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ICS 77.140.10;77.140.

50 H 46

N ation al stand ar d o f t h e Pe op le ’s R epu b li c o f ch in a

GB/T 1591—2008
Supersedes GB/T 1591-1994

High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steels
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Issue date: 2008-12-06

Implementation date: 2009-10-01

I s s u e d b y Ge n e r a l Ad m i n i s t ra t i o n o f Q ua l i t y S u p e rv i s i o n , I n s p e c t i o n a n d Q u a ra n t i n e o f t h e P e o pl e ' s Re p u b l i c o f C h i n a

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Wang Liping. GB 1591-1988.GB/T 1591—2008 Foreword This standard has been prepared by revising GB/T 1591-1994 High strength low alloy structuaral steels and referring to EN10025:2004 Hot rolled products of structural steels. Chen Shouqing. — Added strength grade Q500. China Metallurgical Information and Standardization Institute. Hualing Lianyuan Iron and Steel CO. This standard was proposed by China Iron and Steel Association. Ltd. Wang Xiaohu.. This standard supersedes GB/T 1591-1994 High strength low alloy structuaral steels. I . Shougang Group. Piao Zhimin. — Added the requirements for CEV and Pcm and their corresponding calculation formulas of CEV and Pcm.Ltd. — Modified the requirements for the values of mechanical properties and thickness range. — Increased the specified impact absorbed energy value. Zhou Jian.Ltd. Gao Ling. — Added the requirements for through-thickness characteristics of steel products. making clear that the yield strength in text refer to the lower yield strength. requiring some serious control to some harmful elements such as P and S. The main drafters of this standard: Liu Xuyuan. Jigang Group Co. GB/T 1591-1994. Ltd. Huang Zhengyu. Q620.. This standard is under the jurisdiction of National Standardization Technical Committee of Steel.. Shagang Group Co.. Ma Yupu. changes are made as follows: — Expanded applicable scope. This standard was drafted by Angang Steel Co. — Modified the requirements for chemical composition of steel products. The superseded editions of this standard are as follows: — GB 1591-1979. Q690 and cancelled strength grade Q295. Compared with the previous version. — Modified the delivery condition of steel products and cancelled the requirements for quenched and tempered steel products.

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steel and alloy – The indophenol blue photometric method for the determination of nitrogen content after distillation separation GB/T 223. constitute provisions of this standard. GB/T 222 Permissible tolerances for chemical composition of steel products GB/T 223. steel and alloy .Determination of acid-soluble silicon and total silicon content-Reduced molybdosilicate spectrophotometric method GB/T 223. inspection. At the time of publication. mass.Determination of molybdenum content – The thiocyanate spectrophotometric method GB/T 223.GB/T 1591—2008 High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steels 1 Scope This standard specifies the designation. steel and alloy .Determination of niobium content . and parties to agreements based on this national standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standard indicated below. test methods.5 Steel and iron . 2 Normative references The following standards contain provisions which. tolerances on dimensions and shape. For undated references.14 Methods for chemical analysis of iron. steel and alloy . technical requirements. steel and alloy .40 Iron. dimensions.26 Iron.23 Iron.19 Methods for chemical analysis of iron.9 Iron.12 Methods for chemical analysis of iron.The sodium carbonate separation-diphenyl carbazide photometric method for the determination of chromium content GB/T 223. the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.The neocuproine-chloroform extraction photometric method for the determination of copper content GB/T 223. steel and alloy .Chrome azurol S photometric method GB/T 223.37 Methods for chemical analysis of iron. steel strip.The N-benzoy-N-phenylhydroxylamine extraction photometric method for the determination of vanadium content GB/T 223. sections and bars of high strength low alloy steels for general structure and engineering services. This standard applies to the steel sheet. steel and alloy . marking and certification of high strength low alloy steels.The sulphochlorophenol 1 . All standards are subject to revision. steel and alloy .Determination of nickel content – The dimethylglyoxime spectrophotometric method GB/T 223.The chromotropic acid photometric method for the determination of titanium content GB/T 223. through reference in this text.16 Methods for chemical analysis of iron. packaging. steel and alloy-Determination of aluminium content . the editions indicated were valid.

