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IltheRURAL

^SCIENCE

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Edited by
L.

H. Bailey

THE PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLE - GARDENING

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Snenrj ^txx£S

The Soil. The Spraying of Plants. Milk and its Products. The Fertility of the Land. The Principles of Fruit-Growinq.
Bush-Fruits.
Fertilizers.

The Principles of Agriculture.
Irrigation and Drainage.

The Farmstead. Rural Wealth and Welfare. The Principles of Vegetable-Gardening.

THE PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLE GARDENING
-

BY
L. H.

BAILEY

TWELFTH EDITION

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN &
CO., Ltd.

1912
All rights reserved

1910. June. 1905. 1909. May. January. 1904. Jl^ount l^leasant PredK Horace McFarland Company Harrisburg. June. June. Pa. 1903. June. June. 1907. July. 1911. March. October. 1906.Copyright. . 1912 J. H. 1901 Reprinted February. bailey Set up and electrotyped January. 1901 By L. 1908.

CONTENTS PART I GEXEBAL VIEW CHAPTER The Lay-Out of the Plantation 1. III its Treatment of the 80-106 The Amelioration Land 85 94 The Fertilizing of the Land (v) . 54 67 72 4. 5. The Extent of Vegetable -Gardening 12 19 . Equipment and Capital The Home Garden CHAPTER Glass 1. 5. II 44-79 Quantity and Cost of Glass Required 45 50 The Making Hotbeds of Frames 3. 2. ' I PAGES 1-43 3 The Ideals in Vegetable-Gardening of Vegetable- 2. Coldframes and Forcing-hills The Management of Frames CHAPTER The Soil and 1. 2.31 4. The Geography Gardening 6 3.

. The Sowing of Seeds of Seeds 155 165 The Growing CHAPTER VI . 3. . 2. Choosing the Varieties Weeds Insects and Fungi 19D CHAPTER Marketing and Storing 1. Preservation of Seeds Testing of Seeds 4. 172-213 173 181 Irrigation Double -Cropping Transplanting 3. 187 194 190 4.vi Contents CHAPTER IV PAOE» Vegetable-Gardening Tools 107-121 CHAPTER V Seeds and Seedage 1. VII 214-235 215 224 Packing Storing 2. 122-171 of Seeds The Longevity 122 141 143 2. Subsequent Management of the Vegetable-Garden 1. 6. 5. 5.

or Black Salsify 292 293 Seolymus. Classification VIII PAGES 237-270 238 242 of Crops 2.GARDENING CROPS CHAPTER Introductory Discussion 1.Contents vii PART II VEGETABLE. Books CHAPTER IX Root Crops Radish Beet Carrot 271-300 273 277 281 Turnip-rooted CLervil 284 285 Turnip Rutabaga Parsnip Salsify 288 288 291 Scorzonera. or Spanish Salsify Horse-radish 294 CHAPTER X Tuber Crops Potato 301-313 301 Sweet Potato 310 .

viii Contents CHAPTER XI Bulb Crops Onion **• PAGES 314-328 316 CHAPTER Cole Crops Cabbage Kale or Borecole Brussels Sprouts Cauliflower Xli 329-346 329 339 340 341 Kohlrabi 343 CHAPTER Pot-Herb Crops Spinach Other Greens XIII 347-355 347 351 CHAPTER XIV Salad Crops » 356-379 357 361 Lettuce Endive Chicory Cress 363 365 367 Corn Salad Parsley 368 369 370 Salad Chervil Celery Celeriac 379 .

... Cucumber and Gherkin Muskmelon Watermelon 417 • Pumpkin and Squash Other Cucurbits 420 422 CHAPTER Sweet Corn.Contents ix CHAPTER XV Pulse Crops Pea Beans PAGES 380-391 380 383 CHAPTER XVI SOLANACEOUS CROPS 392-410 392 403 • Tomato Eggplant Pepper . Martynia Sweet Corn Okra or Gumbo Martynia XVIII 423-428 423 427 428 CHAPTER XIX CONPIMEJJTAL AND SWEET HeRBS 429-432 . 408 409 Husk Tomato CHAPTER XVII CucuRBiTOUS Crops 411-422 414 416 . Okra.

c • 461-458 .X Contents CHAPTER XX Perennial Crops Asparagus PAOES 433-450 433 441 Rhubarb or Pie-plant Docks and Sorrels Artichoke 445 446 Sea-Kale 449 Index . .

and The the applications of the various sciences thereto. The only com- idea of the use of the term is to be obtained from a detailed catalogue of the products which are called vegetables.THE PRINCIPLES OF VEGETABLEGARDENING PART I— GENERAL VIEW CHAPTER I THE LAY-OUT OF THE PLANTATION Vegetable -GARDENING. it may be well to say a later page . and this inventory will be found on in the meantime. is There is exception to this in the melon. cabbages. It is approximately true to say that the term applies to the edible part of an annual or at least an herbaceous Vegetables are not often used in the dessert. that leading vegetables are potatoes. that this is and plete it significant often included with the fruits by European writers. is impossible of definition. or olericulture.garden vegetable. A (1) . onions. plant. or 'Sxgetable" in the gardener's sense. is the art and business of raising kitchen -garden vegetables. term kitchen . and therefore belong more properly to the kitchen thal^ do the fruits.

the grower of vegetables using his own team for tion with the larger transporting his products direct to either the retailer or consumer.gardening is understood as the business "carried on in favored localities at a distance from market. but the Irish or round potato Sweet corn is a These is not.2 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening tomatoes. horticultural crop. water and rail transportation being necessary. is the growing of vegetables for The American term truck -gardening is really synonymous. cucumbers." one. Hale in the work In Bulletin 41 of the Census for the Eleventh' Census. H. truck. the whole subject of vegetable- gardening is considered to belong to that part of husIn its smaller and bandry known as horticulture. . although it is sometimes used in connecarbitrary distinction market -gardening enterprises. examples show that the demarcation between agriculis generally regarded as a farm crop. peas. for statistical reasons. is it general to is not a fundamental understanding of the terms but seemed be necessary. to make the separation. An between market -gardening and truck -gardening was made by J. beans. potato is generally considered to be a horticultural crop. Market. This distinction not the and . lettuce. celery. asparagus. particularly in the North. intenser applications." while market -gardening is "conducted near local markets. squashes. whereas other corn . By common consent.gardening sale. as in the field culture of squashes and The sweet tomatoes. it is quite as properly agriculture. unquestionably horticulture. it is but in its larger and looser for it is gardening applications. Bureau.

THE IDEALS IN VEGETABLE -GARDENING largely on promoter conceives of the The success of any business depends the clearness with which its aims and purposes which he is to attain. and are thereby removed from general which is genercompetition. like any other business. and growing for market or commercial profit. Leaving aside for the instant the special subject of home -gardening. Many persons grow crops because their fathers grew them. greater effoi't is devoted to the growing of the crops — — — . is primarily a matter of ideals. but it is locality are adapted to them. or because the land and This is well. should grow a crop for a distinct purpose. and that which grows them for particular or special markets. In the former business. In the former. is 1. There are two great types of vegetable -growing. scarcely worth while to attempt to trace it. It is determined almost wholly by custom. the products compete with other like products in the open market. In the latter.Gardening ture and horticulture 3 dary The bounis an arbitrary line. the products are taken to some special customer. better if the grower can also picture to himself the desThat is. they take their chances. growing for home use. because they know how to grow them. we may observe that marthat which ket-gardening is itself of two categories. grows products for the common and general markets. Good farming. by far the ally known as market-gardening proper.Ideals in Vegetable. he tination of the crops which he is to raise.

The more discriminating the home. much effort must be given to the hunting out of special customers and markets: here the skill of the marketman is nearly as important as the skill of the vegetable -grower. In most cases. Here quality and a uniform and constant supply are the desiderata. earliness of crop is a prime requisite and to secure tlie crop very early than in . Nearly every person who has a bit of ground grows a few vegetables. not luxuries. There is as much skill required in securing a well -grown melon or caulifloM^er as in raising a violet or chrysanthemum. Many of the products are quickly perish- Quality generally counts fruits. and a bountiful supply at stated times or seaThe home -use garden should sons. diseases. Vegetable -gardening for money In fact. The chief skill required is that of the vegetable -grower. ness. glut The competition in markets. and the prices are therefore not high. The growing different abilities of vegetables for home use requires than the growing for market. requires the closest attention to all the details of the . for the business of mar- and in securing thera keting is delegated.Gardening at such seasons that thej^ contend with the least competition. There are risks incident to season. able. receive the more minute and skilful care to develop the utmost excellence in the product. nothing is easy if it is is not an easy busiworth the having. In the latter business. in the market growing. The margin of profit is small. quantity and attractiveness. are the desiderata. for less in vegetables Most vegetables are culinary subjects. the greater is the skill required of the gardener. insects.4 The Principles of VegetaMe. is great.

of Glass -grown products often bring fancy prices.The Plant -Grower and plaut. for the supply of vegetables is usually great: consequently. He must learn his soil. but the risks are also great. toraer. expect great reward the first year or two on a new place. he will If he is only a plant -grower.growing. much ahead of the normal may turn a handsome profit. in the great markets. the Marlcetman 5 One must often find a personal ens- customer rarely takes pains to wait for the produce of one grower or to search for it in the market. and they do not make equal every year or on not severe. and cities. The man who has a large area. In most cases. but these are exceptions. the the novice. when comample rewards may come easily to every acre. There are many market -gardeners profits from given pieces of land. or produced season or much behind it. market and climate. If he is a good plant -grower and a good business man. A special crop well grown. but profits who make the}' are great usually old Hands at the business. this and be a slave to the marketman. he will probably succeed. Some the best locations for small market -gardens are in the neighborhood of small where competition is likely to be less severe than and where the grower may deal directly with the consumer. the market -gardener must He must not keep long hours and must work hard. and sufficient capital to run it effectively. and can grow sufficient stuff to bring a fair reward even at very close margins. the small grower may have to peddle his vegetables. markets thoroughly. petition is They know the In particular cases. . Prices are less than they were a few years ago. can dictate to the market.

with a it is full appreciation of all the difficulties and who goes and discouragements. tillage and other treatment. are in proximity to trunk lines of railroad or steamship ports. that they have become market -garden centers despite great distance from market. but they all have They easy access to market. a are quick. ters are in sandy or light -soil areas. To such a most attractive business. There are two natural factors which determine the location of these gardening centers. These centers are in climates which are milder than those in which the chief markets are located. however. market -gardening center or area in proxThe market determines the There are certain regions.6 there The Principles of Vegetable. for the returns it and is inexpressible delight to bring forth at satisfactory product the exact is time when it is wanted. easy to work. faction. The person who into it likes the business. will almost surely succeed. either by rail or water. THE GEOGRAPHY OF VEGETABLE -GARDENING is There a imity to every large city.Gardening is no prospect of any important permanent increase. which are so by nature for the business of vegetablegrowing.garden a perennial satis- 2. climate and soil. essential to success . They well adapted — are able to grow early crops. person. Such lands are early. and respond quickly to fertilizers. location of the business. for earliness in is usually These cenmarket -gardening. A good vegetable .

dotted areas to watermelons.Fig. 1. By Professor Starnes. Shaded areas are devoted to general trucking. Showing the trucking centers of Georgia. .

Fig. which the northern grower often fears much. at Augusta on the Savannah river. in . Tickfaw. the only fied) to the northern markets. however. Amite City. Gallraan. However. are Terry. Vegetable -gardening areas to supply the central and northern markets of the Mississippi valley are indicated for me as follows.). R. and not far from there.8 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening Compared with usually scattered. New Orleans in spring. Louis: "The is largest shipping point Crj^stal Springs. C. and. although developing points along some of the lines of railroad. and suggest that there is almost unlimited opportunity for geographical expansion of the business. and it is Even the extensive vegetable -growplatted on a map.gardening centers have been developed. the acreage is of the vegetable -gardening districts small. the northern markets. M. no vinusual sight during the shipping season. 1 shows the parts of Georgia in which vegetable . Kiely. w regions Fig. ing of the South. further down. are Independence. and in the extreme northwestern part) represent the general trucking centers growing produce for The dotted areas show the melon shows the regions in Florida from which the vegetables are shipped (in the months speciIn Alabama. South for vegetables Solid trains daily out of there are tomatoes. etc. in Louisiana. 2 important trucking there are region is tributary to Mobile. Miss. largely On the same road (I. devoted mainly to strawberries. R. in the St. looks small when it is The accompanj-ing maps illustrate these statements. The areas of oblique line shading (seen near the coast. Hazelhurst. so the total cultivable area. by P. Hammond.

leans. Boston all kinds ^ ^^ of early vegetables. Most of the goods are packed in sugar barrels and iced. although the profits are being steadily reduced. bnt extend- ing far into the East. has this a great industry. all during the vinter. embracing delphia. New Or- \ made embracing many miles of tj'uck patches in its vicinity. with and.Trucling Centers fact. nearly all such goods going out by express.other section She is in the South. and. Phila- New York some extent. to a It is surprising extent in the favored matter of express rates to all the principal markets. and the express . now flooding the large markets. ships far more than anj. no doubt. not only in the West. to Buffalo.

Jacksonville. Mobile. and have been for years. although more fruits "Our market Jacksonville than vegetables are raised there. will control. is the leading disof tributing and growing point in that section the . Texas. will be shipped from fields ill those parts this section. and some area has also been devoted to vegetables in that and nearby shipping points. Western Arkansas. at Corpus Christi and Rockport. at least 1. In fact. nearly 500 section. has become a great strawberry section. and a number of intervening points between there and GalThe territory between Houston and Galveston veston.Gardening charges are so small that they do not cut away a large portion of Che proceeds. and at least 500 cars Irish potatoes. the industry is growing very rapidlj*. also discloses a great many pear orchards. and Tyler are perhaps the two leading points. is doing a good deal in this way. Alvin. is next interested in Texas territory. Texas.. ship and distribute this coming season (1899) through one man. Ala. with Van Buren as a center. cars cantaloupes. together with several hundred cars of miscellaneous stuff.10 The Principles of Vegetahle . who will manage the distribution of crops for some twelve or fifteen different organizations in that Over 400 car loads sti-awberries. as is usually the case when shipping long distances by express. to which might be added fifteen or twenty stations along the Mobile & Ohio railroad running northward in Alabama and Mississippi. Vegetable -growing has also come to the front in a very prominent way far down on the Gulf coast.500 cars in all. vegetable and strawberrj^ patches.

the Eleventh Census divided the United States into twelve great sections or districts 1. and other plying 2. and the greenhouse products supthe large cities of the east. which contributes largely to the New York and Philadelphia markets. Baltimore district: Western Maryland. Peninsular district : Delaware and the eastern all shore counties of Maryland and Virginia. and Pennsylvania. as well as local canning factories. Mississippi Valley district: : . which largely supplies northeastern and central western markets. Alabama. largely tributary to Baltimore. South Atlantic district Georgia and Florida. South Carolina. supplying northern markets. To facilitate statistical study. all New Eagland district: The field crops supplying Boston New England cities.Trucking Districts state. North Carolina. New York and Philadelphia district Long Island. Mississippi." The foregoing" figures and geographical data are fiven only as illustrations of how widelj' scattered. no part of the purpose to show all the centers. Louisi7. 11 do similar work for the ditferent assoIt will probably ship over 500 cars tomatoes and at least 500 cars cantaloupes and melons. also 500 to 600 cars Irish potatoes. Washington and northern eitieS. nor A complete necessarily even the most important ones. east aad west. far removed and relatively small are the truck -gardening It is centers which supph' many of the great markets. Norfolk district: and eight northeastern counties of North Carolina. West Virginia and that part of Virginia not in the peninsular and Norfolk districts. require a volume. 6. 5. : New York state. New Jersey. survey of the subject from that point of view would and will ciations in that line. Eight southeastern counties of Virginia 4. which supplies the north- ern and some of the central west markets. 3.

000 were invested in truck -farming. Wis- consin. Northwest district: Minnesota.254 women. North Dakota and South Dakota. Central district: Ohio. the greater part of it had developed within the It is last thirty years. Arkansas. largely tributary to St. The value of the implements employed was $8.765 men.517. 12. 9. and the product for 1890. Colorado. 11. tributary north central and northwestern 8. to be expected that the Twelfth Census will show large gains over these figures. figures show that Yet. great as this industrj. THE EXTENT OF VEGETABLE -GARDENING There are no detailed figures of the extent of our vegetable -gardening industry.12 The Principles of Vegetable.155. Illinois.Gardening to ana. Iowa and Nebraska. Michigan. Oregon and Washington. 10.000. 1891). The best are those made ten 5'ears ago by the Eleventh Census and published in by J H.971. and this required the labor of 216. Bulletin 41 (March 19. The acreage of truck crops was distributed as follows. 14.was. Missouri and KanLouis and Kansas City. according to the Census of 1890: .866 horses and mules.206. Texas. Indiana. and 75. Utah. Mountain district Idaho. New Mexico and Arizona. Pacific Coast district : California. 3. 9. : Wyoming. Tennessee and Kentucky. These upwards of $100. Hale.874 children. Nevada. Southwest district: sas. Five hundred and thirty -four thousand four hundred and fortj^ acres of land were devoted to the industry. amounted to $76. cities. after paying freights and commissions.

970 28.477 28.et potato 114.721 2.statistics Acres 13 Watermelon Cabbage Pea Asparagus Swe.381 77.440 The distribution follows : of these crops.420 82.162 37.094 • . was as .046 22. 56.381 Bean (string or snap) Cucumber Kale Beet Miscellaneous 12.601 534.621 Melon Potato 28.802 Tomato Spinach Celery 20.962 2.607 4. by acres.195 15.

133 1.602 2.305 2.150 3.187 3.378 1.556 310 3.980 1.850 4.899 3.860 3.170 12.860 5.744 305 Philadelphia 3 Peninsular 4 Norfolk 5 Biltimore 6 South Atlantic.295 3.446 3.838 1.281 7.160 3.262 2..5.725 4.55 Central 1 ) 11 Northwest Mountain Coast 60 90 1.660 4.361 1.858 5.476 427 2.071 3.590 1.965 1.845 4.14 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening Districts 1 2 New England New York and 1. 7 Mississippi Valley 8 Southwest 9..224 12 Pacific 840 590 .224 5.128 5.

. 71 26 19 Rhubarb Endive Collards .322 Sweet Corn . . Ill... the of industry had enlarged to 596 farms." A Sept.004 Bean Pea Squash Potato 12. .. . 15. in the seed -growing busi- The acreage : of the different seed -crops was as Acres follows Acres Field Corn 16.149 4. of the Eleventh Census auspices 4. Starting at with the establishment of in Landreth's seed-farm. 13 11 Leek Okra Nasturtium Cress . . Philadelphia 1784. Dandelion 39>i 25 16 .. 3.statistics of Seed. ..102 3. . with a total 169. United States was made 1891).905 7. .. Pumpkin Parsley .Crops 15 at and towns insure a greatly increased consumption satisfactory prices for first-class productions.978 1. 13X 13 2 Cauliflower Corn-salad Celeriac IX .219 5.. . under the bjbureau (Bull. .437 Onion Cabbage Turnip Carrot 919 662 885 569 3^4 352 150 105 75 . seed -farms of the H.851 acres devoted exclusively to the business.. 486% 365 252 105 81 . special enumeration of the J.. Pepper . .356 . Parsnip Onion sets Spinach ....663 4. Kohlrabi . .. The ten years Avhich have elapsed since the Census was taken have seen large developments ness. Hale.971 4.560 1.268 Cucumber Muskmelon Tomato Watermelon Asparagus Beet Radish Lettuce 10. .. Eggplant Kale Flower Seeds Celery Salsify .

or an average of 555 acres per farm. with an acreage of 87. the original center of seed produc- These farms have an acreage of 47.096." "From general information obtained from the seedit farmers. other products of that section of the countrj-. . or nearly one-half. 207 in 1880. leaving 189 unac- counted for as to date of establishment. 1870. appears that this branch of agriculture has kept fully apace with the general march of national progress. only 3 in 1820. is prospering. and 200 more were established between 1880 and 1890. 19 in 1840. while in the North Central division there are 157 farms. while those of Iowa and Nebraska are 695 acres in extent. 100 in 1870.16 The Principles of Vegetable.833. in 1795). New Hampshire. of Several these seed -producing farms embrace nearly 3. 258. are in the North Atlantic division. there were but two seed -farms in the country previous to 1800 (one of these was established in Philadelphia in 1784. as a whole.Garaening More than one half the farms were established since and this is an indication that the business. 34 in 1850. 53 in 1860. and the other at Enfield. 6 in 1830. "So far as reported." United States. it is safe to assume that 90 per cent of the unreported farms have come into existence within the "Of the 596 seed -farms in the last twenty years. and are producing seeds on a scale of equal magnitude to the tion. and a study of the figures in this bulletin.000 acres each. or an average of 185 acres per farm. But. as the proprietors of the older seed -farms take great pride in this matter. The seed -farms of Massachusetts and Connecticut average 142 acres per farm.

as compared with the exports. the general westward tendency of all . producing and while any other that per- tains to agriculture has stimulated seed -growing on a very extensive scale Pacific coast. Connectient and New York." in the central west and on the The publications of the United States Treasury Department show that our imports of vegetables are very important.Imports and Exports Prior to 1850 all 17 the seed-farms of the country were in the few northeastern states of the Union. for more than half a century more seeds than all other states combined each has at present more seed-farms than state. The following summary figures for : four jears show the fluctuations and the footings .

18 The Principles of Vegetahh.Gardening .

Capital Required Bushels 19 Value Beans and peas Onions Potatoes Vegetables. much glass.677 $130. including pickles and sauces Total $376. near to market or far away. The best known estimate is Peter Henderson's.103 80. heavy or light soil (4) the man. to . is fail. $300 per acre.298 105. whether it is good tillage or run down.464 28.523 4. ditions in "which market-gardening is undertaken. The amount : of capital is required to stock and to run a market-garden determined primarilj. when at to half its an intensive business. put more money into it into their business to risk anything.409 52. whether requiring highly enriched land.by four considerations (1) the general type of business. : but market-gardening.160 99. (2) the kinds of crops to be grown. canned 83. farmers do not put sufficient capital make it pay. (3) the general condition of the farm.327 All others. and do it is to As a rule. They are afraid They work short-handed and at a disadvantage. EQUIPMENT AND CAPITAL for The estimates the equipment of a vegetable garden range from $25 to several hundred dollars an This range represents the great variety of conacre.452 38. This amount is astonishingly large to in : the general farmer best. drained or undrained. or high-priced labor. whether intensive or extensive. A business man will buy a farm which will scarcely pay the taxes.

000. The first season rarely pays more than current expenses. etc." writes Peter Henderson. to of profit. For want of information on this subject. glass. At present prices (1886) no one would be safe to start the business of vegetable market -gardening. after years of toil and privation. and the capital of $300 per acre is all absorbed in horses. opinions vary as to the area that an individual maj' wisely' include in his plans. While it might require about $3.* "for." . "The small amount of capital required to begin farming operations creates great misconception of what is necessary for commercial gardening. 68. in the manner it is carried on in the neighborhood of New York.20 than it The Principles of Vegetable. while it is known at a that some cultivate a extent. hiuidreds have failed. 'Gardening for Profit. Rawson treats the question as follows : t "Among gardeners. but not in The amount of amount proportion. it might not require quite so much. . manures. 17. at . wagons. ten idea that five acres of land will be enough it Man}* have an others put . and make successful farmers are it pay. with a capital of less than $300 per acre. Some of our most meu who were not raised on the farm. + Success in Market-Gardening.Gardening is worth. some land cultivated. with the hundred acres or more capital required varies. judging from the small number of acres wanted for commencing a garden. many suppose that a few hundred dollars is all sufficient for a market-gardener. for anything less than ten acres if on a larger scale. Avith the labor of three men new ed.

21. . forty men and twenty horses would be sufficient for one hundred acres. to properly handle two acres. who at first turned every available dollar into manure and reliable Greiner writes t that "much can be done on a seeds. Outside the place and horse. hard-working men." very few acres of land. Even in the neighborhood of large cities. much less capital is required. one may often start on a much more modest scale if he is content to work up slowly. these. If land is plentiful and cheap. There is no need of going beyond the reach of one's available capital. $400 or $500 might answer for a small beginning.000. and a number of hotbed sashes.Opinions on Capital Required 21 and two horses." These estimates of Henderson and Rawson apply to the most intensive market -gardening near the large cities. on cheaper land and in the growing of general -purpose and general -season crops. six men and three horses for ten acres. or greenhouse. I estimate that there wonid be needed about $5. he may have a sufficiency to support horse and cow. Among the latter is — a small forcing-pit. Farther away from the cities. Money in the Garden. Industrious. * 9. Otherwise five acres would be enough for a start. The capital should be sufficient to pay for the place and the implements and equipment needed. Quinn remarks* that he knows "personally a large number of well-to-do market -gardeners men now worth from ten to forty thousand dollars each none of whom had five hundred dollars to begin with. and that $20. Hotbeds and manures are very large items. tThe Young Market-Gardener.000.

and have everything new in the way of labor-saving appliances. implements.manure crops to fit it for subsequent use." " The first class of gardeners. the from it will soon put the right man in the situ- In a few years' time ation to extend his operations. — great. or mules. the less money invested the better." and those who. and Market-Gardening and Farm Notes. locate in the outskirts of great cities." he explains. or it may be used for the growing of forage for the horses Market -gardening is an intensive business. " more progressive. as they have already on hand the usual stock of drills. men looking for a paying diversification of their agriculTheir expenses for appliances are not tural interests. consequently upon high-priced land. and be satisfied with what nature develops in the ordinary routine of their business. farm small * tools.Gardening business does not prove profitable. Burnet Landreth. men tired of the humdrum rotation of farm processes and small profits. and to use what others would term an incomplete line of implements. done from even very much can be a modest start.22 If the The Principles of Vegetable. " may be termed experimental farmers. profits If it turns out as anticipated. . * makes two classes of market-gardeners those who are " satisfied to live on inexpensive land far removed from market." one has insufiieieut capital to enable him. The remainder of the place can be seeded to clover or put into other green. requiring only one or two seed to a addition their cultivating 5. If the most from his place. to make it will be better for him to concentrate his energies on a part of it. who has made a study of this subject.

according to the amount of truck grown in hot" delphia. accord- Long Island. on tracts of twenty . would need $500 to set up the business and run it until his shipments began to With the purpose of securing inreturn him money.Landrefh on a few tons of fertilizers. the appliances. For example. soil and situation. ing to location. sometimes paying $40 per acre for rent. Capital Required 23 Their laborers and teams are always on hand for the working of moderate areas. the writer asked for estimates from market -gardeners in different localities. tools. from Illinois from the Norfolk $75 to of Virginia the reports vary from $125. a beginner in market -gardening in South Jersey. New York. Other men. they would not need to have a cash capital of beyond $20 $25 dollars per acre for the area in truck. especially for market -gardening. on a five-acre patch. from Texas $70. and from Market -gardeners. taking oulj^ improved land of suitable aspect. and the result has been that from Florida the reports of the necessary capital per acre in land or rental its (not of all labor). formation on this interesting point. fertilizers. estimate that the necessary capital averages from $200 to $300 per acre. the average of estimates at the east end are $75. In addition to their usual expenses of the farm. appliances and labor. devoting all their land and energies to growing vegetables. living ten miles out of Philaand thirty acres. in ordinary farming districts. district seed and $45. $150. average $95. and counting in cost of building. implements. purchasing or renting land. and at the west end. to would require a cash capital of $80 to $100 per acre.

employing several men to the acre.24 The Principles of Vegetable. high wages. especially if the first season Of course. and shelter in which to prepare vegetables for market 300 00 200 00 35 00 Horses and horse tools 2 work horses 1 set double harness . intense manuring and expensive forcinghouses combine to swell the expenses to an astonishskirts of Philadelphia. with the and ten -acre gardeners. from. and he must have ready cash to meet them. where high rents. sometimes a larger force." and appliances farm for general gardening near one of the eastern cities. with all the entailed expenses. often over $600 or $700 per acre year. " to be Very different is the case on the immediate out- and other large cities. and. HoUister. the $600 or $700 be an unprofitable one. per acre which may be expended the first year hy a gardener having forcing -houses. it is absolutely necessary to reduce expenses.. J. $150 to $250 per acre. a market -gardener who has had much experience in the middle states and West (prices of 1898-9) Following is a detailed estimate for buildings to operate a ten-acre : Equipment Dwelling house Barn. five- ing degree. indeed. as the profit in truck- ing would not warrant such an annual cash outlay. sheds for $600 00 tools. by E. being absorbed capital at the and without which ready command the suburban cultivator would be first first driven to the wall before the close of the as he season. not more than one-half of it. works under heavy expenses.Gardening profits These same men calculate the beds. need not be repeated the second.

529 20 . 15 00 10 00 pump 50 feet of hose for watering hotbeds 6 00 25 00 Well near hotbeds $1. celery hiller 12 00 8 00 Hand implements — 1 hand cultivator. seed drill.. single wheel 5 00 3 00 3 00 1 50 1 6 garden rakes 6 hoes 6 planting trowels 200 feet of line and reel 1 1 1 50 wheelbarrow spade 5 00 1 00 1 short-handled square shovel 1 long-handled round-pointed shovel 2 long-handled manure forks Carpenter's tools 1 1 1 00 1 25 1 50 hand saw square plane set brace 2 00 75 1 00 00 75 1 1 and bits 2 00 1 hammer hand ax 1 Frames 30 3 X 6 hotbed sash 600 feet pine lumber for hotbed frames 30 1 75 00 12 00 wooden shutters or mats force for hotbed protection .Capital 1 Itemized 25 $50 00 75 00 20 00 8 00 12 00 1 light 1 1 1 I lumber wagon market-wagoii 2-horse plow 1 -horse plow harrow roller 20 00 7 00 8 00 5 . No. 1 1 5-tooth Planet cultivator 1 1 U-tooth Plauet cultivator Planet Jr..

well known high-class marketgardeners. 16 feet studding. $17. Stable 16x24. one buggy harness. Smith. of J. with buggy shed attached Packing house 22x44. .929 20 Grand total The following estimate is made by Irving C.. . brick-lined cellar.200 lbs horse.190 00 Water plant and hotbeds 1 1 team draft horses. 7000 $1. 1. $2. 3. Wis. $18 heavy wagon. including piping 200 feet l^-inch rubber hose 100 hotbed sash 32x72 inches Frames for hotbeds 31 blankets for winter protection. .25 . $800 00 75 00 185 00 60 00 7x9 feet.. 600 00 150 00 110 00 85 00 50 00 75 00 Hay shed for berry covering Tool and wagon shed Buildings $2. Smith's Sons. M. Green Bay.26 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening Estimated Working Capital Seeds Fertilizer for 5 acres 50 OC 150 00 Man to help for 7 months 200 00 $1. top section to lift off 45 00 20 00 . roadster.. stone wall. with cellar full size $900 00 200 00 . making two stories and cellar Cooler 14 x 16 feet Icehouse 16x20 feet. 16 feet studding Onion shed 16x20 . The estimate supposes that the area is ten acres of land in a fair state of cultivation. 3-inoh tire one-cord box for same.170 00 Water plant. and that the party desires to make a of the first-class market-garden market (prices of 1898-9): to supply tbe varying needs House for proprietor.200 lbs $250 00 125 00 30 00 35 00 1 1 1 1 heavy double harness heavy single.

. $15. one dump wheelbarrow. $10. one barley fork for berry covering one hay foik one 4-tine fork 2 14-toolh steel rakes and three wooden rakes 6 hoes. $25 1 hay rack. $7 ... . $3. 1 plank leveler. Horse tools $94 00 $13 00 6 00 . $25 1 knapsack sprayer. $3 Scales. 3 6-tine forks for general use. $3 I Fire-fly plow. $1 Repair tools. 1 large wheelbarrow. $25 a tooth harrow. $6. $7 . 4 00 2 00 . . $3 cultivator. $3 3 long-handled shovels. 1 saw. consisting of carpenter tools. $6. $7 2 Planet Jr. .. Horses and vehicles 1 $788 00 $40 GO 27 00 3 00 9 00 15 00 steel plow. $4. $2. 1 kraut cutter. $3 one-horse weeder. $2. $4. home-made one 14-tooth cultivator. .. . . Gem 7 00 5 00 26 00 19 00 6 00 3 00 . $7. coldchisels.iter cans and pails. .. one grindstone. I . . straddle cultivators 1 i 6-inch hoes) . and bolster springs for same 1 1 buggy 50 00 85 00 35 00 33 00 8 00 one-horse spring delivery wagon heavy work sheds box. and 1 short-handled shovel . one steel scraper. . wrenches. $3 1 corn planter. $8 1 pair light delivery sheds. $12. flat. $2 1 pair . one cutaway harrow. . one onion puller. etc $176 00 . one dry powder gun. $1 one berry box machine. $6.Equipment Itemized 1 1 27 $25 00 30 00 17 00 low wheel truck with plank top one-horse medium weight wagon Box. punches. two dozen large and small knives.. . one Mathew cultivator. 1 1 5-tooth cultivator. 5 00 3 00 square for daily use . capacity 900 lbs 1 hammer. one hand weeder.New Model seeder. . . 1 Meeker smoothing harrow. $20. 1 hatchet. . . l. $5 . garden line. 10 00 17 00 5 00 W. one dump box.. etc 25 00 Miscellaneous garden tools 20 00 Hand tools. .

of western New York. It is presumed that by July 1 enough goods can be sold to etc.190 00 Horses and vehicles Horse tools .388 00 "In the foregoing estimates I have endeavored to mention only those things which are necessary and will be used frequently on the place. screens." occasion requires. pay running expenses.. three months' expense for labor. cedar posts for celery pits. celery pits. Glass houses are not greatly. 50 00 65 00 150 00 . gives me the following estimate of cash required to start a market-garden of ten acres near one of the eastern cities : . common lumber etc. a well known market -gardener and author. or indeed.170 00 1.. 788 00 94 00 Hand tools 176 00 Cash and sundries Total 970 00 $5. it is necessary. saying nothing of house furniture. in different localities. $50. Greiner. will be needed. home-made tools. but if T. but more properly come under the head of winter gardening: so they are not inBefore the garden has run two years. any The cost would vary very desirable results. required at least another $50 in boxes. $300 .. $15 100 cords of stable manure Seeds..". there will be cluded. 375 00 300 00 Cash for sundry expenses Cash and sundries $970 00 Summary Buildings Water plant and hotbeds $2.000 feet 8x10 for onion sheds. .28 The Principles of Vegetable . $75. Many other things which will be made on the place or bought as Some will object to the item of water plant one expects to secure the best. necessary to grow plants for spring setting.Gardening for berry covering Hay $30 00 800 melon boxes and glass 5. of course. and hose.

A forcing-pit or greenhouse seems to me one of the first necessities. It must contain tank. Rawson. in fact. The following estimate for the neighborhood of Boston is made for me by W. including garden drill. etc. My estimate of working capital. There should be a shed for preparing and washing vegetables. I would be a renter. Force pump. Some of these differences are evident in the contrasts of the inventories here presented. indispensable for best success. But rather than be short otherwise. hand wheel-hoe.000 and $5. as this may be anywhere between $1. . Buying is preferable. according to location. . pump or other water supply. lumber. with heater and pipes 2 horses ." The style of vegetable -gardening differs so much in different parts of the country that estimates should be secured in one's own locality before embarking in the business. the estimate of cost will have to be materially modified. harrows. hose.Equipment Itemized 29 "It is useless to make an estimate of cost of place including dwelling house and barn. Meeker harrow.000. Another necessity is a full equipment of best tools. He thinks it "a very moderate sum with which to stock a market-garden in New England " . it might be advisable or necessary to rent rather than buy a place. cultivators. would be something like this: Greenhouse. or to be made a prominent feature of the business. small tools Hotbed sash. etc 60 00 . W. Plows. as the owner has the benefit of the permanent improvements of a place. etc. well or other water privileges Seeds 40 00 50 00 150 00 Manures Total . outside of the place and buildings.' $250 00 150 00 150 00 100 00 Wagons and harnesses . . $950 00 "If growing winter vegetables is to be added. In case of scarcity of working capital.

000 00 1. .000 has been received from sales in one year from one acre.000 00 Barn and outbuildings Three horses Harnesses Wagons and cart Tools. 3 500 00 800 00 200 00 men 8 months Incidentals $1. Norfolk. . tools and equipments to operate a marketgarden of ten acres near a large city in New England Dwelling house $1. makes the following estimates of the necessary capital to purchase and work a ten.Gardening Estimate for buildings. cart. and From the ten acres one should sell the first year. fertilizer and manure (all would have to be bought the first year). etc..145 00 A.30 The Principles of Vegetable. . 300 00 25 00 200 feet of hose $3. Va.600. this sum could be increased at least $2.000. by intensive farming. $1. say $250. seeds.000 worth of farm products.000. $200. two pigs. frames. In fact. plows. Lumber for fences. a cow. machines. cultivators and harrows. ten acres with a comfortable house can not be had for less than $1. in case the brain was used to fertilize with as there is no fertilizer equal to brains.600 00 $5. We have eases in which $2.' up to $500 per acre. such as should go with 'ten acres enough.545 00 Running Expenses Seeds $100 00 fertilizers Manures and Help. $60. The cost of one good horse (two would be better) and spring wagon.acre truck farm: "Ten acres within say about four miles of Norfolk cannot be counted at less than $1. shutters. fifty hens. Jefferies. etc 200 hotbed sashes 200 00 100 00 400 00 300 00 220 00 . The second year he should sell The years following.

A man can grow forage enough on one acre to keep two cows one year. . . to allow of wheel -tool tillage. THE HOME GARDEN be considered in the The things are: (2) (1) to a sufficient product to of (4) home garden supply the family. Our ten -acre -enough a truckers are covering too much ground. In fact. either bj. supply a winter tilled supph." is "A man made of the right material 5. can start here with very limited capital. Consult Fig. They are not thorough sold from an acre. cheapness of cultivation crops (3) ease and maintenance of the pro- ductivity of the land year after year. the men who have begun with small means and good heads have made a better success than those who had more money. The amount of the size of the family and product to be grown depends on its fondness for vegetables. The ease and efficiency of cultivation are much enhanced if all the crops are in long rows. These beds always need weeding on Saturdays. will show astonishing results. 3.of potatoes but the area must be well and handled.Planning a and many cases ' Home Garden 31 produce has been in which ' at least $1. and the Fourth of . The old practice of growing vegetables in beds usually entails more labor and expense than the crop is worth and it has had the effect of driving more than one boy from the farm. holidays. enough. instead of paying his way in. continuous succession . circus days. provided he and is willing to go slow at start and work his way in.horse or wheel -hoe.000 worth of The proper manipulation of good soil here by brain. not considering the An area 100x150 of five feet is generally sufficient to family persons. .

as late cabbage. and gardening structures. all cabbage crops in the adjoining space. cabbages treatment . should be on the border. where they will not interfere with the plowing and tilling. would but a row containing afford an ideal combination and lettuce would be a very faulty parsnips. and for large-growing things. . the rows should run lengthwise the plot and be far enough apart (from one to to allow of the use of the two feet for small stuff) hand wheel -hoes. a row containing parsnips and salsify. the opposite side. all root -crops might be grown on one side of the plantation. If land is available for horse none of the rows should be less than thirty inches apart. or parsnips. all tomato and eggplant crops in the center. that vegetables requiring the same general together. salsify and late carrots. If the rows are long. important. crops this year may be given to corn or melons next in a small area. One part of the area should be set aside for all similar crops. Even can be practiced to a conThe area which is devoted to rootsiderable extent.32 July.Gardening Eveu if the available area is only twenty feet wide. The best results in maintaining the productiveness of the land are to be secured practice rotation of crops. it may be necessary to grow two or three kinds of vegeand in this case it is tables in the same row tillage. as asparagus and rhubarb. many of which are very efficient. all corn and other as tall things on Perennial crops. this rotation . For example. hotbeds and frames. four feet is better. and similar length of season be grown For example. The Principles of Vegetable. when it is possible to manures and tillage. combination.

Plan of a Home Garden 33 .

strip twenty feet wade may be reserved for vines. of carbon one lives on a farm. bage For example. patch may be maggot has quit the area. The cabbage maggot is an example. and it is then necessary to stop growing the crop for a yesir or two. or space for twenty rows three and one -half feet apart. cucumbers and squashes. ductiveness for a lifetime. When the the cabbage ground.Gardening It is particularly important to rotate if diseases : and insects become serious ou any one crop and in this case. This area is large enough to allow of appreciable results in rotation and if it is judiciously managed. the rows running the long way of the area. Insects and diseases should be starved out in the rotation. on which the parasites cannot thrive.34 year. strip seventy feet wide. cabbages and cauliflowers may be discontinued until the insect disappears. the greatest care should be taken to select those crops. The Principles of Vegetable. rhubarb. and this is often a cheaper solution of the to dif&culty than to attempt treatment. If this pest obtains a good foothold in the home garden. the club -root of the caband cauliflower will work on turnips. for the rotation. as There remains a melons. sweet A herbs. There are some insects which cannot be starved out in a small area. flowers. it should maintain high pro. . the cabbage patch may be placed on the farther part of the estate for destroy the insect with the bisulfide If a year or two. made again on the old In a family garden of 100x150 feet. eight or ten feet may be reserved on the borders for asparagus. and possibly a few berry bushes.

breaking the crust and marking the rows. Time and labor will be saved. About the borders of the vegetable-garden is a good place for flowers to be grown for the decoration of the house and to give to friends. Along one side of the area rows of bush-fruits may plish be planted. 25 feet of or set onions. One hundred feet of onions. Have the rows long. at one side. Fifty feet of early beets. the vegetable -garden ample. thus practicing something like a rotation of crops. the "Garden. : "A home Fifty feet each of parsnips and salsify. either Then they can be Wheel-hoes will by horse. the balance black-seed for which may be potato summer and fall use. of the following exclusive of potatoes. . but economize labor. to avoid waste of time in turning and to economize the land. or two or more vegetables of like requirements (as parsnips and salsify) may comprise a row. accom- most of the labor of tillage in a small garden.or hand-tools. tilled Plant the things in rows. Radish seeds sown with celery or other slow-germinating seeds will come up quickly.Book :" Garden 35 Hunn writes as follows in "Make easily. as soon as the ground is in condition to work. with which radish mny be sown to break the soil and be harvested before the lettuce needs the room. Rake the surface frequently to keep down weeds and to prevent the soil from baking. Beginning at one side of the garden and running the rows the short way (having each row 100 feet long\ sowings may be made. as rhubarb and asparagus. omit for a year or more the vegetables on which they live. "Make the soil deep. If radish or cabbage maggots or club-root become thoroughly established in the plantation. The annual vegetables should be grown on different parts of the area in succeeding years. One row can be devoted to one vegetable.Lay-out of a Home Of the home vegetable -garden. Have the permanent vegetables. a space not over 100 by 150 feet. vegetable-garden for a family of six would require. 50 feet of lettuce. where they will not interfere with the plowing or tilling. not in beds. mellow and rich before the seeds are sown.

20 hills of muskmelon." The "American Agriculturist" for February :" 17. and two rows late. the plants for which should be from a frame or purchased. three rows to be early and intermediate. cauliflower and celery are to occupy the space made vacant by removing early crops of early and An intermediate peas and string beans. 6x6 feet. Hubbard squash. : Vines as follows 10 hills of cucumbers. 6 hills of 10 hills of 6x6 feet.36 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening One hundred feet of early cabbage. culture same as : Four hundred and fifty feet of peas. If trellis or brush is to be avoided. of okra. 1900. the tender vegetables warm and may be all danger of frost planted. plants 4 to 5 feet apart. sown late. 100 feet of late. such as parsley. 6x6 feet. prints the following sketch of a "City Man's Garden "The plot of ground upon which is the garden was bought . hyssop. Late cabbage. early squash. feet of early cauliflower . Set the plants 18 inches to 2 feet apart. One hundred feet Twenty eggplants. One hundred for cabbage. 6x6 feet. 100 feet' of extra early. Six large clumps of rhubarb. frequent sowings of the dwarfs will maintain a supply. After the soil has become has passed. mints. Tomatoes. sown as follows 100 feet of extra early. early to late varieties. one row. as follows: Corn in five rows 3 feet apart. 100 feet of intermediate. A border on one side or end will hold all herbs. 50 feet of dwarf varieties. One hundred feet of string beans. asparagus bed 25 feet long and 3 feet wide. thyme. sage.

