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# IS

FUTURE

GIVEN?

I L Y A

P R I G O G I N E

IS FUTURE GIVEN?

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IS FUTURE GIVEN? ILYA PRIGOGINE Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. 1977 V f e World Scientific ™b New Jersey • London • Singapore Sit • Hong Kong .

In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. including photocopying. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center. electronic or mechanical.. All rights reserved. Singapore 596224 USA office: Suite 202. or parts thereof. may not be reproduced in any form or by any means. NJ 07661 UK office: 57 Shelton Street. 5 Toh Tuck Link. London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 222 Rosewood Drive. . This book. USA. Ltd. Danvers. recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented. IS FUTURE GIVEN? Copyright © 2003 by World Scientific Publishing Co. 1060 Main Street. without written permission from the Publisher. River Edge. For photocopying of material in this volume.Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. MA 01923. ISBN 981-238-507-X ISBN 981-238-508-8 (pbk) Printed in Singapore. Inc. Covent Garden. Pte. Pte. Ltd.

Ilya Prigogine .

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These distinctions to Professor Ilya Prigogine were given for his achievements in Non-Equilibrium Physics and Chemistry. Kant. emergence of structures and creativity are the keynotes of natural processes at all levels. Hegel. Einstein and other eminent thinkers over the centuries. and even artists. Lucretius. but also by engineers. Thanks to Ilya Prigogine we have now a view of Nature which goes beyond the mechanical timeless automaton which we i n h e r i t e d from classical physics. His work is a continuation of the dialogue about Time and Change in Nature. terminated the separation between physical sciences on one side and . which were not only appreciated and used by physicists and mathematicians.uu Preface This book about the Future is a souvenir of Professor Ilya Prigogine's visit to Athens to receive Honorary Doctorates from the Departments of Chemical Engineering. Ilya Prigogine showed that Self-Organization appears in Nature far from equilibrium and that Irreversibility and Probability are intrinsic properties of Nature at all levels. Evolution. supported by strong scientific results. This view. Electrical and Computer Engineering and Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the National Technical University of Athens. sociologists. but also beyond a meaningless random game. biologists. philosophers. from atoms and nuclei to our everyday life up to the cosmological scale. initiated by Heraclitus and Parmenides and continued by Zeno. Begson. Epicurus.

1). 49). 21). Ilya Prigogine expressed his thoughts about Becoming and concluded with optimistic messages to the new generation (p.biological sciences and humanities on the other side. During his visit to the National Technical University of Athens we had the opportunity for constructive discussions. Professor loannis Antoniou. Ilya Prigogine had further discussions with Theodore Christidis. 33) and on Life and the Internet (p. on the evolution of ideas in Non-equilibrium Physics (p. the continuation of the work of nature are the grand challenges for the scientists of the 21 sl century. (p. a close collaborator of Ilya Prigogine and Deputy Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. on the role of time in the epistemology of Complexity (p. His evaluation that science today is at a "pre-historic" stage of development was particularly impressive. adding significant value to their role in the Physics and Chemistry of the 20th century [75]. The scientific path of Ilya Prigogine during the last 40 years has been linked with the significant work of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry which he transformed into an Advanced Study Institute for the study of Complexity. Human existence. as well as the foreseeable active role of Science in future. The understanding of complexity and the use of the creativity of nature. Ilya Prigogine's perspective offers the necessary concepts and tools to face the challenges ahead with optimism and is expected to lead to pioneering results in Science and Technology. In his exciting talk at the National Technical University of Athens on 26 May 2000. During our personal discussions. his uneasy creative spirit dominated together with his vivid interest on the role of Science in Society today. His remarks on the character and role of fundamental science deserve wide attention. was the main lever for the . 7). for Ilya Prigogine. and the journalists loannis Zisis and Maria Adamidou. means creativity and active participation in the society. professor at the University of Thessaly.

especially Professor George Metakides who. Pavlos Akritas. student of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department for the artistic design of the cover. Margaret Kontari for technical support. I would like to thank all those who contributed to the nomination of Ilya Prigogine as Honorary Doctor of the National Technical University of Athens. managed to find the time and undertook this initiative. knowing himself their meaning in depth and he concluded with an inspired epilogue on the opening to the future. September 2001 . Finally I would like to thank George-Alexander Dimakis. as well as Mrs. researcher at the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry for his contibution to the translation and the compilation. He accepted with enthusiasm my invitation to compile the high quality "shots" of the lecture into a structured text of messages for the general public. Anne De Naeyer and Mrs. Dr.Mt realization of this book. as well as for his contribution to the translations. Professor Themistoklis Xanthopoulos Rector of the National Technical University of Athens Athens. despite enormous pressure of his important work as coordinator of the European Research in the Science and Technology of Information.

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Antoniou 2f 7 Time in Non-equilibrium Physics 43 Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Theodore Christidis Time in the Epistemology of Complexity 55 Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Ioannis Zisis Internet a n d Life 7/ Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with Maria Epilogue 77 Ioannis Antoniou Adamidou .M Contents Preface mi Themistoklis Xanthopoulos Ilya Prigogine and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics a n d Chemistry / Ioannis Antoniou Is F u t u r e Given? Changes in O u r Description of Nature Ilya Prigogine's Lecture at the National Technical University of Athens Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking I. Prigogine and I.

References 85 9/ In Memorium: Farewell to Ilya Prigogine Ioannis Antoniou Curriculum Vitae of Ilya Prigogine 97 .

and Professor of Mathematics at the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki .Ilya Prigogine and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry loannis Antoniou Deputy Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry.

2 Professor Ilya Prigogine is the Director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry and Director of the Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems of the University of Texas at Austin, USA. In 1977 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his contributions to thermodynamics and non-equilibrium structures, more specifically for the theory of dissipative structures. Ilya Prigogine's interest in the world of learning has always had a broad basis. At a very early stage, for instance, he sought to apply his findings in thermodynamics to other areas of practicality and is regarded as one of the foremost architects of the new system theory of complexity. Ilya Prigogine studied at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles where he was the disciple of Professor Theophile De Donder, one of the pioneers in the non-equilibrium field. The relation of Ilya Prigogine with De Donder is mentioned in the discussion with Theodore Christidis (p. 21). Classical science insisted on stability and equilibrium, while today we see everywhere instabilities, fluctuations, evolution. This change of perspective is mainly due to the work of Ilya Prigogine and his collaborators. This new view of Nature is contrary to the deterministic and static image we inherited from classical physics. That is why, during these last years, Ilya Prigogine, and his collaborators devoted their work to find the roots of the flow of time in a new formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. Instead of "certitudes" like in the classical laws, these extended laws are dealing with "possibilities" in conformity with the evolutionary universe we observe around us. Professor Ilya Prigogine can look back on an exceptional academic and scientific career. He has held numerous chairs at foreign universities and has repeatedly been invited as visiting professor. Ilya Prigogine is the only Belgian Nobel Prize winner in Physical and Chemical Sciences. He is a member of over 60

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national and international academies, and holder of 47 Honorary Degrees. In Greece, Ilya Prigogine was honored not only by the National Technical University of Athens but also by the University of Thrace and the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki. Ilya Prigogine has obtained an impressive number of prizes and distinctions in the field of science in the USA, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Latin America and many other countries and has been made an honorary citizen of major cities in all continents. Five International Centers have been created in his honor: the Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is Director; the Centro Latinoamericano Ilya Prigogine at the National University of San Luis (Argentina); the Ilya Prigogine Center for the Mathematical Study of Complex Systems at Moscow State University, where he is Honorary Director; "Istituto di Documentazione e Ricerca Sull'Opera di Ilya Prigogine, Centro Internazionale Di Storia dello Spazio e del Tempo", Brugine-Padoa, Italy; in Brussels the "Haute Ecole Ilya Prigogine". Activities with Ilya Prigogine's name include the "Prigogine's lectures" at Universita dell'Insubria (Como, Italy), the "International Hall and Scientific Permanent Exhibition Ilya Prigogine" and the "International Scientific Award Ilya Prigogine" at the Universidad del Salvador (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and the "Prix Ilya Prigogine de Thermodynamique", CERET, France. In addition to scientific books and numerous articles in the leading international reviews, membership of over sixty national and international academies, Ilya Prigogine always wanted to keep contact with the public through the publications of books such as Order Out of Chaos (1984) [4] and From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences (1980) [3], translated into about 20 languages, The End of Certainty, 'Time, Chaos and the New Laws of Naure (1997) [18] and Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures (1998) [5].

4 In 1989, King Baudouin awarded him the personal title of Viscount. For several years, he was a special advisor to the European Commission. Ilya Prigogine was appointed director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry in 1958. Since then the Institutes have become an Advanced Study Institute in Nonequilibrium Physics and Complexity [http://solvayins.ulb.ac.be]. The research performed at the Institutes has demonstrated that far from equilibrium matter acquires new properties, which are the basis of a new coherence. This coherence makes possible the emergence of new complex structures and in particular biological structures. These results have led to the ideas of selforganisation which have been applied to a large number of fields including economic and social sciences. Although Ilya Prigogine obtained the Nobel Prize for his fundamental work in non-equilibrium Physics, he is also considered to be "among the most influential traffic theorists since the '60s" [85], because "his way of looking at nature and sociotechnical systems certainly shaped our thinking" [86]. The present Research activities of the Solvay Institutes involve both Fundamental and Applied Problems. The Solvay Institutes coordinate an International Research Network including European, Russian, American, Japanese, Chinese, Indian research institutes. Fundamental Research is focussed on the Probabilistic Description of different classes of Unstable/Non-Integrable Systems as well as on the Dynamical F o u n d a t i o n of Thermodynamical Systems. For Unstable/Non-Integrable Systems there exist new solutions corresponding to the probabilistic extensions of the evolution equations. These extensions are constructed through the generalised spectral decompositions of the evolution operators, which provide actually a probabilistic Integration of the equation of Dynamics. The Results illustrate the deep connection between Irreversibility, Probability and NonTntegrability/Chaos. The Solvay Institutes have been recognised as the Belgian scientific institution with the most universal representation.

wrote: "there can be no doubt that in these years the Solvay Conferences played an essential role in the history of physics . . Marie Curie." This activity is still going on. Ernest Rutherford. These new extended formulations of the dynamics of complex systems not only establish the bridge between microscopic dynamics and thermodynamics. the historical influence of the Solvay Conferences was connected with the special style introduced by their founder: a small group of the most competent specialists from various countries discussing the unsolved problems of their field and thereby finding a basis for their solutions. Albert Einstein. the Institutes have organised twenty-one conferences on Physics and twenty conferences on Chemistry. Louis De Broglie and other legendary personalities of modern science participated in these meetings (see photos). Since their creation. The 21st Solvay Conference in Physics took place in Kansai. they are assisted by two Scientific Commissions whose members are chosen among the most famous scientists. prediction and control of complex systems. The Solvay Conferences had an extraordinary success.5 Founded in 1910 by Ernest Solvay. where chemical reactions are studied on a time scale intrinsic to the movements of the atoms in molecules. the 20th Solvay Conference in Chemistry was about Femtochemistry. In organising the conferences.. In November 1995. founder of quantum mechanics. As Werner Heisenberg. Japan in 1998 and was devoted to the probabilistic description of classical and quantum dynamics. the International Institutes for Physics and Chemistry aim at organising regular conferences on Physics and Chemistry and encouraging research which could extend our knowledge of the natural phenomena. but also provide new probabilistic tools for the analysis. It is not an exaggeration to state that the Physics and Chemistry of the 20th century have been shaped in Brussels during these conferences [75].. some years after the f o u n d a t i o n of the Nobel Prizes by Alfred Nobel.

. Greece in November 2001 and was dedicated to "The Physics of Communication".6 The first Solvay Conference in Physics of the 21st Century (22nd Conference) took place in Delphi.

National Technical University of Athens. 26 May 2000 'Here I give an improved v e n k n taking into account the progress reached in the last two \. after the Honorary Doctorates Ceremony. .Is Future Given? Changes in Our Description of Nature llya Prigogine's Lecture1.

We show that our approach unifies dynamics.s According to the classical point of view. It is this model. Colleagues. My answer was that I feel that science is a n i m p o r t a n t way to u n d e r s t a n d the nature in which we are living a n d therefore also our position in this nature. I r e m e m b e r that some years ago a Japanese journalist asked a g r o u p of visitors why they are interested in science. T h e second difficulty is that the classical view does n o t c o r r e s p o n d to the historical time-oriented evolution. T h a t is t h e main result of m o d e r n cosmology with the Big Bang. I always felt that there are some difficulties in the descriptions of n a t u r e you find currently. it is true for living systems and. evolution everywhere. bifurcations. Dear Deans. However. the difficulties are overcome. I I feel very moved by the kindness shown to me. which leads to determinism and time reversibility. thermodynamics and probability theory. of course. This is true o n all levels. I would q u o t e three features. which we see everywhere a r o u n d us. We have shown that when we leave this model and consider a class of non-integrable systems. The classical model has been a model of integrable systems (in the sense of Poincare). nature would be an automaton. Everywhere we see narrative stages. n a t u r e leads to unexpected complexity. We have shown that the difficulties in the classical formulation come from a too narrow point of view concerning the fundamental laws of dynamics (classical or quantum). . Dear Rector. today we discover instabilities. Friends. for o u r brain. This demands a different formulation of the laws of nature to include probability and time symmetry breaking. It is t r u e in the case of the elementary particles. First of all. I d o n ' t know if I deserve so many honors. T h e universe is evolving.

everything occurs in a predetermined way. For example. Both points of view are not able to describe the features. Many great philosophers shared the views of Parmenides. since Hegel. These difficulties have led me to look for a different formulation. everything goes to death. Therefore nothing new can appear. Time is our existential dimension. which may or not happen. On the other hand. Matter was generally considered as a kind of ensemble of dust particles moving in disordered way. This problem is a continuation of the famous controversy between Parmenides and Heraclitus. Both views are pessimistic. An event is something. It is indeed difficult to imagine that the necessary information existed already in some way in the early stages of the universe. I want to show you that the dilemma between Heraclitus and Parmenides can now be put on an exact mathematical framework. the so-called thermal death. As you know. . From the dynamical point of view. In a sense after Newton's dynamics. we knew that there are forces. that everything was there and will be ever there. philosophers were divided. Parmenides insisted that there is nothing new. Heraclitus insisted on change. we have inherited from the 19th century two different worldviews. Heidegger. philosophy took a different point of view. This statement is paradoxical because the situation changed before and after he wrote his famous poem.9 They are events in nature. which I have mentioned before. Of course. From the thermo-dynamic point of view. On the other hand. the position of the moon in one million years is not an event as you can predict it. it seemed that Parmenides was right. because Newton's theory is a deterministic theory and time is reversible. But since the 19th century. But the forces don't explain the high degree of organization that we find in organisms. mechanics and the worldview of thermodynamics. Bergson. The worldview of dynamics. but the existence of millions of insects we observe is an evidence of what we could call creativity of nature.

the concentrations become uniform. everywhere one speaks about non-equilibrium structures. my main interest was to show that the difficulty comes from the fact that dynamics. that nonequilibrium leads to structure. But the results obtained by classical or quantum mechanics or classical thermodynamics contain certainly a large part of truth. Much later. so perhaps it is the fact that these systems are large and that we have no exact knowledge of their time evolution and that would give us the illusion of irreversibility. the path which I followed over my whole life. Since we see an evolutionary universe on all levels of observation. I liked the statement by Bergson: time is "invention". This I felt always to be very difficult to accept. . which I made at the beginning of my PhD. selforganization [3-8]. N2 may be more concentrated at the hot side. has to be put on a more general frame. That is the point of view adopted by most people even today. These new structures have become quite popular. For example. classical or quantum. in 1945 [1]. we can predict it for arbitrary future or past. However. We have to introduce a more general starting point. For example. The traditional description is deterministic. even in quantum theory. once we know the wave function for one time. was to show that these descriptions are based on a too restricted form of dynamics. The first step in this direction was an observation. But I could not stop at this point because thermodynamics is macroscopic physics.fO For classical physics and also for quantum physics. Indeed. Glansdorff [2]. thanks to the collaboration with Prof. when you consider the box in thermal equilibrium. Therefore. Future and past play the same role. you see a difference of concentrations. if you consider a box containing two components. and you heat it from one side and cool it from the other. These concepts have been applied to many fields including even social sciences or economic sciences. say N2 and O s . Of course. there is no privileged direction of time. we found that far from equilibrium there appears what we called dissipative structures.

// Let me make here a short excursion on theoretical physics. a very important point is that there are various choices of canonical variables q and p. To describe classical systems of this type. The Hamiltonian then depends only on the momenta p. You know that Einstein's great idea was to relate space and time to the properties of matter. .p). It is therefore natural to try to choose them in such a way that we eliminate the potential energy. _dH dq . Momenta are constant. therefore the time derivative of the momenta vanishes. the planetary motion or the motion of particles in a gas. which he called "integrable systems". we need two kinds of variables: coordinates q and momenta p. q{t). but limit the discussion to classical systems. p are called the "canonical variables". To describe our nature. As time goes on. p0._ dH dq At the initial time t = 0. For a long time it was considered that it was always possible to find such "privileged" canonical variables. Now. But Poincare. It is natural to choose the variables q. The Hamiltonian is simply the expression of the energy in terms of the observables p and q. such as the pendulum. For . The observables q. we need observables such as space and time. Once we have the Hamiltonian. This is studied in the basic chapters of classical physics. we can predict the motion through the so-called canonical equations (the dot means derivative). In classical theory [9]. they change into p(t). the observables are the initial positions and momenta q0. a dynamical system is described by the socalled Hamiltonian function H. We have then H = H{p) and p = 0. so that the solution of the canonical equations of motion are as simple as possible. But here I do not want to consider relativity. p. He found that this elimination was only possible for a class of dynamical systems. made a fundamental discovery. We could always eliminate the coordinates in the Hamiltonian. at the end of the 19th century. H = H(q.

. the angle variables a.. for HQ. The analog of U in quantum mechanics is the so-called unitary operator which preserves the form of the Schroedinger equation. Then for H including XV. When this is possible. We can in general introduce new momenta and new coordinates related to p and q by where U is a so-called canonical transformation which preserves the form of the Hamiltonian equations. There are other remarkable properties of unitary transformations. we know the action variables. / . It is remarkable that orthodox quantum mechanics used classical integrable dynamical systems as a model. This transformation theory has been intensively studied in the 19th and 20th centuries. 11]. By definition. HQt which depends only on momenta (the action variables). That means U acting on a product is equal to the product of the transformed entities: U~l(AB) = (U'1 A)(U"1 B). which would depend analytically on the old ones. but there is also a perturbation XV depending on both / and a. An important property is the distributivity of U. but there is no place here to go further into this [10. a) We have then one part. as interactions are eliminated or better to say i n c l u d e d in the definition of these objects. X is a parameter measuring the intensity of the perturbation. we ask if we can construct new action variables. U plays an essential role both in classical and quantum mechanics.12 example. I have to be a little more specific. the momenta p are called also the action variables / and the coordinates q. a) = Ho(J) + W(J. This means that the Hamiltonian H can be written as H(J) with J = J + XJW + X2J{2) + . The basic . this transformation would correspond to going to a representation in which each particle moves independently. Consider a system in which the Hamiltonian has two parts H(J. in a gas with many particles. What is the meaning of action variables? They represent independent objects.

in a field like in electromagnetism. There are again various representations of the operators related by unitary transformations.f3 difference is that the observables are now no more numbers but operators. either the frequency of the oscillator COp is below all the frequencies of the field or the frequency of the oscillator is somewhere in the domain of the frequencies of the field. o) cop 0 field frequencies co . 1 . as we shall see now. p is the differentiation . Suppose that the particle frequency is cop while the field forms a continuous set of frequencies starting from 0. in the representation in which q is a number. 0 . is quite different. that is of systems for which we cannot construct a unitary transformation. These are two very different situations. There are of course many classes of non-integrable systems. Let us only remind that. according to every book on quantum mechanics. For non-integrable systems. That is the class where there exist resonances. What is a resonance? Consider a particle. which eliminates the interactions. 11]. If the frequency of the oscillator is outside the field. This is the basis of the Heisenberg's uncertainty relations [10. like a harmonic oscillator. We shall consider a specific class of non-integrable systems. the situation. we shall now discuss non-integrable systems. cop (o Then there are two situations.d o p e r a t o r !— and we have the c o m m u t a t i o n relation qp — pq-—. . II After this short introduction to integrable systems.

