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Prestressed Precast Concrete Beam Bridge Design

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2202 N. West Shore Blvd., Suite 250 Tampa, FL 33607 (813) 282-2300

LRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE: PRESTRESSED PRECAST CONCRETE BEAM BRIDGE DESIGN

Table of Contents

Section 1: Project Information About this Design Example 1.01 1.02 1.03

General Notes Design Parameters

Cover

Section 2: Superstructure Design Dead Loads 2.01 Live Load Distribution Factors 2.02 Live Load Analysis 2.03 Prestressed Beam Design - Part I 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design - Part II 2.05 Empirical Deck Design 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11

Traditional Deck Design Deck Overhang Design Creep and Shrinkage Parameters Expansion Joint Design Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad Design

Section 3: Substructure Design Dead Loads 3.01 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 3.02 Pier Cap Design Loads 3.03 Pier Cap Design 3.04 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 3.05 Pier Column Design Loads 3.06 Pier Column Design 3.07 Pier Foundation Design Loads 3.08 Pier Pile Vertical Load Design 3.09 Pier Footing Design 3.10 End Bent Cap Live Load Analysis 3.11 End Bent Cap Design Loads 3.12 End Bent Cap Design 3.13 End Bent Pile Vertical Load Design 3.14 End Bent Backwall Design 3.15

(similar to Section 3.4) (similar to Section 3.9)

LRFD Design Example

Table of Contents

i

SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN

About this Design Example

Description

This document provides guidance for the design of a precast, prestressed beam bridge utilizing the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The example includes the following component designs: Empirical deck design Traditional deck design Prestressed beam design Composite Neoprene bearing pad design Multi-column pier design End bent design

The following assumptions have been incorporated in the example: Two simple spans @ 90'-0" each, 30 degree skew. Minor horizontal curvature Multi-column pier on prestressed concrete piles. No phased construction. Two traffic railing barriers and one median barrier. No sidewalks. Permit vehicles are not considered. Design for jacking is not considered. Load rating is not addressed.

Since this example is presented in a Mathcad document, a user can alter assumptions, constants, or equations to create a customized application.

PROJECT INFORMATION

1.01 About this Design Example

1

Standards

The example utilizes the following design standards: Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (2000 edition) and applicable modifications. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition, 2002 Interims. Florida Department of Transportation Structures LRFD Design Guidelines, January 2003 Edition. Florida Department of Transportation Structures Detailing Manual for LRFD, 1999 Edition.

Defined Units

All calculations in this electronic book use U.S. customary units. The user can take advantage of Mathcad's unit conversion capabilities to solve problems in MKS or CGS units. Although Mathcad has several built-in units, some common structural engineering units must be defined. For example, a lbf is a built-in Mathcad unit, but a kip or ton is not. Therefore, a kip and ton are globally defined as:

kip ≡ 1000 ⋅ lbf ton ≡ 2000 ⋅ lbf

**Definitions for some common structural engineering units:
**

N ≡ newton plf ≡ pcf ≡ lbf ft lbf ft klf ≡ ksi ≡

3

**kN ≡ 1000 ⋅ newton psf ≡ psi ≡ lbf ft
**

2

lbf in

2

kip ft kip in

2 6

ksf ≡

kip ft

2

°F ≡ 1deg

MPa ≡ 1 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Pa

GPa ≡ 1 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Pa

9

Acknowlegements

The Tampa office of HDR Engineering, Inc. prepared this document for the Florida Department of Transportation.

Notice

The materials in this document are only for general information purposes. This document is not a substitute for competent professional assistance. Anyone using this material does so at his or her own risk and assumes any resulting liability.

PROJECT INFORMATION

1.01 About this Design Example

2

PROJECT INFORMATION

General Notes

Design Method................. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) except that the Prestressed Beams

and Prestressed Piles have been designed for Service Load.

Design Loading................. HL-93 Truck Future Wearing Surface... Design provides allowance for 15 psf Earthquake........................ Seismic acceleration coefficient in Florida varies from 1% to 3.75%

or Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only, SDG 2.3.

Concrete............................ Class

II II (Bridge Deck) IV V (Special) V

Minimum 28-day Compressive Strength (psi) Location f`c = 3400 Traffic Barriers f`c = 4500 CIP Bridge Deck f`c = 5500 CIP Substructure f`c = 6000 Concrete Piling f`c = 6500 Prestressed Beams

**Environment...................... The superstructure is classified as slightly aggressive.
**

The substructure is classfied as moderately aggressive.

**Reinforcing Steel.............. ASTM A615, Grade 60 Concrete Cover................. Superstructure
**

Top deck surfaces All other surfaces Substructure External surfaces exposed External surfaces cast against earth Prestressed Piling Top of Girder Pedestals 2" (Short bridge) 2" 3" 4" 3" 2"

Concrete cover does not include reinforcement placement or fabrication tolerances, unless shown as "minimum cover". See FDOT Standard Specifications for allowable reinforcement placement tolerances.

**Distribution Values........... Item
**

Live Load (**/beam) Traffic Railing (plf) Wearing Surface (plf) Utilities (plf) Stay-In-Place Metal Forms (plf)

Interior Beams * * * * *

Exterior Beams * * * * *

Dimensions........................ All dimensions are in feet or inches, except as noted. Stay-in-Place Metal The design includes an allowance of 20 psf for the unit weight of metal forms Forms................................ and concrete required to fill the form flutes. The allowance is distributed over

the project plan area of the metal forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms will not be permitted.

PROJECT INFORMATION

1.02 General Notes

3

PROJECT INFORMATION

Design Parameters

Description

This section provides the design input parameters necessary for the superstructure and substructure design.

Page

5

Contents

A. General Criteria A1. Bridge Geometry A2. Number of Lanes A3. Concrete, Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties

9

B. LRFD Criteria B1. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2] B2. Resistance Factors [LRFD 5.5.4.2] B3. Limit States [LRFD 1.3.2]

11

C. Florida Criteria C1. Chapter 1 - General requirements C2. Chapter 2 - Loads and Load Factors C3. Chapter 4 - Superstructure Concrete C4. Chapter 6 - Superstructure Components C5. Miscellaneous

19

D. Substructure D1. End Bent Geometry D2. Pier Geometry D3. Footing Geometry D4. Pile Geometry D5. Approach Slab Geometry D6. Soil Properties

PROJECT INFORMATION

1.03 Design Parameters

4

For all other component designs.03 Design Parameters 5 . This curvature is used to illustrate centrifugal forces in the substructure design.A. A1. the horizontal curvature will be taken as zero. Bridge Geometry Horizontal Profile A slight horizontal curvature is shown in the plan view. PROJECT INFORMATION 1. General Criteria This section provides the general layout and input parameters for the bridge example.

... Bridge design span length............. Skew := −30deg Vertical Profile Overall bridge length.. the bridge is also on a skew which is defined as: Skew angle.03 Design Parameters 6 .... Lbridge ≡ 180⋅ ft Lspan := 90⋅ ft PROJECT INFORMATION 1.In addition..................

............ can be calculated as: Roadway clear width......5in hbuildup := 1in t diap := 9 ⋅ in A2...Typical Cross-secton Superstructure Beam Type ( "II" "III" "IV" "V" "VI" )............. the number of design traffic lanes per roadway.... Overhang := 4ft + 6........... Deck overhang at End Bent and Pier................. Using the roadway clear width between barriers............. N lanes .......... Beam Spacing... Number of Lanes Design Lanes Current lane configurations show two striped lanes per roadway with a traffic median barrier separating the roadways...... Rdwywidth ............ Number of design traffic lanes per roadway.. Diaphragm Thickness............... Average buildup......... N lanes = 3 Rdwywidth := 42⋅ ft N lanes := floor Rdwywidth 12⋅ ft PROJECT INFORMATION 1.....03 Design Parameters 7 . BeamType := "IV" N beams := 11 BeamSpacing := 8 ⋅ ft Number of beams.....

.. for braking force calculations...... In some cases. the placement of the loads ignored the location of the median traffic barrier... footing loads.....03 Design Parameters 8 .. Concrete..... pier cap negative moment.... Future widening is expected to occur to the outside if additional capacity is needed. The designer feels that the probability exists that the combination of lanes loaded on either side of the median barrier exists....... pier columns. Ultimate tensile strength for prestressing tendon. This assumption is considered to be conservative. e. HL-93 vehicle loads were placed on the deck. Braking forces The bridge is NOT expected to become one-directional in the future.......... etc........ Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties Unit weight of concrete. The designer utilized engineering judgement to ignore the location of the median barrier for live load placement for the substructure design and NOT ignore the median barrier for braking forces. Therefore. Modulus of elasticity for reinforcing steel. A3. Modulus of elasticity for prestressing tendon........ N lanes = 3 .g.... this same approach was not used for the braking forces since these loaded lanes at either side of the median traffic barrier will NOT be braking in the same direction. γ conc := 150⋅ pcf Es := 29000 ⋅ ksi fpu := 270⋅ ksi Ep := 28500 ⋅ ksi PROJECT INFORMATION 1.. However..Substructure Design In order to maximize the design loads of the substructure components.

It is PROJECT INFORMATION 1..... IMfatigue := 1 + 33 100 15 100 IM := 1 + B2..... Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.03 Design Parameters 9 ....... Shear and torsion of normal weight concrete.... Extreme event limit states are considered to be unique occurrences whose return period may be significantly greater than the design life of the bridge.... SERVICE LIMIT STATE Load combinations which place restrictions on stress.B................ or ice flow. LRFD Criteria The bridge components are designed in accordance with the following LRFD design criteria: B1. but overall structural integrity is expected to be maintained....... Flexure and tension of prestressed concrete.. both local and global. possibly under scoured conditions. and crack width under regular service conditions... vehicle..2] Flexure and tension of reinforced concrete...9 φ' := 1... deformation...... Limit States [LRFD 1. EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES Load combinations which ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood.5.. φ := 0... Impact factor for fatigue and fracture limit states..... except for centrifugal and braking forces.00 φv := 0.2] The LRFD defines a limit state as a condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the provisions for which it was designed.. Extensive distress and structural damage may occur under strength limit state...3.... Impact factor for all other limit states...... are provided to resist the specified load combinations that a bridge is expected to experience in its design life......... Resistance Factors [LRFD 5. FATIGUE LIMIT STATE Load combinations which place restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck...... There are four limit states prescribed by LRFD...90 B3..2] An impact factor will be applied to the static load of the design truck or tandem.6.4.. or when collided by a vessel.. These are as follows: STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Load combinations which ensures that strength and stability.

30 0.1-1 .00 0. DW.00 1.00 1.75 1.40 - 1.00 1.00 1.40 0.1-2 .20 0.00 - 1. It is intended to limit crack growth under repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge.00 1.00 0.00 1.Load combinations which place restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck.5 yp yp yp 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 1.00 1.50/1.20 yTG yTG yTG ySE ySE ySE - - - - - 1.00 1. Table 3.50 1. ES.00 1.20 0.00/1.00 0.00 1. yp PROJECT INFORMATION 1.00 1.35 yEQ 0.20 1.20 - - - - - - 1.00 LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.50/1.Load Combinations and Load Factors Load Combination DC DD DW EH EV ES yp yp yp yp 1.00 - yTG ySE Table 3.Load factors for permanent loads.50/1.20 yTG ySE - 1.00 0.40 1.00 - - 1.50/1. and DC ONLY Strength V Extreme Event I Extreme Event II Service I 1.03 Design Parameters 10 .4.35 - WA WS WL FR TU CR SH TG SE Use One of These at a Time Limit State EQ IC CT CV Strength I Strength II Strength III Strength IV EH.50/1.00 1.4. EV.

Concrete cover for the deck...3] The concrete cover for the deck is based on either the environmental classification [SDG 1..2] This provision is not applicable...earth = 4 in cover sub...... cover sub........ Class II Concrete (Bridge Deck) will be used for all environmental classifications......slab := 4.... FDOT Criteria C1. Class II (Bridge Deck) CIP Bridge Deck Approach Slabs IV V (Special) V CIP Substructure Concrete Piling Prestressed Beams Location fc..5 ⋅ ksi fc..4] or the type of bridge [SDG 4. since no pedestrian loading is applied in this bridge design example..earth := 4..5 ⋅ ksi PROJECT INFORMATION 1... Approach slabs are considered superstructure component.. cover deck = 2 in cover deck := 2⋅ in if Lbridge < 300ft 2....5 ⋅ ksi fc.. Chapter 1 .....5 ⋅ in if Environmentsub = "Extremely" 4 ⋅ in otherwise Minimum 28-day compressive strength of concrete components.. cover sub = 3 in cover sub := 4 ⋅ in if Environmentsub = "Extremely" 3 ⋅ in otherwise Concrete cover for substructure in contact with water...sub := 5... Concrete and Environment [SDG 1..1] The design life for bridge structures is 75 years...C..General Requirements General [SDG 1...........1]..5 ⋅ in otherwise Concrete cover for substructure not in contact with water.....03 Design Parameters 11 .... Criteria for Deflection and Span-to-Depth Ratios [SDG 1........2....0 ⋅ ksi fc..pile := 6.......beam := 6.

C3 [SDG 4..Shape) Lb / ft 486 Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 587 Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 385 Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ F-Shape) Lb / ft 624 Traffic Railing Barrier / Soundwall (Bridge) Lb / ft 1008 Concrete...20 Miscellaneous Loads [SDG 2..Environmental Classifications [SDG 1....................Loads and Load Factors Dead loads [SDG 2.. Broward.4] The LRFD wind pressures should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach.2] Weight of future wearing surface.....3] Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only.. Dade.. ρ mill = 0 psf ρ mill := t mill⋅ γ conc (Note : See Sect.. Environmentsuper ≡ "Slightly" Environmentsub ≡ "Moderately" C2. Wind Loads [SDG 2.. (32” F............. using t mill = 0 in. Environmental classification for substructure.... Structural Lb / ft 3 150 Future Wearing Surface Lb / ft 2 15 * Soil.... ** Unit load of metal forms and concrete required to fill the form flutes to be applied over the projected plan area of the metal forms PROJECT INFORMATION 1. Compacted Lb / ft 3 115 Stay-in-Place Metal Forms Lb / ft 2 20 ** * The Future Wearing Surface allowance applies only to minor widenings or short bridges as defined in SDG Chapter 7. "Moderately" or "Extremely" agressive..5] ITEM UNIT LOAD Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ F-Shape) Lb / ft 421 Traffic Railing Median Barrier...03 Design Parameters 12 .... γ FDOT := 1.... and Monroe counties...... Chapter 2 . Seismic Provisions [SDG 2...2] for calculation of t mill )......... ρ fws = 15 psf ρ fws := 15⋅ psf if Lbridge < 300ft 0 ⋅ psf otherwise Weight of sacrificial milling surface. Environmental classification for superstructure......4] The environment can be classified as either "Slightly" ........

1 C1 := 0..and........exterior := ( ) Dead load of barriers applied to the interior beams.. wbarrier.......interior := 2⋅ wbarrier − wbarrier... Weight of stay-in-place metal forms......2 − 0....335⋅ L L + 0.......................... N beams ( ) Applying the SDG equations to this design example...... C2 = 0...335⋅ + 0..........exterior = 0...867 Lspan Lspan Lspan C2 := 2......0279 ⋅ − 0.........000793⋅ 10 10 10 L 2 3 Maximum number of beams in a span...interior = 0......... W⋅ C1 ⋅ C2 100 2 ( 10 − K) + 39 3 S ⋅ ( 3 ⋅ K − 8 ) + wext = ( ) C1 = 0..8] SDG equations for dead load of barriers applied to the exterior beams..............201 klf wbarrier.exterior ( K − 2) ( ) PROJECT INFORMATION 1...4 C2 = 2..... Weight of traffic railing median barrier... wbarrier := 421⋅ plf wmedian..............000793⋅ 10⋅ ft 10⋅ ft 10⋅ ft wbarrier⋅ C1 ⋅ C2 100 Dead load of barriers applied to the exterior beams....2 − 0.................. K = 10 K := if N beams > 10 ...........257⋅ 1.. C1 = 55.................... wbarrier.. the following values are calculated.............0279⋅ − 0... ρ forms := 20⋅ psf Barrier / Railing Distribution for Beam-Slab Bridges [SDG 2.03 Design Parameters 13 ........... 10 .....bar := 486⋅ plf γ soil := 115⋅ pcf Weight of compacted soil..055 ft kip wbarrier.Weight of traffic railing barrier.............257⋅ BeamSpacing 3 (10 − K) 2 + 39 + ⋅ ( 3 ⋅ K − 8 ) ft 1...4 2 3 .................

.. the median traffic barrier will be equally distributed amongst all the beams comprising the superstructure...interior + wmedian.......slab = 3475 ksi φlimerock := 0...........................245 klf wbarrier................Superstructure Concrete General [SDG 4. Ec...exterior := wbarrier....beam = 4176 ksi Ec.......interior = 0... PROJECT INFORMATION 1............03 Design Parameters 14 .....exterior = 0. Modulus of elasticity for slab...............bar N beams Include the dead load of the median traffic barrier on the design load of the interior beams.bar N beams C3.....exterior + wmedian........ wbarrier.... Ec.. Include the dead load of the median traffic barrier on the design load of the exterior beams..................Median traffic barrier For purposes of this design example...........1] Correction factor for Florida limerock coarse aggregate...pile = 4012 ksi Ec. Unit Weight of Florida limerock concrete..beam := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fc.......sub = 3841 ksi Ec....... Ec..slab := φlimerock⋅ 1820 ⋅ fc........................ Ec...........pile := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fc.. fy := 60⋅ ksi Note: Epoxy coated reinforcing not allowed on FDOT projects..slab⋅ ksi ( ) ) Modulus of elasticity for beam.............. wbarrier................limerock := 145⋅ pcf Ec..............9 wc.. Chapter 4 .......099 klf wbarrier..beam⋅ ksi ( Modulus of elasticity for substructure..interior := wbarrier...pile⋅ ksi ( Yield strength of reinforcing steel....sub⋅ ksi ( ) ) Modulus of elasticity for piles...sub := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fc....

DL + LL The deck slab at the median barrier shall be designed using the traditional design method.. the traditional design method shall be used. t mill = 0 in t mill ≡ 0 ⋅ in if Lbridge < 300ft 0...beam. For the extreme event limit states.. Pretensioned Components [SDG 4. The deck overhangs are designed for three limit state conditions: (1) Extreme event limit state ... Tension = -) 2 2 fci.80⋅ in per foot...max = 5...5 ⋅ in otherwise Deck thickness.Vertical collision forces (3) Strength limit state ...6 f’c...0 ⋅ in The empirical or traditional design method is used to design the deck slab for the service....4] t slab ≡ 8....Transverse and longitudinal vehicular collision forces...beam.. fci.....0 ksi or 0.40⋅ in per foot should be provided in the top of the deck slab..03 Design Parameters 15 .min := max 4.Equivalent line load....beam PROJECT INFORMATION 1..... a minimum area of steel of 0.. Prestressed..6 ⋅ fc...max := 0. BridgeType = "Short" BridgeType := "Short" if Lbridge < 300ft "Long" otherwise Thickness of sacrificial milling surface.. SlabOverhang max := "May use empirical design" if Overhang ≤ 6ft "Shall use traditional design" otherwise SlabOverhang max = "May use empirical design" The deck overhang shall be designed using the traditional design method.beam.0 ⋅ ksi ....Concrete Deck Slabs [SDG 4..3] Minimum compressive concrete strength at release is the greater of 4. Otherwise..2 ksi fci..8 ⋅ fc.... 0... (2) Extreme event limit state ..... The summation of the area of steel for the top and bottom of the deck slab should provide a minimum of 0... Deck Slab Design [SDG 4..beam ( ) Maximum compressive concrete strength is 0.. and strength limit states....beam..min = 4 ksi (Note : Compression = +..........8 f’c.. fatigue. The empirical design method may be used if the deck overhang is less than 6 feet........... fracture..2.. fci..2] Bridge length definition.....

.beam...3] Structural Material of Superstructure Concrete Only Concrete Deck on Steel Girder Steel Only Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit) High Low 95 45 110 30 120 30 Mean 70 70 70 Range 50 80 90 PROJECT INFORMATION 1......38 ksi Time-dependent variables for creep and shrinkage calculations Relative humidity....beam⋅ psi ftop....................Any value between the minimum and maximum may be selected for the design...min Corresponding modulus of elasticity... fci......beam := fci... ftop.beam = 3276 ksi Eci... Eci....76 ksi Center 70 percent of design beam... Age (days) of concrete when load is applied.....center70 = −0......... Age (days) of concrete used to determine long term losses.beam := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fci....... ftop............ Age (days) of concrete when section becomes composite.......Superstructure Components Temperature Movement [SDG 6.........beam⋅ ksi Limits for tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only) Outer 15 percent of design beam.........outer15 = −0..outer15 := −12⋅ fci.........beam⋅ psi ftop... H := 75 T0 := 1 T1 := 120 T2 := 10000 C4....center70 := −6 ⋅ fci..beam = 4 ksi fci.....03 Design Parameters 16 ............... Chapter 6 .. Minimum compressive concrete strength at release...

..4...... Proposed joint width at 70o F..... Wmax := 2 ⋅ in 5 Wmin := ⋅ in 8 W := 1 ⋅ in PROJECT INFORMATION 1.. Minimum joint width at 70o F..... ∆t fall := t mean − t low ∆t fall = 25 °F Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD 5.. t mean := 70⋅ °F t high := 95⋅ °F t low := 45⋅ °F ∆t rise := thigh − tmean ∆t rise = 25 °F Temperature fall...... Temperature mean.......4] Joint Type Poured Rubber Silicone Seal Strip Seal Modular Joint Finger Joint Maximum Joint Width * ¾” 2” 3” Unlimited Unlimited *Joints in sidewalks must meet all requirements of Americans with Disabilities Act... use only the joint types listed in the preceding table......... α t := 6⋅ 10 −6 °F Expansion Joints [SDG 6..03 Design Parameters 17 .....................The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example....... Maximum joint width...... For new construction......... Temperature rise.2....2] for normal weight concrete. Temperature low................................. A typical joint for most prestressed beam bridges is the silicone seal... Temperature high.....

......03 Design Parameters 18 .. the movement is based on the greater of the following combinations: Movement from the combination of temperature fall.Movement [6... + ∆xcreep. C5.....fall ..167 ft K := 11⋅ in (Note : Sometimes the "K" value at the end bent and pier may differ)... the temperature rise and fall ranges are the same..rise ∆xfall = 1.....shrinkage (Note : A temperature rise with creep and shrinkage is not investigated since they have opposite effects). J := 6 ⋅ in Lbeam := Lspan − 2 ⋅ ( K − J) Beam design length. ∆xfall = ∆xtemperature....... Beam length. Distance from end of beam to centerline of bearing.fall (Note : For concrete structures.........4......167 ft Ldesign := Lspan − 2 ⋅ K PROJECT INFORMATION 1....15⋅ ∆xtemperature.. Ldesign = 88......... Miscellaneous Beam Parameters Distance from centerline pier (FFBW) to centerline bearing... Lbeam = 89. and shrinkage... ∆xrise = 1. creep.. Movement from factored effects of temperature......2] For prestressed concrete structures......15⋅ ∆xtemperature...

............... Surcharge on top of footing..5ft b EB := 3......D............... hEB := 2... End Bent Geometry (Note : End bent back wall not shown) Depth of end bent cap... Number of columns.... hCap := 4.5 ⋅ ft b Cap := 4..5 ⋅ ft LCap := 101.. Column diameter. Height of back wall.. Thickness of back wall............... Width of end bent cap.....614 ⋅ ft hBW := 5 ⋅ ft LBW := 1 ⋅ ft t BW := 12⋅ in D2..........03 Design Parameters 19 ..................614 ⋅ ft hCol := 14......... Pier Geometry Depth of pier cap.................0 ⋅ ft nCol := 4 hSurcharge := 2........... Substructure D1...0 ⋅ ft PROJECT INFORMATION 1...5 ⋅ ft LEB := 101..... Height of pier column..... Length of pier cap....0⋅ ft b Col := 4........ Length of end bent cap.. Width of pier cap.. Backwall design width....

...... Pile Size...... t ApprSlab := 13.....5⋅ in LApprSlab := 34................75⋅ ft (Note : The min............5 ⋅ ft LFtg := 7..... Approach slab length. approach slab dimension due to the 30⋅ ft = 34.....5 ⋅ ft D4........ Approach Slab Geometry Approach slab thickness. γ soil = 115 pcf Defined Units PROJECT INFORMATION 1.....64 ft )............... Pileembed := 12⋅ in Pilesize := 18⋅ in D5.............. Pile Geometry Pile Embedment Depth.D3.......... Width of footing.. hFtg := 4. Footing Geometry Depth of footing........0 ⋅ ft b Ftg := 7.03 Design Parameters 20 .......... Soil Properties Unit weight of soil... skew is cos( Skew) D6.... Length of footing.....

Composite Section Properties B1. Summary of Properties 27 C.6] 24 B. Exterior beams B3.mcd(R) Description This section provides the dead loads for design of the bridge components. Interior Beams C2. Exterior Beams C3.6. Dead Loads C1.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Dead Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\103DsnPar.01 Dead Loads 21 . Summary Superstructure Design 2. Effective Flange Width [LRFD 4.2. Page 22 Contents A. Summary of the properties for the selected beam type A2. Non-Composite Section Properties A1. Interior beams B2.

..interior = 96....0 in 1 b tf Slabwidth := 12⋅ t slab + max b w ...... 1 2 Slabwidth := BeamSpacing 2 The average spacing of adjacent beams.0 in b eff....interior := min Slabwidth ( ) Exterior beams For exterior beams...A...... Slabwidth = 106. Slabwidth = 270.. Effective Flange Width [LRFD 4... b eff......27 24. Non-Composite Section Properties A1...6...... plus the greater of web thickness or one-half the width of the top flange of the beam..0 in 0 Slabwidth := 0 Lspan 4 12. plus the least of: Superstructure Design 2....0 times the average thickness of the slab....01 Dead Loads 22 .....73 54 20 8 8 26 8 9 8908 10544 BeamType = "IV" 0 27 54 0 13 26 A2. Slabwidth = 96. Summary of Properties for the Selected Beam Type The non-composite beam properties are given and can be obtained from any engineering textbook/publication...6] Interior beams The effective flange width is selected from the minimum of the following three calculations: One-quarter of the effective span length...2.. the effective flange width may be taken as one-half the effective width of the adjacent interior beam....0 in 2 Effective flange width for interior beams.... NON-COMPOSITE PROPERTIES Moment of Inertia Section Area ytop ybot Depth Top flange w idth Top flange depth Width of web Bottom flange width Bottom flange depth Bottom flange taper Section Modulus top Section Modulus bottom [in 4] [in 2] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in 3] [in 3] Inc Anc ytnc ybnc h nc btf htf bw b bf h bf E Stnc Sbnc IV 260741 789 29....

the effective flange width of the slab should be transformed to the concrete properties of the beam.0 times the average thickness of the slab. Slabwidth = 53......9 in b tr...01 Dead Loads 23 ..interior 2 Effective flange width for exterior beams.exterior := n⋅ b eff..... b eff.interior := n⋅ beff.. n = 0.beam Transformed slab width for interior beams b tr....0 in 0 6.5 in 2 Slabwidth := 0 Lspan 8 b w btf Slabwidth := 6 ⋅ t slab + max .exterior = 84..... Slabwidth = 54......interior ( ) ) Transformed slab width for exterior beams b tr.....0 in b eff....0 in 1 The width of the overhang..exterior = 101...interior = 79. plus the greater of half the web thickness or one-quarter of the width of the top flange of the basic girder.. Slabwidth = 135...slab Ec....exterior := + min Slabwidth ( ) Transformed Properties To develop composite section properties.... Modular ratio between the deck and beam.. 1 2 4 Slabwidth := Overhang 2 b eff.One-eighth of the effective span length.0 in b tr..exterior ( Superstructure Design 2.832 n := Ec.

.B.........0 in Afillet = 20.........................0 in 2 Aslab := b tr........... Composite Section Properties B1....interior slab 2 1 3 Ifillet := ( btf) ⋅hbuildup3 12 2 hbuildup + Afillet⋅ hnc + − yb 2 IInterior = 682912 in IInterior := Inc + Anc⋅ yb − ybnc IInterior yt ( ) 2 + Islab + Ifillet Section Modulus (top... top of beam. yt = 22...........01 Dead Loads 24 ................7 in yt := h − yb Moment of Inertia...... Interior beams Height of the composite section. h = 63..interior⋅ tslab Afillet := b tf⋅ hbuildup AInterior := Anc + Afillet + Aslab 2 2 AInterior = 1448..........0 in Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in tension Anc⋅ ybnc + Afillet⋅ hnc + yb := hbuildup 2 tslab + Aslab⋅ hnc + hbuildup + 2 AInterior yb = 40..0 in h := hnc + hbuildup + t slab Area of the composite section.. Aslab = 639..... St = 30037 in 3 3 St := Stb = 49719 in Sb = 16961 in IInterior Stb := hnc − yb Sb := IInterior yb 3 Superstructure Design 2...3 in Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in compression.............. bottom).......... Islab = 227710 in Ifillet = 4055 in 4 4 4 2 t slab Islab := ⋅(b h− − yb ) ⋅t + Aslab⋅ 12 tr...

............ Aslab = 672....exterior slab 2 1 3 Ifillet := ( btf) ⋅hbuildup3 12 2 hbuildup + Afillet⋅ hnc + − y'b 2 IExterior = 694509 in IExterior := Inc + Anc⋅ y'b − ybnc IExterior y't ( ) 2 + Islab + Ifillet Section Modulus (top............ top of beam........... h = 63.........3 in AExterior := Anc + Afillet + Aslab Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in tension Anc⋅ ybnc + Afillet⋅ hnc + y'b := hbuildup 2 t slab + Aslab⋅ hnc + hbuildup + 2 AExterior y'b = 40...... St = 31124 in 3 3 St := Stb = 52162 in Sb = 17070 in IExterior Stb := hnc − y'b Sb := IExterior y'b 3 Superstructure Design 2..7 in Distance from centroid of beam to extreme fiber in compression....3 in y't := h − y'b Moment of Inertia................ Height of the composite section...........3 in Afillet = 20... Islab = 229085 in Ifillet = 3818 in 4 4 4 2 tslab Islab := ⋅(b h− − y'b ) ⋅ t + Aslab⋅ 12 tr.............. y't = 22.. Exterior beams Calculations are similar to interior beams..01 Dead Loads 25 . bottom)....B2....exterior ⋅ t slab Afillet := b tf⋅ hbuildup 2 2 AExterior = 1481.0 in h := hnc + hbuildup + t slab Area of the composite section..0 in 2 Aslab := b tr...................

9 63.0 30037.5 63 0 48 96 COM POSITE SECTION PROPERTIES Effective slab w idth Transformed slab width Height of composite section Effective slab area Area of composite section Neutral axis to bottom fiber Neutral axis to top fiber Inertia of composite section Section modulus top of slab Section modulus top of beam Section modulus bottom of beam [in] b eff.01 Dead Loads 26 .B3.6 EXTERIOR 101.4 17070.1 Superstructure Design 2.0 672.3 40.5 49719.0 1448.0 84.3 22.0 40. Summary of Properties 0 31.4 16960.interior/exterior [in] h [in 2] Aslab [in 2] AInterior/Exterior [in] yb [in] yt [in 4] IInterior/Exterior [in 3] St [in 3] Stb [in 3] Sb INTERIOR 96.7 694509.7 682912.0 79.7 22.interior/exterior [in] b tr.4 31123.0 639.9 52162.0 63.3 1481.

.self-weight of deck slab. wBeamInt⋅ Ldesign 2 wBeamInt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wBeamInt⋅ x 2 Shear ....72⋅ h Debond1 := 8 ⋅ ft Debond2 := 16⋅ ft Midspan := 0............. The values for the moment and shear at key design check points are given...... enter 0 ft..C.. where Support := 0 ⋅ ft ShearChk := 0....... includes haunch and milling surface..self-weight of beam ....self-weight of deck slab.) For convenience in MathCad... Shear .01 Dead Loads 27 ......82 klf • Moment .....self-weight of beam. M RelBeamInt( x) := M BeamInt( x) := V BeamInt( x) := wBeamInt⋅ Lbeam 2 ⋅x − wBeamInt⋅ x 2 2 2 Moment ......... M SlabInt( x) := wSlabInt⋅ Ldesign 2 wSlabInt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wSlabInt⋅ x 2 2 • V SlabInt( x) := − wSlabInt⋅ x Superstructure Design 2... − wBeamInt⋅ x Weight of deck slab..) (Check beam for debonding.self-weight of beam at Release............... enter 0 ft...... place these points in a matrix..... Support ShearChk x := Debond1 Debond2 Midspan pt := 0 ...................82 klf • • • Moment ... Dead Loads Calculate the moments and shears as a function of "x"...... Interior Beams Design Moments and Shears for DC Dead Loads Weight of beam wBeamInt := Anc⋅ γ conc wBeamInt = 0... where "x" represents any point along the length of the beam from 0 feet to Ldesign...... 4 C1.. includes haunch and milling surface .5 ⋅ Ldesign {Check beam for debonding.. includes haunch and milling surface wSlabInt := ( tslab + tmill)⋅ BeamSpacing + hbuildup ⋅ b tf ⋅ γ conc wSlabInt = 0.. if not debonding... if not debonding.....

...interior⋅ Ldesign 2 wbarrier..Shear from weight of diaphragms PDiaphInt( x) := (BeamSpacing⋅ hnc − Anc) − hbf ⋅ ( BeamSpacing − b bf ) ⋅ t diap⋅ γ conc ⋅ if(x = 0ft ..BeamInt( x) := M BeamInt( x) + M SlabInt( x) + MFormsInt( x) + MTrbInt( x) DC Load Shear V DC.13 klf ( ) • • Moment . ......099 klf 2 • • Moment ..87 klf DC Load Moment M DC.........traffic railing barriers..traffic railing barriers....interior⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wbarrier...BeamInt( x) := V BeamInt( x) + V SlabInt( x) + V FormsInt( x) + V TrbInt( x) + PDiaphInt( x) Design Moments and Shears for DW Dead Loads wFwsInt := BeamSpacing⋅ ρ fws Weight of future wearing surface wFwsInt = 0.. − wFormsInt⋅ x Weight of traffic railing barriers wbarrier..interior = 0...... M TrbInt( x) := V TrbInt( x) := wbarrier.BeamInt := wBeamInt + wSlabInt + wFormsInt + wbarrier... 0 ) wFormsInt := BeamSpacing − b tf ⋅ ρ forms Weight of stay-in-place forms wFormsInt = 0.....interior⋅ x 2 Shear ...stay-in-place forms.BeamInt = 1......stay-in-place forms.interior⋅ x DC Load total wDC..12 klf Superstructure Design 2.. − wbarrier.........interior wDC..01 Dead Loads 28 ........ M FormsInt( x) := V FormsInt( x) := wFormsInt⋅ Ldesign 2 wFormsInt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wFormsInt⋅ x 2 2 Shear .. 1 .....

.weight of future wearing surface...• Moment ........00 klf wUtilityInt := 0 ⋅ klf wUtilityInt⋅ Ldesign 2 wUtilityInt⋅ Ldesign 2 wUtilityInt⋅ x 2 2 • • Moment .......... M FwsInt( x) := wFwsInt ⋅ Ldesign 2 wFwsInt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wFwsInt ⋅ x 2 2 • V FwsInt( x) := − wFwsInt ⋅ x Weight of utility loads wUtilityInt = 0......self-weight of beam ................utility loads...01 Dead Loads 29 ..........BeamInt( x) := V FwsInt( x) + V UtilityInt( x) C2................... M BeamExt( x) := wBeamExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wBeamExt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wBeamExt⋅ x 2 • Shear ............utility loads.self-weight of beam at Release..............82 klf • Moment ..12 klf DW Load Moment M DW....... Exterior Beams Design Moments and Shears for DC Dead Loads Weight of beam wBeamExt := Anc⋅ γ conc wBeamExt = 0.... M RelBeamExt( x) := wBeamExt⋅ Lbeam 2 ⋅x − wBeamExt⋅ x 2 2 2 • Moment .BeamInt( x) := MFwsInt ( x) + MUtilityInt( x) DW Load Shear V DW..............weight of future wearing surface ..self-weight of beam.BeamInt = 0....... V BeamExt( x) := − wBeamExt⋅ x Superstructure Design 2.BeamInt := wFwsInt + wUtilityInt wDW... − wUtilityInt⋅ x DW Load total wDW..... M UtilityInt( x) := V UtilityInt( x) := ⋅x − Shear ................ Shear .

............ Shear .06 klf wFormsExt := BeamSpacing − b tf ⋅ ρ forms 2 wFormsExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wFormsExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wFormsExt⋅ x 2 2 • • Moment ....... includes haunch and milling surface wSlabExt := BeamSpacing t ( slab + t mill) ⋅ Overhang + + hbuildup ⋅ b tf ⋅ γ conc 2 wSlabExt = 0......Weight of deck slab...exterior⋅ x 2 2 Shear ...stay-in-place forms....245 klf • • Moment ...........01 Dead Loads 30 .01 klf Superstructure Design 2........exterior wDC.. M TrbExt( x) := V TrbExt( x) := wbarrier.self-weight of deck slab.......self-weight of deck slab........ M FormsExt( x) := V FormsExt( x) := ⋅x − Shear ... includes haunch and milling surface......traffic railing barriers...exterior = 0. − wbarrier.exterior ⋅ Ldesign 2 wbarrier... M SlabExt( x) := wSlabExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wSlabExt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wSlabExt⋅ x 2 2 • V SlabExt( x) := − wSlabExt⋅ x Shear from weight of diaphragms PDiaphExt( x) := PDiaphInt( x) 2 Weight of stay-in-place forms wFormsExt = 0...exterior ⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wbarrier............... .......BeamExt = 2..stay-in-place forms........BeamExt := wBeamExt + wSlabExt + wFormsExt + wbarrier.......87 klf • Moment . includes haunch and milling surface .traffic railing barriers.exterior ⋅ x DC Load total wDC. − wFormsExt⋅ x Weight of traffic railing barriers wbarrier..

......DC Load Moment M DC.BeamExt := wFwsExt + wUtilityExt wDW......................... M UtilityExt( x) := V UtilityExt( x) := ⋅x − Shear ..BeamExt( x) := MBeamExt( x) + M SlabExt( x) + MFormsExt( x) + MTrbExt( x) DC Load Shear V DC.........utility loads...10 ft wFwsExt := Overhang − 1. − wUtilityExt⋅ x DW Load total wDW....00 klf wUtilityExt := 0 ⋅ klf wUtilityExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wUtilityExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wUtilityExt⋅ x 2 2 • • Moment ......BeamExt = 0.5417 ⋅ ft + BeamSpacing 2 ⋅ ρ fws • Moment ..weight of future wearing surface....BeamExt( x) := M FwsExt( x) + MUtilityExt( x) DW Load Shear V DW......................weight of future wearing surface ........BeamExt( x) := V FwsExt( x) + V UtilityExt( x) Superstructure Design 2......01 Dead Loads 31 ..BeamExt( x) := V BeamExt( x) + V SlabExt( x) + V FormsExt( x) + V TrbExt( x) + PDiaphExt( x) Design Moments and Shears for DW Dead Loads Weight of future wearing surface kip wFwsExt = 0..utility loads.............10 klf DW Load Moment M DW...... M FwsExt( x) := wFwsExt⋅ Ldesign 2 wFwsExt⋅ Ldesign 2 ⋅x − wFwsExt⋅ x 2 2 • Shear . V FwsExt( x) := − wFwsExt⋅ x Weight of utility loads wUtilityExt = 0....

8 599.01 Dead Loads 32 .3 8.1 33.5 473.8 298.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 132.6 1.4 1948.1 39.4 3.8 69.1 474.3 78.0 0.8 23.0 85.5 89.0 52.8 0.0 56.1 816.9 0.6 20.7 0.7 798.3 0.7 31.0 0.7 798.0 CORRESPONDING SHEARS (kip) Load/Location.6 0.1 96.0 0.0 0.0 19.0 0.1 0. x (ft)= Support 0.0 0.4 5.0 102.6 2.4 4.3 2.6 797.0 0.8 Debond1 8.3 0.5 280.0 0.0 0.2 36.5 238.6 131.9 73.9 0.0 33.0 60.8 0.9 0.0 0.2 36.6 816.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 474.3 ShrChk 3.0 16.9 20.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 4.0 36.6 131.9 60.4 Midspan 44.0 0.7 1157.8 8.7 481.9 16.0 16.9 4.0 0.0 2.9 0.0 4.1 139.1 130.4 0.0 0.C3.6 141.8 10.2 38.9 0.6 0.0 5.7 29.6 4.3 4.2 29.0 0.6 9.6 0. x (ft)= Support 0.6 123.0 INTERIOR BEAM Beam Slab Forms Barrier Diaphrams TOTAL DC FWS Utilities TOTAL DW EXTERIOR BEAM Beam Slab Forms Barrier Diaphrams TOTAL DC FWS Utilities TOTAL DW Defined Units 36.6 2.6 33.0 132.0 69.8 102.0 3.5 505.1 0.0 116.2 61.1 5.6 2.0 3.3 0.0 0.0 67.2 15.0 0.0 0.0 0. Summary Load/Location.3 2.1 35.1 266.0 DESIGN MOMENTS (ft-kip) ShrChk Debond1 Debond2 3.6 116.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 643.0 0.6 10.0 38.5 3.2 1078.6 31.1 23.6 INTERIOR BEAM Beam at Release Beam Slab Forms Barrier TOTAL DC FWS Utilities TOTAL DW EXTERIOR BEAM Beam at Release Beam Slab Forms Barrier TOTAL DC FWS Utilities TOTAL DW 0.8 6.8 263.0 0.0 Superstructure Design 2.2 38.5 481.1 4.6 850.0 19.0 23.5 263.6 4.0 0.2 40.0 72.1 57.3 Midspan 44.1 24.0 0.0 0.5 0.4 3.1 33.0 0.8 263.1 3.7 0.8 4.3 Debond2 16.8 1.0 0.6 0.0 29.0 4.0 4.8 0.8 33.3 1815.1 319.7 266.0 0.2 5.6 3.

Application [LRFD 4. Shear: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.2d] C3.2.3b] D3. Shear Distribution Factors D1. Moment: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.2.6.2. Page 34 35 36 Contents A.2.2.2.2. Shear: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.2.6.6.6.3c] D4.2b] C2.2.3a] D2. Moment: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4.2. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.2e ] C4. Distribution Factors for Design Shears Superstructure Design 2. Moment: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.mcd(R) Description This document calculates the live load distribution factors as per the LRFD.2.6. Moment Distribution Factors C1.2.2.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 33 .1] C. Input Variables B. Beam-Slab Bridges .SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Live Load Distribution Factors Reference Reference:I:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\201DLs. Distribution Factors for Design Moments 40 D.2.6.6.

........ Area of non-composite section.... Number of beams. Beam design length................ Number of design traffic lanes.....................202 4 Inc = 260741..... Deck overhang.......... Superstructure Beam Type.......5417 ft Rdwywidth = 42 ft Nlanes = 3 h = 63....................0 in Anc = 789..A... Thickness of deck slab.....................................0 in ybnc = 24.................... Distance from neutral axis to bottom fiber of non-composite section.....................0 in 2 2.. Modular ratio between beam and deck............ Skew angle.... Superstructure Design Lbridge = 180 ft Lspan = 90 ft Ldesign = 88..7 in tslab = 8 in n −1 = 1......... Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length..............02 Live Load Distribution Factors 34 ................... Roadway clear width.....167 ft Skew = −30 deg BeamType = "IV" Nbeams = 11 BeamSpacing = 8 ft Overhang = 4. Moment of inertia for non-composite section...... Height of composite section.... Beam Spacing.. Input Variables Cross-Section View A1............ Bridge design span length..............................

.6. eg = 34...... a refined method of analysis is required and diaphragms shall be provided...Application [LRFD 4..... prestressed beams..B.2 If these conditions are not met.3 in eg := h − ybnc − ( ) tslab 2 Longitudinal stiffness parameter. AASHTO provides factors for the distribution of live load into the beams.1..0 feet Curvature in plan is less than the limit specified in Article 4....... The factors can be used if the following criteria is met: • • • • • Width of deck is constant Number of beams is not less than four Beams are parallel and have approximately the same stiffness The overhang minus the barrier width is less than 3..............02 Live Load Distribution Factors 35 ...6. Distance between center of gravity of non-composite beam and deck. Beam-Slab Bridges ....2....1] Live load on the deck must be distributed to the precast.2.. Kg = 1427039 in 4 Kg := n −1 ⋅ ⎛ Inc + Anc⋅ eg ⎝ 2⎞ ⎠ Superstructure Design 2.

4 BeamSpacing ⎞ ⋅⎛ ⎜ L design ⎠ ⎝ 0.489 0.690 0.075 + ⎛ ⎜ 9.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 36 .Interior1 := 0.Interior = 0. BeamSpacing ⎞ g m.Interior = 0.Interior2 = 0.Interior1 .Interior2 := 0. BeamSpacing ⎞ g m.0⋅ L⋅ t 3 s ⎠ ⎝ 0.Interior1 = 0.1 Using variables defined in this example.3 ⎛ Kg ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎜ 12.06 + ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 14 ⎠ 0.6.Interior := max g m. Moment Distribution Factors C1.2b] • One design lane Distribution factor for moment in interior beams when one design lane is loaded S⎞ g m.1 Using variables defined in this example.5⋅ ft ⎝ ⎠ g m.2 Kg ⎞ ⎛ ⋅⎜ ⎜ 12.690 ( ) Superstructure Design 2.Interior2 g m.4 S⎞ ⋅⎛ ⎜ ⎝ L⎠ 0.2.075 + ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 9.6 S⎞ ⋅⎛ ⎜ ⎝ L⎠ 0.3 Kg ⎛ ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎜ 12.2 ⎛ Kg ⎞ ⋅⎜ ⎜ 12.C.0⋅ in ⋅ Ldesign⋅ tslab3 ft ⎝ ⎠ 0.Interior = 0.6 BeamSpacing ⎞ ⋅⎛ ⎜ L design ⎠ ⎝ 0.1 • Range of Applicability The greater distribution factor is selected for moment design of the beams. Moment: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.2. g m.5 ⎠ 0. g m.1 • Two or more design lanes Distribution factor for moment in interior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded S ⎞ g m.0⋅ in ⋅ Ldesign⋅ tslab3 ft ⎝ ⎠ 0.06 + ⎛ ⎜ 14⋅ ft ⎝ ⎠ g m.0⋅ L⋅ t 3 s ⎠ ⎝ 0.

6.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 37 .690 C2.Interior := S ← ( BeamSpacing ≥ 3. g m.Interior⋅ ⎜ 0.Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".5 factor for converting the truck load to wheel loads and a 1.Interior if S⋅ ts⋅ L⋅ Nb ⋅ Kg "NG.Interior = 0.2.2 ⎤ ⎦ • Two or more design lanes Distribution factor for moment in exterior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded de ⎞ ⎛ g m.5⎥ ⋅ 1.5417⋅ ft De = 3 ft S := BeamSpacing S = 8 ft The distribution factor for one design lane loaded is based on the lever rule.2.0⋅ ft) ( )( ) L ← ( Ldesign ≥ 20⋅ ft) ⋅ ( Ldesign ≤ 240 ⋅ ft) ts ← tslab ≥ 4.Exterior1 = 0.2 factor for multiple truck presence.Exterior = g m.900 ⎡ ⎣ ( ) 2 ⋅ S + 2De − 10⋅ ft S ⋅ 0.77 + 9. which includes a 0.5 . S + De − 2 ⋅ ft S ⋅ 0. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g m.1 ⎠ ⎝ Superstructure Design 2.5⋅ in ⋅ tslab ≤ 12⋅ in Nb ← Nbeams ≥ 4 Kg ← ⎛ Kg ≥ 10000 ⋅ in ⎞ ⋅ ⎛ Kg ≤ 7000000 ⋅ in ⎝ ⎠⎝ 4 4⎞ ⎠ g m. Moment: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4. g m.2d] • One design lane Distribution factor for moment in exterior beams when one design lane is loaded De + S − 2 ⋅ ft S De + S − 8 ⋅ ft S P1 = P2 = De := Overhang − 1.5⋅ ft) ⋅ ( BeamSpacing ≤ 16.Exterior1 := if ⎢( 2 ⋅ ft + 6 ⋅ ft) < De + S . g m.

Exterior := max g m.5 .Exterior2 := g m. g m.900 ( ) Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability". 0.Exterior = 0.733 bw 2 • Range of Applicability The greater distribution factor is selected for moment design of the beams.Exterior1 .5 Kg ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ⎛ BeamSpacing ⎞ c1 := 0.Exterior if d e "NG.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 38 ) 1.5417⋅ ft − d e = 2.Skew = 0.25⋅ ⎢⎜ ⋅ ⎥⎜ L in 3 design ⎠ ⎢⎜ 12.Using variables defined in this example.Exterior = 0.1⋅ ft ⎠ ⎝ g m.25⋅ ⎜ ⋅⎛ ⋅ tan( θ ) ⎢⎜ 12.5 ⎛ Kg ⎞ ⎥ S⎞ 1. g m.667 ft de ⎞ ⎛ g m.Exterior2 g m.Exterior := d e ← d e ≤ 5.096 g m.2. g m. Moment: Skew Modification Factor [LRFD 4.5⋅ ft ⋅ d e ≥ −1 ⋅ ft g m.25⎤ ⎡ 0.77 + 9.Interior2⋅ ⎜ 0. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g m.2.25⎤ ⎡⎛ 0. Distance from tip of web for exterior beam to barrier d e := Overhang − 1.Skew := 1 − c1 ⋅ tan( Skew g m.Exterior2 = 0.2e ] A skew modification factor for moments may be used if the supports are skewed and the difference between skew angles of two adjacent supports does not exceed 10 degrees.900 ( )( ) C3.6.5 ⎢ g m. 0.958 Superstructure Design 2.Skew = 1 − 0.0⋅ Ldesign⋅ tslab ⎥⎝ ft ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎦ c1 = 0.0⋅ L⋅ t 3 ⎥⎜ L ⎝ ⎠ s ⎠ ⎣⎝ ⎦ Using variables defined in this example.

73 3 2+ La nes 0.90 0 1 La ne 0.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 39 .Skew := if ( )( ) ( Skew < 30⋅ deg .6 9 0 0 .9 5 8 0 . g m.Skew if θ ⋅ S⋅ L⋅ Nb "NG.5⋅ ft) ⋅ ( BeamSpacing ≤ 16. 1 .0⋅ ft) L ← Ldesign ≥ 20⋅ ft ⋅ Ldesign ≤ 240 ⋅ ft Nb ← Nbeams ≥ 4 g m. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g m.4 8 9 0 . Distribution Factors for Design Moments M om ent Distribution Fa c tors Inte rior Ex terior 0.86 2 Superstructure Design 2.Skew ) g m.95 8 Sk ew DESIGN 0. g m.Skew = 0.958 C4.Skew := θ ← ( Skew ≥ 30⋅ deg) ⋅ ( Skew ≤ 60⋅ deg) S ← ( BeamSpacing ≥ 3.Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".6 6 1 0 .