A city mau's home garden. and through . On the terrace (Fig. mellow and rich. most of which has been cultivated by Mr. who apricot. my pride. The dark. separated by a street. with a clay bottom. located upon yffA/mJ^ /p£3/D£NC£ Y/lffD Y/lffD Tfffj^^re T£^ff/1Cf /JVfff/fmi TSffffACe WfflO § ^ Jffpfff/} J-/^fv/v ^v -^ /I v*r Tff££J \y>yrer /'or/troff \ /='oryiroff Fig -1. "The lower garden (Fig. 4) are planted twelve varieties of grapes. hill sunny soil is slope. cherry. gaining all the moisture from the above. The garden is divided in two parts (Figs. which are just coming into bearing and have great promise. It is situated on a gentle. Hauek for thirteen years.650 square feet. plum. chestnut and mulberry trees. It is a commanding site in one of the fashionable suburbs of Boston. 4 and 5).A fifteen years City Man's Garden 37 ago at a cost of ten cents per square foot. 5) comprises 4. says: 'It is still my hobby. pear. which are being trained over an Scattered about the place are apple. peach. arbor.

celeriac. mostly in five. corn salad. turnip. lettuce. muskmelon.' comprised a lot of miscellaneous garden implements. tomato. beans and other plants to prevent rust and blight. cucumber. lime were plowed under. spinach. radish. fertilizers so clearing the garden. Every inch of ground'is As soon as one crop disappears another one makes its appearance and takes its place. cabbage. for the table " new green mixture used on potatoes proved fatal to eggplants. kohlrabi. kale. and were continued at intervals throughout the season whenever there was a vacant spot in the garden. squash. a good layer of in November manure and an (1898). lengthwise. after application of utilized. cauliflower.38 The Principles of Vegetable . . * * * It has been with me for several years to use barnyard manure and alternately. and a Planet Jr.Gardening yeai'S of cultivation almost fi-ee from stoues and noxious weeds. corn. The following varieties of vegetables. A row of old bean vines was left as bait for green worms. seed drill and a combined wheel-hoe and The tools used cultivator. Water was supplied for irrigation during dry weather by rigging up an old rotary pump and hose and connecting with the cistern. eggplant.and ten-cent packets. soon as the weather permitted. shallot. peas. and a little Paris green was added to it for potatoes. onions. with a knife by cutting open the vines. beets. Freedom from cutworms was attributed to the use of lime and plowing in the fall. rutabagas. and cabbage plants Squash vine borers were removed planted near by escaped. salsify. peppers. carrots. This enables me to always have something and plenty of it. escarole. The Bordeaux-Paris a wet rag and a fair yield obtained. but hellebore proved quite satisfactory for keeping off the ^ potato bugs. as an adjoining gai-den was badly troubled. "One hotbed 3x6 feet was used in which to start the seeds Plantings were made in the open ground as of early vegetables. where The vine was then carefully bandaged with they appeared. celery. were planted: Pole and wax beans. borecole. Bordeaux mixture was used for spraying tomatoes. I believe in raising as many different varieties of vegetables as customary Bowker's my limited space permits. endive. chives.

A City Man's Garden 39 .

Professor . turnips the wax beans. Corn salad succeeded lettuce. parsley. The spinach was followed by cabbage. celeriac. and the remaining space was filled up by transplanting leeks.Gardening and Irish potatoes. chives and parsley. aud the latter part of October there were placed in it some endive. early lettuce for fall U33 took the place of Eefugee beans. The hotbed was us^d during the late fall and winter to store some of the hardy vegetables. more than any other person. Paris Golden celery was planted in between the hills of Stowell's Evergreen corn. " The value of the garden and the cost of the same are shown in the following table: Products for home use Products sold Products given away Plants sold Plants given away Total $54 24 65 75 11 36 3 75 3 45 $138 55 Expenses Plowing and harrowing $3 00 2 00 Manure Seeds Insecticides 10 00 1 20 42 00 Labor Total Profit $58 20 $80 35" Probably the general farmer. beets. while turnips. celery and spinach gave a second crop in the j)lot occupied by Gradus peas and Emperor William beans.40 The Principles of Vegetable. Tba plot of early corn was sown to turnips. carrots. 5) tomatoes followed peas. escarole. In the larger garden (Fig. needs to be urged to have a good vegetable-garden. Winter radishes came after Telephone peas. "The garden was planted as shown by the cuts. and gave a good crop for home use without blanching. sweet aud nearly a dozen different kinds of sweet herbs.

Farm Gardens Roberts gives the following advice for the his " 41 "Farm Garden" in Farmstead " : "The farm garden should be ample and contain not only enough vegetables and small fruits for the use of the family. Plan of a favm home garden. It must be said. a left farm with the cereals. necessitate the maximum of hand-culture and the minimum of horse -culture. Everything should be planted in straight rows. for the gardens. in miniature. than in harvesting the cereals or milking the cows. such as grapes. currants and other bush -fruits. with spaces sufficiently wide between the row^ to admit of horsehoe culture. Higher remuneration is received for the time spent in harvesting the products of a large. that there are good reasons for the farmer's distaste for gardening. grasses out (Fig. The farmer used \o large areas is reluctant to undertake anything so small as he imagines the garden to be. The grapes and blackberries might occupy one row. and large fruits from the dwelling should be devoted to the perennial plants. but a ^ui'plus to sell or to give away. near to the house. unfenced when possible. as usually laid out. and should be. 6. "The garden should be about four times as long as it is broad. however.' If he knew how to manage a garden he would find that the half-acre of land devoted to small fruits and vegetables could be made the most profitable and pleasurable part of the farm. The side farthest . well Fig. kept garden. and a resultant surplus of weeds. The result of such gardens is a minimum of products secured by maximum of efifort. 6). hence. too often he plows it and leaves the planting and cultivation of it to the 'women folks.

if it is it is Early in the spring. them on land which has parted with much of its readily available plant-food in producing the early crop. rhubarb. and often may be case of irrigated at fruiting time may be such plants as onions. when the land best to leave the soil rough for a time somewhat dry and warm. The larger spaces if more of the small esculents are wanted. be necessary to cultivate several times that part of the garden is used for late-growing crops. It certainly will hoe. leaving that part of it which is not designed for immediate planting uiiharrowed. then leave a space thirty inches wide and again plant double rows. since labor is everything and the use of land nothing therefore. and like plants a third row. and then one foot from this a row of beets or onions. These small. more or less. As a rule. as it is poor economy to so crowd vines and bushes as to force them to struggle the year through for plant-food and moisture. a row of lettuce from the city hydrant. while land that has been plowed two or three times during the summer and kept well harrowed will be moist aud contain an abundance of readily available plant-food.42 The Principles of Vegdahle. may be cultivated by horse-hoe and the smaller spaces by hand- The entire garden which is to be planted in the spring should be kept fertile and plowed early in the spring. is only admissible in the city or village. here the plants may receive unusual care. slow-growing esculents should be planted in double rows.Gardening row. too. Crowding the plants virtually amounts to nothing on the farm. A rod or two of land. except planted. asparagus the raspberries and currants a second The spaces between these various fruits should be eight feet. lettuce and early beets. is cold and often too moist. Then. It may be necessary to replow. the farmer cannot afford to attempt to raise two crops on the same land the same year. such as cabbage and celery. land which has produced one crop is likely to be deficient in moisture. better prepare the gi-ound by two or three plowings for the late crops than to attempt to raise which . The rows in of ordinary vegetables thirty inches apart. Starting from the last row of potatoes. the garden should not be fenced. that it may become As a rule. but the chickens should be restrained by fences a part of . not to be planted immediately. a thirty-inch space is measured off.

with nearly all the vegetables named. 114 individuals. Minnesota Garden 43 at other times they may have free access to the garden. the produce that could thus be obtained from an acre of land similarly situated would abundantly supply. which for four years kept a family of six matured persons abundantly supplied with vegetables all the year. p." Professor Thomas Shaw writes* of a plat of ordinary ground Minnesota comprising the nineteenth part of an acre. "In addition. and in many instances much was thrown away." in *" Minnesota Horticulturist. nineteen families. more especially of the early varieties. with the exception of potatoes." 1900. in all. where they are often very beneficial in reducing the insect enemies. much was given away.A the time. 102. . celery and cabbage. comprising. In other words.

less subject to loss The from vagaries of frost than the fruit-grower is. He becomes. of every kind and description.CHAPTER GLASS II In order to protect and to forward plants. coldframes. however small needs glass. in his area. An example of the former object is the protection during winter of hardy plants The plants are kept which are started in the fall. The end and aim of all glass is to forward plants beyond their season. in a measis ure." They comprise all the range of forcing-hills. alive in the cold weather by means of the covering. are usually spoken of as " glass. independent of is season or even of climate. He can grow them at such times as to escape the dangerous season the fruit-grower's plants must stand and take it. hotbeds and glasshouses. This result is obtained by protecting the plants from unpropitious weather or by actually forcing them. Every vegetable-gardener. vegetable -gardener : : f44] . Thereb}' he its advance of enabled to secure a crop normal season. glass covers are used . The plants are also more amenable to treatment he can sometimes harden them off. various and these covers. He can cover his plants. so that they withstand frost.

and then transplanted into the open be grown to maturity under glass. (3) the region in which he is. QUANTITY AND COST OF GLASS REQUIRED glass the vegetable -gardener needs de- How much pends (1) on how intensified his operations are. (4) the kinds of crops These factors are largelj' determined. in he grows. These humble structures are desirable because they are cheap. Glasshouses are larity. But is for general vegetable -gardening. their turn. merely because they bloom in March carnations and tomatoes are. and the price of labor and land.Glasshouses vs. but they do not grow. Thus begonias are not forced. He uses it as a generic term to express the idea of making plants grow and bear at other times than their usual or wonted season in the given place or Most greenhouse plants are not forced they grow and bear in their normal season. by the man's location with reference to market. The term forcing is often used in a very special sense by florists to designate the rapid dri^^ng out of bloom from bulbs and tubers. increasing in number and popu- They are driving out hotbeds for the forcing of winter stuff. although their relative importance likely to diminish. because they allow the person quickly to change or modify his business (a great advantage on rented land). 1. as with lilies-ofthe-valley and tulips. (2) in what season he wants the major part of his crops. Very small areas sometimes have sufficient glass to cover them. and because they can be removed when the spring forcing *The author should say that the word forcing is used in many senses. : . and we afford them the climate to enable them to do so. Frames 45 of the forcing* of plants There are two general types they may be started under they may glass. : : - . the coldframe and hotbed will remain. locality.

and demands a volume to itself.46 is The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening done. three hundred to four hundred tomatoes and eggplants. . In growing plants for transplanting. A frame is a box that is." 1897. If one is grow- ing particular crops." 1896 Dreer's "Vegetables L'nder Bailey's "Forcing-Book. about twenty -five sash are sufficient for an acre of garden. as many as these * There are three American books devoted exclusively to vegetable-growing under glass Winkler's "Vegetable Forcing. Sashes are combined into frames. If the plants are started very late and are not transplanted. Vegetable -gardening glass sashes. covered by four sash. it is not See Figs. When the plants are transplanted in the frames.* is usually computed in normal sash is 3 x 6 feet in surface area. A — considering that the plants are to be transplanted to the field. six hundred to eight hundred lettuces. as tomatoes. it may be is desired For the best kind of home gardening. For general and mixed vegetable -gardening. poses. as forcThe growing of winter vegetables in the ing-houses. intended to discuss permanent glass buildings. from thirty -five to fifty sash maj' be needed to the acre. only one-third to two-thirds numbers can be accommodated. a sash estimated to may be accommodate four hundred to five hundred cabbage and cauliflower plants. North is a special business. allowing the land to be used for other pur- In this book. fifteen sash sufficient. 7 and 8. when to mature spring lettuce and radishes under glass as well as to transplant stuff into the open. Glass. not matured under the sash. . an area 6x12 feet." 1896 : .

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In order to gain on the crop. illustrates the method of easting up one's outlay for the season's glass. He may plants while they are in the frames. costs from $1 to $1. In extragood hotbeds. it is necessary to gain three or four weeks on the sowing. least half more plants than he The surplus may be in the frames until the transplanted subjects are thoroughly established. In general. costs $4 to $5. droughts.25. In figuring on the after thej^ are set frost. from .Cost of Sash 49 eight hundred tomato or cabbage plants can be grown under one one 7iionth and two to two weeks sash. Glazing costs 75 cents. . not common. It supposes that half of the acre is to be set with plants from hotbeds. by a gardener. however.things like cabbages. depending upon the sash. of his the gardener must consider that fail many plants may lose the field. plants One-eighth acre to early cauliflower and cabbage. Mats and shutters cost from 50 cents to $1 per sash. greater gain can be secured but it is . unglazed. in which it is desired to grow a general line of vegetables. three weeks on tomatoes.000 if transplanted would requii'e two 6 x 12 frames. is $4. The following sample estimate. A A material used. about 2. cold amount in of glass required. this the frame well-made mortised plank frame. still worms. one may expect to gain on the crop of hardj. The general estiiijate of cost per sash amount including the cost of one -fourth of and the covers. There are risks of rains. The grower exleft should start at pects to raise. It is an estimate for a market-garden of one acre.

Plants for this area may be grown in every fifty-five plants. but would be crowded and not as stocky as if given more room. growing fifty transplanted plants under each sash. $55 . two sash of each. and should allow for the ordinary loss of plants. an estimate of sixty to seventy heads should be It is made late to a sash. supposes that most or all of the plants are to be transplanted once or more in the frames. If one wishes to grow extra-early lettuce.50 The Principles of Vegetable Gardening - 200 to 250 plants being grown under each sash. the sash used for one of the above may be used through the following winter. a liberal estimate of space. from $1 to $5 twenty sash and covers. calculating at least three or is four loads per frame.000 plants^ from each frame. depending on make and material. . at If late crops .75. assumed that celery and cabbages are to be started in seed-beds in the open. melons and same early squashes. These frames may be used again for tomato plants for the This will allow a sash for area. or 1. This makes a total of five frames. (5) plants to be near the glass. spinach is grown in frames. and yet to have head -room for growth . $2. using about 450 plants. Two frames will be required for cucumbers. manure all at market This price. the cost. the builder must have in mind the following objects to be attained (1) a sufficient and uniform supply of heat In the : (2) ample protection from cold. and for discarding It weak and inferior ones. Many gardeners have less equipment of glass. one frame. (3) facility for venti- lation (4) facilities for obtaining water . 2. THE MAKING OF FRAMLS planning of a coldfranie or hotbed. One frame should be in use at the same time for eggplants and peppers.

a land to the north or wall. well or cistern. with force-pump. A screen of cornstalks (Fig. may be a pronounced a' A wind-break is necessary. A board fence 5 to 8 feet high is the common resort. If none of these rise of temporary one may be made.Location for Frames of tall kinds tion . the a board fence. or other material. for vevy cold water chills and delays the plants and wastes the heat of the bed. may serve the purpose. 51 (6) ease and convenience of manipulacheapness and durability. it is advisable to have a permanent frameyard. a good access. If pipe-water cannot be had. and will be much more convenient in working around bottom. particularly in changeable weather. or a hedge. Rawson recommends convenience. shelters exists. Some provision should also be made for warming the water in cold weather." The frames should be near the residence and easy of They will need frequent attention. should be provided. and says that. The area should be well protected from the . If land is sufficient and the garden area remains year by year in approximate)}' the same place. Location and exposure. a building. or which are cut off by snowdrifts or mud. the land on which frames are set should slope gently to the south or southeast. "for fence or wind-break should slant back a little from the one foot. Water supply should be at hand. it will then form a better support for mats and shutters when leaned against it. (7) — cold This and prevailing winds. Frames which are far from the house. Ideally. evergreen boughs. The Avind- . — aboiit the beds. are likely to suffer in critical times. 9). west.

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and are permanent in the beginning. an unfrozen area at once ready for the making of the hotbed. 6 is feet wide. It is a little over 12 feet long. exposed winds. tected land. water supply and other accessoi-ies can then be well provided. it is advisable to make the frames of 2 -inch stuff. If many frames are employed. It accommodates four sash. Pits can be dng for the hotbeds pits less and heat to the sides stoned or bricked. 10. well painted. and measures 6x12 ft. It sometimes made of ordinary lumber loosely nailed together. however. and to join the parts bolts or tenons. they should extend in parallel rows. unless the soil is is Pits should be very loose and the bot- tom below the frost line of the surrounding unpro- Fig. 10. — The common type of frame is is shown in Fig.Hoiv the Frames are Made 53 breaks. and is covered with four 3x6 sash. A frame. BuiUUng the frame. tile -drained. and if this is pitched out at is any time in winter or spring. If one expects to use coldframes or hotbeds every year. surface -built . These are retain better than beds. six or seven feet apart. so that by they may be taken apart and . but they are more expensive The pits can also be filled in the fall with manure or litter. so thai a man walking between can water or tend two runs.

A hotbed has artificial ordinarily supplied . 11 and 12 suggest methods of making the frames so that they may be taken apart. The hotbed is used for the very early starting of plants. These pieces have a strip or mounting nailed along their middle to to hold its the sash place. the plants as near the glass as possible Have them room in which to grow. the back side may be high. The pieces for the sash to slide on are made of stuff three inches wide mortised into the frame. The some- A method frames of are making a frame. The depth by of the frame it must be governed largely the plants which is desired to grow.54 The Principles of Vegetable. but it may be obtained from other fermenting material. and by the length of time they are to remain in the bed. If and yet give the frame sets on top 12 to 15 inches of the manure. and the front side 8 to 10 inches.Gardening stored imtil needed for the next j-ear's work. Figs. and when the plants have outgrown the bed. 3. by means of fermenting manure. HOTBEDS This heat is bottom heat. times held together merely by stakes driven into the ground. or from heat in flues or pipes. This does very well for use late in the season and for temporary frames. as tan -bark or leaves.

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however. cold until it If is very wet. is is piled in a long and shallow square- and not more than four or five feet high as a Better results then allowed to ferment. it is The manure should be dry when piled. that it come from highlyfed horses. hotbeds are sometimes started as early as January but they are ordinaril}' delayed until earlj^ in March. mixed with it. The heat for hotbeds by the fermentation of horse is commonly supplied manure. There are some crops. will usually remain begins . — ties in a short space of time. attained if are generallj^ the manure it is piled under If it cover.56 The Principles of Vegetable . It is important that the manure be uniform in composition and texture. as radishes and lettuce. litter or well decayed leaves The manure topped rule. throughout. the As much as one-third litter whole material may be of or straw which has been used in the bedding. moisten it moist. and is practically of the same age. where outdoor gardening does not begin until the first or the last of May. The date which the hotbed may be started with safety depends almost entirely upon the means at command of heating it and upon the skill of the operator. In the northern states. and have bedding. pile. they cooler may be transplanted into hotbeds or into coldframes. since it can be secured in large quanti. but not wet.Gardening or have become too thick. or one -half of If the it manure should is very dense. which in the at may be carried to full maturit}'^ hotbed itself. Heating tvitli horse manure. The best results are generally obtained from manure from livery stables. it will not heat well.

— Hoihedi frames are sometimes set on top of the pile of fermenting manure. start it.Managing to the Manure little 57 dry out. taking to distribute It is the fermentation uniform. is fit From the first piling of manure until to put in the bed will be a period. necessary to it tarn the pile five or six times before is finally used. There are some cases in which the material will not need to be turned to induce fermentation. it is fit to be the placed in the it hotbed. ordinarily.the trouble. as in many Sometimes the manure heats so quickly and so violently that it has to be wet in order to prevent it from burning. When the pile is steaming uniformly throughout. of two weeks. particularly from grain -fed horses. although half this number of turnings is ordinarily sufficient. . will start the heat- the weather is cold and fermentation does the pile with not begin. 13. Each case is a law unto itself. although the admixture of straw or litter with the manure will remedy. The is. as shown in Fig. the hot manure sometimes. to If Sometimes the addition of a one part of the pile hen manure ing. first it fermentation is nearly always irregular several begins unequally in places in the pile In order to make may be turned occasionally. MaTiing the manure bed. the care to break up all hard lumps and throughout the mass. wetting a part of hot water may that pile. The manure should extend for othersome distance beyond the edges of the frame wise the frame will become too cold about the out when the manure is parts of the country. .

this.58 side. 13. 14 such a hotbed pit. perfect drainage. is Fig. Fig. The pit should be a foot upon either side wider than the widtli of the frame. which will serve as a distributor of the heat. each stratum to be packed or settled down before another one is put in. The Principles of Vegr table -Gardening ever. howhave a pit beneath the frame in which the manure is placed. It is preferable. from twelve to thirty inches of manure is placed. These layers should be . Fig. exposed places. a cross -section of Above the manure is a thin layer of leaf. It is advisable to place the manure in the pit in layers. Upon the ground a layer of an inch or two of any coarse material Upon is laid to keep the manure from the cold earth. >Seftion of a hotbed. 9. It. It is very important that it have of the ground. and above this is four or five inches of soft garden loam. 15. to and the plants will suffer. in which the plants In are to be grown. and should be about two feet deep. it is always well to have the glass as near the level of the ground as possible.mold or some porous material. Hotbed with nianvire on top It may be walled with stone or brick. Figs.

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The thickness and other of the soil should vary from five to seven inches. Taft writes as follows of heating material that will be required : for a hotbed will vary with the crop. Care should be taken to have the corners well filled. For zero weather there should eighteen inches of heating material after it has been well packed down." Only by experience can one learn what is the proper When .60 The Principles of Vegetable . as well as with be at . degrees of frost a few For eighteen inches to a depth twenty -eight inches below the level of the south side of the frame. After the manure has warmed through for the second time it should be placed in the excavation. By this means the mass is easily made nniform in consistency. spreading it evenly nnd packing it down with the fork. the greater depth root crops. The bed is then ready for the soil. After the manure has again warmed up.Gardening from four to eight inches in thickness. while six or eight of inches are may answer when only expected. and thirty -one inches below that of the north side. which should be quite rich and contain a large amount of sand and humus. it should be thoroughly tramped. but leaving it for a few days before tramping it. a compost of decomposed pasture sods with one-third their bulk of rotten manure being manure the excavation should he made of excellent for the purpose. that an even settling may be secured.least and season. On "The amount the location the filling of hotbeds. and twenty -four inches will be desirable in mid-winter in the northern states. being desirable for radishes boxes of plants are to be placed in the beds the depth of soil need not be more than three inches.

— Ordinarily the it manure is will heat very vigorously for a few days after placed in the A soil thermometer should be thrust through the earth to the manure. but will not fluff up wheu the pressure is removed. and when it passes below 80° or 70°. By the time the beds are ready for planting. the weed seeds probably . Hotbeds which are supposed to hold for two months should have about two and one -half feet of manure. and the frame kept tightly closed with sash and covers. it will give a springy feeling to the feet as a person walks over it. The earlier the bed is made. by means inches may be sufficient. the seeds of cooler plants may be sown. That which has too much straw. seeds. and which will therefore soon part with its heat. the larger should be the quantity of manure. (2) the season in which the hotbed is made. will spring up quickly w'hen the pressure of the feet is removed. (4) consistency or texture of good the skill of the operator in managin'g the bed. The amount of manure which is to be used will depend (1) upon its quality. six or eight of Careless watering. will stop the heat in any hotbed. will pack down into a soggy mass underneath the feet. For a light hotbed to be used late in the season. When the manure has sufficient litter. seeds of the warm plants. Manure which has too little straw. This is the maximum. may be sown. like tomatoes.Heating wiih Manure 61 hotbed manure. Sowing the bed. When the temperature is passing below 90°. and which therefore will not heat well or will spend its heat quickly. which the manure is kept soaked. as a rule. (3) the kind of plants to be grown.

we should have a forcing -house. ^fanure-heated foreing-hoiise. may be grown in pots.Gardening have germinated. enough and brond enough to allow a man to work inside. upon one in side of place. 16. Plants which do not transplant well. In this position. as conditions may require. Various modifications of the com- mon bed type of hotwill suggest If the themselves. to facilitate the work of the old beds may delicate crops. which the manure and soil are already From two to three feet of manure should . the plants can be protected in the fall. hotbed were high Fig. old berry boxes. or from bed to Sow in bed. the pits should be cleaned in the fall and filled with litter. and more. gardeners are coming to start all plants in boxes or flats (Fig. As already suggested. Such a structure is shown in Fig. as melons and encumbers. rather than directly in the hotbed earth. 12). Loosen and aerate the soil rows fonr to six inches apart. be nsed for the growing of various melons or half-hardy flowers. for the plants can then be cai'ted to the field or put on the market with The flats can also be shifted ease and with little loss. before sowing. More. as making bed in the new the winter or spring. 16. from one part of the frame to another. In the summer-time. or on inverted sods.62 will The Principles of Vegetable. after the frames are stripped.

17. The soil is EH? shown at 4.y under considerable pressure. A flue-heated or pipebeated hotbed ma. heated houses are often very These manureand are a good make -shift until such time as one can afford to put in flue or pipe heat. If. it may be carried directly through the soil in ordinary drain pipes. however. From two to four steam. Pipe-heated hotbeU.Pipe-heatp(l Frames 63 be used. which may be used for ventilation or for admitting air underneath the beds. The house may be covered with hotbed sash efficient. in the end of the house. hotheds. shown at 2. Fig. Pipe -heated — Hotbeds means of steam or hot water. and the arrangement of piping for the two should be similar. 2. The pipes should not be surrounded by earth. There are doors Fig. a glass-covered box in the kitchen window may answer very well. but should run through a free air space. 17 shows a hotbed with two pipes. which is usuall. from the heater ing-house torj- may be heated by They can be piped in a dwell- or greenhouse. in the positions 7.or water-pipes are carried underneath the bed. For starting plants in a small way. one has plenty of exhaust steam. 7. It will rarely pay . An incubator is useful for the germinating of seeds. Exhaust steam from a fac- can often be used with very good results. held on a rude frame of seautliugs.y be likened to a greenhouse bench. below the bed.

the furnace. farther the cloth. and suffer comparatively little in breakage. Glnzing. there should be a rise in the underlying The greater pipe of at least one foot in twenty. for if :uich an expense is incurred. secondquality grade.five. furnace may be constructed in a pit at one end of the run and underneath a shed. in order to secure a good draft. The underlywill ordinarily have an excellent draft. instead of being carried directly' upwards. and the smoke and hot air. high. Flue-heated beds. may be made of brick or uuvitbut stovepipe may be used for the The chimney is ordinarily at It should be end of the run of beds.64 The Principles of Vegetable Gardening to put in a hot water or steam heater for the express purpose of heating hotbeds. are — carried through a slightly rising horizontal pipe which runs underneath the beds. pipe may return underneath the beds and enter a chimney directly over the back end of the furnace. Hotbeds may be heated with hot A home-made brick air flues with very good results. it will be better to make a forcing-house. the more perfect will be the If the runs are not too long. and such a chimney. being warmed from the furnace. hotbed and . ing pipe should occupy a free space or pit beneath the beds. the rise in this pipe. and whenever it lies near to the floor of the bed or is very hot. — The most satisfactory glass for use in coldframe sash is double -thick. and 12-ineh jianes are ordinarily wide enough. the underlying di'aft. If the run of beds is long. this flue rified For some distance from sewer pipe. it should be covered with asbestos greater part of the run.

because beds do not materials become so hot it and dry. the panes. but rectangular frames made from strips of pine seven -eighths inch thick and 2% inches wide. : muslin. because it will soon be loosened by the The freezing of the water which collects under it. Dry in a warm place and paste it firmly on the sash with fresh flour paste. in another quart dis3. Use a sash without bars. Dry again and then apply boiled linseed oil to both sides of the paper. panes should be lapped. Three pints pale linseed oil Grind and mix the sugar of lead in a little oil. Apply hot with a brush. For the late work. however. cloth often better than glass. Used mostly for paper. is not have expensive sash. thin manila paper with pure raw linseed oil. not butted. in particularly plants which are started advance of the openis ing of the season. Used for materials and heat in an iron kettle. again in a warm place. and dry * his own by using one : . and as a rest for the paper. The glass No putty should be run above is bedded in putty. other than the Hotbed covers. must be given to early hotbeds. They need glass. then add the other rosin. then wipe the paper with a damp sponge to cause it to stretch evenly. liquids. necessary When to these are used.Covers for Hotbeds 65 papers For coldframes. Some protection. Dissolve \% pounds white soap in 1 quart water . Saturate cloth or tough. various water -proof clotlis* oiled and for may be little used. 2. covering on every cold night. and sometimes during — There are water-proof hotbed cloths in the market. hanging it up to dry. E . and soak the paper. Or one may make of the following formulas 1. bought by the pound at hardware stores. solve IV9 oimces gum arable and 5 ounces glue. 1 ounce sugar of lead 4 ounces white 4. Mix the two . halved together at the corners and each corner reinforced by a square carriagecorner. such as is used by carriage -makers to secure These corners can be the corners of buggy boxes. and stretch wires or strings across it to serve Procure stout but thin manila wrapping-paper. warm.

six penny nails. it may have straw. Gardeners often make mats of rye straw. however. with the Two butt ends outward and the heads overlapping. and they are not used as much as formerly. It also be used. as shown in the figure. Twelve hanging on either Some persons wind the cord on two twentsthis warp. 18 illustrates one of the best. with a double or Fig. may may and it.G6 The Principles oj Vegetable. A frame is made after the manner of a saw-horse. provided. It is customary to use six runs of string are spools of side. these nails being is held together at one end h\ wire which secured in notches filed into them. 18. shavings or wool Various hotbed mattings are sold by dealers in gardeners' supplies. The other ends to be balls of the nails and allow the string preventing the them. Old pieces of carpet Burlaps makes excellent cover. marline twine securing the strands of straw. Such mats are thick and serviceable. but Fig. such used for carpeting floors. top. They are bulky to store and heavy to handle.Gardening the entire day in very severe weather. Two . wisps of straight rye straw are secured and laid upon the frame. terial Very good maas is for covering the sash is matting. be doubled quilted in . and if ihey are kept dry they will last for years. are free. is and tarred used for Makiug struw-mats. thus caught between from unwinding as they hang from the frame. There are various methods of making these straw mats.

In addition to these coverings of straw or matting. . particularly the plants are started These shutters are made of half-inch or five -eighths inch pine lumber. is and to cut before the grain in the milk. rye contains no ripe grain mice. however. and are the same size as the sash 3x6 feet.Coldframes 67 opposite spools gre then brought up and a hard knot is tied at each point. it is essential that the wisps. very early. In some cases they are used without matting. and the plants are transplanted into the field when settled weather comes. It is best to it . COLDFRAMES AND FORCING -HILLS A it receives coldframe has no bottom heat. otherwise it attracts the grow rye for this especial purpose. Coldframes are ordinarily placed near the buildings. They are used above the matting to keep it dr3' and to prevent it from blowing off. Sometimes. they are bed. it is sometimes necessary to provide board shutters to if protect the beds. so that the straw does not need to be threshed. except that which from the sun otherwise it is like a hot: There are three general purposes for which a coldframe is used (1) for the starting of plants early in spring for receiving partially hardened plants (2) which have been started earlier in hotbeds and forcing houses (3) for wdntering young cabbages. and the mat allowed to drop through to receive the next pair of In making these mats. : . off The projecting butts of the is straw are then cut with a hatchet. — 4. lettuce and other hardy plants which are sown in the fall. .

or cold forcing-house. sash are laid lettuce. are removed.Gardening directly made iu the field where the plants are to remain. beets. and the Fig. sown beneath the sash. used. through the field at a distance of six feet The plank on the north is ordinarily 10 to 12 inches wide. and the frames. and not the plants. if When the heat spent from hotbeds. These planks are held in place by stakes. 19. They can then be . this is like those mentioned. for the hardened- . the frames are made very cheap by running two rows of parallel planks apart. When used for this latter purpose. starting of late plants may be empty. and when settled weather arrives the sash and planks are removed and the plants are growing naturally in and the are then the field. Half-hardy plants. like. A span-roof coldframe. across them. .68 The Principles of Vegetable. may be started two or three weeks in advance of the normal season by means. and that on the south 8 to 10 inches. they become or the plants coldframes. Seeds of radishes.

perhaps. ennial plants. and the sashes pulled down from the top for veutilation. are They covered with hotbed sash laid on a framework. Forciny-lulh. of hastening the growth of rliubarb the box made with four remov^ible sides. obviating the necessity of transplanting to other frames. Span -roof coldframes (Fig. is placed The inside of the box around the plant in the fall. and tlie outside is banked thoroughly with any refuse. and hot manure is piled around the box covering to its top. dry.hills off iu 69 them as they cool. as rhubarb and 20. or to annuals. and the discussion of them is foreign to the purpose of this volume. Poreing of rlnibaib. If the weather is still cold. the removed from both the inside and outside of the box. asparagus. however. coldframe. to prevent the ground from freezing. thus. It is a smnll This type of forcapplied to ing may be perV'l'i. 19) are very useful. hill is —A forcing- an arrangement by means of which a single plant or a single hill of plants may be forced where it perma- nently stands. as they allow of better and more uniform conditions for the growing of plants than the ordinary frame. They are essentially forcing-houses. is filled with straw or litter. two of which are shown in end section in tlie figure. as melons and cucumbers.Forcing . A When is it is desired to start the plants. 20 ilhistrates a common in method spring. Fig. light leaves .

and a pane of glass is laid on the top of the mound to concentrate the sun's rays.Gardening or straw of glass may be placed iuside the bux. because the bank of earth is likely to wash . drawn. is better and handier. seaand similar plants may be advanced from two to four weeks by means of this method of forcing. One of these hills is shown in Fig. however. This frame is placed with the small end down at the point where the seeds are to be planted. Forciiig-hill. and provided with a handle. to answer Rhubarb.70 The Principles of Vegetable. The Fig. asparagus. 21. kale gardeners use old barrels or half. Some the purpose of a coldframe. much used. may be planted in foreiug-hills in the tield.barrels in place of the box. as melons and cucumbers.hill is not to hold it down. and which do not transplant readily. 21. The box. This mold is a box with flaring sides and no top or bottom. and the sides can be stored for future use. and to prevent the bank from washing down with the rains. and the earth is hilled up about it and The mold is then withfirmly packed with the feet. A clod of earth or a stone may be placed on the pane This type of forcing. or a paue or sash may be placed on top of the box. frame or mold is shown at the left. Plants which require a long season in which to mature.

Any is size of may be used. and heavy rain occurring when the glass is off will fill the hill with water and drown the plant. -2. box. A forcing -hill is sometimes made by digging a hole ground and planting the seeds in the bottom ill the of placing the pane of glass upon a slight ridge or is made on the surface of the ground. However. mound which the hole to fill is very likely with water in the excellent is early days of spring. This method is less desirable than the other. the protection wholly removed. banked slightly about the box. as shown in Fig.frj^''?M. This is a rectan- -O^-^^^^-^^:??^ Fig. it can be used to very good advantage in cases in which the gardener can give it close attention.r. painted. . After the plants are thoroughly established in these forcing -hills. but a 10 x 12 pane as good as any for general purposes. and a pane of glass is Hand-box. An type of forcing -hill made by the use of the hand . without top or bottom. . and the plants grow normally in Forcing -hills are not well adapted to largethe open.^«' 22. The earth is slipped into a groove at the top. in order to hold it against winds and to prevent the water from running If these boxes are made of good lumber and into it.Hand-hoxes 71 away. and the weather is is settled. because the seeds are placed in the poorest and coldest soil. and it. gular box. they will glass last for many years.

5. containing a less body of air. due to too great heat and too little moisture. plant should be stocky when is to be put . being scattered over much time territory. are specimens (1) which are ready at the required season. watering. which tends to make them weak and spindling (4) growing plants too far from the light. be grouped as follows (2) : (1) main(4) taining the heat. (3) which tends make crowding of the plants. because they require too tending. (2) which are stocky. close atmosphere. and. the plants . all harden in g. however. . which may enable one to arrive at this knowledge sooner and with less loss than b3' blind experience alone. they do not give as early results as well-made coldframes. things to avoid (2) too hot are (1) the chilling of the plants. these objects may . in the much Neither do the}^ have much advantage of protection from windbreaks. Translated into the actual management of a hotbed. (3) ventilating. The hotbed. which also tends to make them soft and weak (5) the scalding of the plants by the sun.Gardening area work.off the (5) transplanting. to and soft .72 The Principles of Vegetable. . so far as the plants are concerned. THE MANAGEMENT OF FRAMES Only by experience can one learn how to manage a There are a few principles and cautions. The things to be sought. and (3) which have made a continuous healthy growth. Above it things. an injury which is very likeh' to occur when the sun comes out after a long "spell" of dark or cold weather (6) the wilting of the plants.

For this reason. but a better way is to mix leaves or other litter with the manure.hotbed on the quality and the amount of manure but one can do something by subsequent management to maintain it. thereby preventing too rapid fermentation. manure which is too heavy and concentrated may heat violently. It may also be lessened bj' careless watering. however. Plants which are not stocky are said to be "leggy" or "drawn. or if not. Heat will ordinarily fail sooner if the hotbed is above the ground and much exposed to winds.y may be stunted. and wetting it may tend to cool it to the point at which plants can grow. A cold and wet soil also tends to lessen the heat in the hotbed. hotbeds should always be placed in a sand}^ or gravelly place. comand which has a normal bright green color throughout. Watering should be done with caution. the greatest precaution should be taken to insure perfect drainage. Careless . of the heat in the ordinarj. able to stand alone. The maintenance depends primarilj. As already said (page 57). particularly b}' soaking the manure. at which time the frame should be protected by mats or other covering. A stock.Maintaining the Heat in 73 is the field. Not only should the heat from the fermenting manure be maintained. if much of the heat from escaping. but prevent too care should be taken to This is an important caution in very cold nights and windy weather." since their general tendency is to grow too long and weak for their bulk. The ideal plant is plant. one which is both stocky and vigorous. A stocky plant is is one which paratively short and thick. possible .

and not wet again until the plants need it soil. It is particularly inadvisable plants to caution go into the night with wet foliage. but. since the water is applied and (3) to Hotbed soils should be rather greater force. one should avoid drenching the soil. It is well also to avoid ice-cold water. to water in the morning. is or at least when there still enough sun heat of water left to warm the soil before nightfall. and with loose the physical texture of the soil is likely to be injured It is better. and also to the when is necessary to keep the frame It is better. and fibrous in order to prevent the puddling. . of the Avoid dribbling or merely wetting the surface The soil should be wet thoroughly at each watering. not to water hotbeds towards night or when the temperature the is falling. for the application at such temperature decided check to plants. is a The water if possible. This applies with especial force to cucumbers. puddle the soil. If watering is done from a hose. the amount of water applied to a hotbed is usually excessive. unless one exercises considerable care. as a rule. as a rule. (2) soak the manure and to check its fermentation. the danger of packing the soil is greater than when a watering pot is used. should have a temperature of 60° to 65°. melons and other early season. particularly for warm -growing plants and early in the season. on the other hand. for the application of to still water and allow the the subsequent evaporation tend further cool to bed. As compared with outdoor or field conditions.Gardening to watering tends (1) to pack or to chill the plants. "warm" it plants.74 The Principles of Vegetable. close.

is Hardening-off also As soon promoted by giving the plants as they begin to crowd. 23).Ventilating 75 to dry Ventilation is important. and more protected. or by sliding down the sash. In this way the plants become accustomed to the lower temperature and to normal conditions of the they become " hardened. making plants plenty of room. whereas the hotbed. stocky. is considerably vv^armer Ventilaliug tho hotbed. more and more ventilation should be given until finally in sunny days the sash can be stripped from the frames. On it pleasant and soft." Careful attenatmosphere tion to ventilation is one of the important means of In fact. (Fig. resting a notched block. if Whenever the air m the bed 7nit. being on the surface of the ground. grow. be- The general tendency with ginners likely to is to ventilate too little rather than too much. it is the aim of . and and snnnj^ days. ventilation should be given the temperature will per- good gardeners not to have the atmosphere very moist when the temperature As the plants is low and ventilation cannot be given. (2) to aid in controlling the temperature. One is judge the temperature b}' the wind and air about his face and ears. is so moist that drops of water collect on the panes. some . (1) the air. Plants which are tall kept close and wet tend to grow too to lack in stockiness. ventilation shoald be given by on raising the sash.

the . ing in the frames because of the high price of labor. particularly if they are started very early.76 of the The Principles of Vegetable. and such plants may not If it is found that the heat is need transplanting. and the like. berry boxes. cabbage and cauliflower are the common examples.Some plants.Gardening plants well may to be pulled out. of which lettuce. to may cooler be transfer the ]jlants a and more airy frame. they are likely' to In very cold weather. can be so completely hardened -off as to be able to withstand considerable frost and in this toughened condition they may be carried over two or three weeks of cold weather before it is safe to transplant them into the The general tendency is to do little transplantopen. a fourth or a of the length of the Plants plant in order to make it branch and thicken. and great care must not scalded thej' are taken off and the sun comes out. when the covers The stockier less is the and the tougher the plants are grown. but transplanting is always advantageous to the plants. become somewhat be exercised that are soft and tender. since they have more room. are likely to be more stocky than those which are grown directly in the soil of the hotbed. At the transplanting. it With celery somewhat and some other plants. or better. failing.be transplanted. all the it plants maj. oyster buckets. which are grown in pots. plants are in comparative darkness. it will be necessary to harden -off the plants more rapidly. it is sometimes necessaiy to keep the mats and shutters on the hotbeds for two or During this time. cutting oif is often allowable to fifth shear the tops. .' when the three days at a time.

In the northern states. In very cold and windy weather. is usually thought cabbages and cauliflower may be started with about six weeks before the field is expected to onions and tomatoes. It must be remembered that the age of the plant does not count for so much as its stockiness and vigor. The plants are not to grow during winter: Having become inured to they are only protected. the cheap forcing-house structure made of frames and heated either with fermenting manure or with pipes is more advantageous (page 62). If. In many of the plains regions. The operator works from the outside rather than from the inside. Beginners are likely to start a hotbed too soon. since the operator can be inside the forcing -house whatever the weather may be. this danger is very great and the operator must watch his beds closely.houses. therefore.How Early to Sow 11 dauger of sun-scalding. as a rule. four to six weeks. six to seven weeks be ready beets. the strong winds make it difficult to handle the hotbed sash. the hotbed is started so early that the plants have to be ''slowed up" and stunted in order to hold that them until the field is ready. hotbeds cannot be opened. In such case. but after a long period of cloudy weather. — . profit . Hotbeds are more difficult to manage. has been said It (page 67) that one use of coldframes is to carry fall-sown plants over the winter and to have them ready for transplanting into the field very early in the spring. . than forcing. it very little is gained. Wintering fall-sown plants.

78 The Principles of Vegetable. for it seems not to have the power to resume active vegetative growth Cabbage plants with three or after its long check. frames soil uncovered freeze until stiff freezing weather comes. are made extra stocky by transplanting. likely and imperfect plants are winter. they fit. Only by experience can one determine the proper age at which the plants should go into the winter and this experience is likely to vary with different varieties of the same vegetables. four true leaves should be able to pass the winter and to give satisfactory results the following year. but are usually attained if the plants soft. the plants Then use sash and covers. after transplanting to the frames bulk but they should se- cure a good root -hold before freezing weathei. where the practice common and Keep the the results are precarious. Gradually and may . in not well that they make much growth . Seeds are sown in late fall. Plants which are verj- weak to^be destroyed by the young and flabby usuAll Those which are too old tend to run to (iomes. and when the plants have grown four or five weeks they It is are read}' to be transplanted into the frames. Some persons sow better results the seeds directly in the frames. particularly not in the North. ally perish. kale. The is novice should undertake these experiments in a small way. A plant which has begun to thicken up and. but exercise care that . to show signs of a tendency to form a head will nearly always run to seed in the spring. seed when spring weather . cabbage. may be set in the ( field the iDinute the soil is Hardy plants lettuce. cauliflower) are used for this purpose.comes.Gardening cold.

root close action goes on. and dark for more than a day the two.Wintering Fall -sown Plants 79 the bright sun does not strike frozen plants and thaw them out quickly. Strip ground is frozen. freel}^ of ventilation. As field far south as Norfolk. prevent sudden thawing. In middle states. the plants should not be kept or. the plants if are sometimes ill carried over winter without frames. cabbage are in late fall. they are a protected place. the frames on all fine Give days. avoid sun-scalding. so that some If the . planted in the Check all winter growth. . the plants may stand several days under a cover of snow on the sash but if the ground is soft.

this — (80J . — . two coordinate factors are the texture or physical make-up.CHAPTER THE Market. and sandy land can be made immensely productive by a combination of three things. physical more important : than original richness in plant-food the latter can That is. is "quick. — these are the leading factors soil is determiuing the location of a market. to be considered. celery are examples. good tillage.garden. other things being equal. and the content of plant-food. When thus ameliorated. If the land is well drained. ill III SOIL AND ITS TREATMENT climate. in the determination of a soil for market-gardening purposes. be added. the incorporation of plant -fiber or humus. he can make an ideal garden of it. it becomes a sandy loam. a rain comes is quickly into workable condition it easy keep its in good Its it responds quickly to fertilizing condition is materials." warms np tilth . if rainfall is sufficient. soil. which demand particular types of soils for best results but if one has a deep and uniform sandy soil. in aftei- spring. Nearly all general market-gardens are on sanJy There are a few crops. A to good market It - gardening early one which it . of which oiiions and loams. the direct addition of plant-food.

— -S. and these soils are mostly the deposit suffer from drought The fine loams which have of peat and moss bogs. Green. turnips. etc. and by underdraining. a good clayey loam is generally the best. beets. it. Second Ed. but it not the land for vegetable-growing. it is dening. . the incorporation of humus. potatoes. Soils which are nearly all muck have little body. Clay is is excellent for some fruits (particularly pears and plums). if the area can be thoroughly well drained.. and for some general farm crops. the object in vegetable -gardening is to grow very important to have quick-acting land. : How- loam may be excellent this loamy condition may be obtained from hard clay soil by judicious tillage. P . ciently. B. Such a * * * soil contains a large amount of sand in its composition. 8. accumulated in beds of shallow ponds or lakes are usually ideal vegetable -garden lands. the addition of amendments in special cases. as cabbage. a friable clay many kinds. for marketing in the autumn and for crops that require but a short time to mature or that prefer a cool location. bean.Soils 81 hard clay. VyTien the intention is to raise cabbages. Reclaimed swamps usually afford excellent soil for vegetables. pea. so that the land is "early.. It cannot be worked when and the period in which it can be either wet or dry tilled is so short that much labor and equipment are required to enable one to handle it quickly and effi- The soil to avoid is Plants start slowly in .Gar- When early crops. Vegetable. providing the area is not too frosty. It is cold and late. Clay loams are good lands for main-season crops of ever." and if the vegetable matter or peat is well decomposed and comminuted.

