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p sut kh quyn v gi

p sut kh quyn

Khi nim
S thay i ca p sut kh quyn theo cao
Phn b p sut kh quyn trn mt t
Din bin ca p sut kh quyn

Gi

Nguyn nhn hnh thnh gi


Cc lc sinh ra v nh hng n gi
Cc c trng ca gi
Cc loi gi (cc loi hon lu kh quyn)

Khi nim
p sut kh quyn l trng lng ca mt ct khng kh thng ng c
tit din l 1 n v din tch v cao tnh t mc quan trc ti gii
hn trn ca kh quyn.

Khi nim

1Atm = 760,0 mmHg = 101,325 kPa = 1013,25 mb

p sut kh quyn iu kin tiu chun (00C, v


450, cao mc nc bin) l 1013,25 mb

S thay i ca p sut vi cao


p sut
kh
quyn
gim dn
theo
cao.

S thay i ca p sut vi cao


Hu ht
cc phn
t khng
kh tp
trung lp
kh quyn
st mt
t.
Do vy, p
sut gim
nhanh hn
lp kh
quyn st
mt t v
chm hn
lp kh
quyn trn
cao

S thay i ca p sut vi cao


S bin thin ca p sut kh quyn theo cao c th c tnh
theo cng thc:
dP = -.g.dz
Trong :
dp ch mc chnh lch ca kh p
dz chnh lch cao gia 2 mc kho st
l mt khng kh
g l gia tc trng trng
Cng thc tnh p sut kh quyn mt cao xc nh:

P P0 * e

g
.( Z Z 0 )
R.T

Trong :
P0, P l p sut ti mc nc bin ( cao z0) v cao z
T l nhit khng kh trung bnh gia mc bin v cao z
Bc kh p: Chnh lch cao khi p sut kh quyn thay i 1 mb
h = 8000(1+t)/P

Phn b p sut kh quyn trn mt t

Phn b kh p theo phng nm ngang


ng ng p
(isobar):
L ng ni
cc im c
cng tr s p
sut
S dng tr
s p sut
mc nc
bin vi n
v millibars
(trnh nh
hng ca
cao)

Cch quy i kh p v mc nc bin

Trung tm kh p cao
(xoy nghch)

Trung tm kh p thp
(Xoy thun)

Vng Yn

Li (Ridge)

Rnh (Trough)

p sut kh quyn v nhit


Nhit
khng kh
quyt nh
cao ca ct
kh quyn
Kh p trn
mt t ni
c nhit
thp s cao
hn ni c
nhit cao
v ngc li
i vi lp
kh quyn
trn cao

Din bin p sut kh quyn


Din bin hng ngy
Din bin hng ngy l din bin kp: cc i ca p sut xy ra
vo 10 gi v 22 gi v cc tiu lc 4 gi v 16 gi.
Th hin r nht cc v nhit i, bin dao ng p sut
3-4mb, i khi t ti 10-15mb (thi tit thay i t ngt). Bin
hng ngy ca p sut gim dn khi v tng, v 600
bin dao ng ch vo khong 0,3 0,6 mb.
Din bin hng nm
Kiu lc a, cc i kh p quan st thy vo ma ng, cc tiu
vo ma h, bin t ti 20 -40 mb. (Ti Lucxtrum, =42041;
=89042; h=-17m kh p thng 12 l 1041,3mb, thng 7 l 1004,0
mb, p = 37,3 mb)
Kiu i dng v vng duyn hi, cc i vo ma h, cn cc
tiu vo ma ng, bin 10 20 mb.

Gi
Khi nim:
L s di chuyn ca khng kh tng i vi mt t theo phng
nm ngang.
Nguyn nhn gy ra gi: do s chnh lch kh p trn b mt tri
t. Khng kh di chuyn t ni c kh p cao n ni c kh p
thp to thnh gi.
p sut kh quyn khc nhau do:
V a l (bc x mt tri)
Tnh cht mt m (t lin v i dng)
a hnh (hnh th ni i v hng dc)
Cc c trng ca gi
Hng gi: xc nh bng
Hoa gi (thng dng nht)
Theo vng
Tc gi: xc nh bng m/s, km/h hoc cp gi.