Interior := S ← ( BeamSpacing ≥ 3.Interior1 = 0.36 + g v.814 ( ) Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".36 + S 25 Using variables defined in this example.680 BeamSpacing 25⋅ ft • Two or more design lanes Distribution factor for shear in interior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded g v = 0.5⋅ ft) ⋅ ( BeamSpacing ≤ 16.Interior2 := 0. g v.Interior1 .0⋅ ft) ts ← tslab ≥ 4.D. g v.2 + g v.6.2.3a] • One design lane Distribution factor for shear in interior beams when one design lane is loaded g v = 0. Shear Distribution Factors D1.Interior if S⋅ ts⋅ L⋅ Nb "NG.Interior = 0. g v.Interior2 g v.Interior = 0. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g v.0 Using variables defined in this example.2.Interior2 = 0.Interior1 := 0.2 + S 12 − ⎛S⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 35 ⎠ 2. Shear: Interior Beams [LRFD 4.814 BeamSpacing 12⋅ ft − ⎛ BeamSpacing ⎞ ⎜ 35⋅ ft ⎝ ⎠ 2.5⋅ in ⋅ tslab ≤ 12⋅ in ( )( ) L ← ( Ldesign ≥ 20⋅ ft) ⋅ ( Ldesign ≤ 240 ⋅ ft) Nb ← Nbeams ≥ 4 g v.Interior := max g v.814 Superstructure Design 2. g v.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 40 .0 • Range of Applicability The greater distribution factor is selected for shear design of the beams g v.

706 • Range of Applicability The greater distribution factor is selected for shear design of the beams g v.Exterior2 := g v. g v.900 ( ) Superstructure Design 2.2 factor for multiple truck presence.Exterior = g v.Exterior := max g v.D2.3b] • One design lane Distribution factor for shear in exterior beams when one design lane is loaded P1 = P2 = De + S − 2 ⋅ ft S De + S − 8 ⋅ ft S De = 3 ft S = 8 ft The distribution factor for one design lane loaded is based on the lever rule. Shear: Exterior Beams [LRFD 4. d e = 2. S + De − 2 ⋅ ft S ⋅ 0.2.Interior2⋅ ⎜ 0.Exterior = 0.Exterior1 . g v. g v.667 ft de ⎞ ⎛ g v.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 41 .Interior⋅ ⎜ 0.900 ⎡ ⎣ ( ) 2 ⋅ S + 2De − 10⋅ ft S ⋅ 0.2 ⎤ ⎦ • Two or more design lanes Distribution factor for shear in exterior beams when two or more design lanes are loaded de ⎞ ⎛ g v.5⎥ ⋅ 1.Exterior1 = 0.2.5 .6. which includes a 0.5 factor for converting the truck load to wheel loads and a 1.Exterior2 g v.Exterior1 := if ⎢( 2 ⋅ ft + 6 ⋅ ft) < De + S .6 + 10⋅ ft ⎠ ⎝ g v.6 + 10 ⎠ ⎝ Using variables defined in this example.Exterior2 = 0.

680 0.5⋅ ft ⋅ d e ≥ −1 ⋅ ft g v.885 0.086 Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".Skew := 1 + 0. Distribution Factors for Design Shears Shear Distribution Factors Interior Exterior 0.3c] Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (θ > 90o) and to all beams in a multibeam bridge.706 2+ Lanes 1. D4.20⋅ ⎜ K g ⎝ ⎠ Using variables defined in this example. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4. g v.3 ⋅ tan( Skew ) g v.Skew = 1.900 ( )( ) D3.0⋅ L⋅ t 3 ⎞ s ⎜ g v.900 1 Lane 0.02 Live Load Distribution Factors 42 . uplift is not a design issue for prestressed concrete beam bridges designed as simple spans. 0.Skew = 1 + 0. However. g v.086 ( )( ) If uplift is a design issue. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g v. the skew factor for all beams is unconservative.6.5⋅ ft) ⋅ ( BeamSpacing ≤ 16.086 Skew DESIGN 0.Skew if θ ⋅ S⋅ L⋅ Nb "NG.Exterior = 0.3 ⋅ tan( θ ) 3 ⎛ 12.Verify the distribution factor satisfies LRFD criteria for "Range of Applicability".2.978 Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.Exterior := d e ← d e ≤ 5.Exterior if d e "NG.0⋅ ft) L ← Ldesign ≥ 20⋅ ft ⋅ Ldesign ≤ 240 ⋅ ft Nb ← Nbeams ≥ 4 g v.2. does not satisfy Range of Applicability" otherwise g v.086 1.814 0.0⋅ in ⋅ L ⋅ tslab ⎞ design ⎜ ft g v.20⋅ ⎜ Kg ⎝ ⎠ 0.Skew := θ ← ( Skew ≥ 0 ⋅ deg) ⋅ ( Skew ≤ 60⋅ deg) S ← ( BeamSpacing ≥ 3. ⎛ 12.Skew = 1.

One HL-93 vehicle B2. Live Load Moments and Shears .2] 45 B.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Live Load Analysis Reference Reference:G:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\202DFs. Reaction and Rotation B1. Page 44 Contents A. Beam Parameters A3. Bridge Geometry A2.mcd(R) Description This section provides examples of the LRFD HL-93 live load analysis necessary for the superstructure design. Maximum Live Load Moment. Maximum Live Load Rotation . Input Variables A1.03 Live Load Analysis 43 .Two HL-93 vehicles B4. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier . Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3..6. Summary Superstructure Design 2.One HL-93 truck B3.

.... Bridge design span length......beam = 4176 ksi IInterior = 682912 in 4 IExterior = 694509 in 4 A3.............. Modulus of elasticity for beam..A.... Lbridge = 180 ft Lspan = 90 ft A2..33 Superstructure Design 2...167 ft Ldesign = 88... Moment of inertia of the exterior beam...6.......2] Impact factor for limit states......................... Beam design length....... Input Variables A1.. IM = 1.............. Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length.. Beam Parameters Beam length. Moment of inertia for the interior beam........ except fatigue and fracture.... Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3......................... Lbeam = 89......03 Live Load Analysis 44 ....167 ft Ec............

............... Maximum Live Load Moment........... P1 := 32⋅ kip P2 := 32⋅ kip P3 := 8 ⋅ kip Lane load.64⋅ ft P1⋅ ( 0 ⋅ ft) + P2⋅ ( 14⋅ ft) + P3⋅ ( 28⋅ ft) P1 + P2 + P3 Center of gravity for axle loads.. B1. reaction (shear).. Reaction and Rotation This section shows how to calculate the maximum live load moment................ Young..... The maximum live load rotation in a simple span is calculated by positioning the axle loads of an HL-93 design truck in the following locations: Axle loads...................03 Live Load Analysis 45 . Maximum Live Load Rotation .... The formulas for rotation were obtained from Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain by Warren C........333 ft x cg := Distance from center of gravity for axle loads to centerline of span ... 6th Edition..333 ft z := 14⋅ ft − x cg 2 Superstructure Design 2...... x cg = 9.. and rotation... The composite beam sections are used to calculate the stiffness ( Ec... kip wL := 0. McGraw-Hill.beam⋅ I) of the beams...... z = 2........One HL-93 vehicle The rotations are calculated for one vehicle over the interior and exterior beams.B......

..........417 ft X3 = 60....00078 rad Θ2 := Θ2 = 0.beam⋅ IInterior ⋅ Ldesign ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X3 ⋅ Ldesign − X3 Rotation induced by HL-93 truck..... Θ lane = 0........beam⋅ IExterior ⋅ Ldesign ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( )( )( )( ) ) ) 46 P2⋅ X2 6 ⋅ Ec...................beam⋅ IInterior ⋅ Ldesign ( ( ( P1⋅ X1 ) ) ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X1 ⋅ Ldesign − X1 ( ( ( )( )( )( ) ) ) Θ2 := P2⋅ X2 6 ⋅ Ec...417 ft X1 := Ldesign 2 − z − x cg X2 := X1 + 14⋅ ft X3 := X1 + 28⋅ ft Interior Beam Rotation induced by each axle load.... X1 = 32............Interior := Θ truck + Θ lane Exterior Beam Rotations induced by each axle load..................00263 rad Θ LL.00015 rad Θ3 := Θ1 := P1⋅ X1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X1 ⋅ Ldesign − X1 6 ⋅ Ec.............beam⋅ IInterior ⋅ Ldesign P3⋅ X3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X2 ⋅ Ldesign − X2 6 ⋅ Ec.....00171 rad Θ truck := ( Θ1 + Θ2 + Θ3 ) Rotation induced by lane load..... Θ1 = 0... Θ LL.........00015 rad Θ1 := 6 ⋅ Ec. Θ truck = 0..beam⋅ IInterior ( wL⋅ Ldesign 3 ) Rotation induced by HL-93 truck and lane load......Interior = 0.........03 Live Load Analysis ....... Θ1 = 0.....Distance from left support to axle loads..00079 rad Θ2 = 0..........beam⋅ IExterior ⋅ Ldesign P3⋅ X3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X2 ⋅ Ldesign − X2 6 ⋅ Ec......beam⋅ IExterior ⋅ Ldesign ⋅ 2 ⋅ Ldesign − X3 ⋅ Ldesign − X3 Superstructure Design 2...............00092 rad Θ lane := 24⋅ Ec.........417 ft X2 = 46.........00076 rad Θ3 = 0...00077 rad Θ3 := Θ3 = 0....

.00091 rad Θ lane := 24⋅ Ec.... Live Load Moments and Shears .......... Θ lane = 0. Θ LL......00168 rad Θ truck := ( Θ1 + Θ2 + Θ3 ) Rotation induced by lane load...........Exterior := Θ truck + Θ lane B2..One HL-93 truck The live load moments and shears in a simple span is calculated by positioning the axle loads of an HL-93 design truck in the following locations: Superstructure Design 2.00259 rad Θ LL......... Θ truck = 0........Rotation induced by HL-93 truck..Exterior = 0....beam⋅ IExterior ( wL⋅ Ldesign 3 ) Rotation induced by HL-93 truck and lane load.03 Live Load Analysis 47 .

...........03 Live Load Analysis 48 .... M LLI( x ) := M truck( x ) ⋅ IM + M lane( x ) VLLI( x ) := Vtruck( x ) ⋅ IM + Vlane( x ) Live load reaction (without impact) ... Vtruck2( x ) ( ) (Note: Choose maximum value) ( ) Moment and shear induced by the lane load.... M lane( x ) := Vlane( x ) := wL⋅ Ldesign wL⋅ Ldesign 2 2 ⋅x − wL⋅ x 2 2 − wL⋅ x Live load moment and shear for HL-93 truck load (including impact) and lane load..........6 kip RLL( x ) := Vtruck( x ) + Vlane( x ) Superstructure Design 2............................. M truck( x ) := max M truck1( x ) ...... M truck2( x ) Vtruck( x ) := max Vtruck1( x ) .Case 1 HL-93 truck moment and shear: M truck1( x ) := P1⋅ (Ldesign − x) Ldesign ⋅ x + P2⋅ (Ldesign − x − 14⋅ ft) Ldesign ⋅ x + P3⋅ (Ldesign − x − 28⋅ ft) Ldesign ⋅x Vtruck1( x ) := P1⋅ (Ldesign − x) Ldesign + P2⋅ (Ldesign − x − 14⋅ ft) Ldesign + P3⋅ (Ldesign − x − 28⋅ ft) Ldesign Case 2 HL-93 truck moment and shear: M truck2( x ) := P1⋅ (Ldesign − x) Ldesign ⋅ ( x − 14⋅ ft) + P2⋅ (Ldesign − x) Ldesign ⋅ x + P3⋅ (Ldesign − x − 14⋅ ft) Ldesign ⋅x Vtruck2( x ) := P1⋅ −( x − 14⋅ ft) Ldesign + P2⋅ (Ldesign − x) Ldesign + P3⋅ (Ldesign − x − 14⋅ ft) Ldesign Maximum moment and shear induced by the HL-93 truck. RLL( Support) = 92.......

.................... X1 = 25 ft X2 = 39 ft X3 = 53 ft X4 = 35...7 kip R3 = 8.. Rlanes = 57.6 kip Rlanes := wL⋅ Lspan 2 ⋅ ( 2) Superstructure Design 2.9 kip R1 := R2 := R3 := P1 Ldesign P2 Ldesign P3 Ldesign ⋅ ⎡ Ldesign − X1 + X4⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ ⎡ Ldesign − X2 + X5⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ ⎡ Ldesign − X3 + X6⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ( ) ) ) Reaction induced by HL-93 trucks......... Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier ......03 Live Load Analysis 49 ......167 ft X5 = 49..... Rtrucks = 80...... The maximum live load reaction at an intermediate pier is calculated by positioning the axle loads of an HL-93 design truck in the following locations: Distance from left support of corresponding span to axle loads..7 kip R2 = 35. the tandem and single truck with lane load needs to be investigated for other design span lengths.3 kip Rtrucks := R1 + R2 + R3 ( ) Reaction induced by lane load on both spans........167 ft X1 := 25⋅ ft X2 := X1 + 14⋅ ft X3 := X1 + 28⋅ ft X4 := Ldesign − 28⋅ ft − 25⋅ ft X5 := X4 + 14⋅ ft X6 := X4 + 28⋅ ft Reaction induced by each axle load.......... R1 = 35......B3....Two HL-93 vehicles While two HL-93 vehicles controls in this design.............................167 ft X6 = 63..............

4 1461.7 0.3 Interior Beam 0.1 MOMENTS: INTERIOR BEAM Live load + DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load + DLA Moment MOMENTS: EXTERIOR BEAM Live load + DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load + DLA Moment SHEARS: INTERIOR BEAM Live load + DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load + DLA Shear SHEARS: EXTERIOR BEAM Live load + DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load + DLA Shear LL ROTATIONS (BRG PADS) Live load w/o DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load Rotation LL REACTIONS (BRG PADS) Live load w/o DLA Distribution Factor Design Live Load Reactions 1 HL-93 REACTION Pier/End Bent (1 Truck) Pier (2 Trucks) 0..8 86..0 ShrChk 3.. Summary DESIGN LIVE LOAD Load/Location.8 Debond1 8.3 37.661 271.5 1461.0 Midspan 44.3 37.9 0..1 kip RLLs := 90%⋅ Rtrucks + Rlanes ( ) Reaction induced by HL-93 truck (including impact factor) and lane load.7 113..661 965.0 410..00174 Interior Beam 92...0 0.7 0..9 2360.4 113.6 0.862 353.5 86.862 2034.9 2360. x (ft)= Support 0..1 820..6 820.9 Exterior Beam 0..0 100..9 Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.8 148.978 84.1 107.3 0.....5 w/ DLA 113..661 410.885 81..885 76..00259 0.885 88..4 0.2 0.3 0.0 kip RLLIs := 90%⋅ Rtrucks⋅ IM + Rlanes ( ) B4.885 100..2 0..8 0.00263 0.Reaction induced by HL-93 truck and lane load.0 0. RLLs = 124.862 1259.661 1559.862 0.885 94. RLLIs = 148..862 707.978 97.0 Debond2 16...9 w/o DLA 92.7 0.2 0.661 0.6 124.2 0.978 111.6 0..03 Live Load Analysis 50 ..7 0..862 0.978 104..7 107.8 0.978 36..0 0.00223 Exterior Beam 92..2 0.9 100..978 90.4 0..661 542.2 0.885 33....

Longitudinal Reinforcement 82 E. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan B2. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the prestressed concrete beam .interior beam design.9.3] B6. Page 52 53 Contents LRFD Criteria A.04 Prestressed Beam Design .4. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations A5. Service I and III Limit States B5.7.8. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance D2. Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design B1. Superstructure Moments at Midspan A4.Part I Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\203LLs. Shear Design D1. Bridge Geometry A2.Part I 51 . Stresses at Debond2 at Release 76 D.2] D3.7.3. Stresses at support at release C3. β and θ Parameters [LRFD 5. Stresses at Debond1 at Release C5.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Prestressed Beam Design . Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations 56 B. Strand Pattern definition at Support C2. Strand Pattern definition at Debond2 C6. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5. Input Variables A1. Tension = -) B4. Summary Superstructure Design 2. Section Properties A3. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3.5] B3.3] 71 C. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements C1. Strand Pattern definition at Debond1 C4. Stress Limits (Compression = +.

These effects are accounted during the design of the prestressed strands with a factor of 1. see Service I. evaluation permit vehicles.8 ⋅ LL + 1. No uniform temperature load effects due to simple spans. or both without wind. No friction forces.0 ⋅ DW + 1.50⋅ DW + 1.04 Prestressed Beam Design .0 ⋅ DC + 1. For compression. see Service III. Strength1 = 1. braking forces and wind on live load are negligible. Service3 = 1.Part I 52 .0 ⋅ DW + 0.LRFD Criteria STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.75⋅ LL Superstructure Design 2.0 ⋅ ( CR + SH) "Applicable for maximum tension at midspan ONLY." SERVICE III - Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed concrete structures with the objective of crack control. Service1 = 1. Fatigue = 0.0 ⋅ DC + 1.0 ⋅ ( CR + SH). WA = 0 FR = 0 TU = 0 CR .0 ⋅ LL + 1. "Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example" SERVICE I - Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.0 for all Limit States 1." FATIGUE - Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck.25⋅ DC + 1.0 ⋅ ( CR + SH) "Applicable for maximum compressive stresses in beam ONLY. BR . WL = 0 For prestressed beam design. Movements are unrestrained. SH For superstructure design.75⋅ LL STRENGTH II - Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Owner-specified special design vehicles. water load and stream pressure are not applicable. For tension.

.. Section Properties NON-COMPOSITE PROPERTIES Moment of Inertia Section Area ytop ybot Depth Top flange w idth Top flange depth Width of web Bottom flange width Bottom flange depth Bottom flange taper Section Modulus top Section Modulus bottom [in 4] [in 2] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in 3] [in 3] Inc Anc ytnc ybnc h nc btf htf bw b bf h bf E Stnc Sbnc IV 260741 789 29..0 79.....interior/exterior [in] btr........ Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length...........interior/exterior [in] h [in 2] Aslab [in 2] AInterior/Exterior [in] yb [in] yt [in 4] IInterior/Exterior [in 3] St [in 3] Stb [in 3] Sb INTERIOR 96...4 16960..7 682912.0 84.4 17070......73 54 20 8 8 26 8 9 8908 10544 COMPOSITE SECTION PROPERTIES Effective slab w idth Transformed slab width Height of composite section Effective slab area Area of composite section Neutral axis to bottom fiber Neutral axis to top fiber Inertia of composite section Section modulus top of slab Section modulus top of beam Section modulus bottom of beam [in] beff.....0 40.. Skew angle...Part I 53 .04 Prestressed Beam Design .4 31123..0 63...6 EXTERIOR 101.3 40....9 63.3 1481.5 49719.0 30037. M Beam = 798................ Design span length......7 22....27 24.1 A3....7 694509.. M Slab = 797.....0 1448..9 52162. Superstructure Loads at Midspan DC Moment of Beam at Release...3 22..6 ft⋅ kip M Slab := M SlabInt( Midspan) Superstructure Design 2..0 672.... M RelBeam = 816.7 ft⋅ kip M RelBeam := M RelBeamInt( Midspan) DC Moment of Beam.. Input Variables A1..A....... Lbridge = 180 ft Lspan = 90 ft Skew = −30 deg A2........0 639....6 ft⋅ kip M Beam := MBeamInt( Midspan) DC Moment of Slab.....

.............75⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Fatigue Limit State......... M Fws = 116. M Srv1 = 3492........8 ft⋅ kip M RelBeamD1 := M RelBeamInt( Debond1) DC Moment of Beam at Release Debond2 = 16 ft Location..04 Prestressed Beam Design ..5 ft kip M Fatigue := 0.Interior ( Midspan) − Mlane( Midspan) Service1 = 1.... M Fatigue = 703......0 ⋅ LL • Service I Limit State....Part I 54 .......... M Trb = 96..DC Moment of stay-in-place forms...........3 ft⋅ kip M Trb := MTrbInt( Midspan) DW Moment of future wearing surface.........1 ft kip Strength1 = 1... M LLI = 1559........1 ft kip Service3 = 1.75⋅ LL M Srv3 := 1.0 ⋅ DC + 1....75⋅ LL M r := 1....0 ⋅ MFws + MUtility + 1.....8 ⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Strength I Limit State............0 ⋅ MFws + MUtility + 0......0 ⋅ DW + 0.... + 1... M Srv3 = 3180.......... + 1............1 ft⋅ kip M RelBeamD2 := M RelBeamInt( Debond2) Superstructure Design 2..25⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb .. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations DC Moment of Beam at Release Debond1 = 8 ft Location... M RelBeamD2 = 481..Interior ( Midspan) M Fatigue := MLLI...25⋅ DC + 1......... + 1....75⋅ M Fatigue (Note : Use NO LANE load)... M RelBeamD1 = 266. M Utility = 0 ft⋅ kip M Utility := M UtilityInt( Midspan) Live Load Moment.6 ft⋅ kip M Fws := MFwsInt ( Midspan) DW Moment of Utilities..........0 ⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb ...2 ft kip Fatigue = 0......... A4.......0 ⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb ..................8 ⋅ LL M Srv1 := 1..... M Forms = 123.9 ft⋅ kip M Fatigue = 938 ft⋅ kip M LLI := MLLI......... M r = 5174...0 ⋅ DC + 1...50⋅ DW + 1..1 ft⋅ kip M Forms := M FormsInt( Midspan) DC Moment of traffic railing barriers..0 ⋅ DW + 1.............50⋅ MFws + M Utility + 1....0 ⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Service III Limit State.

+ 1.Interior ( ShearChk) ) ( ( ) ) Superstructure Design 2.BeamInt( Support) = 5...3 kip V LLI. V DC.....8 kip V LLI...4 kip V DW...Interior( ShearChk) = 94.BeamInt( ShearChk) = 19....9 kip V u. Strength1 = 1...Interior( Support) = 100..50⋅ V DW...BeamInt( ShearChk) = 75.25⋅ DC + 1...Interior( Support) ( ( ( ) ) ) At Shear Check location DC Shear & Moment.. . + 1..... V DC. + 1..Interior ( ShearChk) ( M r = 875.BeamInt( Support) ....50⋅ V DW...50⋅ ( MDW.BeamInt( ShearChk) ) ..75⋅ ( MLLI. + 1. + 1..BeamInt( Support) = 0 ft kip M LLI...25⋅ ( MDC... + 1........BeamInt( ShearChk) = 298 ft kip M DW..3 kip V DW.BeamInt( ShearChk) ... V u.25⋅ V DC...BeamInt( ShearChk) = 4......Support := 1....75⋅ LL • Strength I Limit State.....9 kip M DC..1 ft kip DW Shear & Moment ...1 ft kip M LLI.25⋅ V DC...7 kip M DC.Part I 55 ..25⋅ DC + 1....04 Prestressed Beam Design .50⋅ DW + 1......... V u = 267..75⋅ V LLI..75⋅ LL • Strength I Limit State......Support = 290.. Strength1 = 1.... LL Shear & Moment. LL Shear & Moment..75⋅ V LLI...BeamInt( Support ) ... Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations At Support location DC Shear & Moment..50⋅ DW + 1.7 ft kip ) M r := 1....5 kip V u := 1.BeamInt( Support ) = 85....BeamInt( ShearChk) ) .A5...BeamInt( ShearChk) ...Interior( Support) = 0 ft kip DW Shear & Moment .Interior( ShearChk) = 271........... .....BeamInt( Support) = 0 ft kip M DW..

.08 ft Strand pattern at midspan Strand type.....0 otherwise 0..6 ⋅ in ) Strand area.04 Prestressed Beam Design .. the proposed strand pattern at the midspan section can be defined..... StrandArea = 0..5 ⋅ in 2 Superstructure Design 2......6 ⋅ in 0..........5 ⋅ in (Note : Options ( 0.8 ft Debond1 = 8 ft Debond2 = 16 ft Midspan = 44..... strandtype = "LowLax" strandtype := "LowLax" (Note : Options ( "LowLax" "StressRelieved" ) Strand size..5625 ⋅ in 0..5625 ⋅ in 0.217 if stranddia = 0.Part I 56 .......153 if stranddia = 0.....153 in 2 StrandArea := ⋅ in 0....B....192 if stranddia = 0..5 in stranddia := 0.. stranddia = 0.5 ⋅ in 0. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan Using the following schematic. Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design B1.... Support = 0 ft ShearChk = 3......

.tr = 9047.Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam...tr := Anc + np − 1 ⋅ Aps ybnc⋅ Anc + strandcg⋅ in⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps Anc..... states "Stress and camber calculations for the design of simple span...tr = 816.beam Anc.. np = 6. Aps = 4... Inc.Part I 57 . Stopnc...1-C6...tr := ( ) Non-composite inertia transformed.tr Inc...tr := hnc − ybnc....1 in ybnc......7 in 3 Superstructure Design 2........3.tr Stopnc.tr Non-composite area transformed.. ybnc...7 in 2 Aps := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) Transformed section properties As per SDG 4.........87 Total strands = 31 Strand c. Anc.tr ( )2 ( ) Non-composite section modulus top.tr := ybnc..9 in 3 Non-composite section modulus bottom. .........825 Ep np := Ec.6 in 2 ( ) Non-composite neutral axis transformed." Modular ratio between the prestressing strand and beam..tr = 11260...........tr − strandcg⋅ in ⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps Inc..tr = 24.. pretensioned components must be based upon the use of transformed section properties. BeamType = "IV" MIDSPAN Strand Pattern Data Rows of strand Number of from bottom of Input strands beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN 19 0 y9 = n9 = 17 0 y8 = n8 = 15 0 y7 = n7 = 13 0 y6 = n6 = 11 0 y5 = n5 = 9 0 y4 = n4 = 7 9 y3 = n3 = 5 11 y2 = n2 = 3 11 y1 = n1 = 4.... = Area of prestressing steel..04 Prestressed Beam Design .tr = 270911.....g. Sbotnc.......4 in 4 Inc..........tr := Inc + ybnc.....tr Sbotnc.....

............1 in yb⋅ AInterior + strandcg⋅ in⋅ ( np − 1) ⋅ Aps . is expressed as: ∆fpT = ∆fpF + ∆fpA + ∆fpES + ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR + ∆fpR2 Superstructure Design 2.. Atr = 1505....................... + yb....62⋅ ft ybar := h − t mill − (Note : Assuming #5 at 12" spacing...1 in 3 Itr Stop. the total loss.......interior ⋅ Adeck...... + ybar⋅ ( nm − 1 )⋅ Abar yb. in Adeck...7 in 4 ( ( ) ( 2 ) )2 ( ) Composite section modulus top of slab........tr = 32305..... Stop.rebar Composite area transformed.... nm = 6...tr Composite inertia transformed.. Sslab..9.............. top and bottom longitudinally)........944 Es nm := Ec...tr = 40....Modular ratio between the mild reinforcing and transformed concrete deck slab..tr − strandcg⋅ in ⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps ....tr := yb................96 in 2 Abar := b eff........ yb.......6 in 3 Composite section modulus top of beam.................... Distance from bottom of beam to rebar...8 in 3 Itr Sbot... Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5...............tr = 23180... Abar = 4.beam 2 Assumed area of reinforcement in deck slab per foot width of deck slab..........tr − ybar ⋅ nm − 1 ⋅ Abar Itr Sslab..........tr B2............. ∆fpT ...........1 in 2 Atr := AInterior + np − 1 ⋅ Aps + nm − 1 ⋅ Abar ( ) ( ) Composite neutral axis transformed..tr := h − yb.............04 Prestressed Beam Design ...tr := A tr Itr := IInterior + yb.tr = 18399.........rebar := 0...........5] For prestressing members. Itr = 738546...... ybar = 67 in t slab 2 Total reinforcing steel within effective width of deck slab..tr − tslab − tmill − hbuildup ( ) Composite section modulus bottom of beam.......tr := h − yb......Part I 58 .... Sbot.......

......nc Scg.......beam cgp Ep Losses due to elastic shortening.... ∆fpES = 15..................g for the non-composite section...... creep of concrete loss. anchorage set loss..... elastic shortening loss....... ecg...... shrinkage loss... Elastic Shortening The loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned members shall be taken as: ∆fpES = ⋅f Eci cgp Ep where..70⋅ fpu Corresponding total prestressing force... gross section properties (not transformed) can be used..nc ∆fpES := ⋅f Eci...... fcgp = 1....9 in ecg..2 ksi Superstructure Design 2.... friction loss.....nc := ecg...nc MRelBeam fcgp := + − Anc Scg..............nc Stress in prestressing steel prior to transfer fps = 189 ksi fps := 0....nc = 13129.04 Prestressed Beam Design ..........4 kip Fps := Aps ⋅ fps Concrete stresses at c... Fps = 896...... ∆fpF ∆fpA ∆fpES ∆fpSR ∆fpCR ∆fpR2 (Note : Not considered for bonded prestressed beams) (Note : Not considered for bonded prestressed beams) For the prestress loss calculations. of the prestressing force at transfer and the self wt of the beam at maximum moment location..................75 ksi Fps Fps⋅ ecg.....6 in 3 Inc Scg.nc = 19........nc := ybnc − strandcg⋅ in Section modulus at the strand c...... Scg... Ep = 28500 ksi Eccentricity of strands at midspan for non-composite section........ relaxation of steel loss.beam = 3276 ksi Modulus elasticity of prestressing steel... Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer of prestress force.g........Part I 59 ..............where... Eci................

.8 ksi Creep Prestress loss due to creep may be taken as: ∆fpCR = 12⋅ fcgp − 7 ⋅ fcdp ≥ 0 Eccentricity of strands at midspan for composite section.................................Part I 60 . ∆fpSR = 5............................0 − 0....g for the composite section...... Scg = 19294............ fcdp = 0..................... 0⋅ ksi Losses due to creep.............7 kip ⋅ ft Permanent load moments at midspan acting on M := M Trb + M Fws + M Utility composite section............97 ksi M nc M fcdp := + Scg.......... H = 75 ∆fpSR := ( 17............9 kip ⋅ ft Concrete stresses at c...1 ksi ( ) Superstructure Design 2.0 − 0............4 in ecg := yb − strandcg⋅ in Section modulus at the strand c...04 Prestressed Beam Design .. of the prestressing force due to permanent loads except at transfer...7 in 3 Scg := IInterior ecg Permanent load moments at midspan acting on non-composite section (except beam at M nc := MSlab + M Forms transfer).....................150⋅ H) ⋅ ksi where Average annual relative humidity............g............150⋅ H) ⋅ ksi Losses due to shrinkage...................................... ∆fpCR = 14..............Shrinkage Loss in prestress due to shrinkage may be estimated as: ∆fpSR = ( 17. M = 212...nc Scg ∆fpCR := max 12⋅ fcgp − 7⋅ fcdp . ecg = 35............ M nc = 920..

fpj = 202.... log(24.3.55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "LowLax" 40....0 fpy log(24.0 ⋅ f − 0....0 − 0..55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 10.... ∆fpR1 := log( 24....4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0.80⋅ fpu for this calculation) Specified yield strength of the prestressing steel [LRFD 5.1].0 ⋅ f − 0..5 days t := 1....0⋅ t ) pj ⋅ − 0.....5 Initial stress in tendon at time of stressing (jacking force) [LRFD Table 5.5 ksi fpj := (0...Steel Relaxation at Transfer Prestress loss due to relaxation loss of the prestressing steel at transfer may be taken as: ∆fpR1 = where..4b allows fpj = 0.75⋅ fpu) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" if strandtype = "LowLax" (Note : LRFD C5.2 ⋅ ( ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 20...90⋅ fpu) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" if strandtype = "LowLax" Losses due to steel relaxation at transfer...0 fpy ∆fpR1 = 2....4...9.1]. t = 1.85⋅ fpu) ( 0......9.. fpy = 243 ksi fpy := ( 0...4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0...4.....2 ksi Steel Relaxation after Transfer Prestress loss due to relaxation loss of the prestressing steel after transfer may be taken as: ∆fpR2 = 20.04 Prestressed Beam Design ....Part I 61 .4.0⋅ t ) fpj 10....55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "LowLax" py Time estimated (in days) between stressing and transfer..70⋅ fpu) (0....55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "StressRelieved" py f log( 24.5...2 ⋅ ( ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) ⋅ (30⋅ %) if strandtype = "LowLax" Superstructure Design 2..0⋅ t) fpj ⋅ − 0.0 − 0........0⋅ t) fpj 40.........

. at release is expressed as: ∆fpTRelease = ∆fpES + ∆fpR1 where..... elastic shortening loss.........8 % Loss := ∆fpT fpj B3....38 ksi fci... ∆fpTRelease = 17.. relaxation of steel loss at transfer......0⋅ ksi − 0..Part I 62 ........................where....... ∆fpT ......76 ksi ftop..2 ⋅ (∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) ⋅ ( 30⋅ %) if strandtype = "LowLax" ∆fpR2 = 3 ksi Total Prestress Loss The total loss... Losses due to steel relaxation after transfer ∆fpR2 := 20. Limit of compressive concrete strength at release.... Loss = 18.... ∆fpT = 38..........1 ksi ∆fpT := ∆fpES + ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR + ∆fpR2 Percent loss of strand force.... Center 70 percent of design beam..........4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0..............04 Prestressed Beam Design ... is expressed as.....4 ksi Superstructure Design 2..center70 = −0.2 ⋅ (∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 20.......4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0..3] Limit of tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only) Outer 15 percent of design beam. ftop.. the total loss................... Stress Limits (Compression = +..... Tension = -) Initial Stresses [SDG 4..outer15 = −0.. ∆fpES ∆fpR1 ∆fpTRelease := ∆fpES + ∆fpR1 The losses at release..beam = 4 ksi For prestressing members.....0⋅ ksi − 0... ∆fpT ..

. σ pjSupport = −0..............nc − Stnc Anc MRelBeam Stnc + Stress at top of beam at center 70%....nc A + S bnc nc Superstructure Design 2.. σ pjTop70 = 0..84 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeam Sbnc Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.... Fpj = 960.nc A − S tnc nc + Stress at bottom of beam at center 70%................8 kip Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps Stress at top of beam at support.....5 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured..Total jacking force of strands.. Fpe = 877............26 ksi σ pjTop70 := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.......Part I 63 ....84 ksi σ pjSupport := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.......1 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands........................ fpe = 185.... σ pjBotBeam = 1..04 Prestressed Beam Design ..

if there is then the variable will be set to "NG".4. is a catch-all statement such that if the actual stress is not within the allowables.9.center70 "OK" if σ pjTop70 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop70 ≤ fci.. it is considered "NG".2. The second line assures that no tension is present. The catch-all statement.TopSlab = 2.2-1] (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Limit of compression in slab.TopSlab := 0.outer15 "OK" if σ pjSupport > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjSupport ≤ fci.slab Limit of compression in top of beam. If the stress were to exceed the allowable.TopBeam := 0.. fallow1..beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.beam = 4 ksi Top70Release = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci..04 Prestressed Beam Design .76 ksi where fci. σ pjTop70 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi .center70 = −0..TopSlab = 1.... Top70Release := "OK" if σ pjTop70 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop70 ≥ ftop. fallow2.beam .. • Final Stresses [LRFD Table 5. and then applies the proper allowable.beam = 4 ksi (Note : Some MathCad equation explanations• The check for the top beam stresses checks to see if tension is present.... checks that the allowable compression is not exceeded..80 ksi fallow2.beam = 4 ksi σ pjSupport = "NG" (Note : Debonding will be required). fallow1..1-1 & 5.45⋅ fc.TopBeam = 2..) For the bottom beam.. A separate line is used for the compression and tension allowables.σ pjSupport := "OK" if σ pjSupport ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjSupport ≥ ftop.03 ksi fallow1. σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci.outer15 = −0..45⋅ fc.TopSlab := 0.... neither of the first two lines will be satisfied therefore the last line would produce the answer of "NG".9...38 ksi where fci. the first line. The last line.beam (2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Limit of compression in slab.beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise BotRelease = "OK" where fci..40⋅ fc.slab Superstructure Design 2...2..93 ksi fallow1.beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.Part I 64 . will be ignored since the first line was satisfied. "NG" otherwise .4. "NG" otherwise ..

... fallow2..9...BotBeam = −0.0948 fc........ fpe = 164........60⋅ fc.. check the stresses of the beam at for compression and tension.04 Prestressed Beam Design . stress at service after losses satisfied" if fpe ≤ fpe.BotBeam := (−0. In addition.......Allow := 0.TopBeam = 2.... Limit of compression in slab... stress at service after losses satisfied" Superstructure Design 2..4 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpT Allowable stress in strand after all losses have occured.90 ksi fallow3......3 = "OK. fpe...Limit of compression in top of beam.3 := fpe...Allow "NG.slab Limit of compression in top of beam... stress at service after losses not satisfied" otherwise LRFD 5..60⋅ fc.80⋅ fpy "OK.... the forces in the strands after losses need to be checked...70 ksi fallow3... Service I and III Limit States At service. this calculation is omitted).TopBeam := 0...) Environmentsuper = "Slightly" fallow4...19 fc.beam⋅ ksi) otherwise (Note : For not worse than moderate corrosion conditions.Part I 65 ..beam (4) Tension at bottom of beam only Limit of tension in bottom of beam...4 ksi LRFD 5...... fallow3..TopSlab = 2..TopBeam = 3.60 ksi fallow2.. For purposes of this design example..TopBeam := 0..TopSlab := 0.. The actual stress in strand after all losses have occured.beam⋅ksi) if Environmentsuper = "Extremely" (−0. fallow3....... fallow4.9.............40⋅ fc...Allow = 194..beam (3) Sum of effective prestress.. permanent loads and transient loads (Note : The engineer is reminded that this check needs to be made also for stresses during shipping and handling.......48 ksi B4..

..... (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads.33 ksi σ peBotBeam := + Service I Limit State The compressive stresses in the top of the beam will be checked for the following conditions: (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads (2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads (3) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads and transient loads (Note : Transient loads can include loads during shipping and handling. The stress due to permanent loads can be calculated as follows: Stress in top of slab... σ peBotBeam = 2.TopBeam = 2.......TopBeam .... σ1 TopSlab = 0.. σ1 TopSlab := M Trb + M Fws + M Utility Sslab...................tr Fpe Anc.tr Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps Stress at top of beam..TopSlab ........ "NG" Check top beam stresses...................... "NG" Check top slab stresses....... ..............Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top of slab... Fpe = 780 kip Fpe Anc.........tr Fpe⋅ ecg.nc Stopnc......tr M Trb + M Fws + M Utility Stop..........tr Stress in top of beam........tr Fpe⋅ ecg. σ1 TopBeam = 1. TopBeam1 = "OK" ( where fallow1. TopSlab1 = "OK" ( ) ) where fallow1...04 Prestressed Beam Design ......76 ksi σ peTopBeam := − Stress at bottom of beam.... "OK" ............03 ksi TopBeam1 := if σ1TopBeam ≤ fallow1......TopSlab = 2... these loads are omitted)....93 ksi Superstructure Design 2. top of beam and bottom of beam: Total force of strands.Part I 66 ....... σ peTopBeam = −0..08 ksi σ1 TopBeam := M Beam + M Slab + MForms Stopnc.....nc Sbotnc.....tr ......63 ksi + + σ peTopBeam TopSlab1 := if σ1 TopSlab ≤ fallow1. For purposes of this design example...... "OK" ..

.............TopSlab .45 ksi σ4 BotBeam := −MBeam − MSlab − M Forms ........TopBeam ..04 Prestressed Beam Design ....TopBeam ........ σ4 BotBeam = −0... "OK" ........... TopBeam2 = "OK" ( where fallow2.... "NG" Check top beam stresses..8 ksi TopBeam2 := if σ2TopBeam ≤ fallow2.tr Stress in top of beam....... σ3 TopSlab = 0..8 ⋅ −M LLI Sbot........ σ2 TopBeam = 1.... TopBeam3 = "OK" ( where fallow3..... "OK" ..........tr MLLI σ3 TopBeam := σ1 TopBeam + Stop.......5 ⋅ σ1 TopBeam + Stop............. "NG" ( ) ) where fallow2.. TopSlab3 = "OK" TopSlab3 := if σ3 TopSlab ≤ fallow3.. Sbotnc...TopSlab = 2..... "OK" . permanent loads and transient loads Stress in top of slab.......7 ksi TopBeam3 := if σ3TopBeam ≤ fallow3. "NG" ( ) ) where fallow3....6 ksi (3) Sum of effective prestress...........TopBeam = 2...9 ksi Service III Limit State total stresses (4) Tension at bottom of beam only Stress in bottom of beam.tr −MTrb − MFws − MUtility + Sbot.TopSlab = 1..... "NG" Check top beam stresses.(2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Stress in top of slab.......tr + σ peBotBeam + 0...Part I 67 .....62 ksi MLLI σ2 TopBeam := 0...... TopSlab2 = "OK" TopSlab2 := if σ2 TopSlab ≤ fallow2..... "OK" ..5 ⋅ σ1 TopSlab + Sslab...... ...... σ3 TopBeam = 2...tr Superstructure Design 2...44 ksi Check top slab stresses.. σ2 TopSlab = 0.......tr M LLI σ2 TopSlab := 0.TopBeam = 3....TopSlab ...66 ksi M LLI σ3 TopSlab := σ1 TopSlab + Sslab........tr ( ) Stress in top of beam....62 ksi ( ) Check top slab stresses........

Part I 68 ....Check bottom beam stresses..04 − fpy fpu fc..... ds = 0 in ds := 0 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2.48 ksi B5. k = 0..beam − 4000⋅ psi ....... BotBeam4 = "OK" BotBeam4 := if σ4 BotBeam ≥ fallow4.............73 β 1 := max0........ section without compression reinforcement..85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 2 ( ) For a rectangular....... "NG" ( ) where fallow4............ a factor "k" needs to be computed... As = 0 in 2 As := 0 ⋅ in 2 (Note : For strength calculations....28 k := 2 1.....7 ft kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0...................85⋅ f'c⋅ β 1 ⋅ b + k⋅ Aps ⋅ dp where a = β 1 ⋅ c and In order to determine the average stress in the prestressing steel to be used for moment capacity. "OK" ................ Value for "k".......BotBeam .......................... dp = 58...... 0....BotBeam = −0................ deck reinforcement is conservatively ignored.65 1000⋅ psi Stress block factor....05⋅ Distance from the compression fiber to cg of prestress.85 − 0.7.. a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 c= Aps⋅ fpu + As⋅ fy fpu 0.... Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5....1 in dp := h − strandcg⋅ in Area of reinforcing mild steel...04 Prestressed Beam Design ....3] Strength I Limit State design moment. β 1 = 0... M r = 875...............) Distance from compression fiber to reinforcing mild steel...

.9 in c := Aps ⋅ fpu + As⋅ fy fpu 0.................2].. φ' = 1......7... section is over-reinforced..5....7 ft⋅ kip B6.....42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements..3..................Distance between the neutral axis and compressive face...... a = 2..........8 in a := β 1⋅ c Average stress in prestressing steel.. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5...1-1" otherwise c de ≤ 0.....1 in de := Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps⋅ fps + As⋅ fy The c de = 0......prov ≥ M r "NG" otherwise where Mr = 875.85⋅ fc... fps = 264.. Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement...3...prov = 5937 ft⋅ kip M r. see LRFD equation C5.. de = 58..00 Moment capacity provided...........................3.......7..42 LRFD 5.....prov := φ' ⋅ Aps⋅ fps⋅ dp − a 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − a 2 Check moment capacity provided exceeds required...1 := "OK. Moment Capacity = "OK" Moment Capacity := "OK" if Mr.......3.......04 Prestressed Beam Design . c = 3.3. M r....... maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" if "NG..4. maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" Superstructure Design 2...1 = "OK..7...7.07 ratio should be less than 0...... LRFD 5.....3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.....beam⋅ β 1 ⋅ b tr........3.9 ksi c fps := fpu⋅ 1 − k⋅ d p Resistance factor for tension and flexure of prestressed members [LRFD 5.3.interior + k⋅ Aps⋅ dp Depth of equivalent stress block..Part I 69 ..

...reqd = 1164.24⋅ fc...3 kip ⋅ ft ∆M := ∆σ ⋅ Sb Service III load case moments.. ∆M = 224. M cr = 2113..7......reqd "NG.......8 ft⋅ kip M ps := − Fpe⋅ ecg.. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if Mr.....6 ft⋅ kip M cr := M Srv3 + Mps + ∆M ( Required flexural resistance......2 times greater than the cracking moment.... 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided.. Modulus of Rupture....... fr = −0.............3.......reqd = 1164........3...... M Srv3 = 3180.. M ps = −1290..........7..... σ4 BotBeam = −0..... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" Superstructure Design 2......2 := "OK.............45 ksi Additional amount of stress causing cracking........... exceeds minimum requirements.1 in 3 Additional amount of moment causing cracking..........2 ksi ∆σ := σ4 BotBeam − fr Section modulus to bottom of beam...........prov ≥ M r.nc ( ) ) Cracking moment................6 ft⋅ kip M r.............. reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5....... M r.........04 Prestressed Beam Design .. Mr..... Sb = 17070....6 ft⋅ kip .2 = "OK. ∆σ = 0. LRFD 5...reqd := min 1.....3....Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1........................1 ft⋅ kip Moment due to prestressing provided..3....Part I 70 ..6 ksi fr := −0............prov = 5937 ft⋅ kip ...........beam⋅ ksi Stress in bottom of beam from Service III...... Mr....2 ⋅ Mcr ........

6 kip Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps.. Aps.....1 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands.............. fpe = 185....Support = 4...5 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps......Support The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured.... σ pjTopEnd = −0..C..... Fpj = 836.. Strand Pattern definition at Support Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Support = 0 ft Rows of strand from bottom of y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c...nc A − S tnc nc Superstructure Design 2..................Part I 71 ... Interior Beam Debonding Requirements C1.......Support := strandstotal⋅ StrandArea ( ) C2.....4 ksi Total jacking force of strands..1 in 2 Aps........ = Number of Input 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 5.......Support Stress at top of beam at support.................74 ksi σ pjTopEnd := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.....00 strands SUPPORT Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row SUPPORT n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 11 11 COMMENTS 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 27 31 strands = Area of prestressing steel.... Fpe = 764.....04 Prestressed Beam Design ........ ∆fpTRelease = 17.... Stresses at support at release The losses at release...............g........

...4 in 2 Aps.4 ksi Superstructure Design 2......g...Debond1 = 4...nc + Sbnc Anc TopRelease := "OK" if σ pjTopEnd ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTopEnd ≥ ftop.... Aps.outer15 "OK" if σ pjTopEnd > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTopEnd ≤ fci......04 Prestressed Beam Design .......41 ksi σ pjBotEnd := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg...Stress at bottom of beam at support.beam "NG" if σ pjBotEnd ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci.......beam = 4 ksi BotRelease = "OK" C3..... = Number of Input 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 4.Part I 72 .....beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.86 strands DEBOND1 Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row DEBOND1 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN SUPPORT n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 11 11 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 COMMENTS 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 11 29 27 strands = Area of prestressing steel.beam = 4 ksi TopRelease = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotEnd ≤ fci.......76 ksi where fci. Strand Pattern definition at Debond1 Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond1 = 8 ft Rows of strand from bottom of y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c... Stresses at Debond1 at Release The losses at release.. σ pjBotEnd = 2. ∆fpTRelease = 17...outer15 = −0..Debond1 := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) C4..

.....nc − Anc Stnc + Stress at bottom of beam at outer 15%............ fpe = 185.....04 Prestressed Beam Design ..beam = 4 ksi σ pjTop15 = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci...76 ksi where fci....1 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands... Fpe = 821.2 kip MRelBeamD1 Stnc Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps.....Part I 73 ...outer15 "OK" if σ pjTop15 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≤ fci...Total jacking force of strands..28 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeamD1 Sbnc Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.......beam = 4 ksi BotRelease = "OK" Superstructure Design 2....... σ pjTop15 = −0.nc A + S bnc nc σ pjTop15 := "OK" if σ pjTop15 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≥ ftop.43 ksi σ pjTop15 := + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg...Debond1 The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured...... σ pjBotBeam = 2..............beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci........Debond1 Stress at top of beam at outer 15%. Fpj = 898.outer15 = −0.....5 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps....beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.

........87 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 11 11 31 All strands are active beyond this point 29 strands = Area of prestressing steel.........2 ksi σ pjTop15 := + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg....1 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands.........Part I 74 ..............Debond2 The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured...... ∆fpTRelease = 17...8 kip MRelBeamD2 Stnc Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps..... Aps..... fpe = 185..... σ pjTop15 = −0... Fpe = 877..Debond2 := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) C6........7 in 2 Aps. Fpj = 960...C5...Debond2 Stress at top of beam at outer 15%........nc A − S tnc nc Superstructure Design 2............. Strand Pattern definition at Debond2 Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond2 = 16 ft Rows of strand from bottom of Input beam (inches) y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c.. = Numbe r of strands DEBOND2 Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row DEBOND2 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total per MIDSPAN SUPPORT DEBOND1 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 11 11 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 9 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 11 COMMENTS 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 4....04 Prestressed Beam Design ....4 ksi Total jacking force of strands.................. Stresses at Debond2 at Release The losses at release.Debond2 = 4............5 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps.g........

beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.beam = 4 ksi BotRelease = "OK" Superstructure Design 2.Stress at bottom of beam at outer 15%.Part I 75 ..beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci.outer15 = −0.76 ksi where fci..04 Prestressed Beam Design .nc + Sbnc Anc σ pjTop15 := "OK" if σ pjTop15 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≥ ftop.outer15 "OK" if σ pjTop15 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≤ fci.beam = 4 ksi σ pjTop15 = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci. σ pjBotBeam = 2.22 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeamD2 Sbnc + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.

... Shear Design D1... 0............... V c = 0....0316 ⋅ β ⋅ fc⋅ b v⋅ dv Vs = Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot(θ ) s V p := 0 ⋅ kip Effective shear depth.. that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement.. Effective shear depth.............04 Prestressed Beam Design ................... Mu v f'c parameter.72⋅ h dv := max s s 2 (Note : This location is the same location as previously estimated for ShearChk = 3..25⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv The shear resistance of a concrete member may be separated into a component..4..5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps ⋅ fpo 2 ⋅ Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps ( ) Effective width.... shall be determined as the lesser of: V n = V c + V s + Vp V n = 0............. that is the vertical component of the prestressing force.2] Tables are give in LRFD to determine β from the longitudinal strain and be calculated... b v := b w dv = 3.. Nominal shear resistance of concrete section......8 ft where b v = 8 in Superstructure Design 2..... and a component.... Nominal shear resistance from prestressing for straight strands (non-draped)......) D2. Nominal shear resistance of shear reinforcement section... V s ......8.....D................8 ft ........ so these values need to Longitudinal strain for sections with prestressing and transverse reinforcement. dv = 45.....9 ⋅ d ...Part I 76 ...8 ft d − a ........... that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete.. Vn. εx = dv + 0.... Determine Nominal Shear Resistance The nominal shear resistance.............3........ V p .. β and θ Parameters [LRFD 5.. a component. 0. V c ..4 in or dv = 3......