Garden vegetables. Second Ed. for instance. 5. with a sandy or gravelly sub-soil shouia oe Such land is far better than soils resting on clay. T. Earth of a consistence that will hold water the longest without becoming hard when dry.. Success in selected. Farm.Gardening 12. How Sandy loam. but avoid clay. but because it is naturally well drained.. The best those of The soil for growing vegetables and seeds should be as near as possible a deep loam it may be more or less sandy. Truck. A clay sub-soil. 30.82 Tlie Principles of Vegetable. Francis Brill. a very light sandy or of a stiff clayey description. Rawson. 11. — Bridgeman. between the extremes of clay and sand. to The Make soil the should be a warm. on sticky red clays and sands. soil may be anything but brick clay. will thrive best. Garden Pay.. . again. Qidnn. A. or anything heavier than a clay loam. W. with the exception of pure clay. with plenty of humus or vegetable matter. T. sandy loam. is of all others. other things being equal. and is a medium earth. but here. on a deep. soils are of a friable and loamy texture the worst.Farming at the If in soil.Growing. P. Young Gardener'' s Assistant. Greiner. 10. Almost any character of soil. at least until deep drains have been sunk and operated a considerable time. can be brought up to a high state of fertility by adopting the proper methods. Robert Buist. with an open sub-soil. Money in the Garacn. New Ed. theoretically a sandy loam is best.Gardening and Seed. astonishing results are often obtained on forbidding soils. — Market. South. . 10. as a rule. one is confined to a single he should sel«ct one consisting of a mixture of organic and inorganic matter. . This last described soil is called loam. the selection of the land. sandy loam. liot only because its nature is warmer. the best adapted for raising the generality of plants in the greatest perfection. deep. sandy loam.Gardening . the latter seemingly no better than those of The light. will render any land cold. as it retains the moisture. The Family Kitchen Gardener. Sevoith Ed. W. 14. Oemler. a light.

E. The characters already cited point clearly to what is commonly designated as a rather light soil as best for vegetable growing.Gardening Farm Notes. but they are usually poor in quality. to a great extent. The California Vegetables. IS. an applithe plants are put on it . depends "quickness" of the land. 169 [Quebec. through which the surplus water Canadian Fruit. II n'en est point du jardin comme de la ferme. The plant should grow quickly and Slow.growing and intermittent. with a gravelly sub-soil. fully a foot in depth. Quel sol convieut au jai'din? Je repouds que partout ou il y a de la terre vegetale. Provancher. It is is concentrated (or commercial) fertilizer will usually more profitable to secure land which already in productive condition than to take that of . 192. des engrais at divera precedes de culture. continuously. Flower and Kitchen Gardener. the land should be very thoroughly prepared before and in most cases. 43. Le Verger. eonservera toujours la qualite de son sol primitif. In order to secure this quick growth. 1>. contain It shouhl much be the plant -food material earliness should quickly available. sandy or readily filters. or and this material for on its availability . il est toujours assez facile par des amendments. Burnet Landrcth. celle-ci. tandis que pour le jardin.) Vegetable-gardening land should be rich. cation of help. d'alterer ou de changer sa qualite suivant le besoin. bles is The soil which is best suited for the production of vegetawhat is termed a rich loam. Wickson. en raison sourtout de son etendue. I'etablissement d'un jardin y est possible.Soils the 83 and seashore. J. W.grownot only fail ing vegetables may to reach the market or the table at the desired time. Market. Beadle.

in the great majority of cases. to It is said to be imprac- ticable them. and the greater the variety of crops which he is to grow. is a favorite advice of the market. not of ameliorating the soil. remainder of the place can then be slowly brought into condition by cover-cropping. he maj' not be able to secure such land. and large results. at and other cheaper means. the gardener should select the best part of the area for his more intensive efforts. he takes land which It is either naturally inferior or which is run down. the outside. the smaller his area. common notion that commercial fertilizer is the first resort in such instances is in most cases a grievous The fertilizer is for the purpose of adding error. It requires time if only the person goes at it right.84 The Principles of Vegetable.Gardening inferior quality and . But if one has small capital. gardening is attempted on run-down land. rotation.emphasized. In such case. the greater is the necessity of securing land in prime condition.. attempt is to reclaim If This kind of run-out land it can be brought into profitable condition. to improve it. advice has been over. This is true of all farming wants quick. giving it what manure he has and The bestowing upon it his best efforts in tillage.gardening writers intensive farming for intensive to avoid run-down lands. The first thing to do is to till well and The to add fiber (preferably by means of clover). Four or suffice five years. and patience. If marketplant-food. with comparative!}' little trouble and expense. lies right and naturally well drained. market. should usually to bring the average worn-out . The closer one is to his positive.

Drainage 85 land into good condition. 1. THE AMELIORATION OF THE LAND is Land It is ihat finely pulverized. usually can be much improved in their physical texture by a good system of underdrains. the addition of fiber. All low and boggy lands need to be drained for the first purpose. Very stiff clay lands. — The . Underdraining is practiced for two purposes to carry off the superfluous water. It is almost useless to apply expensive plant -food to poorly The first efforts. witliout great expenditure of capital. If water stands long in clay If the lands. The philosophy of this is simple. as a rule. than of exhaustion of plant-food in the soil. rotation Drainage. than that which However. weedy fields and slovenly appearance. tilled and intractable land. and it is in more continuous good is necessary to drain artificially. deep. is that which is is pro- vided by nature that land which tilth naturally well drained comes into condition more quickly." mellow. must be given to drainage. and to improve the physical texture of the soil. which are normally dry and hard. "mealy. best drainage is. it tends to cement or to puddle the soil. "quick" is in good physical condition. The ''run-down" character of a farm is usually more a matter of dilapidated fences and buildings. — water is quickly taken off. The soil superfluous . this cementing or puddling does not take place. tillage. the very best results maj* be secured by a good system of tiledrainage. however. therefore.

excellent drains may be made by partially rating the land in the . Board drains are sometimes used. for orchards. it is necessary to underdrain hard clay lands. countries. but they are not so efficient nor so permanent and in the East they are often more expenIn stony sive to begin with than the tile drains are. This surface amelio- drainage. all it is better and cheaper in the In nearly cases. and enables the plants to obtain These -same lands might be used ever. surface drains may be surface land may be ridged so that tlie water is taken off in the dead -furrows. way filling the ditch with stones. For temporary used. tion of enables it to than when it is larly if quickest results are desired. even if they are not wet. end to use tile undei'draius. results fluous water only in carrying off superhav^e in and does not the effect of which underdrains do. particupurposes. however. and very quick and early results are not essential. how- they might also be .86 is The Principles of Vegetable.Gardemng thereby looser or more friable. without underdraining. or the purposes. particularly if flat stones in are to be had so that a conduit can be laid the . It makes them workable early in the spring after rains. and very productive of some general a quicker foothold. and improves it for agricultural For vegetable -gardening purposes. farm crops but in such cases the crops may occupj^ the land for a term of 5*ears. the soil This friable condihold more moistnre hard and brick -like. It therefore results that draining to remove the superfluous water puts the soil in condition to hold more capillary moisture in its own tissues.

As a matter feet feet is is found. means of disposthey have a good fall. or veiy hard have drains at a distance of not more than two or three rods. 87 give the Such drains not only If advantages of underdraiuage. to use such lands for the later. It may be advisable. maximum depth. that four three clay usually the the minimum. but also afford a ing of superfluous stone. — At the present time the great emphasis is in on tillage. For detailed advice on drainage. however. however. if the lands are to be put in the very best condition for market -gardening purposes. stones with earth. and (2) to maintain the soil in good condition for the growth of the crop. deeper the soil deeper will of be the ameliorating effect on the and the greater the area which they practice. cheaper and general -purpose crops rather than for the very early ones if the gardener has other land which can be used for the crops which are desired for the early market. should the subject. the spaces and care the is exercised not to fill between drains. and about Wet lands. . Tillage. the readers should consult special books on lands.Drainage bottom. it drain. they as tile may The be nearly or quite the as efficient drains. The fundamental thing is to till the later and incidental thing is to fertilize the agricultural practice placed : land. To prepare the soil for the crop. We till (1) to prepare the soil to receive the crop. We have J3assed through that era in our development in which we have looked to recipes and special practices for the improving of the soil.

1. pulverization or plowing shall extend The depth to which this must be deterit mined for each particular case: depends on the is character of the soil and the crop. for these Cultiideas are associated with two classes of effort.88 The Principles of Vegetable. Forty or fifty years ago it was the general advice that land be plow^ed deep. neither deep plowing nor shallow plowing is But the unit. the surface should be tilled or stirred as often it becomes crusted or compacted. the effort must be to deepen Lands which are sandy or leachy may need the soil. with the gardener to plow There are three objects of fall plowthe land earlier in the spring. crops demand deep soil in order grow long and symmetrical.Oar dening the land should be loosened and pulverized as deep as ordinary roots go. The root. nearly always needs to be plowed deep. carrots and horse-radish. to be plowed shallow and approximately the same depth every year the effort is to compact the under soil and thereby to prevent the leaching. Tlie tillage of preparation insists that the land be broken and pulverized. It is essential that every farmer keep in mind the differences between preparation -tillage and maintenance -tillage. hard. as To maintain the soil in ideal con- dition. (3) to improve the . This that is the roots may emphatically true wnth such long-growing roots as parsnips. late beets. vating should be thought of as maintenance -tillage. (2) (1) To make to be forehanded with the work . The depth land in the ing : of plowing is a question of conditions It is a favorite practice fall. not as preparation -tillage. or in which there is Land which very a high sub -soil.

so that the weather has a chance to break slack the lumps.Fall physical character of the Plowing soil.be verj' much improved by being plowed in the fall. It is down and land should contain it important. 89 in the fall can nearly always be earlier Land which is plowed worked several days in the than that which out sooner. be reserved for its legitimate use to designate the spading up or loosening up of the land deeper than It is only a special practice. land contains stubble of grain or grass. high that they dry out quickly. ever land advisable to plow with little needed very early in the spring. that such more or less vegetable matter. or if it has a covering of manure. such danger will be averted. If the land is clean and in good condition. in their physical texture Clay lands maj. of stiff It dries Especiall}* is this true or loamy lands. but can be worked down with heavy tools. . and be got in ideal condition (Fig. it is This remark applies it in the fall. together and puddle during the otherwise If the may run winter season and be difficult to manage in the spring. surface water is then carried off and the ridges lie so This operation is sometimes spoken of as trenching. 24). is plowed spring. but it is more propThe term "trenching" should erly ridging of the land. Lands may be made earlier to work if they are thrown into beds or ridges by the fall plowing. for they can is ordinarily be plowed very early. however. so that The the dead-furrows occur every eight or ten feet. like the spading harWhenrows. the original furrow. force to light and sandy lands. it will not need to be plowed again in the spring.

.

for the soil very soon settles back into its original and hard condition. which demand a deep soil in which to perfect their growth. sub -soiling may be very useful in certain The sub-soil plow does not turn a furrow. it merely breaks the bottom of the original furrow. A surface -mulch of dry earth The depth of this mulch acts in much the same way. but. The growing of clover. But even with these aids. from three to four inches of loosely stirred earth is sufficient. and also for the long root-crops. first plowman. It is drawn by a separate team and follows in the furrow cases. It also saves the water it maintains a in the soil by hindering evaporation: loose and dry layer which acts as a mulch to the immediately behind the 2. and the operation must be repeated. which sends its roots deep into the all soil. on the earth keeps the soil moist because it delays evaporation. are is a common practice in market. is also a great aid. All tillage of preparation — all . and character of tools. as a rule. frequency of tillage.garden- It is nearly always advisable in lands which hard or have c high sub -soil. must be determined by the character of the soil.soiling 91 Sub -soiling ing lands. Surface-tillage enables the land to drink in the water of rainfall. Sub -soiling is not a permanent corrective of the land. kind of crop. It also solves the whole moister placed difficulty of weeds. The fundamental corrective for such soils is underdraining and incorporation o1l humus. The tillage of A board or a forkful of manure soil beneath. maintenance should occur at least as frequently as once in ten days for the best market garden conditions.Sud.

before the crop . it is exceedingly important to save this winter rainfall. but it is more useful as a conservator of moisture than as plant-food. one which holds moisture. it is also carried down by fall. and the land must be fitted after the crop is sown by means of deep and heavy cultivating. Even if preparation enables the the land is fitted early. and to be kept in repair. and this is done by fitting the soil and making the surface -mulch the moment the land is dry enough to work in spring. the particularly by those of spring and The of gardener must bear in mind that his plants need a soil good physical texture. and rains. and one which has much available plant -food. Therefore. it is moved it. it is usuallj' a loss of effort and efficiency when preparation -tillage and maintenance-tillage must be done at the same time. and the surface-mulch saves much of it from evaporating. so often that roots do not secure a foot- It is therefore out of use for the time being as a source of plant-food.92 fitting The Principles of Vegetable . But its food comes into use when it is turned under the hold in following season. The plants draw on the moisture which has been stored in the soil by the winter rains and snows. and lightly harrowed is not to be used until June. The rainfall of the growing season is often iusufifieient for the crop. The soil in the surface-mulch is relatively dry. only the surface -mulch is But many times the preparation-tillage is not completed in its season. it should be at frequent intervals planted.Gardening of the laud — should be completed before the -' crop is put in: thereafter. Deep soil to hold moisture.

manure or the refuse of the garden. by decreasing the heat of the surface soil in summer. derived from leguminous plants. It is probable that there is a tendency to use stable manure in excess in garden lands. Tliis fiber is secured by plowing under any kind of vegetation. and when one crop is off another can be put in quickly. Fertilizers work quickly in them. Particularly is this true of those areas which are some distance from the market and in practice rapid succession of which it is not necessary market crops. clover. it also adds nitrogen. the same results in the incorporation of humus can be had in many cases more cheaply by the growing of catch -crops. Land is very rapidly improved by the incorporation of fiber.enabling it to hold moisture. Humus itself — contains plant -food. Lands which are thus manured year after year become quick and amenable to treatment. by preventing the puddling or cementing of clay soils. When this fiber decays it becomes humus. A rotation treatment year bj^ is useful because . The humus improves the physical condition of the soil by making it loose. open and mellow. as rye. The lands can be tilled at almost any time in the growing season. It also affords solvent If it is acids which tend to unlock other plant -foods. and by improving the chemical condition. that is. extravagant use of stable manures by market -gardeners is the addition of The chief reason for the almost humus. is One great value of the rotation of crops that it adds fiber and humus to the soil.Rotation 93 Addition of humus. b}. identical to Land which receives year tends to depreciate.

Gardening gives different treatments to the land. tice Whenever possible. rotation in tillage. and one of these may be quite as important as the other. under. (7) when green crops are turned . The philosophy of the "resting" of land is hereby explained. (2) no one element of plant -food exhausted. available or digested plant -food is incorporated with the soil. The rotamanuring and other treatment. Now and then. in profit. a gardener may When proved by the soil has been all the foregoing .94 (1) it Tlie Principles of Vegetable. a part of the land may be laid down to clover for a year or two. (5) it destroys pests and weeds. 2. It is not due to any need of recuperation in the soil . (6) it economizes labor. the rotation tending to even up the . demands on the soil (3) one crop leaves the land in good physical condition for another (4) it incorporates humus. THE FERTILIZING OF THE LAND thoroughly fitted and immeans. but the good of compound when Soils soil results derived from tilling which follow are the benefits which are and rotation. attempts should be made to pracsome kind of a rotation in the market-garden area. and nitrogen may be supplied. a change to some other crop maj' result which have been long kept in market-gardens may be benefited by seeding down for two or three years. the fault in of one year ment is tending to be corrected b}^ the manageanother year. Gardeners find that effects the various becomes unproductive for a particular crop. also. tion of crops means.

It Avill now be seen that the best results are usually to be expected when there is something land. is will gained thoroughly decom- posed. 2j. low. the thereby becomes quickly incorporated with its and plant-food soon becomes available. Composts.Composts think of adding plant-food. also be added when green -crops are plowed under or when maunre is or compost of garden refuse applied. soil. — In l)e the addition if it of is plant-fiber "o the much It soil. Fig. and also the verj^ common practice of composting manures and refuse. sods on the right. Garileiier's compost piles. call This the explanation of the general desire of market- gardeners to have what they "short" or well -rotted manure. stable like a rotation in the fertialter- lizing of the manures being used nately with concentrated or commercial fertilizers. flat- topped piles. Composting consists in piling the various materials together in long. — Manure on the left. ' 95 This plant-food it is may supplied in some concentrated fertilizer. which may catch and retain the rainfall .

25). the material would better be burned.Gardening and then forking them over two or more times during the season (Fig. question. although if serious diseases infest the refuse. of the operations to which the (4) the character of the laud man committed (3) the character of the land as regards tilth and texture. Materials like tomato vines. be used are to be determined by several : circumstances (1) is the earliness with which the crop to be obtained (2) is the intensity . which are too raw and coarse to apply directly to the land. potato vines and even corn stalks. Commercial fertilizers to — The kind and amount of or quickness . they are in condition to be put on the land and they readily become an integral part of the soil. for he usually provides his soils a 3"ear in advance. fertilizers. He must study his conditions and judge as best he can. is familiar with methods of composting. The florist. different A experiment is with kinds at of fertilizer on two or three of the leading crops the plantation. as regards richness in species plant -food raised. (5) the kind or of crops to be There is no infallible fertilizers means determine what little he shall by w^hich one can apply.96 The Principles of VegetahJe. If the materials are thoroughlyfit disintegrated and mixed. . The addition of quick -lime hastens the decomposition of raw materials. one side of the readiest means of answering the . who must have his soils in ideal condition. may be made into useful and valuable material when they have been composted for several months or a year.

is of farmer in determining the kind The of fertilizers or what amount shall be applied. We will assume that one -fourth be should then applj^ to the acre two and one -half pounds of phosAs phoric acid and about fourteen pounds of potash. The table gives the average amount of G . Consider. is Much risked in the chance that some may be used.27 per cent of potash. a matter of fact. however. chemical contents of plants vary in the different to the the plant. Following are figures which show that the best advice as to the use of fertilizers does not closely follow the chemical content of the crop. supplied by the addition of fertilizer. Even the widest variation in the amount of any one ingredient will be amply covered by the large amount of fertilizer which is ordinarily applied.How much The chemical no practical use Fertilizer is Needed 97 analysis of the plant. that the fruit of a tomato comprises . the smallest We amounts which excess of these in excess. and which the plant grows: the plant may take up more than it needs when some element is seasons and in the different parts of also with the soil in abundant. If the crop is ten tons of fruit per acre. while of the great- est use to the chemist in giving him suggestions. for example. it is probable that more than the average amount of phosphoric acid required is ten pounds and of potash fiftyfour itself pounds. are ever applied are many times in amounts. It is safe to assume that three -fourths the of is land these to should supply at least amounts.05 per cent of phosphoric acid and . It is Fertilizers must always be applied impossible to distribute a very small quantity roots do not occupy every part of the ground. .

Gardening nitrogen. and others and the differences between the two : . potash and phosphoric acid removed from an acre. then the amount of these materials recommended by Voorhees (in his boolc on "Fertilizers").98 The Principles of Vegetable.

although amendments (as lime) may have great effect in making such Again. tillage has much to do with the The element which the plant needs may be afforded more cheaply by giving better tillage than by adding fertilizers for tillage sets at work the forces which unlock plant-food. moisture to dissolve the plant is is more more comfortable . . the state of soils granular. the less marked. With the general run of vegetable crops and on soils in good tilth. On the other hand.When to Fertilize 99 harder the clay. the best buy most plant-food. for it will be one or two years. Fertilizer is usually a losing investment for a poor farmer. in general. the later may be applied. the looser the the fertilizer little soil. (4) the kind of plant. the shallower the roots. He uses fertilizer for the purpose of securing an extra yield. tilled soils : the plant can get hold of it because the material is more evenly distributed it . fertilizer is more usable by the plant on wellefficiency of a fertilizer. As a rule. (3) the soil. is the effect. as a rule. (2) the kind of fertilizer. sowing it on the surface and . there and vigorous and thereby better able to appropriate The good gardener is the one who gets the most out of his land by means of good tillage and then it. it is usually best to apply fertilizer in the spring. When to apply a fertilizer depends on (1) when it needed by the plant. not to pre- vent the soil men who till from becoming exhausted. With trees. The more soluble the fertilizer. it matters whether fertilizer is applied in fall or spring. before it affects the plant. (5) the season of normal is rainfall of the district. adds fertilizer to get more'out of it.

thereby avoiding confusion. . will suggest to the farmer how he may experiment: The field should be plowed before the plats are laid out.100 The Principles of Vegetable. On ordinary soils. which proves that both methods are right. "With annual crops. most important use of commercial fertilizer in vege: table-gardening ning. and it should be quickly available. should experiment with fertilizers as he does with varieties. If one wants to enrich his land. in advance of the planting near the surface. apply broadcast. substantial stakes at the corners of the plats. The only way to determine what fertilizers to use On a small plot each year the gardener is to try. and mark them in such a way that the plats will not become It would be well to leave a mixed. apply in the hill. space of four feet between each two plats in order to be sure that the plants on one plat cannot feed on the other plats. If one wants to use fertilizer to start the plant off and to maintain it until A it gets a firm hold on the soil. Nitrates are most likel}^ to leach. They are soluble and pass down quickly. The fertilizer question is largely a local and special problem. very little of it will be lost by leaching. fertilizer should not be applied much. Then use good. Therefore. There is much discussion whether fertilizer should be applied broadcast or in the hill. nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia should not be applied much in advance of the planting. It is is to hasten the plant in the begin- kindling-wood to start the blaze.Oar dening harrowing it in. if the fertilizer is needed any. or to afford sustenance to the plant throughout its growing season. for the by the College of Agriculture making of cooperative fertilizer experiments. directions given The following of Cornell University.

A Home Experiment 101 Do not lay out the plats on land that has been manured If you carried on fertilizer experiments last within one year. year. with the spaces between. do not use the same set of plats again this season. Each plat is one rod wide and eight rods long: Plat 1- . The following diagram [slightly modified from the original] shows the arrangement of the plats.

The same kind and same amount of seed is to be sown on each of the series It must be remembered that these of nine plats in the set. hills (If lowland. This is the most important of any single plat. 4. Is there is surface soil ? if so. so that the plant if applied just previous to putting in a crop earlier this fertilizer is applied in the spring the less will be the danger of injury. Clayey. does the soil it ?) from the side- wash down upon c. Hillside. must not be omitted. Gravelly. II. h. because all of the others must be compared with the blank in order to learn how much benefit the fertilizers have been to the . deep . and harrow into the soil as thoroughly as possible. crop. experiments are to be tried upon the crop planted and not upon an accidental crop of weeds. h. soil. You may grow any crop you wish on these plats. or dry out rapidly ? . d. Lowland. In no case will the experiments bo Thorough of value if the weeds are allowed to grow on the plats. c. g. etc.102 The Principles of Vegetable. Location of field. being careful not to sow any fertilizer on the check or blank plat No. The blank or cheek plat No. how deep is it ? a hard-pan Does soil hold moisture. Loamy. because particular care must be taken that none of the fertilizer for one plat is sown on or is dragged In many cases muriate of potash injures the on another plat. Character of a. with no fertilizer. Following are some of the things to be noted in the study of the plats: I. tillage is one of the most important features of the field test.Gardening Apply the fertilizers broadcast on the whole of each plat. Upland. e. Sandy. a. etc. 4. How /. Harrow the plats lengthwise.

on fruit-bearing plants which tend to mature too late. If it promotes growth. or only early in the season. it also delay's maturity'. It therefore may be used most freely on plants which are desired for their foliage parts. consider the number of bushels of grain and tons of straw or stalks per acre. . potash and phosphoric acid in about the proportions which experience has found to be useful. Fertility a.Fertilizer Problems 103 ni. What crops have been grown.gardfiier must regulate his fertilizer pracown experiments and experience. one containing nitrogen. ? Have manures years ? or fertilizers If so. It is less useful. for example. and with yield per acre. acre History of crops previous to test. This advice is particularly good when the person does not wish to experiment tice b3' his — or to give the subject careful stud}-. been applied in past what kinds. Whilst the. and how much per IV. or does run down " quiciiiy and need enriching b. in past years ? how much In case of cereals. how ? often. generally considered that nitrogen promotes rapid vegetative growth. Therefore it should be used sparingly. when one does not wish to enrich the land as It is much as to give a stimulus to the young plant. The general advice. Experiments at Cornell as tomatoes and eggplants. he is not wholly dependent on his own resources. perhaps. of soil. Scientific investigation and general agricultural experience indicate what will probably take place in a given case. Does the soil possess the required amount of plantit " food. is to apply a complete fertilizer. that is.

Gardening little showed that a for tomatoes . Nitrogen Phosphoric acid Potash 4 per cent 8 10 " " " " "For market-garden crops. Good commercial sources of nitrogen are nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia of potash. nitrate of soda is better than much all at also. . a fertilizer of the above composition maj. for in the latter case pro- moted growth too late and the fruits did not ripen. that a is given quantity applied better than the once early in the season tit}" same quanit applied at intervals. . muriate of potash and of phosphoric acid. Of uitrate of soda.be regarded as a basic mixture. as he thinks best. . He can then apply little or much of any element to this place or to that.' nitrogen and phosphoric should preferably consist of the different forms. or fertilizer applied to all of the crops.104 The Principles of Vegetable. of the other constituents. For the person who has studied the subject and his soil. The acid. 267) recommends the following "basic formula" for market-garden crops: . bone comunleached wood ashes pounds and fossil phosphates (as South Carolina and Florida rocks). rather . it is preferable to bu}. which may be ings. from 200 to 400 pounds. 150 to 300 pounds to the acre is a good application of muriate of potash." p. from 200 to 400 pounds of treated South Carolina rock. Voorhees ("Fertilizers. leaving the specific needs of the different plants to be met by top -dressapplications ingredients.the elements in the form of high-grade chemicals and to apply each by itself.

pounds. to be supplemented. phoric acid should be soluble (from superphosphates). by 50 to 100 pounds of nitrate of soda "once every week or ten daj's. That is." "Given good natural conditions in respect to season. though the cost of the ment will naturally regulate this point to some extent." These details will illustrate the nature of the problem. 500 to 600 . and a favorable more than any other controls the yield and quality of market -garden products "In is plant -food of the right amount and kind." these days. with 20 to 30 pounds. the one thing that soil. followed Part II. Voorhees recommends from 1." For asparagus. and the less soluble to its continuous and steady growth. and a part organic a part of the phos. Voorhees recommends that "apply a reasonable excess of lizer constituents the all market - gardener ferti- the essential to all of the crops.000 to 1.000 to 1. The soluble portions of both nitrogen and phosphoric acid contribute to the immediate needs of the plant. a part of the nitrogen should be nitrate or ammonia. and to the potennatural tial fertility of the soil. The subject is taken up for the different crops in of seeding.500 pounds per acre of fertilizer prepared on the above basic formula for peas and beans. if needed. for at least three or four weeks after the plants have well started.Fertilizer Problems 105 ele- than to be all of one form. it is not only the yield of a definite area that . and a part insoluble (from ground bone. 1.500 pounds at time .phosphoric acid and 60 to 75 pounds potash for beets and turnips. tankage or phosphates).

Quality depends upon. The same principles hold true of early table beets and The beets become stringy and wiry in charturnips. cultivation. or its freedom from bitterness. stringiness. both appearance and palataand palatability is determined by the succulence bility and sweetness of the vegetable. with his business. is changed The unfavorable conditions of growth seem to cause more or less reversion to the character of the original plant from which the improved type has been derived. a characteristic of the it becomes unpleasant. and the peculiar. and which can be largely eliminated. of course. and exists in are the too great proportion. In a time during which there has been no progress the fibrous portion of the vegetable is toughened. growth of a radish or of lettuce is largely responsible for the sharp taste and pungent flavor of the former." . assuming. It has been demonstrated that market -garden crops of the best qualitj^ are those which are grown under conditions which permit of a Any delaj' in the continuous and rapid development. perfect vegetable. acter. or is measured by. the quality is injured.in growth occurs. and the bitterness and toughened fiber of the latter. and are less palatable if during the period of normal growth there has been anj' delay. any delaj.Gardening must be considered. but the edible quality of the produpon the market. mainl}' through selection and improved methods of .106 The Principles of Vegetable. provided the grower is thoroughly familiar ucts that are put . pleasant flavor. if In the case of the early turnip. that varieties same in each case. and other undesirable characteristics which frequently exist.

the man who is rich in agri- cultural implements has less intimate contact with his plants than the hand -worker has. but the number it of tools which are in actual use far exceeds those which are described in books. fancy of the American.CHAPTER IV VUGETABLE-GARDEyiya TOOLS Relative in to It the price of land. Their use cultivates ingenuity. Tools and impleof these tools Many are the products of necessit3'. The is true that the successful has many useful implements emphasizes above brawn. Good tools educate the man. ments are a necessity. There is a tool for every ive must be economized. On the other hand. Others satisfy the inventForeign writers wonder at the variety of tools pictured in our rural books. He is to accomplish the given result with the least expenditure of mere physical energy. labor is expensive America. laboi-. (107) The machine is . They teach him his to think. To an important degree is American farmer known by the number and variety of his tools. He will do his work better brain man who and more expeditiously than the man who depends on hands and his muscles. He is tactful and resourceful. He means to be master of the situation.

108 The Principles of Vegetable. however. turning three furrows at once: A is a winged shovel or furrowing or hilling plow. of He in depreciates the value painstaking human care the growing and the training of the plant. e and i are subsoil plows. In American conditions. Fig. The nicest judgment is required to make a proper .Gardening between him and the plant. a large equipment of tools is necessary to an abundant and cheap crop. 26. a gang-plow. / is Various tj-pes of plows.

spring -tooth harrow. 27. disk harrow. ' . tooth harrow .l. Various kinds of harrow tools. 2. with side frames sulky cultivator 5.Fig. Ko. harrow Morgan spading-harrow spring-tooth . spike- Acme harrow: 4. 3.

Rollers. Xational. f. Wilder crusher and clod pulverizer. c. for the iviiids should be determined by (1) the character of the soil. a. Straddle-crop roller. (4) the kinds of plants to be grown.110 The Principles of Vegetable. 1-horse roller. the working of clay soils may . selection of tools. Wilder lawn roller. e. the comparative earliness of the required Tools which are adapted to not be adapted to sand. sectional iron or steel rollers. product. d. (2) the size of the plan(3) tation. Cyclone pulverizer. Henderson's lawn roller. h. 6. (5) the personal ideals of the farmer. i. g.Gardening b Fig. 28.

advantage of the variety in tools offered by American dealers is the fact that a tool may be selected for each particular purpose. shovels. 27).garden as equip Fig. so is relatively cheaper to it till a fairly large long as tools can be tilled well.Classification of Tools 111 An There should be a tool for each diverse type of labor. Hand-tools of various kinds. Tools to prepare the land for planting Plows (Fig. Cultivators. wheel -hoes (Figs. 29. they do not per- form It different kinds or types of labor. Too much capital is locked up in them. Rollers (Fig. Wheel-hoes for garden work. area. 26). This fault is usuallj^ the result of duplication. Consequently. . —the five various tools are too similar. it acres. 32). : may be roughly classified Tools for tillage. 29. requires nearly as acre many tools to to equip one of market. as spades. Harrows (Fig. Market -gardening as follows I. Some farms are overstocked with tools. 28).

m. as wheel-hoes. 31). Wagons. 30). 1 roller or slicker.horse plow. hoes. Chap. In marking the land. 1 smoothing harrow. In planting. 1 1.Gardening Tools for subsequent use. at the least. Tools for transportation. 1 spading. In preparing the product for market or sale. VI). cutaway-harrow. Hand-tools.112 The Principles of Vegetable. if the land 1 spring-tooth harrow. 37. finger -weeders. will be needed (see also the inventories on pp. the following general -purpose tools. scarifiers. Weeders (Fig. V). In sowing (Fig. 1 is heavy. In harvesting. Tools to facilitate hand-icork. II. For any market -garden which is large enough to be worked by horses. Stone-boats and sledges. dition of the land : — to maintain the con- Cultivators. . In spraying (Chap. In distributing manure and fertilizer. 24-30) 1 2 -horse plow. Carts and barrows (Fig. rakes.or furrowing or single shovel plow.

c. a. e. Iron Age weeder attachment. /i. . Breed. g. d.Fig. b. tor attachment to rear of cultivator. Fanning. Hallock's Success. Wiard. Champion. Aspinwall f. 30. . Eclipse. Horse weeders.

Fertilizer distributor. and the like. 1 wide -tooth or shovel -blade cultivator. hose. In selecting a tool. shovels. forks. 1 marker. 1 wheelbarrow. as celery -hillers'. the buyer should know . Plant -setter. Various patterns of cultivators for special work. 1 or 1 or more hand wheel -hoes. asparagus -bunchers. penters' tools. if the land is heavy. Trucks and wagons. or disk har- rows. Swivel plow. hand-weeders.114 The Principles of Vegetable.garden must possess. Spade. rakes. 1 spraying outfit. 1 seed -sower. Tools of secondary importance. potato -diggers. potato -sorters. Wire -tooth weeder. cutaway. Subsoil plow. hoes. if the area is large. Aside from these various tools. 2 or more types of spading. 1 stone -boat. Acme and other harrows.Gardening 1 spike -tooth cultivator. are : Gang. car- trowels and dibbers. watering cans. more wagons. there are special implements for special crops.plow. but which the wellequipped market.

{h. / is a good type of hand spray All of which are useful for the gardener. it. .What Tools to Buy 115 Fig. what implement farmers buy a tool because it is perfect as a mechanism or merely because it is an improvement on what they already have. 31. Various barrows. (a) what labor is to be performed. carts and trucks. that will best perform Many . after all. This is well but it should be borne in mind. pump for small areas.

office is It is the general -purpose machine. stiff soils soils require may be it. there: dition to be attained. If the soil is light. Sandy condition. The soil The harrow. Plowing has two general offices («) to break and pulverize the soil to fit it for the growth of the crop. for it is often desir- able to compact the subsoil rather than to loosen There are conditions and conditions. (5) to begin the preparation of a seed-bed in which In the plowing of the the plant may get a start. tillage presents few difficulties and . sandy soils mentioned above. it may be the second office Avhich is sought only a good seed-bed is desired. or sandy. Not deep plowing clay field. The plow is the primar}^ or fundamental farm whether he shall implement. it is only a means nor shallow plowing is a principle The unit is the conof accomplishing a desired result.116 the tool unit. to be — it is not the Tlie unit is the work done or the connot ask. is an implement both for preparing and : : : maintaining the loose soil condition. the better for shallow plowing. for In the the land is loose enough without the plowing. dition which is to be secured in the particular soil. The seed-bed is finished by the harrow. The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening is not the first consideration. and work best. fore. both offices are sought. it Its to prepare the land. A farmer may buy a spading-harrow he should consider his soil and what he wants to do with then search for the tool which will do the it. not to maintain in and heavy heavy plows and deep plowing. therefore. is maintained in tilth by the harrow. As a class.

people think clays must but clay is not sand.gardeners prize it. Gradually. Do not try to work it down fine. If they break and crumble. A few timely workings when the soil is just right will accomplish more than thrice the the next rain. general farmers the weeder is a useless tool. Then let it lie for a few hours or a day. When the soil is betwixt wet and dry.tooth weeder can be used. but to ences market. hit labor at other times. work the land again. this time with a lighter harrow. enables one to make a clay soil mealy. Because sandy and loamy soils are best when fine and mealy. — of maintenance really has no other primary office than keep the surface loose.harrow. as the texture improves. w^ork roughly with a strong harrow. spring-tooth. When finally the wire. Many expend more time and muscle on claj. Then a rain packs and cements them.Managing Clay relatively little expense. As the lumps begin to dry after them with the boot. . The addition of humus be of tilling their clay lands until they . it breaks as it turns from the plow. lighter tools may for the tillage be used to maintain the surface mulch. which illustrates the diflferin tillage between the common farm and the — market-garden. Turn it up loose and open. If it Soils 117 is clayey. the gardener may know that his To most surface soil is in perfect physical condition. or Acme. tillage must people be nicel^^ managed for best results. and the trouble begins all over again. Many people make the mistake become too fine. As the clods begin to dry. spading.lands than are The one important item is timeliness. as a required.

The onion-bed condition of land. those which only stir the soil and repair the surface mulch. Are not shovel-tooth cultivators too common and spike-tooth cultivators too rare f In the market -garden.Gardening A vator.118 The Principles of Vegetable. 32. large and small. Tilling with the wheel-hoe. oue. Select a large wheel with a broad tire. that it mav ride over . the wheel -hoe is important. Have a number of patterns. It saves immensely of hand labor and usually leaves the soil in better condition than hand . as the spike -tooth cultivators. and those w'hich move the soil or even invert it.horse harrow is usvially kuowQ as a culti- But there are two types of cultivators. — as the shovel-tooth culti- Fig. vators.work does.

restore the surface mulch. Rollers level the have two uses («) to break clods and ground. to kill weeds. one merit in this regard is the fact that it can be used between the plants. set plants. 32). hand -hoe is a clumsy and inefficient tillage tool. the rake as they far superior. Aim at the A Its onion-bed condition of tilth (Fig. If the roller is used only to break the clods. where many other tools cannot enter but it leaves no efficient surface mulch and . the land should be tilled again to restore the surface mulch. it rises and passes into moistens the seeds. As soon as the seed- lings or transplanted plants are established. a home-made planker . Soil must be in good to be worked with wheel. they should be introduced for their educational effect. does not often improve soil-texture. . It destroys off the surface the air : mulch in it& The water passage. — to aid As a tillage-tool. Rolling the tact with the seeds. The farmer pats his hill of corn with the hoe.hoes therefore. pick. The roller is a poor tool in the hands of a thoughtless man. (&) to provide moisture for seeds or They provide moisture by wasting land establishes capillary connection with the under soil. thereby accomplishing the result which he secures on the wheat field with his roller. The gardener walks over his row of seeds. is The common hoe has two types of legitimate uses on the farm. : Much hoeing usually soil moisture. Most persons use the hoe would a wastes — to chop the earth. and brings the particles into connewly it.Hoes and Rollers 119 condition lumps and travel on soft ground. For the leveling of land. therefore. in planting.

a small aperture. have the nozzle near work . is hand. that machine which does the given work best and there The vegetableare many kinds of work to be done. That is. is desired to a cultivator frame. A nozzle which throws a Fig. : force the liquid through a hose rather than through the end of the hose the Have the nozzle on the air. Secure a spraying outfit of large capacity. gardener can use outfits running from the power of Do the vehicle wheels better than the orchardist can. Planet Jr. 33. No one kind of pump or nozzle is best. and have the end of the hose where bug is. stream the farthest it is the least useful w^hen Leveling device attached . best . finely A nozzle has carrying power and distributit ing power. brass-lined.120 The Principles of Vegetable. The Use a nozzle with liquid must be thrown with force. and has much power. Have a pump.Gardening is or slicker a useful tool. it As its a rule. possible. so that the material will be finel}^ broken. 33. Clean it awav for winter. It is more efficient and more economical of labor. not buy a sprinkler or a machine which allows the spray to fall by mere gravity. Sprajing machinery has come to be a necessity. well made. the farther If carries. Be sure that the pump is strong. ^o „4„ at apply the Stream near i j.i 4. A similar device maj^ be attached to a cultivator frame Leveler) (Fig. it thoroughly inside before putting it Get out a month before it is . the less distributes the liquid.

and some of them are verj' satisfactory. Send to the manufacturers for catalogues. Year by j^ear. and the bulletins. it Read the papers is best to avoid combination tools which. be less eflBcieut than tools made They are directlj^ likely for the given labor. spraying machinery is improving. to to b}' means of various attachments are designed perform very unlike kinds of labor. however. In general.Comhination . They are usually cheaper than separate tools. and are also more liable to get out of repair. Tools 121 wanted in spring it will probably need tinkering. .

the are grown the from of seeds. (4) the^- must have the greatest possible longevity. or with no other kinds of seeds intermixed. In fact. seed will live varies with the species or variety (2) the conditions under *For general agricultural discussions. the word viability is usually preferable to vitality. The larger part of seed-tests and germination studies in this country are made with vegetable-gardening seeds. 1. (122) . seed is vital given to the character and qualit}' of seeds for the the vegetable -garden. season's labor is The loss of a crop and of often the result of poor seeds.* or able to grow. Good seeds satisfy four general tests or demands: (1) they must be viable. character of importance to the vegetable -grower.CHAPTER V SEEDS AX I) SEED AGE Nearly directly all vegetable -gardening crops Therefore. THE LONGEVITY OF SEEDS of The length (1) time a . the vegetables or cereals are commonly the only plants which come It is important that careful attention be to mind. (3) they must be true to name. (2) they must be pure. A viable seed is one which is capable of growing a vital seed is one which is alive. when seed -tests are mentioned. but it may not have sufficient vitality to be able to complete its : germination.

ability or inability to gi'ow. it is stored and handled . . rather it than in a test of individual seeds. either external or internal.Longevity of Seeds 123 (4) which the it was grown. there being a constant failure of individual seeds from first instance of loss of It life until no one seed in the sample remains alive. the fresher the seeds the better the independent of the figures representing extreme Haberlandt shows that there is an increasing failure in seeds kept from year to year. manner in which (3) the degree of ripeness. Hence it is follows that the limit of viability in commercial tests does not represent the extreme age at which the safe to plant. In in the seeds of a given plant are tested a greater or less quantity. or the sample as a whole. There this is a limit to the is life of every seed. the percentage of the quantity which germinates being adopted as the measure of germinative vitality. duration of vitality. (5) the condition as respects mechanical or insect injuries. In the tests 100 seeds were used in each case: results. This results in a test of the species. cii'cumstances most favorable to its The seed must be placed under its germination. as a rule. to indicate the loss of vitality. therefore becomes appar- ent that. yet when in limit reached there may be no evidence the seed itself. variety. and its condition tested bv practice.

squashes. celery-. or other untoward circumstance. may two years. fect. those which sink being regarded as viable. a poor season for the vegeta-' tion of any plant. and they vitalitv. produces seeds of impaired Seedsmen are aware of this fact. cucumbers). if persize of the seed. Umbelliferae. for example. how- ever. in the CucurbitaceaB (pumpkins. tested also by throwing the seeds recommended. The natural and normal species. . of which most of the species possess a rather high longevity. although the product of such seed cultivator. the most vigorous development of plant produces the most perfect vitality of seed. and likewise in the Leguminosae. may not be the most satisfactory for the Conversely. parsley). as. there are tolerably well-defined family. As a The longevity or vitality rule. of seeds is determined largely by the conditions under ichich they grew.124 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening It is sharply are supposed to have been good. to be 1. melons. Seeds of the vitality. by causing a weak plant. into water.traits. grow well when seven or eight years old. have a rela- low and this trait is probably associated with the oily character of the seeds and fruits. These practices are not limit of germinative vital- ity is usually a specific character. but the fail in large seeds of castor bean 2. very close botanical affinity often In some instances. on the other hand tively (as parsnip. peculiar to the indi- vidual Therefore of no general law concerning the natural or normal limit of vitalitj* can be enunciated. This natural longevity is not correlated with the normal The minute seeds of tobacco. differ Species widely in this regard. carrot.

and the like — are very likely to — cabbe influenced in keeping qualities by the conditions which obtained during the year in which they were grown. year. and the dis: criminating buyer chooses this stock as long as it retains a fair percentage of germination. Cabbage may germinate 70 to 80 per cent in its eighth and again it may fall below 40 per cent in the The character of the resulting plants. as third year. Therefore.Fresh Seeds 125 are often able to forecast the value of the seed -crop by knowing the season and condiSeeds from poorlyit is grown. tests made autumn or may be of little value to the cultivator. and Gardeners demand fresh seeds age. turnip. and in of certain plants tions nnder which spring. if fully ripe. may be affected. a certain fine crop of A may produce seed-cabbages was attacked late in the season by great numbers of plant-lice. For example. early winter Consequently. mechanical or other injury to the growing plant the same effect on the seeds as an unpropitious season. radish. The best seed merchants yet old seeds may be better. after they have been harvested. lay in an extra stock in the good years. the value. The seeds produced were to . to know the year in which the seed is grown is sometimes more important than merely to know its this is well. What are known to the trade as "round seeds" bage. ma}^ in be worthless. but rapidly decline following at planting season. are seldom distinguishable by the eye from those grown under the best They often give a very high test soon conditions. well as mere percentage of germination. developed plants.

light-weight seeds give lower germinat- ing percentages than heavy ones of the same variety.126 The Principles of Vegetable . A citation may be made to indicate the extent to . and the first test gave a high percentage of germination. although the relation of the its position of the seed with reference to character of offspring.63 grains. No doubt the position of the seed in the fruit has something to do with tion its germinative vitality. One hundred seeds of each of three lots of ordinary White Globe onion seeds weighed respectively 5. By spring the seeds were worthless.99 grains. 83) which an injury to the plant may influence the weight of seeds. 3. A test made a month later by two parties indicated a decrease of nearly 15 per cent in germination and subsequent tests indicated a constant lessening of viability. Seedsmen know that if seeds for testing are taken from the top of a bag which has been shipped in one continuous position.Gardening appearances of good quality. 5.48 grains. however.05 grains.91. As a rule. the percentages of germination will as not often be as from seeds taken from the middle or bottom of the bag where the heavier seeds have settled. or an average of 5. 100 from a ligatured plant weighed 4.98 and 4. Y. N. suggests experiment. Exp. nite This subject I'eceives little defi- attention.97 grains. great those obtained (1st Kep. One hundred grains of the same variety from a grafted plant weighed 3. and 100 from a compressed stalk. inasmuch as such posimust sometimes influence its weight and other physical properties. a subject with which we are not now concerned. Sta. and the weight is often determined by the conditions its of growth of the plant and seeds.