K hiu

Hng gi

Bc

NNE

Bc ng Bc

22.5

NE

ng Bc

45

ENE

ng ng Bc

67.5

ng

90

ESE

ng ng Nam

112.5

SE

ng Nam

135

SSE

Nam ng Nam

157.5

Nam

180

SSW

Nam Ty Nam

202.5

SW

Ty Nam

225

WSW

Ty Ty Nam

247.5

Ty

270

WNW

Ty Ty Bc

292.5

NW

Ty Bc

315

NNW

Bc Ty Bc

337.5

Hoa gi (Wind rose)

Bng quy i tc gi theo Beaufort (m/s v km/h)


Bft.

m/s

km/h

Tn cp gi

Du hiu nhn bit

Lng gi

Khi ln thng

0,1
0,1

Sng bin

0 - 0,2

0,3-1,5

1-5

Gn lng gi

Khi hi b lay ng

1,6-3,3

6-11

Gi rt nh

Cy rung nh, l xo xc

0,2-0,3

3,4-5,4

12-19

Gi kh nh

Cnh cy rung, c bay nh

0,6-1,0

5,5-7,9

20-28

Gi nh

Bi v giy b thi bay

1,0-1,5

8,0-10,7

29-38

Gi va (Fresh Breeze)

Cy nh u a

2,0-2,5

10,8-13,8

39-49

Gi hi mnh

Mt ao, h gn sng

3,0-4,0

13,9-17,1

50-61

Gi kh mnh

Dy in ku vu vu

4,0-5,5

17,2-20,7

62-74

Gi mnh (Gale)

Ngi khng i ngc chiu


c

5,5-7,5

20,8-24,4

75-88

Gi rt mnh

Mi ngi nh cp 4 b lt

7,0-10,0

10

24,5-28,4

89-102

Gi bo (Storm)

R cy to bt ln

9,0-12,0

11

28,5-32,6

103-117

Gi bo ln

Sc ph mnh, h hi nh kin
c

11,0-16,0

12

32,7-36,9

118-133

Gi bo d (Hurricane)

i cung phong

14,0-18,0

Cc lc sinh ra v nh hng n gi
Lc pht ng gradient kh p (Pressure Gradient Force - PGF)
Gradient kh p nm ngang l gim ca p sut trn mt n v
khong cch theo phng thng, gc vi ng ng p (P/n)
Lc pht ng gradient kh p to ra gi, khng kh chuyn ng t
ni kh p cao n ni c kh p thp.

Lc Coriolis
L lc lm lch hng chuyn ng ca cc phn t khng kh do s
t quay ca tri t. Phn t chuyn ng lch v pha tay phi BBC
v tay tri NBC

CF = 2..v. sin
Trong :
- tc quay ca tri t (15o/gi)
v- tc ca phn t chuyn ng
- v a l

Lc Coriolis

Gi a chuyn (Geostrophic wind)


(Hng gi do s cn bng gia lc Coriolis v PGF)
Khi cc ng
ng p l nhng
ng thng song
song, lc Coriolis
cn bng vi PGF
(khng c lc khc
tham gia):
Hng gi thi
song song vi
ng ng p
Rt t xy ra trong
t nhin
C th tm thy
gii hn trn ca
tng i lu

Gi Gradient khi chu lc ly tm


Khi ng ng p l
nhng ng cong,
hng gi vn song
song vi ng ng
p
Nhng vn tc gi thay
i so vi gi a
chuyn
Do c mt lc khc
tham gia lc ly tm
(Centrifugal Force)
Thng tm thy lp
kh quyn trn cao
hoc trn mt bin

Gi lp kh quyn gn mt t

Do b tc ng
bi lc ma st
(Friction force)
lm thay i
hng chuyn
ng v gim
vn tc gi

Mc nh
hng ph thuc
vo iu kin a
hnh (i ni hay
mt bin)

Gi trong vng kh p thp v kh p cao

Xoy thun

Xoy nghch

Cc loi gi
Hon lu kh quyn
Gi hnh tinh (Global wind)
Gi ma (Monsoon)
Gi a phng (Local wind)
Gi t, bin (Breeze)
Gi ni, thung lng
Gi foehn