eqv ISO 7438:1985) GB/T 247 General rule of package. eqv ISO 404:1992) GB/T 20066 Steel and iron . and certification for section steel GB/T 2975 Steel and steel products . packaging. mark and certification for steel plates(sheets) and strips GB/T 2101 General requirement of acceptance.General technical delivery requirements (GB/T 17505-1998.Bend test(GB/T 232-1999.IDT) GB/T 20125 Low-alloy steel . steel and alloy .The butyl acetate extraction photometric method for the determination of phosphorus content GB/T 223.67 Iron.69 Iron.Tensile testing at ambient temperature(GB/T 228-2002,eqv ISO 6892:1998) GB/T 229 Metallic materials . If temperatures above 580 C are needed reference should be made to the supplier.Determination of carbon contents .78 Methods for chemical analysis of iron.63 Methods for chemical analysis of iron.Location and preparation of test pieces for mechanical testing(GB/T 2975-1998.1 thermomechanical rolling rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature range leading to a material condition with certain properties which cannot be achieved or repeated by heat treatment alone NOTE1:Subsequent heating above 580 C may lower the strength values. marking.Gas-volumetric method after combustion in the pipe furnace GB/T 223. steel and alloy .Curcumin spectrophotometric method for the determination of boron content GB/T 228 Metallic materials . steel and alloy – Determination of sulfur content – Methylene blue spectrophotometric metrod GB/T 223.GB/T 1591—2008 S spectrophotometric method GB/T 223.Spectrometric analysis of carbon and low alloy steel (routine method ) GB/T 5313 Steel plate with through-thickness characteristics GB/T 17505 Steel and steel products .The sodium (potassium) periodate photometric method for the determination of manganese content GB/T 223. steel and alloy . eqv ISO 377:1997) GB/T 4336 Standard test method for spark discharge atomic emission .Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical composition(GB/T 20066-2006,ISO 14284:1996. steel and alloy . 2 . ISO 148-1:2006. MOD) GB/T 232 Metallic materials .Determination of multi-element contents – Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric method YB/T 081 Rule for rounding off of numberical values and judgement of testing values for technical standards of metallurgy 3 Terms and definitions 3.62 Methods for chemical analysis of iron.Charpy pendulum impact test method(GB/T 229-2007.

Nb. If Cr. the additional symbol Z for the suitability for through-thickness characteristics shall be added. the steels contain at least one of these elements such as Al. such as Q345DZ15. mass Dimensions. 6. V and Ti. If the manufacturer can make sure that the nitrogen content is suitable. the Al total (Alt) shall be not less than 0. If the manufacturer can make sure that content of each of these elements is suitable. 3. Thereinto: Q — first bopomofo for chinese for yield strength.1. If the purchaser requires through-thickness characteristics of a steel product.5 If Cr.GB/T 1591—2008 NOTE2:Thermomechanical rolling can include processes with an increasing cooling rate with or without tempering including self-tempering but excluding direct quenching and quenching and tempering. value of yield strength and symbol for quality grade. In this case the N binding elements shall be reported in the inspection document. 6. they shall be reported in the inspection document.020%. If the grain-refining elements are added.30%. V or Ti are added.4 The nitrogen content of steels shall comply with the specified values of Table 1. 6.1 Steel designation and chemical composition 6. 6 Technical requirements 6. 6. Nb. Ni or Cu in steel is added as the remaining elements.1. 5 Dimensions. each content may no longer be determined. D — quality grade D.1.1. Ni or Cu is added 3 . mass shall be in accordance with the requirements of relevant documents. The maximum value for nitrogen does not apply if the N binding elements including Al. 4 Designation The designation shall consist of bopomofo for yield strength.1.2 normalizing rolling rolling process in which the final deformation is carried out in a certain temperature range leading to a material condition equivalent to that obtained after normalizing so that the specified values of the mechanical properties are retained even after normalizing. such as Q345D.1 The steel designation and chemical composition determined by ladle analysis shall comply with the specified values of Table 1.3 If the total content of Al is determined.MPa. the content of each element shall be no more than 0. tolerances on dimensions and shape. the nitrogen content may no longer be determined.2 If the grain-refining elements are required. tolerances on dimensions and shape. 345 — value of yield strength.