Wheat Wheat Oats Oats 100 Sorghum While the results of tions of the differences 65 this trial are discordant. Another test made by the same experimenter in a field plot. N. 100 kernels being tested in each ease (Sturtevant. the kernels were not so fully matured as below. the explana are easily suggested. some were under-ripe and the germination imperfect. however. The following statement records percentages of germinations from kernels of corn and other cereals taken from the base. 63): Base Waushakum Flint Corn White Kice Pop Corn Red Rice Pop Corn Minnesota Dent Corn Early Dent Corn Sibley's Pride of the North Corn . appears to prove nothing concerning the germinnting power of seeds from various parts of the inflorescence only as such position indicates comparative development and maturity. in 2d Kep. of the 611 central kernels. germi- mted. well -selected ears. therefore. Exp." This experiment is at fault. nated. conclude that in general on normal. or 70 per cent. 589 kernels. of the 80 tip kernels. Y. grow from . Sta." the tip kernels apparently not being ripe enough to grow.Position of the Seed 127 on the plant or inflorescence may some influence on germination.5 per cent. or 96 per cent. germi- We may. 56 kernels. 78 kernels. the tip and butt kernels are as likely to as are the central kernels. germinated. while the record states that "in the case of the dent corns. The experiment. gave the following results: "Of the 80 butt kernels. It is probable that in those eases in which the germinations were higher from the tips. or 97. the middle and the tip The position of the fruit exercise of the ear or inflorescence. upon Waushakum corn.

possess a being usually imperfectly formed or not low vitality as a rule. the middle and tip kernels by introducing variations. This in absence or imperfection of the embryo seeds. Nageli considers the following degrees of sterility of seeds due to a small and imperfect fruit imperfect fertilization ordinary fruit with empty seeds with empty seeds ordinary or normal fruit and apparently good seeds ordinary fruit with seeds but which have no embryo bearing a minute and imperfect embryo which cannot : . The "ta^el eorn" affords an illustration in point (Sturtevant) Abnormal corn produced on Variety tJie tassel Xo. The seed develop to the full size and ordinary appearance and yet entirely lack the embryo. .8 Blount's Prolific 24 6 25 Imperfect fertilization is often tbe its cause of low germinative vitality. may germinate. planted grew Per cent grew White Pop Corn 24 84 84 55 24 24 7 19 29.Gardening all the fact that the kernels of the ear were used. The color of the seed appears to exercise no influ- .2 22. thereby largely obliterating any difference that might exist between the butt. oftener due to is a deficiency in nutrient matter. some cases the cause of lightness of although lightness is.6 Waushakum " Flint " " " 21 16 18 11 25 29. . fully developed. kernels No.1 75 45. no doubt.128 The Frinciples of Vegeiable. all the intermediate Abnormal seeds. or even of absence.

are not quoted.Color and Germination it 129 ence on geriniuation. although one which is . as an evidence of inferior germinative vitality. and as this plant usually gives anomalous results with fresh seeds. of germi.93 5.08 3. however. it may be looked upon. Numerous tests made with clover seeds of dififerent colors by Beal. in many cases at least. In itself.of germination of nation of colored seeds colored seeds grs.46 96 91 . Early Purple Cape Broccoli Earliest Blood 79 92 77 4.40 Red Erfurt Cabbage . Sturtevant investigated the germinating power of light-colored and dark seeds. Netted Savoy Cabbage Schweinfurt Largest White Cabbage Chou Mille Tetes Kale or Cabbage . inasmuch as the dark -colored seeds are the heavier. or some other condition which may have to do with the germination of the seed. of weight.78 7.23 3.09 5.86 While the results show decided advantage possessed by the dark seeds over the light-colored ones.74 83 .78 5.4G 4. color is unimportant. as the age of the seed is not designated. The latitude and general climatic conditions under which seeds are grown appear to exercise an important influence on germination. The result with endive seeds. which gave figures of an opposite character. the gains are undoubtedly due to the fuller development of the seeds rather than to their color merely. In some cases the color indicates improper handling and curing of the seeds. showed no differences in favor of one color over another. As a light color is often indicative of less weight or less vigoi'ous development. however. 5. with the following results : Per cent light- Per cent darkcolored seeds Weight of 100 light- Weight of 100 darkcolored seeds grs. 98 98 100 4. although of is ofteu the expression some auatomical conformation of the seed-coats.

weighing one-half. were made to germinate by the same experimenter." Unripe peas." . Seeds grown in the North quickly and sometimes tend to more germinate usually grown in the South. Of the twelfth-weight seeds. Half-weight seeds of beans and fouro'clock {Mirabilis Jalapa) also germinated. 904. 1895.* those than plants earlier make under-ripe tend to are lose which their Seeds 3. . HOG. In fact. Sept. earlier Such seeds plants are plants. Sta. see Arthur in American Naturalist. see Essay 1". Arthur and Goff. 7. When well dried in air. early.. Cornell Exp. 329) succeeded in germinating green kernels of wheat which were still soft and tender. Studies of unripe seeds as a factor in plant-breeding have been made in this country by Sturtevant. although the weaker but the seeds do not long retain their viability. The manner of storing and handling determines of seeds to the longevity a great extent. Sagot (Gard. vitality relatively if Seeds often may still germinate Seeds of tomatoes if only the embryo is well formed. The half-weight seeds germinated rapidly.Gardening commonly overlooked. grow when properly cured. Chron. than twothirds as much weigh more which do not which are still very green.130 The Principles of Vegetable . 4. in the author s "Survival of the Unlike. though slowly. collected at a time when nutrient matters were semi -liquid. these kernels weighed but half as much as ripe kernels. may as fully ripe ones and be made to usually give likely to be gathered and dried when be made to very green. one-fifth and even one-twelfth of ripe peas. many did not germinate. 1874. "All of them germinated. For discussions of the philosophy of the subject. and some died soon after the commencement of their development. For an epitome of the results. pp. the most vigorous and naturally long-lived seeds may be See tests recorded in Bull.

of The following varieties table represents germinations of various selected of corn. therefore. The next germinations of the entire series which the former examples were selected: vitality perfectly for exhibits the from . of Age of seed trials X year 2 years 3 years 17 37 7 1 5 years Under proper its conditions. from No. a large series of experiments No. corn preserves table five years.Conditions spoiled storing. ill of Storing ]31 a short time by improper conditions of The tion is failure of seeds illustrated in a from conditions of preservamethod employed by Sturtevant.

132 often The Principles of Vegetable. and compared their germinative power with that of sound kernels. usually feeble. one cotyledon removed. 1879. germ uninjured 20 13 seeds is These researches. 1887. although showing that mutilated may grow. Larbaletrier asserts* that always be reckoned at 15 per cent of the crop. Bd. 10 20 10 12 3 Corn.Gardening cracks seeds and thereby renders them almost the injury from the threshing machine in France. more or less of the albumen removed Corn. He cut kernels with the pen -knife so as to represent the injur3' from the machine. planted them under the surface of grew 1 Corn. the 10 . small portion of chit removed. under three methods of treatment. upon wheat. of kernels or seeds planted No. peas The germinative vitality of weevil -eaten or "buggy" is low. 852 . + Rep. nevertheless prove that germination feeble and that mechanically injured seeds are unreliable. Nov. can valueless. Mieh. and the plants resulting from them are Beal gives t the following results with 10. 195. embryo not being injured Bean. *L3 Cocq de Lautreppe. Country Gentleman. cut lengthwise to ^isect germ Corn. with the following Sound kernels 68 per cent germinated " " 74 " " " 99 " results : Cut kernels 34 per cent germinated 3 38 " " " " " Sturtevant of mutilated in various ways the kernels Flint Corn Waushakum and seeds of beans and soil: Xo. Agr. part of one edge removed .

germiplanted nated 50 .^^ Buggy" Peas 133 the germination of ''buggy" peas as contrasted with that of uninjured peas of the same variety: Wliere Seeds tested No. of seeds No.

Baxter. The soaking and freezing of seeds have similar mented with mechanical 160 Sturtevant (3d Rep. Samples of seeds in sufficient quantity to furnish sets for testing at frequent intervals during a centurj' or more were carefully stored. Henslow and Lindley. Daubeny. and 1857. Such injury allows of the absorption of water and the liberation of the germ. Those of Lot No. respectively. N. the hilum. which No. which had genni. A lot of Black Wax beans was divided into four lots of 40 each. As many as 288 genera. 28 4 40 29 4. H. 43. p. 328) has experiinjuries to the integuments. Y. moonflowers — — illustrates this. No.134 The Principles of Vegetable. showing that an oily coat is a retardative of germination. under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 1 Lot No. Chiswick and Cambridge. A Seminarium was instituted at Oxford and placed in the charge of W. The slowest germinations occurred in the fourth and second lots. 1. 2 had the coat mutilated in same manner. which liad germinated in : No. No. . effects. 4 were not injured but were greased with tallow. Those of Lot No. Oxford. H. Following aie the figures No. Strickland. . 30 25 37 35 2. A summary of results ^s given in the reports for 1850. The practice of filing and notching of various hard seeds as of cannas.had germinated in seven days Seeds five days nated in eight days Lot Lot Lot Lot No. 3. mutilated 23 . — Perhaps the most extended and careful series of investigations yet inaugurated for the purpose of determining the vegetative duration of seeds is that undertaken by Messrs. 3 were not injured. but was afterwards greased with tallow to retard absorption of moisture. 160. No. Sta. were subjected to test in three places. not mutilated and graased Tables of longevity of seeds.Gardening Trivial injury to the mere integument of the seed may hasten germination. Exp. in 71 orders. was treated by slightly mutilating the seed-eoat opposite Lot No. p. and the next most rapid in the third lot. The most rapid germinations occurred in the first lot. mutilated and greased not mutilated 10 18 . E.

No. most of the figures are reprinted here: nated. that individual errors must be largely elimiSturtevant. Sta. Since the report in which these results are published (4th Rep. which are easy of access. unsatisfactory. Y. combining the tests Yet the percentages as recorded in the last column are and are proof of the assertion that any general statements of the limits of vitality are necessarily imperfect and relative. common Beet . Exp. N. upon such a number of seeds and so many varieties. of trials Artichoke (Cynara). may not be accessible to the reader. The tests were made at such widely separated intervals. Asparagus . both "Hoi'ticulturist's Rule-Book. 58).Tables of Longevity 135 The standard Vilmorin's figures of longevity are those contained in (''Les in "Vegetable Garden" Plantes original Potageres")." the and in the The following figures are selected from a table prepared by made at the New York Experiment Station during three years. Bean.

of trials Beet Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Celery .Gardening No.136 The Principles of Vegetable.

Longevity of Seeds 137 .

138 The Principles i)f Vegetable.Gardening .

5 71 500 200 200 Radish 100 34 17 8.500 1. of trials varieties tested Age ill per pent years germinated 12 196 1.0 0.000 80 Onion 93 21 2 56 31 3 650 100 1.Longevity of Seeds Total No.250 57 49 .588 1 98 86 66 9 26 9 6 2 84 93 893 1. of seeds tested 139 Average No.600 1. of No.350 1 71 30 16 2. 50 8 4 2 500 200 650 4 10 13 5 1 28 9 Parsnip 6 1 3 1 1 386 50 3 4 6 2 90 Pea 16 o 9 1 812 200 3.200 77 1 20 20 12 3 1 15.800 4 6 Parsley 6 1 300 400 3 .150 1 16 14 11 o 65 2 3 58 41 62 19 4 3 647 200 4 5 Pepper 6 1 600 50 150 6 8 350 9 10 13 10 0.200 2.619 9.

140 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening No. of trials Sadish Salsify Squash Tomato .

of trials Turqip .Preservation of Seeds 14i No.

only 72 per the ordinary The same investigator made the following germinated. the vegetable -gardener will secure best results by storing his seeds in strong . none germinated. When tested in May. A lot of twenty-five ears of corn was selected from the bin in the middle of December. but 69. or by ricking the ears or spreading them thinly over the floor. cent test : . March 16 and nated. and one kernel taken from the 96 per cent germinated. temperature of 90° to 100° for five or six years. while of corn from ordinary bins and cribs. were selected. because of the low temperature coupled with the absorption of moisture. made by the same experimenter. in a warm aspect. Moist seeds cannot resist as high or as low temperatures as dry ones can. only 77 per cent germinated. In 317 tests." Samples were taken in like manner at another time from fifty ears which were gathered in October and properly cured." was 87. Under ordinary conditions. If perfectly dry the same seeds probably would have resisted lower temperatures. 100 per cent germinated. and kernels taken. but which had been kept in the crib in way. The middle of each ear and tested ears were then buried in loam. which stood in the shock until February. by hanging the ears by husks or other means. as to admit of thorough diying. The temperature -svhich healthy seeds can endure depends very largely on the amount of moisture which they contain. January 8 a kernel was taken from each ear and tested 78 per cent germiJanuary 21. Fifty ears of the same variety. April 13. Tested in March. If seeds are laid on ice for a considerable length of time they usually become weak or worthless. Tested in March. 42 per cent germinated. For this reason seed corn and many other seeds are likely to be poor Dry turnip seeds may resist a after a hard winter.142 of the The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening same variety.8 per cent germinated. . the average percentage of germination of corn cured "by so artificial heat.

How

Seeds

May

he

Kept

143

paper or cloth bags iu a cool and dry room. Fairly Peas, beans and corn tight boxes are also useful. should be inspected frequently for injury by weevil. If the seeds are attacked, pour bisulfide of carbon into The fumes will the box or bag and close it tight.
kill

the pests.

If

the quantity of seeds

is

large, the

bisulfide

should be placed in an open dish on top of

the seeds, for the fumes are heavier than air and will

In samples of two or three quarts or less, teahowever, this precaution is not necessar}-. spoonful of the liquid to one or two quarts of seeds
settle.

A

is ample. It will not injure the seeds if it strikes them. Bisulfide of carbon is inflammable, and should not be used near a flame.

3.

TESTING OF SEEDS
:

Seed tests are of three leading kinds (1) tests to determine the purity of the sample as respects dirt and
foreign species
is
;

(2)

to determine
;

whether the variety

true to

name

or kind

(3) to

determine viability.

Tests to determine the content of the sample

may

be of
tively

more importance than those made
infrequent

to

ascertain

germinative power, yet, in practice, they are compara-

and valueless.
{a)

These

tests

should
anj^
sticks,

consider two
chaff,
{h)

problems,

the determination of

admixture of foreign matter, as sand, stones,
etc.,

and of seeds of other species of plants; of the purity of the sample as concerns its trueness to name and its peculiarities attained through hereditv and environment. Necesthe

determination

144

The Principles of Vegetalle- Gardening
latter tests are

sarily, the

more

difficult of

determina-

tion, as

they must be made from the product of the
requiring special and expert training on
the
of

plants, often

investigator. They have apparently not received the attention they deserve, largelj" from the prevalent opinion that such matters lie beyond the control or check afforded by the tests of impartial investigators, an opinion no doubt strengthened by the so-called

the

part

contract

printed on

seed -packets

to

the

effect

that

the seller assumes no responsibility for the contents of
the packet.

The seed

dealer certainly cannot be held

responsible for failures which maj' be fairly associated

with conditions of weather,

soil

or method of sowing
if he he failed to exercise

but the warranty clause could not shield him

were to be negligent or remiss, or
reasonable
stock.

if

caution

in

the

care

and selection of his

the presence of seeds of other species
carefully

Testing samples to determine the foreign matter or is performed by

examining small lots of seeds under a lens. The operator should have at hand for comparison reliable samples of the seeds of weeds and other plants likely to occur in any samples.*
Tests for purity of the sample have been carefully made in Germany, extending over many years, especially at the famous "seed control" station at Tharandt, in Saxony, organized under the direction of Nobbe. This station, founded in 1869, was the first of its kind. The percentages of foreign matter found in samples, by Nobbe, vary from nothing to over 80 per cent. The

Samples
case,

of weed seeds, put up in bottles -which are mounted in a serviceable have been prepared by Dr. B. D. Halsted, Rutgers College, New Brunswick.
Jersey.

New

Adulteration of Seeds

145

average percentage of foreign matters in grass seeds was 41, in the aggregate of many tests. Of the 59 per cent which was true to name only 18.3 per cent possessed germinative vitality. The adulteration of seeds in many European countries has been carried to such an extent in times past as almost to challenge belief.

Seeds of various weeds, which closely resemble the seeds offered were often freely introduced, and the whole, or the adulteration, was then cooked to destroy the life of the seeds, that the growth of the plants might not expose the seller. Seeds of cabbage or cauliflower may be adulterated with mustard seed, and the whole boiled or baked. Old and worthless seeds are often scoured, rubbed, oiled or dyed to make them appear bright and healthy. It has been estimated that 20,"000 bushels of old and inferior turnip seeds have been used in Loudon in one year for purposes of adulteration. In parts of Europe it is said that a medick { Medicago lupuJina) is grown in quantities for the adulterafor sale,

Some years since there existed in Hamburg made counterfeit clover seed from quartz, using this material to the amount of 25 per cent or more of the total bulk of the seed sold. Nobbe found enough weed seeds in a certain sample of timothy seed to supply, if sown at the ordition of clover seed.

a factory which

nary rate, twenty- four weeds to every square foot of land. Such wholesale and intentional adulteration has not been observed in Grass seeds, however, have been found to be of very this country. low quality in many cases, particularly those kinds not extensively used. Much of this is undoubtedly imported. Beal writes:*
of the best firms in New York sent me some seeds of grass which were rotten or had been cooked. At another time the finn was about to buy what was called Bermuda grass. The material consisted of the chaff or hulls of Bermuda grass, every one of which proved to be empty or only in flower. Not one good seed was found. Results almost as remarkable were obtained in examining seeds of meadow foxtail, which were purchased of a reliable The same, in one ease, was true of Kentucky blue-grass, firm. creeping bent-grass, sheep's fescue, wood meadow-grass, roughstalked meadow-grass and reed canary -grass."

"One

*Rep. Mich. Bd. Agr. 1880,

51.

146

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

In vegetable - garden seeds there need be little fear Such seeds are that many weeds will be introduced.
sold
in

small quantities

and
are

i\iQ\ are

cleaned.

Adulterations

apparent.

most carefully There is .so
it

much

competition in the seed business that

rarely

pays to take the risk of sending out dirty or adulter-

weeds were to be introduced, the would eradithinning and greatest risk in the buying of seeds The cate them. they may not be true name or to is the chance that particular strain may not be that, if true to name, the If a dealer sells seeds which are true to the the best. variety, he has satisfied the requirements of the law and perhaps of trade but his seeds may still be inThere are differences within ferior to his neighbor's. varieties which vaa.y make all the difference between If the grower wants to be very sure profit and loss. of his product, it is not enough that he buy seeds of he should know what kind of Winnigstadt cabbage There is no way of testWinnigstadt he is buying. One must, ing the seed except to raise the crop. This he can do with therefore, rely on his seedsman. safetj' if he selects a reliable seedsman and if he is The cheapwilling to pay a fair price for his seeds. est seeds may be the dearest.
ated seeds.
if

Even

tillage of a vegetable - garden

;

:

The

testing of seeds for viability, or for the ability

to grow, is preferably

made

in the soil

under uniform
is

conditions.

The best

place for the test

in a green-

house, but the living-room of a dwelling house

may

Use a "flat" (Fig. 45) or other answer very well. shallow box or earthenware pan (Fig. 34). As a rule,

How

to

Test

Seeds
bj^

147
planting in the

tne best results are to be attained
soil
in

conditions

as

nearly as
of

possible

approaching

the normal requirements
variety.

the

particular species or

A
is
is

light,

loose loam -with a good
soil

admixture

of sand

the

best

for

this

purpose.

A

good
in a

method
flat,

to place
it

two or three inches of loam
soil

wetting
it;

as thoroughh- as possible Avithout pud-

dling

then cover the

with an inch or less of

Fig. 34.

The

testing of .seeds in earthenware pans,
to gardeners as lily-pans.

known

sterilized

(baked) sand, in which to sow the seeds. The loam keeps the sand supplied Avith moisture. The inexperienced operator will usually apply too

much water

for the best results in germination.

Gar-

deners are well aware that very conflicting results

may

be secured from the same
grees of watering.
tions in

lot of seed

by

different de-

The same remark

applies to varia-

temperature.

Celery, for example, gives very
it

poor

tests in widely fluctuating temperatures;

is

also

injured by being kept at a uniformly high temperature,

whereas melons and beans give the best tests in a high temperature. The seeds should be sown carefully at uniform

148

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

depths

aud

at

equal

distances
a
cleat

apart.
of

In

order to
thick-

gauge the depth, nail

the required

ness on a thin block (Fig. 35) and press this cleat or

Fig. 35.

Planting stick for gauging
the depth of planting.

tongue into the soil to its full extent the furrow will then be of uniform depth. The seedlings should be allowed to remain until large enough whether are lue} wueiner thpv" ^^ ^^^^^
:
,

,

likely to make strong or weak Not everj- seed that germinates is worth the planting. The following figures show that even with

plants.

beans, which are strong -germinating seeds, a considerable percentage of the seedlings

may

be so weak as to

be valueless:
Figures on eight samples of beans, germinated in soil in a greenhouse, in thirteen days after planting

Number
sample

of

Germination

vs.

Sprouting

149

which

all

agencies are under perfect control, and the

thej'^ have There are various patterns of germinating An incubator may be made to answer the apparatus. requirements. Samples of seeds which give the highest sprouting tests are not necessarily the most reli-

seeds are counted and discarded as soon as

sprouted.

is probable that the percentage of vegetasubsequent growth, does not always bear a direct ratio to percentage of latent vitality. Germination is not completed until the young plant is able to support itself by its own root -hold on the ground. A seed may be able to sprout, and yet be so

able, for

it

tion,

or

weak
house

as to be worthless for planting in the soil.

A
it

seed which

may even germinate
still

in the soil in a greenif

may

be so weak that
It is

the plantlet were the

subject to the untoward conditions of

garden,

might perish.
ple

apparent, therefore, that any sam-

of

seed

may

give

very different
in

percentages of
test.

germination, depending on the method of making
If

machine which, like the incubator, has a very uniform temperature, and the seeds were counted and thrown away as soon as sprouts appeared, the percentage of germination would probably be very high. If the same seeds were sown in carefully prepared soil in a gardener's flat and
the test were

made

a

placed

in

the

greenhouse,

the

probability

is

that

a

somewhat lower percentage would be found.

If the

seeds were planted in an ordinary greenhouse bed, and

were to receive the ordinary watering which growing
plants receive, a
tion
still

smaller percentage of

germinain

might appear.

If the

same seeds were planted

150
the
still

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

opeu

ground,

the

percentages

would

likely

be

smaller.

It is

is the fair germination test for seeds ? apparent that the seedsman or seed -tester cannot imitate the varying conditions of a garden. He does not know what kind of a garden the buyer has;

What, now,

must give all the seeds a uniform condiand one which will show how many seeds will sprout under the most favorable conditions. What he must do is to show the greatest possibility of the sample, not what the sample may necessarily be expected to do under general garden conditions.
therefore, he
tion,

Buj'ers often express disappointment that their seeds do not produce as many plants as the germination tests led them to expect. The difficulty was, no doubt, that the germination test was made under the most ideal conditions, whereas the planting was made under normal outdoor conditions. It would seem that if one desires to know what any batch of seed is

capable of doing, he should

make

a test for himself,

choosing
native

fifty

or one hundred seeds from the sample,
earlj'

and planting them
vitality

enough
it

to determine the germi-

before

is

necessary to
tests

make
which

the
are

regular

planting.

The germination

made by laboratory methods

are of the greatest value

in showing the vitality, vigor and the possil>ilities of any sample of seed and in the accumulation of scientific

data,

but people should

understand

that

these

tests are

no guarantee of what the seed will produce under actual and varying conditions. The standard set by the laboratory sprouting test is too high for

Germination
actual practical conditions,

vs.

Sprouting
is

151
likely to

and therefore

mislead.

The following figures, compiled from tests made at the Pennsylvania State College (Rep. Penn. State College, 1886, 162), indicate the differences between mere sprouting and germination. The percentages of germination given in the first column were obtained from sprouting tests, while those in the second column, from the same samples of seeds, were obtained from plantings made in a hotbed. Although these figures appear
to

lessen the value

of

sprouting tests,
is

it

is

nevertheless true

that, in general, a high sprouting test indicates a high vegetative

power

;

but the vegetative power

often or usually less than
Per cent of
full

the sprouting power.
germina-

Plant

Per cent sprouting

tion in the liotbed

Early Winuigstadt Cabbage Early Flat Dutch Cabbage

87
95

73
72

Marblehead Mammoth Cabbage Extra Early Erfurt Cauliflower Henderson's New Rose Celery New York Improved Eggplant Green -Fringed Lettuce Yellow-seeded Butter Lettuce Early Curled Simpson Lettuce Early Boston Curled Lettuce Early White Turnip Radish Wood's Early Frame Radish White-tipped Scarlet Radish
.

96
40
9

72

30
31 12

24

99
99 99 90
72

52
70
83

90 72

92

84
71

98
91

Livingston's Favorite Tomato
Livingston's Perfection Tomato

32
71
-

83
98

Cardinal Tomato

85

"

88

74

The following contrasts of seeds, germinated in soil in a greenhouse and planted in good garden soil in the open, are from Cornell Bulletin No. 7. The duplicate tests were made from

Dept.Gardening contents of the same seed-packet. Samples TumiD. Six Weeks. Thorbum (100 seeds). Onion. White Garden Marrowfat. Vermont Butter. Early Forcing.. Thorbum White Plume.Thorbum (200 seeds. The seeds sown in the open had every chance Rain fell every alternate day. The soil was loose and loamy and well drained. .152 The Principles of Vegetable. Ea. (200 seeds) Endive. Carrot. Hoskins (100 seeds). of Agriculture Pea. Thorbum (100 seeds). Red Wethersfield. (60 seeds) Celery. Green Curled. Thorbum (200 seeds) Tomato. Thorbum (100 seeds) . Carrot. Green Gage.

Average
Artichoke

Germination
Good
80
84
Fair

153

80 80
90

Asparagus

Bean
Bean, Lima Beet
Beet, Mangels

95
90

90 120 to 150

135

(according to var variety)

and Sugar

.

.

.

180

200
90
90 70

Brussels Sprouts

90
.

Cabbage
Carrot
Cauliflower and Broccoli Celeriae

.

90
70

...

90

87
75 75
70

7g 78
70

Celery

Chicory
Collards

95 90

90 85 85 85 60 to 70

Corn,

Pop

Corn, Sweet

86 85
65

Cucumber
Dandelion Eggplant Endive Kale or Borecole
Kohlrabi

56
71

50 to 60
70

94
90 gQ
93

90 90
85

Leek
Lettuce Martynia

90

68

60 to 70
85

Muskmelon
Mustard Okra or Gumbo Onion
Parsley.
.

86
90
76 85

90
85

76
71

75
70 seeds 90

Parsnip

Pea Pepper

96
66 85

60
85 85 90

Pumpkin
Radish

88
92

Rape

154

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening
Good
Fair

Rhubarb
Salsify

80 83
200
79 80
86
. .

80
80

Sea-Kale Spiwach Squash

200
75 80 80

Tomato
Turnip, Flat
.

94
96
81

90
90

Turnip, Rutabaga

Watermelon

.

.

.

80

Good

Good

Barley:

93 92
94

Rye
Sunflower

95
94

Broom Corn
Buckwheat
Ciover

90 92

Timothy Tobacco
Vetches

96
78

Corn
G-.ass

96
95

Seeds

70

Wheat

Siuee varial>l8 results are obtained under any treatment and from the same parcel of seeds, it follows that some check must be employed in order to reach
reliable
results.
:

Two
(1)

kinds

of

checks are open

to

the investigator

the selection of a representative
trials.

sample,

and

(2)

duplicate

number number

of seeds used in
of tests, the

any

test

The greater the and the greater the

more

reliable are the results.

In choosing a sample, the contents of the whole

package should be thoroughly mixed, particularly if the package has been shipped and the heavier seeds have settled. The seeds for trial should then be drawn from various parts of the package, or from its center if the package is small, and the various lots mixed and the sample for testing taken from the mixture.

How
4.

to

Sow Seeds

155

THE SOWING OF SEEDS

Congenial temperature and a continuous supply of moisture are the two requisites of germination which
the gardener has to supph.

He

supplies these agents

by placing the seeds in some loose, moist, granular If this soil lies medium, as a mealy and friable soil. on other soil, the moisture is drawn up by capillary attraction and as it passes off into the air it moistens If the soil is the seeds and promotes germination. very loose, open or lumpy, the capillary attraction is broken and the moisture does not rise to the seeds.
Or,
if
it

does

rise,

the seeds are not in intimate con-

tact with the particles of soil

of the soil moisture

;

and do not receive much moreover, the air which is held

in the large interstices tends to dry out the seed.

To

a large

extent, a continuous
is

and uniform supply of
It
is

moisture
is

a regulator of

temperature.

there-

fore apparent

the proper

why a medium
the soil

finely divided

in
is

Whenever

than moister, as it is at important to firm the earth over the seeds.
field

and compact soil which to sow seeds. likelj' to become drier rather the germinating season, it is
In large

operations, as in the sowing of the cereal grains,
is

Under market-gardeniug by a roller which is a part of the seed drill and which follows just behind the deliver}' spout When seeds are sown from the hand, the soil is compacted with a hoe or by
the roller
ordinarily used.
soil
is

conditions, the

usually compacted

walking over the row.

Since this compacting of the

surface establishes capillary connection with the under

156
soil,

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening
thereby drawing up the water and passing
it

into

the

atmosphere,

it

is

important

that

this

condition

be allowed to remain only until the seeds have germinated and are able to shift for themselves. The seeds are kept moist at the expense of soil moisture. Therefore, as soon as possible restore the surface

mulch by a rake or a smoothing harrow.
are planted very deep, as peas,

Seeds which
the soil com-

may have

pacted
to

loosened

about them, and the surface layer may be immediately thereafter, thereby preventing,
extent, the escape of the soil moisture.

some

The
tilled,

space

between

the

rows should be kept well

even before the seeds germinate, thereby" saving the moisture in that area. In other words, rolling or compacting the soil over seeds is only a temporary expedient to enable them to germinate and to secure
their

own

foothold

;

thereafter

the

surface

mulch

should be maintained in order to save soil moisture. Seeds which germinate very slowly, as parsnips and
be sown thick in order that the combined forces of the germinating plantlets may break the crust on the soil. This caution is alwaj'S necessary on
celery, should
soils
It
is

which tend
well
to

to bake,

whatever the kind of seed.
slow- germinating
species
in

sow a few strong and quick -germinatthose of
soil,

ing seeds with

and also to mark the roAv so that tillage may be begun before the main -crop seeds are ut^ and before the weeds have taken possession of
order to break the
the land.

Seeds of radish, cabbage or turnip

may

be

sown
like.

in the

row with celery, parsnips, carrots and the In some cases, a crop of radish may be ob-

Quantity
tained in this
land, but this

of Seeds Required

157

way
is

before the main crop occupies the

only an accidental gain.

The cost of seed is ordinarily a trifliug matter in comparison with the expense of the season's labor and the value of the crop. Therefore, seeds should be sown
very
if

freelj' in

order to avoid the risk of failure.
extra

five

or ten times more seeds are

Even sown than plants

are

required, the

expenditure
risk.

may

be justified

by the lessening of the
thick seeding
is

that
;

it

Another great value of allows of more extensive thinis

ning of the plants
tion,

and thinning

a process of selecIt is

and the best are allowed

to remain.

evident

that the chances of securing the best are greater

when

the gardener leaves one plant out of ten rather than one

The selection in the seed-bed or one of the means by which cultivated plants have been so greatly ameliorated or improved. Nearly all the recommendations of writers as to
plant out of three.
is

the seed -row

the

amount

of

seed for a

given

length

of

row are

in excess of the
It

may

be that

number some of

of

plants

actually recpiired.

these
will

higher than even the risks
general rule,
to
it

recommendations are but, as a warrant
;

may

be assumed that

it

is

much
to

safer

sow even the most excessive amounts than

sow

just as

many

seeds as there are plants needed.
tests

were made by the writer in 1888 (Bull. will be seen that in some cases the recommendations seem to be extravagant but in the common run of soils and conditions, and with variable seeds and sea40,

The following

Mich. Exp. Sta.).

It

;

sons, they

Quantity
Drill.

not be excessive after all. of Seed Eequired for Given Lengths of Careful records of the quantity of seed used in thos^

may

158

The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening

vegetables ordinarily sown in drills show that the quantity required is often much less than that recommended by seedsmen.
Tlie following figures indicate the extent to

which

this is true,

the quantities
"

recommended being taken from Henderson's new
to ]00 feet of drill

Gardening for Profit:"
Peas.

— One quart
feet
;

of drill used four quarts of

every

212%

850 feet

recommended 850 feet McLean's Advancer, or one quart to of American Wonder required three
;

and one-half quarts, or one quart to about 245 feet of drill 850 feet of McLean's Little Gem used three quarts, or one quart for 850 feet of Rural New-Yorker used three and every 2833/3 f^^t one-fourth quarts, or one quart for over 261 feet of drill 850 feet of Cleveland's Alaska required three quarts, or one quart for 283/^ feet. The following figures will show that our sowings one pint of McLean's Advancer contains were thick enough 1,600 seeds. A pint sowed a trifle over 106 feet of drill, giving something over fifteen peas for every foot of drill, or a plant every four-fifths of an inch. Radislics. — One ounce for 100 feet of drill recommended;
;
; ; :

1,000 feet of drill, sown thickly to Early Long Scarlet Short-top, required nine and one-half ounces of seed. In this case the recommendation is not extravagant.
Beets. One ounce to 50 feet of drill recommended. Long Dark Blood, Eclipse and Bassano each required four ounces of

seed for 334 feet of drill, or an ounce for 83/^ feet, and the sowing was much too thick. An ounce of Long Dark Blood beet contains about 1,300 fruits or seed, or over fifteen and one half fruits to each foot of drill, as we sowed them.

ounce to 200 feet of drill is recommended Hollow Crown took four ounces of seed, or an ounce to 250 feet of drill. The sowing was made in very hard ground, where a thick growth of seedlings is necessary in order to break the crust. The sowing was over twice too thick. One ounce for 150 feet of (h-ill recommended 566 Carrot. feet in hard ground used one and one-half ounces of seed, or an ounce for over 377 feet of drill, and even then the stand was
Parsnip.
;

— One

1,000 feet of drill of

;

much

thicker than desirable.

Fluctuations in

Price

159

One ounce is recommended for 70 feet of drill; Salsify. seven and one-half ounces were used in 558 feet, or an ounce In this ease the estimafes were for about 74X feet of drill.
correct.

In order to determine what seeds fluctuate most in price between different dealers, a comparison was made (in 1899) of the catalogues of ten leading American seedsmen, with the

following

results

:

Vegetahles flucluathtg most in price

Beans, wax. Beans, bush Lima,

Celery,

Corn,

Beans, green pod. Beans, pole Lima,
Broccoli,

Eggplant,
Peas,
P^'pper,

Cabbage,
Cauliflower,

Tomato.

Vegetables fluctitating least in price

Asparagus,
Beet,

Parsnip,
Parsley,

Brussels sprout,
Carrot,

Pumpkin,
Radish,

Cucumber,
Lettuce,

Rhubarb,
Salsify,

Leek,

Swiss chard beet,
Spinach,

Muskmelon, Watermelon,
Onion,

Squash,
Turnip.

or freshl}'

Seeds ordinarily germinate better in freshly turned worked soil than that in which has lain for

some time.

This

in the fresh soil

is because there is more moisture than in that which has been exposed

to the weather.

We

shall find in the following chapter

that gardeners expect to secure better success in trans-

160

The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening

planting
land.

when

they can set plants on freshly plowed

If seeds are

sown

in land

which has received heavy
fertilizer,

applications of concentrated

care should

be

taken that the

fertilizer

does not come into direct con-

tact with the seeds, particularly

if nitrate of soda and muriate of potash are used. Ordinary quantities of these materials sown broadcast are harmless. Caution

should be exercised when sowing fertilizer in the drill with seeds germination is often hindered. For a discussion of this subject, see Hicks' ''Germination of Seeds as Affected by Certain Chemical Fertilizers." Bull. 24, Div. of Botany, U. S. Dept. of Agric. (1900). Roberts* has experimented on the influence of manure-water on the vitality of weed seeds in manure "by pumping and distributing over the entire mass, the water leached through the manure and caught in a cistern, and repeating the operation about once a week during the summer. Xot a single weed seed germinated in the several samples of manure so treated, although placed under the most favorable conditions." The depth at which seeds should be sown depends (1) on the soil, as to whether it is moist or dry, well tilled or poorly tilled (2) on the species and size of The finer and moister the seed, and (3) on the season. The the soil, the shallower the seeds may be sown. Seeds larger the seeds, the deeper they may be sown. may be sown shallower in spring than in summer,
: ;

for at the

latter season
is

the

surface soil

is

dry.

An

old

gardener's rule

to

cover the seeds to a depth

*Aiin\ial Rep. President Cornell Univ. 1886-7, 73.

Hardy and Tender
equal
to

Seeds

161
to

twice

their

diameter.

This applies well

greenhouse conditions, in wliich the soil is ver^- finely but in the prepared and kept continuously moist open ground, the seeds are usuall}' planted deeper than this.
;

Horticultural plants are ordinarily divided into three
classes
in

respect

to

their

hardiness:

(1)

hardy, or

those able to withstand the vicissitudes of climate in

a given

place

;

(2) half-hardy, or

able to withstand
(3) ten-

some

frosts or other uncongenial conditions;
to

withstand frost. Seeds of the hardy plants may be sown in the spring as earl}' as the land can be made fit, or even in the fall. Examples of such seeds are sweet pea, onion, leek. In the northern states, however, verj' few seeds are
der, or wholly unable

sown
the

in

the fall

;

but the land

is

often prepared in

and the seeds are sown as soon as the soil The seeds of half-hardj' is dry enough in the spring. plants, as beets and lettuce, may be sown two or three weeks before settled weather is expected to come
fall,

that

is,

when

it

is

still

expected that there

.will

be

hard

Tender seeds, as beans, tomatoes, eggplants, cucumbers, melons, are sown only after the frost has occurred and when the ground is last thoroughly settled and warm. Of plants which are normally transplanted, it is These beds better to start the seeds in a seed-bed. may be in the forcing-house, hotbed or coldframe or, if it is not desired to force the plants beyond the normal season, it maj' be made in the open. There are three chief advantages in sowing seeds in a seedfrosts.

162 The Principles of Vegetable. Sometimes boards. sometimes the case.Gardening (1) It bed. If it is laid on beds. Such a screen gives a shade and also air allows screens the of a free circulation of . frames. rather than where the plants are to grow: insures better germination. as is Fig. The seed-bed should be a small area on land which is in the best of tilth. It should be near the buildings the season is and the water supply. it is now a common practice to start seeds in flats or boxes (see page 62 and Fig. the The spaces and laths are equal in width. 36. the it conditions saves time are more uniform and congenial labor. enables the since . matting or other dense covers are laid directly on the This may do very well for a few days. until the soil. The best shading ordinarily (Fig. a lath screen partial may be well to shade the bed until the seedlings is appear. since plants which are compact body can be spraj'ed. and the may be removed and bed weeded at anj^ time. 36) laid on a frame which stands two to three feet above the soil. it If hot and dry. 12). Lath screen. A covering of brush is sometimes used. in a (3) it (2) and gardener to guard against fungi and accidents. but it is less handy than the lath screen. insects. bed cannot be weeded and it is likely to become foul. fumigated or otherIn forcing-houses and wise treated to advantage. directly .

or a foot of well-rotted manure until needed. enable them to develop to their normal condition. the use of a seed-3rill should be encouraged (see Fig. the manure is removed the soil is then full of moisture and the seeds germinate quickly. The fertility which has leached from the manure also This enables the plantlets to secure an early foothold. When the bed is needed. When sowing seeds in the open field. be the given sufficient else the young seedThe seedlings should always head room and light and air to removed. better gardeners. or at least very early in the spring. the seeddrawinp.Seed-b(cJs 163 seeds have begun to break the ground. not only because it saves time and labor. wheel -hoes and smoothing harrows make . not be worked in soil which is hard. method is practiced in some of the market -gardening centers. 37). but also because A drill canit enforces good preparation of the land. particularly those in which late cabbages and cauliflower are grown. If a seed-drill is not used. but thereafter this covering should be lings will be injured.the furrows for ordiuarv use may be made by . since the the earth usually requires too much watering and shade may If be too dense. it is desired to secure a quick germination of it seeds in a summer seed-bed. Seed-drills. and to keep it covered with several inches. dense and lumpy. but this is rarely advisable. the havoc. Sometimes seed-bed is made underneath seed-bed is kept too a tree. is well to prepare the bed the fall before. If wet and the seedlings are damping-off fungi are likeh^ to work the too soft.

Gem. seed-drills hill and planters. 37. with fertilizer attachment. Billings. t. h. Types of Planet Jr.Fig. and drill seeder. Planet Jr. corn-planter. Tnie's potato-planter. fertilizer drill. Henderson corn and fertilizer drill. one-row corn-planter. c. g.Ir. . drill seeder. e. j. d. Model or Iron Age. /. a. Spangler b. Planet . and pea and bean seeder.

The soil must be plants are up. requiring expert knowledge of soils and climate. the Have every thing read}'."). times have changed. Rarely is anything gained by rot. plants grow. wait until the ground and or the seedafter the season are ready. Plant-breeding has come to be an important factor." The above sentences were written by Washington foreman of his estate at Mount Vernon in the years 1794 and 179. When sowing in the open. Competition is great. to the *For advice on seed sowing for greeuliouses and general garden conditions. after being once furnished. The quality constantly improves. then make the THE GROWING OF SEEDS upon a farmer to have shameful for gardeners and "It is certainly a reflection his seeds to buy. or to other deep-planted crops. This maintains the surface mulch. saves the moisture. 1 of "The Nurserj'-Book. The demand for seeds is very large. fitted sowing before this time. The seeds lings are weak. see Chap.* 5. rows straight. The growing of seeds has come to be a business by itself. should ordinarily be tilled once or twice with a smoothing harrow before -the plants are up." .S/iall one Grow His Own Seeds 165 end of a hoe handle or rake handle forcibly' through A garden line should be used to keep the the soil. Within a century. Land which is planted to potatoes. and of methods of handling every kind of crop. and prevents the weeds from growing." "It is farmers to be buying seeds that their own soil and climate will produce.

all those plants tions must be "rogued.166 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening it Under the present-day conditions. the better his stock should be. As soon as the "roguing" or selecand practicable ideal of know what the tion is neglected. the seedbreeder must thereafter discard every plant which does not closely approach it. The seed." tion. Xo longer is it which do not meet the breeder's ideal are pulled up and discarded. He must know what will be likely to be most stable and invariable. tion is only the excephis that a man can afford to grow own seeds. He must know what He must know what will be good his customers want. The ideal once apprehended. With development of intensive market -gardening interests. and probably" one-fonrth of all vegethe table-garden seeds are It is costly now sold to ])ersons wlio grow the prodnct for market. The truer and higher the man's ideal. He must market wants. to the varietal characteristics disappear or soils to change. 38). or when new tend ideals are introduced. and useful under the greatest number of conditions. sufficient It requires experience and the exercise of a man's undivided atten- merely that seeds are sown and that the crop is harvested. his stock must be uniform (Fig. and the true or typical stock is left to produce the seed. His plantaThat is. business to grow good seeds. Experience has demonstrated that certain and . It requires years of experience to enable one to make for himself a true any variety of plant. seed-bnyers are becoming more cantions and discriminating.grower must have an ideal and must work to it.

kinds of seeds grown indiscriminately in The price of labor is an important factor . No longer are all one place.Wliere Seeds may he Grown 167 climates produce the best seeds of certain species.

but in special places and for particular purposes they may make all the difference between success and failure. and even then it is a question whether it would not be better and cheaper for him to The man who desires to secure delegate the business. particularly if on the crop in question. one of the first things to be done to exercise the greatest care in the purchase of his seeds and to be willing to pay an extra price for a strain which will satisfy his own conditions." Under general conditions and in other geographical regions. leading buj- his seed are indiscriminately in particular strains the of general There of varieties vegetables for certain markets likely to be and conditions. When man making any crop. and lives in the place in which the seeds can be produced most advantageousl}'. grown in France. and Lima beans in Cali- Only when a man is making a specialty of some vegetable. Seeds of these strains are often "market -gardeners' private stock. can he afford to grow his own seeds.168 The Principles of Vegetable. his business success depends his seeds are know where He all should not market.Gardening seeds are fornia. and 5'et the differences in the resulting crop might be as of such a character that they could not be definitely described of in a seed catalogue a or is in an experiment a specialty is station bulletin. most useful in the geographical area in which are better These strains are which sold thej' are bred. in the growing of some specialty results the very best should grown. these private stocks may be of no advantage. In the old time it was considered to be sufficient if one saved his .

thus locked up in seeds direct is The capital which is compared with the risk of being unable to secure a desirable strain. for these are likely to deteriorate or to lose their varietal characteristics under poor culture and is indiff'erent selection. Buy the of a reliable seed dealer and not in from grocery stores. cauliflower. . as prove to be particularly desirable. can then demand the best. cabbage and squashes. the selection seeds celery. it is well for him to keep at least a partial stock on hand from year to year. The gardener who grows largely for a special carrot. There are few areas in which good cauliflower seed can be grown. lettuce. kind and quantity' which he desires. Particularly this advice im- perative in the case of cauliflower. radish and tomato. seeds in The gardener should buy possible. He is then relatively independent. It He should bu}^ his seeds ma}^ even be well to engage them of the seed dealer a season in advance. if he is growing large areas and for a critical market. particularly of those kinds which to be sure that he has the retain their vitality for several years. market of such important crops as beet. melon. cucumber. cauliflower. cabbage. will do well to purchase double the quantity of seed which he requires for the one season. avail: "Extra Supply 169 is in the present time the mere saving his of little he must breed his seeds. in order that he may Dreserve stock of the strains which small. He will also secure the seeds at a cheaper rate. Since seeds are poor in some seasons. He earlj'.Buy an seeds. Special of care of should be exercised onion. particularly if bulk.