B<0

Lng bc x sng
di i ra khi bu
kh quyn hng nm

Lng bc
x sng
ngn mt
t nhn
c hng
nm
B>0

Gi hnh tinh (Global wind General circulation)

i lng
gi xch
o

Gi ma (monsoon)
Hng gi thay i theo ma
Nguyn nhn l do s chnh lch v nhit
trn lc a v i dng
Ma h: gi thi t bin vo lc a
Ma ng: gi thi t lc a ra bin

S x dch cc vnh ai kh p theo ma

S x dch cc vnh ai kh p theo ma

Gi t v gi bin
Thng gp nhng vng ven bin, ven h ln
Nguyn nhn: do s chnh lch nhit gia bin v t lin dn
n chnh lch v kh p.
Ban ngy gi thi t bin vo t lin, gi l gi bin do t lin
nng hn, kh p thp tr thnh ni ht gi.
Gi bin tc khong 2,5m/s, thi t 8h n khi mt tri ln, cc
i vo lc 12-13h, nh hng vo ti 40-50km trong t lin.
Ban m gi thi t t lin ra bin, gi l gi t v bin m hn
t lin li tr thnh ni ht gi.
Gi t yu hn gi bin v s i lp v nhit thp hn, nh hng
ra ngoi bin ti 10 km.
Gi t - bin thng xut hin vo nhng ngy tri quang my,
trong vng kh p cao vo ma h.

S hnh thnh gi bin

Chnh lch v kh p dn n gi thi t bin vao t lin


t (nong)

Nc (lanh)

S hnh thnh gi bin

Lng khng kh c gia


tng b mt bc ln cao

Khng kh trn cao chm xung thay


th khng kh thi i trn mt t
t (nng)

Nc (lanh)

S hnh thnh gi t

S chnh lch p sut dn n gi thi t t lin ra bin


t (lnh)

Nc (m)

S hnh thnh gi t
Lng khng kh c gia tng
b mt bin bc ln cao

Khng trn mt t kh thi i, khng kh


lp kh quyn trn cao chm xung thay th.
t (lnh)

Nc (m)

Gi ni v gi thung lng
Hnh thnh trung do, min ni, thay i hng theo nhp iu
ngy m.
Ban ngy gi thi t thung lng theo sn ni i ln do khng kh
trn thung lng hp thu nhiu bc x mt tri, nng ln (gi thung
lng).
Ban m gi thi t sn ni xung thung lng do s tch t khng
kh lnh, gi l gi ni
Xut hin vo nhng ngy thi tit p, khng b nh hng bi gi
ma.

Gi thung lng

Gi ni

cao so vi mc nc bin(km)

Gi foehn
Nu dy
ni cao 2
km, m
ti chn ni
bn sn
n gi l
80%, nhit
200C th
nhit v
m ti
chn ni
bn sn
khut gi l
bao nhiu ?

Gi foehn
V d:
C 1 khi khng kh ban u nhit 200C, m 80%, khi thi qua dy ni cao
2000 mt. Vy bn sn khut gi nhit v m l bao nhiu ?
Gii:
sn n gi: t = 200C nn c th tnh c (cc cng thc tnh ton chng
IV):
E = 6,1 . 10(7,6.20/242 + 20) = 23,4 mb e = 23,4 x 80/100 = 18,72 mb
a = 0,81 x 18.72/(1 + 0,00366 x 20) = 14,13 g/m3.
nh ni: Do i ln theo qu trnh on nhit m nn nhit gim i so vi ban
u 100C:
t = 200C - 100C = 100C E = 12,3 mb. y e = E hay r = 100%.
a = 0,81 x 12,3/ (1 + 0,00366 x 10) = 9,6 g/m3.
Lng cha m tuyt i gy ma l: 14,13 - 9,6 = 4,53 g/m3
chn ni sn khut gi: Do khng kh i xung theo qu trnh on nhit kh
nn nhit s tng ln so vi nh ni l 200C hay nhit chn ni l: t =
100C + 200C = 300C.
E = 6,1 . 10(7,6.30/242 + 30) = 42,05 mb. Sc trng hi nc thc t khi t = 300C v
a = 9,6 g/m3 l: e = 9,6 x (1 + 0,00366 x 30)/0,81 = 13,15 mb.
r % = (13,15/42,05) x 100 = 31,28%
Vy nhit sn khut gi t = 300C v m r = 31,28%.
Khng kh nh vy l rt kh v nng.