025 0.6 In order to improve the property of steel.11 0.020 0.80 0.07 0. Als min.30 0.025 0.30 0.20 0.015 0.60 0.015 0.07 0.7 If the mechanical properties of steel products can be in accordance with the requirements of this document.11 0. Ni max.12 0.20 0.20 0.015 0.030 0.025 0.20 0.10 0.60 2.035 0.00 0.20 0.004 0.20 1.030 0.50 1. 6.20 0.025 0.1.015 0.GB/T 1591—2008 intentionally. the content of C.035 0.18 0.015 Nb max.030 0.025 0.015 0.035 0.50 1.20 0.030 0.030 0.00 0.20 0.025 0.015 0.030 0.025 0.12 0.20 0.80 0.030 0.030 0.11 0.50 0.20% of the steel mass.030 0. 6.80 0. 0.035 0. rare earth elements may be added.30 0.80 0.18 0.80 0.80 0.20 0. B max.60 2.20 0.00 0.035 0.18 0.20 0.02%~0.025 0.30 0.015 0. P max.015 0. b ( mass fraction)/% Cr max.030 S max.30 0. Mo max.1.012 0.30 0.60 2. Cu max.30 0.10 0.030 0.015 0.025 0.80 0.80 0.12 0.020 0.030 0.015 0.015 0.035 0.030 0.55 0.18 0.20 0.30 0.60 1.025 0.07 0.035 0.11 0.00 0. Si max. N max. Table1 Chemical composition of the ladle analysis Design Quality -ation grade A B Q345 C D E A B Q390 C D E A B Q420 C D E C Q460 D E C Q500 D E C Q550 D E C Q620 D E Q690 C D 0.00 0.80 0.025 0.80 0.025 0.020 0. 0.020 0.80 0. - 4 .004 0.030 0.70 0.030 0.20 0.035 0. Ti max.50 1.030 0.20 0.004 0.030 0.15 0.70 0.015 0.030 0.11 0.030 0.035 0.55 0.80 0.025 0.70 Chemical composition C max.12 0. V max. Mn max.030 0. a.020 0.20 1.20 0.030 0.025 0.030 0. with 0.035 0.015 0.020 0.035 0.50 0. each element shall comply with the specified values of Table 1 or agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer.030 0. Si and Mn of quality grade A of all steels may be not required.004 0.025 0.60 1.30 0.004 0.18 0.020 0.30 0.015 0.030 0.035 0.

.54 >120~250 0.. V and Ti concentrations shall be no more than 0. (1)   6 5 15 Table2 Maximum CEV for as-rolled or controlled rolled steel Designation Q345 Q390 Q420 Q460 Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm ≤63 0.. shall comply with the specified values of table 4.. normalizing rolling or normalizing plus tempering delivery condition.020 For sections and bars.52 0.30%.. the following formula (1) shall be used.47 0.48 0.. CEV  C  Mn (Cr  Mo  v) ( Ni  Cu ) ..45 0..53 >63~120 0.46 >63~250 0.GB/T 1591—2008 E a 0.47 >120~150 0..47 0.47 Designation Q345 Q390 Q420 5 ..48 0..045%. V.45 0.. for normalizing.46 >63~120 0.. the P and S content can be 0.. shall comply with the specified values of table 3..45 0.005% higher..49 0...55 Designation Q345 Q390 Q420 Q460 Table4 Maximum CEV for thermomechanical rolled or thermomechanical rolled + tempered steel Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm ≤63 0.. b 6.. for thermomechanical rolling (TMCP) or thermomechanical rolling plus tempering delivery condition.46 0. Ti are used in combination: the sum of Nb.. the sum of Mo and Cr concentrations shall be no more than 0. If the grain-refining elements such as Nb.44 0.50 0.. the maximum S and P content can be 0.1.46 0.48 0.48 0.45 0.49 >250 0. For determining the carbon equivalent (CEV) based on the ladle analysis.8 The maximum carbon equivalent values of the steels other than quality grade A shall comply with the specified values of table 2 for as-rolled or controlled rolling delivery condition.47 0.48 0... For quality grade A of steels.22%.48 0..025 0.47 0.48 0.48 — Table3 Maximum CEV for normalized 、normalized rolled or normalized rolled + tempered steel Maximum CEV in % for nominal product thickness in mm ≤63 0.44 0.45 0..

48 0.1.. the chemical composition of these steel products shall comply with the specified values given in GB/T 5313..47 0.25 0. 6 .25 0.. the following formula (2) shall be used.. normalizing plus tempering.3 Delivery condition The delivery condition can be as-rolled. 6. controlled rolling..12% can be superseded by welding crack susceptibility index.1. Pcm  C  Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V        5 B .. CEV of steels with a ladle analysis carbon mass fraction equal to or less than 0.9 For the thermomechanical rolling or thermomechanical rolling plus tempering delivery condition..49 0. Table5 Maximum Pcm for thermomechanical rolled or thermomechanical rolled + tempered steel Designation Q345 Q390 Q420 Q460 Q500 Q550 Q620 Q690 Pcm/% 0.25 6..49 0.GB/T 1591—2008 Q460 Q500 Q550 Q620 Q690 0. 6..2 Steel making process The steel shall be manufactured using the electric process or an oxygen process..20 0. thermomechanical rolling or thermomechanical rolling plus tempering.49 0. The Pcm shall comply with the specified values of table 5.If unspecified at the time of the order.20 0... normalizing rolling..11 If the purchaser requires the steel products with through-thickness characteristics..48 0..48 0.47 0...48 0.25 0. For determining the Pcm based on the ladle analysis.10 The permissible tolerances for the product analysis shall comply with the specifications given in GB/T 222.49 0.. (2) 30 20 20 60 20 15 10 It shall be as agreed that whether CEV or Pcm is used ..48 0.47 0. the secondary refining shall be used...20 0.1. Pcm.48 0. it is left to the discretion of the manufacturer to use whether CEV or Pcm.49 6. 6. If necessary. normalizing.. the carbon equivalent.48 0.20 0..

