals:
s
s
ref ref n n
(t
(t
) =
) =
sin (2
sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t +
t +
n 45
n 45
°
°
+ 22.5
+ 22.5
°
°
)
)
φ
φ
n = 0, 1, 2, 3
n = 0, 1, 2, 3
φ
φ
= 22.5
= 22.5
°
°
, 67.5
, 67.5
°
°
,
,
112.5
112.5
°
°
, 157.5
, 157.5
°
°
S&M Eq. 5.124
S&M Eq. 5.124
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The output from any one of the four correlators is:
The output from any one of the four correlators is:
− −


∫ ∫
i
1
(i-1)
i i
1
(i-1) (i-1)
1
z (n ) = γ A sin (2π t + θ) sin (2π t + φ)dt
γ A
z (n ) = cos (θ φ) dt cos (4π t + θ + φ) dt
2
γ A
z (n ) = cos (θ φ)
2
S
S
S S
S S
T
S C C
T
T T
S C
T T
S
S
T f f
T f
T
T
z z
1 1
( (
n n
T T
S S
) )
S&M Eq. 5.125
S&M Eq. 5.125
0
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The correlator output is > 0 if |
The correlator output is > 0 if |
θ
θ


φ
φ
| < 90
| < 90
°
°
and < 0 if not
and < 0 if not
because of the cos (
because of the cos (
θ
θ


φ
φ
) term. For example, if s
) term. For example, if s
6 6
(t) is
(t) is
received, the
received, the
ABCD
ABCD
correlator sign output is:
correlator sign output is:






+. The
+. The
patterns of signs are unique and can be decoded to b
patterns of signs are unique and can be decoded to b
i i- -2 2
b
b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
(S&M Tab
(S&M Tab
les 5
les 5
-
-
7 and 5
7 and 5
-
-
8)
8)
z z
1 1
( (
n n
T T
S S
) )
A:
A:
s
s
ref ref 1 1
(t)
(t)
B:
B:
s
s
ref ref 2 2
(t)
(t)
C:
C:
s
s
ref ref 3 3
(t)
(t)
D:
D:
s
s
ref ref 4 4
(t)
(t)
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of
The probability of
symbol error
symbol error
P
P
S S
for coherently
for coherently
demodulated M
demodulated M
-
-
ary PSK is:
ary PSK is:
| |
≈ ≥ |
|
\ .
| |
| |
|
≈ ≥
|
|
\ .
\ .
2
2
2
2
A π
2Q sin M 4
M
π
2Q 2 log M sin M 4
M
S
S coherent M-ary PSK
o
b
S coherent M-ary PSK
o
T
P
N
E
P
N
S&M Eq. 5.126
S&M Eq. 5.126
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
46
46
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
P
P
s s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of
The probability of
symbol error
symbol error
P
P
S S
for coherently
for coherently
demodulated M
demodulated M
-
-
ary PSK is:
ary PSK is:
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
46
46
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
P
P
s s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of symbol error
The probability of symbol error
P
P
S S
must be related to
must be related to
probability of bit error
probability of bit error
P
P
b b
for consistency. If
for consistency. If
Gray coding
Gray coding
is
is
used, assume that errors will only be due to
used, assume that errors will only be due to
adjacent
adjacent
symbols
symbols
. Thus each symbol error produces only one bit in
. Thus each symbol error produces only one bit in
error and log
error and log
2 2
(M
(M


1) correct bits or:
1) correct bits or:
However for M
However for M
-
-
ary PSK with M > 4 the assumption of errors
ary PSK with M > 4 the assumption of errors
being due to only adjacent symbols is invalid. For the
being due to only adjacent symbols is invalid. For the
worst case there are M
worst case there are M


1 incorrect symbols and in M / 2 of
1 incorrect symbols and in M / 2 of
these a bit will different from the correct bit so that:
these a bit will different from the correct bit so that:
2
1
=
log M
b errors due to adjacent symbols S
P P
S&M Eq. 5.127
S&M Eq. 5.127
≤ ≤

2
1 M

log M 2 (M 1)
S b S
P P P
S&M Eq. 5.129
S&M Eq. 5.129
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


M
M
-
-
ary Bandpass Techniques:
ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quaternary Frequency Shift Keying
Quaternary Frequency Shift Keying