But if it is inside. we have a so-called excited state and this excited state decays by emitting a photon to a ground state. that means that one has to put small quantities in the denominator to avoid the infinities. It is generally expressed by saying that the particle is dissolved in the continuum. There exists of course also an excitation process when the photon falls on the ground state. We have a desexcitation process. absorbed photon The interactions between the field and the oscillators are described by resonances. An example is the term: 1 (Ok ~ Mi cok is the frequency of the particle. emitted photon This is the well known Einstein and Bohr mechanism for the description of spectral lines. How to overcome this difficulty? We have shown that the resonances can be avoided by suitable "analytic continuation".w nothing special happens. Of course. The fundamental result of Poincare was to show that such resonances lead to difficulties through the appearance of divergent terms due to small denominators. coL is the frequency of the field. there are some specific . This difficulty was already known to Laplace.

which is a star-unitary operator.f5 mathematical problems to be overcome here. We cannot make a physics of points anymore. Even in classical theory. This also means that we have to give up classical determinism. This means that we have a statistical description. has very interesting new properties. In other words. T h e main point is that we have an extension of canonical transformations. The unitary operator U has been replaced by the operator A. in which there appear quantities such as transport coefficients. p = U~lp. a p p r o a c h to e q u i l i b r i u m . In short. classically people were thinking in terms of points. if you consider a crystal with vibrating atoms. it is a non-local transformation. p = AT1 p. reactions rates. We have the appearance of new fluctuations and new uncertainty relations. The second fundamental property of A is that we have no more distributivity. that means independent motions and then you can define the basic frequencies (normal modes). our key idea was to eliminate the Poincare divergences by extending the idea of unitary transformations. For example. which replaces U. 12-21]. Instead of the formula we have already written for unitary transformation. Similarly here by using the new representation. q = U~lq. More precisely we have _1 _1 A _1 AJB i= A A • A £. classical or quantum. In other words. but they can be studied in the original papers [3. First of all. Now the A transformation. but that doesn't matter here. the A operator acting on a product of coordinates is not the product . you can always find a representation in which you have normal coordinates. we now have: q = Krlq. but here we have to speak in terms of ensembles. it is very important to choose the right representation. For example. we have to make a physics of distributions. This opens a whole new domain of classical and q u a n t u m physics. we have now a new representation of observables and an extension of the dynamical theory. collections of points. you can come to expressions of motions.

for example. The new properties are: First of all. In other words. The Langevin equation has a broken time symmetry. noise. to the motion of a heavy particle in a thermal medium and it is one of the most important results of statistical physics. dfaW/dt dxi(t)/dt = -ypi(t) . We have also obtained the quantum Langevin equation using the quantum analogues of A transforms. an important role is played by the so-called Langevin equation. This corresponds. Uncertainty relation can now be established for x and p separately. being classical or quantum. Now recently S. In statistical physics. statistical theory. and noise. The Langevin equation corresponds to a system in which resonances between the Brownian particle and the thermal medium play an essential role. refer in fact only to exceptional ideal cases. These are fundamental results. These are consequences of nonintegrability while integrable systems. The whole space-time structure is altered. Kim and G. the ./6 of the transformed coordinates. which were used as a model for classical and quantum physics.nuoi2Xi(t) + B{t) + A(t) = -7x1(0 + pi(t)/m These equations describe the damped harmonic oscillator with random momentum. Ordonez have shown [87] that using our new transformation A. kinetic equations were considered as coming from ap proximations introduced into dynamics. We are living in a nature in which the rule is non-integrability. What we show now is that these properties. noise and stochasticity are directly derived from a m o r e general formulation of dynamics. Let me give an example. where 7 is the friction. you derive exactly the Langevin equations and therefore also the basic properties studied in statistical mechanics. This is not due to approximation but expresses that x(t) and p(t) are A transforms. Dynamics and probability theory were always considered as separate domains. There is an uncertainty in position. And in non-integrable systems we have quite new properties.

that is due to the analytic continuation and third. it is very nice that these systems are non-integrable. Electrons. This. we may either start from an individual description or with ensembles. in one way or another. Gibbs and Einstein have shown that thermodynamics is based on the theory of ensembles. therefore no more determinism. This is no more so. The new transformed variables are random. In the classical point of view. the coordinate % and the momentum p have to be understood as non-unitary transforms of the original variables. As a result the analytic continuation of a product is not the product of the analytic continuations. More precisely. in the examples of the interaction between the oscillators and the field. unstable particles or quantum transitions. These new properties originate from the fact that we use analytic continuation of the evolution operators. If you could. Ill Now we want to go to a different aspect. photons are only observable because they interact and participate in irreversible processes. were obtained from approximations ("coarse graining"). the Liouville equation is transformed into a kinetic equation. for our class of non-integrable systems. Secondly. even in classical physics.n appearance of new fluctuations. leading to stochasticity and probability. you would not be able to observe the quantum transitions from one level to the others. apply a unitary transformation. which goes back to Boltzmann (1872) [22. the appearance of a privileged direction of time. When we observe the Langevin equation. A transforms a phase point into an ensemble. In a sense. closes a controversy. This aspect is related to a different description of elementary processes. The basic idea of unitary transformation of integrable systems is that you could. I believe. The ensembles p o i n t of view is a c o n s e q u e n c e of the A transformation. as we have already mentioned. . nondistributivity leading to new uncertainty relations. These ensembles. 23].

stating that the second law is probabilistic and comes ultimately from our ignorance and the point of view of Planck that for the second law. IV Once we have irreversibility it is clear that we have also some form of the second law of thermodynamics. 24-26]. Gonzalo Ordonez. Indeed. In a gas. Collisions give rise to thermal motion. For example.fS eliminate interactions. The point of view of Boltzmann. He studied the collisions in dilute systems and showed that you can find a function. the entropy production is a consequence of . Poincare wrote that there was a basic contradiction: on one hand. to use classical mechanics. There are limits to reductionism. Boltzmann had the ambition to become the Darwin of physics. Evgueni Karpov and others. even if it is at equilibrium. interactions cannot be eliminated. So we need non-integrable systems. Boltzmann tried to apply classical mechanics to non-integrable systems. to come out with entropy which is time oriented. Gases cannot be integrable systems. on the other hand. we have shown. all momenta would be invariants of motion. because then they would never go to equilibrium. We can now understand what was the reason. This led to a lot of controversies. collisions continue to occur and interactions are never eliminated. which plays the role of entropy. Think about a gas. in non-integrable systems. that means entropy increase. But interactions are a fundamental part of nature which we observe and. We have applied our method to a number of problems such as unstable particles or radiation damping (details can be found in the original publications) [19-21. that we can formulate the second law in terms of dynamical processes. together with Tomio Petrosky. There were always two points of view. And once we have non-integrable systems. then Boltzmann's equations are exact consequences of the extended dynamics. which would prevent the system to approach equilibrium.

Particles with mass should. dissolve into a continuum. without proper mass. Laplace and Einstein believed that man is a machine within the cosmic machine. This is not astonishing because. with mass. The future is . in a sense. in the Big Bang is this differentiation. This does not seem very satisfactory. Spinoza said that we are all machines but we don't know it. and we have photons. May I finish my lecture by some general remarks. Consider the problem of resonances. which I have tried to describe in my lecture. We have particles. Events are associated with bifurcations. which I described a little earlier. an excited state contains "more energy" than the ground state. We have massive particles floating in a bath of zero mass objects like the photons. we don't know how the biological evolution is evolving. However. that to bring an atom into an excited state.19 dynamics. In a sense. This supplementary energy can then be distributed on all degrees of freedom of the field. our whole vision of the universe around us is an example of non-equilibrium systems. Non-equilibrium physics has given us a better understanding of the mechanism of the emergence of events. I think that the various concepts. On the contrary. we need a process which brings negative entropy to the atom. to describe our evolutionary universe. show that we are only at the beginning. Probably the main event in the history of our universe. Science and physics are far from being completed. We don't know what exactly corresponded to the Big Bang. which is then used to excite it. we have only taken very preliminary steps. as some theoretical physicists wants us to believe. where we have shown that the decay of the excited state with the emission of the photon is an irreversible process leading to entropy production. Conclusions We come to a different concept of reality. we don't know what determines the families of particles. We have shown that the inverse process is also possible. from the thermodynamical point of view.

Especially in this time of globalization and the network revolution. Time is our existential dimension. Einstein was right for integrable systems but the world around us is basically formed by non-integrable systems.20 n o t determined. I shall not thank individually each member of this group but I want to make an exception for Prof. This leads us to believe that some of our conclusions remain valid in human societies. . Thank you very much. and the Communaute Francaise de Belgique. Dr. Just as few particles can alter the macroscopic organization in nature to show the appearance of different dissipative structures. Grant No. Acknowledgements T h e results described in this paper are the fruit of the work of the Brussels-Austin group. T h e role of individuals is more important than ever. the Engineering Research Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the US Department of Energy. behavior at the individual level is the key factor in shaping the evolution of the entire human species. which has led to the formulation of the extension of canonical transformations. The results described in this paper show that the conflict between Parmenides and Heraclite can be taken out from its metaphysical context and formulated in terms of modern theory of dynamical systems. Tomio Petrosky. HPHA-CT-2000-00015 and HPHA-CT-2001-40002. F-0365. It is their work. the National Lottery of Belgium. I acknowledge the European Commission Grant Nos. Ioannis Aritoniou. Gonzalo Ordonez and Prof. A famous saying of Einstein is that time is an "illusion".

S7<) of the Auiwh «l tlu. Antoniou Reprinted from Tempos in Science and Nature: Structures. June JO. Volume . and Complexity. I .Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking llya Prigogine and I. Relations.Mm York Academy of Sciences.

U. make no distinction between past and future.). plays an essential role in these processes.1'2 Concepts such as "dissipative struc tures" and "self-organization" have become quite popular. the observed behavior is even more varied. Vrije Universiteit Brussels (V. coherent structures. But at that time. How can these findings be interpreted from the point of view of the basic laws of physics? Newtonian dynamics.E. It is interesting that the time paradox was only identified in the sec ond half of the 19th century. 1050 Brussels. when we change the distance from equilibrium. Boulevard du Triomphe. and biology to large scale systems of relevance in environmental and economic sciences. This puzzle has led to an unending series of controversies.N. On the one hand. In nonequilibrium physics and chem istry. now we see instabilities. Time is simply a bookkeeping parameter without any direc tion. Texas 78712. the laws of Newtonian physics had been accepted as expressing the ideal of objective knowledge. How then can we introduce unidirectional time without destroying these amazing achievements of the human mind? How then to make the bridge with dynamics? We shall describe two popular pro cedures. 1050 Brussels. The distance from equi librium. any attempt to confer on the arrow of time a fundamental significance was resisted as a threat to the ideal of objective knowledge. and evolutionary trends in a variety of areas ranging from atomic and molecular physics through fluid mechanics. Austin.22 Laws of Nature and Time Symmetry Breaking I. and quantum physics. fluctuations. chemistry. Campus Plaine VLB—CP 231. Newton's laws were considered final in their domain of application. It has been well known ever since the pioneering work of Gibbs and Einstein that we can describe dynamics from two points of view. This may be called the time paradox. As they imply the equivalence between past and future. PRIGOGINE"'* AND I. ANTONIOUac international Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. we have the . somewhat like temperature in equilibrium physics.B). Belgium Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics. USA c TheoretischeNatuurkunde (T. The University of Texas at Austin. It was then that the Viennese physicist Ludwig Boltzmann tried to emulate what Charles Darwin had done in biology and to formulate an evolutionary approach to physics.A. Robert Lee Moore Hall. or a seemingly erratic motion character ized by unpredictability often referred to as deterministic chaos. Classical science emphasized stability and equilibrium. we have various states of matter in succession. a radical change of perspective has been witnessed in science since the realization that large classes of systems may exhibit abrupt transitions. When we lower the temperature. Belgium INTRODUCTION: IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES IN NATURE In recent years. somewhat as quantum mechanics is today considered to befinalby many physicists. a multiplicity of states. and therefore the arrow of time. relativity.

we observe today both reversible..-< V m The time change is determined by the action of the Hamiltonian operator on the wavefunction V|/. is to understand the origin of the difference between reversible and irreversible processes that exist at present whatever the assumptions on cosmology. for ex ample (discrete spectrum). co: co i-» 5. the determination of its eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. every conclusion obtained from p c „ for the future t > 0 would be valid for the past t < 0. which is the starting point of statistical physics and which we shall study in the subsequent sections of this paper. Our task. that is the origin of all irreversibility . in addition to p (called the "fine-grained" distribution).. H oP = 5 > < » J n (3) . therefore. in his Lectures on Physics.. For example. It is straightforward to see that this coarse-grained distribution leads to equilibrium in the future t > 0 as well as in the past / < 0.. A point co in phase space is transformed after a time t into the point S. because as the laws of dynamics are time reversible. or of wavefunctions in quantum theory. As is well known the basic equation is the Schrodinger equation: If . the universe at one time had a very low entropy . time-symmetric processes as well as irreversible processes. pcg. let us first consider in more detail what we may call a "law of nature.. co (1) In quantum mechanics the situation is different. that is. Therefore. we ourselves assume the responsibility for the appearance of the arrow of time." LAWS OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS As is well known. Adopting this point of view. the only possibility is a formulation of the laws of nature which explicitly includes time symmetry breaking and a characterization of the systems that lead to irreversible processes. a coarse-grained distribution. the introduction of p c „ introduces ar bitrary approximations and a loss of information. which results from averaging p over the micro scopic states. the laws of classical mechanics describe evolution in terms of point transformations. we have the collective statistical descrip tion in terms of ensembles represented by a probability distribution p (a probability density in classical mechanics or a density operator in quantum theory). The probability p satisfies a well-defined equation both in classical and quantum theory.23 individual description in terms of trajectories in classical dynamics. Feyman 4 wrote: "For some reason. This is the Liouville equation. we need the spectral analysis of the op erator Hop. The Ehrenfests have introduced. In order to see this action. There is also the "cosmological" argument. Whatever the past history of our universe. On the other hand. Moreover." This argument is somewhat strange. In our opinion.

\un) = e±a°k\un). depends on the function space. The two descriptions in terms of trajectories and in terms of ensembles involving p are equiv alent. to which we shall come back several times. In both classical and quantum mechanics. In a famous article B.p(oo) = p(5.O. A simple example is the 8-function.1co) (6) for all functions p in the Hilbert space of square-integrable phase densities. p satisfies the Liouville-von Neumann equation (L-N equation) | 2 = _jLp at or p(t) = U. That leads to eigenfunctions e±mt which are time symmetric as they are also eigenfunc tions of the unitary group U. Ex amples will be given in the sections that follow. 1): £/. Koopman9 showed that the evolution of probability den sities of classical systems is described by a unitary group Ut implemented by the point transformation S. we have jdxf(x)Hx) = /(0) (5) Spectral analysis of operators is the natural tool for the statistical problems asso ciated with the time evolution of the statistical distribution p in classical systems as well as for the ones discussed in the Introduction. Therefore. that is.: U. with functions that are square integrable: +°° Jdx|/(x)|2<- (4) The solution *F >-» Ut ¥ of the Schrodinger Equation (2) preserves the scalar product: (fiJ) = jdxf*. 10 But this is usually no longer so when we go outside the Hilbert space. is that the spectral decomposition. (Eq.fj. however. This symmetry breaks. Equation (3). 5 quantum theory was associated with Hilbert space. when we extend the evolution beyond the Hil bert space and consider a wider class of functions (often called generalized functions 6 ' 7 ).8 As is well known. Lp = dp dq dq dp . An essential point.p(0) = e~iL. Traditionally. Ut is a unitary group.p(0) (7) In classsical dynamics L is the differential operator acting on the Hilbert space of square integrable density functions. The Hamiltonian oper ator is "Hermitian" and has therefore only real eigenvalues in the Hilbert space.24 where the \un) (and the conjugates (un\) are the eigenfunctions and GO„ the corre sponding energy levels.

the points draw closer together while the square is being flattened into a rectangle. y) become {2x. as it is multiplied by 2 (mod 1) at each iteration. y/2) for 0 < x < 1/2 and (2x . The Baker transformation. For the Baker map. The inverse transformation. DETERMINISTIC CHAOS: THE BAKER TRANSFORMATION For the first example we will consider deterministic chaos. We obtain. 1 Let us begin with a square with sides of length 1. the coordinates (x.1. GO (b) FIGURE 1. As long as we stay in the Hilbert space. 1). (c) . Moreover. (y + l)/2 for 1/2 < x < 1. because the number n of transforma tions measures time. set as closely as we choose at time t = 0. Because the distance between two points along the hori zontal coordinate x doubles with each transformation. At each step.p] The L-N operator L is Hermitian and e~'L' unitary.25 whereas in quantum mechanics L is the commutator with the Hamiltonian operator Hop acting on the Hilbert-Schmidt space of density operators: Lp = [Hop. There is no directed flow of time. If we rewrite 2" as en]og2. new dynamical laws that provide the microscopic basis for irreversible processes. In the transverse direction. then. The simplest example that captures the essential characteristics of classical systems is the well-known Baker transformation of the unit square. in which two trajec tories. then we cut it in half and build a new square. which first reshapes the square into a rectangle with length Vi and height 2. it will be multiplied by 2" after n transformations. because we have the contracting coordinate y. but when we go outside the Hilbert space we find spectral decompositions of L that include time symmetry breaking. The horizontal coor dinate x is the expanding coordinate. On the Baker map. the equations of motion are very simple. diverge exponentially as time goes on (the Lyapounov exponents). the L-N equation gives nothing new with respect to the classical (1) or quan tum mechanical (2) descriptions. the two coordinates play different roles. the transformation is reversible. we see that after one iter ation of this process (or mapping). To obtain the inverse Baker transformation. If we examine the lower part of the square. we only have to permute x and y. The L-N equations lead then to new solutions that can no more be implemented by trajectories or wavefunctions. it splits into two bands (see FIG. we see that the Lyapunov exponent is log2. The area of the square is preserved. returns each point to its initial position.

Note that Equation (10) leads to ^p = X ' F« > A< ^« i p> 11 = 0 2 for >>° (ID {Fn\ being a distribution.) In accordance with our observations. The first one is in Hilbert space and can be written If = jdkeikn\fk)(fk\ (9) Because the eigenvalues are e'kn. 1). which involves Jordan blocks. n e Z. We have two different semigroups corresponding to different test functions for the distributions.11 It has been recently shown that there exist two spectral representations for the evolution U". The probability distribution p tends toward equilibrium for t —> °°.'' Here we have a formulation of dynamics that includes the arrow of time. (More details are given in the APPEN DIX. t — > °°. this formula is only meaningful when p is not a distribu tion. which corresponds to the contracting direction y (see FIG. and we have seen in the section on laws of classical and quantum mechanics that products of dis tributions may lead to divergence. 11) that leads to equilibrium in the future. The initial condition has to be a region of finite dimension (as small as we want). We have Pn+i = Upn (8) U is called the "Perron-Frobenius" operator. there is no time symmetry breaking. pro ducing an increasing number of disconnected regions. This solution is equivalent to the solution of the equation of motion. by comparison with Equation (9) this corresponds to k imaginary. Irreversibility is asso ciated with semigroups. see Ap pendix. But it has been recently established12'13 that there is a second spectral decompo sition outside the Hilbert space: "= £l^>i<^i «=o l do) (We simplify somewhat the actual situation. d l/2" = e " l g 2 . such as \dxF(x)p(x). Let us consider the successive probability distributions. The fundamental quantity is now the probability distribution. There is also a spectral decomposition in which p — > peq for t — > -«>.26 There is also a second Lyapunov exponent with the negative value -log2. Equilibrium would be reached in the past. {F\ p) is the scalar product of F with p. The eigenvalues 1/2" are expressing the rates of approach to equilibrium. p — > peq. . Successive iterations of the Baker transformation lead to fragmentation of the shaded and unshaded areas. Using Equation (11). we choose the semigroup (Eq. This excludes trajectories that are 8-functions.) The main point is that the eigenfunctions Fn and Fn are distributions.

We shall show that the in- . he proved that dynamic systems were generally nonintegrable. 11) of dy namics are rigorous. ultraviolet has a higher frequency co and shorter wavelength k than infrared light. Equation (11) gives us the first example of a classical dynamical law that is not reducible to trajectories and contains the arrow of time. We shall come back to this problem in the section on particles. practically infinite number of degrees of freedom. Poincare then asked the questions. This is why we call these systems large Poincare systems. Both formulations (Eq. A frequency ro^ depends on the wavelength k. THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS Thermodynamic systems are characterized by a large. This condition is met when the volume in which the system is located is large enough for surface effects to be ignored. Equation (11) applies to the realistic initial condition which corresponds to a finite area. noninteracting particles for which there is no potential ener gy and the calculation of trajectories is trivial.) When we consider nonintegrable systems in which the frequency varies continuously with the wavelength. Are all systems integrable? Can we choose suitable variables to eliminate potential energy? By showing that this was generally impossible. Such systems are by definition integrable.27 These conclusions can be extended to an important class of dynamic systems. (Using light as an example. lOandEq. the so-called K flows (K for Kolmogorov). We are all more or less familiar with the concept of resonance from elementary acoustics. Also. large Poincare systems (LPS). Note that it is only in the so-called thermodynamic limit Af->oo y->oo ^=C: finite (12) that we obtain a correct formulation of phase transitions. The simplest example would be free. fields. and irreversibility. we shall concern ourselves primarily with nonintegra ble. Thermodynamics and entropy are also usually associated with large systems con taining a large number of particles. a dynamical system is characterized in terms of the kinetic en ergy of its particles plus the potential energy due to their interactions.oo0 separating the excited state |1) from the ground state |0). In the following section. we arrive at the very definition of LPS. Poincare not only demonstrated nonintegrability. Think about atoms where excited states occur when we introduce radiation with frequency (% which coincides with the frequency ©i . The sig nificant fact is that most dynamic systems are not integrable.14 We want to consider the effect of the thermodynamic limit for dynamic systems. but also identified the reason for it: the existence of resonances between the degrees of freedom. We shall now consider more closely the dynam ics of these systems. all radiation processes are related to resonances. Poincare resonances are associated with frequen cies corresponding to various modes of motion. POINCARE INTEGRABILITY As is well known.