(Canada). Below are given the regions and countries in which the larger part of the best seeds which are sold in North America are now grown : Asparagus New Jersey. California. far the best and the most expensive. Radish Spinach Holland and France. Tomato New Jersey and Michigan. Beet California. New York. and France. Wisconsin and Ontario. Eggplant New Jersey. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . More and more are vegetable seeds grown in America.Gardening and great skill is necessary to grow it well. Parsnip Pea New Y^ork. A sample which sells for a dollar an ounce may be much dearer than one which sells for four or five times that amount. Michigan and Canada. Lima New Jersey and California. Michigan. and also Michigan. Turnip Watermelon Georgia and Nebraska.170 The Principles of Vegetable. Kohlrabi France and Germany. Kale Connecticut and Long Island. Bean. Ohio and . Parsley England and France. The Danish grown is by Cauliflower — Holland and Denmark. Onion— Connecticut. — — — — — — — — Nebraska. Corn. Very cheap seeds should awaken suspicion. Connecticut. Brussels sprouts Long Isl. Cucumber New York and Nebraska. Michigan. New Jersey and France. New York and France. Connecticut. and also Iowa. Long Island.ind (New York). and also Michigan. Michigan and California. Connecticut and France. sweet Connecticut. Cabbage Carrot California. Lettuce Muskmelon New Jersey and Nebraska. bush — New York. Pepper Pumpkin and Squash Principally Nebraska. Bean. New York. Germany and France. Principally France. New Y'ork and France. New York and Michigan. Connecticut and France. Celery California and France.

which may be expected under good conditions.Yields of Seed -crops 171 The from an yields of seeds (iu lbs.) acre. are given below : .

rain. it till it.crop is put on it. thoroughly and neglect another part. as the soil order to prevent the loss of moisture. Most season. promoted. are obliged to fit their land throughout the because it was not thoroughly prepared in the beginning.CHAPTER GARDEN VI SUBSEQUENT MANAGEMENT OF THE VEGETABLE- Tillage is the most important item in the subsequent care of the vegetable . How frequently one shall soil. The diflferences naturally will be most marked in a dry season. rapid and keep down the weeds. As soon it as the ground is fit after a very hard and dry. subsequent tillage need be emploj^ed only for the purpose of main. If the soil till becomes is well to just before a Till shallow. may better hold the rainfall. you are skeptical as to the value of tillage to save Till one part of the try an experiment. moi.garden If the land has been well fitted before the. that If it rain. easy. As soon becomes "baked" or encrusted. till must be determined and amount of help. field (172) . loosen it. in crop. This light farmers. taining the surface mulch in order that moisture may be saved and chemical and vital activities This tillage tillage will may be light. by season.sture. however.

IRRIGATION is In in many soil. 1. As a matter of is only the well -tilled and well . ciency. thinks of of irrigation as he thinks of fertilizer fact.to supply the defi- Irrigation may be In the arid parts of the country. will yield Evidently. by irrigation. parts of the country. all regions in which crops abundantly without irrigation.The Irrif/afion Question 173 In the cool and ambitious daj^s of spring.handled lands that pay for . irrigation necessity. in much of the water the still but there crop. Too often the farmer the practice is to be advised. in an exceptional or special practice. be insufficient moisture for a good necessary. the main Irrigation is reliance is to be placed on good tillage. effort : mereh. put the work it into and the muscle into the land condition. may and the winter snows. one can produce enough better crop to more than pay the cost. as in the East. — as a means giving him crops when he does not work it for them. the crop requires more water than Avhich fell supplied by the normal rainfall of the Tillage can save early rains growing season. the crop raiufall rather determined by the amount of the than b}' the plant-food la is many cases. In the humid parts of the country — east of the plains — irrigation is often helpful and It is it reduces the risk of a poor crop.keep it in condition. If. In the long and hot days of summer. hoAvever. It is is a a general practice. an economic question.

the price and supply of labor. the availability of water. The main conduits which may be ordinar}' wrought-iron water pipes are carried along the highest land. The water supply must be ample. in the furrows between the rows. so that a rubber hose can be attached and the water convej'ed into the furrows. ping. he should visit a gai'den in which one is in operation. special and — — . faucets must be provided at the lowest point of the run and in the sags for the purpose of emptying the pipe of w^ater in the fall. finds local it a ver^* profitable undertaking. If iron pipes are used. for when irrigation is most needed. Now and then a man w^ho has push and the ability to handle a fine crop to advantage. on either irrigating or fertilizing. In general garden operations. He should buy a special book on the subject. the water is applied on the surface. It is all a problem in the liumid climates. the the lay of the land. the air is dry and hot and evaporation is rapid. the better the market. there may be openings or water-gates opposite the furrows.174 Thp Principles of Verjffahip- Gardening The intenser the cropmore the capital invested. the character of the given climate. if possible. rather than to cover the entire space between the rows. Most vegetable -gardeners in the East do not find it profitable to irrigate. If one contemplates putting in an irrigating plant. The feasibility of it will depend. the more likely is irrigation to pay. The aim should be to convey the water in narrow streams or furrows close to the plants. At intervals. hose-bibs are provided. also. Ordinary crops will not pay the cost and risk of irrigation in the East. When box sluices are provided.

is needed just at berries in June. and lots of it. fruit-grower or gardener. It is seldom we get a sufficient amount of rain at the time when it is most Kain falls alike on the just and the unjust. for they are usually cool and cloudy ones as well. The bright. does not discriminate between gardener A. The enormous outflow of dozens. continuous sunshiny days of Colorado and California. The small fruit grower is even more dependent upon an abundant water supply at the right season than the gardener. In almost every section of our country innumerable inches of rainfall glide by our fields in brooks unchecked. For full information on subjects connected wilh irrigation. consult King's "Irrigation and Drainage. 1896). may irrigate profitably. obstacles If that is may be overcome. of artesian wells in the Dakotas was allowed to find its way to some underground lake or rivtr for made to utilize it. abundantly watered just at the fruiting time. "The first point to be considered is. and needed. with the mineral-laden waters of the mountain streams. if not hundreds. and gardener B. the water years before even the slightest effort was supply. On the other hand. who would Rainy summers are not like to have dry weather for a few days. other The ground level is of less im- . time the ears are setting. "Not every farmer." The book discusses garden irrigation. that could be used for irrigation purposes at trifling expense. Abundant rains during April will not insure a full crop of strawMoisture. which at slight expense could be directed to the adjoining parched fields. produce crops that cannot be equaled in the East or South." April. "It has been proved that irrigation maj' also be profitable even during seasons of normal rainfall. naturally. unmixed blessings.Irrigation Experience 175 The following notes on irrigation for the market-garden are by Frederic Cranefield ("The Market Garden. One acre of corn. who desires a heavy shower for late cabbage just set. millions of barrels of water run to waste every summer. would yield as much as five acr<^s not watered. The experiences are drawn from experiments made at the Wisconsin Experiment Station. abundant and reasonably accessible.

at least. the others 4-inch. The rude plat here given (Fig. are rare. he ticable. a sufficient supply to cover the ground as quickly as possible. needed. arrangements might be made with the owner of the water-right and neighbors to cooperate Such locations. The next best location is in close proximity to a lake or pond. it is true. threshing engine. If used in any case a storage tank is almost a necesnot only that the wind is quite sure to fail when most sity. but only the garden part is considered here.ubjeet. from which water may be lifted by steam or other power. The question that is most often asked of those who are possessed of information on 'Can I depend upon a well and wind-power this s. but if more than an acre is to be watered a more abundant supply of water is needed than an ordinary well can supOne important point in the distribution of water is to have ply. 'It all depends Professor Taft. The heavier lines are 6-ineh pipes. The most expensive. 39) shows the plats irrigated in the horticultural department. "The gardener considering it irrigation should first look about for a stream of water so situated with reference to his land that may be conducted thither and distributed by gravity. Even a considerable distance away. Other fields on the farm were irrigated. describes wind-pumps that have been successfully used for irri- upon the well. it is pracIn 'American Gardening. Tlie Principles of Vegetable -Gardening The profits to be dei'ived from the work depend mainly upon the height to which the water must be lifted and the distance carried before it is applied. The letter p in the diagram denotes the location of a rotary pump connected with the water The pump was operated by a of the lake by a suction pipe. "At the Wisconsin Station irrigated fields are adjacent to and several feet above Lake Mendota. in the construction of ditches. but still often practicable means if to obtain a water supply. pages 148-9. is : for irrigation?' The answer is ever the same.' Vol.' gation purposes. At each point marked v is a is — .176 portance. The double lines denote the cast-iron pipe used to convey the water to the fields. has demonstrated that in some eases. of Michigan Agricultural College. 49. is wind power by lifting from a well or wells. etc.

They are V troughs. over each of which is attached a device for regulating the flow of water. made of an 8. distributing troughs. Method of distribiithig water. It is made of galvanized iron and consists of two pieces. and cleats nailed across the top every 4 feet. The water flows from the trough through auger holes on one side. An iron pin placed in auger holes. The water was delivered from the risers into These are an important part of the outfit. serves to them together. As the water decreases in its onward flow smaller troughs may be used. and is supported Pig. A cross-tie should be placed across the bottom to prevent the stakes from settling as the ground becomes wet.and a 10-inch board. There is a hole in one piece corresponding in size to the auger hole in the trough. which are bent over.Irrigation Experience 111 salve and riser. For the larger troughs a 12-inch and a 10-inch board are used and nailed together at right angles. A slide is held in place by the side edges of the first piece. made of rough lumber. 12 feet long. fasten . by stakes driven slanting into the ground and across each other. bored in the stakes. 39. The end of ine trough sets inside that of the next.

By this means the ground is all thoroughly wet and not iniddled. Floiist. By Che plan given above it is possible for the attendants to walk on dry ground at all times. If a row is receiving too may be regulated at much water the gate may be partially closed." In a more recent article (Amer. this to be used as a gate or valve to control the supply of water." He continues: "Irrigated fields should be given thorough shallow cultivation as soon as possible. A hand garden plow is used. . by mefins of a screw.lid By the of these slides the flow of water will. and only a very slight furrow plowed. 9. This is not the best plan. Persons without experience in distributing water.178 The Principles of VegeiahJe. 1899) Cranefield makes the following suggestion for the modification of the board trough: "Bore one -inch augur holes every few inches iu one side and near the bottom. Before the water is turned on. The plan is to run small streams of water alongside the rows for several hours until the ground about the roots of the plants is thoroughly soaked. water was carried alongside of the rows running north and south and the surplus water was run across the alley to the lower plat and the nursery. Place these troughs across the head of the field on a slight incline and admit the water at the upper end. By placing a row of troughs across the south and higher end of the south plat. the ground between the rows should be thoroughly cultivated and small furrows run out ou both sides of the rows. plowing away from the row. 39) it will be noticed that two plats of strawberries were irrigated in addition to other grounds. The whole surface will bake and the soil will be puddled to the depth of several inches by 'lie attendants walking over it in distributing tlie water. By reference to the plat (Fig. to form a mulch and conserve the water. Directly above each hole attach a wooden button.Gardening . By aid of these one man can attend to the watering jf a very large field. ai"e inclined in the beginning to spread the water over the whole surface of the ground between the rows. Sept. After the troughs were set up one man with a hoe was usually able to attend to all the work. The ground slopes gently towards the lake. slightly over an inch wide and three or four inches long.

It probably would not be possible to irrigate a very steep hillside by this method. pump has a capacity of 55 gallons per minute. Eight to ten hours The pumping was necessary to thoroughly wet the ground. if water were turned on it would generally be found that slope enough existed to carry the water across the field. Although a field may appear perfectly flat. at 100 revolutions. Only those who have had experience can realize what an immense quantity of water is necessary to soak even one. If water were delivered at the rate of 75 or 100 gallons per minute.half an acre. Thorough preparation of the ground is necessary before the crops are planted. matter to be considered before irrigation work is taken up. The 'How can I irrigate a perfectly level very rare.Irrifjation Experience 179 The south plat is one-half acre in extent. It is necessary to make the surface as nearly question field?' is often asked : Such fields are level as i^ossible. the ground becomes soaked and mortar-like to a depth of two or three feet for a short distance from the end next the water supply and the water does forward. "If a field slopes from north to south. but it must be rapidly delivered. From May 1 to October 1 the rainfall at Madison these. under pressure. a much larger area could be wet to a depth The slope of the ground is a of several inches in a few hours. The water was delivered through a 2%-inch pipe. plant east and west and run the water across. after. 'dead' furrows the surface of and hollows that need looking adjoining elevations to on. so that when the water will have a fair . not move length. although by planting with reference to watering. Attempts have been made to water garden plats by using a garden hose. it fill Shave off is turned chance to do its work. allowing the water to spread over the ground. ravines. "Not only is it necessary to have an adequate water supply. with a slight incline to east or west. As a result. both for economy of labor and in order to do the work well. In case the rows were of any considerable would require sevei"al days for the water to reach the farther end. "The season of 1895 was one of the driest in the history of Wisconsin. It is the small dips. it fields with considerable slope maj^ be irrigated.

3 boxes. with the exception of the sixteen rows. four rows Wilson. yielded 561. The crop harvested from the three series is as follows : "Twelve rows Warfield. after the crop was harvested. was irrigated three times in 1894. "Twelve rows Warfield. The rows of strawberries in plat B. After the ground had become sufficiently dry.43 in the The Principles of Vegetable -Ganlening inches.180 was 7. so a very shallow furrow was run along each row and a stream of water for each row was allowed to flow across the field for several hours. was irrigated May 25. the plants were set 3x3 feet thorough cultivation was given and the field thoroughly irrigated as often as needed.2 boxes. yielded 66. are fifty feet in length. The ground was very dry at the time of setting. never irrigated. with the following results: of Henderson's . well throughout 1894 and 1895. yielded 111. June 10 and June 22. This plat. The rows were 4 rods long. "Twelve rows Warfield. During 1895 the plat. four rows Wilson. Weight Cabbage . four rows Wilson. except sixteen rows at the extreme right end. well irrigated irrigated throughout 1894 but not in 1895. as indicated diagram. "Sixty rows of Fottler's Drumhead cabbage and forty rows Early Snowball cauliflower were planted June 22 in plats of twenty rows.6 boxes.

or the growing of two or more crops together. (2) companion -cropping. (3) the crops should be so ranch unlike soil each other that they will not tend to exhaust the by demanding similar elements of plant -food. and diseases It is well to and insects are starved in the rotation. In . follow the with fibrous .More than one 2. for is to this use crops of different botanical the soil by not so likely to root -crops means the fertility of be impaired. which is the raising of more than one crop on the land in one season. the tillage demanded it by the will first crop in the series should be such that land in leave the proper condition for the suc- ceeding crop. Crop in one Season 181 DOUBLE -CROPPING are very expensive. or the growing of one crop after another on the same land. sive. and will not carry diseases and insects from one crop to another. of the of doing this is means to practice Succession -cropping is a kind of short rotation. In this feeding crops. as when strawberries are followed by late potatoes or cabbages. the follow- ing principles must be borne in mind: in (1) each crop in less the succession should be able to (2) mature time than the whole season. One what marketgardeners know as double -cropping.rooted surface- some cases the succession may extend over parts of two years. It is usualh' preferable families. Double-cropping is of two species: (1) successioncropping. In selecting crops for succession -cropping. Whenever land and equipment it is necessary that the vegetable -gardening be intenCapital and land should be kept at work.

Lettuce. followed by fall cauliflower or turnips. followed bj'' main-crop cabbage or late potatoes. by beans and tomatoes. Early potatoes. by means of which lands are rested in clover other sod (Chapter III). turnip. Eadish and bunch ouions bj' early cabbage or celery. Peas.182 The Princij)les of Vegetable . Cucumber. tomatoes or celery. as that term is understood by most agricultural writers. tuinip. early beets. bj" with an annual one. beans. summer squash by kale. turnip. Kale. When farm into general one or in two the seasons maj" be covered each crop In this case we have a true rotation of crops. followed by late beans (for canning). tomatoes. It is thereby allowing the last asparagus or rhubarb during usually best to follow a perennial crop the succession -cropping operations. finally turned its under. . extends entire series. or by horse-radish. kale. A crop of rhubarb or asparais gus may be followed. or has alread}^ been discussed Following are examples of siieeession-erops: Strawberries. Dandelions by potatoes. winter radish. Early carrots. followed by potatoes or other main-season crop. when the crop crop. Early cabbage. crops. celery. Early sugar corn. by a short. followed by cabbage. beans.Gardening ease the strawberries are set the year before the suc- cession-crop is grown. Onions. by autumn spinach. by spinach. winter radish. kohlrabi. beans. by second crop of same or autumn spinach.season cutting of the season. The value of rotation in the vegetablegarden. Fall-sown spinach by strawberries. winter radish. Spring spinach. by beans and tomatoes. kale.

Corn. Cucumber. or main-crop Beans. Kohlrabi (fall crop). Celery. Ill Spinach (fall erop\ Squash. . Pepper. the following principles are to be considered (1) the crops should be such as will mature at widely different seasons (2) one crop should be of distinctly less importance than the other. Pea. # Kohlrabi. Salsify. Cabbage. snap.Succession -crops 183 The following crops can be worked schemes: into succession-cropping Early. Onion (from seed). Turnip. Sweet potato. Beet (mostly a farm crop). or incidental crop Beans. Turnip and Rutabaga. Potato. JMuskinelon. Parsnip. Mustard. Carrot (farm crop). Watermelon. shell and Lima.cropping or the growing of two kinds on the land simultaneously. Onion (from bulbs). Eadish. Leek. Lettuce. companion . Pumpkin. Spinach. Lale. Eggplant. Cauliflower. Okra. Cress. Cabbage. Tomato. or be a "catch crop. Kale (fall and winter crop). Carrot. Brussels sprouts. of plants : . Potato. Parsley." (3) the crops should be such as will profit by the same methods of tillage . Horse-radish. Cauliflower. Beet.

Following are ej. Early onions and cauliflower or cabbage. leaving the ground free for the main crop. I plant the peas as soon as the ground can be worked with a one-horse corn-planter. the a main crop aud secondary' crop. or middle and later part. Early sweet corn and winter squashes make a profitable combination. and make the hills for the squashes between each alternate hill of corn. aud of (4) so far as possible. should be planted. as when late celery is planted between the rows of early celery. the same species is used for both crops'. of the season. seen that ?l in companion -cropping there Ordinarily. "I that I will describe.184 The Principles of Vegetable. The radishes can be sold before the beets need the room.Ganleuing fertilizing . The small varieties of corn that do not shade the ground too much. placing compost or well-rotted manure in the hills where the squashes are planted. citron. cultivate the peas until the last of May. It is will be. they should different botanical families or be kinds in order that they maj' not tend to leave the soil unbalanced or to breed the same kinds of insects and fungi.amples of some companion-eiops: Eadishes with beets or carrots. pumpkin or beans in hills. then plant The the corn between the rows of peas with the corn-planter. . Horse-radish with early cabbage. Plant the corn in rows 3 feet apai-t and 3 feet apart in the rows. main crop occupies the middle part. Lettuce with early cabbage. The secondary crop matures earl}' in the season. In some cases. "Another combination is early peas and sweet corn. and will be ready for market in July and August. Corn with squashes. have some methods of growing vegetables in this garden With some vegetables I have managed to grow two crops on the same ground in one year.

Three-crop si/stem.Double. and these in turn may be removed in time to let the cucumbers develop. These will be matured before the corn will harm them or before they will harm the corn. two or three cucumber seeds may be dropped. and a bean or two may be dropped near each corn hill. in "The Market Garden. A few years ago I grew a large field of peas and corn in this way. or celery for the late crop. 350. in the season and onion seeds may then be sown. peppergrass. Amer. Then such seeds as squashes. XX. The onion sets should be planted very early in the spring. When sweet corn is to be grown. Midway between the rows of onions grown from seeds. The onion sets may be used by taking those out first which grow around the cauliflowers. Gard. and the ground given to The combination can be varied by planting cabbages the corn. the spaces for the rows can be marked out and left vacant until the time of he planting Between these spaces and early in the season at of the corn.Cropping 185 peas can be marketed the last of June. plant radishes. U. These will cover the ground occupied previously by the peas. "Early bunch onions and celery make another profitable combination of crops to grow on the same ground in one year. they should bo marketed and the ground planted to celery. Jenkins. cauliflowers may be planted. which will have ample time to grow and to be consumed before harm can come to the onions from the shade of any one of these crops. Onion sets may be planted early A." July 1895: "1. In the former. The corn stalks make supports for the beans as thev climb. "2. and later. in the center of the squares. turnips can be sown midway between the rows. Then when the onions are well grown. spinach or some other early relish. and did nearly all the work with the horse planter and cultivator. between the cauliflowers." W. pumpkins or citrons may be put in between the hills of corn. lettuce. Following are remarks on /louble-cropping by Pi-ofessor Thomas Shaw. and when the onions are large enough for bunching. With this intensive system of culture the ground should be made very rich. between the rows and suitably spaced. — . least two rows of dwarf peas may be sown.

cabbages or turnips. on the. Some early crop may be grown midway between rows of beets and carrots. AA. As to the distance between the rows. to be followed by cabbages or celery or some other suitable crop. followed by cabbages. and between the rows of the corn these crops may be planted before the former has completed its maturity. Any kind of . Field peas can be sown early. as men often do. the latter will have been used in allaying the appetites of — hungry people. "3.186 "3. By planting these in succession. or any other kind of vegetable that may be grown late. much will depend on the character of the soil. turnips or Early potatoes may be grown. winter radishes. The Principles of YegetaMe. " Two-crop and three-crop system xcith horse tillage. and without These crops will grow side irrigation. just nip off some of the outer leaves that protrude too far. the crops should not be crowded as to distance. the wider apart should be the rows.Gardening Some kind of relish may be grown. "2. to be followed by late potatoes. These are instances wherein three crops may be obtained in succession the same season. and before the shade of the tomatoes injures the peas. may be grown. and where. The richer the About 15 inches soil. AAA. if desired. some early relish the may be grown between the rows of early potatoes. same piece of land. Two-crop system. and. ''1. Tomatoes suitably spaced may be planted between these. by side like brothers without injuring one another. in consequence. an early crop. and these in turn by cabbages or turnips. as radishes. and both crops will manifest their thanks by making a good growth. Early corn or potatoes may be removed. If the later crop should grow a little too fast for the one previously sown. "2. Peas of the dwarf varieties may be grown in rows. — Some instances may now be given of growing two crops in market-gardens where much of the labor is done by horses. Three crops may "1. two and three crops in a season may be obtained. carrots and dwarf peas may be considered average distances. to be followed by cabbages or turnips. between the rows of onions. It may be followed late by early cabbages or cauliflowers.

TRANSPLANTING iu sitceessfnl The is first cousideratiou transplanting good plants. for instance." 3. parts it the country it is and is recommended that seeds be sown where the plants are to stand.Principles of Trmisplanting 187 be obtained in a favorable season. a crop of radishes. economical to remove the one crop before the crop which is to succeed it has been sown. lakes a foothold. the}^ will suffer less field. of In fact. They should be well o-pown. such as turnips. The preparing of the land by horse labor is thus more easily done. they should have been hardened -off either in the hotbed itself or by transference to cold-frames. and these in turn by field But in market-gardens it is usually more roots. . is employed the east of great arid than in the West. are put in the open thoroughly and deeply worked. 72-79. land to is Plants live better when Such they are transplanted into newly turned land. Other successions of crops will occur to those engaged in the work as being more or less suitable to the conditions which they have to face. in the more usualh* discouraged. The second consideration is to have the laud in prime condition. slender and soft will nearly always collapse or sufifer when they are exposed to If they come from hotbeds or forcfield conditions. If the plants have been transplanted two or three to have when they Consult pp. as. It should be in fine tilth and times in the seed-bed. ing-houses. Plants which are thin. The plants quickly secure Transplanting is more successful and a larger extent in the humid climates moist. followed by early cabbages.

Or. if possible. After the water soaks awaj'. in larger operations. it is practicable to shade the plants for a day or two h\ setting a shingle on the south side of them. the practice to may be watered. When transplanting. letting it slant over the plant. plants If the It is season a is very dry. may have time When. dling. there will be little difficulty in transplanting throughout the day. and they should also be kept wet. a tank on wheels is drawn through the fields. common have a boy follow with a pail and put a dipperful of water about each plant. or dipping the roots in mud. In small gardens.188 The Principles of Yegdahle . Cool and cloudy days should be chosen if possible. The roots are wet to prevent them from dying. is sometimes . and these are supplied with a watering device. The tops are wet to i)rePudvent transpiration or evaporation of moisture. the late afternoon or evening should be chosen. the dry loose earth should be drawn about the plant to afford a surface mulch and to prevent the soil from baking. particularly if cloudy.Gardening The ideal time to transplant is is just before a rain. in order that the plants the night. to straighten up during thoroughlj^ the land is prepared and the plants are well grown and not too large. the plants must be kept away from the sun when they are out of the ground. however. Transplanting machines drawn by horses are now becoming popular for large -area practices. to It is nearly as essential wet the tops as the roots. Just after a rain also a the weather comes off good time. When it is necessary to transplant in hot and dry weather.

which makes a hole. in it is customary to have a boy carry basket or the plants the a covered box. Gardeners usually prefer to them to ihe seed-leaf. If l)y ]iressing earth against (Fig. workmen. Set the set plants deep. hold the plant. the plants rather large. and both hands are The dibber ana to use it. but it is less useful with than with trees. because the fine roots are matted together by the operation. 41. now ^jigj^ as the is prcsscd tightlv about the plant T earth is closed against it. "^ Sometimes the dibber fiiid thrust are alongside the the plant it the hole filled 41). in the other hand. and par- . 40. is lowered into the hole made by the dibber. The boy should not drop faster than the plants are required by the planters. will Fig. This deep planting holds the plants in position and places the roots in the moist and cool earth. When trans- planting b}' hand.How advised small as to Transplant 189 a plants protection. In the working hand hold the dibber. but does not remove the earth. The best tool for opening the land is a dibber (Fig. Dibbers. even though they were an inch or two higher than this in the original seed-bed. Press the earth firmly about the roots and the crown: this is very important. and to drop them just ahead of One boy ordinarily drop for two rows of planters. the plant Fig. 40).

pots or on the bot- . There are also various kinds of hand -transplanting devices which Fig. these machines work very not only to satisfactorily. One -half or one -third of the if well to cut hinder top may be twisted or cut off with very good results (Fig. do not transplant readily. often very satisfactory-.190 ticularly is The Principles of Vegetable. however. These tools are useful for small areas or for amateur work. tomatoes and other large-area the plants crops are (Fig. transplanting / :f ] machines drawn by horses have become popular for the planting of cabbages. of the top Showing how much may be removed remove a a large body of it earth into with the plant and drop hole of in transplanting. ) y'-x I Of late years. but likel}' plants more than when transplanted in the ordinary way. Some kinds bers are of plants.Gardening they have not been transplanted before. 42. 42). Lateh'. They require too much labor and time. machines for aiding transplanting by hand have come into use. customarj^ to start these in boxes. \\ f / . of which melons and cucumIt is examples. it off a part of the foliage in order to evaporation. and are similar size. 43). They are not expeditious. but thej"^ are not adapted to general field operations. If well grown and They lessen of the right size. expedite the live and are labor.

43. Fig. There are various kinds of transplanting boxes in the market. (See pa^es .) The upper one is Uie Beniis: and the lower ones the Tiger. A at common least device in one of the melon growing regions is shown in Fig.Transplanting Devices toras of 191 to hard sods. Some melon growers use the ordinary splint pint quart berry oi baskets. It is a mere band or strip of basketsplint which is tacked together at the ends and has neither top nor bot- tom. l'Ju-4. Others use paper oyster buckets. with the The plants can then be taken earth intact. the field the and they will not suffer in removal. be which can bought very cheap. 44. I'JO. The material is cut at a basket -factory. Transplanting machines.

45). filled with earth. but the}- hold their shape for a tin fruit-cans are month into a or more (Fig. he use 2 -inch or 3 -inch pots (Fig. of about 85 cents per thouThese forms are nested in the hotbed or eohlframe. in which the seeds are planted. to it would not pay this buy for particular purpose. 4o) but unless he has the pots on hand for . Form The iu which to is 14 start flat inches ing and 3 inches wide. in the tlat. are The cans the sides are then fastened bit of wire together with a tack or a and are used as forms in which to grow plants. trowel or shingle under them. If A box will make a hill may one has a greenhouse equipment. With the heat and moisture of the bed. other uses. Avhich ai-e laid bottom up in the hotbed.Gardening an expense. makform or box 3 inches square and 3 inches deep. thrown when the tops and bottoms melt off. in each. and purpose. flat They are readily moved by running a spade. A little fine earth melons. One difficulty with them is that they are too They are relalarge and take up too much room. a % % and between them. One of the best ways to handle cucumbers and melons is to plant them on sods. long. They are cut into squares of about four inches. . of plants. these sods decay and the sifted over will plants thrive.192 at The Principles of Vegetable. 44. and four or five seeds planted sand. Old some- times used for this fire. is Fig.

-Melou plants on a sod.Transplanting Devices tivel}' 193 too deep. but many gardeners make them from soap boxes. plants in 2-inch and 3 }4-Jnch pots. gardener's flat.000 to 40. as It is shown in Fig. or deep. From from 5. and of any convenient size. or sections and adding bottoms. 45. to handle plants in fiats These are shallow boxes about 3 inches A box 15 x 20. by sawing each box up into several flats now customary (Fig. Such. 44.000 plants have can transplant man M . 45). Ten acres of cabbage plants sometimes may be set in a day by means of a horse machine.000 to 6.000 plants in a day if the soil is light and in good condition. It is usually' best to use some cheap splint device. With a horse transplanting machine several times this number can be set. These boxes may be 18 X 24 inches is easilj" handled. Fig. made to order. a box will hold 100 plants flats if they are not transplanted. From 20. or one -third or one-half that a quick number of transplanted plants.

194 The Principles of Vegetable.stock. A plow opens a deep. packing the earth. When plants can be set as close as 1 foot apart. The transplanting machine can be used when the ground is too dry and too hard to allow of transplanting by hand. but of local . A man drives. with the plants. and water is dropped into the furrow. A mechanical device guides the hand.Gardening daj'. The machine itself does not handle the plants. the machine shows its advantage at It the best. conditions of soil and weather are just right. In a dry time and in hard ground.as many plants as a transplanting machine. There are the greatest differences of opinion respecting the merits and demerits of any variety. CHOOSING THE VARIETIES most engrossing incidents connected is One of the with the running of a market-garden or fruit-farm the selection of varieties. and the plants are more likely to live. This proves that the value of a given variety is not a question of principle. On the rear of the machine sit two boys. and also learn just how to drop the plant so that it Avill be caught by the sides of the closing furrow and not fall over. is their business to drop plants in the furrow between the opening plow and the shoes. By practice the boys can regulate the distance. narrow furrow. but they would not do the work so well. 4. been be set iu one The machines are also used for transplanting nurser}. By quick work. Shoes or rollers follow and close the furrow. two men with dibbers and a boj' to drop might set nearlj.

for then a variety of peculiar or particular attributes is desired. although it may be only a suggestion to his neighbor. and then select seems best to satisfy the ideal. the (2) reliable The it older for it the variety. It may not- best. (1) Have an know what kind ideal. (3) Prove the novelties. The shorter is the description in the the catalogue. following points : it is well to bear in mind the ideas.WJinf Varieties io Choose 195 It is apparent that every gardener who adaptation. is very fact be the that old indicates that it it more The has had sufficient value to enable to persist. for some special -purpose condition. as a is general -purpose conditions. not be grown wholesale and is for the general crop. Choice of varieties is a must be tested for every purThey are tested by actually growing them under the given condition and for the given local matter. wanted and what that variet}' which rule. purpose. Varieties pose and condition. tised : The novelties are attractiveh' adver- such advertising necessarv if they are to . His experience is a law unto him. or classify your is own of a variety it is wanted for. has had experience with a variety is able to jndge of its merits for his particular conditions. the variety is greater the probability It is that after generally useful. to New varieties are to be tested. In selecting varieties. however. only varieties that descriptions have been proved and have become staple become short and tame they do : not need extravagant advertising.

If a novelty fails. 5.Gardening sold. quest is nevertheless as keen and the fun is as great. Novelties are for we depend on them for progress. Now and then one of the novelties will prove to He will then enbe useful to the man who tries it. An experimental plat without failures is not worth the having. The experiment it station test will be useful in cannot tell what varieties will be best for your conditions. are the constants in poor farming.196 be The Principles of Vegetable . the in the making of experiments. Every gardener should have a small area in the personal part of his grounds which he devotes to the testing of new varieties. but . The advertising who beginner and the person desires to experiment. two this it may supplant some of the older In way the gardener keeps abreast of the time essential. for their merits attracts are yet unknown. He should buy a packet of every capital fail to new variety of those vegetables in particularly interested. The novice selects the the novelties. markets and ideals. He will not which he is have sufficient at stake to be disappointed if half of them prove worthy under his conditions and for his The mental quest is one of the chief delights ideals. This is not because good farmer spends more time killing weeds. large his area of it and test it on a commercial scale. WEEDS They Weeds the are mere incidents in good farming. but In a year or varieties. and ahead of his competitor. suggestions.

iu the barnyard or front yard. 1. 3.Weeds because he full}'. Harrow it. — along and manages his laud more skilareas that weeds are most the roadside. sists. Potatoes. Horse-radish may be a Aveed in a potato field. and sometimes the land may be harrowed be- fore the plants are up. If a weed per- try deeper or shallower plowing. and potatoes may be a weed in a horse-radish field. change the crop. or a different cultivator. Following are some of the means of keeping weeds iu check : Practice rotation. corn and other or is things can be harrowed after they are several inches high . if possible. iu the run-out meadow or pasture. Of course the farmer can not expect ever to be rid of these things. after seeding and before the plants are high enough to be broken by the implement. A weed is only a plant that is not wanted. but the best farming consists in not having them.farmers seem to think good farming consists in killing weeds and bugs. in the poorly vegetable gai'deu. Cerweeds follow certain crops when these weeds become serious. Man}. but he should think more of prevention than of eradication. There is no royal road to weedless farming. 197 tills is better It iu neglected prevalent. keep ahead of the weeds. Change the method of tillage. tain : 2. . Potatoes are weeds in potato fields when potatoes are planted tilled that too thick. or till kind of harrow or and seasons. at different times Harrow the land frequently when it is in fallow waiting for a crop.

piles.Gardening Practice frequent tillage with light surface-work- season. Induce your neighbor to keep his land as clean as you keep yours. Clean the land as soon as the crop is harvested and if the laud lies open in the fall. . 9. : ing tools. — for crops are only those particular kinds of weeds which a man wants to raise. and which. Sheep and pigs sometimes can be employed to Land inclean the weeds from foul and fallow land. particularly of crops which are sown broadcast. Rank pigweeds and their ilk are a compliment to Land that will not grow weeds will not a man's soil. in the fence fested with Jerusalem artichokes is readily cleaned if hogs are turned in. 5. 7. therefore. particularly if it is suspected of harboring bad company. 6. grow crops. Weeds have taught us the lesson of good tillage. throughout the and thus is the land seeded for the following year. 11. Many persons keep their premises scrupulously clean in the early season but let them run wild in the fall. manure and along the highwaj". Pull or hoe out stray weeds which escape the wheel tools. till it occasionally. Do not let the weeds go to seed on the corners. Use clean seed. Avoid coarse and raw stable manure. TJie Principles of Vegetable. Commercial fertilizers may be used for a time on foul land. There is no indication that they intend to remit their efforts in oar behalf. 8. This is hard on weeds and does the crop good. do not admit of tillage.198 4. 10.

the less the liability to insect attacks. The shorter the serious rotation. 199 INSECTS AND FUNGI The vegetable -gardener may expect to be troubled insects and plant diseases. the secondary thing must be relied on to Insects and diseases are is to keep the bugs off. The gardener must circumvent them rather than combat them. and place in such cases the gen- management of keep the enemies in cheek. Of or in this class are potato- bugs and plant -lice.Bugs and Diseases 6. The primary thing is to make the plants grow. If the kinds of crops have been various. Many of these troubles are very serious and are beyond the direct control of the cultivator. the Those troubles which appear plants the their roots inner parts of are not open eral to direct treatment. He must avoid them by means of strategy rather than kill them directly. They increase year by year. Insects which feed openly on the tops of with plants are nearly always amenable to direct treatment in with poisons or other sprays. By means of rotation in crops and in methods is of tillage. the probability is that they will not have gained a serious foothold. Following are some of the means by which the vegetable -gardener may hope to lessen or avert the losses from insects and diseases: 1. It is rare that in- sects and diseases appear suddenly in great numbers. incidental or secondary facts in every garden plantation. and that they will be held in comparative subjection. It is essen- . and in some favorable season prove very destructive.

They are usually most serious in those lands which have been laid down to grass for some time. In 1895 cabbages and turnips were grown . The plants were ruined by the disease. is best in general to discontinue. the growing of the crop on which they live. is to put the land into other crops and other uses. for two or three years. was seriously a cabbage in- fected with club -root. They are rarely when short and thorough rotations are If the land becomes seriously infested with any it one pest. ti'oublesome used. 2. therefore. the best thing to do. This ordinarily is cheaper and quicker than to endeavor to destroy the pest by direct means. not to try to kill them by poison baits. The same thing may be said of the white grubs. cauliflower and turnips crops on the to buy his grow them and to grow other kinds land. If the hind infested with them.200 tial The Principles of Vegetable. This disease may be lessened somewhat by thoroughly dressing the land with lime.Gardening that the crops of a rotation be of such different starved is kinds that the same kinds of insects or fungi will not thrive on them. which appear in grass lands. It will usually be cheaper for a man home supply of cabbages than to attempt to on land which is badly infested with either the clubroot fungus or the cabbage maggot. and always more of effective. to cease the growing of for a time. but it is usually cheaper. In 1894. cabbage. soil from a cabbage field which. The soil was hills of field clay. Wireworms are out by a short and quick rotation. at was sown in the Cornell Univei-sity. This is well illustrated in the case of the club -root of cabbage and cauliflower.

chance plants are of Even if they are attacked. the probabilitj'' that the disease will be distributed the next year If the manure is very thoroughly manure. In infected seed-beds. In 1896 the area was fallow. all diseased plants bers and tomatoes. 5. but they are particularly unsatisfactory when the}^ must withstand the attacks of insects 4. The region from which the soil was imported still suffers from club-root. 10 Again the turnips showed a little In 1897 and 1898 the area was occupied by general vegetable crops other than cabbages. Destroy plants which are seriously affected. and products should be collected and burned. vines are is thrown on the manure pile. If the particularly those which are attacked b}^ fungi. use new soil or sterilized Do not add to the seed-bed which diseased crops of from a field in the given kind have grown. in the . potato blight and rot. . Make every of effort to secure strong. soil. con- tinuous-growing plants. to Such plants are of insects less liable the attacks many kinds and fungi. but here it was turnips were sown. rotted and composted. until late summer. Five-sixths of the cabbages were ruined. when starved out in two or three years. 3. per cent of the turnips were afJected. and fungi. with good tillage. stocky. but not seriously. cucumIn the fall. Weak and a better soft poor for any purpose. they have coming through alive. cauliflower and turnip.Bugs and Diseases DTI 201 About the area. In 1899 cabbage and cauliflower were again grown on the area. disease. and they were free from the disease. and the blight of melons. much of the danger will be but even in that case it is wise not to take averted the risk with such serious diseases as club -root.

W." 6. a temperature of the soil has reached 200°. Let each box stand for an hour.202 The Principles of Vegetable. then take out and put where desired to be used. to one box at a time. Bring back soil to take place of this. The gardener should know what insects and diseases are likely to appear on any crop and then be prepared to fight them. bottom pipes laid 6 inches apart with holes 3 inches apart on both sides.. and inform himself as to what difficulties nozzles. W. boiler. Place in — 5 feet long. can be sterilized by bads as in hotbeds and houses — — heating it. so as to thoroughly cook. Insects and fungi can be killed. He to and knows immediatelv what is then forehanded do when the trouble . and will sterilize 20 cart-loads. will be likely to confront pumps and him. and by that time the other box will be ready and the steam can be again let into the first box. busy with a horse and cart all day. the winter season he should secure buy the materials for the various mixtures.Gardening This is good advice when one is filling the hotbed or The soil in permanent seedthe greenhouse benches. with When the pressure of 50 lbs. and open at the Connect these with the steam pipe from the ends. Nowadays. Fill the box with soil and let on steam. spraying is the economical means. shut ojffi and let in to other box. then empty In this way two men will be kept the other box. the The time are his to make In this preparation is before the crops planted. Rawson in " gives his method of steri- lizing soil be grown : Have two which greenhouse or winter lettuce is to large boxes that will hold a cart-load each 4 feet Avide and 3 feet high. if needed.

Keep posted on spraying devices by sending for the catalogues of manufacturers and by reading the bulletins and papers.a good book on insects and perhaps another on fungous diseases. 203 appear. The pest may be dispatched more readilv at this time. Another important item in the spraying of plants is thoroughness.Spraying arises. therefore. the should spray be applied. and the plants will not have suffered seriously. Paris green and other insecticides. is worth more than a half dozen sprayings when the operator mereh' sprinkles the tops of the leaves. Ever}" gar- dener should bu}. Most persons prefer to apply both insecticides and fungicides in a water spray. may know the vulnerable points. Some of the requisites for a good pump have been . which completely covers the plant. that he He should know when the pests are likely to He should learn something of their habits. a bellows device. the only safe way is to put the poison on every part of the plant. An is essential point in the application of any spray The minute the trouble appears. A bug will not go where poison is: the poison must be put where The bug is likely to avoid the poison: the bug is. and then keep up-to-date by reading the agricultural papers and the experiment station bulletins. One thorough spraying. may be applied dry by means of timeliness. but this is scarcely practicable in windy weather. and also with less expense of material and effort. and even some fungicides. Be sure that the spray is of the right kind and well made: then do not be afraid to apply it.

. 3. W. 5.23 Fig. ealla (Gould). same. 13 UcGowen.). for Vermorel. Boss (Field Force Pump Co. 4G. . 19. Paris green. Cyclone nozzles. same with long tube. graduated spray.ukle. 22. 17. Nixon nozzles: 23. 15. Vermorel nozzles. 4. longsliank bordeaux nozzle. Y for two nozzles11. Masson 10. 20. double Vermorel. Winkle nozzle for Bordeaux.2. 7. 9. 12. 16. 8. 21. lilly (Rumsey). C. carnation nozzle (Gould). 1. undersprayer (Boekel). 14. 18. 24. 24 Various types of spraying nozzles. with pole altaclinient 'nozzle (Gould).

diseases. preparation of A good This rig for potatoes. 47.Fungicides discussed on page 120. 47. applied. it into every nook and crevice of the On a pair of old wagon wheels an ingenious man can construct a good platform for the mounting of a spraying rig. but is probable that the its merit to make the material adhere to the foliage effects of and to neutralize the caustic the sulfate of copper. is For plant Bordeaux Fig. If it at least. and is practically impossible any one spraying to cover every part of the plant. diluted with water. It 205 important that the appashould break up the spray and It is should drive plant. If it is desired to have the foliage and . ratus have power. however. Bordeaux mixture is a blue whitewash. it falls. is well to spray every few in because new shoots and it new foliage are constantly appearing. See Figs. before appears. the growth — of the spores of the Bordeaux mixture is well made and well will adhere to the foliage for some weeks. In serious daj-s. adheres closely to the foliage aiad prevents the germi- — or. It has some slight fungicidal value. it discolors the plants. is a of is sulfate copper chief lime and lime. the staple fungicide mixture. 48. if it particularly case of has time to set before rain attacks. Bordeaux even mixture the may be disease applied with for it advantage nation fungi. 4G.

Fig. a. sprayer. Types of power 2. Caswell geared Morley): 5. mounted barrel sprayer. Eureka tanli omJit (Morrili & ilorl.utl lank outfits. & Caswell sled sprayer. 3. 1. 4.'sy). 48.). . wagon outfit fMorrill 6. Vietor outfit (Field Force Pump Co.

Insects of the second type comprise those which suck the juices of the plant and must be destroyed by some material which kills them by contact. Of — . it is probable that there is some injury at the root or in some part of the main stem. Whenever the whole plant wilts or seems to be affected internally. but it does not adhere so long. the chewing or biting insects. so far as their manner of eating is concerned. insects. and the sucking insects. has no recourse except and then by means of strategj^ to avoid the recurrence of the trouble. Insects of the former type are dispatched by poisoning their food.Insecticides fruits free 207 from discoloration. the chief are the various kerosene preparations and whale-oil soap. It is not every kind of plant disease which is destroyed or averted by means of Bordeaux mixture or other sprays. as the beetles and larvae (worms). there are two general kinds. This is usually done by spraj-ing the plants with Paris green or some other arsenical poison. This material is ordinarily somewhat cheaper than the Bordeaux mixture. it may be advisable to ammoniacal carbonate of copper solution. In these cases the affected man to destroy the plants. The trouble in this case may be due to root insects. Of these materials. and its practical fungicidal value is generally not conuse the sidered to be so great. borers or to some bacterial or other internal trouble which cannot be reached by external applications. as the various scales. and kerosene (coal -oil) are the insects which feed on the external parts of the plant. For arsenic leading remedies. plant -lice and squash -bug.