Pages 292
Pages 292
-
-
298
298
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The analytical signal for quaternary (M
The analytical signal for quaternary (M
-
-
ary, M = 2
ary, M = 2
n n
= 4)
= 4)
frequency shift keying (QFSK or 4
frequency shift keying (QFSK or 4
-
-
FSK) is:
FSK) is:
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) =
(t) =
A sin (2
A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+ 3
+ 3


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 11
= 11
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 10
= 10
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 00
= 00
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C


3
3


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 01
= 01
f
f
C C
+ 3
+ 3


f
f
f
f
C C


3
3


f
f
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
f
f
C C




f
f
f
f
C C
+ 3
+ 3


f
f
11 00 01 10 11
11 00 01 10 11
MS Figure 3.19
MS Figure 3.19
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


Chose
Chose
f
f
C C
and
and


f
f
so that if there are a whole number of half
so that if there are a whole number of half
cycles of a sinusoid within a symbol time
cycles of a sinusoid within a symbol time
T
T
S S
for M = 4 for
for M = 4 for
orthogonality of the signals so that a correlation receiver
orthogonality of the signals so that a correlation receiver
can be utilized.
can be utilized.
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) =
(t) =
A sin (2
A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+ 3
+ 3


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 11
= 11
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+
+


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 10
= 10
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C




f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 00
= 00
s
s
4 4- -FSK FSK
(t) = A sin (2
(t) = A sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C


3
3


f
f
) t +
) t +
θ
θ
) if b
) if b
i i- -1 1
b
b
i i
= 01
= 01
MS Figure 3.19
MS Figure 3.19
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The correlation receiver
The correlation receiver
for 4
for 4
-
-
FSK uses four
FSK uses four
reference signals:
reference signals:
s
s
ref ref n n
(t
(t
) =
) =
sin (2
sin (2
π
π
(
(
f
f
C C
+ n
+ n


f
f
)
)
t)
t)
n =
n =
±
±
1,
1,
±
±
3
3
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
49
49
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of
The probability of
symbol error
symbol error
P
P
S S
for coherently
for coherently
demodulated M
demodulated M
-
-
ary FSK is:
ary FSK is:
| |
≤ − ≥ |
|
\ .
=
| |
| |
|
− ≥
|
|
\ .
\ .
2
S coherent M-ary FSK
S coherent M-ary FSK
2
A
P (M 1) Q M 4
2
P
(M 1) Q log M M 4
s
o
b
o
T
N
E
N
S&M Eq. 5.132
S&M Eq. 5.132
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
51
51
E
E
b b
/N
/N
o o
dB
dB
P
P
s s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The probability of
The probability of
symbol error
symbol error
P
P
S S
for coherently
for coherently
demodulated M
demodulated M
-
-
ary FSK is:
ary FSK is:
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
51
51
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
P
P
s s
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Multilevel (M
Multilevel (M
-
-
ary) Frequency
ary) Frequency
Shift Keying
Shift Keying


Pages 110
Pages 110
-
-
116
116
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


4
4
-
-
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis:
analysis:
MS Figure 3.18
MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The dibits are converted to a symbol and scaled. The data
The dibits are converted to a symbol and scaled. The data
is
is
not
not
Gray encoded. For M
Gray encoded. For M
-
-
ary FSK symbol errors are
ary FSK symbol errors are
equally likely among the M
equally likely among the M


1 correlators and there is
1 correlators and there is
no
no
advantage
advantage
to Gray encoding.
to Gray encoding.
MS Figure 3.18
MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


4
4
-
-
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis:
analysis:
4
4
-
-
FSK correlation receiver
FSK correlation receiver
MS Figure 3.18
MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


4
4
-
-
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
FSK coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis:
analysis:
4
4
-
-
FSK correlation receiver
FSK correlation receiver
MS Figure 3.20
MS Figure 3.20
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The 4
The 4
-
-
FSK correlation
FSK correlation
receiver has four
receiver has four
correlators with an
correlators with an
integration time equal
integration time equal
to the
to the
symbol time T
symbol time T
S S
.
.
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The symbols are converted to dibits. The original data is
The symbols are converted to dibits. The original data is
not
not
Gray encoded and is therefore
Gray encoded and is therefore
not
not
Gray decoded
Gray decoded
.
.
MS Figure 3.18
MS Figure 3.18
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The BER and P
The BER and P
b b
comparison for 4
comparison for 4
-
-
FSK:
FSK:
Table 3.10
Table 3.10
Observed BER and Theoretical Upper Bound
Observed BER and Theoretical Upper Bound
of
of
P
P
b b
as a Function of
as a Function of
E
E
b b
/ N
/ N
o o
in 4
in 4
-
-
level FSK Digital
level FSK Digital
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
Communication System with Optimum Receiver
E
E
d d
/
/
N
N
o o
dB
dB
BER
BER
P
P
b b