Linear interpolation may be used..8...3...Part I 77 .. The shear stress on the concrete shall be determined as [LRFD 5..8...... Angle of inclination for diagonal compressive stresses...... v = 0...82 ksi v := V u − φv⋅ V p φv⋅ b v⋅ dv Parameter for locked in difference in strain between prestressing tendon and concrete.4.3. LRFD C5....2 states that data given by the table may be used over a range of values. β (Note : Values of β = 2 and θ = 45⋅ deg cannot be assumed since beam is prestressed... fpo = 189 ksi fpo := 0.7 ⋅ fpu Superstructure Design 2..9-1]: v= V u − φ⋅ V p φ⋅ b v⋅ dv Factored shear force at the critical section V u = 267..Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension.2-1 presents values of θ and β for sections with transverse reinforcement .2........5 kip Shear stress on the section....) θ LRFD Table 5.. but is not recommended for hand calculations.. The longitudinal strain and v f'c parameter are calculated for the appropriate critical sections...4....8..04 Prestressed Beam Design ..

.beam⋅ Ac + Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps. Ac = 460... εx = −0....5 ft Ltransfer := 60⋅ stranddia Since the transfer length..92 εx := dv ( ) ⋅ ( 1000) Since the strain value is negative..Support⋅ fpo 2 ⋅ Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps. V u⋅ dv ( ) For the longitudinal strain calculations.. Area of the concrete on the tension side of the member.........................................2⋅ deg Mu + 0......3 ft⋅ kip M u := max M r ... ShearChk = 3... Ltransfer = 2.The prestressing strand force becomes effective with the transfer length. θ := 24..5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps ⋅ fpo whereas ex = dv 2 ⋅ Ec⋅ Ac + Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps ( ) (Note : The non-composite area of the beam is divided by its height...... the full force of the strands are effective... M u = 1011... then multiplied by one-half of the composite section height). Factored moment on section....8 ft .04 Prestressed Beam Design .................. Mu + 0......4............... εx := 2 ⋅ Ec...8. is less than the shear check location.......Support Longitudinal strain............3....beam = 0.05 v f'c parameter..5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps...... from the end of the beam....5 ft ........ Ltransfer = 2.Support ( dv ) ⋅ ( 1000) εx = −0.......2 in 2 Anc h Ac := ⋅ hnc 2 Recalculating the strain..2-3: Mu + 0........Part I 78 ... the strain needs to be recalculated as per LRFD equation 5.5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps. an initial assumption for θ must be made........... v fc..126 Superstructure Design 2.............Support⋅ fpo Longitudinal strain.

.................3 kip V n := min Vu φv ..Part I 79 .......0 kip V s := V n − V c − V p Spacing of stirrups Minimum transverse reinforcement... sreq = 17. bar := "5" Av = 0..... V s = 216...0316 ⋅ b v⋅ fc......04 Prestressed Beam Design ........beam⋅ ksi Transverse reinforcement required......2-1....... the values of θ and β can be approximately taken as: Angle of inclination of compression stresses θ = 24.4 in sreq := if V s ≤ 0 .4 in s := min smin ...78 Nominal shear resistance of concrete section..beam⋅ b v⋅ dv + V p and....7 in smin := Av⋅ fy 0....... dia = 0.................. V n = 297..................25⋅ fc....4........................ Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) Vs Minimum transverse reinforcement required...Based on LRFD Table 5...... sreq ( ) Superstructure Design 2..625 in Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement Vn = Vc + Vp + Vs where..... smin = 57...............beam⋅ ksi⋅ bv⋅ dv Stirrups Size of stirrup bar ( "4" "5" "6" ).......0316⋅ β ⋅ fc.620 in 2 Area of shear reinforcement............ Diameter of shear reinforcement.....8...................3 kip V c := 0....2 deg Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the shear capacity of concrete β := 2............. 0.... V c = 81...3................. smin ........ s = 17.......

...8........... s .........3.. min(0.1 in 2 Equivalent force provided by this steel.8 ⋅ dv ..beam .......4 ⋅ dv .....Part I 80 .... T = 628. Aps.. TpsShearChk = 764.................5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv At the shear check location Longitudinal reinforcement....... longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned so that at each section the tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TpsShearChk ≥ T "NG...........Support⋅ fpe LRFD 5.......6 kip TpsShearChk := Aps... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5.... smax ( ) D3.Support = 4...04 Prestressed Beam Design .. spacing φv + and. taking into account any lack of full development of that reinforcement..5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv V s := min Mu dv⋅ φ where...0 in spacing := if smax > s .3.. 24⋅ in) .125⋅ fc... General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement T= Mu dv⋅ φb + Vu − 0. min( 0.... V s = 297.Maximum transverse reinforcement smax := if V u − φv⋅ V p < 0.5 = "Ok.....0 kip T := Vu − 0..5 := "Ok.... Longitudinal Reinforcement For sections not subjected to torsion.. previously computed for positive moment design....8.. 12⋅ in) φv⋅ (b v⋅ dv) smax = 12 in Spacing of transverse reinforcement cannot exceed the following spacing.. positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" At the support location Superstructure Design 2. spacing = 12.3 kip Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u ...

.Support ⋅ fpe⋅ Factor "Ok. TpsSupport = 369.....5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot(θ ) φv In determining the tensile force that the reinforcement is expected to resist at the inside edge of the bearing area.....3....... Distance from center line of bearing to end of beam. A factor will be applied that takes this into account............. the actual values at the face of the support will be used.1 kip T := V u...04 Prestressed Beam Design ... Estimated length of bearing pad.... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TpsSupport ≥ T "NG. Override and use the following: J := 8.....General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement T= Mu dv⋅ φb + Vu − 0...................... Transfer length....... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" Superstructure Design 2..9 kip Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u.....8 ft from the face of the support may be used..Support ...... Aps.....Support = 4............... For this example........... spacing φv and. previously computed for positive moment design.8. T = 371..5 := TpsSupport := Aps................5 Ltransfer Equivalent force provided by this steel......Support − 0. Factor = 0. Longitudinal reinforcement..... V s = 312.....Part I 81 .5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv V s := min where Mu = 0 ⋅ ft⋅ kip where..this dimension needs to be increased since the edge of pad should be about 1-1/2" from the edge of the beam.. positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5... Ltransfer = 30 in J = 6 in Lpad := 12⋅ in (Note ! ................... the values calculated at dv = 3..............5 ⋅ in ) Lpad 2 Determine the force effective at the inside edge of the bearing area.....1 in 2 The prestressing strand force is not all effective at the support area due to the transfer length required to go from zero force to maximum force...... J+ Factor := Factor to account for effective force......5 = "NG... Note that the force is greater due to the contribution of the moment at dv.8...5 kip LRFD 5................3..

3.Part I 82 ...........2 kip V s := min Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u..Support − 0.. positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5...... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TpsSupport ≥ T "NG... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" (Note : The location of the bearing pad had to be moved in order to satisfy this criteria. re-computing......... the engineer should assure that the following has been done at a minimum: • • • Design for interface steel Design for anchorage steel Design for camber • • Design check for beam transportation loads Design for fatigue checks when applicable E... spacing := 11⋅ in (Note : Decreasing the spacing will not improve Vs since it will then be a function of the shear at the support and not the shear steel).......5 := "Ok. It will now provide 2-1/2" from the edge of the pad to the end of the beam......Support ....Support ⋅ fpe⋅ Factor Equivalent force provided by this steel. Summary Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.04 Prestressed Beam Design .. T = 359. V s = 323. The engineer needs to assure that this is properly detailed and adhered to in the plans)......... Several important design checks were not performed in this design example (to reduce the length of calculations)..... we increase the shear steel contribution by specifying the actual stirrup spacing used at this location. TpsSupport = 369...8.....6 kip T := V u. Assume stirrups are at the following spacing...5 kip LRFD 5.8..... spacing φv and...........In otder to satisfy the equation...... However..5 = "Ok...5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot(θ ) φv TpsSupport := Aps.....3..

Part II 83 . Tension = -) B4. Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design B1. Strand Pattern definition at Midspan B2.3.Part II Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\203LLs. Longitudinal Reinforcement 116 E. Bridge Geometry A2. Superstructure Moments at Midspan A4. Strand Pattern definition at Debond1 C4. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements C1.9.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Prestressed Beam Design .05 Prestressed Beam Design . Stresses at Debond1 at Release C5.3] 104 C. Section Properties A3.8. Input Variables A1.4. Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5. Stress Limits (Compression = +. Stresses at Debond2 at Release 109 D. Summary Superstructure Design 2. Stresses at support at release C3. Shear Design D1. Strand Pattern definition at Support C2. Strand Pattern definition at Debond2 C6.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the prestressed concrete beam .5] B3. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.3. Page 84 86 Contents Design changes from Interior beam design A.exterior beam design.2] D3. Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations 89 B.3] B6.7. β and θ Parameters [LRFD 5. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance D2. Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations A5.7. Service I and III Limit States B5. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.

stage8.88 TotalNumberOfTendons = 38 NumberOfDebondedTendons = 4 NumberOfDrapedTendons = 0 StrandSize = "1/2 in low lax" StrandArea = 0.855 Location n Check_fcomp.rel = "No Good!" ft 89.54 ( ( ) ) 0 0 x tendonT 0.5 2.66 〈2〉 3.beam. number.05 Prestressed Beam Design .1 〈1〉 HalfBeamCoord ⋅ in 4. Rel.22 3. (Bot.) 4.807 3 0 min( CR_fcomp. In order to achieve the moment capacity. Comp.rel ksi f all. HalfBeamCoord ⋅ in JackingForce per. Allow) 1 0.DESIGN CHANGES FROM INTERIOR BEAM DESIGN The FDOT Prestressed beam program was utilized to quickly determine if the exact strand pattern used in the interior beam design will work for the exterior.Part II 84 .5 〈0〉 1 .tension ksi n n n 0 n 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 − 2.comp.beam. x tendon T 1.5 〈2〉 2 2.32 〈1〉 1.) 3.167 〈0〉 .153 in 2 y tendonT y tendonT y tendonT 〈0〉 4. there was insufficient moment capacity provided at midspan.167 ( ) FDOT SDG states to consider the individual beams designs as a first trial subject to modifications by combining similar designs into groups of common materials and stranding based upon the following priorities: 1.rel) = 0. and location) Compressive Concrete Strength at Release (f’ci) Shielding (Debonding)* Superstructure Design 2. it will be obvious that the beam section will not work with straight strands since debonding would be required for almost up to 10 feet from midspan in either direction.982 kip By examining the figure below.44 〈1〉 3. − 3.484 f bot. x tendon T 〈1〉 Debonded Full Length Draped Beam Surface .01⋅ min HalfBeamCoord ⋅ in 4.rel ksi f bot.strand = 30. the number of strands were increased from 31 to 38.c2 ksi f all. For the exterior. & Final Ten.215 3 3.) 28-Day Compressive Concrete Strength (f’c) Stranding (size.) 2..

88 〈 1〉 4....beam = 3735 ksi Superstructure Design 2.strand = 30... fci.5 〈 0〉 1 .beam.982 kip Rel.2 ksi Modulus of elasticity..beam.stage8........... x tendon T 1.17 New values for release strength Release strength.. Since the exterior beam governs..1 ⋅ in 4.5 〈 2〉 2 . − 3..5 2.rel ksi f bot... Comp..22 3. HalfBeamCoord 〈 0〉 ⋅ in 2.....12 4 0 Location n ft 89. we will use the maximum value allowed..beam = 5.Part II 85 . for this design example for both beams. Eci.2 ksi.tension ksi n n n 1 n 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 − 3.. fci.beam.rel ksi f all.beam.242 f bot.167 StrandArea = 0.66 3.54 x tendonT 0.215 3 3.max = 5. & Final Ten..max fci. Allow) 0...... The following file shows the design of the exterior beam with the following strand pattern....The solution chosen is to increase the release strength of the concrete..05 Prestressed Beam Design ...c2 ksi f all..beam⋅ ksi Eci.....beam.comp.beam := φlimerock⋅ 1820 fci. (Bot......153 in 2 JackingForce per... In the interior beam design.32 1... x tendon T 〈 1〉 Debonded Full Length Draped Beam Surface .min = 4 ksi was utilized.01⋅ min HalfBeamCoord TotalNumberOfTendons = 40 NumberOfDebondedTendons = 4 NumberOfDrapedTendons = 0 StrandSize = "1/2 in low lax" 0 0 y tendonT 〈 0〉 〈 1〉 y tendonT y tendonT 〈 2〉 HalfBeamCoord ( ( 〈 1〉 ) ⋅ in) 4. the minimum value of fci.beam := fci.44 3.

..... Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length. Input Variables A1.1 A3.4 31123.A.....0 1448...3 40.0 30037... M Beam = 798. Lbridge = 180 ft Lspan = 90 ft Skew = −30 deg A2..........0 79...0 40................9 63.73 54 20 8 8 26 8 9 8908 10544 COMPOSITE SECTION PROPERTIES Effective slab w idth Transformed slab width Height of composite section Effective slab area Area of composite section Neutral axis to bottom fiber Neutral axis to top fiber Inertia of composite section Section modulus top of slab Section modulus top of beam Section modulus bottom of beam [in] beff..0 639.3 1481. M Slab = 850..6 ft⋅ kip M Beam := MBeamExt( Midspan) DC Moment of Slab....... Superstructure Loads at Midspan DC Moment of Beam at Release. Section Properties NON-COMPOSITE PROPERTIES Moment of Inertia Section Area ytop ybot Depth Top flange w idth Top flange depth Width of web Bottom flange width Bottom flange depth Bottom flange taper Section Modulus top Section Modulus bottom [in 4] [in 2] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in] [in 3] [in 3] Inc Anc ytnc ybnc h nc btf htf bw b bf h bf E Stnc Sbnc IV 260741 789 29.interior/exterior [in] btr.....27 24.7 694509....Part II 86 . M RelBeam = 816...........7 ft⋅ kip M RelBeam := M RelBeamExt( Midspan) DC Moment of Beam..............0 63...0 672...9 52162...4 17070..7 682912..5 49719...6 EXTERIOR 101..7 22...2 ft⋅ kip M Slab := M SlabExt( Midspan) Superstructure Design 2.0 84..3 22.4 16960........interior/exterior [in] h [in 2] Aslab [in 2] AInterior/Exterior [in] yb [in] yt [in 4] IInterior/Exterior [in 3] St [in 3] Stb [in 3] Sb INTERIOR 96. Design span length....05 Prestressed Beam Design ...... Skew angle.

..... M RelBeamD1 = 266..0 ⋅ MFws + MUtility + 1. M Forms = 61....Part II 87 .5 ft⋅ kip M Forms := M FormsExt( Midspan) DC Moment of traffic railing barriers.......25⋅ DC + 1..... A4..0 ⋅ DW + 1..................50⋅ DW + 1...5 ft kip Service3 = 1.......7 ft⋅ kip M Fatigue = 1412........ + 1.........DC Moment of stay-in-place forms...75⋅ LL M r := 1...8 ⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Strength I Limit State...8 ft⋅ kip M RelBeamD1 := M RelBeamExt( Debond1) DC Moment of Beam at Release Debond2 = 16 ft Location....... M Utility = 0 ft⋅ kip M Utility := M UtilityExt( Midspan) Live Load Moment.0 ⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb .......0 ⋅ DC + 1.......................... M Trb = 238.. M Fws = 102 ft⋅ kip M Fws := MFwsExt( Midspan) DW Moment of Utilities.8 ft kip Fatigue = 0............. M r = 6149..........25⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb .........7 ft kip M Fatigue := 0.......Exterior ( Midspan) − M lane( Midspan) Service1 = 1.... M LLI = 2034..0 ⋅ MFws + MUtility + 0.0 ⋅ MBeam + MSlab + M Forms + MTrb ....1 ft⋅ kip M RelBeamD2 := M RelBeamExt( Debond2) Superstructure Design 2.6 ft kip Strength1 = 1.. + 1............ M Srv1 = 4085..Exterior ( Midspan) M Fatigue := MLLI.0 ⋅ LL • Service I Limit State... + 1.....75⋅ M Fatigue (Note : Use NO LANE load)..0 ⋅ DC + 1....9 ft⋅ kip M LLI := MLLI......4 ft⋅ kip M Trb := MTrbExt( Midspan) DW Moment of future wearing surface..75⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Fatigue Limit State........ M RelBeamD2 = 481.......... Superstructure Loads at Debonding Locations DC Moment of Beam at Release Debond1 = 8 ft Location. M Srv3 = 3678......0 ⋅ M LLI ( ( ) ( ) ) • Service III Limit State....0 ⋅ DW + 0........8 ⋅ LL M Srv1 := 1..........05 Prestressed Beam Design ..75⋅ LL M Srv3 := 1... M Fatigue = 1059...50⋅ MFws + M Utility + 1.....

..BeamExt( ShearChk) = 4.......Exterior ( ShearChk) ( M r = 1043.25⋅ DC + 1.......75⋅ ( MLLI...Exterior ( ShearChk) ) ( ( ) ) Superstructure Design 2... .6 ft kip DW Shear & Moment ...... + 1. V u..BeamExt( Support) .25⋅ V DC....2 kip V LLI.... LL Shear & Moment.. Strength1 = 1...25⋅ ( MDC.25⋅ V DC.75⋅ LL • Strength I Limit State...BeamExt( ShearChk) = 319. + 1..75⋅ V LLI.05 Prestressed Beam Design ....... + 1..BeamExt( ShearChk) ) ..Part II 88 .... + 1..6 kip V LLI....Support := 1...BeamExt( ShearChk) = 80.A5.Exterior ( ShearChk) = 104..7 ft kip M LLI....3 kip M DC. V DC..25⋅ DC + 1..... + 1.....BeamExt( Support ) = 4... LL Shear & Moment...50⋅ DW + 1.50⋅ V DW.... V DC...Exterior ( Support ) = 111...BeamExt( Support) ..BeamExt( Support) = 89..Exterior ( Support) = 0 ft kip DW Shear & Moment . Superstructure Loads at the Other Locations At Support location DC Shear & Moment...Exterior ( ShearChk) = 353.1 kip V u. + 1.....0 kip V u := 1..9 kip V DW....BeamExt( ShearChk) ) ..Exterior ( Support) ( ( ( ) ) ) At Shear Check location DC Shear & Moment.75⋅ LL • Strength I Limit State...75⋅ V LLI... V u = 291.BeamExt( ShearChk) = 16....9 kip M DC.50⋅ DW + 1... Strength1 = 1..Support = 314.... .......50⋅ ( MDW.....9 ft kip M DW.BeamExt( ShearChk) ..BeamExt( Support) = 0 ft kip M DW..BeamExt( Support) = 0 ft kip M LLI..50⋅ V DW..8 ft kip ) M r := 1....8 kip V DW.BeamExt( ShearChk) .

the proposed strand pattern at the midspan section can be defined.......6 ⋅ in 0... Strand Pattern definition at Midspan Using the following schematic.5 ⋅ in 0...0 otherwise 0..Part II 89 ..5625 ⋅ in 0... StrandArea = 0...........5 in stranddia := 0. stranddia = 0. Support = 0 ft ShearChk = 3...6 ⋅ in ) Strand area...5 ⋅ in 2 Superstructure Design 2.08 ft Strand pattern at midspan Strand type.......153 if stranddia = 0.5 ⋅ in (Note : Options ( 0..217 if stranddia = 0......05 Prestressed Beam Design ...153 in 2 StrandArea := ⋅ in 0......8 ft Debond1 = 8 ft Debond2 = 16 ft Midspan = 44.192 if stranddia = 0.... Interior Beam Midspan Moment Design B1... strandtype = "LowLax" strandtype := "LowLax" (Note : Options ( "LowLax" "StressRelieved" ) Strand size.....5625 ⋅ in 0..B..

... Anc...3....1 in 2 Aps := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) Transformed section properties As per SDG 4..... ybnc. Inc.Part II 90 .6 in 3 Superstructure Design 2.tr = 272558.........05 Prestressed Beam Design .tr = 11400.... np = 6... states "Stress and camber calculations for the design of simple span..." Modular ratio between the prestressing strand and beam...tr Sbotnc.1 in 4 Inc......tr := ybnc.....tr := ( ) Non-composite inertia transformed.. BeamType = "IV" MIDSPAN Strand Pattern Data Rows of strand Number of from bottom of Input strands beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN 19 0 y9 = n9 = 17 0 y8 = n8 = 15 0 y7 = n7 = 13 0 y6 = n6 = 11 0 y5 = n5 = 9 7 y4 = n4 = 7 11 y3 = n3 = 5 11 y2 = n2 = 3 11 y1 = n1 = 5........tr = 9057....tr = 23......tr ( )2 ( ) Non-composite section modulus top......Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam...825 Ep np := Ec..beam Anc......tr Stopnc.tr Inc.....tr = 824. Stopnc..tr := Inc + ybnc...70 Total strands = 40 Strand c..g..3 in 3 Non-composite section modulus bottom...6 in 2 ( ) Non-composite neutral axis transformed..tr := Anc + np − 1 ⋅ Aps ybnc⋅ Anc + strandcg⋅ in⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps Anc....9 in ybnc........ Sbotnc. Aps = 6.1-C6. .tr − strandcg⋅ in ⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps Inc... pretensioned components must be based upon the use of transformed section properties.tr := hnc − ybnc...tr Non-composite area transformed..... = Area of prestressing steel.

......beam 2 Assumed area of reinforcement in deck slab per foot width of deck slab.....tr := yb...... Sslab.........944 Es nm := Ec.....tr := h − yb.22 in 2 Abar := b eff...5 in 3 Itr Sbot..exterior⋅ Adeck... Itr = 759063.......tr = 40 in yb⋅ AExterior + strandcg⋅ in⋅ (np − 1 ) ⋅ Aps ........2 in 3 Composite section modulus top of beam... ∆fpT ..tr = 33009... ybar = 67 in t slab 2 Total reinforcing steel within effective width of deck slab..tr = 18974....tr := A tr Itr := IExterior + yb.. in Adeck.... nm = 6..............Part II 91 .....tr B2.....Modular ratio between the mild reinforcing and transformed concrete deck slab.05 Prestressed Beam Design ...... Abar = 5...... top and bottom longitudinally)..... + yb.............................. Distance from bottom of beam to rebar...... + ybar⋅ ( nm − 1 )⋅ Abar yb..tr − strandcg⋅ in ⋅ np − 1 ⋅ Aps .............5] For prestressing members.tr = 23724 in 3 Itr Stop...........................rebar Composite area transformed............. the total loss.....tr Composite inertia transformed.........62⋅ ft ybar := h − t mill − (Note : Assuming #5 at 12" spacing.........tr − ybar ⋅ nm − 1 ⋅ Abar Itr Sslab...9...... Atr = 1548 in 2 Atr := AExterior + np − 1 ⋅ Aps + nm − 1 ⋅ Abar ( ) ( ) Composite neutral axis transformed.......tr := h − yb.. Stop.......... yb. Sbot.... Prestressing Losses [LRFD 5...... is expressed as: ∆fpT = ∆fpF + ∆fpA + ∆fpES + ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR + ∆fpR2 Superstructure Design 2.........4 in 4 ( ( ) ( 2 ) )2 ( ) Composite section modulus top of slab..................tr − tslab − tmill − hbuildup ( ) Composite section modulus bottom of beam.....rebar := 0.........

fcgp = 2............where.....nc MRelBeam fcgp := + − Anc Scg..... Eci.......7 kip Fps := Aps ⋅ fps Concrete stresses at c.nc ∆fpES := ⋅f Eci.g for the non-composite section..36 ksi Fps Fps⋅ ecg.............. friction loss.2 ksi Modulus elasticity of prestressing steel.....beam = 3735................ Elastic Shortening The loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned members shall be taken as: ∆fpES = ⋅f Eci cgp Ep where.. Scg.... Modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer of prestress force. creep of concrete loss..Part II 92 ... elastic shortening loss.nc Scg..............70⋅ fpu Corresponding total prestressing force.. anchorage set loss.05 Prestressed Beam Design .. relaxation of steel loss.....nc = 13701..beam cgp Ep Losses due to elastic shortening........nc := ybnc − strandcg⋅ in Section modulus at the strand c..........nc := ecg........... of the prestressing force at transfer and the self wt of the beam at maximum moment location.........nc = 19 in ecg.... ∆fpF ∆fpA ∆fpES ∆fpSR ∆fpCR ∆fpR2 (Note : Not considered for bonded prestressed beams) (Note : Not considered for bonded prestressed beams) For the prestress loss calculations....... Fps = 1156. ecg......g. gross section properties (not transformed) can be used.....6 in 3 Inc Scg....nc Stress in prestressing steel prior to transfer fps = 189 ksi fps := 0.. Ep = 28500 ksi Eccentricity of strands at midspan for non-composite section. ∆fpES = 18 ksi Superstructure Design 2............................................. shrinkage loss.....

.... Scg = 20093 in 3 Scg := IExterior ecg Permanent load moments at midspan acting on non-composite section (except beam at M nc := MSlab + M Forms transfer)......................g........................ M = 340..g for the composite section.................... 0⋅ ksi Losses due to creep......150⋅ H) ⋅ ksi where Average annual relative humidity.....................nc Scg ∆fpCR := max 12⋅ fcgp − 7⋅ fcdp ....... H = 75 ∆fpSR := ( 17.... ∆fpSR = 5....0 − 0.8 ksi Creep Prestress loss due to creep may be taken as: ∆fpCR = 12⋅ fcgp − 7 ⋅ fcdp ≥ 0 Eccentricity of strands at midspan for composite section...................Part II 93 .............. ∆fpCR = 21........3 ksi ( ) Superstructure Design 2............8 kip ⋅ ft Permanent load moments at midspan acting on M := M Trb + M Fws + M Utility composite section... ecg = 34. M nc = 911....6 in ecg := yb − strandcg⋅ in Section modulus at the strand c..............4 kip ⋅ ft Concrete stresses at c..................................................Shrinkage Loss in prestress due to shrinkage may be estimated as: ∆fpSR = ( 17.........0 − 0.... fcdp = 1 ksi M nc M fcdp := + Scg...............150⋅ H) ⋅ ksi Losses due to shrinkage............... of the prestressing force due to permanent loads except at transfer......05 Prestressed Beam Design ..

0 − 0.55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "LowLax" py Time estimated (in days) between stressing and transfer.4b allows fpj = 0......4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0..5....0 fpy log(24.........9.......2 ⋅ ( ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 20......0⋅ t) fpj ⋅ − 0.1].1].5 days t := 1.4. ∆fpR1 := log( 24.2 ⋅ ( ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) ⋅ (30⋅ %) if strandtype = "LowLax" Superstructure Design 2.85⋅ fpu) ( 0..70⋅ fpu) (0..... log(24..75⋅ fpu) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" if strandtype = "LowLax" (Note : LRFD C5.2 ksi Steel Relaxation after Transfer Prestress loss due to relaxation loss of the prestressing steel after transfer may be taken as: ∆fpR2 = 20....90⋅ fpu) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" if strandtype = "LowLax" Losses due to steel relaxation at transfer..80⋅ fpu for this calculation) Specified yield strength of the prestressing steel [LRFD 5....55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 10. fpj = 202. fpy = 243 ksi fpy := ( 0......4.4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0....0 fpy ∆fpR1 = 2...05 Prestressed Beam Design .... t = 1.0⋅ t ) fpj 10..0⋅ t ) pj ⋅ − 0.0 − 0..5 ksi fpj := (0.0 ⋅ f − 0....Part II 94 ...0⋅ t) fpj 40.5 Initial stress in tendon at time of stressing (jacking force) [LRFD Table 5....55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "StressRelieved" py f log( 24.4.0 ⋅ f − 0.......Steel Relaxation at Transfer Prestress loss due to relaxation loss of the prestressing steel at transfer may be taken as: ∆fpR1 = where...55 ⋅ fpj if strandtype = "LowLax" 40...9...3...

3 % Loss := ∆fpT fpj B3..... Stress Limits (Compression = +..beam = 5..76 ksi ftop.................. ftop............Part II 95 ..2 ksi ∆fpT := ∆fpES + ∆fpSR + ∆fpCR + ∆fpR2 Percent loss of strand force. ∆fpT ..... ∆fpT ....4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0.outer15 = −0.......0⋅ ksi − 0.. elastic shortening loss.........2 ksi For prestressing members... Loss = 23...38 ksi fci................2 ksi Superstructure Design 2......... is expressed as. at release is expressed as: ∆fpTRelease = ∆fpES + ∆fpR1 where... Losses due to steel relaxation after transfer ∆fpR2 := 20.where....05 Prestressed Beam Design .....2 ⋅ (∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) if strandtype = "StressRelieved" 20.......0⋅ ksi − 0.... the total loss.... ∆fpTRelease = 20. Center 70 percent of design beam.2 ksi Total Prestress Loss The total loss. ∆fpT = 47..center70 = −0.. Limit of compressive concrete strength at release...4 ⋅ ∆fpES − 0.. relaxation of steel loss at transfer......3] Limit of tension in top of beam at release (straight strand only) Outer 15 percent of design beam.... ∆fpES ∆fpR1 ∆fpTRelease := ∆fpES + ∆fpR1 The losses at release.....2 ⋅ (∆fpSR + ∆fpCR) ⋅ ( 30⋅ %) if strandtype = "LowLax" ∆fpR2 = 2....................... Tension = -) Initial Stresses [SDG 4......

σ pjSupport = −0.........3 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands....... σ pjTop70 = 0..........6 kip Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps Stress at top of beam at support...............nc A + S bnc nc Superstructure Design 2..nc A − S tnc nc + Stress at bottom of beam at center 70%.......05 Prestressed Beam Design ..5 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeam Sbnc Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.....3 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured..nc − Stnc Anc MRelBeam Stnc + Stress at top of beam at center 70%.. σ pjBotBeam = 2...... Fpj = 1239. fpe = 182...............97 ksi σ pjSupport := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.Part II 96 ...13 ksi σ pjTop70 := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.................... Fpe = 1115....Total jacking force of strands....

. checks that the allowable compression is not exceeded. neither of the first two lines will be satisfied therefore the last line would produce the answer of "NG". σ pjTop70 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ... Top70Release := "OK" if σ pjTop70 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop70 ≥ ftop.slab Limit of compression in top of beam.TopBeam := 0.9.) For the bottom beam.80 ksi fallow2. it is considered "NG".76 ksi where fci. fallow2...05 Prestressed Beam Design ..beam = 5. The second line assures that no tension is present.TopSlab := 0.... fallow1. • Final Stresses [LRFD Table 5. the first line.TopBeam = 2.40⋅ fc...2.outer15 "OK" if σ pjSupport > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjSupport ≤ fci..93 ksi fallow1.2..2 ksi Top70Release = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci. if there is then the variable will be set to "NG". A separate line is used for the compression and tension allowables..45⋅ fc..beam (2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Limit of compression in slab. The catch-all statement.2 ksi σ pjSupport = "NG" (Note : Debonding will be required).beam "NG" otherwise where ftop. and then applies the proper allowable.beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.. is a catch-all statement such that if the actual stress is not within the allowables.9..TopSlab = 2. "NG" otherwise .TopSlab = 1.Part II 97 .beam = 5..outer15 = −0.beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise BotRelease = "OK" where fci.beam .38 ksi where fci.slab Superstructure Design 2.2 ksi (Note : Some MathCad equation explanations• The check for the top beam stresses checks to see if tension is present. σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci.03 ksi fallow1.beam = 5...center70 "OK" if σ pjTop70 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop70 ≤ fci..2-1] (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Limit of compression in slab.. fallow1.. will be ignored since the first line was satisfied..center70 = −0.. "NG" otherwise .TopSlab := 0.4. The last line... If the stress were to exceed the allowable.4.45⋅ fc.1-1 & 5.σ pjSupport := "OK" if σ pjSupport ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjSupport ≥ ftop.

...slab Limit of compression in top of beam..beam⋅ksi) if Environmentsuper = "Extremely" (−0.60⋅ fc.....4 ksi LRFD 5..beam (3) Sum of effective prestress. fallow3...3 := fpe.. In addition..BotBeam := (−0.... fallow2...9.......Part II 98 .Allow := 0..48 ksi B4......70 ksi fallow3....05 Prestressed Beam Design .BotBeam = −0..60⋅ fc....beam (4) Tension at bottom of beam only Limit of tension in bottom of beam.19 fc..... fallow3. stress at service after losses satisfied" if fpe ≤ fpe... fpe = 155. The actual stress in strand after all losses have occured.Allow "NG...Limit of compression in top of beam.. Service I and III Limit States At service.) Environmentsuper = "Slightly" fallow4..... check the stresses of the beam at for compression and tension.0948 fc.. fpe. Limit of compression in slab..90 ksi fallow3...Allow = 194....TopBeam := 0......TopBeam = 3. For purposes of this design example.beam⋅ ksi) otherwise (Note : For not worse than moderate corrosion conditions..80⋅ fpy "OK....... stress at service after losses not satisfied" otherwise LRFD 5..... stress at service after losses satisfied" Superstructure Design 2... this calculation is omitted).TopSlab := 0.3 = "OK.. fallow4..3 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpT Allowable stress in strand after all losses have occured..TopBeam = 2..9.TopSlab = 2... permanent loads and transient loads (Note : The engineer is reminded that this check needs to be made also for stresses during shipping and handling.....40⋅ fc.. the forces in the strands after losses need to be checked.TopBeam := 0.......60 ksi fallow2........

. these loads are omitted). (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads..tr M Trb + M Fws + M Utility Stop... For purposes of this design example.............tr Fpe⋅ ecg...74 ksi σ peBotBeam := + Service I Limit State The compressive stresses in the top of the beam will be checked for the following conditions: (1) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads (2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads (3) Sum of effective prestress and permanent loads and transient loads (Note : Transient loads can include loads during shipping and handling.........12 ksi σ1 TopBeam := M Beam + M Slab + MForms Stopnc...... The stress due to permanent loads can be calculated as follows: Stress in top of slab..........nc Stopnc..........Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top of slab...... "NG" Check top beam stresses................03 ksi TopBeam1 := if σ1TopBeam ≤ fallow1... TopSlab1 = "OK" ( ) ) where fallow1. σ1 TopBeam = 1...........Part II 99 .........TopSlab = 2......TopSlab .. "OK" ..tr Fpe Anc.... "NG" Check top slab stresses....TopBeam ..... TopBeam1 = "OK" ( where fallow1.......tr Stress in top of beam. σ peBotBeam = 2.... top of beam and bottom of beam: Total force of strands...84 ksi σ peTopBeam := − Stress at bottom of beam.... σ1 TopSlab = 0...tr .nc Sbotnc. σ1 TopSlab := M Trb + M Fws + M Utility Sslab. Fpe = 950..tr Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps Stress at top of beam...59 ksi + + σ peTopBeam TopSlab1 := if σ1 TopSlab ≤ fallow1......TopBeam = 2.. "OK" .........93 ksi Superstructure Design 2.....05 Prestressed Beam Design ........ ....tr Fpe⋅ ecg.3 kip Fpe Anc.... σ peTopBeam = −0................

.. permanent loads and transient loads Stress in top of slab................ "NG" Check top beam stresses............tr + σ peBotBeam + 0.................... "OK" ....TopBeam = 2.. "OK" ........(2) Sum of live load and 1/2 sum of effective prestress and permanent loads Stress in top of slab..9 ksi Service III Limit State total stresses (4) Tension at bottom of beam only Stress in bottom of beam....86 ksi M LLI σ3 TopSlab := σ1 TopSlab + Sslab.... "NG" ( ) ) where fallow3...62 ksi Check top slab stresses.......7 ksi TopBeam3 := if σ3TopBeam ≤ fallow3..................83 ksi ( ) Check top slab stresses..tr M LLI σ2 TopSlab := 0... TopBeam2 = "OK" ( where fallow2...TopSlab ..TopSlab = 1....... "OK" .TopSlab = 2...... Sbotnc..8 ⋅ −M LLI Sbot. .........tr ( ) Stress in top of beam...80 ksi MLLI σ2 TopBeam := 0.31 ksi σ4 BotBeam := −MBeam − MSlab − M Forms ............ "OK" ..... σ3 TopSlab = 0......8 ksi TopBeam2 := if σ2TopBeam ≤ fallow2........tr −MTrb − MFws − MUtility + Sbot.. σ3 TopBeam = 2.... TopSlab2 = "OK" TopSlab2 := if σ2 TopSlab ≤ fallow2..tr Stress in top of beam.Part II 100 ..... TopBeam3 = "OK" ( where fallow3.... σ4 BotBeam = −0.5 ⋅ σ1 TopSlab + Sslab...... σ2 TopBeam = 1...TopBeam = 3..TopBeam .........TopSlab ......05 Prestressed Beam Design ....5 ⋅ σ1 TopBeam + Stop.. "NG" Check top beam stresses. TopSlab3 = "OK" TopSlab3 := if σ3 TopSlab ≤ fallow3..tr Superstructure Design 2.. σ2 TopSlab = 0......TopBeam . "NG" ( ) ) where fallow2....6 ksi (3) Sum of effective prestress.tr MLLI σ3 TopBeam := σ1 TopBeam + Stop..

a factor "k" needs to be computed..73 β 1 := max0.......beam − 4000⋅ psi ...............05 Prestressed Beam Design ..... k = 0..04 − fpy fpu fc... "OK" .05⋅ Distance from the compression fiber to cg of prestress... dp = 57. Strength I Limit State moment capacity [LRFD 5.............65 1000⋅ psi Stress block factor. M r = 1043........ a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 c= Aps⋅ fpu + As⋅ fy fpu 0.Part II 101 ................ β 1 = 0...... Value for "k"..... ds = 0 in ds := 0 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2..Check bottom beam stresses.........85 − 0. 0. As = 0 in 2 As := 0 ⋅ in 2 (Note : For strength calculations..85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 2 ( ) For a rectangular..BotBeam = −0.28 k := 2 1.........................7.... "NG" ( ) where fallow4......) Distance from compression fiber to reinforcing mild steel............... section without compression reinforcement..................3 in dp := h − strandcg⋅ in Area of reinforcing mild steel.. deck reinforcement is conservatively ignored............BotBeam .85⋅ f'c⋅ β 1 ⋅ b + k⋅ Aps ⋅ dp where a = β 1 ⋅ c and In order to determine the average stress in the prestressing steel to be used for moment capacity.......3] Strength I Limit State design moment. BotBeam4 = "OK" BotBeam4 := if σ4 BotBeam ≥ fallow4...8 ft kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0.........48 ksi B5.......

. de = 57.3...........5 in a := β 1⋅ c Average stress in prestressing steel.........Part II 102 . maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" if "NG..1 := "OK.Distance between the neutral axis and compressive face.08 ratio should be less than 0.7...7 ft⋅ kip M r.5.......3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced........4.......................3. maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" Superstructure Design 2.prov = 7471...prov ≥ M r "NG" otherwise where Mr = 1043. M r......1-1" otherwise c de ≤ 0..3........42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements............ φ' = 1.........8 in c := Aps ⋅ fpu + As⋅ fy fpu 0.. Moment Capacity = "OK" Moment Capacity := "OK" if Mr...7... LRFD 5.........7.. Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement...3.......85⋅ fc.. fps = 263.......42 LRFD 5.beam⋅ β 1 ⋅ b tr. a = 3... c = 4.7..3....00 Moment capacity provided.... see LRFD equation C5........ Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5......1 = "OK.....3...7 ksi c fps := fpu⋅ 1 − k⋅ d p Resistance factor for tension and flexure of prestressed members [LRFD 5.8 ft⋅ kip B6.3 in de := Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps⋅ fps + As⋅ fy The c de = 0............prov := φ' ⋅ Aps⋅ fps⋅ dp − a 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − a 2 Check moment capacity provided exceeds required....05 Prestressed Beam Design .2]..exterior + k⋅ Aps⋅ dp Depth of equivalent stress block.....3..... section is over-reinforced..

...7......... M ps = −1506................. Mr..2 := "OK....... Sb = 17070.. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" Superstructure Design 2. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if Mr........ M Srv3 = 3678....... M cr = 2606 ft⋅ kip M cr := M Srv3 + Mps + ∆M ( Required flexural resistance......2 times greater than the cracking moment...........................................05 Prestressed Beam Design ...1 in 3 Additional amount of moment causing cracking........3.3......6 ksi fr := −0.... reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5..3 kip ⋅ ft ∆M := ∆σ ⋅ Sb Service III load case moments..prov ≥ M r......reqd := min 1. Modulus of Rupture.reqd = 1388. ∆M = 434..nc ( ) ) Cracking moment.....3.......7..........24⋅ fc....7 ft⋅ kip ....reqd "NG........ exceeds minimum requirements.....prov = 7471........ σ4 BotBeam = −0.2 = "OK... Mr.............reqd = 1388......3 ft⋅ kip M r..2 ⋅ Mcr ....... fr = −0...3 ft⋅ kip .........3 ksi ∆σ := σ4 BotBeam − fr Section modulus to bottom of beam..............Part II 103 ...... LRFD 5. 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided...... ∆σ = 0..31 ksi Additional amount of stress causing cracking..beam⋅ ksi Stress in bottom of beam from Service III......Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1............3..6 ft⋅ kip Moment due to prestressing provided.... M r.......9 ft⋅ kip M ps := − Fpe⋅ ecg......

....Support = 5.4 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps....05 Prestressed Beam Design ....C........ Stresses at support at release The losses at release............2 ksi Total jacking force of strands. Interior Beam Debonding Requirements C1.................Part II 104 ....89 strands SUPPORT Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row SUPPORT n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 11 COMMENTS 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 9 9 36 40 strands = Area of prestressing steel............Support := strandstotal⋅ StrandArea ( ) C2..3 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands..Support Stress at top of beam at support...nc A − S tnc nc Superstructure Design 2...........g......... = Number of Input 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 5.. Strand Pattern definition at Support Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Support = 0 ft Rows of strand from bottom of y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c. Fpe = 1004 kip Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps............87 ksi σ pjTopEnd := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg..5 in 2 Aps.......Support The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured...... ∆fpTRelease = 20. σ pjTopEnd = −0......... Fpj = 1115....... Aps................. fpe = 182.......

. Aps...beam "NG" if σ pjBotEnd ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci..beam = 5...Debond1 = 5. the stresses at the top will be within the allowable limit..nc + Sbnc Anc TopRelease := "OK" if σ pjTopEnd ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTopEnd ≥ ftop..Part II 105 ... ∆fpTRelease = 20.2 ksi Superstructure Design 2....outer15 = −0.Debond1 := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) C4....outer15 "OK" if σ pjTopEnd > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTopEnd ≤ fci..8 in 2 Aps..84 strands DEBOND1 Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row DEBOND1 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total beam (inches) per row MIDSPAN SUPPORT n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 11 40 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 9 9 COMMENTS 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 9 38 36 strands = Area of prestressing steel...beam "NG" otherwise where ftop..) BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotEnd ≤ fci. σ pjBotEnd = 3.2 ksi BotRelease = "OK" C3..........08 ksi σ pjBotEnd := Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg...beam = 5.... Strand Pattern definition at Debond1 Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond1 = 8 ft Rows of strand from bottom of y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c.2 ksi TopRelease = "NG" (Note : See Sect D3 ..By inspection... = Number of Input 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 5.. if the factor to account for the strand force varying up to the transfer length of the strands is applied...05 Prestressed Beam Design .Stress at bottom of beam at support. Stresses at Debond1 at Release The losses at release..........g.....76 ksi where fci..

.......beam = 5. Fpj = 1177..8 kip MRelBeamD1 Stnc Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps...............76 ksi where fci....outer15 "OK" if σ pjTop15 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≤ fci....beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci..outer15 = −0..95 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeamD1 Sbnc Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.......... Fpe = 1059...... σ pjBotBeam = 2........ σ pjTop15 = −0...Debond1 Stress at top of beam at outer 15%..nc A + S bnc nc σ pjTop15 := "OK" if σ pjTop15 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≥ ftop...3 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands.nc − Anc Stnc + Stress at bottom of beam at outer 15%...3 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps..Total jacking force of strands..beam = 5..2 ksi σ pjTop15 = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci.2 ksi BotRelease = "OK" Superstructure Design 2. fpe = 182...56 ksi σ pjTop15 := + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg..........Debond1 The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured....Part II 106 ..beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.05 Prestressed Beam Design ........

Fpj = 1239............ Strand Pattern definition at Debond2 Define the number of strands and eccentricity of strands from bottom of beam at Debond2 = 16 ft Rows of strand from bottom of Input beam (inches) y9 = y8 = y7 = y6 = y5 = y4 = y3 = y2 = y1 = Strand c...... fpe = 182.......................2 ksi Total jacking force of strands.......g..........1 in 2 Aps.70 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 11 40 All strands are active beyond this point 38 strands = Area of prestressing steel..Part II 107 ..Debond2 := strands total⋅ StrandArea ( ) C6.. ∆fpTRelease = 20...Debond2 The actual stress in strand after losses at transfer have occured.........Debond2 Stress at top of beam at outer 15%....6 kip MRelBeamD2 Stnc Fpe := fpe⋅ Aps. Aps.....C5......Debond2 = 6.......3 ksi fpe := fpj − ∆fpTRelease Calculate the stress due to prestress at the top and bottom of beam at release: Total force of strands............ Stresses at Debond2 at Release The losses at release.......3 kip Fpj := fpj⋅ Aps.. = Numbe r of strands DEBOND2 Strand Pattern Data Number of strands per row DEBOND2 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = Total per MIDSPAN SUPPORT DEBOND1 n9 = n8 = n7 = n6 = n5 = n4 = n3 = n2 = n1 = 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 11 40 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 9 9 36 0 0 0 0 0 7 11 11 9 COMMENTS 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 5......... σ pjTop15 = −0....nc A − S tnc nc Superstructure Design 2.........05 Prestressed Beam Design ......32 ksi σ pjTop15 := + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg. Fpe = 1115.........

nc + Sbnc Anc σ pjTop15 := "OK" if σ pjTop15 ≤ 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≥ ftop.Part II 108 .beam = 5. σ pjBotBeam = 2.beam = 5.beam "NG" otherwise where ftop.Stress at bottom of beam at outer 15%.2 ksi BotRelease = "OK" Superstructure Design 2.76 ksi where fci.beam "NG" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ 0⋅ ksi "NG" otherwise where fci...05 Prestressed Beam Design .outer15 "OK" if σ pjTop15 > 0 ⋅ ksi ∧ σ pjTop15 ≤ fci.88 ksi σ pjBotBeam := −M RelBeamD2 Sbnc + Fpe Fpe⋅ ecg.outer15 = −0.2 ksi σ pjTop15 = "OK" BotRelease := "OK" if σ pjBotBeam ≤ fci.

. that is the vertical component of the prestressing force..........0316 ⋅ β ⋅ fc⋅ b v⋅ dv Vs = Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot(θ ) s V p := 0 ⋅ kip Effective shear depth.D. Effective shear depth. b v := b w dv = 3. Nominal shear resistance from prestressing for straight strands (non-draped)........ so these values need to Longitudinal strain for sections with prestressing and transverse reinforcement.......72⋅ h dv := max s s 2 (Note : This location is the same location as previously estimated for ShearChk = 3........) D2... Nominal shear resistance of concrete section.. β and θ Parameters [LRFD 5........ 0............ V p .....2] Tables are give in LRFD to determine β from the longitudinal strain and be calculated.4 in or dv = 3..... Vn...... 0.25⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv The shear resistance of a concrete member may be separated into a component....... Shear Design D1... that relies on tensile stresses in the transverse reinforcement..5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps ⋅ fpo 2 ⋅ Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps ( ) Effective width.. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance The nominal shear resistance..............9 ⋅ d . V s .....8 ft where b v = 8 in Superstructure Design 2.......... Mu v f'c parameter.............4.. Nominal shear resistance of shear reinforcement section..Part II 109 .......3................. that relies on tensile stresses in the concrete......8 ft d − a . dv = 45.... V c ... and a component... shall be determined as the lesser of: V n = V c + V s + Vp V n = 0.........05 Prestressed Beam Design .. V c = 0..8 ft ...8. εx = dv + 0............ a component....

..3.. The longitudinal strain and v f'c parameter are calculated for the appropriate critical sections.. v = 0.. LRFD C5.........Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension....3..7 ⋅ fpu Superstructure Design 2.... β (Note : Values of β = 2 and θ = 45⋅ deg cannot be assumed since beam is prestressed.8...4.... fpo = 189 ksi fpo := 0. The shear stress on the concrete shall be determined as [LRFD equation 5.05 Prestressed Beam Design ........2-1 presents values of θ and β for sections with transverse reinforcement ....Part II 110 .. but is not recommended for hand calculations.2 states that data given by the table may be used over a range of values.4.8.89 ksi v := V u − φv⋅ V p φv⋅ b v⋅ dv Parameter for locked in difference in strain between prestressing tendon and concrete.) θ LRFD Table 5.. Angle of inclination for diagonal compressive stresses. Linear interpolation may be used...2.9-1]: v= V u − φ⋅ V p φ⋅ b v⋅ dv Factored shear force at the critical section V u = 291 kip Shear stress on the section.......8.

an initial assumption for θ must be made...........3⋅ deg Mu + 0..... Ltransfer = 2. εx = −1..3............. Ltransfer = 2... Mu + 0...Part II 111 ........... Factored moment on section. V u⋅ dv ( ) For the longitudinal strain calculations.....beam = 0.5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps..beam⋅ Ac + Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps....The prestressing strand force becomes effective with the transfer length..5 ft Ltransfer := 60⋅ stranddia Since the transfer length..5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps ⋅ fpo whereas ex = dv 2 ⋅ Ec⋅ Ac + Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps ( ) (Note : The non-composite area of the beam is divided by its height......... the strain needs to be recalculated as per LRFD equation 5.........2-3: Mu + 0.......................... the full force of the strands are effective...... is less than the shear check location.....8. Ac = 460.... ShearChk = 3............31 εx := dv ( ) ⋅ ( 1000) Since the strain value is negative.....5 ft ........ Area of the concrete on the tension side of the member.. M u = 1100 ft⋅ kip M u := max M r . then multiplied by one-half of the composite section height)........05 Prestressed Beam Design . εx := 2 ⋅ Ec.....8 ft ...10 v f'c parameter....5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) − Aps... from the end of the beam.....2 in 2 Anc h Ac := ⋅ hnc 2 Recalculating the strain.. θ := 23.137 Superstructure Design 2...4.Support ( dv ) ⋅ ( 1000) εx = −0........... v fc.......Support⋅ fpo 2 ⋅ Es⋅ As + Ep ⋅ Aps........Support Longitudinal strain..........Support⋅ fpo Longitudinal strain.