1 Tensile test The tensile properties of steels shall comply with the specified values of table 6. b.GB/T 1591—2008 6. Table6 Mechanical properties of steels Tensile test Design Quality -ation grade ≤16 A B Q345 C D E A B Q390 C D E A B Q420 C D E C Q460 D E C Q500 D E C Q550 D E C Q620 D E Q690 C D 690 670 660 640 620 600 590 570 550 530 520 500 490 500 480 470 450 440 460 440 420 400 400 380 550~ 550~ 550~ 550~ 530~ 720 720 720 720 700 420 400 380 360 360 340 520~ 520~ 520~ 520~ 500~ 680 680 680 680 650 390 370 350 330 330 310 490~ 490~ 490~ 490~ 470~ 650 650 650 650 620 345 335 325 315 305 285 275 265 265 470~ 470~ 470~ 470~ 450~ 450~ 630 630 630 630 600 600 > 16 ~ 40 Minimum yield strength Rel/MPa Nominal thickness/mm > 40 ~ 63 > 63 > 80 > 100 > 150 > 200 >250 ~ 80 ~ 100 ~ 150 ~ 200 ~ 250 ~400 ≤ 40 a. c Tensile strength Rm/MPa Nominal thickness/mm > 40 ~ 63 > 63 >80 > 100 >150 > 250 ~ 80 ~ 100 ~ 150 ~250 ~ 400 Minimum percentage elongation after fracture/% Nominal thickness/mm ≤ 40 > 40 > 63 >100 > 150 > 250 ~ 63 ~ 100 ~150 ~ 250 ~ 400 19 18 17 20 19 - 450~ 21 20 600 20 19 18 17 - - 20 19 19 18 - - - - 19 18 18 18 - - - - 17 16 16 16 - - 610~ 600~ 590~ 540~ 770 760 750 730 - - - 17 17 17 - - - 670~ 620~ 600~ 590~ 830 810 790 780 - - - 16 16 16 - - - 710~ 690~ 670~ 880 880 860 - - - - 15 15 15 - - - 770~ 750~ 730~ 940 920 900 - - - - 14 14 14 - - 7 .4 Mechanical properties 6.4.

2. The bigger subsize test piece shall prevail.4.4. The average value of the six tests shall be not less than the minimum average value specified. 6. The standard 10mm×10mm×55mm test pieces shall be used. Table7 Test temperature and absorbed energy for impact test (V-notch) Minimum absorbed energy Designation Quality grade Test temperature/℃ a KV2 /J Nominal thickness( diameter.2% offset Rp0.GB/T 1591—2008 E a b c If a definite yield phenomenon is not present.1 The test temperature and absorbed energy values of Charpy V-notch impact test of steels shall comply with the specified values of table 7. and the minimum percentage elongation after fracture shall be increased accordingly 1% (absolute value). 6.4. 6.4. 6. If the standard test pieces can not be obtained. If so. the tensile test pieces shall be in the transverse direction. Otherwise three additional test pieces shall be taken from the same sample and tested.2 Charpy V-notch impact test 6. their minimum absorbed energy values shall comply respectively with 75% or 50% of the specified values of table 7. For sections. Not more than two of the individual values may be lower than the minimum average value specified and not more than one may be lower than 70 % of this value. border)/mm 12~150 >150~250 >250~400 34 27 27 B Q345 C D E B Q390 C D E B Q420 C D E Q460 8 C D 20 0 -20 -40 20 0 -20 -40 20 0 -20 -40 0 -20 34 34 34 - - - - . For flat steel products with their widths not less than 600mm.2.2.2.3 The average value of the three test results shall meet the specified requirement. the lower yield strength can be measured by 0.5mm ×55mm or 10mm×5mm×55mm shall be used.4. One individual value may be below the minimum average value specified.3 The percentage reduction of area of steels with through-thickness characteristics shall comply with the specified values given in GB/T 5313. bars and flat steel products with their widths less than 600mm. provided that it is not less than 70 % of that value. The value for steels with thickness >250mm~400mm applies to flat steel products.2 The steel products with nominal thickness not less than 6mm or diameter not less than 12mm shall carry out the impact test. the tensile test pieces shall be in the longitudinal direction. the subsize test piece 10mm×7.