. we require in addition that there are extensive vari ables such as the average potential energy U: lim . 2k.18 Let us summarize our results for one-di mensional anharmonic lattices.. 0. —lk.vl + - (is) which have to converge for N —> < * > ... a) = £p { „ } (V Z " t < X i The Hilbert norm is therefore n ii 2 (16) PI|P(«)W| 2 (17) To obtain afiniteHilbert norm for N — > °°.28 teraction between the degrees of freedom leads indeed beyond the Hilbert space structure.. Harmonic lattices correspond to integrable systems.^ = finite /v->°° N and intensive variables such as the pressure p lim p = finite (-\A\ (13) We have recently considered the examples of anharmonic lattices16 as well as of large systems of interacting particles. This implies ' 9h"j^'' _2 Pl Pl _ 1 < *- N (19) (20) .. The equilibrium distance a between two neighboring lattice sites being given. Equation (12) reduces to the limit y V— » « (as V= aN). In the thermodynamic limit. the norm (Eq. well-defined conditions have to be sat isfied.17. The potential energy U is given by the quadratic form UU ' 0=kjJAnn'unun' (15) where un is the displacement of therathatom from its equilibrium position (we im pose cyclic boundary conditions un+N= un).| kk' + kk'k" XKi. 17) contains terms with nk = . With obvious notations p(7. Indeed. lj. We may solve the dynamical problem either by point transformations using angle-action variables a and J or by the Liouville equation introducing the Hilbert space structure. as there is no coupling be tween the normal modes. . = M +I hJ k P0==0(1) as well as + 2>M.

24) of the three-mode correlations (Eq. U U ~ 0 = ^LA»n'unUn' + \ £ B nn'n"U „Un"n" nn' nn'n" (22) Higher order terms in the displacement would not introduce any change.phh. We have called these collision processes. the extension of the functional space outside the Hilbert space alone does not imply time symmetry breaking. such as N~112 instead of UN. As the result of Poincare resonances.. To obtain Equation (13). the Hilbert norm diverges. Consider then anharmonic lattices.e. However. at the lowest order. Our conclusion applies as well to systems of interacting particles in the thermo dynamic limit and even to interacting fields (see the section on particles. We may have processes "destroying" correlations as represented graphically in FIGURE 2. .29 for the components with k + k' + k" = 0 or a vector on the reciprocal lattice. we need in addition nonintegrability in the sense of Poincare. (V>« ^jdJVkkT. Poincare's nonintegrability is associated with resonances. As is well known. and irreversibility). p 0 to p 0 ) (see FIG. as applied to large thermodynamic systems (LPS). We may also have processes creating correlations (FIG. fields. We may calculate the value of the average potential energy. if P i ^ \k« is too large. 4). we may have in addition processes relating states corresponding to the same degree of correlation (i. 3).h„ kk'k" (23) (24) Using the value (Eq. 20) we obtain (V)~jN (25) which is incompatible with Equation (13). The potential energy is. and N for the components not on the reciprocal lattice. The Hamiltonian H becomes H=H0 + XV where we have introduced the parameter X for the coupling constant. For this. However. we need stron ger correlations Pl ^-j* ( 2 6 ) but then the Hilbert space norm diverges. This leads to new processes taking place at the statistical level. We refer to the original papers for the de scription how p is "ejected" from the Hilbert space as the result of the interactions.

] . „ to the vacuum of correlation pn- k " f?ikik'ik" po k" FIGURE 3. as they appear. We may qualitatively describe the situation by imagining each observable corresponding to a finite number of degrees of freedom "swimming" in the infinite sea associated with the thermodynamics limit. Destruction of correlations leading from a three-mode correlation P[. each vertex contains derivative operators d/dJ. FIGURE 4 leads therefore to processes con taining second-order operators d2ldJ2 characteristic of diffusive processes. for example. In FIGURES 2-4. in the Fokker-Planck equation for classical dynamics and in the Pauli's master equation for quantum me chanics. Creation of correlations leading from p 0 to Puu-U" The collision processes destroy the trajectory description. . The main result is that the dynamics of large Poincare's systems (LPS) are ruled by "Langevin-type" interactions.30 k k' e° k" ^-ikik-ik- FIGURE 2..

This class has to include the equilibrium distribution and should not be invariant un der time inversion. To go further we have to introduce a class of functions p outside the Hilbert space. = e'^and a complete set of eigen-projection operators P where L0P=PL0 (28) . Boltzmann's "molecular chaos" already introduces a privileged direction of time). Let's briefly summarize some of the main results.3f FIGURE 4. indeed. (This is in contrast with Boltzmann's molecular chaos. In classical mechanics L0 admits eigenfunctions of the form L0 (pk = kp/m (f>£. We see that LPS involve new effects not considered in Newtonian or quantum me chanics.16-18 We shall now describe briefly the spectral representation of the L-N operator when extended outside the Hilbert space. This is an important novel aspect we shall briefly describe in the next section. 20) and is de scribed in detail in recent publications. but at the level of probabil ities. All these results can easily be extended to quantum mechanics. Collision processes relating to p0 to p0. DYNAMICS OF LARGE POINCARE SYSTEMS We have recently solved the eigenvalue problem for the L-N operator extended outside the Hilbert space. For a system of interacting particles L is given by L = L0 + XLY (27) using obvious notations. As in the case of deterministic chaos.18 We then obtain a formulation of quantum mechanics outside the Hilbert space in which the funda mental quantities are density operators and are no longer wave amplitudes. we obtain a formulation of dynamics in terms of probabilities that breaks the time symmetry. not on the level of trajectories or wavefunctions. (pj. LPS can therefore be inte grated. A class of distributions satisfying these criteria has already been introduced in the monograph "Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics"19 (see also Ref.

Boltzman) do not contain long tails. This represen tation is nonreducible in the sense that it involves probabilities and cannot be reduced to trajectories or wavefunctions. Of course. and the long-tail time. one could also obtain a spectral decomposition with Im za > 0 which leads to equilibrium in the past. 21 As a result we have three time periods: the Zenon time.21 = 'if \dt'V(t']^ o P(f-'') + ^ CP(0)) (30) \f(t) is the time-dependent collision operator leading from P to P (see FIG. the exponential time period. The classical kinetic theories (Fokker. This formula includes memory effects ("non-Markovian" behavior). As is well known.« <2«= 1 . They satisfy the usual completeness and orthonormality relations. 4) and the "destruction fragment" leading from p -> p (u. Planck.32 v is the number of nonvanishing k vectors. More explicitly. In a recent paper 18 we obtained the spectral decomposition of L when applied to the class of functions of the section on Poincare integrability. ^ 0). therefore. time symmetry breaking. 19. The spectral decomposition of the Liouville operator can be written in the form ^ = Xl^»4«4| vex (3D Therefore. There is. This formula was established by Resibois and Prigogine in 1961. and they have different domains. the evolution is non-Markovian for thermodynamic systems. We also introduce the projection operators Qa : V V V V V V . The spectral decomposition leads to the basic intertwining relation ALA"1 = 0 (32) . This is the subject of the mode-mode coupling theory. We have the so-called master equation for P. we shall use the notation Pa where a denotes the particles associated with nonvanishing wavevectors and v the value of the wavevectors. 21 We shall come back to this question at the end of this section.^ . PaQa = QaPa = V <29> In particular Pp is the velocity distribution that is factorized in a product of individ ual velocity distribution functions. The diagonalization has been ob tained on the level of distribution functions outside the Hilbert space. A similar classification was in troduced earlier for unstable particles. The eigenvalues za are complex and satisfy the inequality Im za < 0. which is still in a rather early stage. which can be found in many books. nonintegrable systems (in the sense of Poincare) can be integrated on the Liouville level. 22 The experimental discovery of long-tail effects by Alder 23 in the sixties has led to a deep change in the kinetic theory of fluids. The main point is that the two spectral decomposi tions are distinct. We will only quote the result here.

which show the evolution of the binary distribution functions g\2(r< 0Therefore. we obtain a superposition of Mark ovian processes. always violate causality in the propagation of irreversible processes.. P0q=ftpeq=((?+/. z a = 0. ^p = I p n p (37) o o We want to emphasize the special role of n . In this way.)3 (38) o Also. Indeed. Causality is obtained by including the effect of n (therefore. There are additional points that are important. To retain fl is only correct for local properties far from the propagating edge. private communication). however. Our approach permits us to introduce causality into kinetic theory. 0 v V . n leads to correlations over ar bitrary distances. all classical kinetic equations lie in n as well as all invariants of motions such as the Hamiltonian H. t = 0) = 0 The results are represented in FIGURES 5 through 7.-e7nP (36) There is an infinite number of Markovian processes because each distribution func tion. the questions left open by the mode-mode coupling ap proach can be solved (T. we can obtain a complete set of projectors n for the Liouville operator L. Petrosky. The collision operator 0 is diagonal in the Pa representation 0 = 5>V0PV= 1 0 V V (33) Also. . At equilibrium. Indeed. To illustrate this statement consider the time evolution of the binary correlation g12(>". that we take into account n (and if necessary n for V > 2) for nonequilibrium processes. u p + ftp ). n is the only part of the dis tribution function p that contains vanishing eigenvalues. H = ft// = H0 2 (39) v Causality requires. it is not astonishing that the equilibrium distribution lies in the ft . 0 r v.33 The operator L is nonunitary (L+ / L ' ) . LYl = TIL fi = A" 1 P A V V (34) (35) It is quite remarkable that each projection P U leads to a Markovian process that we can write in the following form: 4^ at = -. such as P p can be written as a superposition of the projection operators n . Therefore. the classical kinetic theories that retain only n . t) with gi2(r.. Instead of the non-Markovian Equation (30).

g2 (r. t) for t = 0. The time evolution of thermodynamic systems is given by the L-N equation applied to a class of generalized functions p outside the Hilbert space. b— -0 ~5> 0 2 FIGURE 5. (Complete compensation between n and n . ) !=> 0 0 2 FIGURE 6. Time evolution of g2 (r. il < t2 < (3 ■ Let us summarize this section. /).) * t FIGURE 7. we have for LPS only a formulation of dynamics in which the . g2 (r. (Partial compensation between II and II. t) for t = 0. In contrast with the Baker transformation studied in the section on de terministic chaos.34 3i %. where we had both a time-reversible and a time-irreversible for mulation of dynamics.

and I. or unstable particles. Ordonez. Petrosky. Prigogine that will appear soon in Physica A. 8). One can give meaning to these phenomena only with reference to a perturbation method.1 The Hamiltonian operator is ff = ff0 + A. which describes the interaction of a two-level atom with radiation. .35 central quantity is the probability and which has a broken time symmetry.V=|l>a>1<l| + ]r|*><!(>A<*| +Jl£v t (|*XH +UX*I) k k (40) The states 11) and \k) are eigenfunctions of H0. Once this is done. They occur when the unperturbed system (of scatterer plus particle) has stationary states that are closed. We have achieved in this way a microscopic formulation of the arrow of time. Let us describe in detail this difficulty using the well-known Friedrichs model. T h i s section is a summary of a paper by T. G. We want now to demonstrate briefly that our approach has fundamental conse quences for basic aspects of modern physics. -fe O) FIGURE 8. FIELDS. nuclear. (a) Bound state. _* j ^ (<L) -. but we cannot present this within the framework of this article. AND IRREVERSIBILITY* Atomic. we can construct this entropy on a microscopic basis. The introduction of the perturbation spoils the stationary property of these states and gives rise to spontaneous emission and its converse absorption. There are two situations. (b) resonance. These objects cannot be eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian (in contrast with the ground-state or with stable-state particles). In this model we have a discrete state 11) representing a bare particle coupled to continuous states \k) corresponding to field modes.8 The fact that we had to use the word "approximately" in stating the conditions required for the phenomena of emission and absorption to be able to occur shows that these con ditions are not expressible in exact mathematical language. and high energy physics deal with excited states. The effect of the perturbation is to lead to the emission or the absorption of a photon (this model neglects virtual tran sitions). PARTICLES. according to whether u)| is less than or greater than zero (FIG. Dirac has recognized this situa tion very well.

the photons carry away the excess energy.> The exact expression for |<pj) can be shown to be24: lq>i> = # . Similarly we have the dressed photon. As the dressed particle emerges.1 Vj.36 For coj < 0 we have a bound state. 1/2 (41) n)-X k XV. Photon distribution around a stable particle (t= 150). . = L~l/2. FIGURE 9 gives an example of the photon distribution around the stable particle.. The interaction transfonns 11) into | cpj} which is an eigenstate of H: //|<p1)=(b1 |(p. Formula (42) clearly shows the photon cloud \k) surrounding 11). Friedrichs has shown that then we have the spectral decomposition24 H 5>*I«P*X<P*I (43) -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 FIGURE 9. (For the numerical simulation attributed to G. emitting a photon. One clearly sees the cloud surrounding 11). a k-mt \k) (42) where A^ is a normalization constant. The case coj < 0 can be treated easily. we use X = 0. The two smaller peaks traveling away from the particle are superpositions of dressed photons. Ordonez. 8). The state 11) evolves time going on to Jcp1). for (Oj > 0 the state 11) will decay. These photons are created because the energy of the bare particle is greater than the energy of the dressed particle <»i > <a. L = 400. Now let us consider the case of resonance (see FIG.

After the contact the atom is excited and then decays exponentially.01.008 0. In FIGURE 10. The resonance also has a photon cloud. It is also interesting to notice that irreversibility appears on the microscopic level. It is therefore a combination of eigenfunctions of the L-N operator. and (c) ©j = +0. It is interesting how this state is formed. The question is.004 0. (b) ©j = -0. Photon distribution near the transition point. but this state (which is the continuation of |<pj)) is not an eigenfunction of H.006 0. What is the nature of the "decaying state" (which appears for f= 500 iij FIGURE 11)? We can apply the Liouville formulation and show that this state is in Et subdynamics.01 j -150 -100 -50 0 x 50 100 150 FIGURE 10. The main point is that the reso nances are described by density operators (and not wavefunctions) that evolve irre versibly. As mentioned previously (see FIG.014 0. .012 0.01. 8). Resonances and excited states are closely related to unstable particles. We may visualize the transition through the computer plots shown in FIGURE 10. At t = 0.01 0. we have a wave packet approaching the atom in the ground state.37 0. This clearly in dicates the irreversible character of the process. the transition from bound state to reso nance takes place at C0j = 0. It is given here for reference. where the \<pk) are outgoing waves satisfying completeness and orthonormality. Note the asymmetry between the formation period and the decay. we plot the photon space distribution for three cases: (a) tOj = . It is obvious that the photon distributions are very similar.002 - ■wl=-l" ■wl=-0.018 0. This example shows that our theory is an extension of quantum theory. The excited state does not appear explicitly in Equation (43).016 0. which avoids the difficulty stated by Dirac.01 ■wl=+0. Let us close this section with some remarks on the relationship between fields and particles. Case (a) we have already considered.1 . Case (b) corresponds to the stable particle and (c) to the unstable particle. The central quantity is again probability. Cases (b) and (c) are close to the branching point coj = 0.

However. field theory is deeply changed. A fundamental problem of modern physics is the relationship between particles and fields. this introduces time symmetry breaking. and the occupation number nk are invariants. We can now overcome this difficulty and obtain an evolution equation valid for fi nite times. we have to go outside the Hilbert space. can conveniently be described in terms of scattering processes. This is the central problem of second quantization. it is true that many experimental situations. We have H = E^%(H^ + Vz). (In our presentation we avoid ultraviolet divergencies by means of suitable form factors. the corresponding par ticles are the photons. Nonintegrable fields are systems of an infinite number of degrees of freedom with persistent interactions. Moreover. (The condition {V)INfinite is replaced here by the condition that the zero point energy EQ of interesting fields E0 satisfies the condition V—> °°. we can integrate the equations of mo tion on the Liouville level of probabilities. as there are no free fields in nature. A free quantum field is a superposition of oscillators. per haps nearly all of them. interactions lead to nonintegrable systems where the occupation numbers vary in time. which explains the fact that most elementary particles are unstable. Free quantum fields are integrable systems. .38 0 . There is therefore a strong analogy with thermodynamic sys tems. According to G. Formation decay of a bare particle. Kallen: It appears to me that one basic feature of a pure S-matrix theory and also of some of the more extreme versions of the axiomatic approach is just that one completely forgets the development in time.2 \ 0 . a pure S-matrix theory goes further and assumes that everything can be de scribed as a scattering during an infinite time interval. For the electrodynamic field.1 \ - tl 0 100 / 1 i t2 i 200 300 t 400 FIGURE 11. EQ/V = finite. Of course. However.) Exactly as for thermodynamic sys tems.) In this way. Exactly as for thermodynamic systems.

I. EHRENFEST. R. Moravesik for Cornell University Press. P. 1965. and the National Lottery of Belgium for their financial support. 2. MA. The inclusion of irreversibility changes our view of nature. Freeman. But at this point we are at the frontiers of present science. G. 4. New York. why nature has a broken time symmetry is a difficult question. English translation by M. Freeman. Ith aca. It may be due to the inter action between gravitation and the other fundamental forces. and the time symmetry is broken. Tornio Petrosky and Dr. New York 3. Note also that the conventional approach associated irreversibility and entropy with ensembles of particles. R. EHRENFEST. 26 ' 27 The main entity is probability. The Feynamn Lectures on Physics. each of which if taken in isolation would satisfy the deter ministic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. FEYNMAN. Addison Wesley.^ -i iH > Here Le*' is the extension of the Liouville operator outside the Hilbert Space. Vol. SANDS. the basic laws of physics for large systems are radically different from the clas sical and quantum mechanics of integrable systems. Enzyklopddie der Mathernatischen Wissenschaften No. From Being to Becoming. The Conceptual Foundations of Statistical Mechanics. NICOLIS. & T. LEIGHTON & M. 1980. 6. IV." Nevertheless. New York. Leipzig 1912." the Belgian Interuniversity Attraction Poles. Now the particles themselves are the outcome of a time symmetry broken formulation except for the ground state. Nature evolves as a semigroup. We are led from a world of "being" to a world of "becoming. Exploring Complexity. thermodynamic systems and fields.. Here the laws of classical physics or quantum physics are replaced by the probabilistic Liouville equation associated with the extended Liouville operator beyond the Hilbert space: F — ma „ 3p r ext -=r = -'£ P a -. . The most striking result con cerns the dynamics of large systems. Gonzalo Ordonez for their contri bution to this work as well as the European Commission ESPRIT Project CTIAC 21042/DGIII. There fore. REFERENCES 1. The future is no long er given. PRIGOGINE. 1959. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge Dr. & PRIGOGINE. I. Reading. Our world is a world of continuous "construction" ruled by probabilistic laws and no longer a kind of automaton. Our results can be extended to relativity where the Poincare group splits into two semigroups. the "Communaute francaise de Belgique. 1989.39 FROM BEING TO BECOMING The results summarized in this paper show that irreversibility plays a much more important role than had been previously anticipated.

