The Constitution of the United States of America

of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

We the People

A r t i c l e . I.
Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress
of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.]*1 The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the

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United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof]** for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; [and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.]†3 No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators

1. * Changed by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment 2. ** Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment 3. † Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment

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The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be [on the first Monday in December,]*4 unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 4.

Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and
Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House,

4. * Changed by Section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment

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together with the Objections. but if not he shall return it. by which it shall likewise be reconsidered. in like Manner as if he had signed it. be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States. during the Time for which he was elected. nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. No Senator or Representative shall. it shall become a Law. Felony and Breach of the Peace. shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. and if approved by two thirds of that House. shall. to be ascertained by Law. 248 The Founders’ Almanac . 6. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate. unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return. shall. They shall in all Cases. be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it. be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses. and for any Speech or Debate in either House. and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. adjourn for more than three days. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him. or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time. Section. to the other House. which shall have been created. the Same shall be a Law. Section. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill.during the Session of Congress. and no Person holding any Office under the United States. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives. they shall not be questioned in any other Place. except Treason. and proceed to reconsider it. but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. before it become a Law. 7. with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated. it shall be sent. and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal. in which Case it shall not be a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays. and in going to and returning from the same. without the Consent of the other.

To provide and maintain a Navy. To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces. To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization. and among the several States. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts. and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water. To establish Post Offices and post Roads. regulate the Value thereof. grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal. Resolution. and before the Same shall take Effect. and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States. shall be approved by him. To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas. To declare War. shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives. and of foreign Coin. Duties. To borrow Money on the credit of the United States. or being disapproved by him. to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States. To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations. but all Duties. The Constitution 249 . Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years.Every Order. To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes. Section. and with the Indian Tribes. To raise and support Armies. 8. and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures. and Offences against the Law of Nations. by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. To coin Money. To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States. according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Imposts and Excises.

unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. or pay Duties in another. 5. To provide for organizing. suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions. Section. and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. or other direct. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit. nor shall Vessels bound to. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. for the Erection of Forts. To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever. or in any Department or Officer thereof.To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union. Arsenals. become the Seat of the Government of the United States. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another. and disciplining. or from. the Appointment of the Officers. and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be. * Changed by the Sixteenth Amendment 250 The Founders’ Almanac . over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may. No Capitation. be obliged to enter. arming.*5 No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. clear. dock-Yards. and the Acceptance of Congress. one State. 9. Magazines. and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended.—And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers. and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States. and other needful Buildings. but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation. shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight. the Militia. by Cession of particular States. unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. Tax shall be laid. reserving to the States respectively.

lay any Duty of Tonnage. a Number of Electors. or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts. coin Money. accept of any present. or Confederation. without the Consent of Congress. Section. Office. Prince. and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports. from any King. or grant any Title of Nobility. in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct. make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts. without the Consent of the Congress. together with the Vice President. No State shall enter into any Treaty. equal to the whole Number of Senators and The Constitution 251 . 10. or Ships of War in time of Peace. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. Emolument. Section. of any kind whatever. and. or Title. No State shall.No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury. laid by any State on Imports or Exports. without the Consent of the Congress. II. emit Bills of Credit. A rt i c l e . 1. or with a foreign Power. enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State. No State shall. except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts. shall. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years. or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay. as follows: Each State shall appoint. pass any Bill of Attainder. be elected. and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. or engage in War. chosen for the same Term. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them. shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States. unless actually invaded. Alliance. grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal. ex post facto Law. keep Troops. but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law. or foreign State.