........620 in 2 Area of shear reinforcement..............4..0316⋅ β ⋅ fc..2 in sreq := if V s ≤ 0 ....05 Prestressed Beam Design ............ Diameter of shear reinforcement.... bar := "5" Av = 0........0316 ⋅ b v⋅ fc..... Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) Vs Minimum transverse reinforcement required................. sreq ( ) Superstructure Design 2.... 0........beam⋅ ksi⋅ bv⋅ dv Stirrups Size of stirrup bar ( "4" "5" "6" )................... smin ....8 kip V s := V n − V c − V p Spacing of stirrups Minimum transverse reinforcement... V n = 323.......7 in smin := Av⋅ fy 0.2 in s := min smin ...........3.......6 kip V c := 0.................Based on LRFD Table 5. s = 16........8. V s = 241..... dia = 0...... sreq = 16....3 kip V n := min Vu φv . smin = 57..........25⋅ fc.........Part II 112 ....625 in Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement Vn = Vc + Vp + Vs where........beam⋅ ksi Transverse reinforcement required.... V c = 81.....beam⋅ b v⋅ dv + V p and...2-1. the values of θ and β can be approximately taken as: Angle of inclination of compression stresses θ = 23............................3 deg Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the shear capacity of concrete β := 2.......79 Nominal shear resistance of concrete section................

125⋅ fc.Maximum transverse reinforcement smax := if V u − φv⋅ V p < 0.Support⋅ fpe LRFD 5.5 := "Ok........ s ....... spacing = 12.....4 ⋅ dv ..Part II 113 .. previously computed for positive moment design.. min( 0...........05 Prestressed Beam Design ............... longitudinal reinforcement shall be proportioned so that at each section the tensile capacity of the reinforcement on the flexural tension side of the member.. 12⋅ in) φv⋅ (b v⋅ dv) smax = 12 in Spacing of transverse reinforcement cannot exceed the following spacing... smax ( ) D3.... General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement T= Mu dv⋅ φb + Vu − 0. Longitudinal Reinforcement For sections not subjected to torsion... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5...........5 in 2 Equivalent force provided by this steel. positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" At the support location Superstructure Design 2..... TpsShearChk = 1004 kip TpsShearChk := Aps.... V s = 323.8.......3..5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv At the shear check location Longitudinal reinforcement.. Aps....Support = 5.3.7 kip T := Vu − 0..beam ...5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv V s := min Mu dv⋅ φ where...8....3 kip Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u .. positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TpsShearChk ≥ T "NG. T = 698.. 24⋅ in) ..0 in spacing := if smax > s . spacing φv + and..... taking into account any lack of full development of that reinforcement... min(0.8 ⋅ dv .5 = "Ok..............

**General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement
**

T= Mu dv⋅ φb +

Vu − 0.5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv

V s := min

where Mu = 0 ⋅ ft⋅ kip

where.............................................

V s = 326.5 kip

Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u.Support , spacing φv

and.................................................

T = 431.3 kip

T :=

V u.Support − 0.5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot(θ ) φv

In determining the tensile force that the reinforcement is expected to resist at the inside edge of the bearing area, the values calculated at dv = 3.8 ft from the face of the support may be used. Note that the force is greater due to the contribution of the moment at dv. For this example, the actual values at the face of the support will be used. Longitudinal reinforcement, previously computed for positive moment design.......

Aps.Support = 5.5 in

2

The prestressing strand force is not all effective at the support area due to the transfer length required to go from zero force to maximum force. A factor will be applied that takes this into account. Transfer length...................................... Distance from center line of bearing to end of beam.......................................... Estimated length of bearing pad...............

Ltransfer = 30 in J = 6 in Lpad := 12⋅ in (Note ! - this dimension needs to be increased since the edge of pad should be about 1-1/2" from the edge of the beam. Override and use the following: J := 8.5 ⋅ in ) Lpad 2

**Determine the force effective at the inside edge of the bearing area.
**

J+ Factor :=

**Factor to account for effective force........
**

Factor = 0.5

Ltransfer

**Equivalent force provided by this steel......
**

TpsSupport = 485.3 kip LRFD 5.8.3.5 :=

TpsSupport := Aps.Support ⋅ fpe⋅ Factor

"Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TpsSupport ≥ T "NG, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise

LRFD 5.8.3.5 = "Ok, positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate"

Superstructure Design

2.05 Prestressed Beam Design - Part II

114

(Note : The location of the bearing pad had to be moved in order to satisfy this criteria. It will now provide 2-1/2" from the edge of the pad to the end of the beam. The engineer needs to assure that this is properly detailed and adhered to in the plans).

Several important design checks were not performed in this design example (to reduce the length of calculations). However, the engineer should assure that the following has been done at a minimum: • • • Design for interface steel Design for anchorage steel Design for camber • • Design check for beam transportation loads Design for fatigue checks when applicable

E. Summary

Defined Units

Superstructure Design

2.05 Prestressed Beam Design - Part II

115

SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN

Empirical Deck Design

References

Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\203LLs.mcd(R)

Description

This section provides the criteria for the empirical deck design. This section does not include the overhang design.

Page

117

Contents

A. Design Parameters A1. Concrete Deck Slabs - Empirical Design [SDG 4.2.4 A] A2. Deck Slab Design [SDG 4.2.4] A3. Skewed Decks A4. Proposed Reinforcing Details

119

B. Empirical Deck Design Conditions [LRFD 9.7.2] B1. Conditions B2. Summary

Superstructure Design

2.06 Empirical Deck Design

116

A. Design Parameters

A1. Concrete Deck Slabs - Empirical Design [SDG 4.2.4 A]

Reinforcement Requirements [SDG 4.2.4] supercede [LRFD 9.7.2.5]

**A2. Deck Slab Design [SDG 4.2.4]
**

Top and bottom reinforcement for deck slab "Use #5 bars @ 12 inch spacing in both directions" Additional top reinforcement for overhang "Use 2-#5 bars @ 4 inch spacing"

**A3. Skewed Decks
**

The skew influences the amount of reinforcement

Skew = −30 deg

Transverse steel "Perpendicular to CL of span " Top reinforcement for deck slab along skew "Use 3 #5 bars @ 6 inch spacing" Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement for deck slab at skew "Use #5 bars @ 6 inch spacing, BeamSpacing distance"

A4. Proposed Reinforcing Details

Superstructure Design

2.06 Empirical Deck Design

117

Superstructure Design

2.06 Empirical Deck Design

118

**B. Empirical Deck Design Conditions [LRFD 9.7.2]
**

B1. Conditions

The empirical deck design may be used if the following conditions are satisfied. The conditions are "TRUE" , "FALSE" , or "NA" . Cross-frames or diaphragms are used at the supports...................................................... This condition applies to cross-sections with torsionally stiff units, such as individual, separated box beams, therefore not applicable for prestressed beams................................... The supporting components are made of steel and/or concrete............................................

Condition := "TRUE" 0

Condition := "NA" 1 Condition := "TRUE" 2 Condition := "TRUE" 3

The deck is fully cast-in-place and water cured..........................................................

The deck has a uniform depth, except for haunches at beam flanges and other local thickening.................................................... The ratio of effective length to design depth is between 6.0 and 18.0................................... Condition = "TRUE"

5

Condition := "TRUE" 4

Ratio :=

( Slabeff.Length)

t slab

(Note : #5 Internally answered)

Ratio = 10.25 t core = 4.0 in

**Core depth of the slab is not less than 4.0 in....
**

Condition = "TRUE" 6

(Note : #6 Internally answered)

**The effective slab length does not exceed 13.5 ft................................................................ Condition = "TRUE"
**

7

Slabeff.Length = 6.833 ft

(Note : #7 Internally answered)

**The minimum slab depth is not less than 7.0 in, excluding a sacrificial wearing surface............ Condition = "TRUE"
**

8

t slab = 8 in

(Note : #8 Internally answered)

Superstructure Design

2.06 Empirical Deck Design

119

If all the conditions are not satisfied. deck has uniform depth. core depth of slab is not less than 4 in" "Yes. steel girders or concrete beams are used" "Yes. then the deck slab shall be designed by the traditional deck design... then the reinforcing in Section A2 is applicable. EmpiricalDesignSummary = "Yes.The slab overhang beyond the centerline of the outside girder is at least 5. minimum slab depth is not less than 7 ft" "Yes.0 times the slab depth. so the traditional deck design is used for all deck overhang designs. overhang is at least 5 times the depth of slab" "Yes.. the empirical deck design is not applicable... 28-day compressive strength of concrete is not less than 4 ksi" "Yes.. stirrups extending into the deck is sufficient to satisfy this requirement.slab = 4.....5 ksi (Note : #10 Internally answered) The deck is made composite with the supporting structural components. For concrete beams... except for haunches" "Yes.. Summary If all the above conditions are satisfied. This condition is also satisfied if the overhang is at least 3. Condition := "TRUE" 11 B2. intermediate diaphragms or supplemental reinforcement are provided" "Yes. deck is CIP and/or water cured" "Yes. effective length to depth criteria is satisfied" "Yes...0 times the slab depth and a structurally continuous concrete barrier is made composite with the overhang.5 ft" "Yes.... deck is composite with supporting structural members" Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.. crossframes or diaphragms are used at supports" "Yes. For deck overhangs..06 Empirical Deck Design 120 .. Condition = "TRUE" 10 fc..0 ksi.. Condition = "TRUE" 9 (Note : #9 Internally answered) The specified 28-day compressive strength of the deck concrete is not less than 4... effective slab length does not exceed 13.. for box girders.

07 Traditional Deck Design 121 .7. Page 122 122 123 124 Contents LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria A. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Input Variables B. Width of Equivalent Interior Strips B2. Summary of Reinforcement Provided and Comparison with Empirical Design Superstructure Design 2.3.Decks [LRFD 4.2] C7.6.7.3. Positive Moment Region Design .Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. HL-93 Live Load B3.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Traditional Deck Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\206DeckEmp. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.3.3.2] C2. Dead Load Design Moments B4.mcd(R) Description This section provides the criteria for the traditional deck design.10.7. Design Moment Summary and Limit State Combinations: 130 C. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 9.2] C6. Negative Moment Region Design .7.2] C3.4] C5.8.2] B1. Moment Design C1. Approximate Methods of Analysis .7.3] C4.

.75⋅ LL SERVICE I - Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.4] This section is not applicable for Florida designs..6.. Strength1 = 1.. FR = 0 TU .. BeamSpacing distance" Superstructure Design 2.Deck Overhang Load [LRFD 3..3........1-1 in Appendix 4 may be used to determine the design live load moments..... WL = 0 For superstructure design.. Top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement for deck slab at skew. creep.....6. "Perpendicular to CL of span " "Use 3 #5 bars @ 6 inch spacing" "Use #5 bars @ 6 inch spacing... shrinkage are generally ignored.. braking forces.. Uniform temperature..... WA .Application of Design Vehicular Live Loads . Top reinforcement for deck slab along skew.... water load / stream pressure and friction forces are not applicable........11 ] Transverse steel......0 ⋅ DW + 1........ wind on structure and wind on live load are not applicable..25⋅ DC + 1.0 ⋅ LL FATIGUE - Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck..1] Deck Slab Design Table [LRFD Appendix A4] Table A4. FR = 0 For superstructure design..LRFD Criteria Live Loads ... BR ...2... SH ...1... WS ...........0 ⋅ DC + 1..Approximate Methods of Analysis ... Service1 = 1.......Decks [LRFD 4..........07 Traditional Deck Design 122 ........ since the barriers are not designed as structurally continuous and composite with the deck slab.. "Not applicable for deck slabs on multi-beam bridges" FDOT Criteria Skewed Decks [SDG 4...... STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind........2.50⋅ DW + 1.... CR .. Static Analysis .

.............................................. Input Variables Bridge design span length............. Deck overhang........ Bridge skew....................33 Skew = −30 deg Superstructure Design 2.........A..................................542 ft IM = 1............................................. hbuildup = 1 in b tf = 20 in t slab = 8 in t mill = 0 in Overhang = 4. Beam top flange width......07 Traditional Deck Design 123 . Beam Spacing..................................................... Thickness of deck slab...................... Milling surface thickness............................................. Number of beams.. Lspan = 90 ft N beams = 11 BeamSpacing = 8 ft S := BeamSpacing Average Buildup.... Dynamic Load Allowance....................

.Decks [LRFD 4. Approximate Methods of Analysis ... Superstructure Design 2........... The equivalent strips account for the longitudinal distribution of LRFD wheel loads and are not subject to width limitations..........2] B1.................. Live Loads for Equivalent Strips All HL-93 wheel loads shall be applied to the equivalent strip of deck width. Epos = 78................8 in 26 + 6..B...0 in 48 + 3.6.6 ⋅ Epos := S ft ⋅ in Width of equivalent strip for negative moment.5 times the spacing in the primary direction (transverse to beams). since typical AASHTO beam bridges do not have any transverse beams........... Eneg = 72.......... Width of Equivalent Interior Strips The deck is designed using equivalent strips of deck width...... The width in the transverse direction is calculated for both positive and negative moments. since the spacing of supporting components in the secondary direction (longitudinal to beams) exceeds 1.07 Traditional Deck Design 124 ....... Width of equivalent strip for positive moment......0 ⋅ Eneg := S ft ⋅ in The equivalent strips can be modeled as continuous beams on rigid supports... B2.

......HL-93 wheel load....strip = 0.......... P := 16kip HL-93 wheel load for negative moment.7 in 1 Loc negative := min 3 ⋅ b tf ........0 ft. Pneg = 6... Loc negative = 6....2.. For distances between the listed values.. The moments are applicable for decks supported by at least three beams with a width between the centerlines of the exterior beams of not less than 14.07 Traditional Deck Design 125 ............. 15⋅ in HL-93 Live Load Design Moments Instead of performing a continuous beam analysis.6).. A minimum and maximum total overhang width from the center of the exterior girder are evaluated..7 klf P Ppos := ⋅ ( 1 + IM) Epos HL-93 lane load. Ppos = 5.strip := wlane 10 Location of Negative Live Load Design Moment The negative live load design moment is taken at a distance from the supports.64⋅ klf The lane load is applied over a 10 ft width for positive and negative moment............ The values are calculated according to the location of the design section for negative moments in the deck (LRFD 4. and the maximum is the smaller of ( 0...625⋅ BeamSpacing) and 6 ft....... Table A4......... wlane := 0.6.1..... Superstructure Design 2....1-1 in Appendix 4 may be used to determine the live load design moments...2 klf P Pneg := ⋅ ( 1 + IM) Eneg HL-93 wheel load for positive moment.064 klf wlane.. Multiple presence factors and dynamic load allowance are included. The values represent the upper bound for moments in the interior regions of the slab... wlane...... interpolation may be used...... The following assumptions and limitations should be considered when using these moments: • • • • • • The moments are calculated by applying the equivalent strip method to concrete slabs supported on parallel beams.. The minimum is 21 in..

.4.07 Traditional Deck Design 126 ...pos := 5.....81⋅ (ft⋅ kip ) (Note : Interpolated value) Superstructure Design 2. The moments do not apply to deck overhangs.. • For this example. which need to be designed according to the provisions of LRFD A13..1.......neg = 4.... Florida utilizes a railing width of 18.7 in Positive Live Load Design Moment....... M LL.. M LL. BeamSpacing = 8 ft Loc negative = 6.69⋅ ft⋅ kip Negative Live Load Design Moment.62 ft⋅ kip M LL.....5 in........ is used to determine the clear overhang width...98⋅ ft⋅ kip − 4..• A railing barrier width of 21...neg := ( 6... The difference in moments from the diifferent railing width is expected to be within acceptable limits for practical design....7in − 6 ⋅ in) ⋅ ( 3..0 in..81⋅ ft⋅ kip ) ( 9 ⋅ in − 6 ⋅ in) + 4........

.......... Pbarrier = 0..07 Traditional Deck Design 127 ............ Pmedian. kip wslab = 0.............. Superstructure Design 2.........barrier = 0.4 kip Pbarrier := wbarrier⋅ b slab Weight of median barrier..barrier := wmedian................100 ft wslab := ( tslab + tmill)⋅ b slab ⋅ γconc Weight of traffic barriers... wfws = 0.. Larsa was used to determine the dead load design moments for both the DC and DW loads....... Dead Load Design Moments Design width of deck slab....5 kip Pmedian...bar⋅ b slab "DW" loads include the dead load of a future wearing surface and utilities Weight of Future Wearing Surface. For this example.....B3. b slab := 1ft "DC" loads include the dead load of structural components and non-structural attachments Self-weight of deck slab.....015 klf wfws := ρ fws⋅ b slab Analysis Model for Dead Loads Any plane frame program can be utilized to develop the moments induced by the dead loads.

.08 -0......52⋅ kip ⋅ ft M DC....34 0...68 -0......28 -0.50 -0.neg := 0. M DW. Since the overhang is designed separately..43 4 0.pos := 0.04 3 0..03 0...neg := 0........47 -0..52 0........ this moment is due to the overhang..31 Right -2..04 -0..05 -0..05 -2..04 Design Moments for DW Loads Negative Moment (k-ft) Center Left -0...... the overhang moments are not considered here. which typically has more negative moment steel requirements than the interior regions of the deck.....05 -0.21 -0..73 -2... Negative moment.... For the interior regions.............08 -0.04 2 0....05 -0..pos := 0....05 -0.05⋅ kip ⋅ ft Superstructure Design 2. Positive moment. Negative moment.....04 4 0.....05 -0.05 The DW moments are approximately constant for the negative and positive design moments.07 -0......26 2 0.04 3 0..........18 -0.Design Moments for DC Loads Positive Negative Moment (k-ft) Beam / Span Moment (k-ft) Center Left 1 0....05 Right -0.. However....08 -0..47⋅ kip ⋅ ft Positive Beam / Span Moment (k-ft) 1 0..........04⋅ kip ⋅ ft M DW. the positive moment in Span 2 and the negative moment to the right of beam 3 govern...30 The governing negative design moment for DC loads occurs at beam 1..07 Traditional Deck Design 128 .. Positive moment. M DC.

.....pos + 1..neg Superstructure Design 2.....50⋅ M DW.pos Negative Strength I Moment.pos + 1.. Limit State Moments The service and strength limit states are used to design the section Service I Limit State Positive Service I Moment.7 kip ⋅ ft M strengthI... M strengthI.3 kip ⋅ ft M serviceI........B4.neg + MLL....pos + M LL...pos Negative Service I Moment...neg = 5........07 Traditional Deck Design 129 . M strengthI..50⋅ M DW.......... M serviceI...7 kip ⋅ ft M strengthI.pos = 10......pos + M DW.....pos := 1......neg + 1..pos := MDC...neg := M DC...1 kip ⋅ ft M serviceI.neg Strength I Limit State Positive Strength I Moment.25M DC. M serviceI...neg + MDW.75⋅ MLL........25MDC...neg + 1.75⋅ MLL....neg := 1..pos = 6..neg = 8...

.pos ⋅ fy 2 0.... minimum reinforcement...5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. This pattern places the top and bottom bars in the same grid pattern. M r := MstrengthI... Positive Moment Region Design ..slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ where t slab = h b = 12 in Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar.7...... The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions...... shrinkage and temperature reinforcement....pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds − As.. bar := "5" spacingpos := 8 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2...... then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control....85⋅ fc..... the top and bottom reinforcement should be spaced as a multiple of each other......... and distribution of reinforcement..C. Proposed bar spacing.9 t slab = 8 in b := bslab M r = φ⋅ As.slab = 4.......85⋅ f'c⋅ b Using variables defined in this example.pos fc.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. Moment Design A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction. maximum reinforcement. • • The same size and spacing of reinforcing should be utilized for both the negative and positive moment regions..2] Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0........ C1... The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment.3.. and any additional steel is placed between these bars.85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 ( ) Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 where a= As⋅ fy 0..07 Traditional Deck Design 130 . If this arrangement is not possible..

....310 in dia = 0.....310 in dia = 0.........reqd ......................625 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab............pos := spacingpos Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel....Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5... Proposed bar spacing... As.85⋅ fc..2] Variables: M r := MstrengthI.. decrease the spacing of the reinforcement.................5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0.47 in ........ As..........pos is greater than As.....pos = 0...... 2 As.........7 in dia ds := t slab − cover deck − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required..slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ Reinforcing steel required..slab = 4....Bar area...pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds − As..... ds = 5............neg fc.......... should be greater than the area of steel required......reqd := Find As........reqd = 0.... Bar diameter... Negative Moment Region Design ...........7....pos ( ) As.......................... Given M r = φ⋅ As...3..........44 in ....625 in 2 Superstructure Design 2...................07 Traditional Deck Design 131 ..... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments........ As...............47 in 2 Abar ⋅ 1 ft As................reqd = 0. Bar area.... Once As. bar = "5" spacingneg := 10⋅ in Abar = 0... Bar diameter.pos ⋅ fy 2 0......44 in 2 The area of steel provided.. If not.pos = 0...........9 t slab = 8 in b := bslab b = 12 in t slab = h Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar... Abar = 0........ 2 C2.......

...7 in dia ds := t slab − cover deck − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required.reqd .....6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) Crack width parameter 3 "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter. a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement. The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5.37 in . should be greater than the area of steel required. As......... For this example.3.... Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in aggressive environment Superstructure Design 2..slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ Reinforcing steel required....... The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths..... Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state fsa = z 1 ≤ 0.neg ( ) As.... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Given M r = φ⋅ As.... As..reqd := Find As...... Once As..neg = 0... Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. As...neg is greater than As..neg = 0..reqd = 0...... If not... ds = 5...4)..37 in 2 Abar ⋅ 1 ft As.Area of steel provided per foot of slab..........36 in ..7...7..neg := spacingneg Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel.4] Concrete is subjected to cracking.36 in 2 2 The area of steel provided..3..85⋅ fc..neg⋅ fy 2 0..reqd = 0..neg⋅ fy⋅ ds − As......07 Traditional Deck Design 132 . C3. 2 As.. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure. the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments..

pos Superstructure Design 2..........5 Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement... 2 ⋅ in + 2 b nbar := spacingpos Number of bars per design width of slab....07 Traditional Deck Design 133 ...0 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement... A = 37...6 ⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec. adjust x = 1.... fsa = 36.....pos ⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 1..3 ksi Ts fs... Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.....0 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) ..313 in dia dc := min tslab − ds ........ so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.....6 ⋅ fy Service limit state stress in reinforcement... fs....6 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x ..).. ......actual = 31.................. 0..pos xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment..... nbar = 1....6 in to equal xna = 1. Ts = 14. If the values are not equal.......572 kip Ts := MserviceI. This process is iterative....6 in. dc = 2........ x := 1........Positive Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.......slab ⋅ As.actual := As........

...... nbar = 1..neg⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 1. Ts = 11.... 2 ⋅ in + 2 b nbar := spacingneg Number of bars per design width of slab.. fsa = 35...... crack control for +M not satisfied.......8 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c .3.slab ⋅ As...... adjust x = 1..........5 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x ..2 Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement... This process is iterative.. dc = 2... crack control for +M is satisfied" Negative Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in...actual ≤ fsa "NG....4a = "OK.. x := 1.........863 kip Ts := MserviceI..3.neg xna ds − 3 Superstructure Design 2.3...313 in dia dc := min tslab − ds .7..3 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) Service limit state stress in reinforcement..07 Traditional Deck Design 134 ..4a := "OK... LRFD 5.....).. A = 46... ..5 in to equal xna = 1.... crack control for +M is satisfied" if fs.. so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.5 in....... provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5. If the values are not equal.6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement......The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment.3. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.. 0.7..........5 ⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec.

.... The greater reinforcement from the positive and negative moment sections is checked.actual ≤ fsa "NG. β 1 = 0. provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5.85 − 0.7...... 0..3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced... c = 0...........pos ...7....... crack control for -M is satisfied" C4..3.07 Traditional Deck Design 135 .. de = 5.3.........7... crack control for -M is satisfied" if fs..9 ksi Ts fs.05⋅ fc... As = 0. fs.3.......... As..3........ Area of steel provided.....47 in 2 As := max As..4b = "OK... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement........4b := "OK...42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment..825 β 1 := max0. LRFD 5.65 1000⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section.........actual = 31.... crack control for -M not satisfied..actual := As........ de = As⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps⋅ fps + As⋅ fy de := ds Simplifying for this example.......slab − 4000⋅ psi .7 in Ratio for maximum reinforcement check c de = 0..85⋅ fc.. Superstructure Design 2.7 in c := As⋅ fy 0.neg ( ) Stress block factor.neg The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment.13 The c de ratio should be less than 0.......3...

7...............27 in 2 Amin := φ As⋅ fy 1 fy⋅ ds − 2 0.3.1 = "OK..85⋅ fc.......... maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" if "NG..... maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1... S = 128..... spacing = 10 in spacing := max spacingpos ....0 in 4 1 3 Islab := ⋅ b ⋅ tslab 12 Section modulus..0 in y := tslab 2 Moment of inertia for the section........ M cr = 5.... so redesign!" otherwise c de ≤ 0...4 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S 1....... spacingneg ( ) Superstructure Design 2.........8 in spacingmax := b As..................... Amin = 0....1 := "OK.......3.........req := min As⋅ 133⋅ % ................. Islab = 512....2⋅ M cr Minimum reinforcement required...LRFD 5...req A bar Greater bar spacing from positive and negative moment section..1 psi fr := 0. section is over reinforced.. As...req = 0. y = 4........ fr = 509.2 times greater than the cracking moment..............3...............0 in 3 S := Islab y Cracking moment..........slab⋅ ksi Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to the neutral axis of the composite section.42 LRFD 5..07 Traditional Deck Design 136 ..slab⋅ b Required area of steel for minimum reinforcement should not be less than As⋅ 133% or Amin ................. Amin ( ) Maximum bar spacing for mimimum reinforcement...... spacingmax = 13....3..... Modulus of Rupture........27 in 2 As..7...........24⋅ fc....

st := 12⋅ in Abar = 0.... since the effective strip is perpendicular to traffic.. Bar diameter.....................8 := "OK........10.... minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" C5..................... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5..... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5.... Superstructure Design 2. minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" if spacing ≤ spacingmax "NG.8..8 = "OK.... spacingST = 18. 18⋅ in The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5.............. 3 ⋅ tslab ..3.7.....18 in 2 AST := 0.............31 in dia = 0....3. Bar spacing......... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if spacing ≤ spacingST "NG...........3...... This reinforcement is placed in the bottom of the deck slab as a percentage of the primary reinforcement.........7....7..... so redesign!" otherwise LRFD 5........2] The primary reinforcement is placed perpendicular to traffic.... Reinforcement shall also be placed in the secondary direction (parallel to traffic) for load distribution purposes.....10. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" C6..10....11⋅ ksi⋅ Ag fy Maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement....625 in Ag := bslab⋅ tslab 2 Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 9. Ag = 96..2 = "OK..07 Traditional Deck Design 137 ... Gross area of section......7..3... section is under-reinforced..0 in 2 barst := "5" barspa........3......0 in spacingST := min b AST Abar .7..... Bar area..2 := "OK....... AST = 0.2] Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" )..............The bar spacing should be less than the maximum bar spacing for minimum reinforcement LRFD 5.....

....7..... bardist := "5" barspa.. MaxSpacing DistR = 11......07 Traditional Deck Design 138 . Bar area..... Bar spacing....Distribution reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" ).............67 %Asteel := min 220 Slabeff..31 in 2 As... %Asteel = 0............ Bar diameter..............7.3....Length := BeamSpacing − b w − b tf − b w ⋅ 0.......3. As.2 := "OK........31 in dia = 0...DistR := As..7...................5 ( ) ( ) The area for secondary reinforcement should not exceed 67% of the area for primary reinforcement...2 = "OK...Length ft % .....9 in MaxSpacing DistR := b As.......DistR A bar The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement LRFD 9............... distribution reinforcement requirements" if barspa....pos ⋅ %Asteel Maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement..............dist := 10⋅ in Abar = 0.........DistR = 0.. distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise LRFD 9.........................833 ft Slabeff.....................3) is the distance between the flange tips plus the flange overhang.................Length = 6.......... Slabeff.dist ≤ MaxSpacingDistR "NG...2........... distribution reinforcement requirements" Superstructure Design 2..625 in 2 The effective span length (LRFD 9................. 67% Required area for secondary reinforcement.........

37 0.dist = 10.24 0% #5 @12" #5 @10" 0.31 1.10. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing Bar size bardist = "5" Bottom spacing barspa.0 in LRFD 5.31 0.2 = "OK.37 1.31 0.3. Therefore.46 Area Bar size & Area Bar size & Provided / ft spacing Required /ft spacing (in2) required (in2) Main Tranverse Reinforcing Top (transverse) Bottom (transverse) Shrinkage and Temperature Top (longitudinal) Distribution Steel Bottom (longitidinal) Comparison (reinforcing area per sf of slab) Ratios (Percentage) Defined Units #5 @12" #5 @12" 0. reinforcing at top and bottom of the slab are kept at the same spacing (reduces field errors in placement).66 34% Superstructure Design 2.0 in LRFD 9.st = 12.46 0.0 in Bottom spacing spacingpos = 8.C7. distribution reinforcement requirements" A comparison per square foot of deck slab shows that the traditional design method requires about 22% more reinforcement than what is provided with the empirical design method.31 0.31 #5 @ 10" #5 @ 8" 0. the actual increase in the reinforcing versus the empirical design is about 34% for this design example.37 0. Summary of Reinforcement Provided and Comparison with Empirical Design Transverse reinforcing Bar size Top spacing bar = "5" spacingneg = 10.7.51 22% #5 @10" #5 @10" 0.8 = "OK. in order to improve constructability.07 Traditional Deck Design 139 .7.46 #5 @12" #5 @12" 0.37 1.0 in Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing Bar size barst = "5" Bottom spacing barspa. Deck Slab Design Comparison Empirical Design Traditional Design Bar size & spacing provided #5 @ 8" #5 @ 8" Area Provided / ft (in2) 0. However.

7. Live Load Design Moment B3.7.2] C2.08 Deck Overhang Design 140 . Summary Superstructure Design 2. Negative Moment Region Design . Limit State Moments 146 C. Moment Design C1. Page 141 141 142 143 Contents LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria A.mcd(R) Description This section provides the overhang deck design.3. Width of Equivalent Strip B2.3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Input Variables B.10. Dead Load Design Moments B4.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Deck Overhang Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\207DeckTra.3] C4.2] C5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3.7.4] C3. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Strength Limit State Design B1.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.8.

6.Decks [LRFD 4.Overhang.7] All new traffic railing barriers shall satisfy LRFD Chapter 13. Static Analysis .2] The empirical deck design shall not be applied to overhangs.2.4] FDOT Criteria Deck Slab Design [SDG 4.Equivalent line load.7. Deck slab designed by the empirical design method As.6.80⋅ in 2 per foot of overhang slab In this example.Transverse and longitudinal vehicular collision forces. The design method used for the deck slab influences the minimum reinforcement.Overhang.Approximate Methods of Analysis .Deck Overhang Load [LRFD 3.2.TL4 := As.Application of Design Vehicular Live Loads .2.1. The deck overhangs are designed for three limit state conditions: • • • Extreme event limit state .92⋅ in per foot of overhang slab 2 Deck slab designed by the traditional design method: As.1] Empirical Design . Extreme event limit state .Overhang.Traffic Railings [SDG 6.Vertical collision forces Strength limit state . (The traditional design method was presented only for comparison purposes. Railings [LRFD Chapter 13] Deck Overhang Design [LRFD A13.92 in per foot of overhang slab 2 Superstructure Components .General .4] This section is not applicable for Florida designs.LRFD Criteria Live Loads .4] The deck overhang shall be designed using the traditional design method.08 Deck Overhang Design 141 . Superstructure Design 2. TL-4 criteria.3. DL + LL The extreme event limit states can be satisfied by providing a minimum area of reinforcement in the deck overhang.Application [LRFD 9.Traditional := 0.) As.Empirical := 0.Empirical As.TL4 = 0. since the barriers are not designed as structurally continuous and composite with the deck slab. the deck is designed using the empirical design method.

.........A........ Superstructure Design 2.................................. Input Variables Beam top flange width............ Dynamic load allowance......................................08 Deck Overhang Design 142 ...33 Proposed reinforcement detail... Thickness of slab.................... Deck overhang................... Milling surface thickness....5417 ft IM = 1... b tf = 20 in t slab = 8 in t mill = 0 in Overhang = 4........................

................... HL-93 wheel load.........0⋅ X ft ⋅ in B2.. Live Load Design Moment The live load design moment for the deck overhang is calculated using the LRFD HL-93 truck load and lane load..... Strength Limit State Design B1.......... Width of Equivalent Strip The overhang section is designed using equivalent strips of deck width. Eoverhang = 59.............. the distance from the wheel load to the location of the negative live load moment must be determined... To calculate the equivalent width.............. HL-93 wheel load for the overhang moment.... A one foot strip is utilized in the calculations..0 + 10.... Distance from center of exterior beam to location of overhang design moment.....08 Deck Overhang Design 143 .... Loc negative = 6..3 kip P = 16 kip P Poverhang := ⋅ ( IM) ⋅ ( 1 ⋅ ft) Eoverhang Superstructure Design 2......4 in Eoverhang := 45....B................. The strip is perpendicular to traffic and accounts for the longitudinal distribution of LRFD wheel loads.... X = 1.......5417 ⋅ ft − 1 ⋅ ft − Locnegative Equivalent width of primary strip for overhang................. Poverhang = 4..7 in 1 ⋅ b ................444 ft X := Overhang − 1....... 15⋅ in Loc negative = min 3 tf Distance from wheel load to location of overhang design moment.....

...0 ft X overhang := Overhang − Loc negative Self-weight of deck overhang............. b overhang := 1ft DC Loads Moment induced by self-weight of deck overhang Moment arm for overhang.... Design width of deck overhang...............overhang⋅ X LL 2 2 B3.......................... X overhang = 4............... X LL = 2...........4 kip ⋅ ft M LL := Poverhang⋅ X + wlane...........overhang = 0... kip woverhang = 0...... Lane load for the overhang moment.......08 Deck Overhang Design 144 ............5417 ⋅ ft 3 Barrier load......4 kip Pbarrier := wbarrier⋅ b overhang Moment.......... wlane....100 ft woverhang := ( t slab + t mill) ⋅ b overhang ⋅ γ conc 2 Moment................... M barrier = 1.......064 klf wlane = 0....... Dead Load Design Moments DC and DW dead loads are used for design................HL-93 lane load.................. Pbarrier = 0....4 ft X LL := X + 1 ⋅ ft Live load design moment for deck overhang....... M overhang = 0....64 klf wlane.........8 ft⋅ kip M overhang := woverhang⋅ X overhang 2 Moment induced by barrier load Moment arm for barrier... DC loads include the dead load of structural components and non-structural attachments................ M LL = 6........................................... X barrier = 3...5 ft X barrier := Overhang − Locnegative − 1..........5 ft⋅ kip M barrier := Pbarrier⋅ X barrier Superstructure Design 2.overhang := wlane 10 Moment arm for lane..... DW loads include the dead load of a future wearing surface and utilities...........

............3 kip ⋅ ft M DC := M overhang + Mbarrier DW Loads Moment induced by future wearing surface Moment arm for future wearing surface............. M DW = 0.... Service I Limit State Overhang Service I Moment.......................50⋅ MDW + 1.................1 kip ⋅ ft M strengthI := 1..015 ft kip wfws := ρ fws⋅ b overhang wfws⋅ X fws 2 2 Moment....... X fws = 2.... M strengthI = 14..... wfws = 0..................04 ft⋅ kip M fws := Moment induced by DW loads.........25MDC + 1.....4 ft X fws := Overhang − Locnegative − 1...5417⋅ ft Self-weight of future wearing surface... Limit State Moments The service and strength limit state moments are used to design the section.08 Deck Overhang Design 145 ..7 kip ⋅ ft M serviceI := M DC + M DW + M LL Strength I Limit State Overhang Strength I Moment. M serviceI = 8......75⋅ MLL Superstructure Design 2.Moment induced by DC loads................ M fws = 0................. M DC = 2..04 kip ⋅ ft M DW := Mfws B4...

.9 t slab = 8 in b = 12 in b := bslab t slab = h Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5...85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 ( ) Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0...... bar = "5" spacing := 4 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2.3..85⋅ f'c⋅ b Using variables defined in this example.08 Deck Overhang Design 146 . and shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0...........TL4 = 0...........slab = 4...C. Negative Moment Region Design .. Proposed bar spacing..7.. M r := MstrengthI fc........ maximum reinforcement. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control. The reinforcement must satisfy requirements for the extreme event limit states and the strength limit state........ C1. minimum reinforcement.......2] Reinforcement required for the extreme event limit states As.92 in per foot of deck overhang 2 Reinforcement Required for Strength Limit State Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0...... Moment Design The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment..

..........59 in 2 2 The area of steel provided......08 Deck Overhang Design 147 .overhang = 0..... should be greater than the area of steel required for the strength limit state... ds = 5.... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement..... As.. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state fsa = z 1 ≤ 0..... As.3. Abar = 0.....59 in .......6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) Crack width parameter 3 "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter.reqd = 0. AND the extreme event limit state. Given M r = φ⋅ As. Bar diameter.. Once As............ The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments..7.625 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.... a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".overhang⋅ fy⋅ ds − As.slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ Reinforcing area required.....92 in ...7 in dia ds := t slab − cover deck − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required....overhang := spacing Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel....4).....TL4 = 0.310 in dia = 0..overhang⋅ fy 2 0. Superstructure Design 2..Bar area. As.overhang = 0....overhang is greater than the limit state requirements....... The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5...............93 in .......overhang ( ) As... For this example....reqd := Find As.. 2 2 C2......4] Concrete is subjected to cracking.......... As.. As..93 in 2 Abar⋅ 1 ft As.85⋅ fc... Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5..........reqd = 0.........7... Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure... If not..3....

..1 in to equal xna = 2.overhang⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 2.1 ⋅ in 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec. ......1 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x . This process is iterative....overhang Superstructure Design 2.... fsa = 36.. Ts = 20. If the values are not equal.. 0........5 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) Service limit state stress in reinforcement....... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made...)..... adjust x = 2.........08 Deck Overhang Design 148 .slab ⋅ As.........actual = 22..6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement........ 2 ⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of slab..6 ksi Ts fs..984 kip Ts := MserviceI xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.actual := As........... dc = 2........ fs........ A = 18...... nbar = 3 b nbar := spacing Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement.....0 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c . Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.......Environmentsuper = "Slightly" kip z := 170⋅ in aggressive environment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.........313 in dia dc := min tslab − ds .... x := 2.........1 in.

825 β 1 := max0..... LRFD 5..3.08 Deck Overhang Design 149 ..The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment... c de = 0.3.4 := "OK.3.3.7.3.93 in 2 As := As.. maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" if "NG. 0. crack control for moment is satisfied" C3..1 := c de ≤ 0.......5 in c := As⋅ fy 0.3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced... crack control for moment is satisfied" if fs.... increase the reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5.........7.3.3..85⋅ fc.3....42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements. β 1 = 0..65 1000⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section..7 in Ratio for maximum reinforcement check.05⋅ fc.......slab − 4000⋅ psi ..overhang Stress block factor..1 = "OK.........85 − 0..slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement As⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps⋅ fps + As⋅ fy de := ds de = Simplifying for this example.. Area of steel provided....3.actual ≤ fsa "NG. c = 1...7....... maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" Superstructure Design 2..... so redesign!" otherwise LRFD 5.7.42 "OK.. section is over reinforced..7.259 The c de ratio should be less than 0.. As = 0. de = 5....... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5...............4 = "OK.... LRFD 5...

...... Islab = 512......3.....29 in 2 As... y = 4....... M cr = 5...... so redesign!" otherwise LRFD 5.3.....3...... S = 128.. minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" Superstructure Design 2.....7...2⋅ M cr Minimum reinforcement required.29 in 2 Amin := φ As⋅ fy 1 fy⋅ ds − 2 0.... Amin ( ) Maximum bar spacing for mimimum reinforcement........ As.............req A bar The bar spacing should be less than the maximum bar spacing for minimum reinforcement LRFD 5. Modulus of Rupture........slab⋅ b Required area of steel for minimum reinforcement should not be less than As⋅ 133% or Amin ............ spacingmax = 13....0 in spacingmax := b As.2 = "OK...........3....... minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" if spacing ≤ spacingmax "NG.....7..........Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1....2 times greater than the cracking moment.4 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S 1.......85⋅ fc..0 in 4 1 3 Islab := ⋅ b ⋅ tslab 12 Section modulus.0 in 3 S := Islab y Cracking moment..... fr = 509.................24⋅ fc... section is under-reinforced.... Amin = 0..2 := "OK.0 in y := tslab 2 Moment of inertia for the section..............req := min As⋅ 133⋅ % ..........1 psi fr := 0......slab⋅ ksi Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to the neutral axis of the composite section.......req = 0...08 Deck Overhang Design 150 ............

.......... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.0 in spacingST := min b AST Abar .. spacingST = 18.7. crack control for moment is satisfied" LRFD 5.3...... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if spacing ≤ spacingST "NG.... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3.8 = "OK.... Ag = 96......7.0 in 2 Ag := boverhang⋅ tslab Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.10.. AST = 0.....8 := "OK. 18⋅ in The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5.C4.7.8.10...........08 Deck Overhang Design 151 ...8 = "OK. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5..1 = "OK...7...2 = "OK....7..18 in 2 AST := 0..7...... minimum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" LRFD 5.4 = "OK.......2] Gross area of section.11⋅ ksi⋅ Ag fy Maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement....3.....10.3........ Summary Size of bar bar = "5" Proposed bar spacing spacing = 4 in LRFD 5...... 3 ⋅ tslab .3. maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" LRFD 5....3. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" C5...10..

mcd(R) Description This section provides the creep and shrinkage factors as per the LRFD 5. Page 153 Contents A. Compute Volume to Surface area ratios 155 157 B. Transformed Properties A3.2.2.09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 152 .3.2. Time Dependent Variables A2.3. Creep Coefficient (LRFD 5. Shrinkage Coefficient (LRFD 5.2.4.3.2 and 5. Input Variables A1.4.3.4.3) C.2) Superstructure Design 2.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Creep and Shrinkage Parameters References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\208DeckCant.4.3.

.2 ft Surfacedeck = 15................. Time Dependent Variables Relative humidity.....7 ft Surface = 27. Effective slab width for interior beam...0 in b eff............. Input Variables A1.0 in BeamTypeTog = "IV" A3. The volume and surface area of the deck are analyzed using the effective slab width for the interior beam............................................................09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 153 ..............9 ft 2 2 2 Superstructure Design 2........... of length.... Volume beam = 5...interior 3 Volume of beam.............. Surface area of composite section........5 ft Volume deck = 5......... Age (days) used to determine long term losses. Transformed Properties Required thickness of deck slab. t slab = 8 in b eff............. b eff := b eff............ Surface area of deck..........exterior = 101......................A...................... Volume to Surface Area Ratios (Notional Thickness) The volume and surface area are calculated for 1 ft..................... Age (days) of concrete deck when section becomes composite............ Volume of deck.................... Age (days) of concrete when load is applied....... H = 75 T0 = 1 T1 = 120 T2 = 10000 A2................... Effective slab width...............interior = 96... Volume of composite section.........8 ft 3 3 Surfacebeam = 12.. Effective slab width for exterior beam....... The surface area only includes the area exposed to atmospheric drying..... Superstructure beam type..................3 ft Volume = 10................ Surface area of beam......................................

...SH = 4.......4 in Volume beam ho......CR := Surfacebeam Superstructure Design 2..CR = 5.........09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 154 .........7 in Volume ho........... since the forces responsible for creep are initially applied to the non-composite section... ho...... ho.The shrinkage coefficient uses the notional thickness of the composite section...........SH := Surface The creep coefficient uses the notional thickness of the non-composite section..

..............4. ks ks2....0 + t ⋅ 0.........5 correction factor.8 t ks4......56⋅ 10 kh := 140 − H 70 70 if H < 80 if H ≥ 80 1064 − 94⋅ ho ⋅ 923 Shrinkage strain for steam-cured concretes without shrinkage-prone aggregates.... Several factors influence the shrinkage of concrete. Shrinkage Coefficient (LRFD 5.....0 t 1.0 ks6.....3... t −3 εsh = −ks⋅ kh⋅ 35.......10 3 1 ....B...51⋅ 10 t −3 εsh = −ks⋅ kh⋅ 55......... Factor for relative humidity...6 t ks5..2....36⋅ ho t 45+t +t Factor kc for Volume to Surface Ratio 1....929 3 ⋅ ( 100 − H) Factor for effects of the volume to surface ratio...0 ks1. • • • Aggregate characteristics and proportions Average humidity at the bridge site W/C ratio • • • Type of cure Volume to surface area ratio of member Duration of drying period Shrinkage strain for moist-cured concretes without shrinkage-prone aggregates.4 ks1....3) Shrinkage can range from approximately zero for concrete continually immersed in water to greater than 0....2 t 1 t ks3.......0 0...0 0.....0 t 0.... kh = 0...... ks = t 26⋅ e 0.10 4 Superstructure Design 2.........0008 for concrete that is improperly cured.4 t 0....2 0 1 10 100 t drying time (days) 1 .09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 155 .....0 + t ⋅ 0.

...4..00032.00063 Shrinkage strain on composite section from Day T1 = 120 to Day T2 = 10000 ... t ⋅ 0........ the shrinkage strains calculated in this section are used for the remaining design.. The amount of shrinkage strain from Day 120 to Day 10000 is 0.... For this example......... Shrinkage strain... Shrinkage strain on composite section at Day T2 = 10000 .......... Superstructure Design 2. εSH = 0..51⋅ 10− 3 εsh ( t ) := ks ⋅ kh⋅ t 35........................... At Day 10000...............0005 after one year Based on these assumptions... 0...00032 ( ) ( ) εsh T2 = 0...0 + t Shrinkage strain on composite section at Day T1 = 120 ....0002 after 28 days 0..... which closely compares with the calculated value of 0........09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 156 ........... εsh T1 = 0.......... at Day 120 the strain is 0......0005.0003.....00032 εSH := εsh T2 − εsh T1 ( ) ( ) Note : Shrinkage and Creep [LRFD 5.......Using variables defined in this example and assuming moist-cured concrete...3 ] Assumptions for shrinkage strain..... the shrinkage strain should be 0.......0002.....2..

.5 correction factor...4 kc1...8 0...587 Factor kc for Volume to Surface Ratio 1.3..77⋅ e 2.6 t t t t t 0.0 kc3....... Concrete shortening due to creep generally ranges from 1.C.6 10...58 − 120 ⋅ (t i ) ( i ) = 3.4...118 0....2 1 0...10 4 Superstructure Design 2..0 kc6..36 ⋅ ho t 45+t +t − 0.54⋅ ho ⋅ 1....0 kc1... Creep Coefficient (LRFD 5.... kf = 0. temperature is not a factor in estimating creep. kc kc2.... depending primarily on concrete maturity at loading..0 1....2) Creep is influenced by the same factors as shrinkage and also by the following factors: • • • Magnitude and duration of stress Maturity of concrete at loading Temperature of concrete For typical temperature ranges in bridges.5⋅ kc⋅ kf⋅ H − 0.....t 1..5 to 4.4 0.0 kc4. kc = 0.67 + t 26⋅ e fc. Creep Coefficient Ψ t..718 kf := 1 0..0 times the initial elastic shortening...6 t−t) ( i ⋅ 0.2 0 1 10 100 t time under load (days) t 1 .80 + 1...09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 157 .10 3 1 ...0 + ( t − t ) i Factor for effect of concrete strength...2....beam ksi 9 Factor for effect of volume to surface ratio.

.............627 C120 := 1 + ψ cr1 Creep factor at Day T2 .58 − ⋅ ⋅ (t ) t 120 i 0...09 Creep and Shrinkage Parameters 158 .................... C10000 = 2.............. ψ cr1 = 0............................... T0 ( ) Creep factor at Day T1 ..681 C10000 := 1 + ψ cr2 Defined Units Superstructure Design 2........6 H − 0..... ti ) := 3..Using variables defined in this example..............0 + ( t − t i) ψ cr1 := Ψ T1 ..... (t − ti) 0......... ψ cr2 = 1.681 ψ cr2 := Ψ T2 .. C120 = 1...627 ( ) Creep coefficient on non-composite section from Day T0 = 1 to Day T2 = 10000 .6 10.....5 ⋅ kc ⋅ kf⋅ 1........... T0 Creep coefficient on non-composite section from Day T0 = 1 to Day T1 = 120 ..118 Ψ (t ... Creep coefficient......

4] A4. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint B4. Temperature Movement [SDG 6. Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6. Page 160 160 161 Contents LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria A.2) B2. Bridge Geometry A2.4.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the bridge expansion joints.10 Expansion Joint Design 159 . Expansion Joint Design B1. Design Summary Superstructure Design 2.2) B3. Input Variables A1. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Expansion Joint Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\209CRSH.4. Movement [6.3] A3. Bearing Design Movement/Strain 166 C.2] 164 B. Movement from Creep.4.

5] FDOT Criteria Uniform Temperature .2] Delete LRFD [3.4. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.7.3.10 Expansion Joint Design 160 .3] Movement and Loads .4] Superstructure Design 2.General [14.7.2.2] and substitute in lieu thereof SDG Chapter 6.Joints and Bearings [SDG 2.LRFD Criteria Uniform Temperature [3.4.12.12.2 and SDG 6.2] Superseded by SDG 2. Shrinkage and Creep [5.1] Bridge Joints [14.

...........10 Expansion Joint Design 161 .... Lbridge = 180 ft Lspan = 90 ft Skew = −30 deg A2..2........................................................... Skew angle.4] Joint Type Poured Rubber Silicone Seal Strip Seal Modular Joint Finger Joint Maximum Joint Width * ¾” 2” 3” Unlimited Unlimited *Joints in sidewalks must meet all requirements of Americans with Disabilities Act............................................ Bridge design span length.......3] Structural Material of Superstructure Concrete Only Concrete Deck on Steel Girder Steel Only Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit) High Low 95 45 110 30 120 30 Mean 70 70 70 Range 50 80 90 The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example......... ∆t fall = 25 °F ∆t fall := t mean − t low Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD 5............2] for normal weight concrete.A................... Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length....... ∆t rise = 25 °F t mean = 70 °F t high = 95 °F t low = 45 °F ∆t rise := thigh − tmean Temperature fall.... Expansion Joints [SDG 6...... Temperature rise. Temperature mean.... α t = 6 × 10 −6 1 °F A3...... Temperature low..................................... Temperature Movement [SDG 6..4. Superstructure Design 2......... Input Variables A1.................... Temperature high..