1980. 46: 425-474. New York. Classical Kinetic Theory of Fluids. U R I . K. Math. 1955.A. 1958.C. PETROSKY. New York. 39: 2995-3018. Acad. MACKEY. Fractals. Wiley. DIRAC. PRIGOGINE & G. Eds. K. Decay Theory of unstable quantum systems. T. 12. Rev. 1978. New York. Ed. BALESCU. HASEGAWA. I. USA 17: 315-318. The case of anharmonic lattices. Physica A 222: 307-329. 1995. G. Princeton Univ. 1977. Quantum theory of non-integrable systems. Lett 18: 988. A 161: 477-482. 14. 1996.E. H. FONDA. NJ. 8. 3rd edit. 22. Chaos. M. 1991. 4 1 : 587-631. 17. & M. Press. Prog. R. Adv. & I. Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Phys. Proceedings of the 12th Solvay Physics Conference. GUSTAFSON & B. Sardanashvily. 1975. 1993.: 253. Phys. Springer-Verlag. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of the Baker map: Ruelle resonances and subdynamics. 1993. 1980. B. Princeton. The extension of classical mechanics for unsta ble Hamiltonian systems. In La Theorie Quantique des champs. & I. P. T. & S. Physica A 190: 303-329. The Liouville space extension of quantum mechanics. P. & I. Oxford University Press. 1998. PRIGOGINE. PRIGOGINE. Lorentz Symmetry of Subdynamics in Relativistic Sys tems. A. 20. Hamiltonian systems and transformations in Hilbert spaces. GADEI. 15. B.M. Wiley. World Scientific. Physica 102A: 379-388 LASOTA. RIMINI. ANTONIOU. WAINRIGHT. 39: 1-44. Sci. Stoops. New York. P. BOKM. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 7: 441-497. PRIGOGINE. A Modern Course in Statistical Physics. J. I PRIGOGINE & S. 1994. London. Wiley... PRONKO. 99: 1-120. RESIBOIS. T. 1992. PRIGOGINE. 1997. I. Springer. 13. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. 6. Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. MISRA. GHIRARDI & A. On a converse to Koopman's 11. 1962. T. Appl. 25. Pronin & G. I. Math. 24. Singapore/New Jersey. T. Generalized spectral decomposition of mixing dynamical systems. Rep. Phys. 10. Interscience. New York. L. PRIGOGINE. BEN-YAACOV. Int. KALLEN. Proc. PETROSKY. 19. DELEENER.w 5. 27. Foundations and Applications. Extension of classical dynamics. Natl. KOOPMAN. J. 1996. 21.. I. TASAKI. & I. Relativistic Gamow Vectors. L. Phys. 7. & S. 9. PETROSKY.H. Comp. TASAKI. REICHL. 26. & T. Generalized spectral decomposition of the |3-adic Baker's transformation and intrinsic irreversibility. 1962. ANTONIOU. 23.. lemma. ALDER. TASAKI. Berlin. Arnold. R. 1992. Quantum Mechanics. Phys. APPENDIX Time-Asymmetric Spectral Decomposition of the B a k e r Transformation The Brussels-Austin groups have s h o w n 1 2 ' 1 3 that there is also a new spectral de composition of the Frobenius-Perron operator U of the Baker transformation involv ing Jordan blocks: . 1931. Poincare resonances and the extension of classi cal dynamics. Physica A 173: 175-242. In Gravity. 18. London. 16. Chem. VON NEUMANN. G. & W. Quantum Chem. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. Lett. Particles and Space-Time. 1969. SAPHIR. I. ANTONIOU.LA. A. and Noise. 1997. GOODRICH. PETROSKY. J. & M . PETROSKY.

rlV = 7v ' F v. . . 2. I Il^.. respectively. that is..3 . can be extended to the space of linear functionals over the test functions: PxxL . As a result. V . -2...r\ }. . .rl £ IF v . the spectral decomposition (Eq.l). However..41 v=l V = l^ooX^ool + £ X -vFv. r+l ></y r | r=0 J V = l lr= 0 2 The vectors | Fvr) and (fvr\ form a Jordan basis f1 ^ { ^ v . n = ±1.. splits13 into two distinct semigroups cor responding to the forward and backward direction of time. Therefore the original unitary group If1. A. y) because the expectation value.)(^v.. can be extended to the same space. The negative powers If1. V..variable. r • " ' VUVrH — IF ). we cannot compute the deterministic evolution associated with the initial condition localized at the point (x.(*>')) a r e excluded from the domain of the spectral decompo sition (Eq. .rl = / v = 0i=0 The principal vectors F v j and Fv. Here. ±2. ..I C/v. r | +(Fv. Lx is the space of square integrable functions in the *-variable. r = 0.. and Py is the space of polynomials in the y. r ' I V. n = . as a result of the Jordan blocks structure. when extended.r)^v. . The computation of au tocorrelation functions using the spectral decomposition (Eq. . n = 1.' r =V (A. Apart from the intrinsic irreversibility and the natural decomposition of the evolution in terms of the decay ing contribution associated with resonances. only the positive powers If1.l) defines an extension of the Frobenius-Perron operator to the space of functionals over the test functions LxxP .l) gives rise to polynomial contributions to the exponentially decaying components associated with the resonances 2~n. . A. A. r = 0 .1 . we can also prove13 that the trajectories &(xy)(x'>y') ~ §((*'<y') . are linear functionals over the spaces Lx x Pv and PxxLy.1) J_ f p ov l ) + |f )) r = 1.

42 I I S((JC. y'))f{x'y') diverges.B-"{x'. It allows only for predictions associated with probabilities. . the irreversible extension of Baker's dynamics is moreover in trinsically probabilistic. This is also another generic characteristic of the extended spectral decompositions of unstable or nonintegrable systems. Therefore. (U" 8|/) = jdxjdy o o y) .

T.3 Time in Non-equilibrium Physics Discussion of llya Prigogine with Theodore Christidis .

w TC: T h e distinction of earlier a n d later is very mysterious. This started about 1949 a n d . But I could not see very strong reaction. My first work on the statistical theory of irreversibility. I wanted to be sure that entropy production can be calculated from kinetic theory. T h e history of the p r o b l e m is as follows: I was always interested in statistical mechanics. W h e n we s p e a k a b o u t irreversibility a n d p r o b a b i l i t y . my own ideas were still not very clear. a n d it is psychological. Therefore. However. All we can know a b o u t radioactivity is the m e a n life-time. or it is an objective property of nature. I m e t Pauli in the Solvay Conference of 1954. b u t they never expressed their o p i n i o n about my work. because I introduced entropy p r o d u c t i o n [ 2 . You see. It was S c h r o e d i n g e r who started working o n this problem [28]. we have to speak a b o u t the reaction of Pauli. where I presented the work with Klein on H a r m o n i c oscillators [27]. H e was quite impressed. Of course h a r m o n i c oscillator models can be solved at the level of interacting n o r m a l modes. We c o n t i n u e d actually his work. B o h r seemed to be very interested. However. For gravitation n o b o d y doubts that it is part of n a t u r e a n d n o t introduced by us i n t o n a t u r e . q u a n t u m mechanics has rightly b e e n said to mark the demise of determinism. when we discussed it in the 60's. we m e a n t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e p t s t h a t w e r e traditionally introduced by us into nature. see for example my book with Isabelle Stengers [4]. is the calculation of entropy production in the framework of kinetic theory. were to m a k e irreversibility a property of nature and n o t a property that you have to add to n a t u r e . Either time is i n t r o d u c e d by us. T h e r e was always a difference between gravitation a n d irreversibility. Did you ever discuss your views on time with physicists.5 ] which also appears already in Boltzmann's description. Nobody can calculate how many atoms will disintegrate in a given interval. We calculate only averages. If we discuss about the famous C o p e n h a g e n School. even this was n o l o n g e r possible since q u a n t u m mechanics. T h e successive stages of my work. like Bohr or Heisenberg? IP: Yes.

still quoted. as in the case of the mixture of helium 3 and helium 4 or the mixture of hydrogen and neon. which leads to phase separation. Why had you chosen to deal with thermodynamics? IP: I was interested in thermodynamics. 'Molecular Theory of Solutions' [29]. I looked at how entropy production is modified because of the non-equilibrium conditions due to the non-linear character of the chemical reactions. because thermo dynamics is the science in which the arrow of time plays the key role. which is still used. but I was also interested in molecular processes. I presented this result obtained together with Jeener and Bellemans [29] at a seminar in Yale in 1953. which appeared in 1957. including the quantum mechanical result on the zero point energy of mixtures.45 studying it further. My These d'Agregation defended in 1945 [1]. includes the principle of entropy production. TC: So. The results were in very good agreement with experiments and even led to industrial applications. you did not care about these applications of quantum mechanics and all these new possibilities. What is important . TC: That was equilibrium physics. This is a very important result. among many results. My two directions of research at that time were: non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Many predictions have been verified. because time was not involved? IP: I was mainly interested in time. I wrote a book. IP: My main interest was always non-equilibrium physics. TC: It is amazing that at that time everybody was jumping into applications of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. But you were also working at that time in non-equilibrium processes.

I published a small paper with the biologist JeanMarie Wiame [30] on the biological implications of minimum entropy production. The key question was how these non-equilibrium structures appear in physical theories. the problem of emergence of structures in relation to irreversibility is a problem. The simplest example close to equilibrium is the emergence of minimum entropy production. which was not an equilibrium formalism. which you introduce into the equilibrium state. Note that these fluctuations obviously did not lead to nonequilibrium situations. I was influenced by biological analogies and by the very good school of Biology in Brussels. and when you have . which was in my mind since 1945. When you study stability. De Donder on your early work? IP: De Donder introduced a formalism [31]. which is different from the chemical potential. stability. He introduced the affinity. That was very interesting for me. De Donder was very opposed to the idea that equilibrium was the only field where you can apply thermodynamics. Therefore. Non-equilibrium situations did not appear. But he did not go far towards the non-equilibrium case. Stability for Gibbs was studied in terms of the fluctuations. is that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized still by a variation principle. Therefore. So.46 in the principle of entropy production. Fluctuations from equilibrium are simply damped out. you introduce a perturbation. for example. So the next step was to put the affinity equal to zero. TC: What was the influence of Th. A very good argument for this is. He considered that you cannot understand thermodynamics if you look only on equilibrium. and to recover equilibrium. which is not equivalent to maximum entropy. because these structures do not appear at random. That structure created by irreversibility was really a very important problem for me. there is structure created by irreversibility.

One of his main contributions is the definition of affinity. essentially. When you have heat c o n d u c t i o n .47 a perturbation. I always emphasized how grateful I am to De Donder [5]. De Donder's formalism is a formalism. and he is back to the usual equilibrium formulation. That chemical force is the affinity of De Donder. I only want to say that the specificities of non-equilibrium was not his field. This really is very important. He had also not anticipated the theorem of minimum entropy production. TC: So. to my knowledge. In the recent book I have written with Kondepudi [5]. he has not obtained any really new application far from equilibrium. But. the instability of the thermodynamic branch? IP: No. for example. tried to introduce also thermodynamics in terms of a chemical force which would drive chemical reactions. and if the affinity is zero. not at all. Thus. you can say that the gradient of temperature is a cause for the heat flow. TC: Then. he did not anticipate. after having formulated things in non-equilibrium terms using local equilibrium conditions. if it is negative. in which. you have equilibrium. which is a kind of overall review of thermodynamics from the beginning till now. for many many years. the reaction goes to one direction. you go out of equilibrium. after 1953 you work to develop in parallel the nonequilibrium thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics? . I emphasized the role of affinity. De Donder contributed of course to the general formalism of non-equilibrium systems. his contributions were rather a preparation for the Non-equilibrium Physics. which is p r o p o r t i o n a l to the gradient of temperature. So chemists. he put affinity equal to zero. I don't want to decrease his importance. in the sense that if the affinity is positive. it goes to the opposite direction.

which brings the system as close as you want to equilibrium as the number of oscillators increases. information disappears at infinity and in this sense you have approach to equilibrium [35]. Statistical Mechanics [12] that essentially. So. However. I was very impressed by this result which. My first work in this direction was to try to apply Born's and Green's theory to one-dimensional systems for which we can calculate exactly the partition function. Not in Boltzmann's way. we have no irreversibility. to justify the entropy production. there is a flow of information. I became interested in this problem. Then. I came to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. So. And we showed that Born's and Green's theory does not give any consistent results. There. Born. but in the general statistical mechanics of Yvon. they were in this paper [27]. After the war. I had my first contact with non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. 12]. we were trying to have consistent results. irreversibility is a flow of correlations. various theories appeared. Green. we applied it. So. continues the work of Schrodinger [28] and gave me one of the basic ideas. In this situation of course. Kirkwood and Bogolubov [32-34. more on the traditional way. So. which I was to develop in my book Non-equilibrium. The flow of normal modes at the particle level corresponds as we have shown to the flow of correlations at the probability level. TC: That was the first hint in the right direction? . In the limit of infinite oscillators. to some extent. We studied the lattice of harmonic oscillators [27]. I came to the problem of how chemical reactions modified development. which claimed that we can make a general statistical mechanics. TC: You mean that all these ideas were already in this paper with Klein [27]? IP: Yes.48 IP: Yes.

there remained a mystery which was also underlined by Hugenholtz recently. But still. We developed this with Brout in 1956 [12. Then we have significant development in this direction [12. he was rather negative. But afterwards he changed his mind. saying 'what do you expect? There is no dissipation'. only the term with A2£. At that time I was in contact with Leon Van Hove who considered himself to be my student.49 IP: Yes. The anharmonic solution to all orders in the coupling parameter A could only be studied much later [36]. then to fourth order and so on. He was very enthusiastic about the work of Van Hove. TC: What was the main outcome of your book [12]? IP: We gave a very simple pictorial r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of irreversibility as a flow of correlations. 40] in terms of action-angle variables. 39]. is in contradiction with Quantum Mechanics. The physical . Correlations evolve from second to third. The mystery lies in the fact that the semigroup evolution obtained by the A 2 /!-approximation of Van Hove. in a conference devoted to Van Hove. Then I started to work on anharmonic lattices [12]. TC: What about the A2i-approximat. TC: What was the reaction of Pauli? IP: When I first spoke to Pauli about the lattice of harmonic oscillators.ion in Classical Mechanics? IP: It is very similar. in the anharmonic solution. because if you add the omitted terms you will recover the time symmetric Quantum Mechanical solution. Van Hove came to me one day to say that he obtained a good result by retaining. That was also Pauli's opinion. Van Hove introduced the 7?t approximation in statistical mechanics [37]. He derived essentially the Pauli Master Equation [38].

For integrable systems the subdynamics are rather trivial. T h e choice of o n e of the two temporal directions is a fact of observation. which I did with Balescu. Why /L2/? Why n o t to go to higher order of approximation? T h a t was the work. the distribution of m o m e n t a b e c o m e s m o r e r a n d o m a n d correlations increase. As time goes on. T C : How did you address the difficulty c o n c e r n i n g the Xztapproximation? IP: T h e q u a n t u m systems for which the A 2 £-approximation applied are Large Non-integrable Poincare Systems in which the invariants of motion are destroyed. C h . We arrive at a description which shows both the unity a n d the . It is presented in my book Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanic?. W h e n you inverse time. we felt it was only a starting point. 3 ] . This destruction makes the a p p r o a c h to e q u i l i b r i u m possible [12. [12]. Both i n t e g r a b l e a n d n o n . 42. although this theory gave Boltzmann's equation.50 direction of time is the direction in which the correlations increase. T h e main point is that the two directions of time can be distinguished. W h e n particles collide. correlations are destroyed a n d o r d e r in m o m e n t a is p r o d u c e d . m o r e a n d m o r e particles b e c o m e correlated. we have two p h e n o m e n a which are coupled: to create correlations and destroy o r d e r in m o m e n t u m space a p p r o a c h i n g the Maxwell-Bolzmann equilibrium distribution in the simple cases. Resibois a n d H e n i n mainly. T C : Were you satisfied with the A 2 /-approximation theory? IP: No. each subdynamics corresponds to an irreversible Markov process [41. the Fokker-Planck equation a n d the Pauli Master equation. 1 4 ] . For non-integrable systems however. or to destroy correlations a n d create o r d e r in m o m e n t u m space. c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the evolution of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t modes. You see.i n t e g r a b l e systems have a probabilistic description of the evolution which may be d e c o m p o s e d into subdynamics.

because it shows how to go from the dynamical evolution to a stochastic evolution by non-unitary trans formations.5f difference between the reversible. Then came the extension to the thermodynamic limit for classical [16] and quantum systems [17]. we are involved in the extension of field theory and the . TC: How does subdynamics explain Irreversibility? IP: The relation between dynamics and dissipation was for the first time clearly explained by Misra and coworkers [43. This development followed our discussion of the Poincare theorem with Tomio Petrosky [49]. 47] and to discuss quantum decay [48]. without losing information. Misra's work is very interesting. TC: What was lying behind subdynamics? IP: Subdynamics is a decomposition of the evolution. For nonintegrable systems we obtain spectral decompositions at the probabilistic level. Then we applied subdynamics to chaotic maps [50-55] and we realized that we do not have to apply the non-unitary intertwining transform to obtain Irreversibility as the extended spectral decomposition is time asymmetric [52-55]. However we have to go beyond the Hilbert space formulation. And is still useful as we can expand the probabilistic evolution in terms of age eigenfunctions [3. The Time Operator moreover allows to explain the Time-Energy uncertainty relation in Quantum Mechanics [3. First we studied scattering resonances [13. which applies to both integrable and non-integrable systems. Now. We introduced the Time and Entropy operators. The mathematical tools are spectral theory of operators in Rigged Hilbert spaces. In addition.3]. 44-46]. the Time Operator is an intrinsic property of all chaotic systems. integrable systems and the intrinsically irreversible systems which are non-integrable. 15]. the 3-body problem [56] and interacting bosons [57].

a n d n o t of our consciousness or ignorance. lead to description beyond the Hilbert space. TC: So. to p u t irreversibility a n d probability in their proper place as intrinsic properties of nature. then you wanted to put irreversibility a n d probability into dynamics. y o u have probability. In concluding.52 Fock space. O n c e you have b i f u r c a t i o n s . This essentially involves revision of physics. as probability theory (Kolmogorov) and mechanics (Newton. as I mentioned. essentially. T h e first step is that e n t r o p y p r o d u c t i o n far from equilibrium leads to bifurcations. H e r e . In q u a n t u m systems the e x t e n d e d evolution cannot be associated to p u r e wavefunctions. All your work has b e e n guided by this objective? IP: Yes. Irreversibility leads to complex structures [ 2 . Schrodinger) are two different mathematical theories. T h e r e f o r e . there was a clear objective in your mind. F i g u r e 2. We have to consider density matrices which. I P : Yes. evolution c a n n o t be localized to points. I would say that the whole point is to make irreversibility part of n a t u r e .5 ] . since you obtained your PhD. irreversibility leads to probability. we c o m e always to the problem of the relation between irreversibility a n d non-locality. In classical systems. T h a t was always in my m i n d from the very beginning. O n c e this was d o n e . from the very beginning. Figure 1. TC: How is Irreversibility related to non-locality? I P : T h e e x t e n d e d evolution is intrinsically probabilistic. . to make probability part of n a t u r e . for example. TC: At first you had the motivation to u n d e r s t a n d life through thermodynamics.

.. A2. at the critical points A. The selection for the dynamical paths A„ B... B$. Bi. or /.. . 2.. is not deterministic because it depends on fluctuations. i = 1.. A\. . Figure 2: The Irreversible order through Fluctuations. are chosen by probability in an irreversible manner. Different dynamical paths like /.. B appear which correspond to the appearance of new order..53 Figure 1: Bifurcations and order. At the critical point Xc the initial solution (I) becomes unstable (I) and two new stable solutions A.

the role of time. That is the main point. because you don't know which branch the system will follow. 23] probability is introduced ad hoc. because trajectories are not relevant. You see. If not. Heraclitus says: 'The wise is to know how that all things are governed through all things'. There is fragment.54 TC: Irreversibility and probability a p p e a r through the emergence of order. Then you realized that you have to put irreversibility and probability as intrinsic properties of nature at the fundamental level of description. the role of time is rather meaningless. which is of great importance. concerning your thinking. through fluctuations. at bifurcation points far from equilibrium. IP: Yes. The issue is to use probability. This means the persistent interactions between all things are the unique reason for any change happening in the world. You see. IP: This is a very good remark. This is against the idea that evolution is independent of the environment. We have "life" interacting with "no-life" all the time. And the role of time can only be understood if there is probability. The origin of complexity can only be understood by irreversibility. in which it is embedded. A town emerges from the countryside. TC: I would like to add something from Heraclitus. I started with the idea of the origin of complexity. . or you can say that probability appears through bifurcations. Irreversibility means the role of semi-groups. Life needs air and water all the time. individualities emerge from the global. It was my intention to make explicit that Time has meaning only in a Probabilistic World. in Boltzmann's Stosszahlansatz [22. essentially this is a characteristic feature of nature.

Time in the Epistemology of Complexity Discussion of Ilya Prigogine with loannis Zisis .

a personality who o p e n e d pathways for the 21st century. be it in cosmology. an inspiring fear I would say. Welcome to a place we believe you h o n o r with your contribution. if the view of Parmenides was true. welcome to Greece. T h e arrow of time exists. Professor Prigogine. research. in science. to discuss with a historic personality of t h e 20th century. be it in o u r own life. Parmenides said that everything was there. I have always considered Parmenides paradoxical because his own book was itself something new. But all a r o u n d earth we see the arrow of time: be it in biology. n o t h i n g new can appear. I t h i n k a b o u t t h e conflict b e t w e e n Parmenides a n d Heraclitus. had been formulated for the first time by G r e e k s . This is Professor Ilya Prigogine. especially because the problems I was interested always. For example. that all things are in progress a n d nothing remains still. with very wide interdisciplinary contributions. while Heraclitus claimed. I P : I consider it a privilege to be here. Nobel laureate in chemistry. in 1977. you h a d two views: t h e basic laws. as everybody knows. IZ: Can you say a few words about the arrow of time that you i n t r o d u c e d in fundamental science? What are the innovations introduced by the arrow of time? What are the next bifurcations that you envision? I P : Classically. then essentially o u r discussion would be an illusion because it would be already prescribed since the Big Bang. which were time reversible a n d deterministic a n d entropy increase (second law of thermodynamics) which was c o n s i d e r e d an approximation. . that you can never step twice in the same river. this is very unlikely. director of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics a n d Chemistry. it is the irreversible succession of events. civilization a n d intellectual life. To claim that n o t h i n g is new a n d write a book that by itself is something new is contradictory. Therefore I have always considered this as a kind of paradox.56 YL: It is a special pleasure.