0
0
0
0
12
12
0
0


10
10
- -8 8
10
10
0
0


10
10
- -6 6
8
8
1
1
×
×
10
10
- -4 4


10
10
- -4 4
6
6
5.1
5.1
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
4.8
4.8
×
×
10
10
- -3 3
4
4
2.26
2.26
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
2.52
2.52
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
2
2
5.97
5.97
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
7.54
7.54
×
×
10
10
- -2 2
0
0
1.209
1.209
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
1.586
1.586
×
×
10
10
- -1 1
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD with a
power spectral density PSD with a
minimum carrier frequency deviation (MFSK) for M
minimum carrier frequency deviation (MFSK) for M
-
-
ary
ary
FSK is
FSK is


f
f
= 1/2
= 1/2
T
T
S S
=
=
r
r
S S
/2.
/2.
For MFSK the carriers should be
For MFSK the carriers should be
spaced at multiples of 2
spaced at multiples of 2


f = 1/
f = 1/
T
T
S S
=
=
r
r
S S
(S&M Eq. 5.131 is
(S&M Eq. 5.131 is
incorrect
incorrect
). Here
). Here


f
f
= 2
= 2
r
r
S S
= 1 kHz
Sinc
Sinc
2 2
r
r
s s
= 500 s/sec,
= 500 s/sec,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
MS Figure 3.21
MS Figure 3.21


f
f
= 1 kHz
= 1 kHz
M = 4
M = 4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of a M
of a M
-
-
ary FSK signal as a percentage of
ary FSK signal as a percentage of
total power (MS Table 3.9).
total power (MS Table 3.9).
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2( M
2( M


1)
1)


f
f
+
+
4/
4/
T
T
s s
95%
95%
2 (M
2 (M


1)
1)


f
f
+
+
6/
6/
T
T
s s
96.5%
96.5%
2 (M
2 (M


1)
1)


f
f
+
+
8/
8/
T
T
s s
97.5%
97.5%
2 (M
2 (M


1)
1)


f
f
+
+
10/
10/
T
T
s s
98%
98%
For MFSK:
For MFSK:


f
f
= 1/2
= 1/2
T
T
S S
=
=
r
r
S S
/2
/2
M = 2
M = 2
n n
and
and
r
r
S S
=
=
r
r
b b
/n
/n
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques


M
M
-
-
ary Bandpass Techniques:
ary Bandpass Techniques:
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Pages 298
Pages 298
-
-
301
301
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The analytical signal for quadrature amplitude modulation
The analytical signal for quadrature amplitude modulation
(QAM) has I
(QAM) has I
-
-
Q components:
Q components:
s
s
QAM QAM
(t
(t
) = I sin (2
) = I sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
) + Q cos (2
) + Q cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
)
)
A QAM signal has
A QAM signal has
both
both
amplitude
amplitude
and
and
phase
phase
components which can be
components which can be
shown in the
shown in the
constellation
constellation
plot
plot
.
.
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
53
53
I
Q
16-ary
QAM
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


An M
An M
-
-
ary PSK signal also has I
ary PSK signal also has I
-
-
Q components but the
Q components but the
amplitude is
amplitude is
constant
constant
and only the phase
and only the phase
varies
varies
:
:
s
s
QAM QAM
(t
(t
) = I sin (2
) = I sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
) + Q cos (2
) + Q cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
)
)
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
54
54
I I
Q Q
I I
Q Q
16 16- -ary ary
PSK PSK
16 16- -ary ary
QAM QAM
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
orthogonality
orthogonality
of the I and Q components of the QAM
of the I and Q components of the QAM
signal can be exploited by the
signal can be exploited by the
universal coherent receiver
universal coherent receiver
.
.
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
The orthogonal I and Q components actually occupy the
same spectrum
same spectrum
without interference. The coherent
without interference. The coherent
reference signals are:
reference signals are:
Quadrature In
Quadrature In
-
-
phase
phase
s
s
1 1
(t) = cos (2
(t) = cos (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
) s
) s
2 2
(t) = sin (2
(t) = sin (2
π
π
f
f
C C
t
t
)
)
S&M Figure 5
S&M Figure 5
-
-
55
55
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