of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. and have an equal Number of Votes. and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States. and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative.]*6 The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors. neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years. * Changed by the Twelfth Amendment 252 The Founders’ Almanac . 6. directed to the President of the Senate. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes. the Votes shall be taken by States. and vote by Ballot for two Persons. the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. the Representation from each State having one Vote. and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. and if no Person have a Majority. which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. which List they shall sign and certify. after the Choice of the President. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for. The President of the Senate shall. or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States. and the Votes shall then be counted. shall be appointed an Elector. No Person except a natural born Citizen. and the Day on which they shall give their Votes. then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President. the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President. In every Case. and of the Number of Votes for each. if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed. A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States. But in chusing the President. and if there be more than one who have such Majority. [The Electors shall meet in their respective States. or a Citizen of the United States. open all the Certificates. in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives. shall be eligible to the Office of President. then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office. and he shall nominate. of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments. he may require the Opinion. He shall have Power. in the President alone. and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States. by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. provided two thirds of the Senators present concur. upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices.[In Case of the Removal of the President from Office. and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States. both of the President and Vice President. the Same shall devolve on the Vice President. or a President shall be elected. at stated Times. when called into the actual Service of the United States. in the Courts of Law. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States. except in Cases of Impeachment. or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office. other public Ministers and Consuls. 7. shall appoint Ambassadors. Death. and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers. receive for his Services. as they think proper. declaring what Officer shall then act as President. or any of them. whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for. and all other Officers of the United States. protect and defend the Constitution of the United States. 2. and such Officer shall act accordingly. * Changed by the Twenty-fifth Amendment The Constitution 253 . and will to the best of my Ability. a Compensation. to make Treaties. which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected.” Section. Resignation or Inability.]*7 The President shall. and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal. Resignation. and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States. or of his Death. or in the Heads of Departments. until the Disability be removed. preserve. Judges of the supreme Court. and of the Militia of the several States. in writing.

or which shall be made. at stated Times. Section. and in Case of Disagreement between them. or either of them. Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States. receive for their Services a Compensation. other public Ministers and Consuls. the Laws of the United States.—between 254 The Founders’ Almanac . in Law and Equity. arising under this Constitution. Section. and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for.The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate. Treason. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union.—to Controversies between two or more States. on extraordinary Occasions. The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court. 3. he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers.—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction. A rt i cl e II I . 2. he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed. 1. The Judges. and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. Bribery. convene both Houses.—]*8 between Citizens of different States. and Treaties made.—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party. shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour. he may. both of the supreme and inferior Courts. under their Authority. or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.— [between a State and Citizens of another State. and Conviction of. with Respect to the Time of Adjournment. 4. Section. Section. and shall. he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper. by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors. which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. The President. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases.

both as to Law and Fact. the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction. 2. 1. The Trial of all Crimes. or the Citizens thereof. Section. but when not committed within any State. with such Exceptions. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act. except in Cases of Impeachment. or in adhering to their Enemies. Citizens or Subjects. or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. 3. and judicial Proceedings of every other State. and foreign States. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts. shall consist only in levying War against them. * Changed by the Eleventh Amendment 9. shall be by Jury. and those in which a State shall be Party. the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. IV. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts.]**9 In all Cases affecting Ambassadors. 8. In all the other Cases before mentioned. The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason. [and between a State. and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed. or on Confession in open Court.Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States. Article. Section. Records and Proceedings shall be proved. and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make. Treason against the United States. ** Changed by the Eleventh Amendment The Constitution 255 . but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. and the Effect thereof. Section. Records. giving them Aid and Comfort. the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. other public Ministers and Consuls.

as the one 10. under the Laws thereof. and on Application of the Legislature. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government. [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State. which. or by Conventions in three fourths thereof. or other Crime. escaping into another. and be found in another State. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States. and shall protect each of them against Invasion. without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. Article. be discharged from such Service or Labour. or Parts of States. shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled.A Person charged in any State with Treason. but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union.]*10 Section. and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States. 3. Felony. shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes. as Part of this Constitution. who shall flee from Justice. Section. to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. The Congress. against domestic Violence. be delivered up. or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened). or of any particular State. or. 4. V .* Changed by the Thirteenth Amendment 256 The Founders’ Almanac . nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States. on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States. shall. shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments. shall propose Amendments to this Constitution. when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States. in either Case. in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein. whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary. but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. Article. but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States. Article. shall be the supreme Law of the Land. shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. or which shall be made. and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof. to support this Constitution. and that no State. V II . shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation. before the Adoption of this Constitution. and all executive and judicial Officers. both of the United States and of the several States. and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby. and the Members of the several State Legislatures. Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article. shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution. without its Consent. any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. The Constitution 257 . The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned. VI. and all Treaties made. All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into. as under the Confederation. under the Authority of the United States. This Constitution.or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress.

Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler GEORGIA William Few Abr Baldwin NEW HAMPSHIRE John Langdon Nicholas Gilman MASSACHUSETTS Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King CONNECTICUT Wm. Carroll VIRGINIA John Blair James Madison Jr. Jenifer Danl. Secretary DELAWARE Geo: Read Gunning Bedford jun John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jaco: Broom MARYLAND James McHenry Dan of St Thos. Washington – Presidt and deputy from Virginia 258 . Clymer Thos. NORTH CAROLINA Wm. Johnson Roger Sherman NEW YORK Alexander Hamilton NEW JERSEY Wil: Livingston David Brearley Wm. Paterson Jona: Dayton PENNSYLVANIA B Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robt. Morris Geo. FitzSimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouv Morris The Founders’ Almanac Done G°. Blount Richd. Attest William Jackson.in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Saml. Dobbs Spaight Hu Williamson SOUTH CAROLINA J.

and particularly describing the place to be searched. shall not be violated. A me n dm en t V No person shall be held to answer for a capital. without the consent of the Owner. and effects. unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury. 1791 The Constitution 259 . and no Warrants shall issue. the right of the people to keep and bear Arms. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. or of the press. but in a manner to be prescribed by law. or abridging the freedom of speech.* The first ten Amendments—the Bill of Rights—were ratified effective December 15. nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. A m endment III No Soldier shall. nor in time of war. supported by Oath or affirmation. shall not be infringed. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble. or property. when in actual service in time of War or public danger. against unreasonable searches and seizures. liberty. A m en d me nt I I A well regulated Militia. houses. and the persons or things to be seized. being necessary to the security of a free State. nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb. but upon probable cause. and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. nor be deprived of life. except in cases arising in the land or naval forces. A m en d me nt I V The right of the people to be secure in their persons.A me n dm en t I *11 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. or in the Militia. papers. without due 11. or otherwise infamous crime. in time of peace be quartered in any house.

are reserved to the States respectively. shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed. 260 The Founders’ Almanac . of certain rights. and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. without just compensation. nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. nor shall private property be taken for public use. than according to the rules of the common law. where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars. nor prohibited by it to the States. A me n d me n t V I I I Excessive bail shall not be required. nor excessive fines imposed. and no fact tried by a jury. A me n dm en t X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution. which district shall have been previously ascertained by law. or to the people. to be confronted with the witnesses against him. and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation. the right of trial by jury shall be preserved. the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial. to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. A m en d me n t I X The enumeration in the Constitution.process of law. A m endment VII In suits at common law. A m en d me nt V I In all criminal prosecutions. shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States.

and if no person have such majority. then the Vice-President shall act as President. commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State. if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. 1804) The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President. then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President.A m endment XI (Ratified February 7. shall be the President. —The person having the greatest number of votes for President. and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President. if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. directed to the President of the Senate. or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. shall be the Vice-President. which lists they shall sign and certify. shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. and of all persons voted for as Vice-President. by ballot. open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. But in choosing the President. and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President. they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President. —]*12 The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President. before the fourth day of March next following. and if no person have a The Constitution 261 . and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States. A m endment XII (Ratified June 15. and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states. 1795) The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity. at least. the representation from each state having one vote. the votes shall be taken by states. and of the number of votes for each. in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives. the President. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them. —the President of the Senate shall. one of whom. the House of Representatives shall choose immediately.

a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators. then from the two highest numbers on the list. are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. 1868) Section 1. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. shall exist within the United States. All persons born or naturalized in the United States. liberty. or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2.majority. and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. or the members of the Legislature thereof. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. the Senate shall choose the Vice-President. or property. excluding Indians not taxed. Section 2. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. is denied to any of the male inhabitants of 12. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude.* Superseded by Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment 262 The Founders’ Almanac . without due process of law. 1865) Section 1. A m endment XIV (Ratified July 9. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers. counting the whole number of persons in each State. nor shall any State deprive any person of life. the Executive and Judicial officers of a State. Representatives in Congress. except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. A me nd m e n t X I I I (Ratified December 6.