.. these joint movements due to creep are ignored...... Creep [LRFD 5........14 in ∆zTempF := α t ⋅ ∆t fall⋅ cos( Skew ) ⋅ Lspan Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents Temperature rise....... Movement [SDG 6...... displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs... Displacements normal to skew at top of bents Temperature rise. ∆xTempR = 0.... combined with forces not being applied to the center of gravity for the composite section.08 in ∆xTempF := α t ⋅ ∆t fall⋅ sin( Skew )⋅ Lspan ( ) For silicone seals...2..... A typical joint for most prestressed beam bridges is the silicone seal.... ∆xTempF = 0.. use only the joint types listed in the preceding table.... is likely to produce longitudinal movements and rotations.10 Expansion Joint Design 162 .. The beam and slab interaction...... The slab will offer some restraint to this movement of the beam..... ∆zTempR = 0...............4.. For most prestressed beams designed as simple spans for dead and live load................ Wmax := 2 ⋅ in 5 Wmin := ⋅ in 8 W := 1 ⋅ in A4..... Minimum joint width at 70o F.. all beams are assumed to creep towards their centers..14 in ∆zTempR := α t ⋅ ∆t rise⋅ cos( Skew )⋅ Lspan Temperature Fall.....4......... ∆zTempF = 0.......... For this example..For new construction........... Maximum joint width.. these displacements are ignored....... Superstructure Design 2...........3] is not considered at this time...08 in ∆xTempR := α t ⋅ ∆t rise⋅ sin( Skew ) ⋅ Lspan Temperature Fall............ After day 120....2] Temperature The movement along the beam due to temperature should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or skew....... Creep and Shrinkage The following assumptions are used in this design example: • • Creep and Shrinkage prior to day 120 (casting of deck) is neglected for the expansion joint design. Proposed joint width at 70o F..

......10 Expansion Joint Design 163 .. For this example.......00032 εCS := εCR + εSH The movement along the beam due to creep and shrinkage should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or skew.30 in ∆zCS := εCS⋅ cos( Skew )⋅ Lspan Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents.........3... ∆zCS = 0............................. Creep strain..............................Shrinkage after day 120 is calculated using LRFD 5...... these displacements are ignored.. ∆xCS = 0........... Superstructure Design 2..... displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs..... εSH = 0......... Displacements normal to skew at top of bents.......... Shrinkage strain.............. εCS = 0.......2.00032 εCR := 0........17 in ∆xCS := εCS⋅ sin( Skew ) ⋅ Lspan For silicone seals...... Strain due to creep and shrinkage....4........................

.... the movement is based on the greater of two cases: • • Movement from the combination of temperature fall. Movement from the combination of temperature fall. Joint width from opening caused by factored temperature fall. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" if WCSTopen ≤ Wmax "NG...... shrinkage.. and temperature. ∆zTemperature.fall = 1.2) Movement from factored effects of temperature rise ∆zrise......4.. WTopen = 1....84 in WTclose := W − 1. CSTJt_Open := "OK......4.shrinkage ∆ CST := ∆zCS + ∆zTempF Using variables defined in this example.. creep. ∆ CST = 0. shrinkage. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6.B... joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" B2.or.. Expansion Joint Design For prestressed concrete structures..2) The combination of creep.................15⋅ ∆ztemperature. WCSTopen = 1....rise...fall + ∆zcreep.10 Expansion Joint Design 164 .. Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6..16 in WTopen := W + 1....15⋅ ∆zTempF Joint width from closing caused by factored temperature rise. and temperature fall tends to "open" the expansion joint.. and shrinkage.......44 in WCSTopen := W + ∆ CST The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.. creep..15⋅ ∆zTempR Superstructure Design 2.fall Using variables defined in this example. joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise CSTJt_Open = "OK...44 in Joint width from opening caused by creep.Fall = ∆ztemperature.. WTclose = 0....... Movement from Creep.. and shrinkage Movement from factored effects of temperature B1..or.....

TemperatureJt_Close := "OK.. TAdj = 0........... joint width is not less than minimum joint width" if WTclose ≥ Wmin "NG...0056 in °F TAdj := ∆zTempR ∆trise B4....00047 εCST := εCR + εSH + α t⋅ ∆tfall ( ) Superstructure Design 2... TemperatureJt_Open := "OK..... Bearing Design Movement/Strain For the bearing pad design. a temperature adjustment is provided. creep and shrinkage will be utilized. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint For field temperatures other than 70o F.10 Expansion Joint Design 165 .. joint width exceeds minimum joint width" otherwise TemperatureJt_Close = "OK.. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" The joint width from closing should not be less than the minimum joint width. The adjustment is used during construction to obtain the desired joint width..... εCST = 0.The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width. joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise TemperatureJt_Open = "OK........... joint width is not less than minimum joint width" B3.. the following strain due to temperature. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" if WTopen ≤ Wmax "NG.....

... TAdj = 0....... W = 1 in Joint width from opening caused by creep........ and temperature.. WTopen = 1...... Design Summary Joint width at 70o................ joint width is not less than minimum joint width" ......................... joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" .44 in CSTJt_Open = "OK............ joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" .... WCSTopen = 1.... εCST = 0. Wmin = 0.........625 in Adjustment for field temperatures other than 70o.0056 in °F Bearing pad design movement/strain.......16 in TemperatureJt_Open = "OK.............................84 in TemperatureJt_Close = "OK.10 Expansion Joint Design 166 .C........... shrinkage............ Wmax = 2 in Joint width from opening caused by factored temperature....... Wmax = 2 in Joint width from closing caused by factored temperature............................ WTclose = 0...00047 Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.............

1] 183 D. Page 168 168 169 Contents LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria A.9 Anchorage and Anchor Bolts [LRFD 14. Bearing Design Movement/Strain A3. Bearing Pad Properties D2.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the bridge composite neoprene bearing pad.2] C3. Input Variables A1.7.3.7.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad Design Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\210ExpJt.8.7.7.7] C.5.3.3] C. Stability of Elastomeric Bearings [LRFD 14. Bridge Geometry A2.5. Material Properties [LRFD 14.5.7. DESIGN SUMMARY D1. design is similar to methodology shown in this file.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 167 . General [LRFD 14. Bearing Design Loads 171 172 B.5] C1.10 Horizontal Force and Movement [LRFD 14.7.6. Composite Bearing Pad Design Dimensions C.8 Reinforcement [LRFD 14.4] C6.1] C2.5.6] C.5. LRFD Checks (METHOD B) Superstructure Design 2. Compressive Stress [LRFD 14.3.5.7.7.2] C4. For the design of bearing pads for any other beam type (exterior beam) and location (at pier). Compressive Deflections [LRFD 14.7.3.3.3.3.5. Shear Deformations [LRFD 14. Composite Bearing Pad Design [LRFD 14.3] C5. Only the interior beam at End bent 1 bearing pad is designed within this file. Combined Compression and Rotations [LRFD 14.5] C7.5.

12.2] Specifies 0. Design for minimum seismic support length only.Joints and Bearings [SDG 2.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 168 .2 and SDG 6.3] Bearings [SDG 6.4.4.General [LRFD 14.1] Specifies that "the influence of impact need not be included" in the design of bearings.11.7.LRFD Criteria Uniform Temperature [LRFD 3.005 RAD as an allowance for uncertainties. Superstructure Design 2.3.Design Requirements [LRFD 14.12.2] Superseded by SDG 2. Temperature Movement [SDG 6.1] Simple span concrete beam bridges are exempt from seismic design.2] Delete LRFD [3.4] Ship impact on bearings is not considered in this example.7.General [SDG 2. Uniform Temperature . Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings .Damage Permitted [SDG 2.5] FDOT Criteria Seismic Provisions .5] Specifies design of Composite neoprene bearing pads in accordance with LRFD Method B.Method B [LRFD 14. Movement and Loads . Vessel Collision . Movement and Loads .7.2] and substitute in lieu thereof SDG Chapter 6.Design Methodology .3.

..... RDW = 5...... V DC.. RLL = 81...... Flexibility to evaluate an interior or exterior beam is given by changing the input values chosen below (see input options note)..BeamExt θ LL....... Bridge Geometry Bridge design span length............ RDC = 85.........BeamInt ( Support) DC dead loads............................. only one beam type will be evaluated....Int RLL.................. εCST = 0.Int Live Load Reaction.9 kip RLL := RLL....BeamInt( Support) Live Load Rotation ...........3 kip RDW := V DW.........Ext Superstructure Design 2.......Int θ LL. Skew angle..................Ext RLL........................4 kip Note : Input options.Int V DC. θ LL = 0..BeamExt( Support) V DW.................. Lspan = 90 ft Skew = −30 deg A2......... In order to minimize the calculations...00047 A3..11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 169 .. Input Variables A1..00174 rad θ LL := θ LL... Bearing Pad Design Loads The design of the interior and exterior beams follow the same procedures and concept as outlined in this design example.......A....BeamInt( Support) V ( Support ) DW.. the following strain due to temperature....... RDC := V DC................BeamInt( Support) DW dead loads....... Bearing Design Movement/Strain For the bearing pad design. creep and shrinkage will be utilized.........

....0 ⋅ RDC + 1..9 kip RBrgLL := 1....6 kip RBrgTotal := 1..0 ⋅ DW + 1...............0017 rad Superstructure Design 2..Service I Limit State Design Loads.............0 ⋅ RDW + 1.... θ LL = 0........0 ⋅ LL Total Bearing Design Load....0 ⋅ DC + 1. Service1 = 1.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 170 .. RBrgLL = 81..0 ⋅ RLL Live Load Bearing Design Load.........0 ⋅ RLL Live Load Design Rotation. RBrgTotal = 172.

........ Width of bearing pad....0 mm)....... Section 932-2.. Outer neoprene laminations shall be 1/4 inch.............................................. Composite Bearing Pad Design Dimensions Bearing pad size and dimensions The dimensions of the bearing pad can be selected using FDOT Construction Specifications........25in or hsi = 0......5 ⋅ in ne := 2 ni := 3 Superstructure Design 2.........0787 in Inner neoprene laminations shall be of equal thicknesses Edges of steel laminates should be covered with minimum or 1/4 inch of elastomer Length of bearing pad...................B................ Lpad := 12⋅ in Wpad := 17⋅ in hpad := 2..2................ Number of external elastomer layers....... 3 hse := in 16 hsi := 2⋅ mm hre := 0.... Inner laminations shall be 14-gauge (2. Section 932 Non-Metallic Accessory Materials for Concrete Pavement and Concrete Structures.........3 states that composite neoprene pads shall consist of alternate laminations of neoprene and hot-rolled steel sheets molded together as one unit.... Number of internal elastomer layers...... The pads should meet the following requirements: • • • • • Outer metal laminations shall be 3/16 inch ........... Height of bearing pad.....................11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 171 .

.489 in hri := hpad − ne⋅ hre + hse − ni − 1 ⋅ hsi ni ( ) ( ) The top and bottom cover layers shall be no thicker than 70 percent of the internal layers..... only Grades 50 and 60 hardness are applicable.5... Gmax = 0........ Composite Bearing Pad Design [LRFD 14....25 in LRFD 14..1] Thickness of an internal elastomer layer...................5... Gmin = 0......... hrt = 1.. Apad = 204 in 2 Apad := Lpad⋅ Wpad Shape factor.5........7...........C..... hri = 0.......5.........200 ksi Gmax := 130⋅ psi if Grade = 50 200⋅ psi if Grade = 60 Superstructure Design 2........1 = "OK..........7 ⋅ hri = 0.. The external layer is too thick" otherwise where 0...1 := hre ≤ 0. General [LRFD 14....968 in hrt := ne⋅ hre + ni ⋅ hri Area of bearing pad.................130 ksi Grade := 60 Gmin := 95⋅ psi if Grade = 50 130⋅ psi if Grade = 60 Corresponding upper limit for shear modulus........7 ⋅ hri "NG........7....... For Method B design....... Elastomer durometer hardness...............34 in LRFD 14... S = 7............11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 172 . Thickness of the external layers" Total elastomer thickness...........2] LRFD specifies the shear modulus of the elastomer based on the durometer hardness.......... Thickness of the external layers" if hre ≤ 0......2 S := Lpad⋅ Wpad 2 ⋅ hri⋅ Lpad + Wpad ( ) C2..7................. hre = 0.............7 ⋅ hri "OK.....7.........7............. Corresponding lower limit for shear modulus...5] C1....... Material Properties [LRFD 14..

.62 ksi σ L := 0.. Therefore......actual = 0.3..... actual compressive stress for total load (free for shear)" LRFD 14....7..5. σ s = 1..........5.... the lower limit value will be used for this criteria... σ L.. If no restraints are present.. The criteria depends on whether or not the bearing is considered free or fixed against shear deformation...7.. dowels.3.....3...... Re-writing and solving for the governing values: The actual compressive stresses should be less than the allowable compressive stresses........3......66⋅ Gmin⋅ S LRFD allows the shear modulus value to be utilized as the one causing the worst effect...35 φcr := 0.. σ s...... φcr = 0...... Compressive Stress [LRFD 14...5....66⋅ Gmin⋅ S ..... actual compressive stress for total load (free for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14...actual := RBrgLL Apad Superstructure Free for Shear Allowable service compressive stress due to the total load..actual ≤ σ s "NG.7.. if the bridge superstructure has restraints against movements......2_1 := "OK.actual = 0. actual compressive stress for total load (free for shear)" if σ s.2] Each elastomeric bearing layer shall satisfy the criteria for the average compressive stress at the service limit state....... As a guideline....7...actual ≤ σ L "NG....5.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 173 ... Compressive stress for live load only (free for shear)" Superstructure Design 2..35 if Grade = 60 C3........3..... Compressive stress for live load only (free for shear)" if σ L.............. σ L = 0.85 ksi σ s.....2_2 = "OK.7. etc.... Actual service compressive stress due to the total load.........Creep deflection factor...... such as shear blocks. 1............2_1 = "OK.............25 if Grade = 50 0..5... LRFD 14..... Compressive stress for live load only (free for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14..2_2 := "OK.. fixity....55 ksi σ s := min 1..... then the bearings are free to deform due to shear.... then the bearings are considered fixed against shear deformations........40 ksi σ L.....6 ⋅ ksi ( ) Allowable service compressive stress due to live load.actual := RBrgTotal Apad Actual service compressive stress due to live load.

.... Compressive stress for total load (fixed for shear)" LRFD 14.7...00⋅ Gmin⋅ S The actual compressive stresses should be less than the allowable compressive stresses.. LRFD provides compressive strain charts based on the durometer hardness of the bearing pad: Superstructure Design 2...... LRFD suggests limiting the relative deflections across a joint due to instantaneous loads..75⋅ ksi ( ) Allowable service compressive stress due to live load. Compressive stress for live load only (fixed for shear)" C4. 1. δ max := 0.........2_3 := "OK.... Limiting the relative deflections.Superstructure Fixed for Shear Allowable service compressive stress due to the total load. Compressive Deflections [LRFD 14.....2_4 = "OK.3. This compressive strain represents the amount of deflection that the thickest layer of the neoprene bearing will undergo due to the instantaneous loads.....actual ≤ σ L "NG.5. LRFD 14.5.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 174 .5.... Compressive stress for live load only (fixed for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14.3.......... The step can also damage the deck joints and seals. additional impact loading is applied to the bridge. Compressive stress for total load (fixed for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14..75 ksi σ s := min 2...0 ⋅ Gmin⋅ S .........5..2_4 := "OK... σ s = 1...... σ L = 0..3. Compressive stress for live load only (fixed for shear)" if σ L...7.5..125⋅ in The instantaneous deflections are calculated using the compressive strain.93 ksi σ L := 1.............. As traffic passes over this step. Compressive stress for total load (fixed for shear)" if σ s.3......3] An overly flexible bearing can introduce a step at the deck joint on the riding surface...actual ≤ σ s "NG..7.7..2_3 = "OK..7..3......

............. Actual compressive stress due to live load............. Substituting and re-writing........ Shape factor............... long-term compressive deflection less than maximum deflection" Superstructure Design 2...........actual = 0......3.............................. LRFD 14.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 175 ..........7.3 := "OK....... Long-term deflection due to instantaneous loads.................3 = "OK... long-term compressive deflection less than maximum deflection" if δc < δ max "NG.402 ksi S = 7........................ long-term compressive deflection exceeds maximum deflection" otherwise LRFD 14..........5.. δ c = 0.............2 εi := 0.... δ il = 0.053 in δ c := δ il⋅ 1 + φcr ( ) The long-term deflection due to instantaneous loads should not exceed the maximum deflection.....5..............................039 in Grade = 60 σ L...Required information to select compressive strain from chart: Bearing durometer.7...3............02 δ il = Σε i ⋅ hri δ il := ne⋅ εi⋅ hre + ni ⋅ εi⋅ hri ( ) ( ) LRFD suggests adding the effects of creep on the elastomer for the instantaneous deflections... Compressive strain from chart............... Instantaneous compressive deflection due to live load..

∆ s = 0.req "NG.. so all movement occurs at the end bents. Elastomer thickness for shear deformation" if hrt ≥ hrt. shrinkage. Longitudinal shear deformation....013 in hrt.5. the new criteria was causing the bearing pads to be taller to satisfy rotational requirements.5] Bearing Pad Rotations Previous FDOT procedures provided standard pad sizes to use with various beam types.. The FDOT standard pad sizes no longer satisfy the Method B criteria... hrt.. the shear deformations at Pier 2 are negligible. which introduced problems with the interaction of combined compression and rotation (uplift criteria).. Elastomer thickness for shear deformation" otherwise LRFD 14.5.7....5.5.. Elastomer thickness for shear deformation" C6.506 in ∆ s := εCST⋅ Lspan The bearing pad is parallel to the skew. the assumed center of movement is the center support (Pier 2).... so the movement along the beam needs to be resolved along the axis of the pads...439 in ∆ sz := ∆ s⋅ cos( Skew ) ) Transverse shear deformation.. From this assumption.7. Shear deformations along the beam line for creep.3. and temperature..4] Concrete shrinkage.4 := "OK....3. particularly between the interaction of rotation and compression...req = 1. ∆ sx = 0. The introduction of Method B equations established a more stringent design for the bearing pads.....7....C5. Shear Deformations [LRFD 14..11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 176 .req := 2 ⋅ ∆ s The total elastomer thickness should be greater than the required total elastomer thickness... For a two-span bridge with equal span lengths and constant pier heights. ∆ sz = 0..3.253 in ∆ sx := ∆ s⋅ sin( Skew Required total elastomer thickness..4 = "OK. LRFD 14.3.. thermal movements. and beam shortening cause shear deformations in the bearing pads.. Combined Compression and Rotations [LRFD 14.7.... Specifically. Superstructure Design 2.

005 rad (AASHTO LRFD 14.5.3. etc. SIP forms) Grade rotations (no grade adjustments utilized. eg. slab. For example: Grade Rotation Total Rotation Live Load Rotation = 0.01062 + 0.00763) Rotation Due to Prestress Dead Load Rotation The LRFD criteria for uplift is predominantly concerned with pads bonded to the substructure and girder.005 rad Maximum Rotation = 0.00066 + 0. then the rotations due to prestress. plates.00069 + 0.01394 + 0.) Construction tolerances on pedestals and piers (usually included in the construction tolerances factor If the bearing pad dimensions required by the Method B equations are considered reasonable (using engineering judgement and/or experience).011437 (. Depending on the size of pads required by the Method B equations.2) = 0. Bearing pad rotations typically consist of the following: • • • • Prestress rotation Dead load rotations (beam.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 177 . and grade are ignored.03231) + (0. If the designer does not feel the bearing pad dimensions are reasonable.00192) +/.Grade Rotation) Plus 0. these rotations need to be calculated.4. the uplift criteria of LRFD 14. barrier. This reasoning assumes the rotations are negligible or the combined effects are beneficial.003819 (+ Grade Rotation) or = -0. which is also ignored. Superstructure Design 2. the calculations for rotation can either be simplified or detailed.016437 rad θtotal = (-0. beam notches.(0.The result is that a more "detailed" calculation for displacements and rotations are now required.00067) + (0. Since FDOT does not require bonding. FWS. dead load.5-1 need not be satisfied.7.

...... and grade. ni + 0.............. Compression and Rotation Requirement The bearing pad design requires a balance between the stiffness required to support large compressive loads and the flexibility needed to accommodate translation and rotation.....actual = 0...0 ⋅ rad (Note : For this design example.......53 ksi θ sx Wpad σ sz := 1......5 ⋅ ne .005⋅ rad Total rotations along the beam.. Minimum compressive stress for uplift in longitudinal direction.........0058 rad θ sx := θ s⋅ cos( Skew ) ) Transverse rotation..." However. θ sx = 0.. σ s....... n may be increased by one-half for each exterior layer of elastomer with a thickness more than one-half the thickness of an interior layer....0 ⋅ Gmax⋅ S⋅ ⋅ n hri 2 Superstructure Design 2..........actual := RBrgTotal Apad Rectangular bearings must satisfy uplift requirements in LRFD 14... so uplift can occur....Rotation due to prestress... which is not applicable for unbonded bearings.....0067 rad θ s := θ DC + θ LL + θ tol Bearing pads are parallel to the skew.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 178 .....5-1.846 ksi σ s........ bearings normally used in FDOT projects are unbonded.... θ s = 0... dead load..... σ sz = 2.. θ LL = 0.... ........ LRFD requirements for allowable stresses and stability provide the balance between stiffness and flexibility......... Rotations due to live loads...4... Longitudinal rotation. so rotation along the beam needs to be resolved along the axis of the pads... Actual compressive stress at service limit state due to the total load.............. θ DC := 0......................... these rotations are not calculated) Rotation due to construction tolerances and uncertainties [LRFD 14..................3...0017 rad θ tol := 0....5...........2]......... θ sz = 0......0 ⋅ G⋅ S⋅ θ s B 2 ⋅ n hri n := if hre > 0....... ni ( ) Using variables defined in this example and resolving into axis of bearing pad.................... n=4 σ s > 1.......0034 rad θ sz := θ s⋅ sin( Skew Uplift.... LRFD also presents concerns for strain reversal in the elastomer.7. LRFD states that "Bearings shall be designed so that uplift does not occur under any combination of loads and corresponding location....5 ⋅ hri ..............

.... compression and rotation (free for shear)" if σ s.5....5-3..3.5_1 = "N/A.5.....actual < σ sz ∧ σ s.7...... σ s < 2.200⋅ ⋅ n hri Maximum compressive stress for uplift in transverse direction (free for shear)...875⋅ G⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0......73 ksi θ sz Lpad σ sx := 1.......5....25⋅ Gmin⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0...5.0 ⋅ Gmax⋅ S⋅ ⋅ n hri 2 The actual compressive stress should be greater than the minimum compressive stress.actual > σ sx "N/A.875⋅ Gmin⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0....7.5.7...3.........875⋅ Gmin⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0. LRFD 14.... σ sx = 0. combined compression and rotation (free for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14.......13 ksi 2 θ sx Wpad σ sz := 1. FDOT unbonded pad: separation. Maximum compressive stress for uplift in longitudinal direction (free for shear)....167⋅ θ s B 2 ⋅ n hri Using variables defined in this example and resolving into axis of bearing pad... σ sz = 1.3.5.. no uplift for bonded pad" if σ s..11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 179 ...3.... σ sz = 1....5_2 = "OK....3...... but no tension on elastomer" Rectangular bearings free for shear deformation must also satisfy LRFD 14......actual > σ sz ∧ σ s. LRFD 14.....200⋅ θ s B 2 ⋅ n hri Using variables defined in this example and resolving into axis of bearing pad.......48 ksi 2 θ sx Wpad σ sz := 2.57 ksi The actual compressive stress should be less than the maximum compressive stress.. Maximum compressive stress for uplift in longitudinal direction (fixed against shear).5_2 := "OK. σ sx = 1.5-2. but no tension on elastomer" otherwise LRFD 14.......7.7.... compression and rotation (free for shear)" Rectangular bearings fixed against shear deformation must also satisfy LRFD 14...7.3.167⋅ ⋅ n hri Superstructure Design 2.200⋅ ⋅ n hri 2 θ sz Lpad σ sx := 1.....Minimum compressive stress for uplift in transverse direction.25⋅ G⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0.... σ s < 1. FDOT unbonded pad: separation..actual < σ sx "NG....5_1 := "OK............

....3..3...actual ≤ G⋅ S 2⋅ A − B Superstructure Design 2. stability requirement met" if 2 ⋅ A ≤ B "NG...67 and.....5...6_1 = "NG..actual = 0........ the compressive stress due to the total load shall satisfy either of the following: Superstructure Free for Shear The following equation (LRFD 14.. LRFD 14.3......... compression and rotation (fixed for shear)" if σ s...11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 180 .. A = 0.5.....6] The bearing is considered stable and no further stability checks are necessary if the requirements of LRFD 14...7..Maximum compressive stress for uplift in transverse direction (fixed against shear)..7..actual < σ sx "NG.......5.6_1 ...2 hrt Lpad 2..846 ksi σ s.25 B := ( S + 2..25⋅ Gmin⋅ S⋅ 1 − 0..7..5...0 ⋅ Lpad Wpad 2..7....7........3... compression and rotation (fixed for shear)" C7. B = 0..6-4 ) corresponds to sidesway buckling and applies to bridges in which the deck is free to translate horizontally.0 ⋅ Wpad Lpad Check the stability requirement LRFD 14.93 ksi 2 θ sz Lpad σ sx := 2.0 ) ⋅ 1 + 4... further checks for stability are needed" For rectangular bearings not satisfying LRFD 14.3........3.5..5_3 = "OK.....5..........167⋅ ⋅ h n ri The actual compressive stress should be less than the maximum compressive stress..5.7.3.3... where 2⋅ A ≤ B A := 1+ 1....7....actual < σ sz ∧ σ s. combined compression and rotation (fixed for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14...92⋅ therefore.... Stability of Elastomeric Bearings [LRFD 14.. further checks for stability are needed" otherwise LRFD 14. σ sx = 1. σ s..7....6 are satisfied...5_3 := "OK.6_1 := "OK.5.

stability not satisfied (free for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14....Re-writing and solving for the governing value where Gmin⋅ S 2⋅ A − B = 5. The fatigue connection is assumed in detail category A.....5...5. since the external layers cannot exceed 70% of internal layer thickness.2...5.7. Stability not satisfied (fixed for shear)" C...5.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 181 .6_4 = "OK.7.6_5 = "NG...7.3.. Yield stress of Grade 36 reinforcement.. hmax = 0.actual = 0..actual ≤ G⋅ S A− B Re-writing and solving for the governing value: where Gmin⋅ S A−B = −21.7] The thickness of the steel reinforcement shall satisfy the following requirements at the service and fatigue limit states.actual ≤ ∧ 2⋅A > B A− B "NG.3...6-5 ) should be used..7.3.6.3......7..6_5 := Gmin⋅ S "OK.3..3.. Stability-Deck Fixed to move" if σ s..5.. The thickest elastomer layer is the internal layer. Constant amplitude fatigue threshold for category A LRFD Table 6.....898 ksi LRFD 14.. Stability not satisfied (fixed for shear)" otherwise LRFD 14.128 ksi LRFD 14.5-3.... stability (free for shear)" Superstructure Fixed for Shear If one point on the bridge is fixed against horizontal movement...489 in Fy := 36⋅ ksi ∆FTH := 24⋅ ksi hmax := hri Superstructure Design 2.. stability (free for shear)" if σ s..actual ≤ ∧ 2⋅ A > B 2⋅ A − B "NG.7...846 ksi σ s.1.. the sidesway buckling mode is not possible and the following equation (LRFD 14...8 Reinforcement [LRFD 14.. σ s....5.6_4 := Gmin⋅ S "OK...

...8............ hs2 ( ) "NG... Bearings shall be anchored securely to the support to prevent their moving out of place during construction or the service life of the bridge. the capacity of the individual bearings.7.. this check is mentioned but will not be shown in this design example..............3.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 182 ......2 For completeness... A design coefficient of friction of 0....03 in hs1 := 3 ⋅ hmax⋅ σ s...... hs1 = 0.....3.. and the skew...5..079 in Required thickness of steel laminate at the service limit state.........7 = "OK. Elastomeric bearings may be left without anchorage if adequate friction is available...Actual thickness of steel laminate... Superstructure Design 2.3] LRFD states that horizontal forces may be induced by deformation the flexible element of the bearing....6..1] The engineer shall determine the number of bearings required to resist the loads with consideration of the potential for unequal participation due to tolerances. hs2 = 0.. hsi = 0.. Reinforcing Steel layer thickness not adequate" otherwise LRFD 14.........402 ksi σ L := RBrgLL Apad 2 ⋅ hmax⋅ σ L ∆FTH Required thickness of steel laminate..... C10.3.. this check is mentioned but will not be shown in this design example.... unintended misalignments....... For completeness.7. Check the LRFD criteria LRFD 14.7 := "OK. µ := 0...... Coefficient of friction....... Anchorage and Anchor Bolts [LRFD 14.........5....2 may be assumed between elastomer and clean concrete or steel..actual Fy Required thickness of steel laminate at the fatigue limit state: Actual compressive stress due to live load...02 in hs2 := If holes exist in the reinforcement.. Horizontal Force and Movement [LRFD 14... the minimum thickness shall be increased by a factor equal to twice the gross width divided by the net width. σ L = 0.. Reinforcing Steel plate thickness" if hsi ≥ max hs1 .. Reinforcing Steel plate thickness" C9...

..5.. Thickness of internal elastomer layers.7..7..489 in D2..5. Width of bearing pad... Length of bearing pad.7.188 in hsi = 0.. Number of internal elastomer layers.7.......6_4 is satisfied) • Superstructure Fixed for Shear LRFD 14... FDOT unbonded pad: separation.. further checks for stability are needed" (Note : OK if 14.7...5..5_1 = "N/A.7....3 = "OK... Elastomer thickness for shear deformation" LRFD 14.11 Composite Neoprene Bearing Pad 183 ...6_1 = "NG.. Grade = 60 Lpad = 12 in Wpad = 17 in hpad = 2.....5_3 = "OK..7.25 in hri = 0. Reinforcing Steel plate thickness" Satisfy the requirements for either of the applicable sections: • Superstructure Free for Shear LRFD 14. Number of external elastomer layers.. Bearing Pad Properties Durometer hardness.5_2 = "OK. actual compressive stress for total load (free for shear)" LRFD 14....3..7..7.... Thickness of external elastomer layer...7.5.3.079 in ne = 2 ni = 3 hre = 0.. Thickness of the external layers" LRFD 14...7...3..... stability (free for shear)" (Note : OK if 14. but no tension on elastomer" LRFD 14.3.5 in Thickness of external steel plates... long-term compressive deflection less than maximum deflection" LRFD 14... DESIGN SUMMARY D1.5. Height of bearing pad..6_5 is satisfied) LRFD 14. further checks for stability are needed" LRFD 14.5.6_4 = "OK... compression and rotation (free for shear)" LRFD 14....2_1 = "OK.7.... compression and rotation (fixed for shear)" LRFD 14.3.... Thickness of internal steel plates.6_5 = "NG.2_3 = "OK.3.5. Compressive stress for live load only (free for shear)" LRFD 14.5.... Compressive stress for total load (fixed for shear)" LRFD 14. Stability not satisfied (fixed for shear)" Defined Units Superstructure Design 2....7.3.5.5.1 = "OK.......5.5...4 = "OK.5.2_2 = "OK....5.5. hse = 0.3.3...5.3..3...D....3.7..5.3.2_4 = "OK. Compressive stress for live load only (fixed for shear)" LRFD 14.3.7.7. LRFD Checks (Method B) LRFD 14.6_1 = "NG...7 = "OK.7..

Dead Loads (DC. Beam Dead loads B2. End Bent Dead loads B3. Footing Geometry A4. DW) B1. The self-weight of the substructure is generated by the analysis program for the substructure model. End Bent Geometry A2. Pier Geometry A3. Page 185 Contents A. End Bent and Pier Dead load (DC. General Criteria A1.01 Dead Loads 184 .mcd(R) Description This section provides the design dead loads applied to the substructure from the superstructure.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Dead Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\211BrgPad. Pile Geometry 187 B. DW) Summary Substructure Design 3. Pier Dead loads B4.

....01 Dead Loads 185 .. End Bent Geometry (Note : End bent back wall not shown) Depth of end bent cap.5 ft LEB = 101.... it will generate it's own self-weight based on the following member properties of the pier: Substructure Design 3.. hEB = 2...A....... In addition...... The model will have the loads applied at the pedestals from the superstructure... Thickness of back wall............... Length of end bent cap.5 ft b EB = 3.... Backwall design width..614 ft hBW = 5 ft LBW = 1 ft t BW = 1 ft A2.. Pier Geometry A model of the substructure has been created utilizing LARSA.............. Height of back wall. General Criteria A1. Width of end bent cap..

..................5 ft LFtg = 7..........5 ft A4............. Pileembed = 1 ft Pilesize = 18 in Substructure Design 3....... Width of pier cap.......... Height of pier column.........614 ft hCol = 14 ft b Col = 4 ft nCol = 4 hSurcharge = 2 ft hFtg = 4 ft b Ftg = 7....... Surcharge............ Width of footing.....01 Dead Loads 186 ... Length of pier cap.............. hCap = 4......Depth of pier cap............................................................5 ft LCap = 101...... Column diameter.. Length of footing...... Pile Geometry Pile Embedment Depth. Number of columns... Pile Size.............5 ft b Cap = 4.... Height of footing.............

0 ft ..BeamExt = 91...8 kip PDC...01 Dead Loads). For reactions on the pier..7 kip PDW. PDC. we will adjust the loads as follows: Modification factors for span loads. Conservatively.BeamInt( Support) DW load at end bent for exterior beam.... Pier Dead Loads Dead load at pier for interior beam.4 kip PDW.. Dead Loads (DC...BeamInt ( Support ) DC load at end bent for exterior beam..1 kip PDC. PDC.....BeamInt := κ 1 ⋅ V DW. PDW...7 kip PDW. PDW.BeamExt DW load at end bent for interior beam.....BeamInt ( ) Substructure Design 3......BeamExt := κ 1 ⋅ V DC..BeamInt := κ 1 ⋅ V DC....021 κ 1 := Lspan Ldesign DC load at end bent for interior beam.BeamExt( Support) DW load at end bent for interior beam.BeamExt = 4...EndbentInt := PDW..EndbentExt = 4.4 kip PDW.BeamInt = 87.BeamExt( Support) B2.EndbentExt = 91. PDC. PDW.EndbentExt := PDW..EndbentInt = 87.BeamInt = 5. Ldesign = 88.BeamExt B3... PDW...8 kip PDC...BeamExt := κ 1 ⋅ V DW....1 kip PDC.167 ft (see section 2. κ 1 = 1.01 Dead Loads 187 .BeamInt DW load at end bent for exterior beam..EndbentInt := PDC.EndbentExt := PDC. Beam Dead Loads The dead loads of the superstructure (moment and shears) were previously computed utilizing the beam design length. PDC..B. End Bent Dead loads DC load at end bent for interior beam. Lspan = 90. PDC..EndbentInt = 5... DW) B1.. the reactions should be computed based on the span length.PierInt = 174.PierInt := 2 PDC......BeamInt DC load at end bent for exterior beam...........3 kip PDC.

0 0.4 0.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 z 0.0 0..0 0.Dead load at pier for exterior beam..3 0.0 -174.BeamInt Dead load at pier for exterior beam..7 0.0 -4.0 0.0 -9.0 0.0 0.0 -4.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0..0 -4.0 -87.0 0.8 z 0.3 0.8 0.BeamExt ( B4.0 0.7 0.0 -87.3 0.0 -9.0 -4.0 -174.0 -4.0 DW Loads (kip) x y 0.0 -9.1 0.BeamExt ( ( ) ) ) Dead load at pier for interior beam.4 0.PierInt = 10.0 -5...0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0..0 -9.0 0.0 -174.0 -87.3 0..4 0.6 0..4 0.0 -87..0 0..3 0.8 kip PDW..0 -4.0 -10.0 0.0 -5.0 -91.6 kip PDC.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 z 0.1 0.3 0.0 0...PierExt := 2 PDW.1 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Pier Beam Reactions UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER Beam DC Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 -174.0 0.0 -87.3 0.0 -183..0 0.0 0. PDW.0 -9.0 -87.1 0.0 0..0 -174..4 0.4 0..0 -174.1 0.0 0..0 -174.0 0..0 0.0 0.0 -4.7 0.01 Dead Loads 188 .0 -174...0 -10.0 -183..4 0.1 0.0 DW Loads (kip) x y 0. PDW.1 0.1 0.7 0..0 -87.PierExt = 183.7 0.0 0.8 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0..0 -91.0 -4..0 0..PierExt := 2 PDC.. End Bent and Pier Dead Load Summary End Bent Beam Reactions UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT END BENTS Beam DC Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 -87.0 -9.0 -87.0 -9.0 -9.0 0.4 0.0 -4..3 0.PierInt := 2 PDW.4 0.0 0.4 kip PDW.0 -9..0 0.0 -174.7 0.PierExt = 9. PDC.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defined Units Substructure Design 3.

Maximum Live Load Positive Moment B1.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Cap Live Load Analysis References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\301DLsSub.mcd(R) Description This section provides the pier cap design live load for (1) maximum positive moment. Page 190 Contents A. Overhang Negative Live Load Moment D1.2. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment 194 C. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment 197 E. Influence Lines for the Maximum Positive Moment in Pier Cap B2. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4. Summary Substructure Design 3. Input Variables A1.02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 189 .Two HL-93 Vehicles 191 B. (2) maximum negative moment and (3) overhang negative moment.3c] A2.6. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier . HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment 196 D. Maximum Negative Live Load Moment C1.2.

A. The truck reaction (including impact and skew modification factors) is applied on the deck as two wheel-line loads. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4..2...... Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier ...6 ft Rlanes laneload := 90%⋅ ⋅g 10⋅ ft v........... Substructure Design 3...........2 kip Rtrucks = 80. RLLIs = 148..086 ........2. wheelline = 52. Impact factor... Reaction induced by HL-93 truck load....02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 190 ... kip laneload = 5.... Reaction induced by lane load......... A2...Skew The truck wheel-line load and lane load can be placed in design lanes according to one of the following patterns...Skew = 1.... needs to be separated into the truck and lane components in order to determine the beam reactions due to various vehicle placements along the deck...33 wheelline := 90%⋅ Rtrucks ⋅ IM ⋅ gv....3 kip Rlanes = 57.Two HL-93 Vehicles The reaction..0 kip . whereas gv.3c] Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (θ>90 deg) and to all beams in a multibeam bridge. Input Variables A1....Skew 2 The lane load reaction (including skew modification factor) is applied on the deck as a distributed load over the 10 ft lane..6.....6 kip IM = 1....

the controlling number and position of design live load lanes needs to be determined.16 4.03 0.5 87. For this example.74 1. Influence Lines for Maximum Positive Moment in Span 1 6 Influence Lines Maximum Positive Moment in Span 1 Influence Line Magnitude -1. The influence lines are developed from the following model of the substructure.3 41. The maximum positive moment in the pier cap will occur in the first bay.04 1.6 13. the maximum positive moment is expected to occur at beam 3 (0. B1.3 78.5L) location.1 69.09 0. Influence Lines for the Maximum Positive Moment in Pier Cap The influence lines for the pier cap will help determine the placement of design lanes on the deck to maximize moments in the pier cap.4L from column 1 in span 1 for self-weight and uniformly applied loads.8 97.60 -0.B. the finite element program LARSA 2000 was used to generate the influence lines at beam 3 location in the substructure model.00 4 Influence Line Magnitude 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 -2 1 2 3 4 -4 -6 Distance along Pier Cap (ft) Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Distance 4.1 32.05 -0. Maximum Positive Live Load Moment For design live load moments in the pier cap.23 0. along with the corresponding beam loads and pier cap moments.05 0.8 60.9 23.42 -0.02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 191 .6 50.0 Substructure Design 3. the maximum positive moment occurs at a distance of 0. Typically. This section shows a means of determining the controlling configuration of design lanes. For concentrated loads.

**B2. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment
**

HL-93 vehicles, comprising of HL-93 wheel-line loads and lane loads, should be placed on the deck to maximize the moments in the pier cap. Design Lane Placements For this example, the lane placements should maximize the positive moment in span 1. Referring to the influence lines for the pier cap, lanes placed above beams 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 10 will contribute to the maximum positive moment. Beam 3 is the most influential, followed by beam 2. The graph also shows that lanes placed above beams 1, 5, 6, 7, and 11 will reduce the maximum positive moment. From this information, several possible configurations for 1, 2, 3, and 4 lanes can be developed to maximize the positive moment in span 1. Note that for the maximum cap moments, live load is also placed on the other roadway. The influence line justifies live load placement in this roadway. Utilizing our engineering judgement, it is possible to have up to four lanes of HL-93 vehicles at a single time. However, note that for the calculation of the braking forces, vehicles in the opposite roadway were not utilized since the braking forces would be counter productive or in opposite directions.

Depending on the number of design lanes, a multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.2-1) is applied to the HL-93 wheel line loads and lane load.

MPF = 1.2 if Number_of_lanes = 1 1.0 if Number_of_lanes = 2 0.85 if Number_of_lanes = 3 0.65 if Number_of_lanes ≥ 4

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Corresponding Beam Loads The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the pier cap through the beams. Utilizing the lever rule, the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated and multiplied by the multiple presence factors.

Beam Loads 2 Lanes 3 Lanes 0 0 61.7 52.5 136.3 115.9 104.6 89 18.7 15.9 0 0 0 0 0 42.4 0 85.9 0 8.3 0 0

Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1 Lane 0 34 124.7 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 Lanes 0 40.1 88.6 69 75.6 40.1 0 32.4 65.7 6.3 0

Corresponding Moments The moments in the pier cap corresponding to the beam loads were determined using the Larsa 2000.

Maximum Positive Moment (k-ft) 725.7 892.8 769.3 590.2

1 Lane 2 Lanes 3 Lanes 4 Lanes

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**C. Maximum Negative Live Load Moment
**

C1. Influence Lines for Maximum Negative Moment in Pier Cap

The maximum negative moment in the pier cap can occur at the first or second column. In this section, Larsa 2000 was used to generate the influence lines at the second intermediate column in the pier cap model. The maximum negative moment at the first column, pier cap overhang, will be checked separately.

**Influence Lines for Maximum Negative Moment at Column 2 (left)
**

3

**Influence Lines Maximum Negative Moment at Column 2
**

Influence Line Magnitude (Column left face) Influence Line Magnitude (Column right face)

2

Influence Line Magnitude

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

0

-1

1

-2

2

3

4

-3 Distance along Pier Cap (ft)

Beam 1 2 3 4 Col left Col right 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Distance 4.6 13.9 23.1 32.3 35.0 39.0 41.6 50.8 60.1 69.3 78.5 87.8 97.0

-0.66 0.93 1.90 0.36 0.00 -0.96 1.34 0.48 -0.10 -0.29 -0.17 0.21

0.27 -0.57 -1.47 -1.00 -0.00 -0.26 -1.63 -0.74 0.15 0.26 0.08 0.04

**C2. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment
**

HL-93 vehicles, comprising of HL-93 wheel-line loads and lane loads, should be placed on the deck to maximize the moments in the pier cap. Design Lane Placements For this example, the lane placements should maximize the negative moment above column 2. Referring to the influence lines for the pier cap, lanes placed above beams 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11 will contribute to the maximum negative moment. Beam 3 is the most influential, followed by beam 6. The graph also shows that lanes placed above beams 1, 8, 9, and 10 will reduce the maximum negative moment. From this information, several possible configurations for 2, 3, and 4 lanes can be developed to maximize the negative moment above column 2.

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Corresponding Beam Loads The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the pier cap through the beams. Utilizing the lever rule, the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated and multiplied by the multiple presence factors.

Beam Loads 2 Lanes 3 Lanes 0 0 61.7 52.5 136.3 115.9 104.6 89 18.7 68.3 0 83 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

1 Lane 0 1.7 117.1 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 Lanes 0 40.1 88.6 68 52.3 88.6 68 12.2 0 0 0

Corresponding Moments The moments in the pier cap corresponding to the beam loads were determined using the Larsa 2000.

Maximum Negative Moment (k-ft) -515.1 -737.6 -814.6 -265.8

1 Lane 2 Lanes 3 Lanes 4 Lanes

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**D. Overhang Negative Live Load Moment
**

In this section, the negative moment at column 1 is determined due to the overhang.

**D1. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment
**

HL-93 vehicles, comprising of HL-93 wheel-line loads and lane loads, should be placed on the deck to maximize the moments in the pier cap. Design Lane Placements For this example, the lane placements should maximize the negative moment above column 1. The maximum negative moment will be obtained by loading beam 1. From this information, placing a single lane next to the barrier will maximize the negative moment above column 1.

Corresponding Beam Loads and Moment The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the pier cap through the beams. Utilizing the lever rule, the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated and multiplied by the multiple presence factors.

Beam Loads 1 Lane 2 Lanes 144.6 --48.2 --0 --0 --0 --0 --0 --0 --0 --0 --0 ---

Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

The moments in the pier cap corresponding to the beam loads were determined using the Larsa 2000.

Maximum Overhang Moment (k-ft) -727.6

1 Lane

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E. Summary

The results show that two design lanes govern. The following beam loads, corresponding to the governing positive moment live load, will later be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design factored and unfactored positive moments for the pier cap........................

**UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (+M) AT PIER
**

Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 0.0 -61.7 0.0 -136.3 0.0 -104.6 0.0 -18.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

The results show that three design lanes govern. The following beam loads, corresponding to the governing negative moment live load, will later be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design factored and unfactored negative moments for the pier cap......................................

**UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (-M) AT PIER
**

Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 0.0 -52.5 0.0 -115.9 0.0 -89.0 0.0 -68.3 0.0 -83.0 0.0 -1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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.0 -144.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defined Units Substructure Design 3.0 -48..0 0....0 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0..6 0.0 0.0 0. corresponding to the governing overhang negative moment live load.0 0.0 0.2 0...... will later be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design factored and unfactored negative moments for the pier cap.0 0.0 0.0 0...0 0..0 0..The following beam loads.0 0.0 0..0 0.0 0..0 0.0 0. UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (Overhang) AT PIER Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 0.0 0..02 Pier Cap Live Load Analysis 198 ...0 0..0 0.0 0.0 0.

General Criteria A1.larsausa.m Description This section provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure pier cap design.8. Larsa 2000 was chosen as the analysis model/program (http://www. Substructure self-weight. For this design example. The loads calculated in this file are only from the superstructure. Temperature.3] 216 C. Design Limit States C1.4] B3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 199 .SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Cap Design Loads Reference Reference:\\Sdo-appserver\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\302LLs. wind on substructure and uniform temperature on substructure can be generated by the substructure analysis model/program chosen by the user.com) Page 200 202 Contents LRFD Criteria A. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS B5. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.1. Pier Live Load Summary A4. Strength I Limit State C2. Strength V Limit State C3. Creep and Shrinkage Forces B4. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.6. Center of Movement B2. Pier Dead Load Summary A3. Bearing Design Movement/Strain A2. Center of Movement 205 B. Service I Limit State Substructure Design 3. Lateral Load Analysis B1.

Strength5 = 1.25⋅ DC + 1.0⋅ DW + 1.35⋅ BR + 0.25⋅ DC + 1..40⋅ WS + 1.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH ) "Applicable but does not control substructure pier cap design.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) EXTREME EVENT I .50⋅ DW + 1.40⋅ WS + 0. "Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example" STRENGTH III - Load combination relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 55 MPH.35⋅ LL + 1. + 0.25⋅ DC + 1. No friction forces.0⋅ ( TU + CR + SH ) SERVICE II - Load combination intended to control yielding of steel structures and slip of slip-critical connections due to vehicular live load. Strength3 = 1.50⋅ DW + 1. collision by vessels and vehicles. or both without wind.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 200 .. not evaluated" STRENGTH IV - Load combination relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios.0⋅ WL .0⋅ WL + 1. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" STRENGTH V - Load combination relating to normal vehicular use of the bridge with wind of 55 MPH velocity. Service1 = 1.0⋅ BR + 0. "Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example" Substructure Design 3.3WS + 1.LRFD Criteria STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind. WA = 0 FR = 0 TU For superstructure design. evaluation permit vehicles..0⋅ LL + 1.Load combination relating to ice load.. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" SERVICE I - Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.50⋅ DW + 1.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH ) STRENGTH II - Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Owner-specified special design vehicles.Load combination including earthquake.0⋅ DC + 1. and certain hydraulic events. Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the substructure analysis model (Larsa 2000). water load and stream pressure are not applicable. "Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example" EXTREME EVENT II . Strength1 = 1.75⋅ LL + 0.

SERVICE III - Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed concrete structures with the objective of crack control. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" Substructure Design 3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 201 . "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" FATIGUE - Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck.

8 0.0 0.0 0.0 -174.3 0..0 0..0 0.0 -183...4 0.0 -174.0 -10...4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0..0 0..0 0.3 0.0 0..0 -9...0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 202 .0 -183.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -174.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A3.0 0..3 0.4 0.0 -9... 2.0 0.Bearing Design Movement/Strain) A2.0 0.0 0.0 -174.6 0.0 -104...0 -61.4 0. Pier Live Load Summary Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for LL loads corresponding to maximum positive moment UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (+M) AT PIER Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 -9.0 0.00047 (Note: See Sect.0 0.0 0.0 0..4 0.3 0.0 -174.3 0.7 0..0 -9.10.0 0.0 -9.0 -9.. Bearing Design Movement/Strain Strain due to temperature...3 0.3 0.0 0.. General Criteria A1.4 0. Pier Dead Load Summary UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER Beam DC Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.7 0..0 -9.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 z 0. creep and shrinkage.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.3 0.0 0.0 0..0 -174.A.0 0.6 z 0.0 DW Loads (kip) x y 0.0 -174.6 0...0 -136.4 0.0 z 0.0 0..0 0.0 -174..0 0........B4 ..3 0.3 0....0 0.0 -9.0 0...0 0..0 0....0 -10.4 0.0 -174.0 0. ε CST = 0.0 -9.0 -18.

0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 -68.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.9 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.0 0.0 0.Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for LL loads corresponding to maximum negative moment UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (-M) AT PIER Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -89.0 -48.0 -52.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 203 .0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for LL loads corresponding to maximum overhang negative moment UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (Overhang) AT PIER Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 -144.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -83.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -115.5 0.

.....03 Pier Cap Design Loads 204 .. L0 = 90.. Center of Movement By inspection...A4.....0 ft L0 := Lspan Substructure Design 3. the center of movement will be the intermediate pier........