If it is put into the barrel dry. the rate of eight ounces to 50 gallons. The ordinary strength is one pound of the Paris green to 200 to 300 gallons of water. Paris green is sometimes added to Bordeaux at it is . he adds his pound of poison to 200 gallons of Bordeaux mixture. Lime also makes it adhere better. in order to in a little water) increase the adhesive properties. In this case. it is sometimes sufficient to sprinkle the Paris-green waten on the plants but the best results are to be secured only when it is applied with a pump and fine nozzle.Gardening Insecticides Paris green. so that the liquid is broken and driven to all parts of the plant. however. if one desires to use Paris green at the rate of one pound to 200 gallons. no matter on what plants it is used. That is. in composition. particularly is . The Paris green is added to the Bordeaux mixture as if the Bordeaux were so much water. On potatoes and some other plants.208 The Principles of Vegetable . it will be sufficient to satisfy the chemical reactions but it is ordinarily 100 gallons. it is now the practice to add lime to it. Paris green mixes better with it water before if it is made into a paste (by stirring thrown into the barrel. it may be used as strong as one pound to if lime is added. which is described Since Paris green may contain more or less soluble below. For potato bugs. since the lime of the Bordeaux mixture will answer all requirements. much of it floats and does not readily incorporate itself with the water. of course. its standard insecticide for all chewing or This material varies considerably price fluctuates. London purple is often used instead of Paris green. It is used in the same strengths and may also be added to the Bor- . arsenic. which is caustic to foliage. it will not be necessary to add lime to the Paris green. — The and biting insects is Paris green. Perhaps the best of the home-made substitutes is the arsenite of soda and lime. It is now customary to use Paris green in the Bordeaux mixture. advisable to add as much lime as there is Paris green. If the amount of lin-e one-half or one-third as much as the Paris green. therefore many sub- stitutes are in the market. and thereby to combat both insects and fungi at one spraying.

the kerosene compounds are the most popular insecticides. 8 lbs. at the end of which time the material should be so thoroughlj. It is is of Lime — Kerosene as formerly. each). hence the formula given is suffiTwo to four pounds of stone lime are slaked and added to each barrel. When treating plant-lice. water. Put all the materials into an iron kettle. 209 generally a more variable commodity thau the Paris green aud Arsenite of soda. or feeding stage. as scales. carbonate of soda washing soda). and has been N . —A mechanical emulsion of kerosene and water a very efficient insecticide. (sal soda. it will not be necessarj' to use lime in addition to that already in the Bordeaux. If the arsenite of lime is used in Bordeaux. If the emulsion is to be used on dormant trees in the winter it is not necessary to dilute it so much. or until the arsenic dissolves.Arsenite deaux mixture." gallons of the spi-aying mixture but one pint is To make fifty needed. it if This put Be sure to put the bottle in a safe place and label "Poison. place one-half pound of hard soap. and the true bugs (like the squashbug). 2 lbs.emulsified that the liquid has a milk-like constituency. be prepared at any time. not used so much — White arsenic. For insects which suck their food. add two gallons of kerosene (or coaloil In order to thoroughly emulsif}' the ingredients. 2 gals. when the soap is dissolved. and will keep indefinitely a tightly corked bottle. plant-lice. The kerosene emulsion is sure death to all plant-lice and to scale insects when they are in of this stock solution cient for sixteen barrels (of 50 gals.. making two gallons of the stock solution. Add water to replace that escaped may in by evaporation. howvery essential that the application be made before the leaves have curled up and afforded them protection. their young is ever.. Kerosene and soap emulsion. and boil for fifteen minutes. run them through a pump vigorously for fifteen or twenty minutes. — i. but the following is one of the best: Into boiling soft water (one gallon). which should not be used for any other purpose. Kerosene and soap emulsion is the standard. it Kerosene and water is emulsion. There are several ways of making this. like Paris green. This material majthen be diluted with water ten to fifteen times when using.

and more easy to make than the kerosene and soap emulsion. so that the kerosene quickly evaporates. The striped cucumber and melon beetle is usually driven away if the plants are thoroughly dusted with tobacco to way the insecticide. but the grades of crude petro- leum vary so much that it seems to be difficult to give general advice. Some plants are not injured by pure kerosene applied when the sun is shining.Gardening be so fox- many years. The kerosene and water emulsion is cleaner. Some of these pumps are now sufficiently perfected to be recom- use. This is a very disagreeable compound to dissolve and handle. It has not come into general been any device which would thoroughly and accurately emulsify them. Recent experiments and practice have shown that an emulsion of waler and crude petroleum makes a very efficient insecticide . Tobacco dust is a standard insecticide and repellent for some insects. and it is gradually giving kerosene emulsion. It has been found that when the water and oil are thoroughly emulsified the foliage will endure without injury an emulsion which contains one-fourth or one-fifth of kerosene. when applying the kerosene and water emulsions.— An old-time remedy for scale insects and plant-lice is whale-oil soap. The grower should secure the latest bulletins on the subject. formula given above. however. . One should experiment on a few plants. however. pumps have been invented which mix and emulsify the kerosene and water in different proportions. although it is a very efficient It is customary to dissolve one pound of whale-oil soap in four or five gallons of water. if he is using a denser strength. however. however. and the kerosene and soap emulsion will then pass away. because there has not mended with confidence. and this strength is fatal even to the San Jose scale. much more easily applied. It is probable that within the next few years these machines will be still further perfected. as it is expected that considerable progress will be made in this direction within the next few years. before he applies Some tender plants are injured by the it on very large areas. fThale-oil soap.210 known to The Princwles of Vegefable. to make the application on a sunny day. It is always best. Within the last two or three years.

4 lbs. but of burlap usually better to put in a piece and suspend If this over night in four to six gallons of cold water. pour the vitriol solution into the spray barrel and then fill the latter about half full of water. — Bordeaux is Mixture to 211 The flea-beetle. White hellebore is poisonous to insect life. When slaking a small amount of lime do not cover it with water but add water gradually.. will corrode tin. when it would take but five minutes if skilfully handled. but is much less injurious to human beings than the arsenic compounds. better. any hurry. If warm milk of lime is used for making Bordeaux there is likely to be more trouble with clogging of the nozzles. These insects are also driven away to a great extent when the plants are thoroughly covered with Bordeaux mixture. as fast as the lime takes it up. wliich an invidious enemy many be repelled to a certain extent with the same treatment. When ready to begir. some time needed for making Bordeaux. crops. It may be applied either dry or in water. If there is — To it make 1 bbl. also may Fungicides Bordeaux mixture. and wash from the trees more easily. If lime is "drowned" it will often take half an hour to slake. stone lime. but not essential. in order that it may become cool. when it is considered to be unsafe to use Paris green or other arsenites. to slake the lime before is . In the dry state it may be applied full strength or diluted half with flour. one ounce of poison is mixed with three gallons of water. 4 lbs. it Always use a wooden It is it pail for dissolving vitriol. spraying. (50 gals. only the bottom of the burlap rests in the water. the is vitriol may be quickly dissolved in it a pail of hot water. clog the nozzles. if it is the vitriol will dissolve quicker than completely immersed. Only good stone lime should be used even a little air-slaked lime in Bordeaux is likely to give a mixture which will burn the foliage. pint by pint. .Hellebore dust. When applied in a water spray. It is sometimes used on cabbages and other plants late in the season.): Copper sul- fate (blue vitriol). If an ordinary oil barrel is sawed in two the halves make very handy tubs in which to slake lime and dissolve vitriol.

Gardening make ten not done after slaking. to the or it may be slaked consistency of putty. which would clog the nozzle. and will be sufficient for a season. covered to prevent evaporation. hand. a certain fraction pounds needed for a barrel. stir the mixture thoroughly for a few minutes.212 If The Principles of Vegetable. otherwise the Bordeaux is more likely to burn the foliage and Fill the barrel with water to make fifty gallons. of its area will contain the four this is separated off at . and four gallons will be needed to make fifty gallons The stock solution of vitriol must be kept tightly of Bordeaux. and covered with water to exclude air. A piece of wire fly screen or a double thickness of coarse potato burlap is excellent. the lime should now be diluted to to fifteen gallons of "milk of lime. It should preferably be poured into the barrel through a screen of some sort to take out the unslaked lumps. but the vitriol solution and may be kept on hand ready for mixing. spread evenly over the bottom of a narrow trough. Knowing the number of pounds of lime in the trough. Instead of measuring the lime it is often more convenient to use the ferro-cyanide test when large amounts are slaked beforehand. Bordeaux ing. Fertilizer sacking is too fine meshed for this purpose. If there is no automatic agitator attached to the pump. and is lumpy. An ounce of potassium ferro-cyanide may be bought in any drug store. the mixture should be thoroughly stirred with a paddle while spraying at least every five minutes. and one end when needed." This is poured into the spray barrel and unites with the vitriol solution to make Bordeaux. When much spraying is to be done it generally saves time to make a slaked lime stock solution of the vitriol and slake a quantity of lime before Thus forty pounds of vitriol may be dissolved in forty Each gallon will then contain one pound of vitriol. A good plan is to sink the barrel containing it in the ground. gallons of water. as it itself should always be made fresh for each spray- deteriorates on standing. It is not wise to mix the vitriol solution and the milk of lime when less dilute than this. Likewise forty pounds of lime may be slaked in forty gallons of water and used like the vitriol.

A good fungicide can be made by dissolving copper and ammonia and then diluting the solution with water. This test is made by taking out a little of the Bordeaux in a small dish and adding to it a drop of the ferro-cyanide solution. This material has the great advantage over Bordeaux mix- making Bordeaux is then estiwhen taken from the stock. make the material adhere has not been very successful. The material does not adhere to the foliage as long as Bordeaux mixture. it is better to buy. for the free useful fungicide it when is ammonia is likely to injure foliage. and — ture of not discoloring the foliage or fruit. Carbonate of copper. or when it is desired to spray plants that are used for ornamental effects. This stock solution may be kept indefinitely in a tightly corked bottle. This makes a clear. which The addition of lime to is as easily applied as the water itself. An excess of lime is not injurious and probably is beneficial. If a reddish brown color appears more lime is needed. If the very strong ammonia can be secui-ed Uhat whkih is known as 26° Beaume). It is well of ammonia required will depend upon its strength. it should be diluted with water at the rate of one ounce of carbonate of copper to eight to twenty gallons of water. more lime than is needed to satisfy the test. The standard fungicide is Bordeaux mixture. and for that reason it does not retain its efficiency and is not so much used. bluish liquid. When wanted for use. The carbonate of copper may be made at home by treating sulfate of copper with sal soda but unless one wants it in large quant. The carbonate of copper may be dissolved at the rate of The amount an ounce in one pint to one quart of ammonia. enough is added to satisfy the ferro-cyanide test. and it should be added It is even wise to use until no change in color takes place. ity. instead of calculated. however.Bordeaux Mixture Dissolve it — Copper and label Carbonate the 213 in a pint of water." The needed amount of lime for mated. It is therefore a needed to apply late in the season when the fruit is nearly grown. . the solution should be diluted with seven or eight times its volume of water. to use only enough ammonia to dissolve the copper. bottle "Poison. the incidental one is carbonate of copper.

particularh' if the city is mature. but sells it is his products grower in attractive packages. marketing are five: (1) (2) uniform grades in the marketed product (3) good packing. He can hold his customers year by year. and he has an opportunitj' to establish a reputation. cations. (5) honesty on Given these qualifithe part of both grower and seller.000 and upwards a special trade can be established. labels. If the This is often denied. Where there are ten men who can grow a product to advantage there may be only one who can sell it to advantage. They are afraid to spend money for natty packages. and The bases of all good a good and seasonable prod- within his own observation. with neat nevertheless true. city of 10. uct. the gardener need not hesitate to push his product and to ask the buyer to pay him an extra price. There is a brisk demand for In any good vegetables and fruits at good prices. (214) . the local market is the most to be desired. All the business may be . Horticulturists have not j'et learned the art of advertising. (4) attractive packages.CHAPTER VII MARKETIXa AXD STORING Fully half the profits in vegetable -gardening de- pend on the marketing. He knows what is being done with his products. The grower is known. attractive advertisements in local papers. Other things being equal.

must be sure to have his vegetables in season and he will do well. l)rovide safe Chapter on merce. Every pair of shoes is in a special the prices box. . horticulture in Depews''0ue Hundred Years of American Com- . also. marks may not apply .Packing labels if Vegetables 215 need be. These remust set a standard and live up to it. are Formerly prices for low. The following extracts from Alfred Henderson* indicate how times have changed "For thirty years prior to 1875 market-gardening ])roducts. 1. barrels Now and gardens are Then." 1895. and miscellaneous boxes could be nsed now attractive packages are often necessary to advertise the and strong ones are essential in order to transportation. for therebj^ he can hold his customers. to provide a continuous and varied He supply. and places them in the hands of an enterprising grocer who caters to the best trade. vegetables were high. but such persons usualh' find special meaus and outlets for disposing of their products because they have found such outlets is the reason for the growth of their business. and the gardens were near the markets. and properly sorted and arranged. often a thousand miles from the consumer.to those who grow things on a large scale. is the day of small and special packages. PACKING This Conditions have changed within a generation. . he will not need to The grower for the home market peddle his wares.

grew than the Long Island men. is Formerly basit kets of various sizes were used for this purpose. as potatoes and many of the -crops. the fewer will be and the less the labor of sorting and grad- In crops which are not to be carefuUj. root the vegetables may be is placed directly in to be taken to the the package in which the product market. for of late been met by them in the large truck -gardens of the While this competitive factor has certainly South.Gardening in was a most York. in consequence of the inroads made for building purThe Long poses. it but this is impossible with baskets unless one resorts to expensive staging. however. mainly located in ter vegetables Hudson county.216 The Principles of profitable j^ears Vegetable . but their limited area of land becoming less and less annually." Such changes in conditions are reasons enough for a change in business methods of disposing of the crop. the bushel box storehouse. business and around Jersey New bet- Thirty ago the New market- gardeners. Packing and sorting of a crop should begin in the field. but much better because is cheaper. more durable and One stows better on the wagon or in the tier of boxes may be piled on another. .sorted into and packed by hand. more than the culls ing. sizes The better the crop is grown. have not had men. it all their own Island formidable years competitor a has waj'. Nothing is better for the handling of heavy products than a bushel box (Fig. certainly in ordinary farm crops. lessened their profits. 49). even at the lower prices that prevail to-day there is still a fair profit in the business for them. the Long Islanders forged ahead.

The Fig. and this is probably one of the poorest kinds in which to show olf goods to advantage. (3) it seldom lasts more than one -third as long. bushel boxes (1) may be made so as to fit readily into a wagon. Xovember. and 8 inches deep. Its standard value is 10 rents. is This a load basket costs same material in boxes. and by the use of deck boards a ver3' large and solid load may readily be put on that binds well together.The Bushel Box 217 The value of the bushel box as a receptacle for the handling of vegetables is well set forth b}. . *The Market Garden. 49. Paul and Minneapolis most common package for the display of vegetables is the bushel basket. of full baskets solid not nearly so nor so easily built up as of the the style used extensively in the Boston markets. p. It is 16 inches square. (4) the goods do not appear to such advantage in it as in a box. Far better and more economical i'or the same his goods. while a basket is is is of short duration and of not easily repaired. (2) a box lasts indefinitely and easily repaired. the purpose ket is the bushel box. (3) a box capable of holding a bushel can be made much cheaper than a basket 1894.Professor Green* as follows: "In these days of close competition it is very important for the seller to use great care in the selection of a favorable package in which to display In the markets of St. On the other hand. disadvantages of the bushel bas- may be : briefly (1) is as follows A summed up wagon load Bushel box. (2) a bushel about 50 per cent more than a wellmade box holding the same amount. 3.

218 The Principles of Vegetable. They should be put on the market or in storage quickly. a short piece of wood. The This is sides and bottom should be one-half inch thick. when ventilation is needed for those in the low^er tier. it is important that thej' be kept dry and cool. The deck boards may carry several tiers of boxes. onehalf an inch thick.Gardening is far better for showing off Perhaps the most desirable form for a bushel box for general nse is sixteen inches square and eight inches deep. A wagon for carrying such boxes to best ten cents. In this shed there should be tables or counters on which the sorting or grading caii days. load. may be laid across the upper corners of the corner boxes so that the second tier will rest upon them. but. which will bind well together and make a solid the same size. the style of box commonly used in the markets of BosSuch a box is there sold for about ton and vicinity. If one has any quantity of vegetables to handle. it . it is well to have a packing-house or shed. (4) the box goods. advantage should be wide enough to allow of placing in the bodj' of it two rows of boxes abreast and two deep. before they have been subjected to unfavorable conditions of weather Some vegetables. particularly such as remain green or soft in their marketable stage. are not or to accidents. Over-ripeness and decay are then prevented. as a rule. as onions. inside dimensions. The end pieces should be one inch thick." In handling the products in the field and in the storehouse. injured by being left in the even sun for a few hours or is better to keep the vegetables in partial shade. In building a load of boxes. with a handle hole in each end.

and is therefore often difficult to secure sufficient uniformity to enable one to sell his products under a trade -mark. but also to the only to the appearance of the vegesnugness of packing. but they keep longer and present a more attractive appearance. are usually sold will sell is grades.or even stored for the winter. the smaller ones will usually sell as well as the mixed ideals. it finer or dessert vegetables is well to pack in some . if one has uniform packages and gives close attention to the details of the business. this house should have a pit or one end in which vegetables can be kept temporarih. In the packing of vegetables. This (2) Pack in grades. vegetables in our city markets contributes not table. cellar at mind the following is. the A is large handled from ten to fifteen tiines from the field to the consumer. it is well to bear in be done. Vegetables that ai-e packed snug not only bear transportation better. and the larger ones much better. he should be able to establish a series of grades that will be (3) In the associated with his name in the market. This part of particularly important the vegetables are to be shipped any considerable distance. If by by the specimens are sorted into two accessories. However.Principles of Packing 219 If possible. In the better kinds of vegetables this snug packing is secured by placing each specimen by hand. essentials: if (1) Pack snug. tomatoes and others that are used as table delicacies and the smallest specimens in the package rather than the large ones. Since the grading of vegetables a matter of mental it the grade varies with every packer. Vegeta- bles like melons. lot.

sive. and dessert trade. vidual consumer.220 The Principles of Vegetable -Oardening package or to use a trade -umrk or label which from others. but this condition of affairs is wrong. particularly one aiming . but even with them It is be done. such heavy and staple products as potatoes. larl}^ This is particu(5) true of dessert in and perishable products. This is essential if one is to establish an individual reputaWith tion and to hold customers from year to year. open or ventilated packages for all green vege- tables in warm weather. with all the better kinds of vegetables. Aim. and kale. barrels are least desirable except for a staple product shipped a long distance and thrown on the general market. at least for those that are to in be shipped a long distance. Thejshould go into the packages with a low temperature. at special The warmer the season. but not with vegetables. beets. Of that is all the packages use at the present time. as cabbage. They keep longer and hold their rather than warm. Pack relatively small pacliages. of it is usually inadvisable to attempt this kind it marketing. if new is or gift packages may be used. common to associate a special can sometimes package with fruits. A barrel does not appeal to the indialso Barrels are relatively expen- For the finer kinds of vegetables. so far as possible. or distinctive will distinguish one's products cabbages. the package should be well ventilated in order to prevent heating. particularly if the to use It is well packages are as large as barrels. quality better under such conditions. spinach one is shipping green stuff. (4) Pach the vegetables cool. the smaller If the quantity should be.

Some of the packages in whieli long-distance shipments of vegetables are made. Common commercial styles of packages for vegetables are shown in Fig. cucumbers. Among such vegetables are tomatoes. 50.Kinds of Parl-ages at the special 221 trade. and. and niuskmelons. 50. This is emphatically true with those vegetables to deliver that need careful in handling in order them good condition to the consumer. with the trade- . in case the goods are sorted. egg- Fig. The shipper should mark the packages with his plants name.

Usually the careful gardener will need a special kind of wagon. of the shipper is on the package many Fig. either by wire or by letter. "With certain kinds of vegetables. 51). Com pare Figs. For use in the field he needs something in . The dealer is likely to receive consignments from and unless the name persons in one day. Another type of sorting machine is an inclined box or rack with slat bottom over which the products are rolled The small specimens drop between the (Fig. slats. and the large ones roll on to the end of the box and are caught in a barrel or other receptacle. A cylinder-sorter for pot. 82 and 83. it is well to notify the dealer in advance. chines work on the principle of a revolving sieve or The screen through which the crop is run (Fig. products then drop through the mesh according to size. 52). confusion is may result.222 The Principles of Vegetable. 51. however. Although the sorting and grading of vegetables entail extra labor and expense.atoes and fruits. sorting machines may be Some of these maused. they nearly always pay if one desires to reach a personal customer. particularly with potatoes.Gardening the mark or name of the product. When an important shipment made.

is In nearly every great trucking center there a special kind of market wagon. In order to do the best with one's products. 223 the nature of a truck with wide and small wheels these platform thi-ee tiers if that will turn under the platform. one of which is shown in Fig. all complete. and top to shield the driver. costs about three hundred and fifty dollars. the grower must keep track of the market. In some parts of Long Island these wagons are loaded on flat cars at the railway stations and are taken into the markets by that means. It is provided with a large canvas cover. 53. 54). Oue of these rigs can carry three tons of produce. which can be tied over the load. One of the most kind used on the western end of Long Island. On distinct of these is the the macadam roads of that section these wagons and are often hauled twenty and thirty miles to the market. with cover. ready for the opening of the market daybreak (Fig.Garden Wagons tires. One of these wagons weighs about eighteen hundred pounds. The wagon. A slat-sorter for potatoes and fruits.Marlcet. The teams rive in the in the at are started in the evening or night ar- New York City market by about two o'clock morning. 52. necessary. he . On wagons the boxes may be stored in two or Fig. If possible.

therefore. as onions and squashes. In every way endeavor to keep up with the times in the selling of the produce as well as should visit the market.224 The Principles of Vegetable. He in the growing of it. With of t exception and u ber crops. papers. reduced price. uncertain unless storage Long Island market is wajjon. most vegetables are in Pig. maintains uniformity of moisture and temperature. Some of them must be kept warm and some cool. than to go to the even at a somewhat expense and risk . and which.Gardening He should consult the trade should ask his dealer about the new ideas in packages and packing. Others. at the rear. they are kept in an The canvas cover is rolled on the pole establishment that cooled by artificial means. 53. Each vegetable. therefore. 2. STORING enunciate principles that will It is impossible to apply to storing all kinds of vegetables. must be dry still others. In general. Ordinarily he will be able to secure better information if he deals continuously with one reliable firm. must be kept moist. as cabbages and roots. it is better to sell in the fall. for these products include fruits. is a law : unto the I'oot itself. roots and leaves.

as to 225 is When. a low temperature is essential to the keeping of the product. Persons who have become expert in the handany one vegetable may store it with relative If one has had no experience in the storing vegetables that are difificnlt of those to keep. The covered market : generally better to put them in the one who makes a business of cold storage and hands of some pay his labor and experience.storing of storing. however. 54. It prevents over-ripening and him for delays the work of fungi and other disorganizing . In the very front of the picture is a dilapidated stone wall and a discarded market wagon these are not parts of the market. ling safety. storing of a necessary re- course. is in the rear. Fig. the fall market is so low prevent any profit. and the open-air market in the foregi-ound. Brooklyii. it is Daylight vfew of Wallabout market. In general.

parsnips. by however good the storage. if the temperature is kept low The reason for this enough to prevent sprouting. For home use. particularly when the temperature is too high. (4) Avoid a wet and stagnant atmosphere. is due to the infection of the plants with the rot fungus before the heads are put Onions that have been seriously attacked in storage. carrots. it is well to store roots and tubers in moist sand or in sphagnum moss (such as nurserymen Beets. . The Principles of Vegetable. The following essentials apply to the storing of most vegetables: (1) Protect from frost. No doubt some of the loss in the storing of cabbages. is well to relatively near the freezing point .Gardening Usually it keep the temperature but there are some vegetables. (2) Keep them cool in order to prevent decay.226 agents. either over -ripe or markedly under-ripe usually do not keep well. (5) Protect from heating. the smut or rust may not be expected to keep w^ell. and in the proper state of maturity. for example. and potaand florists use). good result is that the sand or moss prevents evaporation and maintains uuiformitv of conditions. toes stored in this way will keep plump and fresh for a twelvemonth or more. as squashes and sweet potatoes. for heating is the natural result of the accumulation of much fresh vegetable matter. which are Products which are injured by a low temperature. (3) Keep them relatively moist in order to prevent excessive evaporation and wilting. as this is likely to engender rot. It is essential to any success in the storing of vegetables that the specimens be perfectly sound when put in storage.

cellar. In some cases an extra flue may be provided in the house chimney when the house is built. If an outside cellar is to be permanent. it is well to have a special vent or chimney.gardeners for the storing of roots. Tl^e vegetables slirivel and tend to start into growth. .The Outside Cellar 227 cellar is likely to be one of the poorest which to store vegetables. It is cellar" usually gives better conditions for the storing of vegetables than the likely to be quite as uniform in temperature. In such case it is likely to be too warm and too drj-. the pit is built partially above the ground. particularly if it contains a heater for the residence. Cellars that contain much vegetable matter is are likely to make the house unhealthy unless there ample ventilation and pains is taken to pick over the vegetables from time to time and remove all unsound specimens. or if the ground is likely to be moist. and the warmth of the chimney will cause a strong draft. The old-fashioned "outside house tions." with various modifications. and more uniform in the moisture condi- The "outside cellar. If the house cellar is used for the storing of vegetables. This cellar is little more than a pit sunk to the level of the ground with a gable roof covered with soil and sod so that frost cannot enter. celer^^ and other products that do not require a drj' air. and thereby keeps the cellar pure and at a relatively low temperature. the walls may be laid of stone or brick. leek. This may be a cheap board affair extending up This the back side of the house as high as the roof. tlue carries off the foul and warm air. or to decay The house places iu quickly. used is largely by market.

either natural or artificial. Old-time " outside cellars " or pits. and also for ventilation without opening the This ventilation is usually secured by main doors. It very important that provision be made for ample L Fig. Fig. providing the drainage. 56.Gardening masonry Trail is lined with hollow or ''lining brick. A good outside cellar for storing green vegetables. little a is ture or by windows if cupola or shaft near the center of the strucin the gables. A great dilRculty with a permanent field or outside cellar is the danger of its holding so much moisture and being so "close' as to encourage the growth of fungi . 55. di'ainage. A vestibule entrance the climate is desirable severe." is niore uniform fonditions will be secured.228 If the The Principles of Vegetable. It is preferable that the cellar have a natural earth bottom. is complete.

that An investigation by Duggar'^ into the causes of the rotting of celery in storage showed the disease houses. sod-eovered. growth sufficient to establish the roots in the soil and to complete the development of the inner leaves. Cornell Exp. it should be so provided with ventilating appliances that at any time advantage might be taken of any cold intervals to rapidly and effectually chill the house. and with » Bull. then. It They are inexpensive. celery tinue in the storage house a very slow growth —a Fig.supported "The greatest diffihouse. Sta. 132. the house should be so snugly constructed as to provide against freezing. phase of the suband they are therefore copied here. may be suggested that in constructing root houses or storage houses of any kind the fundamental principles involved relative to the purpose of the structure should be constantly considered. After describing the old-fashioned. To continue succulence and must cdn- erispness. its vitality. is associated largely with poor and this damp His remarks on ject will apply to field cellars in general. 55. to approach the temperature sought. . however. which would speedily wilt and rot it. post. In order. Interior of .Duggar on Storage Pits 229 and thus engender decay. but it renders next to impossible the growth of iniurious fungi. as shown in Fig. 57. Not only does this temperature hold the plant in the desired condition of greatly suspended activities. Again.i model storage pit. but the lowest temperature at which freezing will not take place is luost desirable. Duggar proceeds culty with these houses is that they rot down rapidly. Thorough freezing is fatal. and they may : give some trouble with moisture. after which it might be securely closed for a warmer period.

56 and 57 is shown one of the most improved root I have seen in operation. seems also There are large double doors at each end. With the usual excavation of eighteen inches or two feet.230 The Principles of Vegetahle . Y. affording the best protection against cold. 58. and the photograph here Fig.Gardening temperature remain for a time at a point more this enclosed lower nearly that desired. Irondequoit. The additional large air-chamber above the collar-beams. and the desirable. and the roof is well provided with air-chambers and paper linings. . with its separate windows. N. Details of eoiistructlon of a good stonifie Ikhisc / reproduced was taken on the premises of Abraham Franke. houses which "In Figs. this structure has a brick foundation.

was stocked with celery at the time this picture was made. ture. side {a. and in spite of having been harvested early. It will be seen that Fig. building paper at d and /. the plants were farIt ing well. The odor of tar in the house has caused comment. I). with tarred paper covering the final layer of boards. 57. with an air-space at upon either and outer sheathing at g. but if the .A tions well Good Storage Cellar 231 space between each outer aud inner door is large. and also of the ventilator (/. and the connecarranged for the exclusion of cold air. The rafter is b. c). provided with a single "I have seen a cheaper and modified form of the above strucair-chamber outside of the rafters and first boarding. On this is a thickness of sheathing e. An interior view of this house is shown in Fig. The plate (h) is held firmly to the wall by a tongue (0 let into the brickwork. 59 shows the detail of the roof construction. Fig. and Details of a storage house. The cost of labor and materials is about $500. 58 shows the construction of the peak and collar(k) beam of the house.

these boards are lapped. for in the storage of almost any vegetable product the same three essential features are to be borne in mind. The whole pit is then covered with a gable roof made by laying boards from the margin to the ridge-pole. Usually it is necessary to support the boards between the margin of the pit and the ridge. and of the length required in order ture. there seems to be no need to fear even local censure. usually from fourteen to eighteen feet wide. and (3) proper protection against excessive moisture. viz: (1) protection against freezing. however. lightly in making a continuous roof. Boards about twelve feet long are now laid from the ground to and this is the ridge-pole. The ridgepole stands three to five feet above the bottom of the pit and is held on stakes that are driven through the center of the pit lengthwise. it are not nailed very secm-ely. (2) a temperature so low that the activities of the plant may not be incited and that the growth of fungi may be discour- aged.232 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening and sunned before celery is admitted. for may be nee- . The sides of the excavation are held by one or two planks placed on edge and secured by stakes driven into the ground. done by another run or plate held on stakes driven midway between the side and the ridge. A style that is may states to hold the crop that one has to store." Usually the vegetable cellar or pit is a temporary struc- much used in parts of the northern be described as follows: On warm and welldrained soil (preferably sand or gravel) an excavation is made from one to two feet deep. Ordinarily and the upper run is nailed The boards order to hold the roof in place. " The improved form of storage house which has been described above may be suggestive to market -gardeners who have other iiouse is well aired vegetable products to store for the winter markets.

and it will If. often will make a root-hold in the soil. These pits are made w^eather late in the fall. and even The plants cabbage. and particularly if the crop has been blanched in the field. important that the pit be covered very lightly at and more covering added as the cold weather comes If the full amount of covering is applied at first. added. and the place marked by a stake driven into the ground. large very useful for the storing of late or winter celery. leek and Brussels sprouts. celery only a short time. very uniform conditions are secured. as beets. In pits and subsequently manure or earth of this character. potatoes. which contain a body of air. and houses of this kind are used in the Kalamazoo celery region. are kept over winter with ease by burying them in the It is first. carrots. and therefore will not shrivel and are not so likely to rot as those Pits of this character are that are thrown in loose. however. root crops. At intervals of ten or twelve feet two or three boards are left is without nailing to allow of an entrance. . it is desired to keep blanch by spring.Tempomnj essary to use the boards the Pits 233 following year. straw. It is well to choose a warm and well -drained soil. another kind of house is usu- ally more desirable. Nearly field. and until severe freezing comes the protection of boards is sufficient litter is but as winter approaches. may be set compactly in rows. In that case. will These be discussed all when the subject of celery is considered. a house which has a is little artificial heat usually better. grass or other thrown over the is roof. on. In them the celery will grow somewhat. In them celer}'. and the subsequent covering will hold them in place.

It is customarj. when winter threatens to close in.234 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening the products are likely to heat and decay will set in. is Straw or salt In this the roots are piled hay or other dry litter frosts. the pile to give full protection. then thrown over the pile to protect from the early As the season advances. 60). as Russets. thus prevent- compartment ing the heating of the vegetables and also allowing one to be emptied during the winter without . modification of the loUg pit is the compartment -pit (Fig.to make a small circular or rectangular excavation from six inches to a foot deep and from six to eight feet across. the straw being four to six inches thick after it is well matted down. An excellent compartment covered. If a great quantity of roots is to be stored. Be sure that the beets and potatoes are not attacked by fungous diseases before they are put in the pit. covered deep enough Usually ten to twelve inches of earth itself over the straw will be sufficient. and there may be A compartment-pit. .__^_. in a tall cone. else . an inch or two of is earth thrown over the straw and is finally. particularly the long-keeping varieties. Apples can be buried in this way with very good results. the pit may be elongated to any length required. the vegetables will be likely to heat "^^^1^^^^^ Fig. In severe climates the earth may then be covered with a foot or two of horse manure. after each is too great pres- sure on the lowermost tubcrS. It is well not to make it much wider than six or eight feet. This has narrow partitions of earth every four or five feet. 60.

Sta. Exp. Sei. Wm. (Detroit. and press bulletin X. Rane. Prom. Also Bull. it is essential that the soil be naturally well drained. Exp.Hie exposing another. Agric. (April. — . and a furrow or ditch should be opened around the pit to carry off surface pit water. Sta. 84. soil. H. Note. particularly in loose and sandy In such cases the vegetables maj^ be heaped in several piles in a long and earth tramped in between the piles. Compartment -Pit 235 Usually these compartment -pits are feet in the earth is sunk two or three soil six to twelve inches wide pit is vations. Kan. F. 1900. he may consult Prof. 18th Annual ^Meeting Soe. however. partitions It is often difficult make hold their shape. Each these then filled and a partition of between the excauntil it is "rounded full" left and to is covered as above described. 1897). Proe.. 1899j. Whatever the style of pit. If the reader desires literature on the making of a farm cold-storag:e building.

.

special and local practice.PART II VEGETABLE-GARDENING CROPS CHAPTER VIII lyTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION In considering the culture of the vari »us crops. Under It similar nat- ural conditions applies everywhere. expounds the reason why. It may be of little good for anything it is read in many places and must One can never underapply to different conditions. for if a book is . From the mass of detail and of kernel. explains. A thing principle is it a universal truth. Knowing (237) Merely telling how to do a avail in a book. should be presented practice — to at the outset . but after with rules and advice of the ignorant one has read them he may still be The deessential things that the given crop needs. crop to the mands which are essential or peculiar essays are replete . thereafter the details of secured — may be show how these essentials are considered. stand a thing until he knows the reason why. it is essential that one be able to distinguish principles Gardening books and from mere details of practice. one must pick the — the little grain of truth that applies every- where and always.

and what are the means of harvesting and marketing. Knowing these things. he can. leaf crop. In the following pages an effort is made to give the comprehensive view when treating the different crops. although success in the cultivation of an}' crop is impossible without close attention to these details. 1.weather crop or warmnecessarily the servant of out a method. CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS The first essential in is an analysis of the methods of a classification of the crops cultivating the crops mere alphabetical arrangement is the best for easy reference and for those who are looking chiefly for rules. (5) to be grown in hills or drills. companion-crop.Gardening he can work out his method. details of practice are considered to be of secondary importance to the object which the author now has in view and he has not treated them in full. full-season crop. (4) whether to be transplanted or not. The Principles of Vegetable. what are its enemies. cold. (3) duration of its growth. — early or quick crop. or is if he cannot work some one Most men do not rise above details. Related plants demand sim- . but it does not contribute to an unthemselves. catch-crop. he next inquires what peculiar treatments the crop demands in tillage and other special care. who — weather crop. fruit crop. (2) demands as to season or climate. The main or bold facts which one needs first to know about a vegetable he would cultivate are these: (1) whether root crop. A derstanding of principles.238 this. (6) the special demands as to soil and plant -food.

It is the plant important that the intending." . pea." ligiit These plants are set frost. okra. when properly grown and handled. from the circumstance of some of the plants being used for diffei'ent purposes. is printed on p. classification is Loudon's (Cijclopa'dia of Gardening) of wdiich he remarks: "Though no such arrangement can be absolutely perfect." since. red pepper or capsicum. squashes and pumpkins. 258 of fourth edition of "The Horticulturist's Rule-Book. tomato. Some vegetables are essentially hot -season or semi -tropical plants: of such are corn. with minor modifications.cultivator classify with reference to climate or season. They are classed as "hard}'. The most perfect illustration of this . spinach. (2) * tlie Loudon's classification. all onion-like plants. cucumber. by bringing together such as present most points of union something better than a mere alphabetical catalogue is formed. Other vegetables are cool -season or mid. sweet potato. There are three general methods or schemes of classifying kitchen -garden vegetables: (1) A classification based primarily on the uses to which the crops are put. yet. eggplant. beans. lettuce. injured or killed by classed as "tender. They are commonl^^ in the They should not be open until danger of frost is past. potato." the only American work which has classified" the subject.temperate plants: of such are all root crops. they will withstand considerable frost." * This scheme. somewhat modified. rhubarb. celerj^ cress.Tender and Hardy ilar care: Plants 239 and these plants should be thrown together in groups. is used by Burr in his "Field and Garden Vegetables of America. asparagus. all cole crops. all melons.

Brassica. Selia-noprasum. Turnip and Rutabaga.Class Crops grown for subterranean parts. so far as mere classification is concerned. sativum.Gardening A ral' classification based ou botanical kinships or on natu- This gives the most perfect scheme. Scorzonera Hispaniea. Shallot. Potato. although necessarily arbitrary in some places In man\^ parts it closely parallels I now propose. Bulb Crops. elucidate tion principles of cultivation. Allium Cepa. Jistulosum.240 The Principles of Vegetable. Garlic. A. Daucus Carota. Such a scheme. Tuber Crops. T)ag(ii)ogon porrifolius. Beet. Loudon's. Salsify. Ascalonicum. Carrot. A. Sub. A. Leek. I. Annual Vegetables. Group 3. A. Scorzonera. Parsnip. Pastiuaca saiiva. but as occupy the ground more than a year. but it does not families. Solanum tuberosum. Beta vulgaris. * Horseradish and dandelion are perennials. EooT Crops. (3) A classifica- based on essential methods of culture. Group 1. Radish. Cive. Onion. Group 2. Horse . Porrum. now grown they do nol . Sweet Potaio.* Cochlearia Armoracia. Class I. Baphamis sativus. A.radish. Ipomcea Batatas.

Crops grown for fruit or seed parts.Classification 241 Sub-Class II. Cucumber. vidgaris. Kohlrabi. Pepper. Barharea Water Cress. Lettuce. 4. Kale and Borecole. Beta Orach. Upland or Winter Cress. B. Solanum Melongena. Dandelion. Cabbage. SoLANACEOus Crops. Group 6. Endive. Vicia. Lepidium sativum. Group Pulse Crops. Cichorium Endivia. Cauliflower and Broccoli. Apium graveolens. Phaseolus. Crops grown for foliage parts. oleracea. C. for ''greens"). Parsley. Cress. oleracea. Celery. Eggplant. Brassica oleracea. Brassica species. Pea. Tomato. B. Bean. Lycopersicum escidentum. Pot-herb Crops (used vulgaris. y^asturtium officiuule. Group 9. B. Physalis. Pisum sativum. Purslane. Dolichos. Taraxacum officinale. Salad Crops. Physalis or Husk Tomato. Sub-Class III. Group 8. Melo. Cueumis Melon. . Groups. sattvus. Atriplex hortensis. Capsicum annuum. 7. Mustard. Portulaca oleracea. Chard and Beet. oleracea. Lactuca saliva. Brussels Sprouts. Group Cole Crops. Carum Petroselinum. oleracea. Spinacea oleracea. Spinach. CucuRBiTOUS or Vine Crops. B.

Artichoke. it is not discussed in this book. HeJianthus tuberosus. Sweet Corn. acutangula. Cynara Scoh/mus. CONDIMENTAL AND SWEET HERES. Benincasa cerifera Pumpkin. Zea Mays. Group 10. although usually so classed. Mushroom.) Class II. it challenges experiment and controvers3% and thereby has and in the pleasure of be a reader. Corn. or Wax Gourd. Asparagus. Sorrel. Vegeiahle. . Sea Kale. Even if its advice is all wrong. Martynia. Martj'nia. and L.242 The Principles of Gherkin. Rheum Rhaponticum. Rumex. and a new idea is worth the having for the mere novelty of it. Hibiscus esciilentus. Mariynia proboscidiu Group 11. Rumex. 2. Books. Luffa ^gyptiaca vulgaris. Cucurbita. Ehubarb.Gardening Watermelon. BOOKS to secure the best results The person who expects in crops growing them should and bulletins are suggestive of new ideas. It is not a vegetable-gardening subject. periodicals. Okra. (Culturally and otherwise the mushroom is so unlike other garden vegetables that it demands special and separate treatment. Cucurbita. Zit-Kwa. Therefore. Asparagus officitialis. CitruUus Luffa. Crambe viaritima. Group 12. Every book has some value. Perennial Vegetables. Globe. Squash. Artichoke. Okra. C. Jerusalem. Docks. Angaria.

and note the ways of looking at the subject. The following list gives a general view of the history of vegetable -gardening in America. as Eolfs" for the Atlantic South and Wickson's for California. Henderson. Landreth. If he specializes with any crop he should procure a treatise on that particular subject. he will need a book written particularly for that area. But no book is all "wrong. Rawson. Every person who would grow vegetables should have two or three books which treat the general subject. Study the titles chronologically from 1799 to 1900. More often the reader is wrong. but it should be some satisfaction. Most of the books here mentioned are now valuable only as histories. in desiring to follow its details to the letter rather than to catch its spirit and to arouse himself to a new point of view. Even if one cannot use this knowledge in direct practice. It is not expected that the reader will buy any consid erable number of them. he should consider that the consciousness of knowing constitutes half the pleasure of living. In those which are now out of date and out of print he may have little interest. Green. Some of them are invaluable as practical manuals. If he lives in a peculiar geographical region." For odd and little -known vegetables the student may . as Greiner. to know what has been written and who has written it. at the least. he should by all means own "The Vegetable Garden " (London).Boohs 243 some excuse for its beiug. If one desires an authoritative cyclopedic work on vegetables. but the list will aid him to make a selection. an English version of Vilmorin's "Les Plantes Potageres.

244 The Principles of Vegetable." Finally it may be said that the student of American vegetable -gardening literature will be struck with the lack of any sustained effort to expound principles. but aLso books of general gardening . book that discusses vegetables with particular reference to A methods of displaying them at shows is Edwin Beckett's "Vegetables for Exhibition and Home Consumption" (London. Persons who are interested in growing plants for exhibition will also find help in William sou and Dunn's "The Horticultural Exhibitors' Handbook" (London. notable American book was devoted to this subject: Burr's "Field and Garden Vegetables of America" (Boston. Three years later an abridgment of this work was made under the name of "Garden Vegetables.Gardening consult Paillieux and Bois' "Le Potager d'un Curieux." (1894). American Books on Vegetable. new series. the reader should also consult Bull. 1863)." which. is not rendered into English. comprises not only those which are wholly devoted to vegetablegardening matters. for Exhibition. although the English ideals in On methods exhibition are often unlike the American. unhappily.Gardening The following inventory library is of books in the author's list a practically complete of American book It writings on vegetable-gardening subjects. on "Vegetables Grown For descriptions of varieties one must rely on the One seed catalogues and experiment station bulletins. of exhibiting. 1892). 1899). 69. It is an illustrated work of 674 pages. of the New York State Experiment Station.