civil or military. who. shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same. or hold any office.]*1and citizens of the United States. or as an executive or judicial officer of any State. Section 3. [being twenty-one years of age.* Superseded by Section 1 of the Twenty-sixth Amendment The Constitution 263 . But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States. or other crime. except for participation in rebellion. or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. A m en d me nt X V (Ratified February 3. but all such debts. or as a member of any State legislature. shall not be questioned. under the United States. remove such disability. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House. Section 5. the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. by appropriate legislation. or previous condition of servitude—**14 13. The Congress shall have the power to enforce. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race. 1870) Section 1. as a member of Congress. the provisions of this article. obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. color. including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress. to support the Constitution of the United States. or in any way abridged. The validity of the public debt of the United States. authorized by law. or as an officer of the United States.such State. Section 4. or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave. or elector of President and Vice-President. or under any State. having previously taken an oath.

from whatever source derived. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.** Changed by the Nineteenth Amendment 15. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate.† Repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment 264 The Founders’ Almanac . This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. Section 2. A m endment X V I (Ratified February 3. A men d me n t X V I I (Ratified April 8. 1919) Section 1. 1913) The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes. without apportionment among the several States. sale.The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. A me n dm e n t X V I I I † 15 (Ratified January 16. 14. and each Senator shall have one vote. That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided. for six years. 1913) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State. or transportation of intoxicating liquors within. the importation thereof into. elected by the people thereof. and without regard to any census or enumeration. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture.

1920) The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. A m endment XIX (Ratified August 18. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States. at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President. unless they shall by law appoint a different day. A me n d m e n t XX (Ratified January 23. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year. 1933) Section 1. the President elect shall have died. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January. the Vice President elect shall become President. and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Section 2. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the The Constitution 265 . and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January. Section 3. The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January.or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified. as provided in the Constitution. If. Section 2.

as provided 266 The Founders’ Almanac . The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. Section 3. 1933) Section 1. Section 4. Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State. or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected. then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified. and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified. Territory. Section 6. is hereby prohibited. Section 5. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. in violation of the laws thereof. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article. or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify. declaring who shall then act as President. or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States.beginning of his term. A m endment XX I (Ratified December 5.

they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States. and no person who has held the office of President. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress. A me nd m e n t XX II (Ratified February 27. for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. Section 1. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. or acting as President. 1961) Section 1.in the Constitution. to be electors appointed by a State. Section 2. but they shall be considered. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State. during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President. A m e n d me nt XXI I I (Ratified March 29. The Constitution 267 . or acted as President. 1951) No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice. and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President. but in no event more than the least populous State. and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Section 2. 1967) Section 1.Section 2. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide. A me n dm en t XX IV (Ratified January 23. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President. or for Senator or Representative in Congress. transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker 268 The Founders’ Almanac . A m endment XX V (Ratified February 10. Section 2. 1964) Section 1. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 4. and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation. Section 3. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President. for electors for President or Vice President. the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. A me nd m e n t XX VI (Ratified July 1. who are eighteen years of age or older. within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration. The right of citizens of the United States. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. otherwise. assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue. 1971) Section 1. If the Congress. he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide. The Constitution 269 . within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble. the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President. when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists. the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. if Congress is not in session. Thereafter. or. transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.

1992) No law. varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives. 16.A m en d me nt XX V I I *16 (Ratified May 7. until an election of representatives shall have intervened.* Proposed September 25. 1789 as part of the original Bill of Rights 270 The Founders’ Almanac . shall take effect.

249.2 Appointment power II.8 – 9 Arms. 253 p. 254 pp. 259 pp. 253 p.2 Age.2 Apportionment. as qualification for public office president II.8 PAGE NUMBER p. Congress’s power I.8 Bill of Rights (Amends. 250 p. 245. 260 p. 253 – 254 p. 245 p. 254 p. right of A1 Authors I. 248 pp.9 – 10 Borrowing.2.2 Appropriations I. 253 p. 249 Index to The Constitution and Amendments 271 . 249 – 250 p. 251 p.2 Assembly. 264 pp. A14. 259 p.2 – 3 Amendment procedure V Appellate III. 259 – 260 p. 250.1 representatives I.2 senators I.2 Presidents power II. excessive A8 Bankruptcy. 251 p.2 Advice and consent II. 254 p. 256 p.3 Ambassadors Case controversies III. Congress’s power I. temporary A17 Apportionment of representatives I.Index to The Constitution and Amendments SUBJECT ARTICLE/SECTION Admiralty & maritime cases III. 246 p. 249 pp. 1-10) A1 – A10 Bills I. 262 pp.7 Bills of attainder I.8 – 9 Bail. right to bear A2 Army II.