An
An
upper
upper
-
-
bound
bound
for the probability of
for the probability of
symbol error
symbol error
P
P
S S
for
for
coherently demodulated M
coherently demodulated M
-
-
ary QAM is:
ary QAM is:
4
| |

|
|

\ .
S coherent M-ary QAM
3
P Q
(M 1)
s
o
E
N
S&M Eq. 5.135
S&M Eq. 5.135
QAM BER curve
QAM BER curve
M = 256 M = 256
M = 4 M = 4
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


An M
An M
-
-
ary QAM constellation plot shows the
ary QAM constellation plot shows the
stability
stability
of the
of the
signaling and the
signaling and the
transition
transition
from one signal to another:
from one signal to another:
256
256
-
-
ary QAM
ary QAM
16
16
-
-
ary QAM
ary QAM
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Bandpass Modulation and
Bandpass Modulation and
Demodulation
Demodulation


Quadrature Amplitude
Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation
Modulation


Pages 123
Pages 123
-
-
130
130
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis:
analysis:
MS Figure 3.26
MS Figure 3.26
16
16
-
-
QAM correlation
QAM correlation
receiver
receiver
4 bit to I,Q symbol
4 bit to I,Q symbol
QAM
QAM
16
16
-
-
level symbol to bit
level symbol to bit
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: 4 bit to I
analysis: 4 bit to I
-
-
Q symbol S
Q symbol S
imulink
imulink
subsystem.
subsystem.
MS Figure 3.27
MS Figure 3.27
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: Table 3.12 I and Q output amplitudes
analysis: Table 3.12 I and Q output amplitudes
Input I
Input I
Q
Q
Input
Input
I
I
Q
Q
Input
Input
I
I
Q
Q
0
0