**B. Lateral Load Analysis
**

B1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.6.3]

LRFD 4.6.1.2.1 states that effects of curvature may be neglected on open cross-sections whose radius is such that the central angle subtended by each span is less than:

Number of Beams 2 3 or 4 5 or more

Angle for One Span 2o 3o 4o

**Angle for Two or More Spans 3o 4o 5o
**

R := 3800⋅ ft Lspan θ 1span := R θ 2span := Lbridge R

**Horizontal curve data.............................. Angle due to one span.............................
**

θ 1span = 1.4 deg

**Angle due to all spans.............................
**

θ 2span = 2.7 deg

Since the number of beams is greater than 5 and the angles are within LRFD requirements, the bridge can be analyzed as a straight structure and therefore, centrifigal force effects are not necessary.

**B2. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.6.4]
**

The braking force should be taken as the greater of: 25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem 5% of design truck / tandem and lane The number of lanes for braking force calculations depends on future expectations of the bridge. For this example, the bridge is not expected to become one-directional in the future, and future widening is expected to occur to the outside. From this information, the number of lanes is

Nlanes = 3

**The multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.6.1.1.2-1) should be taken into account..
**

MPF = 0.85

MPF :=

1.2 if Nlanes = 1 1.0 if Nlanes = 2 0.85 if Nlanes = 3 0.65 otherwise

**Braking force as 25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem.............................
**

BRForce.1 = 45.9 kip

BRForce.1 := 25%⋅ ( 72⋅ kip ) ⋅ Nlanes⋅ MPF

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205

**Braking force as 5% of axle weight for design truck / tandem and lane.................
**

BRForce.2 = 23.9 kip

BRForce.2 := 5%⋅ 72⋅ kip + wlane⋅ 2 ⋅ Lspan ⋅ Nlanes⋅ MPF

(

)

**Governing braking force.........................
**

BRForce = 45.9 kip

BRForce := max BRForce.1 , BRForce.2

(

)

Distribution of Braking Forces to Pier

The same bearing pads are provided at the pier and end bent to distribute the braking forces. The braking force transferred to the pier or end bents is a function of the bearing pad and pier column stiffnesses. For this example, (1) the pier column stiffnesses are ignored, (2) the deck is continuous over pier 2 and expansion joints are provided only at the end bents.

BRPier = BRForce ⋅ KPier KPier =

Braking force at pier...............................

(

)

where.............................................

Npads.pier⋅ Kpad

∑ (Npads.pier + Npads.endbent)⋅Kpad

**Simplifying and using variables defined in this example, pier stiffness can be calculated as.......
**

KPier = 0.5 2 ⋅ Nbeams KPier := ( 1 + 2 + 1 ) ⋅ Nbeams BRPier := BRForce ⋅ KPier

**corresponding braking force..............
**

BRPier = 23.0 kip

(

)

Since the bridge superstructure is very stiff in the longitudinal direction, the braking forces are assumed to be equally distributed to the beams under the respective roadway.

beams := 6 BRPier BRPier := beams

**Braking force at pier per beam.................
**

BRPier = 3.8 kip

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Adjustments for Skew The braking force is transferred to the pier by the bearing pads. The braking forces need to be resolved along the direction of the skew for design of the pier substructure. Braking force perpendicular (z-direction) to the pier per beam....................................

BRz.Pier = 3.3 kip BRz.Pier := BRPier⋅ cos( Skew)

**Braking force parallel (x-direction) to the pier per beam.........................................
**

BRx.Pier = −1.9 kip

BRx.Pier := BRPier⋅ sin( Skew)

Adjustments for Braking Force Loads Applied 6' above Deck The longitudinal moment induced by braking forces over a pier is resisted by the moment arm. Conservatively, assume the braking occurs over one span only, then the result is an uplift reaction on the downstation end bent or pier and a downward reaction at the upstation end bent or pier. In this example, the braking is assumed to occur in span 1 and the eccentricity of the downward load with the bearing and centerline of pier eccentricities is ignored.

**Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load............................
**

M arm = 11.250 ft

M arm := 6ft + h −BRPier⋅ M arm Lspan

**Braking force in pier (y-direction), vertical
**

BRy.Pier = −0.5 kip

BRy.Pier :=

Only the downward component of this force is considered. Typically, the vertical forces (uplift) are small and can be ignored.

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207

**BRAKING FORCES AT PIER
**

BR Loads (kip) x y -1.9 -0.5 -1.9 -0.5 -1.9 -0.5 -1.9 -0.5 -1.9 -0.5 -1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Beam

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

z 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

**B3. Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Forces
**

The forces transferred from the superstructure to the substructure due to temperature, creep, and shrinkage are influenced by the shear displacements in the bearing pad. In this example, only temperature and shrinkage effects are considered. Creep is ignored, since this example assumes the beams will creep towards their center and the composite deck will offer some restraint. Displacements at top of pier due to temperature, creep, and shrinkage............

∆ Pier2 = 0.0 in

∆ Pier2 := ⎛ L0 − x dist ⎞ ⋅ ε CST 1⎠ ⎝

where

ε CST = 0.00047

Since the bridge has two equal spans and fairly constant pier stiffnesses, the center of movement is the intermediate pier. The center of movement has no displacements, so the pier has no displacements. Shear force transferred through each bearing pad due to creep, shrinkage, and temperature............................................

CSTPier = 0.00 kip Gmax⋅ Apad⋅ ∆ Pier2 h rt

CSTPier :=

This force needs to be resolved along the direction of the skew... Shear force perpendicular (z-direction) to the pier per beam...................................

CSTz.Pier = 0.00 kip CSTz.Pier := CSTPier⋅ cos( Skew)

**Shear force parallel (x-direction) to the pier per beam...............................................
**

CSTx.Pier = 0.00 kip

CSTx.Pier := CSTPier⋅ sin( Skew)

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Summary of beam reactions at the pier due to creep, shrinkage and temperature...

**CREEP, SHRINKAGE, TEMPERATURE FORCES AT PIER
**

Beam CR, SH, TU Loads (kip) x y z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Note:

Shrinkage and temperature effects from the pier substructure can be calculated within the substructure model / analysis program. These values are only from the superstructure.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

**B4. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS
**

The wind loads are applied to the superstructure and substructure. Loads from Superstructure [LRFD 3.8.1.2.2] The wind pressure on the superstructure consists of lateral (x-direction) and longitudinal (z-direction) components. z x For prestressed beam bridges, the following wind pressures are given in the LRFD...................................................

⎛0⎞ ⎜ 15 ⎜ ⎟ Windskew := ⎜ 30 ⎟ ⎜ 45 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 60 ⎠

⎛ .050 ⎜ .044 ⎜ WindLRFD := ⎜ .041 ⎜ .033 ⎜ ⎝ .017

.000 ⎞ .006 .012 ⎟ ⋅ ksf .016 ⎟ .019 ⎠

⎟

The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach, Broward, Dade, and Monroe counties (LRFD 2.4.1). For bridges over 75 feet high or with unusual structural features, the wind pressures must be submitted to FDOT for approval. This example assumes a South Florida location, so the 20% factor applies...........

WindFDOT := γ FDOT⋅ WindLRFD

x

z

0.000 ⎞ 0.007 0.014 ⎟ ksf 0.019 ⎟ 0.023 ⎠

⎛ 0.060 ⎜ 0.053 ⎜ WindFDOT = ⎜ 0.049 ⎜ 0.040 ⎜ ⎝ 0.020

⎟

Substructure Design

3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads

209

**Composite section height.........................
**

h = 5.25 ft

Superstructure Height.............................

h Super := h + 2.667 ⋅ ft

**Height above ground that the wind pressure is applied...............................................
**

Z1 = 24.42 ft

Z1 := h Col − h Surcharge + h Cap + h Super

(

)

The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure. Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area. Exposed superstructure area at Pier 2.......

ASuper = 712.5 ft

2

ASuper := Lspan⋅ h Super

Forces due to wind applied to the superstructure.......................................

WS Super.Pier := WindFDOT⋅ ASuper

x

z

⎜ 37.6 ⎜ WS Super.Pier = ⎜ 35.1 ⎜ 28.2 ⎜ ⎝ 14.5

⎛ 42.8 0.0

5.1

⎞ ⎟

10.3 ⎟ kip 13.7 ⎟ 16.2 ⎠

A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. The maximum transverse and longitudinal forces are used in the following calculations. Maximum transverse force......................

FWS.x = 42.8 kip FWS.x := WS Super.Pier 0, 0

**Maximum longitudinal force....................
**

FWS.z = 16.2 kip

FWS.z := WS Super.Pier 4, 1

The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew. Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the pier.......................................................

WS z.Pier = 35.4 kip WS z.Pier := FWS.z ⋅ cos( Skew) − FWS.x⋅ sin( Skew)

**Force parallel (x-direction) to the pier.......
**

WS x.Pier = 28.9 kip

WS x.Pier := FWS.z ⋅ sin( Skew) + FWS.x⋅ cos( Skew)

Substructure Design

3.03 Pier Cap Design Loads

210

...0 2.0 2..2 3.......4..048 ksf WindFDOT := γ FDOT⋅ WindLRFD General equation for wind forces applied to the substructure.2 3.2 3. WS Force = WindPressure ⋅ Exposed AreaSubstructure ⋅ SkewAdjustment ( )( )( ) For modeling purposes in this example. WindLRFD := 0..6 0. This force needs to be resolved into the reactions in each beam...0 2.0 2.0 2.. WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT PIER WS Loads (kip) x y 2..2..6 0....8. and Monroe counties (LRFD 2....04⋅ ksf The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach...... so the 20% factor applies...3] Wind pressure applied directly to the substructure.2 3......0 2..6 0.The force due to wind acts on the full superstructure...6 0..2 3..1..2 3.2 3...6 0.2 3....1)..0 2....0 2....2 3.. This example assumes a South Florida location.... Substructure Design 3. Dade..03 Pier Cap Design Loads 211 .6 0.0 2. WindFDOT = 0. The following table summarizes the beam reactions due to wind. Broward......2 Loads from Substructure [LRFD 3.....6 0..0 2..6 0...6 0......2 3.6 0... the following information summarizes the placement of wind forces on the substructure...6 0......0 Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 z 3...

014 0.26 klf ( ) The transverse (x-direction) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height..066 ⎜ ⎝ ..4.... WS x...13 kip ( ) ( ) The longitudinal (z-direction) wind load on the column is applied as a line load on the exposed column height.088 WindLRFD := ⎜ .07 klf ( ) B5. WindFDOT := 1.PierCap := WindFDOT⋅ ⎡ b Cap⋅ h Cap ⋅ cos( Skew) + LCap⋅ h Cap ⋅ sin( Skew) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ WS x.8.PierCol = 0..012 The LRFD specifies that wind load should be applied to vehicles on the bridge.082 ⎜ .024 ⎟ ⋅ ... Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.PierCap := WindFDOT⋅ h Cap⋅ cos( Skew) − h Cap⋅ sin( Skew) WS z.30 klf ( ) The transverse (x-direction) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a point load on the end of the cap.041 ⎟ kip ft Substructure Design 3...034 ⎞ ⎟ kip ft .000 ⎞ 0.PierCol := WindFDOT⋅ b Col⋅ cos( Skew) − b Col⋅ sin( Skew) WS z.PierCap = −10.100 ⎜ ⎜ .03 Pier Cap Design Loads 212 .. WS z.PierCol = 0. WS x.098 ⎜ 0. ⎛ .029 ⎟ 0. Dade.032 ⎟ ... and Monroe counties (LRFD 2..3] ⎛0⎞ ⎜ 15 ⎜ ⎟ Skewwind := ⎜ 30 ⎟ ⎜ 45 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 60 ⎠ x z 0 . so the 20% factor applies.038 ⎟ 0. Broward..PierCol := WindFDOT⋅ b Col⋅ cos( Skew) + b Col⋅ sin( Skew) WS x.The longitudinal (z-direction) wind load on the pier cap is applied as a line load along the front of the cap.079 ⎜ ⎝ 0.038 ⎠ The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach.046 ⎠ ⎛ 0. WS z.20⋅ WindLRFD x z 0.1).120 ⎜ 0.1. This example assumes a South Florida location..PierCap = 0..106 ⎜ WindFDOT = ⎜ 0.

.z = 4.....3 2.. WLSuper.............1 ⎜ ⎝ 3.Pier WLz..............................95 kip WLz...Pier WLx..25 ft Z2 := Z1 − 2..Pier := FWL.30 kip Force parallel (x-direction) to the cap per beam..8 ⎜ 9.......Pier := FWL........ Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the pier... FWL...z⋅ sin( Skew) + FWL...03 Pier Cap Design Loads 213 . WLx.........x⋅ sin( Skew) Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the pier per beam..........5 ⎜ WLSuper.. WLz.......................Beam = 0.......5 ⎟ 4.........7 ⎟ A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required. FWL.......81 kip WLz... 0 Maximum longitudinal force........z := WLSuper....6 ⎟ kip 3......................x = 10.Pier 4...... The maximum transverse and longitudinal forces are used in the following calculations..... Z2 = 28..Pier = 7......1667⋅ ft + 6ft ( ) The wind forces on vehicles are transmitted to Pier 2 of the substructure using tributary lengths. LPier = 90 ft LPier := Lspan Forces due to wind on vehicles applied to the superstructure.....................9 ⎜ 7..........Beam := Nbeams WLx..Beam := Nbeams Substructure Design 3.....1 kip FWL........8 kip FWL....x⋅ cos( Skew) Force parallel (x-direction) to the cap.... Maximum transverse force..Pier = ⎜ 8.Pier 0... 1 The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.....Pier := WindFDOT⋅ LPier x z 0.. WLx..................x := WLSuper...................66 kip WLx... WLz.1 ⎠ ⎛ 10..Pier = 8.......0 ⎞ 1......z⋅ cos( Skew) − FWL....Beam = 0........Height above ground for wind pressure on vehicles.........

.Beam := For this design example.. Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load.. the tilting effect of the vehicle is resisted by up and down reactions on the beams assuming the deck to act as a simple span between beams.....10 kip WLy....) Substructure Design 3. For this example..... WLy.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 214 .250 ft (Marm = h + 6 ft) −WLz.......... this component of the load is ignored.. these loads can be moved across the deck.Beam⋅ M arm Lspan Vertical force in pier due to wind pressure on vehicle per beam.Longitudinal Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles The longitudinal moment is resisted by the moment arm (similar to braking forces). Transverse Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles Using the principles of the lever rule for transverse distribution of live load on beams................ It assumes that the wind acting on the live load will cause the vehicle to tilt over... Using the lever rule.Beam = −0..... the wind on live can be distributed similarly. (To maximize the loads at other locations....... the reaction at beam 3 is maximized for maximum positive moment in the pier cap... M arm = 11.....

8 0.. WLy.3 0.7 -10..7 10.7 0.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 215 .. M arm = 11.7 0.27 kip WLy..7 0.8 0.....0 0.Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load.Beam = −10.8 0.8 0...8 0..7 0. apply this load to all beams WIND ON LIVE LOAD FORCES AT PIER Beam WL Loads (kip) x y 0....250 ft Vertical reaction on one beam on pier from transverse wind pressure on vehicles..0 0...0 0...8 0.7 0.7 0.0 0..7 0.7 0..Beam := −WLx.0 0.3 0..7 0....8 0.8 0......8 0..0 0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.0 z 0.8 0..Pier⋅ M arm BeamSpacing Since this load can occur at any beam location..0 0.0 0.

Fixity of the pier was provided at the bottom of the columns. maximum negative moment in span 1.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 216 . include the following loads: • • DC: self-weight of the substructure. in LEAP's RCPier. equal to: α t⋅ ( 25⋅ °F) = 0. Strudl. the loads applied at the top of the cap from the beams are applied to rigid links that transfer the lateral loads as a lateral load and moment at the centroid of the pier cap. For each limit state. etc. Sap2000. In the analysis model. acting on the substructure. Larsa 2000. and service I limit states are summarized in this section. two load cases would be required for temperature with a positive and negative strain being inputed.00015 Note that in our model. These reactions are from the superstructure only. Substructure Design 3. include pier cap and columns TU: a temperature increase and fall on the pier substructure utilizing the following parameters: coefficient of expansion α t = 6 × 10 temperature change −6 1 °F temperatureincrease = temperaturefall = 25⋅ °F For instance. This is consistent with substructure design programs like LEAP's RCPier. such as a GTStrudl. Design Limit States The design loads for strength I. and maximum overhang negative moment.C. strength V. three loading conditions are presented: maximum positive moment in the cap.

0 -232.3 -232.3 -471.3 -340.0 0.3 -377.5⋅ DW + 1.5 -3.0 0.0 0.7 Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 +M Loads (kip) X Y -3.8 -3.3 0.3 -317.8 -3.8 5.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 217 .1 0.0 0.8 0.0 0. C1.3 -415.0 0.0 -232.0 -234.8 -3.0 0.0 0.0 -232.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 5.8 -3. Strength I Limit State Loads Strength1 = 1.0 0.8 5.8 -3.8 -3.3 -232.3 -352.0 -232.25⋅ DC + 1.3 -232.9 -3.9 5.7 5.3 -232.3 -388.7 Z 5.0 0.3 -246.9 5.0 0.0 0.• WS: Wind on the substructure should be applied directly to the analysis model.0 0.6 5.6 -3.8 -3.3 -499.4 -3.3 -246.7 0.0 0.5 5.0 -232.3 -324.9 5.0 -3.0 0.0 -245. The following is an example of the wind locations and terminology used in our analysis: Forces applied directly to the analysis model • All applied loads in the substructure analysis model should be multiplied by the appropriate load factor values and combined with the limit state loads calculated in this file for the final results.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength I Limit State -M Loads (kip) Z X Y 5.8 -3.0 0.2 5.7 5.0 0.0 -245.0 -232.0 0.0 0.75⋅ LL + 1.0 0.0 Substructure Design 3.0 0.0 0.3 -265.75BR + 0.8 -3.0 0.0 -232.0 -232.0 0.4 0.3 -435.0 -245.0 0.8 -3.3 -232.0 Overhang -M Loads (kip) X Y Z -3.8 5.5 5.0 -232.8 -3.0 -232.0 -232.

1 2.3WS + 1.08 klf Pier Column Substructure Design 3.1 -0.50⋅ DW + 1.7 -245.0 2.0⋅ LL + 1.9 6.0⋅ BR + 0.1 5.0 1.5 -310.02 klf 0.1 5.5 -194.1 -0.6 -0.7 -232.4 -0.6 6.1 5.3 -0.10 klf Pier Column C3.5 -202.1 1.7 2.1 -M Loads (kip) X Y -0.6 1.9 -232.7 -232.1 5.1 Overhang -M Loads (kip) X Y Z -0.1 1.8 1.35⋅ LL + 1.5 -184.7 -245.4 5.03 klf 0.8 1.7 -232.1 2.6 6.7 -232.5 -183.8 1.7 Z 6.5 5.4 1.C2.12 klf Pier Cap 0.9 -293.5 6.7 6.9 -352.7 -0.1 2.7 1.5 -339.8 1.4 Overhang -M Loads (kip) X Y Z -0.35⋅ BR + 0.6 6.9 -0.1 2.4 -0. Strength V Limit State Loads Strength5 = 1.6 6.7 -232.5 -194.9 -232.7 1.5 -183.9 -287.9 -232.7 -233.40⋅ WS + 1.6 -0.9 -246.9 -324.7 -232.1 2.0⋅ DW + 1.9 -0.0 2.1 5.8 1.1 5.7 1.4 -M Loads (kip) X Y -0.0 1.5 -0.5 -184.6 -0.1 2.1 Wind Loads Applied to Substructure X (transv) Z (long) -4.1 5.9 -344.5 -184.6 -0.7 1.0 1.6 -0.5 -222.2 -0. Service I Limit State Loads Service1 = 1.5 -183.0⋅ WL + 0.0 2.05 kip 0.7 1.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 +M Loads (kip) X Y -0.5 -235.8 Z 5.5 -194.1 1.7 -232.5 -194.3 -0.7 -245.9 -0.8 1.5 -183.5 -226.8 1.9 1.9 -246.8 1.7 1.9 -257.5 -183.8 1.09 klf Pier Cap 0.5 -194.7 1.7 1.9 -242.2 5.5 -183.5 -183.8 1.0⋅ DC + 1.5 -183.6 2.03 Pier Cap Design Loads 218 .8 1.8 -0.5 -252.1 5.7 -232.5 -183.7 -232.1 5.4 -0.0 1.5 -273.8 1.9 -305.1 2.9 -0.1 2.9 -373.1 -0.1 1.2 5.6 6.5 6.0⋅ CST +M Loads (kip) X Y -0.1 2.1 1.5 -330.5 -183.25⋅ DC + 1.0 1.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 -0.7 1.9 -399.8 Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Z 5.7 1.7 -232.5 -183.1 2.8 1.7 1.8 -0.0 1.1 1.7 Z 6.0 1.3 -0.8 Wind Loads Applied to Substructure X (transv) Z (long) -3.9 -0.9 -232.9 -426.1 1.1 -0.6 6.8 -0.04 kip 0.5 -183.6 6.5 -266.7 6.5 -288.1 -0.1 1.7 1.8 -0.5 -194.7 -232.6 -0.7 1.5 -183.9 -441.0⋅ WL + 1.6 2.0 2.0 2.7 1.6 6.

03 Pier Cap Design Loads 219 .49 3.15 -16.69 -14.99 -11.95 0.24 2. (2) Values highlighted are governing design loads.-M Cap -TU Strength 1 .63 6.25 18.24 -17.48 -27.86 2.01 -13.05 -626.90 -6.24 -13.24 -26.90 2006.55 2063.31 1966.83 520.OH Cap -TU Service 1 .94 476.48 2.-M Cap -TU Strength 5 .66 32.47 3.36 -643.65 3.27 59.41 650.20 8.C4.38 -32.OH Cap -TU Strength 1 .73 * -3108. Defined Units Substructure Design 3.75 -177.35 14.95 -3.OH Cap -TU -35.65 -199.+M Cap -TU 18 Service 1 .69 13.48 17.21 1715. Design of overhang will have the same steel as the negative moment requirements within the cap.82 45.12 11.00 43. (4) (-TU) means load case with a temperature fall in the substructure governed.99 NOTES: (1) Values at face of column (*) used for design.06 -28.47 2453.78 14.15 -0.69 -45.89 -122.+M Cap -TU 18 Strength 5 .58 -362.15 367.48 -21.-M Cap -TU Strength 5 . Also note that Strength V values do not govern in the design of the pier cap.74 -22.55 2742.97 9.83 1060. (3) -M cap design govern over overhang moment.12 * -3194.74 5.23 -0.74 -514.62 * -2203.48 -8.74 -6.85 -31.24 -43.36 1375. Other node results given represents value at centerline of column.-M Cap -TU Service 1 .-M Cap -TU Service 1 .10 632.54 -9.85 19.52 -11.23 26.+M Cap -TU 20 21 20 21 20 21 14 15 14 15 Strength 1 .81 45.33 -14.57 -9.14 -469.40 * -1698. Only the highlighted values are used for the pier cap design.12 53. Summary of Results LARSA 2000 RESULTS Member Joint Result Case Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz 17 17 17 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 14 14 14 18 Strength 1 .OH Cap -TU Service 1 .-M Cap -TU Strength 1 .54 10.77 * -2621.

Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3. Summary SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.2] B2.04 Pier Cap Design 220 . Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.4] 235 D. Mass Concrete Provisions 230 C.7.10. Input Variables B.4] B4.8] D1. Transverse Reinforcement D4. Negative Moment Region Design .7.3.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. Positive Moment Region Design . Positive Moment Design B1.3.7.7.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. Check if Torsion Design is Required D2.3.mcd(R) Description This section provides the criteria for the pier cap design. Shear and Torsion Design [LRFD 5.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Cap Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\303PierCapLds. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance D3. Page 221 223 Contents A.7.3. Negative Moment Design C1.7. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.2] B5.3.3] B3. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8. Longitudinal Reinforcement 239 E.2] C2.3] C3.

....... Design Parameters Resistance factor for flexure and tension of reinforced concrete.........................9 φv := 0.... Resistance factor for shear and torsion (normal weight concrete)....... φ = 0.. the number of design traffic lanes per roadway..... Rdwywidth = 42 ft N lanes = 3 Florida Design Criteria Concrete cover for substructure not in contact with water...sub = 5......... can be calculated as: Roadway clear width....sub = 3841 ksi Environmentsub = "Moderately" Note: Epoxy coated reinforcing not allowed on FDOT projects.90 γ conc = 150 pcf Es = 29000 ksi fy = 60 ksi Design Lanes Current lane configurations show two striped lanes per roadway with a traffic median barrier separating the roadways..... Using the roadway clear width between barriers.............................. Modulus of elasticity for cast-in-place substructure...........5 ksi Ec..........................earth = 4 in fc........................... Environmental classification for substructure.......... Input Variables Material Properties Unit weight of concrete... Minimum 28-day compressive strength for cast-in-place substructure...... Concrete cover for substructure in contact with water or earth. Number of design traffic lanes per roadway............ cover sub = 3 in cover sub................................. Modulus of elasticity for reinforcing steel..... Yield strength for reinforcing steel.04 Pier Cap Design 221 .......... Rdwywidth ............................................ SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...........................A........... N lanes ....................

..........................5 ft⋅ kip V Strength1..... Moment (-M) ..... SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3....... Width of pier cap................... Column diameter. Surchage (column section in ground)........2 ft⋅ kip M Service1.. By inspection..Strength.......5 ft⋅ kip M Strength1...04 Pier Cap Design 222 ..........614 ft hCol = 14 ft b Col = 4 ft nCol = 4 hSurcharge = 2 ft Design Loads ........... Note 1 : The design for shear on this section utilized the corresponding shear due to moment (-M)...neg = 2063.... Length of pier cap... the loading for maximum shear is similar to the shear produced by the loading for maximum moment (-M) in the cap...................Strength................. Corresponding Torsion (+M) ..neg = 45............. M Service1.Strength............... Corresponding Torsion (-M) .... Number of columns.........pos = −28 ft⋅ kip Moment (+M) .pos = 2742.............. Shears and Torques Moment (-M) . In a design...........neg = −643. hCap = 4.5 ft LCap = 101........Strength.......neg = 1715.......5 ft b Cap = 4...Pier Geometry Height of pier cap.pos = 1966.... Corresponding Shear (-M) .....1 ft⋅ kip V Strength1......Service......Strength....4 kip *** See Note 1 TStrength1..................Moments.......8 ft⋅ kip M Strength1......Service.Strength.... the engineer will need to make sure that the applied live load maximizes the shear in the cap for design..7 kip TStrength1...............................pos = −199........... Corresponding Shear (+M) .. Moment (+M) ..... Length of pier column........

sub = 5. Same grid pattern allows the concrete vibrator to be more effective in reaching the full depth of the cap..pos M r = 2742. This prevents field errors whereas the top steel is mistakenly placed at the bottom or vice versa. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control..3.9 hCap = 54 in b Cap = 54 in M r = φ⋅ As. and distribution of reinforcement.85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 ( ) For a rectangular. If this arrangement is not possible. Positive Moment Design A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.B. a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0.7. M r := MStrength1. The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment..5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0..pos ⋅ fy 2 0. • • Use the same size and spacing of reinforcing for both the negative and positive moment regions.5 ft⋅ kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0. Positive Moment Region Design .04 Pier Cap Design 223 .85⋅ f'c⋅ b B1.2] Using variables defined in this example. give preference to maintaining the same spacing between the top and bottom reinforcement. maximum reinforcement. non-prestressed section. where fc. The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions.pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds − As. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. minimum reinforcement.85⋅ fc..

reqd := Find As ( ) 2 0..270 in dia = 1... crack control [Sect B3]will not be satisfied)...... As....reqd .... If not............ the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments....3 in As := nbar⋅ Abar 2 Bar area...........24 in 2 Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #5 stirrup)....pos := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 Moment capacity provided....... As = 15..................63 in 2 2 Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − As.. As....................85⋅ fc...85⋅ fc. As = 15.... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.....sub⋅ b Cap 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy The area of steel provided................. Once As is greater than As........270 in barspa = 4....... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement......sub⋅ b Cap 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy B2....7.. ds = 49.........04 Pier Cap Design 224 ... Size of bar.pos = 3287 ft⋅ kip 2 0......reqd = 12... Abar = 1.....Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars..............reqd = 12....... Note: if bar spacing is "-1".............. Equivalent bar spacing..... M r...3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced........3..24 in ... nbar := 12 bar := "10" (Note : If less than 12-#10 bars are chosen......................... and a bigger bar size should be selected.................................. should be greater than the area of steel required. M r.............7 in dia 5 ds := hCap − cover sub − − in 2 8 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required..... Bar diameter.... Area of steel provided... Area of steel required... SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3........................ the spacing is less than 3"......63 in ...........................

42 LRFD 5........65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section.3...........775 β 1 := max0......... Modulus of Rupture. de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for non-prestressed sections. maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.......85 − 0. β 1 = 0...3......... see LRFD equation C5..Area of steel provided.3...094 ratio should be less than 0...sub − 4000 ⋅ psi .............2 times greater than the cracking moment......................1 := "OK..... fr = 562...7 in c := As⋅ fy 0.........1-1" otherwise c de ≤ 0.........7.7. section is over-reinforced.... LRFD 5..... maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" if "NG..........04 Pier Cap Design 225 ..8 psi fr := 0..sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Cap Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement.......... As = 15.....24 in 2 Stress block factor...3...3......... c = 4..42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements................... 0...24⋅ fc....85⋅ fc.... M cr = 1231.0 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3................05⋅ fc...2 ft 3 S := b Cap⋅ hCap 6 2 Cracking moment..sub⋅ ksi Section modulus of cap...........1 = "OK...........7 in de := ds The c de = 0... de = 49... S = 15.....7.3.....

..3..1 ft⋅ kip .4] Concrete is subjected to cracking..reqd := min 1.. The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.pos ≥ M r............. A = 23.635 in dia dc := min hCap − ds . exceeds minimum requirements...7 in 2 nbar = 12 A := ( bCap) ⋅( 2⋅dc) nbar SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3......2 = "OK.......... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" B3.2 ⋅ Mcr ...3.....1 ft⋅ kip M r.........reqd = 1477..pos = 3287 ft⋅ kip ..........3..reqd "NG. Mr....... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if Mr..3.......... Mr. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure....04 Pier Cap Design 226 . Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement... 2 ⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of slab..2 := "OK.........7............ Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement...... 3 "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter. reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5.....6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) Crack width parameter....7.. Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in aggressive environment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.3..... Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. For this example...7.reqd = 1477. 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided.... The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5. dc = 2.......... LRFD 5...3... M r...).4)...Required flexural resistance. a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure"... z 1 fsa = ≤ 0.....7.......

fs...6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.6 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x ... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. Ts = 518. LRFD 5....3....pos xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.0 ksi Ts fs. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" if fs. crack control for positive moment not satisfied...3. adjust x = 12.actual ≤ fsa "NG...6⋅ in 1 2 ⋅ b Cap⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec.. x := 12....actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment..3. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.3...4 := "OK.6 in.Service limit state stress in reinforcement..04 Pier Cap Design 227 . provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5..actual = 34. ... This process is iterative... fsa = 36..7.6 in to equal xna = 12.sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 12..4 = "OK..7...0 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c ..... If the values are not equal...13 kip Ts := MService1..... 0..

st ≤ spacingshrink..............7.....0 in 2 Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement................. Bar diameter... 12⋅ in if b Cap < 48in ⋅ hCap < 48in ( )( ) min 2 ⋅ dc + dia .. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if barspa. 3in spacingshrink..temp Abar ⋅ 2 ........................750 in Ag := bCap⋅ hCap 2 Bar area..8 = "OK..... barspa..8 := "OK.. Ag = 2916.......0015 ⋅ Ag Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement spacingshrink................... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5...temp "NG......7.10...10. Ashrink........7 in ( 100⋅ Abar ) otherwise The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5....temp = 14...8.........temp = 4...............4 in 2 Ashrink......temp := min b Cap Ashrink.......04 Pier Cap Design 228 .....st := 12⋅ in Abar = 0.........2] Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar...44 in dia = 0.10......B4............... Gross area of section.........temp := 0. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5. barst := "5" if b Cap < 48in ⋅ hCap < 48in "6" otherwise barst = "6" ( )( ) Spacing of bar... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3..........

exceeds 1 ft and any > 1... dimension exceeds 3 feet SDG3..B5....9 = "Use mass concrete provisions" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3............9 := "Use mass concrete provisions" if Volume cap Surfacecap Volume cap Surfacecap = 1.........101 ft . Mass Concrete Provisions Surface area of pier cap... Surfacecap = 1869....... Volume cap = 2057..04 Pier Cap Design 229 .................6 ft 2 Surfacecap := 2 ⋅ b Cap⋅ hCap + 2b Cap + 2hCap ⋅ LCap ( ) Volume of pier cap.0 ⋅ ft ∧ b Cap > 3ft ∨ hCap > 3ft ( ) "Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise SDG3....7 ft 3 Volume cap := b Cap⋅ hCap⋅ LCap Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio.....

C. and distribution of reinforcement. and any additional steel is placed between these bars.7.3. If this arrangement is not possible.1 ft⋅ kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − 2 + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − 2 + 0.85⋅ f'c⋅ b C1. minimum reinforcement. Negative Moment Design A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction. non-prestressed section.neg M r = 2063.sub = 5. The same size and spacing of reinforcing should be utilized for both the negative and positive moment regions. maximum reinforcement.2] Using variables defined in this example.9 hCap = 54 in b Cap = 54 in SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.04 Pier Cap Design 230 .5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. M r := M Strength1.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. the top and bottom reinforcement should be spaced as a multiple of each other. The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment. The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions. a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0. This pattern places the top and bottom bars in the same grid pattern. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control. Negative Moment Region Design .85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ 2 − 2 ( ) For a rectangular. where fc. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.

....... and a bigger bar size should be selected......................................270 in barspa = 5.7 in dia 5 ds := hCap − cover sub − − in 2 8 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required...................... If not.......sub⋅ b Cap 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy C2...reqd = 9........ should be greater than the area of steel required........04 Pier Cap Design 231 ... As... crack control will not be satisfied.......reqd .............. Area of steel provided............. ds = 49.. Bar area..70 in .....70 in 2 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3..... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.......... M r...3................85⋅ fc..70 in 2 Abar = 1....... see Sect C3..... Equivalent bar spacing....) Note: if bar spacing is "-1".. nbar := 10 bar := "10" (Note : If 12-#9 bars are chosen.... As = 12.7.......... Once As is greater than As............................. Size of bar. As = 12...........85⋅ fc..... Area of steel provided.......reqd = 9.Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars.....2 in 2 As := nbar⋅ Abar Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #5 stirrup). As................. As = 12..... Area of steel required.43 in 2 Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − As. M r..neg = 2756... Bar diameter.................3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced...........reqd := Find As ( ) 2 0...4 ft⋅ kip 2 0.. the spacing is less than 3"................sub⋅ b Cap 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy The area of steel provided...... Use 10-#10 bars at the same spacing as the bottom but with two bars missing........... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement....neg := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 2 Moment capacity provided............... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments...............270 in dia = 1.....43 in ...

....2 ft 4 1 3 Icap := ⋅b ⋅h 12 Cap Cap b Cap⋅ hCap 6 2 Section modulus of cap...65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section...3..sub − 4000 ⋅ psi ............................................ Modulus of Rupture............... de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for non-prestressed sections...775 β 1 := max0... S = 15. maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied" if "NG..... c = 3.... de = 49..... maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1..1 = "OK...... M cr = 1231...............3.... section is over-reinforced........ β 1 = 0.sub⋅ ksi Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to the neutral axis of the composite section...0 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3..1 := "OK..42 LRFD 5. fr = 562...............85 − 0...... y = 27.9 in c := As⋅ fy 0.........7 in de := ds The c de = 0......0 in y := hCap 2 Moment of inertia for the section.....8 psi fr := 0.....078 ratio should be less than 0...2 times greater than the cracking moment..3.24⋅ fc. Icap = 34. LRFD 5.7.2 ft 3 S := Cracking moment.....3.......42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements..3..sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Cap Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement..05⋅ fc...1-1" otherwise c de ≤ 0..7...04 Pier Cap Design 232 ........3...... 0.7...85⋅ fc.............. see LRFD equation C5......s Stress block factor.

....4] Concrete is subjected to cracking.neg = 2756...reqd = 1477.. Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in....04 Pier Cap Design 233 .3.reqd = 1477.reqd "NG. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state...3. dc = 2.... exceeds minimum requirements.2 ⋅ Mcr .......2 := "OK.. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure.. For this example.... M r....7.... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement....635 in dia dc := min hCap − ds ... 2 ⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of slab..... reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5. M r.6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) Crack width parameter.2 = "OK.3.....3.neg ≥ Mr.. 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided......... minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" C3.. a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure". The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5....... nbar = 10 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths... fsa = z 1 ≤ 0....Required flexural resistance...7.. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Mr........ minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" if Mr........7.)....7...1 ft⋅ kip ..4 ft⋅ kip ...1 ft⋅ kip M r............3... 3 "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter......4).reqd := min 1.3.. LRFD 5.

0.actual ≤ fsa "NG. This process is iterative.. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment............. adjust x = 11.....6 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x .. crack control for positive moment not satisfied. x := 11. ....7...4 = "OK..sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 11....3.. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" if fs.7. fsa = 36......Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement. A = 28..6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.4 := "OK...........6 in.3........actual = 35...9 kip Ts := M Service1.. so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3....3.3 ksi Ts fs.... LRFD 5.actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment........ fs..neg xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment. Ts = 448.....0 ksi fsa := min ( d ⋅ A) 3 c ..6 in to equal xna = 11..3.....6⋅ in 1 2 ⋅ b Cap⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec.... If the values are not equal. provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5.5 in 2 A := ( bCap) ⋅( 2⋅dc) nbar z 1 Service limit state stress in reinforcement.04 Pier Cap Design 234 .

..2 := fpc Tcr := 0.D..2 in a := d − a ........sub⋅ b Cap Effective shear depth....0 ft p c := 2 ⋅ hCap + b Cap ( ) Compressive stress in concrete after prestress losses have occured.....125⋅ fc⋅ ⋅ 1+ pc 0. 0...04 Pier Cap Design 235 .......8] D1. torsional effects shall be investigated if.. Check if Torsion Design is Required Tu := TStrength1......85⋅ fc.......125⋅ fc.72⋅ h dv := max s Cap s 2 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.3 ft 2 Acp := hCap⋅ b Cap Length of outside perimeter of cross section.... Determine Nominal Shear Resistance Effective width of the section.sub⋅ ksi⋅ ⋅ 1+ pc 0. torsion can be neglected" D2........125⋅ fc............ 0..018 in dv = 48............... Shear and Torsion Design [LRFD 5.2 = "OK.................7 kip ⋅ ft LRFD 5.25⋅ φv⋅ Tcr ≥ Tu "NG.. torsion can be neglected" if 0...................9 ⋅ d .......................neg For normal weight concrete.. b v = 54......... Tu > 0...." otherwise LRFD 5..8.........neg V u := V Strength1....... Total area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross section... Tcr = 961.......0 in b v := b Cap As⋅ fy 0.............125⋅ fc Acp 2 and. p c = 18..................8. fpc := 0 ⋅ psi 2 Torsional cracking moment........25⋅ φv⋅ Tcr fpc Tcr = 0........ Acp = 20....... torsion shall be investigated... a = 3..sub⋅ ksi Acp "OK..........

........................4 = " Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" Stirrups Size of stirrup bar ( "4" "5" "6" "7" ).5 or an overall depth of less than 16 in..Determination of β and θ (LRFD 5..8........25⋅ fc.8....9 kip V n := min Vu φv ....8.........8..2.....4 := " Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" if V u > 0......8..0316⋅ β ⋅ fc.4..... provide minimum reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5........... V u > 0...2.... Transverse Reinforcement Transverse reinforcement shall be provided in the pier cap according to LRFD 5.......3..0 kip V c := 0. V p := 0 ⋅ kip Is transverse reinforcement required? LRFD 5......2.................5 ⋅ φv⋅ V c + V p ( ) The pier cap has no prestressing. Number of stirrup bars ( "single" "double" ) ........625 in Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement Vn = Vc + Vp + Vs where.. β := 2 θ := 45⋅ deg Nominal shear resistance of concrete section............4) The pier cap is a non-prestressed concrete section not subjected to axial tension................ V s = 328............ It should also have the least amount of transverse reinforcement specified in LRFD 5.. 0.....2. V c = 386..........9 kip V s := V n − V c − V p SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...... bar := "5" nbar := "double" Av = 1.sub⋅ ksi⋅ b v⋅ dv D3..04 Pier Cap Design 236 . Area of shear reinforcement.......sub⋅ b v⋅ dv + V p and.... V n = 714......240 in 2 dia = 0.......5 ⋅ φv⋅ V c + V p ( ) " Transverse reinforcement not required.. Diameter of shear reinforcement..............

Spacing of stirrups Minimum transverse reinforcement.......sub⋅ ksi Transverse reinforcement required...... 12⋅ in) φv⋅ (b v⋅ dv) smax = 24 in Spacing of transverse reinforcement cannot exceed the following spacing.. 24⋅ in) . sreq ( ) Maximum transverse reinforcement smax := if V u − φv⋅ V p < 0.. smin = 18.............9 in s := min smin .. spacing = 10..... smax ( ) SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. s = 10... smin .9 in spacing := if smax > s . s ...6 in smin := Av⋅ fy 0................... sreq = 10........sub ......9 in sreq := if V s ≤ 0 .. min( 0.. Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) Vs Minimum transverse reinforcement required....04 Pier Cap Design 237 .0316 ⋅ b v⋅ fc..125⋅ fc.4 ⋅ dv . min(0..8 ⋅ dv ...

.... this check is ignored. SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.5 := "Ok... V s = 328..........2 in 2 Equivalent force provided by this steel..posM = 15.. As....pos Vu − 0..04 Pier Cap Design 238 ....8......9 kip Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) V u ...D4...... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" Note : These provisions are applicable at the end bearing support areas... In both positive and negative moment areas in the cap...5 = "NG.... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5...... Longitudinal Reinforcement General equation for force in longitudinal reinforcement T= Mu dv⋅ φb + Vu − 0.... spacing φv dv⋅ φ + and.............3.... Therefore..6 kip T := MStrength1...8.5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv Longitudinal reinforcement.... positive moment longitudinal reinforcement is adequate" if TposM ≥ T "NG...4 kip TposM := As... the applied loads produce compression on the compression face.5 ⋅ V s − V p ⋅ cot( θ ) φv V s := min where.. therefore the steel provided needs to satisfy moment only........ previously computed for positive moment design... T = 1308..............posM⋅ fy LRFD 5....3.. TposM = 914.

.posM = 4. barnegM = "10" nbar...3 in Transverse reinforcement Bar size.st = 12 in Defined Units SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3....... Bar spacing.......04 Pier Cap Design 239 . Type of stirrups...negM = 10 barspa..........9 in nbar = "double" Temperature and Shrinkage Bar size... bar = "5" spacing = 10.............3 in Positive moment (bottom) reinforcement Bar size....posM = 12 barspa.......temp = "6" barspa.E.. Summary of Reinforcement Provided in the Moment Region Negative moment (top) reinforcement Bar size. Bar spacing...negM = 4.. barposM = "10" nbar........ Number of bars........... Number of bars... Bar spacing..... barshrink. Bar spacing.

3c] A2.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Column Live Load Analysis References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\304PierCap. Influence Lines for the maximum negative pier cap moment C2. Influence Lines for the Pier Column B2. Maximum Negative Live Load Moment C1.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 240 . Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier . Maximum Axial Force B1.mcd(R) Description This section provides the pier column design live load for (1) maximum axial load on Pier 2 column and (2) maximum moments on column.6. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.2] 242 B. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.2. HL-93 vehicle placement for maximum axial load 245 C.2. Page 241 Contents A. HL-93 vehicle placement for maximum moment Substructure Design 3.6. Input Variables A1.Two HL-93 vehicles A3.

.....3c] Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (θ>90 deg) and to all beams in a multibeam bridge....... Input Variables A1. The truck reaction (including impact and skew modification factors) is applied on the deck as two wheel-line loads...6 kip IM = 1..... Impact factor..2 kip Rtrucks = 80......2.....3 kip Rlanes = 57......6...Skew The truck wheel-line load and lane load can be placed in design lanes according to one of the following patterns..33 wheelline := 90%⋅ Rtrucks ⋅ IM ⋅ gv.A.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 241 . RLLIs = 148......6 ft Rlanes laneload := 90%⋅ ⋅g 10⋅ ft v.. needs to be separated into the truck and lane components in order to determine the beam reactions due to various vehicle placements along the deck.. Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier .....Skew 2 The lane load reaction (including skew modification factor) is applied on the deck as a distributed load over the 10 ft lane.... Reaction induced by HL-93 truck load. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.Two HL-93 Vehicles The reaction.086 .... Reaction induced by lane load....Skew = 1...0 kip .......2........ whereas gv. kip laneload = 5... A2..... Substructure Design 3... wheelline = 52.

6 13.09 0.91 -0. several possible configurations for 1. Design Lane Placements For this example. 8.8 60.03 B2. along with the corresponding beam loads and pier cap moments.5 87. 7.1 69.6 50.15 -0.00 -0. 5. This section shows a means of determining the controlling configuration of design lanes. should be placed on the deck to maximize the axial load in the pier column. From this information. 3. comprising of wheel line loads and lane loads.56 -0.04 -0.20 -0. lanes placed above beams 2. Influence Lines for the Pier Column The influence lines will help determine the placement of design lanes on the deck to maximize the axial force in pier column 2. Substructure Design 3.3 78.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 242 .1 32. 6.3 37. Influence Lines for Maximum Axial Force in Column 2 6 Influence Lines Maximum Axial Force at Column 2 Influence Line Magnitude (Column axial) 4 Influence Line Magnitude 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 -2 1 2 3 4 -4 -6 Distance along Pier Cap (ft) Beam 1 2 3 4 Col 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Distance 4.9 23. Beams 4 and 5 are the most influential. 2. the lane placements should maximize the axial force in column 2. Maximum Axial Force For design live load moments in the pier column.8 97. The graph also shows that lanes placed above beams 1.0 0. 3.93 -1.B.05 0. the controlling number and position of design lanes needs to be determined.16 0. and 4 lanes can be developed to maximize the axial force in column 2. 9. In this example. and 11 will contribute to the maximum axial force. and 10 will reduce the maximum axial force.62 -0. Larsa 2000 was used to generate the influence lines. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Axial Load HL-93 vehicles. B1. Referring to the influence line graph. 4.0 41.

3 79.9 89 115.9 0 0 0 Substructure Design 3. Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 Lane 0 0 0.Depending on the number of design lanes.1.4 65.3 65. Utilizing the lever rule.0 if Number_of_lanes = 2 0.2-1) is applied to the HL-93 wheel line loads and lane load.4 96 96 0.9 38.8 15.9 85.4 0.3 79.8 0 0 0 0 0 3 Lanes 0 15. MPF = 1.9 0 0 0 0 4 Lanes 0. the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated and multiplied by the multiple presence factors.6.65 if Number_of_lanes ≥ 4 Corresponding Beam Loads The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the substructure through the beams.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 243 .8 121.3 63.85 if Number_of_lanes = 3 0.1.9 63.4 0 0 0 0 0 2 Lanes 0 0 38.4 87.2 if Number_of_lanes = 1 1.9 121. a multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.

0 0.0 -15. The following beam loads.0 0.4 -292.0 0.0 0. Maximum Axial Force Axial Force (k) Moment (k-ft) -191.Corresponding Moments The axial forces and moments in the pier column corresponding to the beam loads were determined using Larsa 2000.0 0.3 1 Lane 2 Lanes 3 Lanes 4 Lanes The results show that three design lanes govern.0 0.0 0. corresponding to the governing maximum axial force.0 -320.1 -34.0 z 0.0 0.0 -89.0 0.7 -6.0 0. will be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design values for the pier column.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.0 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 244 .4 -15.0 -15.0 0.9 0.0 0.8 -24.0 0.0 -85.0 -115.9 0.9 0.0 -87.0 0.0 0.8 -265. UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (causing axial) AT PIER COLUMN 2 Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.

1 69.26 C2. Influence Lines for the maximum negative pier cap moment The influence lines will help determine the placement of design lanes on the deck to maximize the transverse moments at the top of pier column 2.9 23. several possible configurations for 1.3 41.6 50.0 Influence Line Magnitude -0. From this information.1 32. 6.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 245 . and 10 will reduce the maximum positive moment. Design Lane Placements For this example. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Moment HL-93 vehicles.81 -0.6 13. the lane placements should maximize the moment in column 2. and 3 lanes can be developed to maximize the moment in column 2. 4.27 0. lanes placed above beams 2. Referring to the influence lines graph. Substructure Design 3. 2. 8.62 0. Larsa 2000 was used to generate the influence lines. and 11 will contribute to the maximum positive moment.8 97.05 -0.13 0.07 0. 9. Maximum Negative Live Load Moment C1.C. Influence Lines for Maximum Moment at Top of Column 2 3 Influence Lines Maximum Moment at Top of Column 2 2 Influence Line Magnitude 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 -1 1 -2 2 3 4 -3 Distance along Pier Cap (ft) Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Distance 4. Beam 3 is the most influential. followed by beam 4. 3. 7.3 78.8 60.5 87. In this example.62 1. comprising of wheel line loads and lane loads. should be placed on the deck to maximize the moments in the pier column. 5.47 0.07 -0. The graph also shows that lanes placed above beams 1.73 -1.

8 83 1.7 117.7 123. the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated and multiplied by the multiple presence factors.3 97.1 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Lanes 1.Corresponding Beam Loads The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the substructure through the beams.3 0 Substructure Design 3.7 1.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 246 .4 97.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 Lane 0 1.3 68 68 0. Utilizing the lever rule.2 0 0.2 83 104. Beam Loads 2 Lanes 1.

9 -153.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 -202. UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (causing moment) AT PIER COLUMN 2 Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.2 -162.0 0.0 0. corresponding to the governing maximum axial force.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 -97.0 0.3 -104.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 -132.0 0.4 0.0 -97.0 0.Corresponding Moments The axial forces and moments in the pier column corresponding to the beam loads were determined using Larsa 2000. The following beam loads.0 -1.5 The results show that two design lanes govern. 1 Lane 2 Lanes 3 Lanes Maximum Moment Axial Force (k) Moment (k-ft) -153.0 0.3 0. will later be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design values for the pier column.0 -123.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defined Units Substructure Design 3.05 Pier Column Live Load Analysis 247 .7 0.