Ernest Walker.ite of copyright. 1895.] pp. Aided by L. 1901. Same.] Garden Publishing Company. — — The Horticulturist's Rule-Book a compendium of useful information for fruit-growers. 6%x4%. 1892. [e. See Greiner. xvi+127. [c. R. revised.. 2d ed. New York and London..t ANDERSON.. pp. Orange Judd Co. —Same.] Vegetables by Waugh. B. Reprinted 1898. Charles. A. 1895. 3d ed. [The Garden-Craft Series. 65^x4%. C. revised and extended. [e.Books 245 that give any important part of their space to discussions of vegetables. 6%x4%.l=No record of copyright. H. vii+417. New York and London.] The Macmilian Company. 1896. 4th ed. Completed to the beginning of the year 1892. — Same. 3d ed. [n. C." BAILEY. [The Garden -Craft Series. 1898. See Marshall." ARLIE.]=No date.] Macmilian & Co. c. 1901. . 1901. 236. F.. Cabbage. [c. 6^x4%. Suggestions for the utilizing of home grounds. —Same. from Seed Illustrated. — Same. 4th ed. T. |c. New York. H. [c. . revised. Waugh.] *Signifies d. Same. as measured on the cover. The list does not include books on the forcing of vegetables. JAMES. H. L. 7%x5. ix-302. ix+312.*] TO Harvest. 6%x4%. Completed to the close of the year 1889.. vii+417. and Arlie. pp. t [n. " size of Book in inehes. vii+417. 1898. ALLEN. "How to Grow Onions. pp.] The Rural Publishing Compauv. pp. Cauliflower and Allied Vegetables. florists and others.. pp. truck-gardeners. 1895. vii+417. Taft. 221. 1889. pp. New York. 1889. d. C. pp. Garden-Making. "Au Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening. L. pp.

flowers.c] E. Edward Todd.] The Rural Publishing Company. enlarged and illustrated by S. d."] The Kitchen Gardener's Instructor. with practical directions under each head for the cultivation of culinarv vegetables and herbs. fruit trees. CHARLES. containing a history of the potato.49. xvi 391. and grape-vines. [n. 9x6. No. Flower-Gardening. Mieh. 25x60 feet. revised. Fruit-Gardening. 6%x4%. New edition. .69. Libby. . with Boston.]. [c. I. [The Rural Library. Illustrated. Colored plates. 152. My Handkerchief Garden Results A size. its Kalamazoo Celery Kalamazoo. W. health and $20. fresh vegetables.] Published by E. 1893. [c. H. + BOCHOVE. 166. 1872. directions for staying its further progress. 1846. cultivation + BRIDGEMAX. 8%x5. pp. Part II. BROTHER.75. also a treatise on the potato malady.] BEADLE. and Kitchen Gardener. pp. 29. all D. and Remedy for the Potato In two parts. and an inquiry into the causes producing the disease. cultivation 1893. garden. containing a catalogue of garden and herb seed. CHARLES P. ". Toronto. a guide in matters relating to the cultivation of fruits. pp. Co. 1872. and their value for cultivation in this c mate Illustrated. VAX and . [1st ed ] -Same.ii its Plague. 17. 1%-xb. with the remedies proposed. a view of various theoi'ies concerning it.246 The Principles of Vefjeiaole- Gardening BARN'ARD. Observations on the Potato. containing complete directions for the cultivation of vegetables. 1886. [e. 1893. Flower. [c. exercise. Part I.L. The American Gardener's Assistant. pp. Pratt. April. and secret of success. 1846. pp. 7>ix5. flowers and vegetables. 2d ed. THOMAS. 118. BOSSON. n. Kalamazoo Publishing pp. James Campbell & Son. its origin and appearances in different countries. Canadian Fruit. pp. [The work is a revision of "The Young Gardener's Assistant. Part m. 211. pp. and uses. Vol. In three parts. KitchenGardening. G. New York.

New York. directions for cultivating fruit trees. The Family Kitchen Gardener. 1837. FRANCIS. pp. c] Published by the author. ROBERT. for the cultivation of culinary vegetables and flowers. pp. New York. pp.16. —Same. the whole adapted to the climate of the United States. vi + 40S.Books 247 With a calendar. with an appendix. 1840. Seventh edition.] Mitchell & Turner. pp. [c. New York. xii+164. [c. C. 166.] BRILL. X 5."] all-eyed disease of the potato. 1840. By George Thurber. New York. Also. to which is added a calendar. from the sowing of the seed to the . [c. — Same. New ment. Cauliflowers and How and explicit directions management of this to Grow Them with plain practical minute detail for the cultivation and crop. containing a catalogue of garden and flower seeds." and "Florist's Guide. Barker & Co. BUIST. lished separately as "Kitchen Gardener's Instructor. 1837. [n. 1}4. 1886. sary to be done in the various departments of gardening in every month of the year. containing remarks on the Part 1865. M. showing the work necesetc.164. [The three parts were also pubpp. 7Xx5. improved. 9x5%. Saxton.] pp. + 8%x5. 360. Vegetable departWilliam Wood & Co. I. Riverhead. [1847.] Orange Judd Co. in marketing of the product. with practical directions under each head. directions for forcing or forwarding vegetables out of the The whole adapted to the climate of the ordinary season. 7%x5. New and enlarged edition. improved. vi -|. 8%x5%. A new and improved edition. With suggestions to seed-growers. Also. The Young Gardener's Assistant. the grape vines." "FruitCultivator's Manual. showing the work necessary to be done in a kitchen garden every month throughout the season. 1897. United States.] 1860. [1883. containing plain and accurate descriptions of all the different species and varieties of culi- . Now York. vi . edition. 1847. etc. Farm-Gardening and Seed-Growing. 8th edition.

descriptions and characters of the most select fruits. 1863. Third ed. Illustrated.] full descriptions of ties. French. C." "How to Grow Cabbages and What to " See Dailington. 7%x5.. 216. engravings. [c.. [c. XV + 674. New York. Boston. Root Crops for Stock Feeding and How to Grow Them. —Same. viii. and How to Cultivate Them. trated." BURR. [c. and Arlie. containing nearly eleven hundred species and variewith directions for propagation. [c. Philadelphia. pp. H. Illus- Garden Vegetables. IllusBoston. E. 1866. pp. See Pedersen. & Co. H. [Abridgment of the above]. 7%x5. and the best mode of with a decultivating them. FEARING. 1867.] pp.248 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening nary vegetables. 1863. pp. in the garden or under glass scription of implements and medicinal herbs in general use.] J. W. and German names. 12 + 355. Crosby & Nichols. Atlee Burpee Illustr. JR. Vegetables for the Home Garden. Philadelphia. 72. Atlee Burpee & Co. 127. . BURPEE. Also.] FOR Market. 7Kx5. 9x6. L. W.] C. Illustrated. pp. "How to Grow Onions. x + 7%x5. [c. culture and use. 1847. The Field and Garden Vegetables of America.. . M. ATLEE & CO." How See Greiner. their Illustrated with twenty-five management. 1896. 1888. [c. alphabetically arranged. J. etc. W. and Moll. Philadelphia. 216. and Howard. BURPEE. 7%x5. pp. 1898. 1852.] Orange Judd Co. M. W. pp. E. Compiled from the prize essays and practical experience. Saxton. 1888. English. with their botanical. Grow in a Kitchen Garden of One Acre. and Cauliflower Most Profitably. D. 7X x 5. + How TO Grow Melons 1888. 81. T. G. 1847. 1888]. [c. ATLEE. Tilton & Co. trated. propagation. New York. 1866.

ix J. pp.] Orange Judd & 1842. New York. The Cauliflower. Arbor. 1823.] The Rural Publishing Co. directions for planting and raising flowers. l%-s. 73^x53^. TO 1891. and by the experiments carried on at the rural grounds during the past fifteen years. 6%x4><. n. pp. pp. x — Same. How TO GROW [c. — Same. WILLIAM. The Register Publishing Co. Crider. See Day. A. 1884. New York. American stereotype edition. + 271. Florist. —Same. [preface 1819. 1891. Saxton «&: Pierce. New York. and J. a treatise on the situation. 14. [c.] Ann Cook Cauliflower. of every vegetable production cultivated for the table. Pa. H. H. M. B. fruits and Baltimore and Frederick. H. 1819. Co.28. Eobinson & Co. 1891. [n. Hamilton. 230. CUMMINS.] Register Publishing Co. SX^^X- CRIDER. 1819. containing an account COMPLETE Gardener and York. York. 165. pp. with New 9th ed. 8x4%. A. 1842. and on the propagation and cultivation of the several sorts of vegetables. 7Xx5. d. Ann Arbor. New York. 1884. 1891.] flowers. The. 5Xx3%. pp.230. "Tomato Culture. n. A New Method. [pref. soil. [c. 6^x4. Md. on the making and managing of hotbeds and greenhouses.] CROZIER. herbs. by the judicious use of chemical fertilizers.] L. M. 1 plate. Boston. [preface — Same. J. The American Gardener. ELBERT S. The New Potato Culture. Miles. How [c. pp. pp. M. Saxton & + Co.230. Mich. [c. Concord. 8Xx5%. COBBETT. MRS. pp. W.Books 249 CARMAN.^%. Robinson. 1856.''] Fine Celery. fencing and laying-out of gardens. as developed by the trench system. iv + 92. N. 1891. publisher. c] Dewitt & Davenport. D. 1849. Mich." . Saxton & pp. Paper cover.] C. [Bound with the "Flower Gardener. 252. d.

7x4%. pp. v 7%x4X. 1833. Philadelphia-. pp. 233. G. 307.. 1849. 1828. grape vines. [c. J. Russell. WALTER. Part III. 1848]. Boston. J. DAY. 18-48. Medina. 1888. Philadelphia. Moss & Brothbotany. pp." FESSENDEN. The Cottage Garden of America. —Same. 6Xx5. 1828.. CUMMINS. Crystal Springs. Boston. . [c. [c. and ROOT.Gardening DARLIN'GTOX. viii-f 233.. "The Practical Fruit. 1828.307. diseases and cures. including landscape and ornamental gardening. fruits + pp. 1893.B. The New American Gardener.] —Same. — Same.2oO The Principles of Vegetable. [n. revised and improved. Treatise on Tomato Culture. vii+193. the culture of flowers. E. silk. Illustrated. pp. W. pp. monthly calendar. strawberries. M. : factories. insects. W. 4th ed. 1888. J. —Same. [n. G. c] A. . Ohio. 7x4X. containing practical directions on the culture of fruits and vegetables. 1891. 8%x5><. 7>ix5. 1832. A. 6th ed. etc. 6th DAY. 2d edition. [c. 25. Root.] ers. Flower and Vegetable Gardener's Companion. 1850. Patrick. etc. Edited by W. Published bv W.] 7^x5. [1828. How AXD What to Grow in a Kitchen Garden of One Acre. T. 135. wounds. EMERSON. c] pp. manures. who work under either glass or cloth as protection from frost. practical direc- ELDER. Miss. D. T^xo. [c.Russell. Part I.] Carter & Hendee.] Carter and Hendee. 1888. Tomato Culture in three parts. Tomato culture in Part II. See Xeill. and MOLL. and highA practical book for those pressure gardening in general.. the natures and improvement of soils. containing tions for and vegetables. D.and John B. vii+198.] pp. I. 1892. Illustrated. [c. Plant-growing for market. Atlee Burpee. Boston. and their application. Tomato culture especially for canning the south. 312. Atlee Burpee. pp. ed. I. L.

. Boston and Cincinnati..] Barnum. Otis Broaders & Boston and Philadelphia. Hendee & Co. Thomas Cowperthwaite & Co.. pp. 13tli ed. H. Co. H. 7th ed.] Russell.. [c. L. Carter. S. 7^x5. —Same. 1828. 1828. Odiorne & Co. and [e.Books 251 18311. 7Xx5. 307. 1S:J9. — Same. pp. — Same. 307.

GREEN. pp. eveiy month in directions for the year. [e. directions for the forming of a garden." "How to Behave. With 122 illustrations. Marblehead. nurseries. David W. 2d edition. . 7x5. The how a pocket manual of practical horticulture : or — and flowers. Smith. 3 7Xx5. 7Xx5. Same. 1886.] House. 1896. instructions for sowing. 1804. pp. 1858 [e. How to grow them. containing ample working a kitchen garden. 1896. 7x4X.] Orange Judd Co. Mangold. Marblehead. including keeping and marketing the crop. 1899. The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening [c.] Fowler and Wells. . and cultivating vegetables. culture. pp. agents.] pp. how to keep them.252 1886. fruits and flowers. [c. 204. Author. embracing an exposition of the nature and action of soils and manures. Illustrated. 7x4. hop-yards.224. GARDEN. New York.86. president.166. 7%x5.61. 1870. pp. Mass." etc. St. pp. 1899. and HEPBURN. with a chapter on ornamental trees and shrubs by the author of "How to Write. I. description of implements and fixtures.W'urtzels and Sugar Beets: How to raise them. vineyards. and the structure and growth of plants.] — Same. A practical treatise on cabbage [e. With 115 illustrations. transplanting. Judd.] Carrots. . W^ebb Publishing Co. JAMES Cabbages: H. 240. 72. The American Gardener. xi -j. Mass. giving full details on every point. Messenger Steam Printing [c. No. 7x5. 7%x5. GREGORY. revised. [c. to cultivate vegetables. 1877. 1858. 1882. pp. budding.] Samuel H. 1881.. grafting. J. Prepared especially for the classes of the school of agriculture of the University of Min- nesota. Washington. Vegetable Gardening a manual on the growing of vegetables for home use and mai'Keting. No. and how to feed them. SAMUEL B. fruits GARDINER. and copious instructions for the cultivation of flower gardens.. greenhouses and hothouses. Messenger Steam Printing House. 1804. JOHN. DAVID. Paul.

pp.] n9. 1893. to grow them. Celery for Profit. Illustrated. 1896.] pp. Paper. [c. T. 1864. aud ARLIE. 7%x5. GREINER. The Young Market-Gardener. Henry pp. Part purse well filled. A little - The Garden Book for Farmers. 83. vol.] little pit well built. A III. 1891. [c. pp. Greiner's garden series. Onions for Profit. A practical treatise on squash Giving full details on every point. Mass. Atlee Burpee & Co. 1883. 3. a story for young and old. vi 104.. vi ^ 62.] Illustrated. including keeping and marketing the crop. 1894.] Orange Judd Co. Illustrated. Illustrated.] 2. New York. New revised and enlarged edition. No. New York. Philadelphia. [c.] B. Atlee with notes on varieties. in celery [c. 190. [c. of "The Farmer's Library. an expose of modern methods in onion growing. H.272. 9x6. Burpee. l%xb. Philadelphia. [c. Squashes: culture. an expose growing. Philadelphia.] Spring. + The New Onion Culture. How TO Grow Onions. 1887. 8^x5%. 7%x5>^. Same. to raise. Part II. The new system fully explained. [c. pp.] Wm. [La Salle. Illustrated. A little plat well tilled.Books Onion Kaising: What kinds 7th edition (revised). T. 1890. W. which tells how to grow 2. April.] W. beginner's guide. 1901. viii 1893. 253 Illustrated. [c. 1889. C. Philadelphia. Illustrated. 42. Philadelphia. 1881. Marblehead. Atlee . 7%x5X. How TO Make the Garden Pay. How pp. 73<x5. The Farmer Company. [No. 1895. Parti. revised and enlarged edition. pp. pp. [c. 9x6. 1893. New York.000 bushels of fine bulbs on one acre. Atlee Burpee & Co. — Maule.]' 1891. [e. iv [T. Illustrated. of modern methods Spring. 1888. 7>Xx5. 1890. 1901. 2d. [La Salle. 1890. Edited by W. Steam Printing House. 2. 319. pp.] + 85. 1893." GREINER.] Messenger and the way to raise them.] W.

] Dick and Fitzgerald. New York. 73<x5. n. [c. and cultivating all kinds of vegetables. F. viii-l-168.xii + 376. [c. a guide the market and family garden. 1887.191.] 1885. "Dick's Garden HandThe Vegetable Garden. 1877. harvesting. 1875. 7%x5. n.Gardening The HARRIS. with notes on its history and botany. enlarged edition. — Same. pp. d. M. [c. 1867. pp. 1882. also. [c. HOGG."] B. See Gardiner. 1897. Orange Judd Co. planting. vi+404. New York. entirely pp. including. 1901. + —Same. a guide to the amateur in the fruit. cultivation. . 1886. Books. A complete guide to the cultivation containing thorough instructions for sowing. pp. Orange iudd Co. York. vi + 243. conservatory and window garden. new and greatly enlarged. John. viii New [c. vegetable and flower garden. 137. —Same. [e.254 The Principles of Vegetable.] Orange Judd Co. v 250. 7^x5. Its culture for Asparagus: tical treatise home use and for market. Illustrated. 7^x5. JOSEPH. cultivation of garden vegetables in the farm garden. [c. 7x4^^0. d. with full directions for the greenhouse. manuring and tilling the soil to suit each plant. + 276. A pracon the planting. pp. and preserving of asparagus. Gardening for Young and Old.] Orange Judd Co. a summary of the work to be done New in a vegetable garden during each month of the year. New. The Vegetable Garden: of vegetables.] Illustrated with numerous new engravings. HEPBURN. Gardening for Pleasure. 1901. 7>^x5. [e. [Cover has the legend. new and enlarged edition. Illustrated. 1887. 1882. New York. pp. pp.] to the sureessful cultivation of Illustrafcad." HEXAMER. 1888. PETER.] HENDERSON. "The American Gardener. with plain directions for preparing. pp. DAVID. 1874. JAMES. Illustrated. York.] Orange Judd Co. Gardening for Profit.

] + HOW TO Grow HOWARD. S. FRANCIS S. [c. J. New York. The Macmillan Company.] —Same. Babcock. G. and flowers. and cultivating vegetables. pp. See Pedersen.1900. description of implements and fixtures. 68. and the language of flowers. . directions for the forming of a garden. transplanting. 7/:4x53^. 1898.] A. pp. 1852. cultivating and marketing the crop. Illustrated. H. New improved and enlarged edition. W. 2d ed. The Amateur's Practical Garden-Book simplest directions for the growing of the about the house and garden. pp. 1901. vi 4-250. [e.Books HOLLISTER.. 1900. E. pp. C. vi+250.. New Yi. Conclusions at the close of twenty by the author on best methods of preparation of soil. years' extensive experience HOLMES. No date. 255 Livingston's Celery Book. D." HUNN. Illustrated. xii + 166. Paper. H. 6Xx4. with a chapter on ornamental trees and shrubs. Revised edition. E. being pilation of useful articles on these subjects. n. Ohio. J. Woodward. H. fruits. grafting. E.Gardener.96. and BAILEY. Developing the principles and pointing out the method of their application to the farming and gardening of the South. and particularly of the low country. 6%x4%. viii 249. [e. and F.] Geo. 7Xx5. H. Muuro. d. instructions for sowing. [e. The Southern Farmer and Market.. "How to Grow Cabbages and Cauliflowers Most Profitably. G. and Howard. R. L. a comfrom the most approved writers. d. C. n. The Garden. pp. Livingston's Sons. Illustrated. Flowers and Vegetables. a manual of practical tivate vegetables. Charleston. fruits horticulture. Wm. 7Xx4><. Norman L. embracing an exposition of the nature and action of soils and manures and the structure and growth of plants.rk. 186G. JACQUES. W. or how to cul- and flowers. Fruit. budding. Columbus.] : Containing the commonest things New York. [The Garden-Craft Series. pp.

MARKET GARDEN. Lelievre.Gardening a select manual of kitchen gardening and culture of fruits. 7%x4%. a journal for the market. The whole adapted to the climate of the United States. 1898. [c. 1838. 7Xx5.\ pp. LUPTON. Seed- men. Livingston's Sons. 12x9. being a history of experiences discovering the choice varieties introduced by him.] W. F.] Lea & Blanchard. of interest to obserthe amateur gar[c. pp. 176. Ohio. Nouvelle-Orleans.118. The. 1844. The Market Garden Co.] Press of Macealla & Co. trations. J. With fifty-three illus- Philadelphia. c] J. BURNET. 6Xx4%. d.] Published by A. The first number was issued . F. Columbus. 9Xx6. W. Philadelphia. Market-Gardening and Farm Notes. New York. 1898. with practical instructions for growere. 200. Livingston's Celery Book. [e. [c. E.. trucker and farmer. Nouveau Jardinier de la Louisiane. 1895. W. 1893. n. Illustrated.] 999 Queries. vii-fl22. containing familiar directions for the most approved practice in each department. A. viii-l-200. 1894-Sept. Atlee Burpee &Co. Illusffafed.. in Livingston and the Tomato. contenaut tions necessaires aux personnes qui s'oecupent de jardinage. pp. Orange Judd Co. 1893. The. with Answers upon Agricultural and Horticultural Subjects. Bound with the "Complete Florist. M."] KITCHEN AND Fruit Gardener.gardener. [An American edition of an English work. 1784. J. Minneapolis. 7Xx5. LANDRETH. LIVINGSTON. descriptions of many valuable fruits. iv + 215. [n. experiences and vations in the garden and field. dener. pp.256 The Principles of Vegetable . les instruc- LELIEVRE. Philadelphia. Jan. 7X^5%. '^ . 1894. Cabbage and Cauliflower for Profit. 1844. See Hollister. pp. xii-|. 'Monthly. pp. and a calendar of work to be performed each month in the year. 1892. Published by David Landreth & Sons. [e. J.

1894. nursery. W. although it bears date of Jan. Hazlehurst. in the ancient and modern style. according to their habits. 1.frames. according to modern taste and the most approved plans the ornamental planting of pleasure-grounds. to publish a journal devoted solely to vegetable-gardening interests. etc. 21. See White. so far as the author is aware. vineyard. The second number appeared in July. fruit-garden. Boston. I. 1888. each and every of the above departments. by James Anderson. [n. hothouse. orchard. BERNARD. with the best methods of making them. 1894. [n. H. duration. 276 first siderably enlarged and improved. with ample practical directions for performing the same. but was sent out for the pur- pose of securing opinions as to the advisability of establishing such a journal. adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States. flower-garden. An Introduction to thk Knowledge and Practice of Gardening.Books 257 It is a in Jan. Miss. or in rural economy. This was the only attempt in North America. pleasure -grounds. It was not given general circulation. 1894. c] pp. 4-page issue.. Fruits and Vegetables. c] Samuel Etheridge. eel classes. The regular issue of the periodical began with October. MARSHALL. or erecting. Vol. The American Gardener's Calendar. + McNEIL. ii 7x43^. and modes of Q . for every month in the year. Also. 1799. CHARLES. conTo which is added an essay on quick-lime. 1893." MMAHON. and forcing. divided into eighteen separate alphabet! . Containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done in the kitchen-garden. American from the second London edition. greenhouse. general as well as minute instructions for laying out. Copiah Signal Print. "Gardening for the South. the cultivation of thorn-quicks and other plants suitable for live hedges. P. pp. To which are annexed extensive catalogues of the different kinds of plants which may be cultivated either for use or ornament in the several departments. J. 9x5%. MELL.

Tomato -Growing for Profit. flower-garden. to the climates Containing a complete account of all the work necessary to>be done in the kitchen garden. 8Xx5%.. greenhouse. the cultivation of tiiorn-quicks and other plants suitable for live hedges. . etc. wilh explanatory iiitroduetions. with the best methods of making them. as well as English names. general as well as minute instructions for laying out.P. M'Mahon. 30th year of tiie independence of the U. 1819.] T. MITCHELL. Containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done ia the kitchen garden. being a practical treatise showing in detail how to grow tomatoes by new methods from the . Phila181)6. Jay Smith. together with a copious index to the body of the work.Graves. Eleventh edition. with ample practical directions for performing the same. Calendar. plea'juregrounds. aromatic. in the ancient and modern style. the ornamental planting of pleasuregrounds. and forcing-frames. with practical directions and copious index. fruit-garden. The American Gardener's. 1857. 1820. S. each and every of the above departments. hothouse. pot and sweet herbs.618. pp. To which are annexed catalogues of kitchen-garden plants and herbs. greenhouse.Gardening culture. 1857. B. 9Xx6. [c. and forcingframes. or erecting. adapted and seasons of the United States. Vt666. delphia. nursery. flower-garden.258 The Principles of Vegetnhle.J B. Philadelphia. according to modern taste and the most approved plans. for every month in the year. Fourth edition. used in rural economy. vineyard. 8Xx5X. improved. and their true Linnaean or botanical. [e. S. vineyard. adapted and seasons of the United States. marginal marks. revised and illustrated under the supervision of J. Lippincott & Co. together with a copious index to the body of the work. orchard. medicinal plants. Also. pleasure-grounds.] pp ix + 637. J. etc. hothouse. H. pp. for every month in the year. orchard. and the most important grasses. fruit-garden. with the soil best adapted to their cultivation. Philadelphia. [c. nursery. to the climates The American Gardener's Calendar. with a memoir of the author.

With notes and additions by R. See "How to Grow Fruit. Philadelphia. Additional chapters on other methods. Flowers and NEILL. required. Illustrated. pp. adapted to the United States from the fourth edition. E. 7%x4%. New York. New York.b%. 29. New York. PATRICK. The Rural Publishing Co. pp. 1858.] A. 1892. ix 427. Burnap Fir-ke. 1901. 24. 1883. Adapted to the United States. No.O. a guide tables for northern markets. fc. 7Xx'5.] [The Rural Library.] Henry Carey Baird. Vol. so as to leave when sold the largest amount of profit' to the producer. Orange Judd Co. 1895. MUNRO. the whole being the result of over thirty years' extensive practical experience by the author. revised and improved by the author. OEMLER. pp. and The New Celery Culture. NORMAN L.. from the fourth edition. The New Rhtbarb Culture: A complete guide to dark forcing and field culture. pp. Edited by G. and Kitchen Garden. Vegetables. 7. 1901. [c. G.Books 259 sowing of the seed to the marketing of the crop. May.c] Dudley & Burns. How to prepare and use rhubarl). + • The Practical Fruit. New York. 1851. revised and improved by the author. A. NIVEN. xiv-f408. [n. MORSE. men. Illustrated.] Illustrated. Flower and Vegetable Gardener's Companion. The 1892. lXy. 7%x5X- 18St. Toronto. [c. Flower.270. x+130. Emerson. 1855. I." The Fruit. no banking up practice of practical [c.Moore. Fully illustrated with original photographs taken expressly for this work. Pardee. By G. Part II. J. With elegant illustrations.] pp. . with a calendar. Q%xQ%. ROBERT. Orange Judd Co. 7>2x5. pp. 1851. Others.]. Publisher. [c. to the raising of vege- Truck-Farming at the South.

n. 1896.332. d. + PRICE. fruit-garden. By some twenty experienced growers.xii 424.] Texas Farm and Ranch Publishing Co. Grow Cabbages and Cauliflowers Most Profitably. Atlee Burpee. Darveau. New York. 1888. practical Guide to the Profitable Culture Illustr. Sweet Potato Culture for Profit. A of the Crop. gin. H. nursery. H. exhibiting the time for kind of work in the kitchen-garden. Edited by W. 1888. + PRACTICAL American Gardener.] W. Dallas. Fielding Lucas.. pleasure-ground. n. 8Xx5X' PROVANCHER. New and [c. L'ABBE Le Verger . "How to Cultivate and Preserve ONION BOOK. yam and the vineless variety are discussed. hothouse and grape vines for every month in the year. By an old Gardener. Complete discussion of the diseases and insects which injure the crop. Celery " Theophilus. 1822. Illustrated. et le parterre dans la Province de Quebec. 1887]. Philadelphia. L. d. Atlee Burpee & Co.110. ou culture raisonnee des fruits.. Latest improved machinery discussed.] Jr. history a full account of the ori- and botanical characteristics of the sweet potato. Baltimore. [Preface dated 1874.260 The Principles of Vegetable . flower-garden. OLCOTT. hop-yard. greatly Orange Judd Co. How [c. pp. enlarged edition. Full and complete instructions from how to grow the plants to harvesting and storing the crop for both southern and northern latitudes. C. shrubbery. Editor. v 85. 1881.36. HENRY See Roessle. S.JERGAARD) and HOWARD. TO J. pp. Texas. [c.Gardening S.] pp. PEDERSEN. 6%x4>4- Le potager . greenhouse. etc. R. (B. The. 1% x 5. with a new system of classifying them. 43d year of the independence of the U. A description of 47 varieThe Chinese ties. 10x6%. legumes et fleurs qui peuvent peussir sous le climat de Quebec. Ouvrage orn^ de nombreuses gravures sur bois. pp. G. orchard. The every . [c. pp. Illustrated. 5Xx3%. Quebec.

1887. with new matter and Published by the illustrations. [e.W.349. 1891. P. W. 1. 1871. Play and Profit 1893. x+268. 261 Money view vegetable manual prepared with a Illustr. New 7Xx5. E.] in My Garden. economy and A RAWSON. pp. "Tomato Culture. 1871]. with a Colored plates. Success in Market-Gardening.] 7X^5. its Cultivation. [c. 1860. and for the culture and domestic use of its vegetables. 9^x6. 7Xx5. [New ed. Vegetable-Growing in the South for Northern Markets. by Orange Jndd Co. xi [c. New York. by to Cultivate and Preserve Celery. Richmond. Celery AND ton. Same. Saxton. being concise directions for the preparation of the soil. I860. vi f 240. W. [Later pub. W. also the best methods of packing for shipping. P.. and Vegetable Growers' 1887. Illustrated. the raising of seed for market. fruits . pp. W." SCHENCK. use and amounts of fertilizers. Boston. 1896. Henry S. J. Orange Judd Co. 1896. revised and enlarged. Albany. Theophilus Roessle.] C.] + 255. H. pp. 7th ed. P. T. ROLFS. pp.] ROE. 1892. 7%x5. M. preface. [c. ROOT. Revised edition. practical directions upon the formation and management of the kitchen-garden. pp. The Gardener's Text Book containing See Day.24. Olcott. 1900]. York. Illustr. iv + 208. [c. ROESSLE THEOPHILUS. [c. 1892. pp. The Southern Planter Publishing Co. Rawson. Tribune Assoc. Published — by the author. Barker & Co. 7/^ x 5. 7%x5.Books QUINN. and preserving it for home use. How Edited. [c. Boston.] in to profit. A.] author. pp. PETER ADAM. New York. . xxvi + 102. Bos- 1900. Manual. and the planting of vegetable crops to obtain the earliest vegetables. the Garden. Illustrated. Delavan House. 1886.

Root. 1883.kx-? STEWART.the care of the crop. Farm. varieties. 7Xx4%. Saxton. 1891. 1879. n. N. 7X^5. Pacific Rural Hand-Book . pp. . Illustrated. Barker Illustrated.Ganleuing and medicinal herbs. 1894. C. adapted to the Pacific coast.151. compared with certain crops. 1885. S. With portrait of the author. How and The rhubarb pays. latest Carefully considering all the branch of agriculture up to the Medina. Illustrated by twenty engravings. GRANT. 6x4. This is the only book ever written which covers the whole period of growing. [c. . pp. Ohio. STEWART. also illustrated with 13 plates. 76. T. containing ample directions for the cultivation of the kitchen and flower garden. SHIXN. Yewdale & Sons Co. pp. M. 306. d. Wis.] Dewey & Irrigation Co. ^Yith for the. [c. pp. 42 + 8. lai'gest How to grow them in the quantity. HENRY. Pacific Rural Press. with Tecumseh. Garden and Orchard. The first best Essential points in growing good rhubarb.262 The Principles of Vegetable. numerous illustrations. HOMER Celery Growing and Marketing a Success. The Gentleman and Gardener's Kalendar. vegetables and flowers. pp. [c. J. B.l851. A. The a B C op Potato Culture. Also hints on home and farm improvements. FRED. pp. San Francisco. showing new tools and appliances in celery culture and.] THORBURN. [c. 73<x5.] & Co. Mich. 1877. 1860. marketing and caring for the crop.] The explicit directions. present date. New York. CHAS. and of the finest quality. H. New Y^ork. 264. L. Blade Printing and Paper Co. 122. 1894.] Orange Judd Co. TERRY. only edition on this subject. Rhubarb or Pie-Plant Culture. containing a series of brief and practical essays and notes on the culture of trees. 7/^x5%. 10x6X- improvements in this vTHOMPSOX. I. with the least expenditure of time and labor. [c. Milwaukee. 1891.

6%x4%.] B. TILLINGHAST. ALEXANDER.. Published by the author.Books 263 greenhouse. for the United States of America. [c. 50 cents. flowers. [c. d.l889. Published by James Vick. JAMES. [c. d. 1889. corrected and improved. 1859.] Harper & Brothers. S. Januarj'. pp." Y \:AUGHAX'S Celery Manual. A Manual op Vegetable Plants. Tillinghast's to the successful propagation of cabbage and celery plants. pp. ix-t-531. pp. orchard. TODD. Young. nursery. ISAAC F. Tll- linghast Brotliers. 1821. EDWARDS. Pa. pp. 102. 9xG. with the best methods known for combating and repelling noxious insects. containing the experiences of the author in starting all those kinds of vegetables which are most difficult for a novice to produce from seeds. . 9%x6X.] BY It. Randolph [c. WARNER. Illustrated. Illustrated. F. "American Gardener's Assistant. Vaughan's seed store. 1888. t. ANNA. n. Flower and Vegetable Garden.] Chicago. 1877. [c. Miss Tiller's Vegetable Garden and the Money She Made Anson D. 1875. New York. 7x4/^. Pa. New York. 8x5>^.140. La Plume. S. and shrubbery. Roch166.39. See Bridgeman. Vick's ester. which are added brief notes on farm crops. 132. pp. independence of U. their average product and chemical constituents. p. The American Home Garden. & Co. Plant Manual.. A guide pp. 1859. Illustrated. 6%x4X. fruits. VICK. 32. A. and preventing the diseases to which garden vegeFaetoryville. New York. Price.] tables are subject. etc. in the 36th year of the Ving. N. pp. WATSON. Y. 7Xx5X. being principles and rules for To the culture of vegetables. 1878. with a table of Illustrated. n. 3d ed.

. 1901. in Garden and Field.444. xv + 246. subsoil plowing. Third edition. F. pp. A. The California Vegetables of practice. N. M. tions — .] + YEAR BOOK.] Gardening for the South or how to grow vegetables and fruits. J. d. "Garden-Making." WHITE. c] C. WHITNER. . W\ DaCosta. implements of culture their history. Florida. Johnson Publishing Company. Ga. Gardening for the South or how to grow vegetables and With additions by Mr. pp. treatise Gardening in Florida. Gardening for the South or the kitchen and fruit garden with the best methods for their cultivation. pp. 683. WICKSON. a manual with and without irrigation. rural architecture. New York. (Second edition of above. Athens. 1901. Saxton & Co. embracing concise direc- for the improvement of the soil by draining. pp. [n. 73<x5%. 7%x5. and a select list of ornamental trees and plants found by trial adapted to the states of the Union south of Pennsylvania. for semi-tropical countries. 1856.viii San Francisco. and relative value the ernbellishment of the mansion by ornamental gardening. together with hints upon landscape and flower . Camak. 1856. 1885.] C. WILLIAM N. By P. EDWARD J. to all The. . n. with directions for cost. 7%x5X. Va. [c. on the vegetables and tropiJacksonville. Mell. with gardening calendars for the same.Gardening F. Van Buren and Dr. Illustrated. H. 336.gardening. [c. 8%x63^. Illustrated.] B. 1897. Illustrated. Containing modes of the culinary vegetables. 9x6. op the Farm and Garden.264 The Principles of Vegetable. Wm. [e. See Bailey. a cal products of Floi'ida. Pacific Rural Press. Richmond. . and trenching. James fruits. White. WAUGH.] Orange Judd Co. N. fruit trees and descriptions of the species and varieties and fruits. New York. Illustrated. revised and enlarged. a reliable guide important rural occupations. With many illustrations. J. 1897. [c 1868. pp. of culture vi + 402.

Bulletins 1897-99 265 laying out and cropping the esculent garden. 32. [_c. their preparation and use ports. Vegetable-growing in southern Arizona. to December. 50. 86. Some insect pests of Salt River vallej'. seeds. COLORADO. Vegetal)le-gardening. No. Preparation and application of fungicides. No. 77. and other valuable miscellaneous matters. M. No. Tomatoes. No. pp. 1860. 35. Turnips. Philadelphia. and the remedies No. Spaugler. 108. ARIZONA. 1899. etc. he should consult list The following bulletins relating to vegetable -growing the Experiment Station Record. Insecticides. horticultural suggestions. ARKANSAS. Some Irish potato experiments. Colorado's worst insect pests and their remedies. 41. No. No. Insecticides. No. cabbage and onions. No. With new and beautiful illustrations. 7>ix4. ALABAMA. 47. Recent Experiment Station Publications Vegetable. 44. 84. Some Some insect pests. with directions for planting. No. No. bee culture. for tliem. . No. Tomatoes. I860. 126. No. 56. plants. States No. fruit culture. (State). 108. various articles. CONNECTICUT 125. and also abstracts of the leading articles. published by the United Department of Agriculture.Gardening is Relating to designed to include the leading from Januar}^ The publications previous to 1897. Blight and other plant diseases. 1897 are often out of print. lists of fruits. insects injurious to farm and garden.] A. 79. annual re? . If the reader desires a complete index to experiment station literature.

Seed-testing. INDIANA. 82. Treatment of plant diseases Pea canning in Delaware. Three injurious insefts: Bean leaf-roller. Potato scab experiments. 34. fungicides and spraying. No. 52. No.) stalk weevil. Insect enemies of the tobacco. etc. See also Testing seeds (Maine law. No. No. canna leaf-roller. Celery. No. 66. No. 52. . No. Formalin for prevention of potato scab. Report of entomologist. No. No. IDAHO.266 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening DELAWARE. 46. IOWA. GEORGIA. potato- KENTUCKY. Potato-stalk weevil. 86. KANSAS. potato scab. Watermelons. 30. No. seed-breeding. No. Home propagation. corn delphax. No. Potato scab. Celery. No. annual reports. 34. Insects. Some important insect enemies of cucurbits. No. No. Indoor lettuce culture. No. No. The spraying articles in of iihmts. 40. No. 48. A method of avoiding lettuce rot. 81. 45. 69. Construction ami management of hotbeds. (Press bulletins 1-34. Report of horticultural department for 1896 and 1897. in 1896. • FLORIDA. No. No. 42. 70. Potatoes. 41. MAINE. No. No.). 36. 48. Diseases of the tomato. Strawberry thrips and onion thrips. 65. 17. 47. No. 38. No. LOUISIANA. No. Vegetable-growing. 72. 45.

No. No. 41. 44. 62. Sweet potato insects. No. See also Nematode worms. Asparagus rust articles in in Massachusetts. No. 144. 63. No. No. Vegetable tests. 41. 55. No. 52. 54. Spraying calendar. Forcing pole beans under glass Third potato report. 175. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Some diseases of the sweet i>otato. No. Corn and potato experiments. Rust and leopard spot of asparagus.es. No. MICHIGAN. crickets. No. locusts. Some common injurious plant lice. Green corn under glass. 40. 43. 62. Irish potato culture. 47. MASSACHUSETTS No. Vegetables — old and new. 60. No. No. 54. Muskmelons. No. 60. Insecticides. No. No. No. asparagus in the open Tarnished plant bug. Vegetable tests for 1898. 64. No.Bulletins 1897-99 267 MARYLAND. MISSOURI. Some insects of the year 1898. field. No. Colorado potato beetle in Mississippi. Potatoes — variety test in 1890 and implements Grasshoppers. No. No. corn and potatoes.1897. Asparagus culture in Missouri. annual reports. Sweet corn for New Hampshire. Special bulletin 12. Tomatoes. No. etc. No. No.. Winter forcing of No. (Hatch). 51. 59. MINNESOTA. 153. 52. 170. (Potato scab) Fruit and potato disra>. 61. Electro-germination. 55. etc. Tests of vegetable seeds. 50. . 45. 43. MISSISSIPPI. 60. sprajing calendar. No. No. 42. Potatoes. No. Tomatoes and tomato breeding. 48. No. Migratory locusts or grasshoppers. No. Some insects of the year 1897. 160. No. Experiments with wheat. of Jlinnesota. fungicides. No.

144. 120. No. No. . A study of lettuces. 36. Some common injurious insects of western Nevada. Lima beans. 144. NORTH CAROLINA. Downy mildew of cucumber. 137. No. NEW YORK (Geneva). No. 158. Some experiments in forcing head lettuce. No. Commercial fertilizers for potatoes. Spraying potatoes on Long Island. Field experiments with potatoes for 189G. No. Green arsenite. 140. Spraying cucumbers in the season of 1898. various articles. Seeds. Asparagus rust. Notes upon celery. etc. fungous diseases. Spray pumps and spraying. No. 19th Ann. NEVADA. A spraying mixture for cauliflower and cabbage worms. 154. Some spraying mixtures. Peas. 120. 121. No. 121. 20. No. tomatoes. Combating the striped beetle on cucumbers.Gardening NEBRASKA. No. Appendix — spray pumps and spraying. No. beans. Fighting cutworms in onion fields. Experiments and observations on some diseases plants. 147. 139. No. No. 138. 146. Second report on potato culture. No. No. 123. 130. 121. No. No. No. 129. Crude petroleum as an insecticide. Horticultural experiments at Southern Pines. Harlequin cabbage bug and melon plant louse. 130. No. Commercial fertilizers for potatoes. (Cornell). 156. 143. 149. 159. 132. Third report on potato culture. various articles.2G8 The Principles of Vegetable. No. NEW MEXICO. NEW JERSEY. No. Potato culture. A bacterial disease of sweet corn. 119. No. Rept. No. season of 1890. No. 49. NEW YORK No. In Annual reports. Suggestions for chicory culture. No. No. No. 1896. of No. No. Notes on spraying. botanical section. 138. Annual reports. Plant lice. 15G.

Bulletins

1897-99

269

No.

270

The Principles of

Vegetable -Gardfning

UTAH.
No.
49.

Spraying.

VERMONT.
No. No.
60. 72.

Insects of the year.

Clnbrnot ami

blai'k rot of

cabbage

and turnip.
Certain potato diseases and their remedies.

VIRGINIA.
No.
92.

The

influence of

commercial

fertilizers

upon the quality

of the Irish potato.

WASHINGTON. No. 27. A few
No.
35.

facts about insects. Miscellaneous injurious insects.

WEST

VIRGINIA.
49.

No.

Vegetables. Folio spray calendar 1898.

WISCONSIN.
No.
65.

A

bacterial rot of cabbage reports — various articles.

and

allied

plants.

Annual

WYOMING.
No.
32.

Potatoes.

United States Department of Agricclture.
Farmers^ BuUetins.
No. 61. No. 62. No. 68. No. 73. No. 76. No. 84. No. 91. No. 92. No. 94. No. 105. No. 107.

Asparagus culture. Marketing farm produce.
Black rot of cabbage.

,

Experiment Station Work IV. Seed selection. Tomato-growing. Experiment Station Work VII. Forcing asparagus. Potato diseases and their treatment. Experiment Station Work IX. Culture of potato.

The vegetable garden.
Experiment Station Work XII. Experiment Station Work XIII.
Fertilizers, etc.

Forcing rhubarb.

Office

of Experiment Station Bulletins.
57. 68.

No. No.

Varieties of corn. (E. L. Sturtevant.) A description of some Chinese vegetable food materials.

Division of Entomology. No. 23. New series.
(1900).

Some

insects

injurious

to

garden crops

CHAPTER IX

272

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

in •which to complete their growth usually thrive best iu spring

and fall. Root crops are of two general classes as respects the purposes for which they are grown fodder crops The former are not and vegetable -gardening crops. Most of the neither are sugar beets. intended here

;

vegetable-gardening root crops are able to secure their food from relatively unavailable combiuatious, and they
generally use rather freely of potash, although they are
also
to start

heavy nitrogen and phosphorus feeders. In order them quickly, a light dressing of some available

nitrogen

compound

is

useful,

particularly
.

if

the roots

are needed, for a particular season that these crops, as a class, are

Voorhees writes*
exhaustive

much more

of the plant -food elements than the cereals

and legumes. Probably the most laborious part of the growing of
is

root crops
late kinds.

the harvesting, particularly of the long
is

This labor

much

lessened by plowing out

the roots.

Even

if

the roots are too deep for the plow,

two or three furrows may be thrown from either side Usually, of the row, and the pulling is made easier.
however, hand-pulling is unnecessary. As soon as the roots are out the tops should be cut off about an inch above the crown, if the crop is to be stored or sold in The roots should lie in the sun until the soil is bulk. dry enough to shake from them, when they may be They stored in the pit or cellar or sent to the market.
are easy to keep.

The market value
looks.
Fertilizers,

of a root depends ,'argely on
off,

its

All strong side roots should be cut
p. 257.

and

Root

Crops

— Radish

273
Early in the

branchy specimens should be discarded.

season, such roots as beet, carrot, radish, and turnip
are sold in bunches of G to 12; but as the season ad-

vances and prices fall, they are sold in bulk. sold in bunches, care should be taken to have

When
all

the

specimens in the bunch of uniform size and shape. The leaves are allowed to remain, and the bunches are tied
neatly by a cord passed around the leaf-stalks. The bunches should be kept well sprinkled and away from the sun, for wilted leaves give them a stale and uuattractive appearance.
Gi'egory, "Carrots, Mangold Wurtzels and Special literature : Sugar Beets," Burpee, "Root Crops for Stock Feeding and How
to

Grow Them."

RADISH
and continuous growth, rather cool weather, these are prime confrom the root maggot The radish is siderations in the growing of radishes.
QnicJi

protection

a partial season crop.
crop, although

It is
is

easy to grow.

In America the radish
it is

known mostly

as a spring

sometimes grown in the fall. In the Old World, however, it is known also as a summer crop, but the varieties grown in the hot weather are usuThere ally unlike those raised in the spring and fall.
are three general types of radishes
:

the ordinary small

spring or
tion,

fall

radish, usually light red or clear white;

the large turnip radishes, useful

for

summer

cultiva-

and which are white, gray or black; the winter radishes, which make a long, hard, woody root that is
red, white or black in color.

The winter radishes

are

274

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

relatively little
lar in

grown

here.

China and Japan.

in the season, as late

They are said to be popuThey are usually sown late turnips are, and the roots may

be kept over winter as other roots are kept. Radishes are usually treated as a companion -crop

when grown
drills

in the open field. They may be sown in between the rows of cabbages, peas or other later-maturing vegetables. Sometimes they are sown

Fig. 61.

Seedlings of radish.

Nearly natural

size.

directly in the drill with the other vegetables.

The
and

seeds are quick to germinate and thereby break the
crust

and mark the row and thus

facilitate tillage,

the roots

may be

harvested before the other crops need
use, radishes are often

the space.

For family

grown

in beds bj- themselves.

In clean, friable land they are

rich,

If the soil is loose and sometimes sown broadcast. radishes should come to edible maturity in four

to six weeks.

are relatively small
roots

The roots are of better quality when they and crisp. When growth ceases the become stringy, bitter and often hollow. Sow at

Radish
frequent intervals for a succession.

275

Radishes are easily

grown

in hotbeds.