Functions are like infinite dimensional vectors.57 The question is. and that is the majority. Then the probabilistic collective description becomes fundamental. Therefore you arrive at a view of the universe which is probabilistic and time-oriented and is in my opinion much more satisfactory. are there events in physics? Many people have shown and I have also shown [2-5] forty years ago or so. Outside the Hilbert space there can be situations. 58]. where this reduction cannot be achieved. 15. The key question is can we reduce the population dynamics to individual behavior? Just as in sociology can we reduce the behavior of a society from the collective level to the level of individual behavior? We know the answer: the population dynamics described by a probability distribution is reducible when the probability distribution is in the Hilbert space formulation. 2. . But in more general situations it is not reducible. In Greek universities there are many studies of non-equilibrium structures. Figures 1. 54. It appears that essentially population dynamics is reducible in simple situations like planetary motion. Then population dynamics becomes generally non-reducible to individual descriptions. or the pendulum. the question is to decide when the population dynamics become non-reducible and time-oriented and when they do not. 14. 55. Therefore. Therefore from the phenomenological point of view there is no doubt about the arrow of time. like the Euclidean space of 3-dimensional vectors studied in high school. You can introduce an individual description in terms of wavefunctions or trajectories or you can define a population description as in thermodynamics. I think this question has been solved in the last years. that when you go far from equilibrium you have bifurcations and something new appears. because he was one of those who contributed to its resolution [51. The Hilbert space is a space of functions. The question is therefore how to introduce non-equilibrium physics into the microscopic level of description. I am very glad that loannis Antoniou is with us.

the appearance of the universe is an . perhaps -10 degrees Celsius. My simplified view is based on phase transitions. Without any mathematics you can't understand irreversibility. For each operator we have wavefunctions that do not change. It is therefore clear that you have to change something fundamentally. I always had this analogy in mind with the Big Bang.58 YL: You mentioned Hilbert spaces. you have in mind the relation between mathematics and physics. it becomes an ice crystal. partly at least. namely: chaotic systems. In quantvim mechanics observables are operators transforming the wavefunctions. In irreversible processes there are no periodicities. are typically in Hilbert space. but phenomena like exponential decay. The operator acts on them as a multiplication by a number called the eigenvalue associated with the eigenfunction. The eigenfunctions of every integrable system. For example when you take water and you cool it at some point. There are. in the Hilbert space or outside the Hilbert space. otherwise the whole existence of kinetic theory would be a paradox. thermodynamical systems and unstable particles or excited quantum states. Do you see mathematics as an essential element in the new description of nature? IP: Without any doubt. Is the Big Bang an irreversible transition from some quantum vacuum to matter? It is not clear what we had before the Big Bang. cannot be described in Hilbert space where the eigenfunctions are usually periodic. IZ: Can we speak about the arrow of time before the Big Bang? IP: That is a very speculative question. three known examples that give rise to eigenfunctions outside the Hilbert space. considered resolved [58]. called eigenfunctions. Therefore the question is whether the operator describing the evolution of the population has eigenfunctions. This question can be. I am simply saying that whatever we had before the Big Bang. however. Irreversible processes like viscosity and diffusion in kinetic theory. every simple system.

Therefore we see non-equilibrium related to the complexity on earth.59 irreversible process. We have now at least a qualitative understanding of the variety of things that we see around. The existence of what we see around us is a mystery if we don't have the arrow of time. I think that in order to understand even qualitatively the universe around us. we need a theory which incorporates irreversibility. which follow each other to form complex non-equilibrium structures. The main question is therefore how it happens that the universe is far from equilibrium. because new structures appear at bifurcation points triggered by fluctuations [3-5]. IP: The physical universe comes closer now to the biological universe. IZ: Would you agree with Leon Brillouin that the laws of life and biology are more general and should include the laws of physics? Of course Brillouin said this before the emergence of complexity. Biology is an evolutionary science. I think we see a different universe when we see a universe that is time oriented and far from equilibrium. But you have always non-equilibrium structure formation when a significant part of dissipation is transformed to structures. However. here on Earth. Of course that is a very difficult problem. the time arrow. The . In both cases you have billions of particles. The emergence and evolution of stars and galaxies are non-equilibrium processes like self-organization in biology. it is very simple because we have the solar radiation which is responsible for the appearance of life. Therefore. Cosmology is an evolutionary science. If the basic principles of physics were time reversible that would be very strange. an entropy fluctuation. we don't know what keeps the universe as a whole far from equilibrium. We see that plants transform light into life through dissipation. In our case. How it happens that the universe is time-oriented and out of equilibrium? That must mean that at the moment of the Big Bang there was already an arrow of time.

in the sense of complexity. Our internal world is temporal. then we are outside nature. Physics on one hand as the study of Space. If you add the anthropic principle you destroy the unity of the universe. Therefore we are at the same situation as Descartes who said that the universe could only be understood by a duality. It is very difficult for me to admit that. the evolutionary product of nature. Take. We want to have a universe that is not divided into two separate fields. Physics has come. How do you combine them? IP: Bergson was innovative in his period because he said that we could understand the outside world by observing our internal world. our creativity and our artistic expression. Take the book by Stephen Hawking [60]: the world is explained by geometrical arguments as a medium with no boundaries. We are. Intelligence on the other hand as the study of Thinking. IZ: Is there some relation between the anthropic principle and complexity? IP: The anthropic principle [59] is one of the biggest mistakes I have seen in my life because it re-introduces a duality. after all. following the scientific path with Occam's razor. you have also accepted Bergson and Teilhard de Chardin. closer to biology. IZ: Although you are always careful when you speak about the relation between science and philosophy. for example. That is essentially the same message as the anthropic principle. But then in order to introduce human life (human complexity) you need the anthropic principle. Therefore if you accept the anthropic principle.60 question of how complex structures arise from the underlying interactions of particles is to some extent solved in principle once the arrow of time is included in dynamics. What we want is a concept of the universe that comprises thinking and biology without any contradiction with physics. Motion and Matter. Bergson noticed that this .

Einstein maintained throughout his life that time as evolution is an illusion.61 is opposed to the physics of his time because dynamics has no time direction. That gives a view of the universe which is periodical. as I said. however. Creation is a key element. Therefore. since Heraclitus and Parmenides and has been discussed by all great philosophers like Kant. Teilhard de Chardin and our school is that we a p p r o a c h e d this problem in terms of physics and mathematics. You have pointed out the incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics with respect to measurement and decay [3 4. As a believer. a Catholic priest. However. But then our life is an illusion. The problem has been around. Bergson was not so naive as he is presented now. not so clear because although his criticism with regard to relativity was not correct. 18]. although not a scientist. That was. Now that you introduce a new theory do you see any limitations or future challenges? . That is why Bergson called his famous book "Evolutionary Creation" [61]. It is a characteristic of our school that we deal with philosophical questions from a scientific point of view. the regularities of the sun and so on. Einstein also did not understand what Bergson meant with his priviledged direction of time. That is very strange because how can a life which is an illusion pretend to lead to an exact science? The very existence of science is opposed to the idea that our life is an illusion. to some extent. was also rightly insisting on evolution. the evolutionary view and especially our own internal world is not periodic. The main difference between Bergson. Teilhard de Chardin was aspiring for a better and better world. Physics was formulated from the patterns of regularity of the celestial sphere. Hegel and Heidegger. However these discussions were at the philosophical level. IZ: You have emphasized the limitations of Relativity because it cannot include the arrow of time. Teilhard de Chardin. He had a famous discussion with Einstein and everybody said that he was defeated. I believe that Bergson was right.

However.62 IP: First of all. the problem of unstable particles. we can now integrate systems. Gibbs maintained that statistical ensembles arise from our lack of knowledge or from approximations to the dynamical evolution. The second tragedy is Gibbs who introduced the interpretation of equilibrium thermodynamics in terms of statistical ensembles or populations [32]. macroscopic physics would be either a subjective illusion or would depend on our approximation scheme. The tragedy of Boltzmann is that he was not aware that dynamical systems may have different qualitative properties. which could not be solved in the conventional von Neumann formulation [10]. In Classical Mechanics. the problem of approach to thermodynamic equilibrium [18]. The thermodynamic limit condition specifies the type of statistical ensembles needed to describe irreversibility. which are not integrable in the conventional Hamiltonian description of trajectories. Another tragic fact is that while Poincare knew these differences. It is paradoxical to say that thermodynamics arises from ignorance or approximation of dynamics because then. This connection was established later [18]. The first paradox was pointed out by Boltzmann who had a correct idea about the evolution of the universe. because he demonstrated the non-integrability of the 3-body problem [9]. 4]. I want to say that there are two great paradoxes. for example. I mention just the Velocity Inversion argument of Loschmidt and the Recurrence argument of Poincare and Zermelo [3. like the problem of measurement. Although this idea was the basis of statistical mechanics [33. Extension is a better word. We can now also solve some problems of quantum mechanics. by extending the dynamical formulation to the Liouville space [18]. he did not realize the connection between irreversibility and non-integrability. strong objections were raised because classical dynamics was in conflict with Boltzmann's conclusions. limitation is not the right word. 34]. Gibbs says on one hand that we need statistical . Thermodynamics is not based just on statistical estimations on ensembles but on the limit of ensembles for an infinite number of particles.

Yet I don't think that once we understand the structure of the gene we shall see the meaning of man. The classical universe was a simple. The same genes produce large people. because the genetic content of a mouse and a man are very similar. I think we are only at the beginning of science. But we know little about it. A Nobel prize may be given to somebody who has found a new particle. Now it is very different. like for example the complexity of the gene expression. we only conceive the extraordinary complexity of nature. genes are only a small part of the individual. Every scientific work may be as fundamental as the other. a new quark or to somebody who found a new astrophysical object or to a biophysicist. Therefore the non-genetic part of biology is very important. History is full of this kind of misunderstanding. to protect Nature.63 ensembles in order to describe thermodynamics. Today. which are very close to society. Although we understand a lot about the gene. The aim of traditional science was to preserve science against the society. quiet universe. beautiful people and ugly people. our vegetation. It is very difficult to say which discovery is more . That is very strange. We are at the beginning of studying the complexity of Nature. Spectral theory outside the Hilbert space is an example of extension of the dynamical formulation which allows to include probability and the arrow of time in the theories of dynamics. Modern science has developed molecular biology and information science. we need science to preserve our culture. IZ: Do you see a conflict between fundamental research and technology? IP: Traditional science was an elitistic occupation. In addition I would say there is no fundamental science. In this way the above-mentioned problems and paradoxes are to some extent eliminated [18]. on the other hand that statistical ensembles are an approximation of dynamics. small people. And now we see. We still don't understand completely the structure of the gene.

Obviously when fish came to earth. Many scientists are interested in the energy level in which we live. that is a very low energy level. not all monkeys became h u m a n . T h e structures of life are formed in low energy. it may be a big deal for the high-energy physics community. but to say that high energy is the only fundamental science. If you discover a new quark it is not such a big deal. I age. But now it is n o t so clear. We have very little u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the events after the Big Bang. We do not know how life evolves.64 fundamental. In traditional science the universe was c o n s i d e r e d to be a geometrical entity. we know that everything ages in the same direction: you age. We have now the discovery of dissipative structures [ 2 . But the mechanism of ageing a n d the mechanism of discovery are n o t known. It is still very surprising because our universe seems to evolve m o r e rapidly with acceleration as predicted by Einstein's simple cosmological model. When monkeys b e c a m e h u m a n . O u r . The influence of quarks on systems of low energy is negligible. the rocks age. I want to e m p h a s i z e that the d i r e c t i o n of time is the most fundamental property of the universe. Now we add a narrative element. Therefore I think there is n o reason to establish a kind of hierarchy of scientific work. In the old days it was very clear: atomic theory was t h e fundamental theory.5 ] . Therefore it is certainly a problem of probability for which we d o n ' t have the slightest idea. T h e universe acts as a whole a n d is evolving. IZ: W h a t will be the frontline scientific issues of the 21st century? H o w d o you see t h e i m p r o v e m e n t of o u r k n o w l e d g e in connection with these issues? IP: I think that we have to understand the historical universe. b u t we d o n ' t know how. is not very convincing. not all fish came to earth. In my view gravitation maintains the universe o u t of equilibrium. High-energy physics is of course very interesting. Nobody knows how to unify gravitation with the o t h e r forces and with q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s . but that is a very simple situation.

Are you against cloning or are you for cloning? There are arguments supporting both sides. In one there is a very large amount of matter and very little antimatter. I would like to . For example. For example. cloning. Scientists have no ethical privilege. nonlinear and full of irreversible processes. ethics and science come nearer. The scientists have the right to give their opinions like other people. you can show that for a large class of processes. other stars die and all kinds of non-equilibrium structures. IZ: A critical issue for science in the 21st century is the issue of morality with respect to the applications of knowledge. But far from equilibrium you can show that there are only two non-equivalent solutions. but we d o not understand how the universe remains far from equilibrium. The new problems are very complex. there will be as much matter as antimatter. What will be the moral issues in the next century? IP: That is impossible to say because the moral issues change as science evolves. a dead universe.65 universe is far from equilibrium. but that is not at all what we see. the use of genetic information. IZ: Do you see a validation of your view of the arrow of time in the fact that the quantum vacuum seems to prefer the creation of matter versus antimatter? IP: That is a very good point because close to equilibrium situations. the issue of privacy in the Networked Society. an equilibrium universe. in the other we have the converse. In the absence of gravitation the universe would go to thermal death. We see stars being born. As science has become closer to humanity. There is a moral issue on cloning. Therefore the matter-antimatter example is a very nice demonstration of the fact that the universe is out of equilibrium. We had in the past the movements of Russel and Schweitzer towards the peaceful use of technology to prevent a destructive nuclear war.

you cannot speak about equilibrium including gravitational forces. gravitation disturbs equilibrium. understood as a result of non-equilibrium. at least in simple cases. We can only calculate the probability that the electron is in a region of space. What are the main gaps in this unification? How do you view this quest of unification? IP: I don't believe in this unification because I think that gravitation plays a more complementary role than a unifying role. as I already mentioned. has some relevance to theological problems. then you need some outside spirit or God to make it work. it may be a non-equilibrium world which can follow its own plans. in my view. because we cannot predict where an electron is. That comes from the long range character of the gravitational forces. There is no mystical element coming to it. IZ: Are you concerned about the emergence of a sort of cult around irreversibility and the arrow of time or a sort of religion? Do you see the emergence of a sort of global plan? IP: No. You see. because science has come closer to society. But the fact that we have a probabilistic world means that we have not such a transparent world as Newton's world. the universe is evolving and the creation of structures can be. I think we go more towards. Some unity is brought .66 emphasize that ethics and science have come closer than ever. But if it is self-organized. in a sense. In thermodynamics. Therefore in a sense you have two possibilities. there is no need for an outside force or plan. IZ: The Holy Grail of physics is claimed to be the unification of fundamental forces. In other words gravitation keeps things going. Therefore the probabilistic view. There has been a partial unification. but since then not much progress has been achieved. This was already known in Quantum Mechanics. If the universe is a deterministic machine. a historical universe. What choice you take is not my problem.

European music is changing every 100 years while Chinese music has remained much more traditional. European civilization is very flexible and creative. has bifurcations and Nature with its particles and antiparticles also has bifurcations. You have an enormous change. but the language and the details are different. Look what happened during the same period in China or in Egypt. as I mentioned before. and psychology? IP: What is common of course is the direction of time and the study of processes. biology. for example. I would say that European civilization is characterized by a large number of bifurcations. That is characteristic for Greece and to some extent for Western Europe in general.67 by the historical point of view.. things have been going on and on. bifurcations appear in civilization. while. for example.. Of course we don't have yet the final picture in particle physics. the transition from the Archaic civilization to the Hellenistic civilization from 750 to 350 BC. Bifurcations appear in human life. which may be the outcome of a bifurcation: you may be attracted to and love two girls and then you select one. there is not much change. because the Chinese produced many magnificent things but then to some extent they stopped. There are at present many speculations (string theory/multiple dimensions). In this sense I would say that Greek civilization has been a model. Obviously in our own life we have followed important events which lead to bifurcations. . For example history. But of course you cannot say that the bifurcations of human beings have the same underlying mechanism as bifurcations of matter/ antimatter. a marriage is an irreversible event. Consider. Why do we have so many elementary particles? What is the difference between leptons and baryons? Nobody knows.. I was always very impressed by the idea of Democracy which introduces the value of the individual in society. in Europe. IZ: Do you see any direction of unification between physics. I would not like to exaggerate.

IZ: On the other hand complexity has enormously contributed in interdisciplinary research. The solution becomes blue and red periodically. After the bifurcation the oscillatory solution . you have a new oscillating solution. Therefore there is a gap. My point of view was to show that there is no contradiction. But the main issue is the way of thinking: you seem to be very persistent and very innovative. How do you see the synthesis of different disciplines? IP: I don't think we should make a synthesis because Psychology will always be different from Physics. On the other hand you reject a quick and easy synthesis.68 YL: Your work has opened many directions in different disciplines. Far from equilibrium. a universe in which Biology is not in contradiction with Physics. You have a homogenous solution in which you mix two substances. You can say that this is because the universe is not unified. You may even say that the universe is contradictory. Take for example the famous Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction [2-5]. But I don't want to identify Physics with Biology. Many have spoken about the interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity of your work. Also in complex systems long range correlations appear between components with very short-range local interactions. Because complexity is generally related also to the arrow of time. however. Biology is an evolutionary science while Classical as well as Quantum Physics are deterministic and time reversible sciences. This collective effect indicates the presence of correlations between the molecules. they remain mixed until as a result of bifurcations. Near equilibrium you have a stable solution which minimizes the free energy. IP: Yes but that is part of the problem. The only thing is to establish a non-contradictory view. you have collective oscillations of the concentration. What do you call complexity? Complexity is a property of systems that for given boundary conditions have more than one possible solutions.

becoming one planet. In this context they proposed to host the first Solvay conference of the 21st century. I think it is very appropriate that the first Solvay conference of the 21st century will be held in Greece and especially in this place. I can only be very grateful. The main point here is that nature always tries to create and eventually selects the stable/sustainable solution. Of course the Egyptians and Chinese knew many things before. the prefecture of Fthiotis would like to restore Amphiktionies on a planetary level. Bifurcations only appear far from equilibrium and therefore complexity is a phenomenon (that occurs only) far from equilibium. . They did not develop any theory or proof as Greeks had introduced. For example. IZ: There is a trend towards becoming one world. But Egyptian and Chinese geometry were mainly observational. IP: As Director of the Solvay Institutes I am very grateful and I think this is very appropriate as western science was born in Greece.69 becomes stable and the equilibrium solution becomes unstable. The equilibrium solution is still there. only it becomes unstable.

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Life and the Internet Discussion of llya Prigogine with Maria Adamidou .

You cannot observe these effects at equilibrium where you have uniform mixture of the red and blue molecules. But when you heat it more and more. you observe diffusive motion towards the odier side. say blue and red molecules. Can you highlight some implications of this new situation? IP: The Internet gives us a lot of information and it leads probably to a new form of society but we don't know what kind of society it will be. described by the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. if you heat a liquid from one side. a layer of liquid and you heat it from below you observe a thermal disorder.72 MA: How can there be order out of chaos? IP: When you take a system that is in equilibrium. 4] in which billions of molecules follow billions of molecules to form the vortices. a sort of structure formation. in an irreversible way [2-5]. The main point is that structure formation and complexity are non-equilibrium phenomena and that non-equilibrium is related to irreversibility. MA: The Internet provides these days the mechanism for communication and correlation of events on a planetary scale. you may have more blue molecules on one side and more red molecules on the other side. the structure of the earth. When I was young I was very impressed with the so-called thermal diffusion [5].e. We see all kinds of structures. then molecules run in all directions in a disorderly way. And that can be seen in many situations. in a gaseous mixture of two non-interacting molecules. for example. Vortices give rise to organized situations known as Benard cells [3. For example. When you take. Certainly it leads to more interactions and . when the layer is not very thick you observe that there comes a point when vortices are built. We see the structure of the sun. That is why I always thought that irreversibility is the basis of the structures that we see in the universe. Similarly. i. the geological structures formed in non-equilibrium conditions. Therefore non-equilibrium leads to order. which is chaotic.

it leads to interactions between black people of Brazil a n d black people in the USA. For example. Babylon. Now society is completely different. a few individuals worked o n the physics that was necessary to create the information society. a few h u n d r e d s as well as large ant societies that n u m b e r in millions. division of work introduces Kings. T h e behavior is different. In small ant societies each individual ant has an essential role. t h r o u g h the Internet. The Internet produces indeed mass culture but we should n o t overlook that it may also decrease creativity because many people look for information and they have n o time to think by themselves. the individual is less important. You have a theocratic or selective society. In my opinion the whole m e a n i n g of civilization since the Greeks. W h e n you go from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic age which means to go from the Aztecs to Egypt. Forty years ago there were only a few h u n d r e d s . it is i n d e p e n d e n t a n d finds food for itself. My son in Brazil saw in the houses of black people in Brazil pictures of Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela. Now there are probably millions of p e o p l e w o r k i n g in o n e way o r a n o t h e r to c o n t r i b u t e to information society. Pharaohs a n d Slaves. Rome. For example. We are only at the verge of a new transition in which more people are expected to be involved in culture.73 produces mass culture. T h e information explosion. T h e r e are small ant societies. is the production of more communication between people. MA: What is the role of the individual today? How can the individual sustain all these rapid changes in the global society and the networked economy? IP: T h e role of the individual r e m a i n very i m p o r t a n t . There are very interesting analogies with ants which indicate some dangers. Therefore it has p r o p a g a t e d more rapidly . enables people to participate in culture. In many of these societies the ants are blind. together with television and radio. In large a n t societies there are collective processes. Therefore the I n t e r n e t creates links between p e o p l e who have b e e n isolated.

in large societies. also permanent education. the natives of New Guinea are small societies that are very conservative. The world is changing so fast. We see a lot of irreversible processes involved in the transcription of genetic information to create the embryo. But the fluctuations that led to life are not very well known. A small society can moreover be much more conservative. We have to develop non-genetic biology based on the theory of Complexity. For example. You can say that we are in a large society that is an open non-linear system and that what you are doing influences what I do and vice versa. MA: How far do you think we have deciphered the secret of life and what are the next targets in this direction? IP: The biological structures that we see around are the result of fluctuations acting on bifurcations far from equilibrium [2-5]. Education is very important. For example. Figures 1. That is a very reductionist point of view. Therefore if you think that cloning will give you two identical individuals. It is very remarkable that the genetic code is the same everywhere. There is some part which is genetic. that is probably not true. Some people think that once we know about the genes we shall know the life forms and the human being. A large society has much more possible instabilities than a small society. the role of Henry Ford in automatization and management. Therefore the non-genetic aspect is very important. Because individuals develop very much after birth. curiously. 2. the role of Alan Turing in computation.74 compared to Christianity or Buddhism. that we need to update continuously our knowledge in order to adapt. As I see it in . The main danger today is to create a difference between people who know and people who do not. A large society doesn't necessarily make the individuals powerless. On the other hand there are differences between chimpanzees and humans. the role of the individual has increased because individual initiatives lead to changes which lead to social fluctuations. Therefore the main point is education. as well as a lot of irreversible processes going on after birth. Now.