Substructure self-weight.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Column Design Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\305PierColLL.larsausa. Strength I Limit State B2. Larsa 2000 was chosen as the analysis model/program (http://www.06 Pier Column Design Loads 248 . Design Limit States B1. For this design example.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure pier column design. The loads calculated in this file are only from the superstructure. Strength III Limit State B3. General Criteria A1. wind on substructure and uniform temperature on substructure can be generated by the substructure analysis model/program chosen by the user. Strength V Limit State Substructure Design 3.com) Page 249 251 Contents LRFD Criteria A. Load Summary 255 B.

evaluation permit vehicles. "Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example" SERVICE III Substructure Design Load combination relating only to tension in prestressed concrete structures with the objective of crack control.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) STRENGTH IV - Load combination relating to very high dead load to live load force effect ratios.0 ⋅ WL .Load combination including earthquake. "Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example" STRENGTH III - Load combination relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 55 MPH. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" SERVICE II - Load combination intended to control yielding of steel structures and slip of slip-critical connections due to vehicular live load. Strength3 = 1.35⋅ LL + 1. water load and stream pressure are not applicable. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" SERVICE I - Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.35⋅ BR + 0.25⋅ DC + 1.06 Pier Column Design Loads 249 . 3..50⋅ DW + 1.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) STRENGTH II - Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Owner-specified special design vehicles. or both without wind.50⋅ DW + 1. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" STRENGTH V - Load combination relating to normal vehicular use of the bridge with wind of 55 MPH velocity. No friction forces. and certain hydraulic events.25⋅ DC + 1. collision by vessels and vehicles.25⋅ DC + 1.50⋅ DW + 1.75⋅ LL + 0. WA = 0 FR = 0 TU For superstructure design. + 0.40⋅ WS + 0.40⋅ WS + 1. Strength1 = 1. Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the substructure analysis model (Larsa 2000). "Not applicable for this simple span prestressed beam bridge design example" EXTREME EVENT II . Strength5 = 1.Load combination relating to ice load.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) EXTREME EVENT I .LRFD Criteria STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind..

06 Pier Column Design Loads 250 ."Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" FATIGUE - Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck. "Not applicable for the substructure design in this design example" Substructure Design 3.

0 -183.0 -10.3 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 -115.0 0.0 -174.0 -15.0 -183.A.3 0. General Criteria The following is a summary of all the loads previously calculated: A1.0 -174.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 -174.0 0.0 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.0 -15.0 -10.0 -9.0 -9.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 • Live load Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for maximum axial force in the column UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (causing axial) AT PIER COLUMN 2 Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.3 0.0 -85.0 0.0 DW Loads (kip) x y 0.0 -87.0 0.0 0.0 -9.4 0.0 -9.0 -9.3 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.0 0.6 0.9 0.0 -174.9 0.8 z 0.0 0. Load Summary • Dead Loads .0 -174.0 0.8 0.0 -9.3 0.0 -9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 z 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 -9.4 0.4 0.06 Pier Column Design Loads 251 .3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 -174.0 0.0 0.Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for DC and DW loads UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT PIER Beam DC Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 0.6 z 0.0 0.0 -174.0 0.0 0.0 -174.0 0.0 0.0 -89.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -9.4 0.0 -174.0 0.0 0.

0 0.Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for maximum transverse moment in the column UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (causing moment) AT PIER COLUMN 2 Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.0 -1.0 0.5 1.3 0.5 1.9 -0. Mx caused by "z" loads.9 0.0 0. Substructure Design 3.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0. to maximize the effects of WS and WL.3 -3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.06 Pier Column Design Loads 252 .Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for BR loads BRAKING FORCES AT PIER BR Loads (kip) x y 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Note : This live load placement causes a +Mz moment about pier column 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.9 -1.0 Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 z -3.0 0.0 Note : The direction of braking was reversed in order to maximize the longitudinal braking moments.0 0.9 -0.0 0.3 -3.0 0.0 0.4 0. while the majority of the loads that are being applied (WS and WL) have loads that cause a -Mz moment about pier column 2.5 1. We will change the direction of the WS and WL loads in the combinations.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 -0. • Braking Force .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0 0.0 -123.9 -0.0 0.0 -97.0 0.9 -0.3 -3.0 0.3 0.3 -3.0 0.5 1.0 z 0.0 0.0 -97.0 0.

30 klf Pier Column -0.2 -2.0 0. SH and TU loads CREEP.0 0.2 -2.0 -3.6 0.0 -3. TEMPERATURE FORCES AT PIER Beam CR.0 0.6 0.2 -2.06 Pier Column Design Loads 253 .0 0.0 -3.0 0.0 0.0 0. Shrinkage and Temperature .Unfactored beam reactions for WS loads WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT PIER Beam WS Loads (kip) x y z -2.0 -3.0 0.0 -3.6 0.2 -2.6 0.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Note : The direction of wind was reversed in order to maximize the -Mz moment about pier column 2 Wind Loads Applied to Substructure X (trans) Z (long) Pier Cap 10.0 0.2 -2.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 -3.0 -3.0 0.0 0.0 -3.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2 -2. TU Loads (kip) x y z 0.2 -2.0 0.0 0.07 klf -0.0 0.0 0.0 0. SH.• Creep. SHRINKAGE.0 0.6 0.13 kip -0.0 -3.0 -3.6 0.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 • Wind on structure .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.2 -2.0 0.26 klf Substructure Design 3.2 -2.0 -3.0 0.2 -2.0 0.Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for CU.

8 -0.7 0.7 10.8 -0.7 0.0 -0.7 -10.8 -0.8 -0.8 -0.0 -0.0 -0.3 -0.3 -0.8 -0.0 -0.7 0.7 0.8 -0.7 0.8 -0.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Note : The direction of wind was reversed in order to maximize the -Mz moment about pier column 2 Substructure Design 3.0 -0.8 -0.7 0.7 0.7 0.06 Pier Column Design Loads 254 .0 z -0.• Wind on load on vehicles .0 -0.8 -0.7 0.Unfactored beam reactions for WL loads WIND ON LIVE LOAD FORCES AT PIER Beam WL Loads (kip) x y -0.0 -0.0 -0.

the loads applied at the top of the cap from the beams are applied to rigid links that transfer the lateral loads as a lateral load and moment at the centroid of the pier cap. strength III. This is consistent with substructure design programs like LEAP's RCPier. In the analysis model. Strudl. such as a GTStrudl. acting on the substructure. in LEAP's RCPier.06 Pier Column Design Loads 255 Substructure Design . equal to: α t ⋅ ( 25⋅ °F) = 0.B. Fixity of the pier was provided at the bottom of the columns. include pier cap and columns TU: a temperature increase and fall on the pier substructure utilizing the following parameters: coefficient of expansion α t = 6 × 10− 6 temperature change 1 °F temperatureincrease = temperaturefall = 25⋅ °F For instance. Design Limit States The design loads for strength I. • WS: Wind on the substructure should be applied directly to the analysis model. Larsa 2000. two loading conditions are presented: maximum axial force and maximum moment. For each limit state. etc. The following is an example 3. These reactions are from the superstructure only. include the following loads: • • DC: self-weight of the substructure. two load cases would be required for temperature with a positive and negative strain being inputed. and service V limit states are summarized in this section. Sap2000.00015 Note that in our model.

5 ⋅ DW + 1.3 -382.3 -5.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.0 -232.0 -232. Axial Loads (kip) Max.7 -5.0 0.6 -5.8 3.8 -5.0 0.3 -235.0 -232.9 -5.0 0.0 0.8 3.0 0.0 0.8 3.0 0.0 -245.0 0.75⋅ LL + 1.3 -403.8 3.06 Pier Column Design Loads 256 .0 -232.3 -389.75BR + 0.0 0.0 -232.• WS: Wind on the substructure should be applied directly to the analysis model.0 0.3 -248.0 0.3 -235.3 -403.8 3.0 -259.8 3.25⋅ DC + 1.8 3.3 -388.0 -232. Strength I Limit State Strength1 = 1.3 -260. Moment Loads (kip) X Y Z X Y Z 3.7 0.3 -435.3 -5.8 3.3 -246.0 -245.0 0.7 0.8 -5.8 3.0 0.0 -232.0 Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.3 -448.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength I Limit State Max. The following is an example of the wind locations and terminology used in our analysis: Forces applied directly to the analysis model • All applied loads in the substructure analysis model should be multiplied by the appropriate load factor values and combined with the limit state loads calculated in this file for the final results. B1.5 -5.9 0.0 0.7 -5.0 0.6 -5.4 0.0 0.

1 -1.1 -1.9 -243.6 0.1 -1.5 -4.1 -2.7 B3.0 -3.6 0. Axial Loads (kip) Max.5 Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Loads (kip) X Y -3.7 -232.50⋅ DW + 1.2 -6.0 -2. Strength III Limit State Strength3 = 1.7 -232.7 -232.9 -409.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Beam # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 'Max.0 -6.7 -245.1 -1.9 -354.6 0.7 -232.9 -348.12 klf Pier Cap -0.7 -253.5 Pier Column -0.0 -3.7 -245.1 -1.5 -4.6 -6.0 -3.1 -1.0 -2.1 -1.7 -232.7 -2.6 0.0 -3.0 -3.0 -2.7 -232.41 kip -4.0 -3.7 -232.B2.35⋅ BR + 0. Moment Loads (kip) X Y Z X Y Z 0.7 -232.5 ⋅ DW + 1.6 0.1 -6.1 Wind Loads Applied to Substructure X (transv) Z (long) 4.9 -248.6 -2.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength III Limit State Wind Loads Applied to Substructure Z X (trans) Z (long) -4.37 klf -4.0 -3.9 -6.3 -6.6 -6.10 klf Pier Column Substructure Design 3.0 -2.7 -232.6 0.5 -4.05 kip -0.10 klf -0.0 -2.0 -3.7 -232.7 -232.5 -4.9 -364.0 -2.7 -245.1 -1.5 -4.1 -6.0 ⋅ WL + 0. Strength V Limit State Strength5 = 1.9 -353.6 0.5 -4.4 -6.9 -389.1 0.9 -234.25⋅ DC + 1.0 -2.5 Pier Cap 14.6 0.7 -232.40⋅ WS + 1.06 Pier Column Design Loads 257 .6 0.5 -2.9 -363.7 -245.1 -1.0 -3.19 klf -0.5 -4.7 -232.7 -232.3 -6.35⋅ LL + 1.4WS + 0.6 0.7 -2.1 -1.03 klf -0.9 -234.7 -3.25⋅ DC + 1.7 -232.9 -246.5 -4.7 -232.

40 17.32 213. these load combinations should give a fairly accurate value of Substructure Design 3.90 1280.42 -1164.21 11.02 * 480.67 -11.Col -TU 21 38 21 38 Strength 5 .P Col -TU Strength 5 .P Col -TU 21 Strength 1 .26 NOTES: (1) Values (*) used for column design check.21 -25.32 -6.06 Pier Column Design Loads 258 .70 12.32 213.71 260.58 -30.26 371.62 -7.P Col -TU 38 Strength 1 .M Col -TU 38 Strength 1 .M Col -TU Strength 5 .P Col -TU Strength 5 .17 65.C4. Based on the loads that were applied for the cap design and column 2 design.46 365. From the load cases that were run.M Col -TU 30.79 * 247.Col -TU 38 Strength 3 .23 * 97.86 1396.35 -12.95 571.08 1135.41 20.86 -1352. node 38 is bottom of column. (3) (-TU) means load case with a temperature fall in the substructure governed.35 -12.70 * -13.21 11.92 -50.25 -23.21 -11.81 24.73 50.71 -65.11 -17.11 -18.41 20.43 63.23 547.37 32. (2) Values highlighted are governing design loads.40 -829. Summary of Results LARSA 2000 COLUMN 2 RESULTS Member Joint Result Case Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 21 Strength 1 .30 9.21 * 730.70 12.33 -6.26 371.50 -1092.92 3.26 -13.11 -17.M Col -TU 21 Strength 3 .42 1208.32 -16.03 -3. Node 21 results given represents value at top of column.33 -18.40 17.92 195.03 310.40 872.99 -1236. we can also ask for the values at Column 1.

94 99.60 -536.61 5.16 -780.55 -86.06 Pier Column Design Loads 259 .M Col +TU 15 Strength 3 .94 -70.+M Cap +TU 15 Strength 1 . node 37 is bottom of column.82 -542.45 -493.96 -20.03 919.82 -937.Col +TU 37 Strength 3 .23 819.43 86.P Col +TU 37 Strength 1 .51 -0.M Col +TU -99.14 -0.24 -21.19 -20.91 -15. these load combinations should give a fairly accurate value of the loads experienced by this column. This approach was somewhat on purpose.13 404.84 943.83 -55.23 -5.96 1.91 279. In fact. (2) Values highlighted are governing design loads.91 279. based on the evaluation of these loads in the next section.34 NOTES: (1) Values (*) used for column design check. exterior columns should also be checked since their design may be governed by bending moments rather than axial loads.24 -279.93 -69.18 724.24 -1.23 5. (3) (+TU) means load case with a temperature rise in the substructure governed.14 -9.34 * -636.31 -16.99 -15.28 -92.13 404.45 -649.applied for the cap design and column 2 design.94 -899.06 * -1067.95 * -745. the loads in column 1 govern the reinforcing requirements.P Col +TU Strength 5 .43 -776.24 15.+M Cap +TU 37 Strength 1 .46 28. Node 15 results given represents value at top of column.51 -1114.11 56.62 -681. LARSA 2000 COLUMN 1 RESULTS Member Joint Result Case Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 15 Strength 1 .51 0. Defined Units Substructure Design 3.28 70.P Col +TU Strength 5 .23 -5.70 * -734.04 21.83 92.04 21.23 5.49 -876.Col +TU 15 37 15 37 Strength 5 .P Col +TU 15 Strength 1 .23 -5.51 0. Therefore.24 -15.03 980.77 -751.M Col +TU 37 Strength 1 .24 15.03 -520.03 69.62 15.07 499.61 -16.90 795. It was meant to show that the column that may experience the greater loads may not necessarily be the most critical.M Col +TU Strength 5 .99 -40.21 -967.23 9.99 1.

) Page 261 Contents A. Output Substructure Design 3. Ιf not. such as Larsa 2000 have the capability to analyze for secondary effects on columns such that the resulting moments are already magnified by P−∆.07 Pier Column Design 260 . programs like PCA Column have a "Slender" column option whereas some parameters for slenderness can be entered to include secondary effects.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Column Design Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\306PierColLds. Input Variables B2.mcd(R) Description This document provides the design check summary for columns 1 and 2. Pier Column Design Loads 262 B. (Note: Most higher-end analysis programs. PCA Column Analysis B1. P −∆ or any secondary effects were not evaluated. General Criteria A1.

(2) Values highlighted are governing design loads.86 1396. nodes 21 and 38 are top and bottom of column 2.+M Cap +TU 37 Strength 1 .26 NOTES: (1) Values (*) used for column design.23 5.11 -17.M Col +TU 37 Strength 5 .A.32 -6.67 -13.92 -1092.21 * 730.46 * 365.07 499. strength III.46 28.24 -21. General Criteria A1.14 -0. and strength V loads for columns 1 and 2 were evaluated.M Col -TU 38 Strength 1 .91 1.71 260.81 -829.51 0. Pier Column Design Loads Strength I.96 -1.42 -1164.21 -25.Col -TU 21 Strength 5 .11 -18. (3) (-TU) means load case with a temperature fall in the substructure governed.70 * -734. Node 15 and 37 represents value at top and bottom of column 1.21 11.M Col -TU 38 Strength 5 . Substructure Design 3.37 32.99 -11..33 -6.84 943.92 3.23 547. LARSA 2000 COLUMN RESULTS Member Joint Result Case Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz Column 1 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 15 Strength 1 .34 -15.42 1208.M Col -TU 21 Strength 3 .40 17.13 404.79 * 571.Col -TU 38 Strength 3 .41 20.61 5.95 * -967.08 -50.P Col -TU 38 Strength 1 .62 -7.24 15.24 -15.70 12.06 -542.23 -5.07 Pier Column Design 261 .28 70.P Col +TU 15 Strength 3 .24 -279.11 56.31 -16.P Col +TU 37 Strength 1 .11 -17.16 -780.82 -681.32 -16.94 -899.23 9.99 -40.M Col -TU -99.03 -3.03 310.P Col -TU 21 Strength 1 .+M Cap +TU 15 Strength 1 .M Col +TU Column 2 21 Strength 1 .94 99.40 872. The following table summarizes the results from LARSA 2000 output for pier columns 1 and 2.Col +TU 15 Strength 5 .Col +TU 37 Strength 3 .35 -12.32 213.02 * 480.40 1135.40 17.04 21.91 279.03 * -520.21 11.19 -20.30 9.43 -776.51 -1114.86 -1352.43 63.58 -30.26 371.93 -86.23 97.94 -70.23 -5.17 65.34 * -636.77 -876.99 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 30.62 15.28 -55.45 -493.03 919.23 819.70 50.18 724.14 -9.32 213.43 86.21 -11.71 -65.

PCA Column Analysis B1..Enter material properties.Enter general information. Input Variables . Substructure Design 3...07 Pier Column Design 262 ..... .Enter column geometry.B.... ...

135⋅ where Ag fy As% is the percentage of reinforcement. fc..... the minimum percentage of reinforcement allowed is...sub As% := 0..7...135⋅ fy As% = 1....24 % (Note : This equation was written in the form of As fc...... For PCA Column.01⋅ Ag if allowed fy As Ag Aps ⋅ fpu Ag⋅ fy + by the following equation: Maximum area of reinforcement.24 % for minimum reinforcement..Enter column design criteria. Minimum area of reinforcement..... the minimum steel requirement was greater than 1% of the gross column area. Substructure Design 3.sub As% = ≥ 0. the longitudinal reinforcement in columns can be less than 0.....4. minimum reinforcement in flexural members is found to be proportional to fc . In this situation.. Therefore..2] To account for the compressive strength of concrete..135 For non-prestressed columns. As⋅ fy Ag⋅ f'c Aps ⋅ fpu Ag⋅ f'c ≥ 0.. + ≤ 0... .. enter As% = 1.Limits of Reinforcement [LRFD 5..07 Pier Column Design 263 ..08 (Note : 8% maximum is still applicable as per the LRFD).

....Enter factored loads acting on column.. .Enter column tie reinforcing information.07 Pier Column Design 264 ..... Substructure Design 3...Enter column reinforcing information.. ..

5 2498. 4 foot diameter columns are typically found on intermediate piers over cross-streets. 24-#9 will be detailed.9 1 2.611 column is subsequently 5 1396.8 3.268 designed.B2. Pu kip Mux k-ft Muy k-ft fMnx k-ft fMny k-ft fMn/Mu (Note : For constructability. however.9 4.9 2648.0 571.) <. our experience has shown that if the bars are kept to a multiple of 4 then it improves placing the longitudinal steel around the column steel.0 2506.8 2600.3 4.1 2524.7 1745.0 41.0 21.0 494.7 2.0 2. In the plans.0 967. this will require greater reinforcing in the pier cap.0 1761.0 213.554 Substructure Design 3.0 4.0 13.07 Pier Column Design 265 .203 moment [column 1].629 7 873.governs ---------------------------------------------------------------900. As = 24.0 260.00 in^2 at 1.2 295.5 3.0 548. 6 1165.8 8.0 2.0 16.4 2529.0 1763. the 3 725.0 6. The columns can be reduced in diameter.534 foundation for this 4 876.2 2149.0 730. Total steel area.269 Since point 1 governs for 2 776.0 6.33% 24-#9 Cover = 3 in No.0 55.574 8 1092.0 499. however.0 64. Another alternative to maximize the columns is to increase the column spacing.0 1115. Output Based on the results.3 3. the columns have adequate capacity for the applied loads.0 780.

General Criteria A1. Pier Column Live Load (LL) Summary A2.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Foundation Design Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\307PierCol. Page 267 Contents A.08 Pier Foundation Design Loads 266 . Foundation Design Load Summary Substructure Design 3.mcd(R) Description This document provides the design parameters necessary for the substructure pile vertical load and footing design.

+M Cap +TU 37 Service 1 .+M Cap +TU -100.A.84 943.23 -845.85 -312.08 Pier Foundation Design Loads 267 . A2.19 -362.01 0.05 Note : The values in bold have been translated from the bottom of the column to the top of the piles (= 3 ft).74 5.23 -1114.23 -5.43 943.41 13.40 100. Modification to Pier Column Live Loads for Foundation Design The Dynamic Load Amplification (DLA) is not required since the foundation components are entirely below ground level [LRFD 3.94 -899. the corresponding service limit state moments have been included and shown in the table below.56 * 36 36 15 Service 1 .09 707.96 707.91 -15. General Criteria A1. the impact on the truck will need to be removed from the load combinations since the footing is embedded in the ground.6.96 15.+M Cap +TU -99.05 -0. Foundation Design Load Summary For the foundation design. For this design example.70 -734. then impact should be included. If the footing were a waterline footing.16 -1033.83 -16. we will use the load combination that governed for the column design.54 -1145.98 * -1008.70 15.24 -279.2.+M Cap +TU 37 Strength 1 .94 99. In addition.24 -1.43 -673.99 -325. LARSA 2000 COLUMN RESULTS Member Joint Result Case Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz Column 1 36 36 15 Strength 1 . Defined Units Substructure Design 3.1].

Pile Capacities as per SPT97 Substructure Design 3. only the piles for column 1 footing will be evaluated.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the piles for vertical loads (exclude lateral load design). For this design example. Page 269 270 Contents FDOT Criteria A.Pile Footing Investigation B2. Geometry A2. Forces on Top of Footing 271 B. Input Variables A1. Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load C1.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Piles Vertical Load Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\308PierFoundLds.09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 268 .Pile Footing Investigation 276 C. 4. 6. Pile Loads B1.

7] The minimum pile tip elevation must be the deepest of the minimum elevations that satisfy lateral stability requirements for the three limit states........5.....09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 269 ..5...5] The resistance factor utilizing SPT97 for piles under compression shall be.. scour and ship impact are not design issues..2] Use 18" square piling... UBCFDOT := 300⋅ Ton Substructure Design 3..5..3] Minimum pile spacing center-to-center must be at least three times the least width of the deep foundation element measured at the ground line..5. Resistance Factors [SDG 3.. Clearances and Embedment and Size [SDG 3..65 Minimum Pile Tip [SDG 3.. The design criteria for minimum tip elevation are based on vertical load requirements and lateral load analysis... except for extremely aggressive salt water environments...11] The Required Driving Resistance for an 18" square concrete pile must not exceed...LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria Minimum Sizes [SDG 3.... Since this bridge is not over water... Spacing. φSPT97 := 0..... Pile Driving Resistance [SDG 3...5.....

............... Aftg := bFtg⋅ LFtg Aftg = 56..................... wtFtg := γ conc⋅ Aftg⋅ hFtg wtFtg = 33..... Forces on Top of Footing Area of Footing.............6 ft⋅ kip Maximum factored load................7 ft⋅ kip Muz = −1034.. Length of footing......5 ft LFtg = 7.............. Puy = 943....4 kip Mux = −325.... Pile Embedment Depth........3 ft 2 Footing weight not included in LARSA.... Width of footing................09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 270 .............. Input Variables A1......................... Py = 708.8 kip ( ) Maximum service load.5 ft Pileembed = 1 ft A2........................ Geometry Depth of footing.......7 ft⋅ kip M z = −1145....................... and corresponding moments.0 ft⋅ kip Substructure Design 3............... and corresponding moments...A..............................0 kip M x = −362. hFtg = 4 ft b Ftg = 7..

..25 2....25 Zpile := ⋅ ft −2.B.. 0 1 Pileindex := 2 3 k := 0 .25 −2...... Foundation Layout Size of the square concrete piles....25 X pile := ⋅ ft 2.......Pile Footing Investigation So far..75 Z-Longitudinal Spacing. Pile Coordinates.....75 3.. Pile Loads B1...............75 Overturning Forces due to Moments General equation for axial load on any pile....... Number of Piles.25 0 3......09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 271 ... npile − 1 Pile Layout 3....75 0 X-Transverse Spacing....25 2.... the design example has assumed that a 4-pile footing will be adequate......25 2...... 4........25 −2... Qm = Py n + Mx⋅ z n z= 0 2 2 ∑ (z ) ∑ (x ) n x= 0 + Mz⋅ x Substructure Design 3...ft Pilesize = 18 in npile := 4 −2.. ft 3....

.09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 272 ...... since the piles are outside the critical section for shear........25⋅ wtFtg npile Mux ⋅ Zpile k npile − 1 z= 0 Q u := k + + Muz ⋅ X pile k npile − 1 x=0 ∑ 2 Zpile z ∑ 2 X pilex 0 1 Pileindex := 2 3 167...........3 Q max := max Q u Maximum axial load on pile..0 ft 2 Substructure Design 3... New width of footing.5 ⋅ ft Aftg.8 Ton This value should not exceed the limit specified by FDOT.. UBC := Q max φSPT97 UBC = 305.Pile Footing Investigation The 4-pile footing design involves a limited amount of shear design....new Aftg... RDR = UBC = Using variables defined in this example...new ⋅ LFtg........... New depth of footing....new := 12⋅ ft LFtg............new := 7..... New length of footing................ hFtg........... a 6-pile footing will be evaluated and designed..7 397.........1 95......... To illustrate the shear design process................. UBCFDOT = 300 Ton A 4-pile footing is not acceptable...... B2.7 Ton Required driving resistance (RDR)..new = 90........ ( ) Factored Design Load + Net Scour + Downdrag φ Q max = 198...Factored Axial Load on Pile Puy + 1........ New area of Footing. 6......... Suggest consulting with the District geotechnical and structural engineers if within 5%-10%..5 Qu = kip 325. We will investigate a 6-pile footing....new := 4 ⋅ ft b Ftg......... It is recommended not to design to the UBC limit since difficulties in pile driving can be encountered causing construction delays...................new := bFtg..

...75 6 0 X-Transverse Spacing. wtFtg := γ conc⋅ Aftg.5 0 4............25 0 Note: Pile numbering is from "0" to "5" and are numbered CLOCKWISE beginning with the upper top left side pile.........75 Z-Longitudinal Spacing..new⋅ hFtg.0 kip ( ) Foundation Layout Size of the square concrete piles...25 Zpile := ⋅ ft −2..new wtFtg = 54..09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 273 . Pile Coordinates.ft −4.........5 X pile := ⋅ ft 4.... 3.........25 2...............25 2....25 −2....25 −2....Footing weight not included in LARSA.....5 0 −4..... ft 6 Substructure Design 3.5 2. Number of Piles.. npile − 1 Pile Layout 3......... Pilesize = 18 in npile := 6 0 1 2 Pileindex := 3 4 5 k := 0 .....

...9 Q max := max Q u Q max = 125 Ton ( ) Minimum axial load on pile (verify no uplift occurs).9 217.............25⋅ wtFtg npile 90................ RDR = UBC = Substructure Design 3. Q min := min Q u ( ) Q min = 43.5 Q u := k + Mux ⋅ Zpile k npile − 1 z= 0 + Muz ⋅ X pile k npile − 1 x=0 ∑ 2 Zpile z ∑ 2 X pilex 0 1 2 Pileindex = 3 4 5 Maximum axial load on pile..1 36.....6 250...0 ⋅ wtFtg npile Mx ⋅ Zpile k npile − 1 z= 0 Q := k + + Mz ⋅ X pile k npile − 1 x= 0 ∑ 2 Z pilez ∑ 2 X pilex 0 1 2 Pileindex = 3 4 5 Factored Axial Load on Pile Puy + 1. 135.5 Ton Factored Design Load + Net Scour + Downdrag φ Required driving resistance (RDR).Service Axial Load on Pile Py + 1...8 100.2 192.........1 Qu = kip 201..........4 86..5 kip Q= 163..8 144..........09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 274 .....2 153.........

.Using variables defined in this example........... UBCFDOT = 300 Ton A 6-pile footing is acceptable...09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 275 .4 Ton This value should not exceed the limit specified by FDOT............... UBC := Q max φSPT97 UBC = 192...... Substructure Design 3......

was utilized to determine the pile capacity.exe For this design example. pipe piles.myflorida.5 dated 6/2/00. which is part of the install package. H-piles. It is available at the following FDOT website: http://www11. Using boring data. Pile Capacities as per SPT97 The Static Pile Capacity Analysis Program. the program can analyze concrete piles.09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 276 .com/structures/programs/spt97setup. SPT97 NT v1. Substructure Design 3.C. Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load C1. and cylinder piles. the boring data is based on Example2 in the program.

....The following picture shows the boring log entries in Example2.4 Ton Substructure Design 3...... net scour and downdrag are zero. is given by..in......... Recall that the ultimate bearing capacity.. UBC = 192...... so the UBC is... UBC................09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 277 ... UBC = Factored Design Load + Net Scour + Downdrag φ In this design example....

09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 278 .87 ULTIMATE PILE CAPACITY (TONS) -------386.97 205.33 115.5 PILE TIP ELEV (FT) ----17.The program was executed.90 ESTIMATED DAVISSON CAPACITY (TONS) --------175.0 ULTIMATE SIDE FRICTION (TONS) -------70.2 29.98 102.64 89.8 -21.84 MOBILIZED END BEARING (TONS) --------105.53 A lateral load analysis may require the pile tip elevations to be driven deeper for stability purposes.63 437. PENETRATION ================================== TEST PILE LENGTH (FT) -----26. Substructure Design 3. PILE CAPACITY VS. This file only evaluates the vertical load requirements based on the boring capacity curves.74 ALLOWABLE PILE CAPACITY (TONS) --------87. and the output can be summarized as follows: D.

8⋅ ft 205...based on the Estimated Davisson pile capacity curve given above..97 ⋅ Ton 29.97 ⋅ Ton) ⋅ + −17. Defined Units Substructure Design 3. Therefore.74 ⋅ Ton − 175.8⋅ ft .5⋅ ft − 26.. the pile lengths for vertical load will require a specified Tip Elevation = -19.6 ft.. 205..0 ft....09 Pier Piles Vertical Load Design 279 .97 ⋅ Ton) ⋅ + 26.74 ⋅ Ton − 175.97⋅ Ton −21.2⋅ ft Calculate the pile tip elevation required: pile tip = −19. pile length = 28 ft pile length := ( UBC − 175..Calculate the pile length required.6 ft pile tip := ( UBC − 175. the pile in the ground length is 28..2⋅ ft .0⋅ ft − −17.

Transverse Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Input Variables A1.10 Pier Footing Design 280 .8.10. only column 1 footing will be evaluated.8. Moments .7. Design Parameters A2.X Critical Section C5. For this design example. Pile Layout A3.7. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.X Critical Section A6.3. One Way Shear . Moments . Design Moments 287 B.2] C3. Design Summary Substructure Design 3. Flexural Design Parameters A4. Two Way Shear Design (Punching Shear) 304 D.3.4] B7.2] B5.2] B2. Shear Design Parameters [LRFD 5.3.3] B6.One Way Shear C2. Longitudinal Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3] B3.7. Longitudinal Flexural Design [LRFD 5.7.Y Critical Section A5.2] B8.4. Longitudinal Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.6] C1.3.mcd(R) Description This document provides the criteria for the pier footing design.13.7. Page 281 282 Contents LRFD Criteria A.7.3. β and θ parameters [LRFD 5. Shear Design Parameters . Transverse Flexural Design [LRFD 5. Transverse Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Pier Footing Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\309PierPiles.3.3. One Way Shear .3.4] B4. Flexural Design B1.Y Critical Section C4. Mass Concrete Provisions 297 C.

LRFD Criteria

STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.

WA = 0 FR = 0 TU

For superstructure design, water load and stream pressure are not applicable. No friction forces. Uniform temperature load effects on the pier will be generated by the substructure analysis model (Larsa 2000).

Strength1 = 1.25⋅ DC + 1.50⋅ DW + 1.75⋅ LL + 0.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH)

SERVICE I -

Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.

Service1 = 1.0 ⋅ DC + 1.0 ⋅ DW + 1.0 ⋅ LL + 1.0 ⋅ BR + 0.3WS + 1.0 ⋅ WL + 1.0 ⋅ ( TU + CR + SH "For the footing, utilized only to check for crack control"

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281

A. Input Variables

A1. Design Parameters

Transverse dimension of footing.............. Longitudinal dimension of footing............ Depth of footing..................................... Area of footing......................................

**b Ftg = 12 ft LFtg = 7.5 ft hFtg = 4 ft Aftg := bFtg⋅ LFtg Aftg = 90 ft
**

2

Embedment of pile in footing................... Concrete cover above piles...................... Height of surcharge (column height in ground)................................................. Diameter of column................................

Pileembed = 1 ft cover pile := 3 ⋅ in hSurcharge := 2.0 ⋅ ft b Col = 4 ft ACol

Area of column......................................

( bCol) := π ⋅

4

2

2

ACol = 12.6 ft

Equivalent square width for the circular column [LRFD 5.13.3.4]:.......................

b Col.eff := round b Col.eff =

(

ACol , 1

)

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282

A2. Pile Layout

Pile size................................................. Number of piles..................................... Summary of pile loads

Service I Limit State Strength I Limit State Q, Tons Q, kips Qu, Tons Qu, kips 45.1 90.2 67.6 135.2 76.9 153.9 96.3 192.6 108.8 217.5 125.0 250.1 81.9 163.8 100.9 201.8 50.1 100.1 72.2 144.4 18.2 36.5 43.5 86.9

Pilesize = 18 in npile = 6

Pile # 0 1 2 3 4 5

x Coord. 2.25 2.25 2.25 -2.25 -2.25 -2.25

y Coord. -4.5 0 4.5 4.5 0 -4.5

Pile Layout

x- Longitudinal Spacing,ft 3.75

0

3.75

6

0 y- Transverse Spacing, ft

6

A3. Flexural Design Parameters

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283

**Distance from centerline of piles to edge of footing..................................................
**

pile edge = 1.5 ft

pile edge := 1.5ft

**Distance from x-critical section (face of effective column) to edge of footing along the x-axis..............................................
**

xedge =

xedge :=

LFtg − b Col.eff 2

**Distance from x-critical section to centerline of piles along the x-axis............
**

xcrit =

xcrit := xedge − pile edge

**Distance from y-critical section (face of effective column) to edge of footing along the y-axis..............................................
**

yedge =

yedge :=

b Ftg − b Col.eff 2

**Distance from y-critical section to centerline of piles along the y-axis............
**

ycrit =

ycrit := yedge − pile edge

**A4. Moments - Y Critical Section
**

Unfactored pile loads contributing to transverse moment.................................

P = 254 kip P := max Q + Q , Q + Q

0 3 2

(

5

)

**Unfactored moments at critical section due to pile loads............................................
**

MxPile = kip ⋅ ft

MxPile := P⋅ ycrit

**Unfactored moment at critical section due to footing weight....................................
**

MxFtg = kip ⋅ ft

MxFtg := LFtg⋅ hFtg⋅ γ conc ⋅

(

)

yedge 2

2

**Unfactored moments at critical section due to surcharge ....................................
**

MxSurcharge = kip ⋅ ft

MxSurcharge := LFtg⋅ hSurcharge⋅ γ soil ⋅

(

)

yedge 2

2

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284

**Factored pile loads contributing to transverse moment.................................
**

Pu = 337 kip

Pu := max Q u + Q u , Q u + Q u 3 2 5 0

**Assure the critical section is within the footing dimensions.................................
**

Pu = kip

Pu := if ycrit ≥ yedge , 0 ⋅ kip , Pu

(

)

**Factored moments at critical section due to pile loads...............................................
**

MuxPile = kip ⋅ ft

MuxPile := Pu⋅ ycrit

**A5. Moments - X Critical Section
**

Unfactored pile loads contributing to longitudinal moment...............................

P = 462 kip P := max Q + Q + Q , Q + Q + Q

0 1 2 3 4

(

5

)

**Unfactored moments at critical section due to pile loads...........................................
**

MyPile = kip ⋅ ft

MyPile := P⋅ xcrit

**Unfactored moment at critical section due to footing weight........................................
**

MyFtg = kip ⋅ ft

MyFtg := bFtg⋅ hFtg⋅ γ conc ⋅

(

)

xedge 2

2

**Unfactored moments at critical section due to surcharge..........................................
**

MySurcharge = kip ⋅ ft

MySurcharge := b Ftg⋅ hSurcharge⋅ γ soil ⋅

(

)

xedge 2

2

**Factored pile loads contributing to longitudinal moment................................
**

Pu = 578 kip

Pu := max Q u + Q u + Q u , Q u + Q u + Q u 1 2 3 4 5 0

**Assure the critical section is within the footing dimensions.................................
**

Pu = kip

Pu := if xcrit ≥ xedge , 0 ⋅ kip , Pu

(

)

**Factored moments at critical section due to pile loads...............................................
**

MuyPile = kip ⋅ ft

MuyPile := Pu⋅ xcrit

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285

A6. Design Moments

Transverse Footing Design (Mx moments) - Strength I............................................

MxStrength1 = kip ⋅ ft MxStrength1 := MuxPile − 1.25⋅ MxFtg − 1.50⋅ MxSurcharge

**Transverse Footing Design (Mx moments) - Service I..............................................
**

MxService1 = kip ⋅ ft

MxService1 := 1.0 ⋅ MxPile − 1.0 ⋅ MxFtg − 1.0 ⋅ MxSurcharge

**Longitudinal Footing Design (My moments) - Strength I.............................
**

MyStrength1 = kip ⋅ ft

MyStrength1 := MuyPile − 1.25⋅ MyFtg − 1.50⋅ MySurcharge

**Longitudinal Footing Design (My moments) - Service I..............................
**

MyService1 = kip ⋅ ft

MyService1 := 1.0 ⋅ MyPile − 1.0 ⋅ MyFtg − 1.0 ⋅ MySurcharge

Substructure Design

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286

..........8 in As := nybar ⋅ Abar Area of steel provided...................... the spacing is less than 3". non-prestressed section.........5 ft Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars..... The procedure is the same for both the transverse and longitudinal moment designs.3.2] The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment. Bar diameter.............. Size of bar................ Bar area... nybar := 8 ybar := "9" (Note : Bar size and spacing are governed by crack control criteria and not bending capacity). Abar = 1... Factored resistance...... Note: if bar spacing is "-1"..................... and distribution of reinforcement........... Factored resistance.........10 Pier Footing Design 287 . Equivalent bar spacing. Nominal flexural resistance..........85⋅ f' ⋅ b − b ⋅ β ⋅ h ⋅ M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ d − + A ⋅ f ⋅ p 2 s y s 2 s y s 2 c w 1 f 2 − 2 ( ) For a rectangular........B...................... then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control.. and a bigger bar size should be selected........... As = 8...................... M r = φ⋅ Mn a hf a d − a − A' ⋅ f' ⋅ d' − a + 0.................000 in 2 ybar dia = 1....... Flexural Design B1.... a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0. Transverse Flexural Design [LRFD 5... minimum reinforcement.7.............................128 in ybar spa = 11....... shrinkage and temperature reinforcement............ M r := MxStrength1 M r = ft⋅ kip Width of section b := LFtg b = 7.. maximum reinforcement.85⋅ f'c⋅ b Using variables defined in this example.......00 in 2 Substructure Design 3.......

........Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel...141 in a := c⋅ β 1 Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tensile reinforcement.tran = 1147. a = 1....05⋅ fc......... As = 8.... Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 0......sub − 4000 ⋅ psi ......sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy Area of steel required.................... Transverse Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5...... Moment capacity provided...3........... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement.................. the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments....00 in ....4 in de := ds Substructure Design 3............ should be greater than the area of steel required.. If not..7..775 β 1 := max0..... M r.. As....reqd = in 2 As..............00 in 2 Stress block factor........472 in c := As⋅ fy 0.. de = 32.....sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy B2.........tran := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 2 0.. c = 1..65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section.... de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for non-prestressed sections.. β 1 = 0.......reqd = in .....10 Pier Footing Design 288 .......436 in ds := hFtg − cover pile − Pileembed − ybar dia 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required.. As....85⋅ fc. ds = 32...sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Depth of equivalent stress block.85⋅ fc...reqd .............reqd := Find As ( ) 2 The area of steel provided.2 ft⋅ kip M r.. 0....3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.. As = 8.. Area of steel provided.85⋅ fc................85 − 0.. Once As is greater than As.

2 = Substructure Design 3... 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided....3... LRFD 5...2 ft⋅ kip .. see LRFD equation C5. minimum reinforcement for transverse moment is satisfied" if M r... Modulus of rupture.7. exceeds minimum requirements..tran = 1147.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.3.3. M cr = 911.....3 ft 3 S := LFtg⋅ hFtg − Pileembed 6 ( ) 2 Cracking moment.42 LRFD 5.. c de ≤ 0...3.3.............045 ratio should be less than 0. maximum reinforcement requirement for transverse moment is satisfied" if "NG.. reinforcement for transverse moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5..reqd = ft⋅ kip .7.24⋅ fc.....sub⋅ ksi Section modulus of the footing above the piles....8 psi fr := 0........... fr = 562.3.2 := "OK.reqd := min 1.reqd = ft⋅ kip M r.3..10 Pier Footing Design 289 .The c de = 0........3... M r... section is over-reinforced. Mr......8 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S Required flexural resistance.......2 times greater than the cracking moment... maximum reinforcement requirement for transverse moment is satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1...7.7...... M r..3....7................1-1" otherwise LRFD 5.3..2 ⋅ Mcr ....reqd "NG.....1 = "OK..1 := "OK................tran ≥ M r... S = 11...

...0 in Substructure Design 3........... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement..B3.sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 6................................. fsa = 32. Transverse Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5..............564 in dc := min hFtg − ds .....7.....10 Pier Footing Design 290 .......... This process is iterative.6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter. dc = 2............... The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths..3..... The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5...... z 1 fsa = ≤ 0..... A = 57.. 0. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state........)..... nybar = 8 Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement....0 ⋅ in 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec. z := 170⋅ kip in "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.............. so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made....3............6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to calculate the actual stress in the reinforcement..1 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c ....4)..7.... Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure...7 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nybar ( ) Service limit state stress in reinforcement..4] Concrete is subjected to cracking....... x := 6........ 2⋅ in + ybar dia 2 Number of bars...

. ...4 := "OK... Width of section....7. crack control for transverse moment........ Abar = 0............ Bar area.. and a bigger bar size should be selected..................... Bar diameter............. M r := MyStrength1 b := bFtg b = 12 ft M r = φ⋅ Mn Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars..... adjust x = 6............. Using variables defined in this example................. Factored resistance.3... provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5..... nxbar := 12 xbar := "6" Note: if bar spacing is "-1".....2] Factored resistance............... Equivalent bar spacing....3.3.... Longitudinal Flexural Design [LRFD 5.......... fs. Size of bar....... If the values are not equal.......actual ≤ fsa "NG.......actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment.....4 in Substructure Design 3.......Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x ..............7...4 = B4...... LRFD 5................................7....3.............0 in to equal xna = 6......... crack control for transverse moment" if fs....750 in xbarspa = 12.0 in....3..................actual = ksi Ts fs.................... Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment...... the spacing is less than 3". Ts = kip Ts := MxService1 xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.10 Pier Footing Design 291 .....440 in 2 xbardia = 0...........

.reqd = in 2 2 Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − As....reqd = in ..sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Depth of equivalent stress block.............. As = 5..... Area of steel required........28 in ................8 ft⋅ kip M r.long = 742.85⋅ fc.28 in 2 As := nxbar⋅ Abar Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel................. c = 0.....reqd := Find As ( ) 2 0..................... Longitudinal Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5........ the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments. If not................497 in ds := hFtg − cover pile − Pileembed − ybar dia − xbardia 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required................28 in 2 Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section....... As........ de = 31.... M r...... As..5 in de := ds Substructure Design 3......85⋅ fc..10 Pier Footing Design 292 .3........... ds = 31.... Once As is greater than As....sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy The area of steel provided.607 in c := As⋅ fy 0.......7... should be greater than the area of steel required..471 in a := c⋅ β 1 Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement........... a = 0.. de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for non-prestressed sections.... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement..long := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 2 0. As = 5...sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy B5.Area of steel provided...... Area of steel provided......... As = 5.................reqd .3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced....85⋅ fc..................... Moment capacity provided...

M cr = 1458.8 psi Section modulus of the footing above piles S = 18..........42 LRFD 5..3..The c de = 0......... M r..019 ratio should be less than 0..3.3...7.reqd "NG... exceeds minimum requirements.0 ft 3 S := b Ftg⋅ hFtg − Pileembed 6 ( ) 2 Cracking moment....3... Mr..1 := "OK. LRFD 5... maximum reinforcement requirement for longitudinal moment is satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1......3.3.. maximum reinforcement requirement for longitudinal moment is satisfied" if "NG.......2 = Substructure Design 3. fr = 562. Modulus of rupture.3. c de ≤ 0...3...7.. 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided...reqd = ft⋅ kip .2 times greater than the cracking moment.9 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S Required flexural resistance...2 := "OK......7...1 = "OK.. minimum reinforcement for longitudinal moment is satisfied" if M r...1-1" otherwise LRFD 5..2 ⋅ Mcr . reinforcement for longitudinal moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5.3...long ≥ M r..10 Pier Footing Design 293 ..long = 742. see LRFD equation C5.8 ft⋅ kip ..7.reqd := min 1. section is over-reinforced.reqd = ft⋅ kip M r. Mr.7.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements....3.....

..........)............. nxbar = 12 Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement.. A = 84..... 2⋅ in + ybar dia + xbardia 2 Number of bars........ Longitudinal Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.................. If the values are not equal............10 Pier Footing Design 294 . z := 170⋅ kip in "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.... fsa = 25.....9 ⋅ in 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec.......... 0.......6 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c .sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 3.. x := 3..B6..............4] Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state...6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter.6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.....7..9 in to equal xna = 3...........503 in dc := min hFtg − ds .1 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nxbar ( ) Service limit state stress in reinforcement............ This process is iterative....3.................9 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x .............. Substructure Design 3.. dc = 3......... adjust x = 3.9 in.. fsa = z 1 ≤ 0.. so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made....

....4 := "OK.. 18⋅ in The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5......10............Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment................... Bar diameter..2] Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar....... fs....8 := "OK.. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5.8..7 in spacingshrink.temp := min min( 2 ⋅ dc + dia ...4 = B7. Bar area......3..actual = ksi Ts fs........7... LRFD 5......3.......10 Pier Footing Design 295 ......actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment......3....7..........7................ provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5.3............st ≤ spacingshrink...10.750 in 2 Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.... spacingshrink.......7... crack control for longitudinal moment...........10... barst := "5" if LFtg < 48in ⋅ bFtg < 48in ⋅ hFtg < 48in "6" otherwise barst = "6" ( )( )( ) Spacing of bar....................... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.....st := 12⋅ in Abar = 0.......actual ≤ fsa "NG......temp = 14.... crack control for longitudinal moment" if fs. Ts = kip Ts := MyService1 xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.......temp "NG...8 = "OK.. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if barspa. barspa.......44 in dia = 0.... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Substructure Design 3. 3in) 100⋅ Abar .

.9 := "Use mass concrete provisions" if RatioVS > 1.B8..0 ⋅ ft ∧ b Ftg > 3ft ∨ hFtg > 3ft "Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise SDG3.9 = "Use mass concrete provisions" ( ) Substructure Design 3..071 ft RatioVS := b Ftg⋅ hFtg⋅ LFtg 2⋅ b Ftg⋅ LFtg + 2b Ftg + 2LFtg ⋅ hFtg ( ) Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio exceeds 1 ft and any dimension exceeds 3 feet SDG3.10 Pier Footing Design 296 . RatioVS = 1. Mass Concrete Provisions Volume to surface area ratio for footing.

.....10 Pier Footing Design 297 ............ β and θ Parameters [LRFD 5.8.39 ft dv = maxval 0...72⋅ h ( ) ) dv := max 0.....6] C1..... Effective shear depth........... εx = dv + 0.....9]. Mu Longitudinal strain for sections with no prestressing or transverse reinforcement. 0.13...... Using variables defined in this example..39 ft Substructure Design 3..3. de = 2.....9 ⋅ de .. dv = 2.. Shear Design Parameters . Shear Design Parameters [LRFD 5.4.2...........5 ⋅ V u⋅ cot( θ ) Es⋅ As Effective width.....One Way Shear Distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension steel (use the top of the main transverse steel or bottom of the longitudinal steel). 0...2] Tables are give in LRFD to determine β from the longitudinal strain and crack spacing parameter. b v = 4.9 ⋅ de ..5 ft dv = 2....3.656 ft de := hFtg − Pileembed − cover pile − ybar dia Effective shear depth [LRFD 5.........72⋅ hFtg − Pileembed ( C2..C.8.......... so these values need to be calculated.....

.. Angle of inclination for diagonal compressive stresses... The longitudinal strain and crack spacing parameter are calculated for the appropriate critical sections.... 80⋅ in sxe = min sx⋅ ag := 1......4............ C3.......... Q u + Q u 3 2 5 0 Substructure Design 3....... One Way Shear ..5 ⋅ in sx := dv LRFD Table 5...... β θ (Note : Values of β = 2 and θ = 45⋅ deg cannot be assumed since footings are typically not transversely reinforced for shear......3......2 states that data given by the table may be used over a range of values...Factor indicating ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension..... VuT = 337 kip VuT := max Q u + Q u .....Y Critical Section Factored pile loads contributing to transverse shear ....... Linear interpolation may be used....) 1. Maximum aggregate size....8..... LRFD C5. Crack spacing parameter.38 ag + 0......... but is not recommended for hand calculations.....3. The variable sx is the lesser of dv or the maximum distance between layers of longitudinal reinforcement.......63 ......10 Pier Footing Design 298 .2-2 presents values of θ and β for sections without transverse reinforcement .4.......8....

.. θ i := 50...... ψy = ψ y := 1 if dyface ≥ dv 0 if dv ≥ yedge 1− dv − dyface Pilesize if dyface < dv ∧ dv < yedge Factored shear along transverse y-critical section. sxe = 19 in sxe := min sx⋅ Substructure Design 3..... VuT = kip VuT := ψ y⋅ VuT For the longitudinal strain calculations....Distance between face of equivalent square column and face of pile.. and the portion of the load outside the critical section shall be included in shear calculations for the critical section. dyface = dyface := Pilesize ( bFtg − bCol. if a portion of the pile lies inside the critical section............eff) − + pile 2 2 edge The location of the piles relative to the critical shear plane determines the amount of shear design....10 Pier Footing Design 299 ........ the pile load shall be uniformally distributed over the pile width.................... Y-critical shear plane is outside footing dimension" if dv ≥ yedge "Partial shear....5 ⋅ VuT⋅ cot θ i Es⋅ AsT 1. 80⋅ in ( ) ⋅ ( 1000 ) Longitudinal strain................ piles are outside of the y-critical shear plane" if dyface ≥ dv "No shear... an initial assumption for θ must be made......9⋅ deg VuT⋅ dv εx := dv + 0... According to LRFD... Transverseshear := "Full shear.................. piles intersect y-critical shear plane" if dyface < dv ∧ dv < yedge Transverseshear = If the piles partially intersect the shear plane...............63 ........... the shear for the critical section can be linearly reduced by the following factor. εx = Crack width parameter....38 ag in + 0...