1.1 PAGE NUMBER p. 266 p. 262 p. 253 p.3 Compact I. A20. A21 Copyrights & patents.4. A23 Double jeopardy A5 Due process of law A5. A23 Equal protection of laws A14. 259.8.8.8 Courts (see Judiciary) Criminal proceedings. Congress’s power I. interference by state I. 261. 261 p.8 Counsel.2 declaring war I. 248 p.8 legislative proceedings I. 249 p.2 Commerce.10 powers I. 259 pp. 259. 247. 249 p. 247 p. 251 pp. Congress’s power I. Congress’s power I. 251 pp. 260 p. A12 special sessions II.3 Congressional Record (Journal) I. Congress’s power I. 256. right to A6 Counterfeiting. rights of accused A5. role in impeachment trials I. 267 p. 246 p. A12. court cases III. 249 p. 254 pp. 249. 251. 254 p. VII. 262 272 The Founders’ Almanac .2 Conventions V.1 Electoral College II. 253 p. A14. 247 p.10 Congress annual meetings I.3 Commander in Chief II. 265 p.2 Census I. 245 p. 249. 262 pp. 245 p.8 Defense. 260 p. Congress’s power I. purpose Preamble Contract.5 Constitution.6 organization I.2 Chief Justice.SUBJECT ARTICLE/SECTION Cabinet officers’ reports II. 251 p. 257.8 District of Columbia I.10 Controversies.8 Commission of officers II. 254 p. 249 pp. 249 p. 249 pp.5 members’ compensation and privileges I. A6 Currency.

250 – 251 p. excessive A8 Foreign affairs. 245 p. 254 p. IV. 250 p.9 House of Representatives election to & eligibility for I. A12. redress of A1 Habeas corpus I. 253 p. 249 p. A25. 248 p. 251.2 Foreign commerce.3 – 4 special powers impeachment I.8 I.2 presidential elections II.2 Fines.8 p. 245. 245 p.1. 249 p.4 I.2 Speaker of I. 261. 255 p.2. 267 p. commerce with. Senate Indians. Congress’s power Inhabitant (see Resident) International law.3 I. 245 p. 254 p.2. lodged in House reasons trials. 268 p. 255 p. A11 Ex post facto laws I.2 II. President’s power II. 245 II. A23 revenue bills states’ representation in vacancies Immunities (see Privileges and immunities) Impeachment Officials subject to penalties power of. 249 Index to The Constitution and Amendments 273 . 245 pp. 245 pp.4 I.7 I. 1 General welfare.9 – 10 Extradition of fugitives by state IV.SUBJECT ARTICLE/SECTION Equity II. 259 p. Congress’s power I. 259 p.2 I.2 members terms of office I.8 “Full faith and credit” clause. 249 p. 246 p. 260 p. 253.3 I. Congress’s power I.8 Grand jury indictments A5 Grievances. 246 pp. 261 pp.2 PAGE NUMBER pp. Congress’s power I.