. You age. but we still don't know the origin of the Universe. a creator. Irreversibility leads to collective probabilistic descriptions. initiated by a fluctuation of the quantum vacuum that created entropy. but what is the Big Bang? Is it a transition from the primordial quantum vacuum to matter? Many people believe that it is an ignition. far more rich and fascinating than our classical theories anticipated. We do science because we are astonished. that is possible for very simple systems. We see that the universe is changing. is not possible for complex thermodynamic systems and is not likely to be possible for the universe. in biology and even in human societies. The Universe is far too complicated. MA: Why did you join science? IP: Some join science because they like to solve puzzles. I always say that we are at the beginning of a new science. This is also true for scientists. We are at the beginning. we have very simple examples of structure formations.75 general. I think the arrow of time is a common element for every entity in our universe. that it contains all information. including our discussion. it is growing with acceleration. That is very unlikely. I think it is much more likely that matter and life appeared as an irreversible succession of non-equilibrium processes. which cannot be reduced to individual trajectories or wavefunctions corresponding to Newtonian or Quantum mechanics. the trees age. that the Big Bang has a special function. A lot of people believe that life comes from another planet. To understand reality we have to study the mechanisms of fluctuations in astrophysics. but we do not age in the same way. Reducibility. not at the end of science. Ageing involves progress and novelty. The models we first studied give a picture of the Universe as a deterministic eternal automaton. Nobody can doubt Michelangelo was an innovator. the stars age. we are surprised because we do not see a clear relation between science and the Universe. The theory of the Big Bang is the most widely accepted theory. My reason is the same as Einstein's. but we do not know yet the origin of life. I age.

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77 Epilogue .

The remarkable progress of Ilya Prigogine's school. namely: (I) The paradox of Life (II) The paradox of Dynamics (I) How can Living Forms appear and self-organize by reducing their Entropy. driven by fluctuations. long range correlations appear and fluctuations play the dominant role. experiencing critical transitions as the order parameters c h a n g e . At the critical non-equilibrium transitions. The system "finds its way" through attractors and repellers. as Prigogine showed. As a result we have pattern formation and Self-organization [1-5]. 23]. defying the universality of the Second Law of Thermodynamics? It was Schrodinger [62] among others who emphasized the need to extend Thermodynamics far from equilibrium in order to find possible ways to avoid the apparent contradiction between the self organization of Living Forms and the entropy increasing approach to equilibrium. because the Irreversible emergence of Order .78 Irreversibility. (II) How can Entropy increase irreversibly in a System of Atoms interacting with reversible and conservative forces? Although the problem was posed scientifically by Boltzmann in the previous century [22. approximation). where there is no global extremum principle. the extra-dynamical ideas go back to Epicurus and Lucretius [3. was based on persistent effort to cope with 2 paradoxes which resulted after the formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The principle of "order through fluctuations" describes how patterns emerge far from equilibrium. Probability. In fact the non-linear equations describing non-equilibrium systems. Prigogine could not accept any extra-dynamical a r g u m e n t (ignorance. achieved mainly in the second half of the 20th century. give rise to structural instabilities associated with bifurcations. 18]. 4. Instability These are the three keywords Ilya Prigogine likes to use in order to summarize the essence on Non-Equilibrium Physics.

This classification applies not only to microscopic and macroscopic processes. His strategic remark was that Irreversibility and Probability should be objective properties of Unstable a n d / o r Non-Integrable Dynamics. This is in fact the case. As probability (fluctuations) is also involved in non-equilibrium transitions (Fig. Prigogine could not imagine Irreversibility without Probability. 2) producing the diverse forms of nature. provide the Foundations of Non-Equilibrium Physics.e. several observable consequences have been predicted in cosmological models with instabilities due to negative curvature [63-65]. Therefore Irreversibility should be an objective property of Nature. Extensions of Dynamics can of course be constructed also for stable and integrable systems. chaotic character [66]. Unstable a n d / o r Non-Integrable systems admit extensions of the Dynamical Evolution which are both intrinsically Irreversible and intrinsically Probabilistic [18]. For example. 21). This is not so unexpected. Therefore the classification of Dynamics in terms of stability and integrability is very crucial. E x t e n d e d Spectral D e c o m p o s i t i o n s and Time Operator The Irreversible. Probability and . but also to the Universe as a whole. As Ilya Prigogine emphasized in his discussion with Theodore Christidis (p. namely spectral theory of operators in Topological Vector spaces.79 far from equilibrium is achieved through the Entropy Flow. The analysis of recent observations suggests strongly that our universe has negative curvature. i. but they are always reversible and nonprobabilistic. In other words rather sophisticated mathematics. supported by the internal Entropy production as prescribed by the Second Law [2-5]. Probabilistic extensions of dynamics are constructed through the spectral decomposition of the evolution operators and acquire meaning in suitable spaces of generalized functions [58]. Probabilistic Analysis of Complexity. even at the fundamental level of dynamical description.

the questions of Statistical Mechanics could not be posed adequately in terms of the mathematics of Differential Equations and Topological Dynamics. Hilbert also mentions Boltzmann's work and he even contributed himself later (1912) to Kinetic theory [68]. will return back into the region after some finite time. In Problem 6 "Mathematical Treatment of the Axioms of Physics". The understanding of the relation between probability and mechanics has been stated by Hilbert to be "a problem in the first rank" when he delivered the famous address on the 26 Mathematical Problems in 1900 [67]." On the other hand.so Mechanics are two different mathematical theories. This strategic remark of Caratheodory opened the way for the proper mathematical treatment of Statistical Mechanics in terms of Measure theory and Functional Analysis [70]. Birkhoff quoted [74] the following remarkable statement of von Neumann: "I would like to make a confession which may seem immoral: I do not believe in Hilbert space any more. when he completed [69] the Proof of Poincare's Recurrence theorem. Caratheodory was the first to see. The problems of Statistical Physics were originally formulated in the frame of Hilbert Spaces [72. the spectral theory of Operators in Topological Vector spaces is not as developed as the Hilbert . that Measure theory is the natural language to formulate and discuss the problems of Statistical Mechanics. In fact Birkhoff and Koopman pointed out in 1932 [71] that "Caratheodory's paper [69] was the first entrance into the realm of dynamics of the modern theory of real variables". in 1919. by reformulating it as follows: The volume preserving dynamical transformations of the phase space have the property that almost all points (except possibly a subset of zero volume) in any region of positive volume. However. The need to use function spaces beyond Hilbert spaces has been stated not only by Dirac [11] but even by von Neumann himself. 73] intensively studied in the 30's as they provided the foundation of Quantum Mechanics [10].

a real parameter Q}j/(x) = xy/(x) QYa = VaQ + aVa T h e decomposition of the statistical evolution in terms of the eigenfunctions of the Time Operator.a). stand for the K o o p m a n O p e r a t o r s in classical dynamics or the Heisenberg Operators in q u a n t u m dynamics. like the motion of the p e n d u l u m . . For predictable processes. for complex systems.8/ space theory. is just the canonical d e c o m p o s i t i o n of N o n .T + tVt H e r e V. The Algebra of Observables is constant in time a n d the Time O p e r a t o r is trivially zero. T h e resulting spectral expansions for Complex Systems d e m a n d further elaboration of the extension theory of Operators [58].p r e d i c t a b l e processes in t e r m s of successive stages of Innovation [44]. However. related by a g e n e r a l i z e d F o u r i e r Transform a n a l o g o u s to the M o m e n t u m a n d Position r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s in Q u a n t u m Mechanics. in the simple one-dimensional case: Va\j/(x) = y/(x . T h e Spectral Decomposition and the Time O p e r a t o r are the two main mathematical tools developed by the BrusselsAustin Groups for the statistical analysis of complex systems. In other words the relation between the Time O p e r a t o r T a n d the evolution o p e r a t o r Vb is like the relation between the Position O p e r a t o r a n d the spatial translations Va in Q u a n t u m Mechanics. For example. T h e Time O p e r a t o r m e n t i o n e d by Ilya Prigogine d u r i n g the discussion with T h e o d o r e Christidis is canonically conjugate to the evolution operators Vt [3] TVi = V. the Algebra of Observables increases in time as new information is produced [44]. Innovation is just this new information p r o d u c e d at each stage of evolution. there is no innovation.

For example. the Neural Networks. The main outcomes of Ilya Prigogine's work are: 1) The clarification of the general physical conditions for the e m e r g e n c e of Complexity at the macroscopic and microscopic level. p. It is paved by our effort and our ability to capture critical fluctuations and transform them to innovations. 2) The development of the probabilistic analysis of Complex Systems. Vol. These Algorithms may be transferred from one discipline to another for mutual cross fertilization. The Future is not determined. We are living in a most exciting era. 622]. epidemics. full of challenges and possibilities. have been characterized as "certainly unconventional and thoughtprovoking. Mathematical Models for the Immune System [78. 81]. The work of Ilya Prigogine is a .82 C o m p l e x i t y — R e s u l t s and P e r s p e c t i v e s In the recent Review of'20th Century Physics the ideas developed in Ilya Prigogine's school on Non-Equilibrium Physics. The recently proposed Social Networks [82] are useful for the Internet. Probability is an assessment of the uncertainty inherent in Complex Systems. Let us only mention. 79] provide new computational platforms or even an Immune System for Computer Networks. Information Society itself may be viewed as a Complex System [84]. Natural Complexity gives rise to problems with computational complexity [76]. important for Network Security [80. Biology is not only the great challenge of the 21st century (Non Genetic Biology mentioned by Ilya Prigogine) but also provides a lot of ideas for Complexity Theory and Information Technology. even the structure of scientific collaborations [83]. the Evolutionary Automata. elation and concern: an ideal mixture for further progress" [75. I. the Swarm Intelligence [81]. Within the physics community they produce a mixture of scepticism. in addition to Immune Networks. Complex Systems demand the development of unconventional Algorithms [77].

The Rector Professor Themistoklis Xanthopoulos embraced the idea with enthusiasm and supported it throughout. On behalf of the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. I would like to thank those who contributed to the realization of this distinctive event. I would also like to thank the Council. The Vice Rectors Professors Efstratios Galanis and Eleftherios Papagiannakis and the Presidents of the three departments. as the Rector mentioned in the Preface. Dimitrios Koutsouris and Dimitrios Krawaritis. This dialogue is open and will continue most creatively in Greece where it started. as well as personally. all contributed and gave their support. Professor George Metakides conceived the idea. Professor Ioannis Antoniou Deputy Director. International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry .S3 c o n t i n u a t i o n of the dialogue between Heraclitus and Parmenides. Professors DimitriosMarinos Kouris. the professors and students of the National Technical University of Athens for their warm participation.

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Watts D. Comp. Univ. Artificial Immune Systems and Applications. Phy. [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] . (eds. New York (1998). 98. pp. and Dinneen M. Perelson A. Elsevier. 1219-1267 (1997). Springer-Verlag. Prigogine I. Antoniou I. New York (1995). "Information Society as a Complex System. Cucker E. New York." pp. London (2001). Ambasciato dTtalia.. Travagliati. 056117 (2003). "Science. C o o r d i n a t e d by the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry. 21-36. 69.E. Springer-Verlag. "Star-Unitary Transformation: From Dynamics to Irreversibility and Stochastic Behaviour. and Herman R. Mod. Marchetti and C. ed.. Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Berlin (1999). 1971. Sci.. Sci." Rev.. Immunocomputing Project. (ed. and Stenning V. Springer-Verlag. Long Term Research. and Smale S. D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0 . Lombardo."/.. "Immunology for Physicists...D e c e m b e r 2003. C.). 25 November 1997. and Ordonez G.90 Mathematical Society (1961). Bruxelles. Institute of Physics. Antoniou I. Prigogine I. The New York Times. Newman M. A. Pais A. New Jersey (1999).. London and American Institute of Physics. Bohm. II. Princeton University Press. IST-2000-26016. and Antoniou I. 2 (2001).. Proc. 272-288 (2000). Brown L. III. Natl.. 6. Shub M." Phys. B11-B12. European Information Society Technologies Programme. Genetics in Europe Sommet Europeen. Quaderni Europei No. 404-409 (2001). Reeve M. Complexity and Real Computation. Claude C. Blum L. Kim S. Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic. and Weisbuch G.) Twentieth century Physics Vols I.) Unconventional Models of Computation. (eds. E67. The structure of scientific collaboration networks. Rev.J. Dasgupta D. Evolution and Complexity. This information has been supplied by Prof.. M. and Pippard B. Acad.

91 In Memorium .

Outside the mainstream you may get something really interesting. Self Organized Delegation. You always tried to get the best from people. but you should not expect to get results of great significance. I was advised by other senior scientists to stay away from your group because it could be too risky for the career a young researcher to deal with exotic unclear subjects. Moreover. deliberately ignoring the irrelevant and the destructive. colleague and friend. Just like atomic transitions that excited you so much. Those who actively engaged themselves in the issue were the authors of the papers. so I decided to get your reaction. loannis Antoniou. you have a little time for creative thinking.92 Farewell to Ilya Prigogine Ilya Prigogine passed away on 28 May 2003 shortly before the publication of this volume. Every week you gathered us in your office to discuss different problems. After my PhD. This moment was certain. far from the mainstream. but not predictable when I joined your group. never losing the vision and the goal. The Memorial address by his student. Professor Prigogine. at the Royal Academy of Belgium on 6 June 2003 is added to this last booh of Ilya Prigogine. 21 years ago. I was desperate. But there is a high risk to be lost and . Mainstream research is safe. Quite unexpectedly you told me: "They are right.

" You always emphasized that science is a social activity. As you like to say. but why do you lose your time with the strange ideas of Prigogine?" Quite upset. an optimistic vision for our universe. interesting return is with the outsiders. Your response was another surprise: "I am most happy. in which we participate. After a hot discussion. the European Research Area is now reality. I always believed that the objective character of Self Organization and Irreversibility should be based on some qualitative properties of Dynamics. Your vision is now reality. "Universe is a construction in progress. during dinner he approached me saying. Those of us in Brussels and Austin who helped you a little are most happy and proud. you found that Non-Integrability and Chaos are the key properties of Dynamics which give rise to Irreversibility without any approximations. but there is high risk to lose everything. another Nobel prizewinner attacked me violently." When I presented our work 10 years ago at a Conference in Italy. because nature is anyway reversible at the microscopic fundamental level". should imply a unified description of nature as well." Indeed. because this shows that my work attracts attention.93 isolated." Indeed. No reaction means that your work is perceived as insignificant. We have new results in Physics. Research is like horse betting. your work in the early stages was outside the mainstream. I asked you: "How did you find the strength to persist and go on?" You said: "If they are right then Nature must be schizophrenic. The unity of nature. even applications appreciated by the present scientific community. Ioannis. When you tried to find the dynamical basis of Self Organization and Irreversibility. subjective evaluations or loss of information. thanks to you. Wigner advised you "not to lose your time in such strange research. I decided again to report it to you. as well. . But on top of that we have. new Mathematics. When you propose something original you should expect to have good friends and good enemies. Thanks also to your efforts in the '80's. "I like your work on the Time Operator.

94 Under your direction. thanks to your inspiration. I was astonished to hear you say: "loannis. Professor Sadovnichy. When I asked you a few months ago: "What are the future challenges of science as now the issue of Irreversibihty and Self-Organization is more or less clear?". You considered this mysterious experience to be the source of creative innovative activity in science and art. In the early '90's you initiated the Euro-Russia Collaboration on complexity. to develop your ideas further. if I was a young . the International Solvay Institutes have been transformed into an Advanced Research Center for Non-Equilibrium Physics and Complexity. you always appreciated what you like to call "the mystery of experience of transcendence". Being and Becoming. Strong personal links were established. will continue to work inspired by your refreshing vision and innovative ideas. Professor Kadyshevsky. Many talented Russian scientists came to Brussels. We all believe that your thoughts will mark the science of the 21st century. Mother Russia helped us a lot. A lot of new results were obtained. commit themselves to continue the fruitful collaboration in our international network. Petersburg State University on behalf of your beloved friends and collaborators. the Rector of St. the Director of the International Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. Rector Antonopoulos from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. You have quoted many times the dialogue between Parmenides and Heraclitus. Although you never had any particular opinion about religious matters. Rector Xanthopoulos from the National Technical University of Athens and Vice-Rector Tsalidis from Democritus University of Thrace will support the further development of your ideas in Greece. about 500. The honours offered to you by Hellenic Universities and Authorities are simply expressions of the appreciation and love of Greek scientists and intellectuals. Your groups in Brussels and Austin. the Rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University and Professor Verbitskaya. Your friends.

This is the great challenge of the 21st century.95 researcher now. in this great bifurcation. I would study the Mind/Body problem. ." Bon voyage Professor Prigogine.

in La Cordeille d'OUioules.Ilya Prigogine at a physics course given to 12-year-old children at the "College des Maristes". . France. Ilya Prigogine and loannis Antoniou at the Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki (1998). near Toulon. in February 1987.

February 25. since 1959 Director. Moscow. awarded by His Majesty. 1939 Docteur en Sciences Chimiques. the King of Belgium. since 1967 . 1917. Russia Nationality: Belgian Married: Children: Title: Marina Prokopowicz. 21 July 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. July 5. International Institutes of Physics and Chemistry founded by E. 1939 Licencie en Sciences Physiques. Solvay. 1970 Hereditary nobility and the personal title of Viscount. Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems. 1961 Yves Prigogine. 1945 Pascal Prigogine.Curriculum Vitae of Ilya Prigogine Born: January 25. February 6. 1941 Agrege de l'Enseignement Superieur en Chimie Physique. The University of Texas at Austin. 1977 Awarded: Education: (Universite Libre de Bruxelles) Licencie en Sciences Chimiques. 1945 Activities: Director.

1996 . 1993 Honorary Chairman of the Centro de Estudios Latinoamericano Ilya Prigogine. 1996 Honorary Chairman of the Institute of Complex Systems. Belgium. Fondo Archivisto "Ferruccio Rossi Landi". since 1967. Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Ashbel Smith Professor. 1950. since 1984 Charge de Cours. 1996 Honorary Director of the International Institute of Scientific Investigation. 1993 Honorary Member of the World Commission of Culture and Development of UNESCO. Jenbach in Tirol. Professeur Honoraire.98 Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering. Buenos Aires. 1987 Special Advisor to the European Community. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. Professeur Ordinaire. Italy. 1996 "Ilya Prigogine Chair of the Philosophy of Sciences" (School of Humanities and Social Sciences). Austria. 1995 Honorary President of the Institute for Mathematical Study of Complex Systems at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. since 1987 Directeur d'Etudes associe a l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Greece. University of Salvador. Thrace. chaired by Perez de Cuellar. Argentina. Brussels. Professeur Extraordinaire. 1996 Honorary President of the International Academy of Science/ Council for Scientific Development. Brussels. 1996 Creation of the Haute Ecole Libre Ilya Prigogine. Argentine. 1951. 1995 Honorary Chairman of the Istituto di Documentazione e Ricerca Sull'Opera di Ilya Prigogine. Regental Professor. Universidad de Palermo. CISST Brugine-Padova. 1996 Honorary President of the "Centro de Fisica No Lineal y Sistemas Complejos" de Universidad de Santiago. 1947. The University of Texas at Austin. Belgium. France. since 1977. Chili.