1
1
1
1
5
5
1 3
1 3
10
10


3
3


1
1
1
1


3
3
1
1
6
6
3 1
3 1
11
11


3
3


3
3
2
2


1
1


3
3
7
7
3 3
3 3
12
12
1
1


1
1
3
3


3
3
3
3
8
8


1
1


1
1
13
13
3
3


1
1
4
4
1
1
1
1
9
9


1
1


3
3
14
14
1
1


3
3
15
15
3
3


2
2
MS Figure 3.27
MS Figure 3.27
I LUT
I LUT
±
±
1 to
1 to
±
±
3
3
Q LUT
Q LUT
symbol 0 to 15
symbol 0 to 15
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: QAM modulator S
analysis: QAM modulator S
imulink
imulink
subsystem.
subsystem.
MS Figure 3.27
MS Figure 3.27
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: 16
analysis: 16
-
-
QAM correlation receiver S
QAM correlation receiver S
imulink
imulink
subsystem.
subsystem.
MS Figure 3.30
MS Figure 3.30
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital
QAM coherent digital
communication system
communication system
with BER analysis:
with BER analysis:
Table 3.14 I, Q Symbol LUT
Table 3.14 I, Q Symbol LUT
16
16
-
-
level output amplitudes
level output amplitudes
I
I
Q
Q
Output
Output
I
I
Q
Q
Output
Output
1
1
1
1
11
11
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
9
9
3
3
2
2
0
0
1
1
3
3
14
14
3
3
3
3
4
4
1
1
4
4
15
15
3
3
4
4
6
6
2
2
1
1
10
10
4
4
1
1
3
3
2
2
2
2
8
8
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
12
12
4
4
3
3
5
5
2
2
4
4
13
13
4
4
4
4
7
7
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit S
analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit S
imulink
imulink
subsystem.
subsystem.
MS Figure 3.31
MS Figure 3.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
QAM coherent digital communication system with BER
analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit S
analysis: 16 level symbol to 4 bit S
imulink
imulink
subsystem.
subsystem.
MS Figure 3.31
MS Figure 3.31
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
single
single
-
-
sided
sided
power spectral density PSD of the 16
power spectral density PSD of the 16
-
-
ary
ary
QAM has a bandwidth of 1/M that of a PSK signal with the
QAM has a bandwidth of 1/M that of a PSK signal with the
same data rate
same data rate
r
r
b b
.
.
Sinc
Sinc
2 2
r
r
s s
= 250 s/sec,
= 250 s/sec,
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
MS Figure 3.32
MS Figure 3.32
no discrete
no discrete
component at f
component at f
C C
=
=
20 kHz
20 kHz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
BPSK PSD
BPSK PSD
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec
= 1 kb/sec
16
16
-
-
ary QAM PSD
ary QAM PSD
r
r
b b
= 1 kb/sec M = 4
= 1 kb/sec M = 4
r
r
S S
= 250 s/sec
= 250 s/sec
1 kHz
1 kHz
250 Hz
250 Hz
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
bandwidth
bandwidth
of an M
of an M
-
-
ary QAM signal as a percentage of
ary QAM signal as a percentage of
total power is 1/n
total power is 1/n
that for the same bit rate
that for the same bit rate
r
r
b b
= 1/
= 1/
T
T
b b
BPSK
BPSK
signal since
signal since
r
r
s s
=
=
r
r
b b
/n or
/n or
T
T
s s
= n
= n
T
T
b b
where M = 2
where M = 2
n n
(MS Table
(MS Table
3.14).
3.14).
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
Bandwidth (Hz) Percentage of Total Power
2/
2/
T
T
s s
2/n
2/n
T
T
b b
90%
90%
3/
3/
T
T
s s
3/n
3/n
T
T
b b
93%
93%
4/
4/
T
T
s s
4/n
4/n
T
T
b b
95%
95%
6/
6/
T
T
s s
6/n
6/n
T
T
b b
96.5%
96.5%
8/
8/
T
T
s s
8/n
8/n
T
T
b b
97.5%
97.5%
10/
10/
T
T
s s
10/n
10/n
T
T
b b
98%
98%
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


16
16
-
-
QAM coherent digital communication system received
QAM coherent digital communication system received
I
I
-
-
Q components can be displayed on as a
Q components can be displayed on as a
signal trajectory
signal trajectory
or
or
constellation plot
constellation plot
.
.
Figure 3.42
Figure 3.42
real
real
-
-
imaginary (a + b j)
imaginary (a + b j)
conversion to complex
conversion to complex
polar (M
polar (M
exp(j
exp(j
θ
θ
)) conversion
)) conversion
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The
The
Real
Real
-
-
Imaginary to
Imaginary to
Complex
Complex
conversion block
conversion block
is in the
is in the
Math Operations
Math Operations
,
,
Simulink
Simulink
Blockset
Blockset
Figure 3.42
Figure 3.42
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The constellation plot
The constellation plot
(scatter plot) and
(scatter plot) and
signal trajectory are
signal trajectory are
Comm
Comm
Sinks
Sinks
blocks
blocks
from
from
the
the
Communications
Communications
Blockset
Blockset
Figure 3.42
Figure 3.42
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The 16
The 16
-
-
ary QAM I
ary QAM I
-
-
Q component constellation plot with
Q component constellation plot with
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o




(MS Figures 3.43, 3.45)
(MS Figures 3.43, 3.45)
.
.
signal points
signal points
signal transitions
signal transitions
decision boundaries
decision boundaries
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The 16
The 16
-
-
ary QAM I
ary QAM I
-
-
Q component constellation plot with
Q component constellation plot with
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
=
=
12 dB,
12 dB,
P
P
b b


10
10
- -4 4
(MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (top))
(MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (top))
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5


The 16
The 16
-
-
ary QAM I
ary QAM I
-
-
Q component constellation plot with
Q component constellation plot with
E
E
b b
/
/
N
N
o o
= 6
= 6
dB,
dB,
P
P
b b
= 3.67
= 3.67
x 10
x 10
- -4 4
(MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (
(MS Figures 3.44, 3.46 (
bot
bot
))
))
EE4512 Analog and Digital Communications Chapter 5
End of Chapter 5
End of Chapter 5
Digital Bandpass Modulation
Digital Bandpass Modulation
and Demodulation
and Demodulation
Techniques
Techniques