......... dxface = dxface := ( LFtg − bCol......Based on LRFD Table 5..10 Pier Footing Design 300 ..... b v := LFtg V c1 := 0..3 = C4...9⋅ deg Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the shear capacity of concrete β := 1.. V c2 ( ) Check the section has adequate shear capacity LRFD 5...2-2.sub⋅ b v⋅ dv and the correspondig shear values.. V n = 0.......25⋅ fc.4................3 := "OK........0316 ⋅ β ⋅ fc.....8......52 The nominal shear resistance for footings with no prestressing or transverse reinforcing is the minimum of the following equations.X Critical Section Factored pile loads contributing to longitudinal shear.eff) 2 − Pilesize + pile edge 2 Substructure Design 3...sub⋅ ksi⋅ b v⋅ dv V c2 := 0..8 kip V n := min V c1 .8 kip V c2 = 3549..8..... the values of θ and β can be approximately taken as: Angle of inclination of compression stresses θ := 50..3..3......0316 ⋅ β ⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv V n = 0..... V n = 290. footing depth for Y-critical section is adequate for 1-way shear" if V n ≥ VuT φv "NG....... V c1 = 290....25⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv or Using variables defined in this example... Q u + Q u + Q u 0 1 2 3 4 5 Distance between face of equivalent square column and face of pile.... footing depth for Y-critical section is not adequate for 1-way shear" otherwise LRFD 5.......7 kip Nominal shear resistance..8. One Way Shear ............3...... VuL = 578 kip VuL := max Q u + Q u + Q u ..

.... VuL = kip VuL := ψ x⋅ VuL For the longitudinal strain calculations................The location of the piles relative to the critical shear plane determines the amount of shear design.5 ⋅ VuL⋅ cot θ i Es⋅ AsL ..61 Substructure Design 3.... piles are outside of the x-critical shear plane" if dxface ≥ dv "No shear....3⋅ deg VuL⋅ dv εx := dv + 0.... an initial assumption for θ must be made.........10 Pier Footing Design 301 ......3⋅ deg Factor relating to longitudinal strain on the shear capacity of concrete β := 4..4.. ψx = ψ x := 1 if dxface ≥ dv 0 if dv ≥ xedge 1− dv − dxface Pilesize if dxface < dv ∧ dv < xedge Factored shear along longitudinal x-critical section...........3......... the values of θ and β can be approximately taken as: Angle of inclination of compression stresses θ := 32...... Longitudinal shear := "Full shear... X-critical shear plane is outside footing dimension" if dv ≥ xedge "Partial shear.............. sxe = 19 in sxe := min sx⋅ 1.............. εx = Crack width parameter.63 Based on LRFD Table 5......... the shear affecting the critical section can be linearly reduced by the following factor.....2-2.........8........... θ i := 32..........38 ag in + 0...... piles intersect x-critical shear plane" if dxface < dv ∧ dv < xedge Longitudinal shear = If the piles partially intersect the shear plane......... 80⋅ in ( ) ⋅ ( 1000) Longitudinal strain.......

.8...0316 ⋅ β ⋅ fc....... X-critical section footing depth is NO GOOD for 1-way shear" otherwise LRFD 5.10 Pier Footing Design 302 . V c1 = 1411. b v := b Ftg V c1 := 0....3...2 kip V c2 = 5679..3 = C5...sub⋅ ksi⋅ b v⋅ dv V c2 := 0....0316 ⋅ β ⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv Using variables defined in this example.The nominal shear resistance for footings with no prestressing or transverse reinforcing is the minimum of the following equations.25⋅ fc....... Two Way Shear Design (Punching Shear) Substructure Design 3. X-critical section footing depth is adequate for 1-way shear" if V n ≥ VuL φv "NG......... V n = 0.... V n = 1411.3 := "OK.8...............6 kip Nominal shear resistance...... V c2 ( ) Check the section has adequate shear capacity LRFD 5...2 kip V n := min V c1 ......25⋅ f'c⋅ b v⋅ dv V n = 0.sub⋅ b v⋅ dv and the correspondig shear values....3..........

...126 βc ⋅ ( fc.....126 fc.3...6].............. Footing depth for 2-way pile punching shear" otherwise Vupile φv LRFD 5.3.......10 Pier Footing Design 303 ..... Vupile = 250.13. dv2 = 1.0 Nominal shear resistance... which the concentrated load or reaction is transmitted β c := 1.............1 kip Vupile := Q max Nominal shear resistance for 2-way action in sections without shear reinforcement.... 0...3 := "OK.........sub⋅ ksi⋅ b o⋅ dv LRFD 5..126 fc⋅ b o⋅ dv Perimeter of critical section......126 βc ⋅ ( fc⋅ b o⋅ dv) ≤ 0.6........5 ft b o := 2 ⋅ pile edge + Pilesize ( ) Ratio of long side to short side of the rectangle. Footing depth for 2-way pile punching shear" Substructure Design 3.......063 + Vn = 0..2 ft dv2 := 0.3.. Footing depth for 2-way pile punching shear" if V n > "NG..13....063 + V n = 457.5 ⋅ dv Maximum shear force for pile 2.......6.....13.Critical section for 2-way shear [LRFD 5........sub⋅ ksi⋅ bo⋅ dv) ..7 kip 0.. b o = 4.. 0.3 = "OK.... V n := min 0.

........... Spacing.............................st = 12 in Defined Units Substructure Design 3.........................................................10 Pier Footing Design 304 ............... use 11........... Depth of footing....... Selected bar size.........5" +/-spacing Bottom reinforcement (longitudinal) Number of bars.....8 in nxbar = 12 xbar = "6" xbarspa = 12... Selected bar size...................................................... Bottom reinforcement (transverse) b Ftg = 12 ft LFtg = 7............5 ft hFtg = 4 ft nybar = 8 ybar = "9" ybar spa = 11.............................. barst = "6" barspa.. Design Summary Footing properties Transverse dimension of footing..........4 in Number of bars.. Approximate spacing................. Approximate spacing... Longitudinal dimension of footing.........D........ use 12" +/-spacing Temp and shrinkage (top and side) Selected bar size.....

Page 306 Contents A.6.11 End Bent Live Load Analysis 305 .SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN End Bent Live Load Analysis References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\310PierFtg.2. Maximum Live Load Reaction at End Bent . therefore. the maximum live load placement will try to maximize a beam reaction or pile load. Input Variables A1.mcd(R) Description This document provides the criteria for the end bent live load design. Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4.One HL-93 Vehicle 307 B. Maximum Axial Force B1.2. Since the piles are placed directly under the beams at the end bent. no positive or negative moment due to live load is introduced in the end bent cap. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Axial Load SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.3c] A2.

..33 wheelline := V truck (Support) ⋅ gv... Maximum Live Load Reaction at Intermediate Pier .2 kip IM = 1...............3c] Skew modification factor for shear shall be applied to the exterior beam at the obtuse corner (θ>90 deg) and to all beams in a multibeam bridge.... live load will not contribute to any moments or shears in the bent cap.Skew 2 The lane load reaction (including skew modification factor) is applied on the deck as a distributed load over the 10 ft lane.....0 kip V truck( Support) = 64.... The truck reaction (including impact and skew modification factors) is applied on the deck as two wheel-line loads.1 ft laneload := V lane( Support) ⋅ gv............086 ....... Reaction induced by lane load...4 kip V lane( Support) = 28.. For the pile design... Reaction induced by HL-93 truck load.2.Skew = 1..11 End Bent Live Load Analysis 306 . whereas gv..... Shear: Skewed Modification Factor [LRFD 4. the live load will not include dynamic amplification since the piles are considered to be in the ground....6. wheelline = 35.. A2... SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3....2. Input Variables A1...A....... Impact factor... kip laneload = 3.Two HL-93 Vehicles Since each beam is directly over each pile...Skew 10⋅ ft The truck wheel-line load and lane load can be placed in design lanes according to one of the following patterns...

B1.85 if Number_of_lanes = 3 0.0 if Number_of_lanes = 2 0. Utilizing the lever rule. Depending on the number of design lanes.6. placing design lanes above beam 3 will induce the maximum axial force in pile 3.11 End Bent Live Load Analysis 307 .1. a multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3. Design Lane Placements For this example. SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. Since a pile is placed directly under each beam. Maximum Axial Force For design live load axial force in the end bent piles.2 if Number_of_lanes = 1 1. along with the corresponding beam loads and pile axial forces. HL-93 Vehicle Placement for Maximum Axial Load HL-93 vehicle.B. This section shows a means of determining the controlling configuration of design lanes. comprising of wheel line loads and lane loads. the beam loads corresponding to the design lane configurations are calculated. the lane placements should maximize the axial force in pile 3. MPF = 1.2-1) is applied to the HL-93 wheel line loads and lane load. should be placed on the deck to maximize the axial force in the end bent piles.1. the controlling number and position of design lanes need to be determined.65 if Number_of_lanes ≥ 4 Corresponding Beam Loads The live loads from the design lanes are transferred to the substructure through the beams.

1 0.0 0.5 0.0 -111.0 0. The following beam loads.0 0.7 The results show that two design lanes govern.5 111.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Corresponding Axial Force Since a pile is directly under each beam. will later be used in the limit state combinations to obtain the design values for the end bent piles. the maximum axial force in pile 3 corresponds to the reaction in beam 3.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Defined Units SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.0 0.9 0.6 51. 1 Lane 2 Lanes Maximum Axial Force Axial Force (k) 104. corresponding to the governing maximum axial force.0 0.0 0.11 End Bent Live Load Analysis 308 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -15.6 87.0 0.0 0.5 104.9 0 15.0 0.0 -51.5 111.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 z 0.0 0.7 0.0 -87.0 0.Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Beam Loads 1 Lane 2 Lanes 0 0 27.7 27.0 0.0 0. UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (axial) AT END BENT Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.

Larsa 2000 was chosen as the analysis model/program (http://www. Bearing Design Movement/Strain A2.larsausa. wind on substructure and uniform temperature on substructure can be generated by the substructure analysis model/program chosen by the user. General Criteria A1.com) Page 310 Contents A. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS B5. Substructure self-weight. Lateral Load Analysis B1.3] 322 C. Design Limit States C1.1. For this design example. Strength I Limit State C2.8.4] B3. Center of Movement B2. The loads calculated in this file are only from the superstructure. End Bent Dead Load Summary A3.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design parameters necessary for the for the substructure end bent design.6. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3. Strength III Limit State C3. Service I Limit State Substructure Design 3.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN End Bent Design Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\311EndBentLLs. End Bent Live Load Summary 312 B. Creep and Shrinkage Forces B4. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.12 End Bent Design Loads 309 . Temperature.

.0 -15.0 -4.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3..Bearing Design Movement/Strain) A2...0 0.0 0. End Bent Live Load Summary Unfactored beam reactions at the pier for LL loads corresponding to maximum axial force UNFACTORED LIVE LOAD (axial) AT END BENT Beam LL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.. εCST = 0.7 0.7 0..0 -4.0 -5..B4 .8 z 0..0 -4..0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 -4.12 End Bent Design Loads 310 ..00047 (Note : See Sect.1 0...0 0.0 0. General Criteria A1.0 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A2.0 0...0 -87.0 0.0 0..1 0.0 0...0 0.0 -4..0 0.0 0.0 0..7 0..1 0.0 -4..7 0..0 0.1 0..0 -111..0 0.0 -87..0 -87.0 -51.0 0..0 -4.5 0.0 0.7 0..0 -87.0 0...0 -4.1 0.0 0..10.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -87.A.0 -91.7 0.0 0.0 0..7 0.0 -4.0 DW Loads (kip) x y 0....0 -87..0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0..8 0.0 -87.0 0.0 -5...0 -91.0 -87.0 z 0. Bearing Design Movement/Strain Strain due to temperature.7 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0..0 -87.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0...4 0.0 -87. 2. creep and shrinkage.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 z 0...1 0.0 0. End Bent Dead Load Summary Unfactored beam reactions at the end bent for DC and DW loads UNFACTORED BEAM REACTIONS AT END BENTS Beam DC Loads (kip) x y 0....

12 End Bent Design Loads 311 .0 ft Substructure Design 3.A4. Center of Movement By inspection. L0 := Lspan L0 = 90. the center of movement will be the intermediate pier.

2 if N lanes = 1 1...1 states that effects of curvature may be neglected on open cross-sections whose radius is such that the central angle subtended by each span is less than: Number of Beams 2 3 or 4 5 or more Angle for One Span 2o 3o 4o Angle for Two or More Spans 3o 4o 5o R := 3800⋅ ft Lspan θ 1span := R θ 2span := Lbridge R Horizontal curve data... BRForce... the number of lanes is N lanes = 3 The multiple presence factor (LRFD Table 3.....6.... MPF = 0.7 deg Since the number of beams is greater than 5 and the angles are within LRFD requirements...2.3] LRFD 4.1 := 25%⋅ ( 72⋅ kip ) ⋅ N lanes ⋅ MPF Substructure Design 3.1. the bridge can be analyzed as a straight structure and therefore..... θ 2span = 2..... the bridge is not expected to become one-directional in the future. Lateral Load Analysis B1.......1..0 if N lanes = 2 0. For this example.65 otherwise Braking force as 25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem.. B2.... centrifigal force effects are not necessary. Braking Force: BR [LRFD 3.... θ 1span = 1.9 kip BRForce.1 = 45... From this information..6........................ Angle due to one span...1....4] The braking force should be taken as the greater of: 25% of axle weight for design truck / tandem 5% of design truck / tandem and lane The number of lanes for braking force calculations depends on future expectations of the bridge......B..........85 MPF := 1. Centrifugal Force: CE [LRFD 3.........2-1) should be taken into account..6......12 End Bent Design Loads 312 ... and future widening is expected to occur to the outside.6...........4 deg Angle due to all spans....85 if N lanes = 3 0....

..9 kip BREndbent := Substructure Design 3...........9 kip BRForce := max BRForce............... BREndbent = 11..............5 kip ( ) Since the bridge superstructure is very stiff in the longitudinal direction....2 = 16. BRForce. KEndbent = 0. BRForce. (1) the pier column stiffnesses are ignored.. (2) the deck is continuous over pier 2 and expansion joints are provided only at the end bents......................2 ( ) Distribution of Braking Forces to End Bent The same bearing pads are provided at the pier and end bent to distribute the braking forces....... Braking force at End Bent.. BRForce = 45...... BREndbent = 1.......... BREndbent = BRForce⋅ KEndbent ( ) where............ KEndbent = N pads. The braking force transferred to the pier or end bents is a function of the bearing pad and pier column stiffnesses............. beams := 6 BREndbent beams Braking force at end bent per beam......12 End Bent Design Loads 313 ..1 .Braking force as 5% of axle weight for design truck / tandem and lane.25 N beams KEndbent := ( 1 + 2 + 1 ) ⋅ N beams BREndbent := BRForce⋅ KEndbent corresponding braking force......5 kip BRForce.endbent⋅ Kpad ∑ (Npads.2 := 5%⋅ 72⋅ kip + wlane⋅ Lspan ⋅ N lanes⋅ MPF ( ) Governing braking force.. the braking forces are assumed to be equally distributed to the beams under the respective roadway.. For this example... pier stiffness can be calculated as..endbent)⋅Kpad Simplifying and using variables defined in this example...pier + N pads.........

................7 kip BRz. then the result is an uplift reaction on the downstation end bent or pier and a downward reaction at the upstation end bent or pier.......Endbent = −0......Endbent := BREndbent⋅ cos( Skew) Braking force parallel (x-direction) to the skew...2 kip BRy... M arm = 11........................ Conservatively.Endbent = 1.. the braking is assumed to occur in span 1 and the eccentricity of the downward load with the bearing and centerline of pier eccentricities is ignored......12 End Bent Design Loads 314 ....... BRx.Endbent := −BREndbent⋅ M arm Lspan Only the downward component of this force is considered. BRz...250 ft M arm := 6ft + h Braking force in end bent (y-direction).. the vertical forces (uplift) are small and can be ignored......Endbent = −1. Substructure Design 3................ assume the braking occurs over one span only........ The braking forces need to be resolved along the axis of the bearing pads for design of the pier substructure..Adjustments for Skew The braking force is transferred to the pier by the bearing pads.Endbent := BREndbent⋅ sin( Skew) Adjustments for Braking Force Loads Applied 6' above Deck The longitudinal moment induced by braking forces over a pier is resisted by the moment arm.......... Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load............... Typically............ vertical............. BRy.............0 kip BRx.. In this example................ Braking force perpendicular (z-direction) to the skew...

.... ∆ Endbent1 = 0...12 End Bent Design Loads 315 .0 0.....50 kip CSTEndbent := Gmax⋅ Apad⋅ ∆ Endbent1 hrt This force needs to be resolved along the direction of the skew Shear force perpendicular (z-direction) to the end bent per beam.0 -0........Endbent = −5.2 -1....2 -1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 B3...5 in ∆ Endbent1 := L0 − xdist ⋅ εCST 0 Shear force transferred through each bearing pad due to creep.......0 0..0 -0.0 z 1. creep.0 0. creep..0 -0...... shrinkage. and Temperature Forces The forces transferred from the superstructure to the substructure due to temperature.00047 Displacements at top of end bent due to temperature..25 kip CSTx.. Shrinkage.....0 0..0 0..7 1.. CSTz.7 0...09 kip CSTz.7 1.Endbent = 9... and temperature.0 0..BRAKING FORCES AT END BENT Beam BR Loads (kip) x y -1..0 0. and shrinkage are influenced by the shear displacements in the bearing pad.2 -1.... In this example. only temperature and shrinkage effects are considered.0 0..7 1... and shrinkage.7 1..0 -0... since this example assumes the beams will creep towards their center and the composite deck will offer some restraint.0 0..........0 0..... εCST = 0...Endbent := CSTEndbent⋅ sin( Skew) Substructure Design 3.....Endbent := CSTEndbent⋅ cos( Skew) Shear force parallel (x-direction) to the end bent per beam.0 0....... CSTEndbent = 10......2 -1. Creep is ignored.......2 -1........... Creep.... CSTx.....0 0.0 0...0 0.0 -0......0 0..0 0.

.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 B4...1 -5. so the 20% factor applies.040 0.. WindFDOT := γ FDOT⋅ WindLRFD x z 0. the wind pressures must be submitted to FDOT for approval.. Wind Pressure on Structure: WS The wind loads are applied to the superstructure and substructure..016 .1.1 -5.007 0.1)...044 WindLRFD := .3 0.050 ......3 0..012 ⋅ ksf ..0 9.1 -5.. SHRINKAGE.3 0. Broward..0 9.. the following wind pressures are given in the LRFD. Loads from Superstructure [LRFD 3..000 0.....0 9... TU Loads (kip) x y z -5.Summary of beam reactions at the end bent due to creep..2] The wind pressure on the superstructure consists of lateral (x-direction) and longitudinal (z-direction) components. and temperature CREEP.. x z For prestressed beam bridges..2...0 9..041 ..053 WindFDOT = 0.4. TEMPERATURE FORCES AT END BENT Beam CR.3 0.3 0..3 0..3 0.060 0.020 0..3 0. This example assumes a South Florida location.3 0..8.. SH...1 -5.0 9..1 -5.049 0.023 Substructure Design 3.0 9...1 -5.0 9.019 The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach..0 9.0 9.0 9.014 ksf 0.. and Monroe counties (LRFD 2.3 0...019 0...1 -5.1 -5.006 .. 0 15 Windskew := 30 45 60 ..3 0.. shrinkage...1 -5. For bridges over 75 feet high or with unusual structural features.0 9.000 .12 End Bent Design Loads 316 ..033 . Dade.....017 .1 -5...

...25 ft Superstructure Height.4 13... FWS.8 ft 2 ASuper := Lspan 2 ⋅ hSuper Forces due to wind applied to the superstructure.....Endbent := WindFDOT⋅ ASuper x z 0......Composite section height.... Tributary areas are used to determine the exposed superstructure area...z = 7............Endbent = 16....12 End Bent Design Loads 317 ... 0 Maximum transverse force...........0 2... WS Super.....4 7...... hSuper := h + 2..Endbent := FWS....8 kip 6............6 kip FWS.... h = 5...z⋅ cos( Skew) − FWS..Endbent 4...........Endbent 0.............x = 20 kip Maximum longitudinal force........ Z1 = 21......... ASuper = 333......4 20.................. WS z.... FWS....... 1 The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew.... FWS......2 6....z := WS Super.........8 4.0 17.x := WS Super........1667 ⋅ ft Height above ground that the wind pressure is applied.....Endbent = 16.............6 kip WS z....6 WS Super....x⋅ sin( Skew) Substructure Design 3................. Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the end bent.92 ft Z1 := hCol − hSurcharge + hEB + hSuper ( ) The exposed superstructure area influences the wind forces that are transferred to the supporting substructure... The maximum transverse and longitudinal forces are used in the following calculations... Exposed superstructure area at end bent.........6 A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required......

.Endbent := FWS.0 1.....2 0.2.2 0...048 ksf WindFDOT := γ FDOT⋅ WindLRFD General equation for wind forces applied to the substructure.5 1. WindLRFD := 0..0 1.0 1.x⋅ cos( Skew) The force due to wind acts on the full superstructure....5 1.....0 1..5 1... so the 20% factor applies.. The following table summarizes the beam reactions due to wind..z⋅ sin( Skew) + FWS.04⋅ ksf The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach.. Broward...5 Loads from Substructure [LRFD 3. This example assumes a South Florida location...... WindFDOT = 0...2 0........Force parallel (x-direction) to the end bent WS x.. WIND ON STRUCTURE FORCES AT END BENT WS Loads (kip) x y 1....5 1.8.....2 0.0 Beam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 z 1....4.2 0.2 0....3] Wind pressure applied directly to the substructure...5 1.2 0.2 0.5 1.5 1...0 1... Dade.Endbent = 13.5 kip WS x. Substructure Design 3...1.. WS Force = WindPressure ⋅ Exposed AreaSubstructure ⋅ SkewAdjustment ( )( )( ) The end bents are usually shielded from wind by a MSE wall or an embankment fill.....1].......12 End Bent Design Loads 318 .0 1.0 1....2 0.5 1.2 0..5 1.... and Monroe counties [LRFD 2...0 1.... so wind on the end bent substructure is ignored.0 1..0 1.5 1..2 0. This force needs to be resolved into the reactions in each beam....

..6 1.1).20⋅ WindLRFD x z 0. Wind Pressure on Vehicles [LRFD 3.12 End Bent Design Loads 319 ..4 3..... WindFDOT := 1..0 0.Endbent := WindFDOT⋅ LEndbent x z 0. Z2 = 25.1.3 kip 1......066 .6 5..4 4....082 .. Substructure Design 3.098 0...088 WindLRFD := .8 WLSuper..B5..000 0..032 ...75 ft Z2 := Z1 − 2..8 1.079 0....... WLSuper.8......1 A conservative approach is taken to minimize the analysis required...038 0 . This example assumes a South Florida location.........041 kip 0....100 .......4.034 kip ..038 0...046 Height above ground for wind pressure on vehicles...... Dade....... The wind pressures in LRFD should be increased by 20% for bridges located in Palm Beach.......3] 0 15 Skewwind := 30 45 60 . and Monroe counties (LRFD 2.7 2.014 0..024 ⋅ ft ....... LEndbent = 45 ft LEndbent := Lspan 2 Forces due to wind on vehicles applied to the superstructure..... so the 20% factor applies..012 The LRFD specifies that wind load should be applied to vehicles on the bridge....Endbent = 4.120 0. The maximum transverse and longitudinal forces are used in the following calculations.029 ft 0....... Broward.....1667 ⋅ ft + 6ft ( ) The wind forces on vehicles are transmitted to the end bent using tributary lengths.106 WindFDOT = 0......

......Endbent := −WLz.Beam = 0.. FWL.z⋅ cos( Skew) − FWL...Endbent := FWL...65 kip WLx...Endbent⋅ M arm Lspan For this design example.......250 ft (Marm = h + 6 ft) Vertical force in end bent due to wind pressure on vehicle.48 kip WLz...z := WLSuper.........41 kip WLz.......4 kip FWL............................ WLx.12 End Bent Design Loads 320 .......Beam := WLx............. WLy............56 kip WLy......... M arm = 11...x⋅ cos( Skew) Force parallel (x-direction) to the cap per beam......Endbent = 3.......x := WLSuper.x⋅ sin( Skew) Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the endbent per beam..... WLx....Endbent = −0...... FWL..Endbent N beams Longitudinal Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles The longitudinal moment is resisted by the moment arm........... 1 The forces due to wind need to be resolved along the direction of the skew...Maximum transverse force......Endbent = 4....... WLz...Beam := WLz.x = 5..........z⋅ sin( Skew) + FWL.........Endbent 0.......... Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load..Beam = 0............... Force perpendicular (z-direction) to the endbent.... Substructure Design 3.....Endbent 4...1 kip FWL............ WLz.... 0 Maximum longitudinal force.....Endbent := FWL....33 kip WLx................ this component of the load is ignored.z = 2..Endbent N beams Force parallel (x-direction) to the cap...

4 0.4 0..1 0..3 0.....Endbent = −5..3 0.. M arm = 11.3 0.13 kip WLy.3 0.. the tilting effect of the vehicle is resisted by up and down reactions on the beams assuming the deck to act as a simple span between beams. Conservatively.12 End Bent Design Loads 321 .....3 0...1 0.... apply this load to all beams WIND ON LIVE LOAD FORCES AT END BENT Beam WL Loads (kip) x y 0.0 0.Endbent := −WLx.4 0.3 0.0 0..3 5.. Moment arm from top of bearing pad to location of applied load.4 0..0 0. Using the lever rule.....Endbent⋅ M arm BeamSpacing Since this load can occur at any beam location....3 0.0 0.3 0....4 0...3 0.0 z 0.4 0...4 0. It assumes that the wind acting on the live load will cause the vehicle to tilt over.4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Substructure Design 3.0 0..0 0...4 0....Transverse Adjustments for Wind on Vehicles Using the principles of the lever rule for transverse distribution of live load on beams..0 0. the wind on live can be distributed similarly.. assume all beams that can see live load can develop this load since the placement of the vehicle(s) and number of vehicles within the deck is constantly changing....4 0.. WLy.3 -5.250 ft Vertical reaction on pier from transverse wind pressure on vehicles...0 0.4 0.

Sap2000. acting on the substructure. the loads applied at the top of the cap from the beams are applied to rigid links that transfer the lateral loads as a lateral load and moment at the centroid of the end bent cap. Larsa 2000. Design Limit States The design loads for strength I. include end bent cap and backwall. and service I limit states are summarized in this section. strength III. This is consistent with substructure design programs like LEAP's RCPier.C. in LEAP's RCPier. Strudl. two load cases would be required for temperature with a positive and negative strain being inputed. TU: a temperature increase and fall on the pier substructure utilizing the following parameters: coefficient of expansion α t = 6 × 10− 6 temperature change 1 °F temperatureincrease = temperaturefall = 25⋅ °F For instance. assuming the cap to be supported on pin supports at every pile location is an acceptable modeling decision. These reactions are from the superstructure only.12 End Bent Design Loads 322 . Substructure Design 3. equal to: α t ⋅ ( 25⋅ °F) = 0. In the analysis model. etc. include the following loads: • • DC: self-weight of the substructure. For the end bent. such as a GTStrudl. strength V.00015 Note that in our model.

5 ⋅ DW + 1.4 7.7 6.9 -116.0 11 -0.3 -142.0 10 -0.9 -116.5 ⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength I Limit State Beam Loads (kip) Beam # X Y 1 -4.25⋅ DC + 1.0 7 -2.3 5 -4.0 7 -0.4 7.0 4 -0.5 4.3 -116.7 6.3 -123.3 -311.25⋅ DC + 1.8 2 -0.• WS: Wind on the substructure should be applied directly to the analysis model.6 -122.5 ⋅ DW + 1.6 -116.7 Substructure Design 3.5 4.7 6. For the end bent surrounded by MSE wall.9 -122.7 6.2 2 -4. • C1.7 6.0 9 -2.8 Z 7.0 3 -0.9 -122.9 -116.7 6.9 -116.7 6.9 -116.4 7. Strength I Limit State Loads Strength1 = 1. All applied loads in the substructure analysis model should be multiplied by the appropriate load factor values and combined with the limit state loads calculated in this file for the final results.9 -116.6 -116.4 7.5 ⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength III Limit State Loads (kip) Beam # X Y 1 -0.5 4.9 6 -4.75BR + 0.0 5 -0. the wind loads on substructure are non-existant since the substructure can be considered shielded by the wall.6 -116.7 6.4 4.0 8 -0.0 10 -2.8 Z 6.5 4.9 -116.6 3 -4.9 -116.0 9 -0.9 4 -4. Strength III Limit State Loads Strength3 = 1.5 C2.6 -116.5 4.9 -116.0 6 -0.3 -206.3 -270.7 6.0 8 -2.75⋅ LL + 1.0 11 -2.12 End Bent Design Loads 323 .7 6.4WS + 0.

9 10.9 11.8 5.0 ⋅ LL + 1.5 -91.0 10 -4.6 5 -5.0 8 -1.8 7.8 -116.5 -180.0 9 -4.1 -180.0 9 -1.1 -123.0 7 -1.8 -122.5 -91.0 ⋅ WL + 1.12 End Bent Design Loads 324 .9 10.25⋅ DC + 1.1 -235.5 -97.6 C3.1 -272.9 10.0 5 -3.6 3 -5.5 -91. Service I Limit State Loads Service1 = 1.6 5.5 -97.0 Substructure Design 3.0 10 -1.8 -116.6 5.4 11.5 -208.8 -116.5 -107.35⋅ LL + 1.7 3 -3.5 11.3WS + 1.6 5.50⋅ DW + 1.1 2 -3.5 -91.0 11 -4.6 5.9 10.6 6 -5.8 -116.0 ⋅ DW + 1.0 ⋅ DC + 1.1 -136.40⋅ WS + 1.8 7.2 10.7 6 -3.9 10.0 11.3 4 -3.6 2 -5.8 7.2 11.1 -116.0 ⋅ WL + 0.5 -138.5 -91.0 ⋅ BR + 0.8 7.B3.6 4 -5.8 Z 7.6 5.0 ⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Service I Limit State Beam Loads (kip) Beam # X Y Z 1 -5.0 11 -1.35⋅ BR + 0.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) Strength V Limit State Loads (kip) Beam # X Y 1 -3.0 7 -4.0 8 -4. Strength V Limit State Strength5 = 1.

Negative := −28. Defined Units Substructure Design 3. the connection is considered to be a pin connection. the approach is similar to Section 3. the governing moments for the design of the end bent cap and the corresponding service moments were as follows: M Strength1.9 Pier Pile Vertical Load design.12 End Bent Design Loads 325 . these values are given for references purposes.4 ⋅ ft⋅ kip The maximum pile reaction was pile #3.3⋅ ft⋅ kip M Service1.4 ⋅ kip For purposes of this design example. There are no moments transfered from the end bent cap to the piles since for a 1 foot embedment of the pile into the cap.Positive := 8. the governing loads were as follows: PStrength1 := 336.Positive := 10. Summary of Results From the results of the analysis. The method of obtaining the design values has been shown and the user will then utilize design equations and methodologies similar to Section 3.9⋅ ft⋅ kip M Strength1.C4. For the piles.Negative := −32.9⋅ ft⋅ kip M Service1.4 Pier Cap Design to design the end bent cap.2 ⋅ kip PService1 := 228.

Substructure Design 3. refer to Section 3.4 Pier Cap Design. For a similar design approach.13 End Bent Cap Design 326 .SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN End Bent Cap Design Reference Description The actual design of the end bent cap for the governing moments and shears has not been performed in this design example.

For a similar design approach. Substructure Design 3.9 Pier Pile Vertical Load Design.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN End Bent Pile Vertical Load Design Reference Description The actual design of the end bent piles for the vertical loads has not been performed in this design example. refer to Section 3.14 End Bent Pile Vertical Load Design 327 .

General Criteria A1. Tie-strap design B2. Back wall design B1. Summary of Reinforcement Provided Substructure Design 3.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN End Bent Backwall Design Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex1_PCBeam\312EndBentLds.15 End Bent Backwall Design 328 . Soil Parameters 331 B.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design for the end bent backwall. Page 329 Contents A. Back wall design 343 C. End Bent Geometry A2.

................ General Criteria A1.... Length of end bent cap. Load factor for EH and ES (LRFD 3.............5......1).....5 γ DC := 1..................5 ft b EB = 3.... Width of end bent cap.......... End Bent Design Parameters Depth of end bent cap............. hEB = 2........ Soil Parameters Values for the active lateral earth pressure........... Approach slab length................15 End Bent Backwall Design 329 ......11.....................9 γ p := 1...............4......... Resistance Factor for shear and torsion............ Height of back wall.....75 ft cover sub = 3 in φ = 0.......... [LRFD 3. Backwall design width......11.......... Load factor for dead load....A.................................. Approach slab thickness....5..5 in LApprSlab = 34..614 ft hBW = 5 ft LBW = 1 ft t BW = 1 ft t ApprSlab = 13.........9 φv = 0.....................3............ Resistance Factor for flexure and tension. Concrete cover... ka .......25 A2........ 3...5 ft LEB = 101................................... Thickness of back wall.........6] may be taken as: ka = Γ ⋅ sin θ ⋅ sin( θ − δ ) 2 ( sin θ + φ' f 2 ( ) ) 2 where sin( φ' f + δ )⋅ sin(φ' f − β ) Γ = 1 + sin( θ − δ ) sin( θ + β ) Substructure Design 3........

6.841 2 and ka := Γ ⋅ sin(θ ) ⋅ sin( θ − δ) 2 ( sin θ + φ' f ( ) 2 ) ka = −0.11.3-1 friction angle between fill and wall given by LRFD Table 3.4-2 therefore ∆ p := k⋅ γ soil⋅ heq ∆ p = 0. LRFD Table 3.371 The horizontal earth pressure due to live load.6.5.3-1 angle of fill to the horizontal (Note : based on concrete on clean fine to medium sand) therefore sin(φ' f + δ ) ⋅ sin( φ' f − β ) Γ := 1 + sin(θ − δ ) sin(θ + β ) Γ = 2.defining the following: γ soil = 115 pcf θ := 90⋅ deg φ' f := 29⋅ deg δ := 29⋅ deg β := 0 ⋅ deg Unit weight of soil angle of the end bent back face of the wall to the horizontal effective angle of internal friction as per LRFD Table 3. ∆ p .11.15 End Bent Backwall Design 330 .6.11.4-1 or 3. [LRFD 3.0 ⋅ ft where Unit weight of soil Coefficient of lateral earth pressure equivalent height of soil for vehicular loading.171 ksf Substructure Design 3.5.11.11.4] may be approximated as follows: ∆ p = k⋅ γ soil ⋅ heq γ soil = 115 pcf k := ka heq := 4.

.....50 ft kip ( ) 2 Lateral force moment arm... yearth := Moment at top of pile..15 End Bent Backwall Design 331 . for this design example..... Tie-strap design The following is a free body diagram of the loads acting on the end bent and the proposed resisting moment.... M earth = 1.... The resisting moment............... the factored and unfactored forces per linear foot of wall that the straps need to widthstand are specified..... Back wall design B1.. is accomplished by specifying tie-back straps attached to the backwall which are the same that are used in the MSE walls.80 kip ⋅ ft ft M earth := Fearth⋅ yearth Substructure Design 3. Loads Calculate moment at top of pile due to earth pressure per foot of backwall Fearth := ka ⋅ γ soil ⋅ hBW + hEB 2 hBW + hEB 3 − Pileembed Lateral force..........B.. Fearth = 1......................20 ft yearth = 1..... Generally..

...95 ft PAS := γ conc⋅ t ApprSlab ⋅ LApprSlab 3 (Note : assume 1/3 of weight is seen at back wall) Vertical force moment arm......................... eAS = −1.... M AS = −2......Calculate moment at top of pile due to live load surcharge per foot of backwall Lateral force...25 ft kip PBW := γ conc⋅ hBW⋅ tBW ( ) Vertical force moment arm...................... M BW = −0......... PBW = 0................. PCap = 1........................ eBW := eAS Moment at top of pile......... Fsurcharge = 1.................................00 ft kip PCap := γ conc⋅ hEB⋅ b EB ( ) Vertical force moment arm................. Moment at top of pile.....44 kip ⋅ ft ft M AS := PAS ⋅ eAS Calculate moment at top of pile due to back wall per foot of backwall Vertical force............52 kip ⋅ ft ft M surcharge := Fsurcharge ⋅ ysurcharge Calculate moment at top of pile due to approach slab per foot of backwall Vertical force.... M Cap = 0. eCap := 0 ⋅ ft Moment at top of pile.......... M surcharge = 3......00 kip ⋅ ft ft M Cap := PCap⋅ eCap Substructure Design 3..........15 End Bent Backwall Design 332 .... kip PAS = 1..............28 ft ysurcharge = 2......75 ft eBW = −1..............................31 ft eCap = 0.........25 ft eAS := tBW − b EB 2 Moment at top of pile.......75 ft kip Fsurcharge := ∆ p ⋅ hBW + hEB ysurcharge := hBW + hEB 2 − Pileembed ( ) Lateral force moment arm.......94 kip ⋅ ft ft M BW := PBW⋅ eBW Calculate moment at top of pile due to end bent cap per foot of backwall Vertical force................

..4 11...........8 Z 7..35 kip ⋅ ft ft M P. kip PStr1 = −38.3 -123.......6 -122....3 -270.5 -138.66 kip ⋅ ft ft M F...0 7 -4.0 8 -4..3 -206.4 7....5 -180...Str1 := FStr1⋅ eFy Service Vertical force. M P.Srv1 = 2........... eFy = 1...... M F....15 End Bent Backwall Design 333 .....6 -116.......5 4.6 2 -5..3 5 -4.Str1 = 1....6 6 -5.Str1 := PStr1⋅ ePy Lateral force....0 9 -2.....3 -142.....9 10..2 2 -4.5 Vertical force moment arm.. kip PSrv1 = −26. M P. eFy = 1.....5 -107....5 4....... Moment at top of pile..9 10......0 11 -4...6⋅ kip ⋅ BeamSpacing Service I Limit State Beam Loads (kip) Beam # X Y Z 1 -5..6 5 -5..0 11......Srv1 := PSrv1⋅ ePy Lateral force..5 4...................70 kip ⋅ ft ft M F....0 11 -2.....17 ft Moment at top of pile...5 11....4 7....5 -91...............17 ft ePy := b EB 2 − tBW − K Moment at top of pile...0 7 -2.Srv1 := FSrv1 ⋅ eFy Substructure Design 3.5 -91. the beam reaction is divided by the beam spacing.......6 -116....93 ft 1 FStr1 := 7.0 10 -2.4 7.....Srv1 = 4..9 10...........9 6 -4..6 4 -5..Str1 = 6.....6 -116.........6 -116..5 -91..0 10 -4..6 3 -4..45 ft 1 FSrv1 := 11.5 4...4 7.9 11..... kip FSrv1 = 1..4 4.2 10..5 -97. Strength Vertical force.... M F..... ePy = −0..83 ft eFy := hEB − Pileembed + 4 ⋅ in (Note : Use 4" pedestal height)....0 8 -2........11 ft 1 PSrv1 := −208....9⋅ kip ⋅ BeamSpacing Vertical force moment arm ePy = −0.9 ⋅ kip ⋅ BeamSpacing Vertical force moment arm... kip FStr1 = 0..99 ft 1 PStr1 := −311..2 11...5 -91...5 -91....5 4..3 -116.... To get an equivalent load per foot of backwall..Calculate moment at top of pile due to maximum Strength I limit state reaction (pile #3) per foot of backwall..9 10..4 ⋅ kip ⋅ BeamSpacing Strength I Limit State Beam Loads (kip) Beam # X Y 1 -4........3 -311.0 9 -4.6 3 -5.50 kip ⋅ ft ft M P.5 -97......9 10.........5 -208.9 4 -4.....0 Vertical force moment arm.......83 ft Moment at top of pile.

.......... ystr1 = 2...........................28 ft Mservice1 ysrv1 := Fservice1 (Note : This dimension is from top of pile) Substructure Design 3... M service1 = 8......9 kip ⋅ ft ft M service1 := MP...9 ft kip Fservice1 := FSrv1 + 1..Srv1 + MF............................ + 1...................00 M AS + MBW + MCap .......... Fservice1 = 3...00⋅ Mearth + Msurcharge ( ( ) ) Force..Str1 + MF...................... + 1.......50⋅ M earth + M surcharge ( ( ) ) Force......... ysrv1 = 2...........6 ft kip Fstrength1 := FStr1 + 1.15 End Bent Backwall Design 334 .......25 MAS + M BW + MCap .................................................00⋅ Fearth + Fsurcharge ( ) Eccentricity......................9 kip ⋅ ft ft M strength1 := M P. M strength1 = 11...57 ft M strength1 ystr1 := Fstrength1 (Note : This dimension is from top of pile) Calculate the Service I values per foot of backwall and eccentricity to optimize the force in the strap: Moment...............................50⋅ Fearth + Fsurcharge ( ) Eccentricity...... Fstrength1 = 4.............Resisting Moments (Note : Jacking loads which can cause a resultant moment MA in the opposite direction were not considered in this design example) Calculate the Strength I values per foot of backwall and eccentricity to optimize the force in the strap: Moment...Srv1 + 1....Str1 + 1..........

............15 End Bent Backwall Design 335 ..93 ft kip Governing design forces for Tie-Straps Factored design force for tie-strap..277 dimension is from top of pile) Factored design force for tie-strap.... only 1 strap is assumed in the calculations... Fr strapF = 4. place the resultant of the straps about the current design location..........5 ⋅ ft (Note : Options ystr1 2. The geotechnical engineer should be consulted to determine the length of the strap required...........58 ft FstrapM := Calculate Design Forces for Tie-Straps per foot of back wall for lateral load requirement Factored design force for tie-strap.93 ft kip ( ) Substructure Design 3......64 kip ft FstrapF := Fservice1 Fr strapF := Fstrength1 Service design force for tie-strap... If additional straps are required............. Fstrap = 3.. kip FstrapM = 3.78 kip ft Fstrap := max FstrapM ..5 ft ystrap := 2..... Fr strapF ( ) Service design force for tie-strap.. FstrapF = 3... Fr strap = 4.......Calculate Design Forces for Tie-Straps per foot of back wall for moment requirement Note: For the tie strap.. FstrapF Fr strap := max Fr strapM ..... ystrap = 2.. Distance between tie-strap and top of pile...572 = ft This ysrv1 2..78 kip ft Fr strapM := M strength1 ystrap M service1 ystrap Service design force for tie-strap. Fr strapM = 4.

..... Conservatively are assumed to be resisted only by the soil behind the wall... To minimize calculations.5... p p = kp ⋅ γ soil⋅ z + 2⋅ c⋅ kp kp := 6 (Note : LRFD Figure 3........ Mrpassive = 2... this condition will assume that if the lateral forces are applied in the direction towards the back wall.. M passive = 3....4-1 for θ = 90 deg and angle of internal friction = 29 deg......15 End Bent Backwall Design 336 . The engineer should use judgement in figuring out the way in which these loads can be resisted..50 ft ( ) Factored design force for back wall. 2 yBpassive := h + hBW − hEB 3 EB Distance to pt.... Check to see if there is sufficient force in the passive pressure: Passive pressure....B2. the moment for the back wall design can be calculated by taking the applied lateral loads at the location of the resultant passive force and multiplying by the arm to the design moment location of the back wall. where the coefficient of lateral earth pressure......... Back wall design Calculate Design Moments for Backwall per foot of back wall Passive Earth Pressure For purposes of this design example........ With this assumption............ the passive earth resistance will be activated.. The approach slab can offer some resistance as well as the piles..63 kip ⋅ ft ft M passive := FSrv1⋅ yBpassive (Note : Active earth pressure and surcharge loads are not included since they are not reversible).) Substructure Design 3. it is assumed that the passive resistance mobilized will be equal to the lateral applied loads.......... B..11........... yBpassive = 2....31 kip ⋅ ft ft Mrpassive := FStr1⋅ yBpassive Service design force for back wall.

......... kip Fpassive = 19.4 ft Fpassive := 1 ⋅ p ⋅ z 2 p Factored passive pressure force per foot of back wall... Mrstrap = 4.....5 kip ft Tie-straps Distance to pt....... kip ft kip ...93 kip ⋅ ft ft M strap := Fstrap ⋅ yBstrap Back wall design moments: Strength. B..... ft ft Similarly.... FSrv1 = 1...... the service resistance.... Fpassive = 19..depth below surface of soil....5 By inspection....8 ft⋅ kip MrBW := max Mrpassive ....9 ft⋅ kip M BW := max M passive ................175 ksf Service passive pressure force per foot of back wall..... the assumption that the soil has sufficient capacity in passive earth pressure is valid since the factored resistance. is greater than the factored design force. yBstrap = 1....... M strap ⋅ LBW ( ) Substructure Design 3..............5 ft c := 0 ⋅ ksf (Note : Use full depth of endbent wall and cap) soil cohesion... Therefore.............9 . passive pressure activated.. Fr passive = 29..78 kip ⋅ ft ft Mrstrap := Fr strap ⋅ yBstrap Service design force for back wall.......1 ..................15 End Bent Backwall Design 337 .... Mrstrap ⋅ LBW ( ) Service...... is greater than the service design force......... MrBW = 4........ (Note : Assuming fine sand backfill) p p := kp ⋅ γ soil ⋅ z + 2 ⋅ c⋅ kp p p = 5..... z := hEB + hBW z = 7........... Fr passive = 29..... M BW = 3...... M strap = 3..00 ft yBstrap := ystrap + Pileembed − hEB ( ) Factored design force for back wall...... assumption is valid.1 kip ft kip 1 Fr passive := γ p ⋅ 2 ⋅ p p ⋅ z where γ p = 1........4 ....... FStr1 = 0..............

......earth − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required Given M r = φ⋅ φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 0..... Proposed bar spacing.prov := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 2 Moment capacity provided..........7 in dia ds := t BW − cover sub...... Once As is greater than As. bar := "5" spacing := 12⋅ in Abar = 0....5 ft⋅ kip 2 0. Area of steel provided per foot of back wall As = 0......16 in 2 ( ) The area of steel provided...prov = 10...... If not.sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy As. fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel ds = 7..310 in dia = 0.31 in 2 Distance from extreme compressive....625 in 2 (Note : #5 @ 12" spacing reinforcement requirement is governed by minimum steel and not moment capacity......sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy Substructure Design 3... As...16 in . M r.85⋅ fc.31 in ..reqd = 0... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement........) Bar area........... M r........Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 0.... As = 0..sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy where M r := MrBW b := LBW Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar.85⋅ fc.....reqd = 0. Bar diameter...reqd := Find As As.....85⋅ fc.. should be greater than the area of steel required.......15 End Bent Backwall Design 338 ..reqd ..... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.....

. surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement........Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5... fsa = 33. 2 ⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of back wall.3...........3... dc = 2...)....6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter.6 ⋅ fy Substructure Design 3.... Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state fsa = z 1 ≤ 0................... The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5...................5 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) z Service limit state stress in reinforcement...4)...4] Concrete is subjected to cracking.......7 ksi fsa := min 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c ......... For this example.........7.15 End Bent Backwall Design 339 ... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement..7............ 0..... Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure... The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths..........313 in z := 170⋅ kip in dia dc := min tBW − ds .............. nbar = 1 b nbar := spacing Effective tension area of concrete.. a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".. A = 55. "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 Environmentsuper = "Slightly" aggressive environment The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter........................ Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.

...85⋅ fc. If the values are not equal. 0..4 = "OK..7..5 in to equal xna = 1...........4 in c := As⋅ fy 0..The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.574 kip Ts := MBW xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 1... x := 1.....85 − 0..sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy Substructure Design 3.... β 1 = 0. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment. Area of steel provided As = 0. so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.......... Ts = 6..sub − 4000 ⋅ psi ... This process is iterative..actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment..65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section. increase the reinforcement provided" otherwise LRFD 5..15 End Bent Backwall Design 340 .. adjust x = 1..... c = 0..5 ⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec....3.........5 in.2 ksi Ts fs....775 β 1 := max0.... fs..7.31 in 2 Stress block factor..3.3...3..05⋅ fc...4 := "OK.. crack control is satisfied" Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced...actual ≤ fsa "NG....... crack control is satisfied" if fs.......5 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x . LRFD 5.actual = 21.

.....7.. see LRFD equation C5.. reinforcement for moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5..... LRFD 5........ fr := 0..1 := "OK..3......3... LRFD 5..reqd "NG....reqd = 6. maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" if c de ≤ 0..2 ⋅ Mcr .7.. fr = 562. Mr..prov ≥ Mr....2 times greater than the cracking moment........3... M r.....1 = "OK..056 ratio should be less than 0... 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided.....8 psi Section modulus.2 := "OK.....7..... maximum reinforcement requirements are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1..7.prov = 10.3.7 in c de de := ds The = 0.42 "NG.....reqd := min 1..7.. minimum reinforcement for moment is satisfied" if M r....3.3. S = 288..........1-1" otherwise LRFD 5...42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.15 End Bent Backwall Design 341 ...3.4 ft⋅ kip M r.sub⋅ ksi Modulus of Rupture..3....2 = "OK...for a non-prestressed section................3. de = 7. minimum reinforcement for moment is satisfied" Substructure Design 3.4 ft⋅ kip . section is over-reinforced...5 ft⋅ kip . exceeds minimum requirements........5 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S Required flexural resistance.. M cr = 13...3.. M r..24⋅ fc..0 in 3 S := b ⋅ t BW 6 2 Cracking moment..reqd = 6.

....10...reqd := min b AST Abar .........10.... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5....10....... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if barspa. 3⋅ tBW ......625 in Ag := tBW⋅ LBW Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.................. Bar diameter..... AST = 0.....8 = "OK........... Gross area of section...reqd = 14......... spacingST.............st := 12⋅ in 2 Bar area...26 in 2 AST := 0..7.......2] Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" "7" ) Shrinkage reinforcement provided............8 := "OK...........0 in 2 Abar = 0..15 End Bent Backwall Design 342 .31 in dia = 0........st ≤ spacingST......reqd "NG.7.......11⋅ ksi⋅ Ag fy Maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement..... Ag = 144.. barst := "5" barspa......Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Substructure Design 3... 18⋅ in The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5..8.1 in spacingST........

... Summary of Reinforcement Provided Moment reinforcement (each face) Bar size... Bar spacing..temp = "5" barspa.......................93 ft Defined Units Substructure Design 3... Bar spacing......... Service design force.C.........................78 kip Fstrap = 3... bar = "5" spacing = 12 in Temperature and Shrinkage Bar size.... yBstrap = 1 ft kip ft Fr strap = 4.st = 12 in Tie-straps Location of strap from bottom of back wall...... barshrink... Factored design force.15 End Bent Backwall Design 343 ...

Substructure Design 3.15 End Bent Backwall Design 344 .

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