1961 Commander of the Order de la Couronne. France. Belgium. 1967 Membre correspondant de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege. 2000 Commander of the World Order "Science. Buenos Aires. Sweden. Argentina. Culture. Komotini. 1997 (2nd seminar in 1999) Honorary Director. USA. 1960 Membre correspondant de I'Academie de la Republique Populaire de Roumanie. 1967 . Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Ukbridge. 1996 Medal of Ibaraki University in Mito. 1999 Distinguished National Awards: Medaille de la Resistance. Greece. Belgium Commander of the Order of Leopold II. 1977 Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters. "International Institute for Research". Japan.99 President of the Ilya Prigogine seminar "Penser la Science". Belgium. 1968 Medaille Civique de Premiere Classe. 2002 Memberships: Membre correspondant de la Classe des Sciences de I'Academie Royale des Sciences. 1953 Membre Titulaire de I'Academie Royale de Belgique. Japan. Uppsala. 1991 Friend of the Democritus University of Thrace. France. Education. 1984 Commander of the Legion of Honor. 1972 Holder of the Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold II. 1989 Member of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun. France. 1965 Member of the Royal Society of Sciences. Belgium. honored with the Gold and Silver Medals. Universidad del Salvador. 1999 Medal of Member of the European Academy of Yuste. Belgium. 1958 Honorary Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1977 Commander of the National Order of Merit. ULB. 1997 Norbert Weiner Gold Medal." European Academy of Information.

1971 Member of the International Academy of the Philosophy of Science. 1982 Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of the U. Catania. 1980 Member and Vice-President.too Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Italy. 1970 President. Germany. 1983 Member. Academie Internationale de Prospective Sociale.R. Paris. 1970 Member of the Ostereichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1968 a 1970 M e m b e r of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina Halle. Academie Europeenne des Sciences. Diisseldorf. 1971 Honorary Member. Munich. 1967 President de la Classe des Sciences de I'Academie Royale des Sciences. 1982 Membre du Conseil d'Administration de la Fondation Erasme. Geneva University. 1970 Corresponding Member in Physics and Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of Gottingen. 1979 M e m b e r of the Rheinische-Westfahliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.S. des Arts et des Lettres. Geneva 1983 .. Brussels. Vienna. Lettres et Beaux-Arts de Belgique. International Council for Scientific Development. Berlin. 1976 Foreign Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy. Chemical Society of Poland. 1980 Foreign Member of the Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. 1973 American Chemical Society Centennial Honorary Foreign Fellow. 1980 Member of the Accademia Mediterranea delle Scienze. Germany. 1982 Member of the Honorary Committee of Archives of Psychology. 1983 Member of Honor of the Society for Studies on Entropy of Japan.S. USA.

Universite Philosophique Europeenne. 1988 First Honorary Member of the Washington Evolutionary Systems Society. 1988 Membre d'Honneur of the Societe Royale de Chimie de Belgique. Washington. 1988 Honorary Member.C. Kentucky. 1989 Member of the National Academy of Engineering. International Academy of the History of Science. Haut Conseil de la Francophonie. D. Portugal 1988 Member of the Consultative Council of the Scientific Section of the Fondazione dell'Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino per la cultura. Italy. 1989 Member of the Editorial Board of the Ukrainian Physical Journal. 1989 Member of the Academie Europaea. International Society for General Systems Research. an extension of the Royal Academy of London. People's Republic of China. Louisville. World Academy of Art and Science.. Biophysical Society. Turin. 1985 Honorary Member. 1989 Honorary Member. 1986 Fellow. European Council of Research Libraries. la scienzia e l'arte. 1984 Membre Scientifique Extraordinaire of the Max Planck Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany. USSR. 1986 Honorary Member. Lisbon. 1990 Scientific Adviser of the International Academy for Biomedical Drug Research. Lausanne. Paris. Switzerland. 1990 Honorary Member of the Natural Sciences Academy of the Federal Republic of Russia. 1989 Member of the Argentine Academy of Science. 1985 Founding Member. Paris. 1984 Honorary President. Argentina.fOf Member. Physical Society and Chemical Society of Tunisia. 1991 . 1987 Foreign Fellow of the Academia des Ciencias de Lisboa.

"Academia Nazionale delle Scienze" de la Republica di San Marino. Japan. Kothari Centre for Science. Nuremberg. 1994 Senior Advisor of Keihanna Plaza-Kansai Science City. 1996 Honorary President of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Chaos Theory & Applications. Italy. Communaute Europeenne. 1994 Membre de l'Assemble E u r o p e n n e des Sciences et des Technologie. Academia Nazionale di Scienze Lettere e Arti. Society for Design and Process Science. Texas. Belgium. 1995 Member. Dynamics of Continous. and Implusive Systems. 1991 Honorary Member. 1997 Member of International Academic Council. 1997 Honorary Foreign Member of Korean Academy of Science and Technology. Romania. Honorary Board of the International Society for Theoretical Chemical Physics. 1992 Honorary Member. April 1996 Honorary Member. July 1995 Member of the Advisory Board. UNESCO. Japan. Discrete. India. International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB). April 1996 Member. Ethics and Education of the University of Delhi. 1997 . 1996 Member Honorary Editorial Board. Kyoto. 1996 Member. Citizens for Europe. Romanian Academy. 1994 Member of Comite de Patronage of the Special Olympics. Seoul. Korean Society of Chemistry. Buenos Aires. 1994 Foreign Member of Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk. Austin. Modena. Burcarest. Belgium.f02 President. Russia). Italy. Korea. 1994 International Advisor de I'lnternational Institute for Advanced Studies. Germany. 1995 Member. Universidad del Salvador.

Brussels. 1947 A. 1969 Bourke Medal of the Chemical Society of Great Britain. 2002 Honorary Member of the World Innovation Foundation. September 1999 Member of the Ukraine National Academy of Sciences. Italian Institute for Philosophic Studies. created by the UNESCO. Naples. Huddersfield. Halle. November. 1976 American Chemical Society Centennial Fellow. 1976 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Classe des Sciences. J. 1978 . 1965 Swante Arrenius Gold Medal of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden. 1949 A. 1955 E.f03 Member of the "Conseil du Futur". 1975 Medal of the Association for the Advancement of Sciences. 1977 Karcher Medal of the American Crystallographic Association. Honorary President of the Internataional Comission on Distance Education. United Kingdom. Brussels. 1972 Cothenius Gold Medal of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina. created by the Committee of Non-governmental Organizations of the Economic and Social Council of United Nations. De Potter Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. Royal Academy of Sweden. Solvay Prize of the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique. 2003 Prizes: Van Laar Prize of the Societe Chimique de Belgique. Wetrems Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. 2002. 2002 Honoray President. Paris. April 2000 Member of the London Diplomatic Academy. 1950 Annual Prize of the Academie Royale de Belgique. 1952 Francqui Prize of the Francqui Foundation. 1975 Annual First Prize of the Southwest Science Forum of the New York Academy of Science. 1976 Rumford Gold Medal of the Royal Society of London.

Tokyo. New York University School of Medicine. 1991 Medal of the Ville de Milan. 1983 Citoyen d'Honneur de la Commune d'Uccle. Paris. 1987 Award of the Gravity Research Foundation. Quebec. with J. Moscow. 1995 Medal Piotr Kapitza. Italy. Texas. 1994 Professeur Kampe de Feriet Medal. Nice. Tokyo. 1994 Gold Medal of l'Ecole Normale Superieure. 1979 Prix du Haut Comite de la Langue Francaise. Italy. 1988 Medal of the University of Padua. 1993 Medal of the Ville de Trieste. the Academy of Natural Science. 1989 International Foundation for Artificial Intelligence Award for Scientific Achievement. Nardone. 1981 (for Order Out of Chaos. 1987 Gold Medal of the Ville de Pavie. scientific and technical category. Paris. Paris. 1991 Gold Medal. 1988 Commander of French Legion of Honor. 1993 Summa Prize. 1983 Honorary Citizen of the City of Dallas. 1995 . Italy. July 1989 National Science Foundation Distinguished Lecturer. 1991 First Homer Smith Medal. Texas. 1989 Distinguished Service Medal. France. Universite Laval. Italy. with Isabelle Stengers) Honda Prize of the Honda Foundation. France.104 Descartes medal of the Universite Descartes. 1990 Medal of the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun (gold and silver stars). 1987 Gold Medal of the Ville d'Ostende. 1984 Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. Geheniau. for the essay "Thermodynamics and Cosmology". Austin. Russia. France. 1984 Umberto Biancamano Prize. 1988 Awarded the title Viscount by the King of Belgium for outstanding contributions to science. 1993 Gold Medal of the Univeristy of Pavie. Gunzig and P. Cite Universitaire. E. 1983 Citoyen d'Honneur de la Ville de Monpellier. Paris.

Brussels. 1999 Prix Ilya Prigogine de Thermodynamique. Argentine. Greece. 1996 Medal of the Hellenic Parliament. Belgium. Luxembourg. Chili. Italy. Italy. awarded by the CERET (Centre de Recherche sur la Thermodynamique). 1997 Scientific Prize of the President of the Italian Senate. Universidad de Palermo. Paris. Honorary citizen of the town of Thessaloniki. Texas. Universita dell'Insubria (Universite Lombarde). 1997 Medaille de l'Universite de Reggio di Calabria. Italy. Calabria. 1998 Medal of the University of Verona. 1995. Italy. presented by President of Russia. 1996 Honorary Chairman of the Institute of Complex Systems. 1996 Honorary President of the "Centro de Fisica No Lineal y Sistemas Complejo" de Universidad de Santiago. Como. 1997 Calabria Prize for the book. Italy. 1999 Creation of "Prigogine Lectures". 1997 Medal of the President of the Italian Senate awarded by the "Pio Manzu Internaitonal Research Center". Greece. 1999 First "N. "La Fin des Certitudes". 1996 "Illya Prigogine Chair of the Philosophy of Sciences" (School of Humanities and Social Sciences).f05 Honorary citizen of the City of Lubbock. Greece. Athens. France. Palermo.N. Italy. Italy. Greece. 1996 Creation of the Haute Ecole Libre Ilya Prigogine. 1999 Honorary citizen of the city of Pescara. 1996 Medal of the town of Xanthi. Bogolyubov Prize". 1996 Honorary citizen and gold medal. Greece. Italy. 1999 Targa Giuseppe Piazzi. 1997 Medal of the University of Messine. 1998 Gold Medal "La Rosa Commacina" city of Pescara. Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). 1997 Medaille AMPERE. Thrace. 1996 Prize of the International Neural Network Society of Italy. 1999 . 1997 Diamond Prize. Italy. Italy. 1996 Russian Friendship Scientific Prize.

1966 D. Nanjing University. Interantional Academy of Information. 1981 D. d'Economie et des Sciences. Belgium. Aix-Marseille. Albert Schweitzer International University. Honoris Causa. University of Uppsala. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. University of Krakow. People's Republic of China. Sweden. Honoris Causa. Universite de Poitiers. Nanjing University. Universidad Nacional Educacion a Distancia. Universite de Bordeaux. 1981 D. Universite de Liege. I. Honoris Causa. 1966 D. Honoris Causa. Russia. 1980 D. Honoris Causa. 1977 D. 1985 D. Vernadskiy Silver Medal. 1986 D. 1986 Honorary Professor. England. Honoris Causa. Madrid. 2000 V. University of Chicago. 1972 D.106 Creation of the International Scientific Award Professor Prigogine. Naples. Ukraine. Honoris Causa. 1986 . Honoris Causa. France. 1969 D. Buenos Aires. 1979 D. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Russia. Italian Institute for Philosophic Studies. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. 1985 D. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. Honoris Causa. Universite de Droit. 2003 Honorary Degrees: D. Georgetown University. Stevens Institute of Technology. People's Republic of China. Argentina 1999 Gold Medal of Odessa State Medical University. Honoris Causa. Heriot-Watt University. Francois Rabelais Universite de Tours. 1986 D. 2001 University Peace and Science Gold Medal. 2002 Gold Medal Lomonosov. Beijing University. 1981 D. University of Rio de Janeiro. Honoris Causa. Universidad del Salvador. Honoris Causa. 2001 Antonio Roberti International Prize. People's Republic of China. Poland. Edinburgh. 1977 D.

Binghamton. France. University of Santiago. University of Philippines System. University of Buenos Aires. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. May 1995 D. June 1995 D. Honoris Causa. Argentina. 1992 D. Honoris Causa. 1991 D. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. University of Kerala. Gustavus Adolphus College of the University of Minnesota. Cuza". India. I. Binghamton University. Seoul. Petersburg. Universidad de Valladolid. Sardinia. 1991 D. 1995 D. Belgium. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Chile. New York. Honoris Causa. 1995 D. Honoris Causa de "International Association of University Presidents". 1996 . 1996 D. 1990 D. Italy. Honoris Causa. Belgium. Brussels. April 1995 D. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine. Urbino. Benares Hindu University at Varasani. University of Nice-Sophia-Antipolis. Spain. Honoris Causa. Universitatea "Al. 1990 D. Romania. May 1995 D./07 Honorary Professor. Argentina. Buenos Aires. Honoris Causa. Republic of Korea. 1991 D. 1989 D. University of Siena. Nancy. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. Russia. Italy. Honoris Causa. Iasi. Lomonosov University of Moscow. October 1994 D. 1993 D. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Quezon City. Universita' degli Studi Istituto Filosofia. France. Italy. Universidad de Palermo. 1995 Doyen d'honneur Honoris Causa de I'lnstitut Royal des Elites du Travail de Belgique Albert l er . Honoris Causa. Nice. Argentina. University of Cagliari. Universidad Nacional de San Luis. University of St. Argentina. 1988 D. Brussels. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. October 1994 D. Tucuman. Russia. 1993 D. 1990 D. Philippines. India.

Honoris Causa. Ukraine. Honoris Causa. Honoris Causa. 1998 D. 1944. Prigogine and R. Honoris Causa in Science. Wroclaw University of Technology. Honoris Causa. National Polytechnic School. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. . University of Salvador. 1998 D. 2001 D. Honoris Causa. Greece. the Academy of Slovak Republic. I. Buenos Aires. Vol. Honoris Causa. 1996 D. Memoires 20. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Classe des sciences). 1998 D. National Polytechnic School. Honoris Causa. 2000 D. Optics and Electronics./OS D. Honoris Causa in Philosopy. Greece. 1998 D. Greece. Poland. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering. Odessa Medical University. Greece. II. 1998 D. Honoris Causa in Applied Science. Vol. Athens. 2002 Monographs: Contribution a I 'etude spectroscopique dans I'infra-rouge proche de la liaison d'hydrogene et la structure des solutions (Academie Royale de Belgique. Engineering Faculty (University of Xanthi). 1996 D. 1998 D. National Polytechnic School. 2000 D. Defay. Department of Chemical Engineering. Switzerland. 1943. Traite de Thermodynamique Conformement aux Methodes de Gibbs et de Donder. Geneva. Department of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences. Mexico. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Argentina. 1950). 2000 D. Athens. Mexico City. Greece. second edition. Honoris Causa. I. Greece. 2000 Honorary Professor of the International Albert Schweitzer University. Honoris Causa. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Athens. Greece. Thermodynamique Chimique (first edition. Puebla. National Institute of Astrophyics. Honoris Causa.

Prigogine and I. G. presented in 1945 (published by Dunod. I. 1957). Stengers. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (John Wiley & Sons [Interscience Division]: New York. Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems: From Dissipalive Structures to Order through Fluctuations (John Wiley [Interscience]: New York. Nicolis and I. Prigogine and R. I. I. Prigogine. From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in the Physical Sciences (W. Translations in Russian. Prigogine and R. Stability and Fluctuations (John Wiley & Sons [Interscience]: New York. I.. P. 1954. 1971). Thesis. Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles. I. Chemical Thermodynamics. Third edition.: Amsterdam. Prigogine.109 Tension Superficielle et Adsorption (Desoer: Liege. 1971). Russian. Longmans Green & Co. Prigogine. H. Serbo-Croatian. 1979. 1983). The Molecular Theory of Solutions (North-Holland Publishing Co. Italian and Spanish. English version: Order Out of Chaos (Bantam: New York. 1986). Japanese. 1984). Translations in 8 languages. Ph.D. I. 1962. A. Thermodynamic Theory of Structure.. 1967). French. I. Russian and Japanese. Thomas Publisher (American Lecture Series): 1954. La Nouvelle Alliance — Les Metamorphoses de la Science (Gallimard: Paris. Translations in Russian. idem. 1947). Defay. Prigogine. Glansdorff and I. I. Prigogine. . Prigogine. Mathot. Freeman & Company: San Francisco. Italian and Chinese. 1980). 1951). 1962). German. Translations in French. 1977). Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic (Elsevier: New York. and Japanese. Second edition: John Wiley & Sons flnterscience Division]: New York. Prigogine. Herman. Tan Solo una Ilusion? Una Exploracion del Caos al Orden (Tusquets Editiones: Madrid. Bellemans and V. Translations in English. Translations in 18 languages. Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes (Charles C. 1981. I. Prigogine.

Glansdorff) "On a General Evolution Criterion in Macroscopic Physics". Estratto Dagli Atti del Simposio Lagrangiano. Paris. Modern Thermodynamics. Prigogine and I. de Gottal) "Relativistic Effects in Statistical Hydrodynamics". I. Entre le Temps et VEternite (Librairie Artheme Fayard: Paris. 1989). Chaos and the Laws of Chaos (Ed. . Kondepudi and I. Prigogine. 1992. Physica 31 (1964) 719724. France.ffO I. I. Nicolis. Publications since 1964: (with P. 1987). L'homme devant Vincertain (Editions Odile Jacob. Paris. Piper & Co. I. (with P. Translations in 19 languages. Prigogine. 2001). 1994). 1994). Exploring Complexity (W. Stengers. Les Lois des Chaos. Collection "Nouvelle Bibliotheque Scientfiques" (Flammarion. Progress. Russian. Chinese translation: Tansuo Fuzaxing (Sechuan Education Publishing House. Prigogine and G. Also translated into Greek. New York. Prigogine and I. D. Chichester. Resibois) "Temps et Irreversibilite en Physique Statistique". 1998). Translations in 5 languages. Verlag: Miinchen. I. France. Flammarion. Moscow. "Thermodynamique — Des moteurs thermiques aux structures dissipatives". I. 1997). second edition. Physica 30 (1964) 351-374. 1999 (French translation). H. Chinese and Japanese. Chengdu. Stengers. "Steady States and Entropy Production". Accademia delle Scienze di Torino (1964) 1—42. 1987). Editions Odile Jacob. 1988). Physica 31 (1965) 877-887. Time. Prigogine. German translation: Die Erforschung des Komplexen (R. (with P. Paris. Freeman: New York. Translations in 6 languages. Prigogine. From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures (John Wiley & Sons. Paris. The End of Certainty — Time's Flow and the Laws of Nature (The Free Press.

Henin. Roy. Mayne) "Kinetic Equations and Quasi-particle Description". Watabe) "Kinetic Equations. "Transport Processes. 53 (1967) 273-287. Physica 31 (1965) 1242-1256. Quasi-Particle Renormalization. George) "Entropy and Quasiparticle Description of Anharmonic Lattices". Cahiers du Centre d'Etudes de Recherche Operationnelle 7 (1965) 3-4. (with F. (with G. Int. Cl. 1 (1966) 42-44. Correlation Functions and Reciprocity Relations in Dense Media". "Evolution Criteria. "Sur la Theorie Mathematique de Traffique Vehiculaire". Physical (1966) 18731900. Cl. Cl. Henin. Physica 32 (1966) 1376-1396.. . Realbeig and M. Rev. Structure et Entropie". 3 (1966) 255-257. Belg. Henin) "On the Entropy of Strongly Interacting Systems". 35 (1965) 7. and Kinetic Theory". Memoires Academie Roy ale Belg./// (with P. Physics Letters 21. Properties of Solid Interactions (Elsevier: 1965) 142-151. Severne) "On the Statistical Mechanics of Gravitational Plasmas". (with F. Physics Letters 20. Henin and Cl. Liquids. "Temps. Acad. Journal of Chemical Physics 43 (1965) 4516-4521. P. Structure. des Sc. Henin) "On a Reformulation of Classical Electron Theory". (with F. (with F. de Philosophic 73 (1965) 74. (with F. Mayne) "On the Application of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics to Quantum Field Theory". Nature 209 (1966) 602-603. Bull. Physica 32 (1966) 1828-1872. "Entropy and Gravitation". (with F. Sc. Physics Letters 16 (1965) 253-254. George and F. (with G. "Quelques Remarques sur la Structure de la Physique". Variational Properties and Fluctuation". Misguich) "Local Equilibrium Approach to Transport Processes in Dense Media". Nicolis and J. Glansdorff) "Variational Properties and Fluctuations". in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics: Variational Techniques and Fluctuations (Chicago University Press: 1966) 3-16.