For sections. the bend test may be cancelled. The acceptance criteria and level shall be specified in the order or agreement. the non-destructive testing may be carried out.4. 7 Test methods The test item.test piece number. If the manufacturer can make sure that the bend properties of steel products is suitable. 6.6.4 If specified at the time of the order the bend test shall be carried out.6. bars and flat steel products with their widths less than 600mm. 6. 6.2 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. The bend properties of steels shall comply with the specified values of table 8.6 Specific requirement 6. 9 .GB/T 1591—2008 E Q500、Q550、 Q620、Q690 a -40 0 -20 -40 55 47 31 - C D E The impact test pieces shall be in the longitudinal direction. other tests may be carried out.method for preparing test piece and test methods of steel products shall comply with the specified requirement of table 9.3 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Table8 Bend test 180°bend test Designation Piece direction [d=bend diameter.6. the bend test pieces shall be in the longitudinal direction 2a 3a >16~100 6. a=piece thickness (diameter)] Nominal thickness( diameter、border)/ mm ≤16 For flat steel products with their Q345 Q390 Q420 Q460 widths not less than 600mm.1 According to the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. 6. the bend test pieces shall be in the transverse direction.5 Surface properties The surface condition of steel products shall be in accordance with the requirements specified in relevant documents. the purchaser may require the steel products with through-thickness characteristics according to this document.

The mass of each lot of the steel strip shall be in accordance with specifications given in relenant document.The purchaser has the right to carry out inspection and acceptance tests specified in this document or the order.2 Test units The steel products shall be inspected and accepted by lot. cast method and different heat number. 8.furnace number. The mass of each lot of the steel product shall be not more than 60t.quality grade. Each lot of steel products with quality grade A or B may contain steels of the same designation. each lot shall be in accordance with GB/T 5313. provided that different heats are not more than 6 and the difference of C and Mn content among the 6 heats shall be respectively not more than 0. Each lot shall contain products of the same designation.dimension.22% and 0. sampling number and preparing method of test piece and test method Test item Chemical composition ( ladle analysis ) Tensile test Bend test Impact test Test piece number 1/furnace 1/lot 1/lot 3/lot 3/lot Each sheet or piece Preparing methods GB/T 20066 GB/T 2975 GB/T 2975 GB/T 2975 GB/T 5313 Relevant document for non-destructive testing Test methods GB/T 223、 GB/T 4336、 GB/T 20125 GB/T 228 GB/T 232 GB/T 229 GB/T 5313 By agreement By visual through-thickness percentage reduction of area Non-destructive testing 7 Surface condition Each sheet or piece - inspection or measuring equipment By applicable 8 Dimensions. 10 .15%.1 Inspection and acceptance The manufacturer shall be in charge of inspection and acceptance for steel products. quality grade.GB/T 1591—2008 Table9 NO.rolling condition or heat treatment condition. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Test item. steelmaking process. For steels with through-thickness characteristics. shape Each sheet or piece - measuring equipment 8 Inspection 8.

The rules of rounding off for values shall be in accordance with YB/T 081.3.marking and certification for steel procucts ahall be in accordance with GB/T 247 or GB/T 2101. marking. The retest and acceptance criteria for the tensile test of steel products shall be in accordance with GB/T 17505. to determine conformance with the specified requirements. the manufacturer may take respectively three additional test pieces from two more products from the same lot.GB/T 1591—2008 8. its vlaue shall be calculated acorrding to relevant formula and then shall be rounded off. For the carbon equivalent.3 Retest and acceptance criteria 8. with the exception of the original selected products. If both of the new tests meet the acceptance criteria.1 Mechanical properties If a set of charpy test pieces fail to meet the acceptance criteria specified in 6. certification The packaging. _________________________________ 11 . 8.2. 9 Packaging. observed or calculated values shall be rounded to the same number of digits as the specified value.3. Otherwise the steel products in that lot shall be rejected. 8.3.4. shall be considered to meet the requirement. then all products in that lot.4 Rounding for test results of chemical composition and mechanical properties Unless otherwise specified at the time of order or by agreement.2 Retest and acceptance criteria for other test The retest and acceptance criteria for other test of steel products shall be in accordance with GB/T 17505.