249 pp. 249.2 People. 249.2 jurisdiction III.1 judicial power III. 260 p.8.7 Poll tax.8 Nominate II.10 Men (see Persons) Militia (Military) A2.8 presidential powers II. right to A1 “Pocket veto” I.2.1 Jury trials III. letters of I. 254 pp. 254 p. II.2 “Necessary and proper” clause I. 248 p. 251 p. 257 p.2.8 Navy I. 262 p. 253 p. 254 p.2 Money I.8 National Debt VI Native Americans (see Indians) Naturalization I.2 Supreme Court III. 253. 268 274 The Founders’ Almanac .SUBJECT ARTICLE/SECTION Inventors I. I. prohibition A24. 251 p.8. A7 “Lame duck” amendment A20 Liquor A18. A5 congressional powers I. A25 Oath of office President II. 249. A6. 254 p. 253 p. 259 p. 249 pp. 264. 253 p. A21 Marque and reprisal.8 Judiciary inferior courts I. 265 pp. 249 pp. 257 p.1 Petition the government.1 federal and state VI Pardons and reprieves. 266 pp. 249 p. 254 p.8.1 PAGE NUMBER p. President’s power II.1 terms of office and compensation III. III. 254. 249 p. 260 p. 259 p.2 nomination & confirmation of judges II. 253 p. 268 p. powers’ reserved to A10 Persons A14.

Congress’s power Secrecy Self-incrimination Senate election to & eligibility for equal representation of states officers President of President of. 256. 261. 256 p. 251.3 – 4 eligibility for office legislation. 257 p. 246 pp. role in oath of office powers & duties terms of office and compensation Press. 259 p. VII A1 VI II. 260 p. A23 II. freedom of Religious tests Resident (see inhabitant) Search and seizure Seas.3 V I.1. 253 – 254 p.3.3 I. A25. A20. A25 PAGE NUMBER p.5 A5 I. 263 pp. 246.1 A4 I.8 I. 259 p. succession to President disability election ARTICLE/SECTION I. 262 pp. 249 pp. A21 A5 A8 A15 V.1. A12.3. 268 p. 259 p. 246 p. 257 p. 251. 246.8 II. 264.1 A18. 268 A25 II. A14. freedom of Privileges and immunities (of citizens) Prohibition Property Punishments. 266 p. 268 pp. 259 p. 249 p. 248 p. 265. 251 p. 251 p.7 II. 259 pp. 251 p. A12 I.2 – 3 II. 251 pp. 261 pp.SUBJECT Post offices & roads. pro tempore Index to The Constitution and Amendments 275 . 247 p. 2. 255. Congress’s power Presidency.1 I. 267 p. cruel and unusual Race Ratification of Constitution Religion.1 A1 IV.1 II.

246. 254.3 States and federal elections I. VI Trial Veto. 250 p. Congress’s power I. 260 p. freedom of A1 Spending. 4 republican form of government guaranteed IV. 3 powers requiring consent of Congress I.3 Presidential appointments II.10. 255 pp. A7 I. 3 Titles of nobility I. A14. 247 p. 251.9 Treason III.7 A20.10 powers reserved to A10 protection against invasion. prohibition A13. III.2 terms of office I.3 Treaties I. 257 pp. 257 pp. 251 p. 253 pp. A6. 262. 4 suits against III. 256 p. 246.2.6 vacancies A17 Slavery. 264 pp. violence IV. 256 pp. succession to I.2. 250 p.7 – 8 direct taxes prohibited I. III. 253. 265. 263 p. 246 p. 248 – 249 p. A11 Sundays I. 254. President’s power vice-presidency. 260 p. 268 276 The Founders’ Almanac .3. power A16 Territories IV. 259 p. quartering of A3 Speech. in general I.4 Soldiers. 248 p. 264 p. 261 p. 254 p.2. 256 p. 249 p. 259 p. 254. II. A25 PAGE NUMBER p.3. 248 p.9 income taxes. 256 p. I.2.2 treaties II.4 formation & admission to Union IV.8 State of Union message II.SUBJECT ARTICLE/SECTION special powers impeachment trials I. 248 pp.7 Supreme law of the land (Constitution) VI Taxing power. 253 p.

A12 term of office II. role in A25. 265. A25 declaring President disabled. 265 p. 268 p. 269 p. 261 p. protection against invasion) Warrants A4 Weights and measures standards of I. States. 259 p.1. 268 p.4 Senate. declaring war. 262.ARTICLE/SECTION SUBJECT Vice President conditions for assuming presidency II. 251. 246. 251 pp. President. 249 Index to The Constitution and Amendments 277 . 268 pp.1 Voting rights A14. role in I.8 PAGE NUMBER pp.1 age A26 sex A19 War powers (See Congress. powers. A20.3. 263 p. former slaves A15. A24 race. powers & duties.

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