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2 5 . Petrosky) "Chaos. October 1996. Die Wiederentdeckung der Zeit. J. 3-20. P o r t o Alegre.2 1 6 (1996). (with G. "La Science au servie de la Planete". Chaos a n d the Laws of Nature". Novos Paradigmas. "La quete de la certitude". Revue de Flnstitul Emile Vandervelde. Cultura e Subjetividade. Fundamentos De Fisica Cudntica. 1996). "O Fim da Ciencia?". Gimmler. Porto Alegre. A. Sanchez Gomez and E. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary Conference of the Korean Chemical Society (Yonsei University. K. 1996). Woodbury. "Le R e e n c h a n t e m e n t Du Monde".2 1 . "Dos R e l o g i o s as N u v e n s " . Popularization of S c i e n c e — T h e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of k n o w l e d g e in perspective. 257-273.L. Ferrero. Quantum Physics. Sandbothe a n d . Rariada. Novos Paradigmas. Gunzig. Winter (1996) 1-9. Bulletit et Memoires de VAcademie Royale de Medecine de Belgique 151. ed. Schnitman (Artes Medicas. Santos (Editorial Complutense. Cultura e Subjetividade. No. 9 . No. 1996). M. (with T. 1996). Seoul. D. (with M. Cornelis) "Unity of Science and Culture". Reflexionen-Analysen-Konzepte.136 "Time. "Science en Transition". 207-240. ed. I. O h b a . "The Laws of Chaos". Castagnino. No. Chaos a n d Naturgesetze". Communicator and Cognition 29. New York. 1. S c h n i t m a n (Artes Medicas. Fernand Braudel Center. (1996). 1996). Chaos Theory and Cosmology. Collection Institut de M a n a g e m e n t 2 0 9 . Socialisme. Korea.12 (1996) 481-490. eds. 25-40. eds. Vrin. Madrid. "Zeit. (Institut de Philosophic). Temps cosmique et histoire humainae. XIX. D. Maeda and Y Aizawa (American Institute of Physics. ed. Namiki. eds. N a r d o n e a n d S. M. La Societe en quite de Valeurs. Vol. P. 2 (1996) 239-247. Review. Time-symmetry Breaking and the Extension of Classical and Q u a n t u m Mechanics". Tasaki) " Q u a n t u m C o s m o l o g y a n d L a r g e P o i n c a r e Systems". E. 22. May 2 4 .

Wen) "Instability. Gibson and F. May 1995. D. Petrosky) "The Liouville Space Extension of Quanutm Mechanics". Chen and K. Applic. Galkowski (Cambridge University Press. "From Poincares Divergences to Quantum Mechanics with Broken Time Symmetry". (with T. 99. eds E. J. S. 209-218. eds. W. Einstein meets Magritte Conference. 1-120. Complexity. VUB. W. 334B. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. R. IMPACT: How IC2 Research Affects Public Policy and Business Practice. 21 (1997) 311-337. . 79-94. I. Westport. (with D. fur Natursforschung 52a (1997) 37-45. Cambridge. 206-223. New York 1997). Vol. "Nonlinear Science and the Laws of Nature". Infeld. 1997). ed. Prigogine and S. Z. 1997). Michael Benedikt (The University of Texas Press. Center Leo Apostel-CLEA (Kluwer Academic Publishers. (with P. "Einstein and Magritte"./. Advances in Chemical Physics. KLP Praha (1997) 5-44. Rice (John Wiley & Sons. Connecticut. 2-4 (1997) 1-44. and Bounded Rationality in Economic Change". Phillips (Quorum Books. 34. Austin. Franklin Institute. (with Petrosky) "The Extension of Classical Dynamics for Unstable Hamiltonian Systems". Computers Math. Driebe) "Time. "The Rediscovery of Value and the Opening of Economics". "Nonlinear Science and the Laws of Nature". "Cas K Stavani" (K historii casu). eds. No. Thore. Darmstadt.f37 Zimmerli (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Kondepudi) "Thermodynamics. Zelazny and A. Chaos and the Laws of Nature". 1997) 1-7. (1997) 745-758. InternationalJournal of Bifuraction and Chaos. 1997). Cooper. (with D. 7 No. Nonlinear Dynamics Chaotic and Complex Systems. No. 1997). Noneqilibrium". 9 (1997) 1917-1926. 5/6. Center 10: Architecture and Design in America on Value.

5 0 . 21sl Century Dialogues (UNESCO. "Science et C u l t u r e " . Antoniou. 39. 1998). Petrosky) "Kinetic theory a n d long range correlations in m o d e r a t e l y d e n s e gases". Iniciativa Socialista 46 (1997) 4 8 . Vol. (Jan. Crafoord Memorial Symposium: The Logic of Growth L u n d Institute of Economic Research. Italy. N u m b e r 6 ( J u n e 1998). Gunzig a n d S. (with T. "Sciences et Valeurs". 1998). (with I. Band 8. 1998). Lisbon. Jahrbuch fur Komplexildl in den Natur-. Journal of Mathematical Physics. Vol. 8 (3). Selbstorganisation. Argonne National Laboratory. part 4 (1998) 611-618. P e t r o s k y ) "Le v i d e Q u a n t i q u e e t le d i l e m m e hamiltonien". Berlin. Telema. "Pluralite des futurs et fin des certitudes". Portugal (May 1998). 59. Chaos u n d die Zwei Kulturen". "Agua y Cielo". (with T. 15th Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences Proceedings.P Pronko) "Relativistic Gamov Vectors". Gadella and G. "The Best of the Network. "Nell'Universo delle Probability D o b b i a m o Affrontare l'lncertezza" ("Facing the Uncertain"). France. Atlantic (Internacional Revista d e las Artes) Expo 1998 — L i s b o n F u n d a c i o n B a n q u e t e — N u m e r o 20. C o n f e r e n c e "Sciences et Valeurs". " S c i e n c e et C u l t u r e " . Journal of Plasma Physics (in h o n o r of R. C o n f e r e n c e ( F o n d a t i o n C a l o u s t e Gulbenkian. 1997. eds. Diner (1997). 1998). T h e Chaos Network". Primavera (1998) 11. M. Lisbon. May 1998). Fondazione Ugo Bordoni. 1998). . Paris. A n n o IV. (with T. E. Petrosky) "Semigroup Representation of the Vlasov Evolution"./38 "El Desorden creador". 1997 (Duncker & Humblot. (Autonno 1998). "Is the Future Given?". F o n d a t i o n Calouste G u l b e n k i a n Conference. School of Economics a n d M a n a g e m e n t (Lund University. "Zeit.und Geislesiuissenschaften. Le vide. Interview. (Association Descartes. Vol. Sozial. Balescu). Verona.

139 (with T. Petrosky) "Laws of N a t u r e , Probability a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", Generalized functions, operator theory, and dynamical systems, eds. I. Antoniou a n d G. L u m e r (Chapman & H a l l / C R C , London, 1999). (with T. Petrosky) "Laws of N a t u r e , Probability a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", Physica A263 (1999) 528-539. (with T Petrosky) "Extension of classical dynamics: Emergence of i r r e v e r s i b i l i t y a n d stochasticity", Fundamental and Applications of Complex Systems, ed. G. Zgrablich (Nueva Editorial Universitaria, San Luis, 1999) 427. (with I. A n t o n i o u ) "Laws of N a t u r e a n d T i m e Symmetry Breaking", T e m p o s in Science a n d N a t u r e : Structures, Relations a n d Complexity, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 879, J u n e 30, 1999. "Einstein a n d Magrite — A Study of Creativity", (Kluwer Academic Publishers, T h e Netherlands, 1999), 12-18. "Time a n d Laws of Nature", Etratto da "Visione del Mondo Nella Sloria delta Scienza. (IP, Naples, 1999). "The dye is n o t cast (Les j e u x ne sont pas fait)", LeUre aux geneneralions futures (Editions UNESCO, Cultures de la Paix, 1999), 133. "Message of Ilya Prigogine" — Actes du Colloque: "La, Culture-de la paix, reflexion et mise en oeuvre", (Actes 'Colloque, UNESCO, O c t o b e r 2, 1999). "La R i s c o p e r t a d e l Valore e Lo S v i l u p p o d e l l a Scienza Economica", Italian translation of "The Rediscovery of Value and the O p e n i n g of Economics", Lecture at University of Texas at Austin, Oct. 1995 (Intersezioni n u m e r o special, 1999). "Nonlocality a n d superluminosity" Bogolyubov Conference in Moscow in September 1999 (Publishing D e p a r t m e n t of JINR, D u b n a , 1999). (with T Petrosky) "Irreversibility a n d t h e Laws of Nature", Fronteiras da Cieca Proceedings, Coimbra Portugal, eds. R. Fausto, C. Fiolhais and J. Quiro (Gravida, Lisbon, 2000). "The Networked Society", Festshrift Honoring I. Wallerstein, Journal of World Systems ResearchVL, published u n d e r the sponsorship

f40 of the Center for Global, International and Regional Studies and the Division of Social Sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz (2000). (with T. Petrosky) "Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics", The Legacy of Leon Van Hove, World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, Vol. 28, ed. A. Giovannini (Theoretical Physics Department), Torino University, 2000, 135. (with R. Balescu) "Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics", The Legacy of Leon Van Hove, World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, Vol. 28, ed. A. Giovannini (Theoretical Physics Department), Torino University, 2000, 119. (with T. Petrosky) "Thermodynamic limit, Hilbert space and breaking of time symmetry", Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 11 (2000) 373. (with E. Karpov, T Petrosky and G. Pronko) "Friedrichs model with virtual transitions. Exact solution and indirect spectroscopy". /. Mathematical Physics 41 No. 1 (2000) 118. (with I. Antoniou, V Sadovnichii and S.A. Shkarin) "Time operator for diffusion " Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 11 (2000) 465. "Carta para as futuras generacoes", Folha de S. Paulo — Mais!, Brasil, domingo 30 de Janeiro 2000, 5. "Message for Peace and Children", Declaration of Delphi for Peace, 2000. (with E. Karpov, G. Ordonez, T. Petrosky and G. Pronko) "Causality, delocalization and positivity of energy", Physical Review A 62 (2000) 12103. (with T. Petrosky and G. Ordonez) "Quantum transitions and nonlocality", Physical Review A62 (2000) 42106. "Norbert Wiener and the Idea of Contingence", International Journal of Systems & Cyberntics 29 (2000) 825. "The Arrow of Time", The Chaotic Universe, eds. V. G. Gurzadyan & R. Ruffini (World Scientific, Singapore 2000). (with G. Dewel and Dilip Kondepudi) "Chemistry Far from Equilibrium: Thermodynamics, Order and Chaos", The New

fUf Chemistry, ed. N. Hall (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000). "Creativite de la nature — Creativite humaine", L'homme qui Marche, Jardins du Palais Royal, Paris, ed. Regard (2000) 11. "La Thermodynamique de la Vie", La Recherche special edition: 30 ans de science et de recherche, 331 (2000) 38. "Mosaique, fragments du tout", in honor of Andre Jaumotte a l'Academie des Sciences, des Arts et des Lettres (mai 2000), in La Revue Generale 8-9 (2000) 75. "A letter to young Chinese scientists — Ilya Prigogine 1917", Nobel prizes, book written to celebrate the centenary of the Nobel Prize (2000-2001) as commemorated by the Chinese Chemical Society, 106. "L'enseignant qui m'a le plus marque — Victor Larock", L'Ecole des annees 2000 (Revue pedagogique de l'enseignant du maternel et du primaire ordinaire 8c special), Bruxelles, (2000), 37. "Le futur est-il donne?", L'Incertain de la globalisation: role de VEurope, Mondialisation et Societes Multiculturelles, eds. S. Urban and M. Ricciardelli (Presses Universitaires France, Paris, 2000). (with I. Antoniou) "Science, Evolution and Complexity", text written for the Sommet europeen: Genetics in Europe Open days 2000, Brussels, November 16, 2000, eds. G. Lomardo, M. Merchetti, C. Travagliati, Ambasciato d'ltalia, Brussels Quaderni Europei 2 (2001) 21. "Time and the laws of nature", The Physical Nature of Consciousness 19, Advances in Consciousness Research, ed. John Benjamins (2001), 219. "A new page?", Introduction for the EXPO International Forum 2000 in Hanover (2001). "L'humanisation de l'homme, creativite de la nature, creativite de l'homme", L'humanite de I'Homme, ed. Jacques Sojcher (Cercle d'Art, Paris, 2001).

A 64 (2001) 062101. K o n d e p u d i ) Preface. h o m m e . 2001). Petrosky a n d E. T. Rev. "Invention d e l . Ordonez a n d T. Brussels (2001).Ilya Prigogine par Edgard de Assis Carvalho et Maria da Conceicao d e Almeida. Proceedings of the 19th Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences. Scienza e Storia. (with T. son regard sur les sciences". Rivista del C e n t r o Internazionale di Storia dello Spatio e del T e m p o . 2001 (Wiley. Evolution Equations and. " Q u a n t u m transitions and dressed unstable states". Creativite de l. Their Applications in Physical and Life Sciences. Phys. E. P r o n k o ) "Garaow algebras". Petrosky) "Limits to causality and delocalization in classical field t h e o r y " . Petrosky a n d G. T. A r g o n n e National Laboratory. J a n u a r y 16. Solitons and Fractals 12 (2001) 2591. Advances in Chemical Physics Series Vol. (with G.homme". May 21-22. "Science et c u l t u r e " . (with G. Dynamical Systems and Irreversibility: Proceedings of the XXI Solvay Conference on Physics. Karpov) "Age a n d age fluctuations in an unstable q u a n t u m system". O r d o n e z . Karpov a n d G. L u m e r and L. A 63 (2001) 052106. Petrosky a n d E. Leopold III. Petrosky. O r d o n e z ) "Space time formulation of q u a n t u m transitions". Phys. recueil des essais d. 122. Italy (2001)149. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures. Karpov) "Explicit construction of a time s u p e r o p e r a t o r for q u a n t u m unstable systems". Creativite d e la nature. J a p a n e s e edition. New York. 405. ed. (with G. G. (with I. Rev. Weis (Marcel Dekker. O r d o n e z and T. mon pere. 2001). Ordonez. . A n t o n i o u . texte destine au Cercle d'Art (Philippe Monsel (2001). "Ciencia Razao e Paixao". Chaos. Belem). Maison (l'edition de FUEPA. Chaos. "Le Roi Leopld II. Petrosky) "Memory effects a n d dressing: Two-level atoms a n d q u a n t u m decoherence".f4J2 (with D. Solitons and Fractals 12 (2001) 2757. 2001. M. Gadella. (with T. Editions Racine. by SAR Princess Esmeralda of Begium. Brugine. (with G.

Phys Rev. a n d Petrosky T.incertain". 4-6. ed. ed. Prigogine and S.. Phil Trans. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Discrete Simulation of Fluid Dynamics. 2001. series editors: I. Prigogine. series editors: I.143 ed. dans Paul Valery a lous les points de vue.. L u x e m b o u r g (2002) 43. World Scientific. New Paradigms. "Dynamical roots of time symmetry breaking". Prigogine a n d S. xx-xxii. ed. . A 360 (2002) 299. "The E n d of Science?". Hommage a Judith Robinson-Valery. State Research C e n t e r of Russia. R. mars 2003. Institute for High Energy Physics. Paris. 2002) 261. Prosper Schroeder a n d Roland SimonSchaefer. eds. A.8 July 2000. Protvino.. USA. Schmidt-Radefeldt Jiirgen. (with Karpov E. Soc. Dynamical Systems and Irreversibilily: Proceedings of the XXI Solvay Conference on Physics. "Naivete relative de chacun".T. 2 . "Dynamics of correlations: A formalism for both integrable and n o n integrable systems". par Gifford Paul. I. 122. Antoniou. l'Harmattan.S. Prigogine lors d ' u n e conference sur le t h e m e du libre examen qui s'est tenue a Bruxelles le 16 n o v e m b r e 2002. Pickering Robert. "Marcel Grossmann Award Talk". Culture and Subjectivity. Advances in Chemical Physics Series Vol. A. 2002). " L ' h o m m e devant l. Massimo Malvetti. New York. Foreword for t h e Proceedings of the XXPV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory. I. Antoniou.. I.. pp. 2002. Rice ( J o h n Wiley & Sons. O r d o n e z G. I. Cargese 2001. New York. 2002) 287. I. Prigogine. "Some reflection on time a n d universe". 2001. Dora Freid Schnitman a n d Jorge Schnitman ( H a m p t o n Press. I. "Le libre examen dans u n m o n d e en mutation". discours d u Prof. A 66 (2002) 012109. Les l"ms Rencontres de 1'I.. Prigogine. Rice ( J o h n Wiley & Sons.) " Q u a n t u m transitions in interacting fields". J u n e 27-29. Prigogine. Lond. pp. in the Proceedings of the Ninth Marcel Grossmann Meeting held at the University of R o m e "La Sapienza" on 2 . Editions Promoculture.7 July 2001.

"Time o p e r a t o r in the Friedrichs Model". in h o n o u r of Prof. Protvino. p a p e r for the Proceedings of the XXTV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory. 2001. Protvino. organized by the International Society for the Philosophy of Chemistry a n d Biochemistry a n d held at G e o r g e t o w n University in W a s h i n g t o n . G. I. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001. May 2003. Kim.. State Research Center of Russia.2 9 . F r a n c e . T. G. Proceedings du 4e Congres de la Societe Internationale de Physique Chimique Theorique.. Proceedings of the XXII Solvay Conference of Physics "The physics of communication". J u n e 2 7 . State Research Center of Russia. vertiges et promesses». Prigogine. G. I. p p . I. "La fin des certitudes". Ilya Prigogine on the . 2002. p a r u dans l'ouvrage «La complexite. interview p a r Reda Benkirane.. 2 7 4 .. T . Institute for High Energy Physics. I. Volume 988. "Chemical Kinetics a n d Dynamics". I. paper for the Proceedings of the XXTV Workshop on High Energy Physics and Field Theory. E. Proceedings of the workshop "Complexity: microscopic and macroscopic aspects". Juillet 2002 (a paraitre). T.. P r i g o g i n e .2 9 . result of the Sixth Summer Symposium on the Philosophy of Chemistry and Biochemistry. p p .. Prigogine. aux Editions 5 Continents (a paraitre).14U Prigogine. and O r d o n e z .2 8 1 . Karpov. in Chemical Explanation Characteristics. Editions Le P o m m i e r (a p a r a i t r e ) . 204-220. Institute for High Energy Physics. G. "Dynamical Roots of Time Symmetry Breaking". Development. 2001. P r i g o g i n e . I. Preface. Ordonez. Microscopic entropy.. a n d Petrosky. J u n e 2 7 .. Prigogine. S.. I.. Karpov. I. in Advances in Chemical Physics (to a p p e a r ) .. Prigogine. E.. Petrosky. Ordonez. a n d O r d o n e z . DC o n August 4—8.. du livre "Au Cceur d e l ' A m e r i q u e P r e c o l o m b i e n n e " de Gerard Geiger. Marly-le-Roi. 2001. Petrosky. T . Autonomy. Petrosky.. "Stochasticity a n d time symmetry breaking in H a m i l t o n i a n dynamics". Prigogine. "Time symmetry breaking a n d stochasticity in H a m i l t o n i a n physics".

France. . Prigogine.145 occasion of his 85 th birthday (Fondation des Treilles. 8-14 July 2002) published in a special issue of the International Journal of Quantum Chemistry on Complexity: Microscopic and macroscopic aspects. Prigogine. Ordonez. Nova Science Publishers.. I. Prigogine. "Surprises in a half of a century". Daiseion-Ji (to appear). I. G.. paper for the conference "Uncertainty and Surprise". "Acceleration and entropy: A macroscopic analogue of the twin paradox". Foreword of the book "Essays Commemorating the Founding of the International Institute of Integration Research". April 10-12. I. Red McCombs School of Business — The University of Texas at Austin. 2003 (to appear). Tourtour... article for the first issue of the Journal Chaos and Complexity Letters. New York (to appear).

and ideologies. through mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n . It is a message that challenges existing widespread views. preconceived ideas. llya I'rigogine launches i n t o a message o f gnat hope: the future has not been determined. bieginning w i t h controversies between lleraclitus and I'armenides.com 5352 he ISBN 981-238-507-X I I II III I 9 789812 ll 385079 l 1 . Ibis responsibility is assoi i. i m p l i c i t l y or explicitly. ( hallcnging this drive towards the e l i m i n a t i o n o f freedom o f thought in the i n d i v i d u a l is now imperative if we are to save man and his planet f r o m catastrophe. customs. but nonetheless valuable <ontribution towards that end.n ling upon a decision. H H World Scientific www.is a whole. which seems to be ever imminent and (unfortunately) irreversible Ihis last hook of llya Prigogine provides a small. externally imposed exa< i l \ contrary to the ideas ol those who wish us to be "perfect consumers" in a w o r l d dominated only by monetary wealth. iiuliviclu.il behaviour is beginning to increasingly become the key factor w h i c h governs the evolution o f both the w o r l d anil society . moreover the importance o f the individual's actions implies a reflection o f each person on the responsibilities that each one assumes when taking or . alter dis> ussing the fundamental problems ol i i i r r c n l M iciuc and other p h i l o s o p h i c concepts.Ked w i t h the freedom of thought as well as a critical analysis o f fashions.worldscientific. disputable.I IS FUTURE GIVEN? In this hook. Contiaiy to globalisation and the apparent lontcmporary mass culture six utv.