If radishes are to

be grown during the hot weather,

the soil should be as cool as possible and supplied with
in order to

an abundance of moisture keep them grow-

ing continuously. Radishes do not come to their full perfection in soil that is hard

and dry. The roots are so small and short that the
plants
are
essentially
sur-

face feeders.

Radishes are

marketed in bunches (Fig.
62).

The
are
quickly.

seeds

of

radishes

large

and

germinate

Better roots and

Early spring radishes. uniform crop are secured by sowing only the large seeds. The small ones may be sifted out by means of a hand screen. The root maggot can be destroyed by injecting bisulfide of carbon into the ground about the plants (see Cabbage); but this operation is so expensive and troublesome in comparison with the value of the plants that it is not to be advised. The best alternative is to grow the plants on land in which the maggot has not been breeding. If the whole garden is infested with the root maggot, it is advisable to cease growing radishes and related crops until the maggots have been starved out. There are no other very serious pests.

a more

276

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

Eadishes are usually sown as early in spring as the ground is even before frosts are past. Sow in rows 6 to 12 inches apart, or farther apart if a wheel hoe is to be used. Cover /^ inch. Thin to 2 or 3 inches apart. For family use, sow at intervals of 7 to 10 days. As the season advances, select a cooler site, as a northern expoUsually the sowings are discontinued from the last of June sure. One ounce of seed sows 100 feet or more of until late August. drill; 8 to 10 lbs. is required for an acre. The most popular variety is French Breakfast. Other good kinds are Olive-shaped, Scarlet Short-top, Chartier, Wood Early Frame, White Box. For summer, good varieties are White Naples, White Vienna, Strasburg, Stuttgart. For winter, Scarlet Chinese, Black Spanish, White Spanish may be mentioned. The radish is an annual or the roots may be kept over winter and planted out in the spring, when they will quickly run to seed. Spring and summer radishes run to seed the same season if left in the ground, but the best seed is produced from plants that are transplanted when young. Little radish seed is grown in North America, probably largely because of the high price of hand labor. The radish, Raphanus sativus, is one of the Cruciferas or Mustard family. It is unknown in a wild state. It is probably a development of the wild Charlock, Baphanus Raphanistrum, which is an annual weed of the Old World and is now naturalized in parts (Consult Carriere's experiments as reported of the eastern state's. in his pamphlet "Origine des Plantes Domestiques demontree par The garden radish la Culture du Radis Sauvage," Paris, 1869.) occasionally runs wild, when it loses its thick root. For a history
fit,
;

320-326.

American Naturalist, April, 1890, pp. For description and classification of varieties of radish, see Goff, 6th Rep. N. Y. State Exp. Sta. (for the year 1887), pp. 146-168. The classification is based on form and color of root:
of the radish, see Sturtevant,
A.

Root oblate, spherical or top-shaped. White. Yellow, light brown or grayish. Red.
Purple. Black.

Eadish
AA. Root oval.

— Beet

277

(Color as above.)

AAA. Root conical or cylindri-conical.
(Color as above.)

were reduced to 43 by Goff. In 1889 (Annals Hort.) 81 varieties were offered by American seedsmen. For experiments on value of different sizes of radish seed, see Galloway, Agrie. Science, 1894, p. 557. For recent discussions of insects and diseases see: Cabbage maggot, Cornell Bull. No. 78: Advises tarred paper or
varieties
bisulfide carbon.

The

Club root.

White

rust,

See cabbage. N. J. Rept. 1890,

p. 350.

BEET

A

loose

deej)

rich fresh

relatively

cool

soil

and a

continuous growth are the requisites iu the cultivation of

garden beet.
easy to raise.

It

is

usually a companion- or succession-

crop in the vegetable -garden.

The crop

is

hardy and

There are no special

difficulties.

round

varieties are relatively surface feeders

The and early

in their

growth.

The land should be kept

-well tilled iu

order to conserve the moisture and to keep down weeds, particularly during the early part of the season.

There are two general types of beets grown for vegetable-gardening purposes: the short-season turnip varieties,

and the main-season long-rooted

varieties.

The

long-rooted varieties are less popular than a few years
ago, for the turnip varieties
for winter use,

may be grown in the fall and fresh beets are to be had from the Formerly the long South during the winter season. blood beet was used for stock -feeding to some extent,

They may early varieties in hotbeds or coldframes. For the reason fruit are relatively rather than the seeds are sown. it is very important that the land should have been well tilled previous to sowing. late potatoes.278 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening but in recent years the mangel-wurzel has largely taKen its place. Vegetable - gardeners now chiefly know the early These varieties may be grown either as a spring or fall crop. as celery-. in order that it may not be too dry. cabbage or In some cases. each fruit containing from The husks or walls of the two to five small seeds. if and careful thinning is therefore essential the best results are to be secured. They mature in two to three months. or. impervious to water. turnip -rooted varieties. This is largely because the likely to come up in little clumps. even as late as the first of September. as For very early results. and roots large enough for bunching of some of the earliest varieties may be had in six For fall use these turnipweeks to two mouths. beets are that the fruits The seeds require considerable moisture germinate. in the northern states. The long or blood beets are usually sown in early May and they occupy the ground the whole season. rooted beets may be sown in July and August. When sown late in the season. it is well to sow the cabbage. They may be followed by some later crop. The earl 3' turnip varieties may be sown as soon as the laud can be worked in spring if one wishes to secure an early crop. they are grown as a comcauliflower. . panion-crop in the rows with some main -season crop. however. in order to "seeds" are really fruits with hard shells. in some places.

but these are essentially leaf crops and are discussed under that head. but the seed is sown thick and the thinnings are sold in bunches or in small packages. Natural size firmest and best roots may be stored for winter in pits or in the cellar in boxes of earth or moss. There are certain kinds of beets that produce thick leaves rather than roots. The Fig. be allowed to mature in the frames. See Chard. 63.Beet 279 they use. beets are much used for greens. For home two or three rows fifty feet long. as it does not pay. Earlj^ beets are usually sold in bunches of about six. is thus rarelj^ Young used as a pot-herb. They are grown especially for this purpose. should give a snflBcient supply for the spring and early summer. or in special eases may be transplanted into beds. root and top. Similar sowings may early in the fall for be made late in the summer or autumn and early winter use. the seeds being sown at intervals extending over a month. . Seedlings of beet. The whole plant. although transis planting rarely done.

The classification was based on shape and color : A.000 years. (Color as above. Y. 433-4:{6. sugar beets.. Five to eight pounds of seed is required for an aere. or stock beets. The beet has descended fi'ora Beta riilfjaris. voot beets there are tliree types: garden beets. one of the Chenopodiacew. State Exp. Color yellow. pp.). B. Root oval. 100 feet of drill. 42 varieties of garden beet and 31 of In 1887. Field beets should be far enough apart for horse tillage. N.. Eclipse.280 The Principles of Vegetable . Good early and mid-season beets are Egyptian. Of . used in two types: chard. (Color as above. For an accessible horticultural history of the beet. Sta. The cultivated beet has very little resemblance to its wild prototype. It has been cultivated for more than 2. Sow far in drills as soon as the ground is ready. and which is a perennial herb of the seacoasts of EuThe rope. Root oblate or top-shaped. used for greens flower gardens and lawns for tlieir bright and colored foliage. Color red. and thin to 6-8 The drills should be admit of wheel-hoe tillage. 1 ounce sows 75 to Average crop is 300-400 bushels per acre. 120-132). Root half-long. BB. Bastian. Root long-conical.Gardening but the later crop is sold in baskets or barrels. Edmand. 12-18 inches. inches apart. Columbia. Nat. mangel-wurzels. Bassano. The beet is grown both and root. see Sturtevant.) AAA.) . AA. A standard winter variety There are many other good varieties. Goff remangels were offered by American seedsmen. enough apart to — thick root is for its foliage the result of domestication. Of foliage beets there are ornamental beets. using the thinnings for greens. The thick-rooted form which we know as beet is called beet-root in England. duced the garden beets to 23 varieties (6th Rep. The price depends much on the earliness and freshness of the product. 1887. In 1889 (Annals Hort. is Long Blood. Amer. (Color divisions. pp.) AAAA.

fresh carrots may be shipped from the southern states so cheaply that there is relaAside tively little need of storing the roots for market. Carrots are of two leading types: those grown for spring or early beets summer use. particular!}' on sugar beets: root-rot. tillage. Bull. for which apply lime to the soil. The seeds of carrots are small and germinate slowly. seeds of radishes. although they are used to a considerable extent for Young.Beet— Carrot 281 Three diseases of beets are sometimes serious. and those grown as a main Carrots are stored like crop and used in the winter. the American people eat relatively few carrots. . and the ear'y varieties may be sown as soon as the land is fit in the spring. Sta. prevented by not growing beets on the infested land. turnips or other quick -germinating things with the carrots in order to mark the row and to break the crust. CARROT Very clean and mellow not ^^bake" over the seeds. and other root crops. 163. . Kept in check by spray of Bordeaux mixture scab. and the trade in them is small. The main -season carrots are not cultivated very extensively as a vegetable -gardening crop. Cornell Exp. Unless the soil is in good condition and free of weeds the young i)lants are likelj' to suffer. The carrot is a hardy plant. partirularly one that tvill and close attention to surface are the prime requisites for the culture of car- rots. The crop is easy to grow after the plants are well established. soil. from this. leaf -spot. It is well to sow stock-feeding. See Duggar.

282 The Principles of Vegetable.<n Fig. unless they are aided in their growth by a covering of sash. carrot plants are shallow -rooted and delicate. If it is not desired to plant the late varieties for fall use. The then be killed. In their earl^' stages. and the late. Carrots are sown in drills from 10 to 18 inches apart. depending largely on the variety and the method to be employed in tilling. large varieties to 7 or 8 inches. and the tillage should be very carefully done. The early crop is thinned to 4 or 5 inches apart in the row. that is to be used for late carrots. 64. one may use the early varieties for that purpose. it is well to sow keep some early stuff the ground clean early w^eeds will in the spring. and even the early varieties require from 2 to 2% months to bring them to edible size. sowing the seed late in July or even the . On land J0 ». and the young carrot plants will have an opportunity to grow. Seedliugs of carrot. as radishes. Carrots mature rather slowly. Natural size.Gardening The late varieties may be sown as late as the middle of June iu the northern states. until it is and to needed for the carrots.

. Its See Sturtevant. when they will The carrot has run wild extensively in the quickly run to seed. Sta. 2. Unless the soil is in very fine tilth and moist. the Long Scarlet is excellent and for stock-feeding the Long Orange and Long White are used. for history. See. has been in cultivation native country is probably Europe 1S87. Ser. For late or main-season crop. Y. although when they are allowed to reach their full size they are likely to be somewhat coarse in texture. The carrot is one of the Parsley known to botanists as Daucus Carota. The Half-long Danvers is one of the reliable mid-season varieties. For an acre. where Trans. 1 oz. The carrot is an annual or sometimes a biennial. pp. and western Asia. Amer. Umbelliferse.. 348. Carrot seed should always be sown thickly in order to allow ror any failure in germination. p. p. and set out the following spring. The early varieties will send up flower-stalks the same year if left in the ground but the roots of the late varieties must be stored during the winter. edy. 133-14G) made . Paris in a 2. The stump-rooted or half-long varieties are now chiefly grown. It It is more than 2. It is rarely troublesome in cultivated fields. it is difficult to secure a stand as late in the season as this. or for growing in the fall for home use. vol. however. p. 2 lbs. consult Leveque de Vilmorin. for family. and is a partial biennial or an annual. The Early Forcing is one of the best for growing in hotbeds or coldframes.000 years. 527-532.Carrot Notes 283 first of August. These are early or mid-season varieties fit for using either early in the season or late in summer. "Notice sur 1' Amelioration de la Garotte Sauvage. State Exp. republished in new edition in 1886. Goff (6th Rep. Gardeners' Chronicle. . A good crop of carrots is 200-300 bushels per acre.. if the seed is fresh. of seed is required. also. London Hort. 1865." eastern part of the country. It inhabits dry and poor Giving attention to securing more grass is the best remfields. it is a bad weed in meadows It loses the fleshy character of root and along the roadsides. For accounts of plant-breeding with carrots. N. for 300 feet of drill. In 1887. Soc. 1154. Carriere. Naturalist. These latter varieties are also good for home use..

Yellow. until spring. BB. kept dry over winter.long. There are no serious insects or diseases. Salad Chervil is a different plant (see Chap. Root distinctly pointed. sown in August it usually does not germinate Otherwise the culture is like that for earThe root is used as carrot is. Orange or red. — cc. (Color divisions. something like carrot. In 1889. except that the roots are gray or nearly black and of different flavor. Tuberous or Turnip -rooted Chervil is Choerophylhmi hulhosum.) AA. therefore. . or blunt at the lower end. the length exceeding 4 times the diameter. It is little known in America. Root half.284 The Principles of Vegetable.) He reduced the varieties to 28. Root lon^. It matures in early rot. American seedsmen offered 33 varieties. 14). as follows A. CCCC. ccc. TURNIP -ROOTED CHERVIL This is a small -rooted plaut. Purple. B. The seed does not germinate well if It is. although Umbelliferae. length not exceeding 4 times the diameter. and one of the or September. summer.Gardening a classification of the varieties of carrots based on shape. but improves by remaining in the ground. a native of southern Europe. size ana color of root. White. C. Root distinctly premorse. (Root and color divisions.

They do not require the full season in which to mature. and are therefore grown as a spring or fall crop. seeds may table in six to ten weeks. The plants will grow until heavy freezing weather. the considerable frost without injury. Two-thirds natural size. The true turnips usually have tiat or very oblate soft white flesh. Unlike parsnips and salsify. and green. nips are roots will not stand hard freezing. They should give roots large enough for the For the fall crop. and a moist soil are the requisites The seed germinates quickly. For early use tursown as soon as the land can be prepared in the spring. short season for best turnips.Turnip 285 TURNIP Cool. Seetllings of turuip. 65. at which time they may be pulled and stored as other roots are. and in the middle states as late as the middle of August. Fig. Hard}". The herbage is very hardy. be sown in the northern states as late as the last week in July. withstanding roots. Fig. 66. The value of the turnip as an article of food lies . rough-hairy leaves.

stringy and In order to secure a quick growth. however. For general field purposes. or fall crop is often sown broadcast. therefore. as no subsequent tillage is possible. they stand at first 3 inches apart. This pest can be kept in by the root check by injecting bisulfide of carbon into the ground about the plants. to grow turnips on land or. the land should be and moist. Purple-Top Munich. particularly for the early season. if the plants are grown in rows. the rows are placed from 18-30 inches apart. turnips are sown in drills 10 to 18 inches apart.Gardening its very largely in tenderness and succulence. nips until the insects are starved out. It Crueiferse or mustard family.286 The Principles of Vegetable. Staple kinds are Milan. 600-1. The plants should be thinned until use 2-3 pounds to the acre. and in fine tilth. It is an adage in many parts of the northern states that On the 25th of July Sow turnips. use 1 ounce of seed for every 200-300 feet. it is advisable not to grow tur. It is better.000 bushels may be grown to the acre. The turnip is one of the easiest of it all plants to grow. is an annual plant if the seeds are . For garden use. Teltow (excellent for home use). and then. It is The turnip is one of the known as Brassica Rapa. "wet or dry. plant grows slowly. until the main crop allows a foot The late of space for the development of each full-sized tuber. as some of the young roots are removed for eating. or 1 pound to the acre broadcast. it If the bitter. rich is woody. except that is very serioush" attacked maggot. the land should be in excellent condition and free from weeds. Better results are secured. In drills. so as to allow of wheelhoe or even horse-hoe tillage. particularly if it is to be : used for stock-feeding. but this labor is usually more than the turnips are worth. if there is no such that has not been infested land on tlie premises. If the plants are grown from broadcast seeding.

. Root spherical or top-shaped. G7. 1891. BBB. Root distinctly flattened (Color divisions.) . Sept. B. The turnip sometimes runs wild as a weed and then loses itc Native to Eur-Asia. In 1889. (Color divisions.Turnip 287 sown in the spring. White. or cylindri-conical. Root oval. fleshy root and is annual. For discussion of the botany of turnips and allies. and 31 classed as rutabagas." 1897. 321 322. Y.. including rutabagas. was based on form and color: Root distinetl}^ conical. Thje plant is ordinarily regarded as biennial.) AAAA. 168-190). GofE's classification A. (Color divisions. . N. see Bailey. See history by Sturtevant in Amer. Grayish.. pp. BB. Rutabaga. Fig. Yellow. American seea dealers sold 50 varieties classed as turnips. 803-80G. State Exp. Sta. pp. brown or black. It has been cultivated from earliest times. pp. " Garden and Forest. Nat. AA.) AAA . Gofif makes 41 varieties of turnips (6th Rep.

The rutabaga. Rutabaga differs from the turnip in having a denser and mostly yellow-fleshed root. It is a richer vegetable than the turnip. Brassica PARSNIP A cool. the leaves glaucousblue and not hairy. the seeds are usuallj^ sown as early as the first of che The requirements July or the latter part of June. known in England also as Swedish turnip and is turnip-rooted cabbage and in French as chou-navet. The roots may be harvested in the fall and stored in the cellar or in pits. or they may be left in son. As in the case of the turnip. 66 and 67.288 The Principles of VegetabU-Qardeninp RUTABAGA for the growing of rutabagas are same as for the growing of turnips. the product that is grown for stock is raised from summer-sown seeds. the roots arising from the under side of the tuber as well as from the tap-root. The parsnip occupies the land during the whole seaThe seeds are sown in the spring as early as the ground is fit. Compare Figs. It is grown either as a spring or a fall crop and is used also for stock -feeding. . For the main crop. which is rounded or elongated and not distinctly flat. native of Eur-Asia. are the requisites for parsnip -growing. campestris. except that the plants require a month to six weeks' longer time in which to mature. and one that does not and a full length season. the crown long and leafy. very deep rich soil ^^balce" over the seeds.

for if the roots are not allowed to shrivel during the winter. and straight. is growing parsnips for the market. however.Parsnip the ground luitil 289 of winter spring. are usually sown in drills far enough apart to allow of wheel-hoe or . for the highest prices are usually secured before the roots can be dug from the field in the spring. Fig. Good parsnip roots should be 1 foot long. 68. clean and comely. notion. Much of the is value of the parsnip as a market crop destroyed when that is shallow and lumpy tends to make such roots. unfounded. It is well to plant with them some quick-germinating seeds in order to break the ground and to mark the row. their quality is as If one good as when allowed to renuiin in the ground. many people believe that This is improved by freezing. Seeds of parsnips the roots are branch}' and forking. Parsnip seedlings. germinate rather slowly. The hard freezing does not injure them. The parsnip makes a long-cylindrical. tapering root: therefore the ground should be deep. and retain two therefore they should be sown thick. Land The seeds their vitality only a year or . In fact. it is important that the quality of the roots is at least a large part of the erop be stored for the winter. Two-thirds natural size.

3d ^^Pi. if it and this fact suggests the proper treat- should become a nuisance. A good crop is 500-600 bushels to the acre. Goflf 139). length. Nat. For an account of the experimental origin of the Student parsnip. There used to 200-250 feet of drill. For a history of the parsnip. 1890. pp. roots may send up flower-stalks the The parsnip has run wild as a very year in which they grow. feet. The Hollow Crown and Student parsnips are the standard varieties. 721. Amer. the longest ones appearing to extend but about 14 inches from the main root. 46-48.. In some cases. Considering the proportion of the roots that lie deep in the soil. we The fibrous roots in the followed a distance of 7 inches through very upper layers of the soil are numerous. p."— Go/7. The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is one of the Umbelliferse famand is allied to carrot. It is not a serious of in well tilled lands. and tapers very slowly after the first few inches in depth.^^' ^. when the season is dry and long. celery and parsley. The flower-stalks arise from the roots that were produced the year before. "In the parsnip the tap-root is very long. and the young plants are thinned to stand about 6 to 8 inches apart in the row.-S'"-' P. is generally used to the acre. see Buckman. State Exp. reduced the varieties of parsnips to 3. many starting out below the clay line. 180. weed weed ment in old fields. Sta. Gardeners' Chronicle. p. In 1889 (Annals Hort.3^^' . at a depth of 2 stiff clay. p. we traced the taproot downward a distance of 30 inches. consult Sturtevant. It is a native of the Old World.) American dealers offered 15 named varieties. Jan. Subsequent treatment consists only in keeping the land well tilled and free from weeds. the parsnip is a deep-rooting plant. and 4th Kept.^^^^^ ^^P. It is biennial. ily. but more than this is secured under One ounce of fresh seed is the best conditions. One of these. (2d Kept.290 The Principles of Vegetable. beyond which it was too Branches leave the tap-root throughout its delicate to follow. Y. 4-6 lbs.. examined September 17. are no serious pests.. but short.Gardening horse tillage. 1862. The strong flower-stalks the parsnip are said to be slightly poisonous by contact to some persons. N. In a plant of the Long Hollow Crown variety.. It is then a biennial.

. not for stock. 5 inches apart. is The seed ready in sown in drills as soon as the ground spring and the young plants thinned to 4 or is Fig. Salsify seedlings. or wishes to find the best markets. during winter. however. The salsify plant is grown for cooking only. as they the are If one desires to use the plant not injured by frost. a large part of the roots should be stored in the cellar or in pits. These seeds are really fruits. and are rather difficult to sow with the seed drill. 69. salsify plant. roots msLj be left in the The plant is perfectly hardy and ground over winter. Xatural size. There are no serious pests of the and the seeds germinate readily.Salsify 291 SALSIFY Deep. and they are long and stick -like. rich cool soil and the full-length season are required for the production of good salsify.

and another called the Im- proved French. 1890. Spanish salsify. Scolymus Hispanicus. see Sturtevant. There are no serious enemies. however. It is Tragopogon porrifoUus of the botanists. It is . yellow and broader leaves than salsify. Amer. which close about midday. July. and bears large handsome purple flowers. Nat.292 The Principles of Vegetable. 70. It makes a straight stalk 2-3 feet tall. and then loses the fleshy character of the root. Scorzonera Hispanica (Compositse) has a long black root. light-colored seeds. it is commonly known as the oyster plant or vegetable oyster. the roots are small.Gardening Salsify is one of the few members of the vjompositae family which produces edible parts. Even of the largest varieties. 635. It is perennial. more than 2 or 3 inches in diameter at the crown. It is biennial. Because of its flavor of oysters. An ounce of salsify seed sows 8-10 pounds about 70 feet of drill sow an acre: 200-300 bushels per acre is a good crop. SCORZONERA. It has been compai-atively little improved by domestication. and the roots continue to enlarge without becoming inedible if left in the ground for Fig. Salsify sometimes runs wild. . flowers. OR BLACK SALSIFY The is cultivation of this plant in all ways like that of sal- sify. There is a relatively large-rooted form known as the Mammoth Sandwich Island. pp. 636. For hisrarely tory.. It is native to southern Europe. more than one vear.

Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of the plant is the very prickly leaves. p. ish salsify. Fig. ^s the so-called Span- a native of southern Europe. is flavor is less pronounced than that of the but when carefully cooked possesses a very agreeable quality which somewhat inter- mediate between that of the salsify and parsnip. makes a root much like salsify. it is worth introduction into American gardens. We raise almost twice the crop upon a given area than we can secure from salsify. and no doubt it could be sold for that vegetable in the general market. but it is a good addition to the home garden. . Fig. and the roots used for the same purposes. Nat. It is sown and cultivated in exactly the same manner as that vegetable. salsify. It is adapted to all the methods of cooking employed for those vegetables. is its large size and productiveness as compared with the salsify. OR SPANISH SALSIFY Cultivated like salsif}'. Sta. {1891). But on the whole. It is little known in this country. vegetable that promises to be of considerable value in if once generally introduced.. which may make it unpleasant to handle. The particular value of the vegetable. "A this country. and can be dug either in the fall or spring. Seeds are offered by some American seedsmen "Spanish salsify (Scolymus Hispaniciis) is closely allied to the cardoon and artichoke. 70. The seeds are much easier to handle and sow than those of the s'lJsify. History by Sturtevant in Amer. 70 shows a good root. Cornell Exp." Bailey. aside from affording a variety in the kitchen garden. SCOLYMUS. It I have grown this for except that Its it is two years. 1890. much it lighter colored and considerably longer. 643. in Bull. and its young leaves are sometimes bleached and eaten like cardoons.Scolymus 293 used in the same way as salsify. 37. July.

however. cool. It is usually made from 4 to 7 inches long. This deep planting delays the appearing of the plants and thus prevents interference . as the roots are.pointed stick or crowbar.294 The Principles of Vegetable. the roots enlarging and becoming wood}' for is As a commercial crop. They may be planted at the first opening of spring. the horse-radish takes the land. It is perennial. It is perfectly hardy. rich soil and late -season growth are the essentials for success in the raising of horse-radish. which are made with a strong. it is customary to hold them rather late and to plant them with some other crop Thej^ are often planted in the rows of early cabbages or beets. When the cabbages are off. Propagated by root cuttings. These cuttings or sets are tied in bundles and stored in the cellar or pit. The lead pencil top of the cutting usually stands 3 to 5 inches below the top of the soil. it grown wholly cuttings of the as an annual.Gardening HORSE-RADISH A very deep. but since the plant makes the larger part of its growth late in the season. The sets are dropped right end up in furrows or holes. They are usuallj' placed in a somewhat slanting position. being propagated from small side roots. which has a it pungent quality that makes several years. although the upright position is probably as good. These cuttings are made from for market. the trimmings when the roots are dressed A good cutting should be from the size of a up to that of one's little finger. Horse-radish is grown for its root. and the lower end is cut slanting in order to designate the right end up. prized as a relish.

apart to allow of 295 stand from 12 to The rows are far enough horse tillage. and other crops are grown incidentally In this case. . Set planted Fig. Fig. Sometimes horse-radish is made the main crop. 73. Tlie horse-radish will grow until freezing weather. and the plants should The 18 inches apart in the row. it is planted in rows 3 to 4 feet apart on planted. A. the tops may two or three times early in the season. 71. the land is given merely good surface tillage. T>.Horse -Radish with the combination -crop. . and spinach. 72. plants with which off be cut After the other crop is removed. horse-radish plant will stand much abuse. ridges. set slanting. earJy beets or lettuce are grown on the sides of the ridges. D. it wrong end is wrong end Result of plant up. If it grows so rapidly as to interfere with the cabbages or other Fig. Set planted up.

F. F. Roots from one tourthineli piece. 75. 74.Fig. 78. One-fovirth-inch piece. Product of set. 70. E. Roots from sets planted horizontallj'. . one-inch G. Fig. Fig. Fig.

the horse- radish should not become a nuisance. For special trade. all the loose roots are picked from the furrow and destroyed. Horse radish graters. but the In some parts of the country Fig. It usually impossible to get the roots out of the land. is necessary that all the small roots is be taken out of the land. symmetrical. As it the horse -radish likely to become a bad weed. it is necessary that they be long. uniform and as the . and they may then be removed. If these furrows are left open until spring many more of the roots will be exposed. growing of horseSince radish is coming to be an important industry. When the crop harvested. 79. all but if the ground is occupied with other crops and is kept in good tillage.Horse -Radish It is best to 297 plow out the roots iu the fall is and to store or sell them. the roots may be tied in bunches of 6 or 8. Subsequent plowing and dragging will often expose is still others. the roots must be grated before they are used. The roots are washed and trimmed before they are sent to market. therefore. crop is generally marketed in barrels or in bulk.

rich soil and good care grows in must have is a marketable crop produced. for it loses its strength on exposure. dollars. At Cornell University the following experiments have been made (never published) with horse-radish cuttings (1890-91): . In fact. May. home grounds. The price per ton varies from ten to fifty aud from two to four tons should be raised on an acre.Gardening large as possible in order to Fig. General experience has designated the 6-inch cutting as the best under usual conditions.. is one of the Cruciferse has been cultivated for a thousand years and more. The plant is always grown from pieces of the roots. are frequently formed. the latter quantity when the ground is deep and rich aud when the plants do not suffer for moisture. The plant blooms profusely. but the later ones are broad and only toothed. probably having been spread from eastern Europe. fit the gratiug machines. see Sturtevant. For history. Horse-radish. Cochlearia Armoracia. but sprawling. the plant deep. This is horse-radish is well enough for the small crooked roots are the result. but good seed is practically unknown. The early leaves It is now a common weed about old homesteads. Nat. The grated product should be kept in a tight vessel. are pinnatisect. but the resulting plants are usually small. In old year. It or Mustard family. 1888. 79. small and branchy horse-radish can scarcely be sold at any price. pp. Amer. It is customary to plant the old crowns. 431-32. although experiments are needed in respect to the best kind of cutting for particular soils and circumstances. For domestic use it is grated and placed in vinegar. but it does not pay commercially nor does it give a product of the best quality. Although if it old gardens with no care -whatever. allowed to remain year after home supply.298 Tlie Principles of Vegetable. There are no horticultural varieties. bearing many small white flowers in a Seed-pods large cluster which stands 1-2 feet above the ground. Horse-radish will grow from a very small root-cutting (even if 3^ inch or less long).

quickly. from E. and Fig. . planted top end up. rows were indistinguishable. made from scraggly and much- divided roots. B. Eoots long and finger-like. the plants looked as in Fig. 6-8 inches long. from side roots. but better than D and E. Decidedly better crop B. Commercial Commercial Commercial sets. small and prongy. planted bottom end up. Fig. The roots show clearly that the horse-radish cutting knows when it stands on its On July 4. sets. Cuttings /^ inch long. Crop very poor. rather short. D. 75 shows one of the young plants six weeks after planting. the head. sets. than A. 6-8 inches long. c. c. in the whole experiment.Horse . 6-8 inches long. root. The plants came up rather slowly and the stand was not the best. planted horizontally. The plants came up slowly and made a poor stand. 71 shows a plant six weeks old. with scarcely a marketable The plants made the best stand of any Fig. made from straight roots. Crooked. Very branchy and worthless. from side roots. Few good roots. A good straight lot. The plants came up Fig. Fig. F. 2. worthless for market. irregular. F. and the c. E. and the plants were vigorous. The results— A. 76 is a full-grown root. Fig. The crop came up well. Cuttings 1-2 inches long. 73 shows the final product. and Fig. but better than E. planted slanting. Cuttings 1 inch long. shoots coming from the lower (top) end of the cutting. but fairly straight.Radish Experiments Experiment 1. 77 shows a young plant. Cuttings 1-2 inches long. 78 a mature root. when growing. •3. better than any other. 74. 299 I The cuttings — (Soil a clay loam) A. Roots small. D. G. the roots being long. 72.

but cut in /^-inch lengths and sown in furrow 3 inches deep. The J. Sets as in s. Commercial one's little finger. and K. M. 3-4 inches long. vertical. with top of cutting 3 inches deep. deep. valueless for commercial v:} purposes. 7 deep. L. R. slanting. Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial sets. Set slant- — ing. richer soil would have made up the size. and dropped in furrow 3 inches deep. slanting. Commercial sets cut in two. Old roots. T. Set vertical. A good hardly distinguishable from J and T. 6 inches deep. K. y. p. 3 inches sets. Very little lot. G-8 inches long. u. Very prongy and misshapen. sets cut in two. vertical. but roots rather small. Commercial Commercial sets. "t Very few plants Perhaps a All good. 3 inches deep. N. V. L. 4-8 inches long. N. inches deep. with top of cutting near the surface. sets. made of prongs of roots and about % inch thick.300 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening II Experiment 1. sets. M. 2. bottom end up. difference between these four lots. Crowns from roots 8 or more j-ears old. Tlie results > — J The two crops not distinguishable. . s. slanting. o. made from roots 2 or 3 years old. ' s. both good. with top of cutting at surface of ground. \ Roots not so straigiit and even as N. cuttiugs — (Clay loam) sets. 3 inches Sets 4-8 inches long. I A > very straight lot. Commercial sets cut into 1-iueh lengths. Set vertical. Q. 4-9 inches long. K. 3-4 inches deep. 1-2 inches thick at top. as large as the end of Set slanting. More branching and prongy than of M came up.

POTATO Deeply pulverized cool moisture soil holding much capillary and to rich in potash. to level culture. is propagated by means of tubers. the sweet potato. In most cases a heavy question of moisture. as the term are understood in Irish thi.\ two. deep and early planting. ai"e spraying these requisites of the best potato culture. The former staple in the and North and that t-he it is latter The two are so unlike not expedient to endeavor to state principles that shall apply to both. (301) Planting on . The potato best in a. climate: It thrives it relatively cool in the South. or is potato. since the soil early in the moisture passes from the season unless the land receives frequent surface tillage. Sweet Potato. the is planted crop loses much of the winter precipitation. is The writing. tuber crops. the in the commou South. the benefit of If potatoes late. frequent surface tillage insure healthy foliage: conserve moisture. for the midsummer season 3-ield of too continulargely a ously hot. is successful onlyas a spring is and fall crop.CHAPTER X TUBER CROPS Potato.

however. 80. A potato plant in deep soil.302 The Principles of Vegetable. to allow the tubers to be planted at least four inches "Hilling up" is land furrow. is secured . from nature) show the habit of the potato From five to eight light surface tillings are required during the season in order to save the moisture. make Figs. Even after the vines have begun to spread and to cover the ground. The early crop. the earth dropped in a deep plowed over them.Gardening ridges or hills wastes the soil moisture in most cases. for market -gardening use. Land should have been it well prepared before the plant- ing in order to render plant-food available and to retentive of moisture. The old seed-piece near the bottom. is seen are up. tillage may be necessary in a dry year. and the surface may be harrowed two or three times before the plants beneath the level. because the not deep enough to allow the tubers to grow The ground should be such as well below the surface. thus conserving moisture and destroying weeds. If the potatoes are is Fig. is often necessary. 80 and 81 (both directl}plant.

either by means of special plow- ing or h\ growing a late -tilled crop. warm place before planting (before the tubers are cut). W A hill of potatoes in stiff clay soil. the (also common or Irish potato "round potato" and "white potato") is a minor crop in general farm operations. allowing the sprouts to become 3-6 inches long.n either early or late in the season in order to . by using by choosin a ing early varieties. In the southern states. The old seed-piece at A. quickl}' available concentrated fertilizers. The crop must called be grov.Early Potatoes 303 (2) by (1) selecting "early" soil aud site. The tubers is are toe near the surface. by preparing (3) (4) the land the fall before. 81. (o) by sprouting the potatoes \-\-^^{^'J-^^\^ Fig.

Single pieces of tubers are dropped at intervals of 12-18 inches. hot suinraer. In large-area operations potatoes are planted and harvested by machinery.304 The Principles of Vegetable. and only a spring crop is grown for the northern market. the yield should run from 200-300 bushels. and Bordeaux mixture for the true blight or rot. The size in which pieces of the seed tuber should be cut has been the subject of much controversy. Arthur . Nowadays potatoes are planted rows. but the question is easy ot solution if careful and comparable experiments are mads. There or if the seed is suspected. and occasional yields will much exceed the latter figure. i and another in Fig. Much of the so-called blight is is chargeable to this no vegetable -gardening crop for which spraying is so imperative as for . or by specially made plows. August (in the secured from the The potato is inveterately attacked by the potatoArsenic. or even until it is time to plant the second crop in Gulf states). from 8-10 bushels will be required to plant an acre. and various blights. grow the crop on uninfected land and use clean seed. but with forethought and good tillage and some fertilizer.Gardening avoid the long. insect. 82. soak it after cutting in cor- rosive sublimate solution or formalin. Jt is then difficult to keep the potatoes from the spring crop until the next spring. which are in drills or continuous fur- 3-3% feet apart.the potato. is a specific for the bug. Paris green. "Seed" is commonly North. The yield of potatoes average:: about 75 bushels per acre. flea-beetle. Many people use too little seed. There are various devices for sorting them. If the pieces are cut to ono strong eye and dropped at above distances. as in bug. one of which is shown in Fig. For the flea -beetle there is no sure remedy. but it may be kept away to a great extent by heavy spraying with Bordeaux mixture. 82. For scab. Fig. 83.

Hitchcock potato digger. i. Aspinwall potato cutter. sweet potato digger. h. 6. j. g. f. . Seofield Jr. Aspinwall sorter. Potato implements and maeiiinery. Planet Jr. digger. Hoovei potato digger. Aspinwall planter: d. 82. e.Fig. Planet Jr. Qoslee tobacco rigger and potato coverer. digger. Seofield Jr. planter: c. a.

See Fig. j^:>^^" One of the most interesting chapters in the Pjg g4 '\. Prom. A good cutting or seed-piece.306 The Principles of Vegetable.. initial growth of the plant. it Periodi- is serious at the present day. 42. It It caused the famine in Ireland in 1846. varieties of potatoes soon run out (see "Survival of the Unlike"). The pieces on the tip or "seed end" may contain several eyes. history of pestilential diseases of plants -[^y is afforded ^^iq virulent spread of potato blight. Bull.Gardening Sci. Because of variation and inattention to selection. p. so the piece is too large it contains many eyes that there will be too many stalks to appropriate the food and to struggle with each other. A potato sorter. has shown (Proc. numThe piece Fig. the better the crop. In the year 1889 the seed merchants of the United States are known to have offered at least 889 varieties (Annals Hort. and the stronger the initial growth. The more food the stronger the But if other things being equal. 84.). contains food.) that the unit in such 1891. tests should not be the ber of eyes to the piece. cally it overran this country. Agr. The varieties of potatoes are numerous and poorly defined. Purdue Univ. but those from the other parts of the tuber usually should contain only one or two eyes. although cannot with stand Bordeaux mixture when the material is applied early and . and it is not worth the while to enumerate any of them here. Seed siiould not be cut any considerable time in advance of planting unless it is rolled in plaster. Soe. 83. 11. but the size of the piece.

For an early American inquiry into tliis disease. 86 A potato placed in a jar of K'ater will ttirow out shoots. 18t6. shortly after they are dug. depth of 6 or 7 inches with dirt. McKay makes the following discussion (in Bull. Taking this lesson from nature. Station) : " If exposed to the hot sun a few hours Irish potatoes will become blistered. and a Remedy for the Potato Plague. and on the cellar floor. Bosson. summer months it Upon examination be found in that. "Observations on the Potato. ^han the Open field. and bed is well drained. somewhat after the usual plan of bedding sweet potatoes for growing slips. a rule. We are careful to see that the potatoes are covered to the Fig. we have tried the method of bedding the potatoes in the field. see Charles P. We have had much better success with potathat the . those left the scattered through the those that soil." Bos- ton. and with good success. We have practiced the same method o£bedding the potatoes in the shade of spreading trees. dig on cloudy days or else arrange to remove to a shady place or cover in Fig. The food is in the potato. A cool. as field. A some way potato tuber is a stem with eyes or buds. To prevent this. keep better than carefully are housed. and with varying will during the hot success. On keeping potatoes in the South from the spring crop to the fall crop. 54. Several methods of keeping potatoes are practiced. Exp. Miss.Potatoes in the South 30? with a purpose. shady situation is bet^^j. 85.

. straw or dirt. 30 and probably Dec. For a sketch of the Mexican wild potato {Solanum tuberosum). Off. Soc. first taken from the Andean region. or under trees where we covered with leaves. from newly imported native stock from Agric. 1852-3. sec DeCandoUe's" Origin of Cultivated Plants. Trans. xx 489. 4. 30. For history. 1886 (being a report of the potato tercentenary. New potatoes growing from an old one. to breed Pat. also see vol." The potato {Solanum tuberosum) of Chile differs is native to temperate parts and northward to southern Colorado. pp." Sturtevant. Chauncey E. Gardeners' Chronicle. G. In no event should the potatoes be piled or heaped together.308 The Principles of Vegetable. 535). in the middle of the century. Rep. If potatoes intended for the table are exposed to the light for any considerable length of time they will turn greenish in color and become unwholesome for food. in Amer. N. 315-318. Baker.. N-. see Bull. Cornell Exp. Sta. : . It was in cultivation by aborigines on the discovery of America.Gardening toes covered with soil than with those spread out in open air in the cellar. It was Fig. made an effort.Y. of Y. The northern form little from main type. boreale. pp. Oct. 87. so long as warm weather continues. For an account of grafting potatoes on tomatoes. see J. Linn. Soc. Rev. Nat. 1890. see Bull. 61.. The Garden. "A Review of the Tuber-bearing Species of Solanum. Sta. and vice versa. April. Amer. For a botanical account of the species allied to the potato." Journ. If not spread in a dark place they should be covered with leaves. 530. 1852. Goodrich. blight-proof varieties S. Utica. It is known as var. Cornell Exp. 49.

although there is no single commanding book. Bull. 1891. 91. "New Potato Culture. 22. 72. 87. Fig. of Potato Culture. No. immerse 1/^ hours and 8 fl. Cornell Exp. Farmers' Bull. Terry. Rept. Bordeaux begun before appearance. insects. Y. Rot. No. 82. Flea-beetle. Ct. for a time. 123. pp. N. Cornell No. 123. to 15 gallons. Rept.5 ounces in 2 gallons hot water. 153-160. Remove all dead vines. S. Very good r6sum6 of ten Diseases in general. 85. No. 91 N. Vt. stimulate plant growth if larvae appear. 113. 86. Formalin ounces formalin (40 per cent formic aldehyde) with 15 gallons water. p. No. 113. Y. 140. colUse ored illus. Scab. Cornell No. 68. 113. 1890. 113. J. N. Me. years' work. For some of the recent literature on insects and diseases. Sta. N. pub. N. Early blight. Farmers' Bull. T. (better — not poisonous) . after 12 hours dilute drj'. (2. by Orange Judd Co. Agric. No. Cornell Corrosive sublimate No. 113. B. Soak 2 hours. 337. Fig. has recently been urged by Roberts and his colleagues in Bulls.. Carman. In the bin late in spring a potato out a root-like stem and produce stance. 109. The tuber is a storehouse of food. No. pp." and E. see: Stalk weevil. Consult "The $100 Prize Essay on the Cultivation of the Potato" (Wylie and Compton). 156. pp. No. No. 81-95. Bull. this system. Kansas No. 91. The sprouts feed on this food Fig. No. Use Bordeaux mixture. adapted to farm conditions. 1892. new tubers from its may throw own sub- In some eases a tuber grows inside the old one. No. Cornell No.Potato Diseases 309 (usually The potato tuber is a thickened stem. Bordeaux. with eyes or buds more than one bud in each eye). Rept. Dept. largely starch. H. Y. Yt. 1888.. Farmers' Bull. "ABC . 66-70. 130." The "new potato culture" of Carmau is the trench or furrow system as distinguished from the hilling system. The literature of the potato is voluminous.

In the extreme south the tubers are sometimes in loose. but unless the weather settled the tubers are likely to and the vegetation is slow. bed and covered two inches deep with loose soil or leafmold. . loose the warm soil. and is extensively planted like the Irish potato. without bottom heat. usually from the slips or cuttings which arise when the tubers are planted in beds or frames. means of slips and cuttings. When the shoots are 3-5 inches high they are broken off next the tuber and Roots will have formed while they were set in the field.Gardening SWEET POTATO A ivarm sunny climate. It is the custom to grow all varieties from "slips " or "draws. The slips are grown in beds and transplanted to the field. long season.310 The Principles of Vegetable. one of the leading crops of the grown as far north as the In the northern states it sandy lands of New Jersey. is often grown in a small way on ridges in the garden. liberal supply of moisture in — means of its tubers. "bedded" rot warm is earth. It is propagated by The phmt is tender to frost. growing season and a less supply when the tubers are maturing these are some of the requirements of a good sweet potato crop. Many growers prefer to plant only a small part of the field with the slips and the remainder with the prunings from the growth Propagation is usually accomplished by of these slips." although the Spanish variety may be cut and is The sweet potato it South. (1) Slips are the sprouts which arise from tubers when they are planted or Tubers of medium size are laid on a mild hotburied.

loam. sandy The soil should be liberally supplied with well- rotted manure. Imned lately after the first frost the potatoes should . although this treatment invites decay. the tip. at. The cutting is usually 10-12 inches long. sometimes a few vines are set very early for the particular purpose of securing plants for the remainder of the field.Sweet still Potato 311 attached "slips " or tuber tubers laid is Two to four crops of taken from one tuber. except is cutting buried directly in the soil where is and the to grow permanently. with only an inch or so of the tip projecting. The sweet potato requires a deep. Clean tillage should be practiced until the ground vines. The purpose for which the crop is grown will determine very largely the variety. "draws " may be may be cut in two lengthwise and the cut side downwards. soil often found to be a most should be well prepared before the slips are so as to avoid the necessity of cultivating close to the roots. it The leaves are removed.. g. The slips are set in rows about 3 feet apart. The set. (2) Cuttings are made from the ends of vines. and the slips themselves are 18 inches apart. being laid in a nearly horizontal position. the Red Bermuda will grow in almost any soil and under very -adverse conditions of climate and moisture. w^ell-drained. but the quality cannot be compared to that of the so-called yams. but lai-ge and sound to the tuber. Wood ashes is excellent fertilizer. and the variety will determine the care necessary. is too thickly covered by the After this large weeds should be removed with hand tools. They are taken from the earliest. e. The usually planted whole.planted or most vigorous vines.

9.Gardening the vines and then to plow into small piles. The common method of storing is to bank them in a cone- the shaped pile. or covered shingle Fig. It is probably native to tropical America. (Fig." now popular in the South. These should be produced by 2 3 bushels of ''seed" tubers. The sweet potato blooms only rarely. being one The sweet potato is flower tribe. which are 2%-Z feet apart. and even then it may not produce seeds. and they are shipped to all parts of the country. is to clear away up the potatoes with a " hill sweep" (2-winged furrowing plow).000 plants. pme a* bark. one of the Morning-glory and MoonIt has been cultivated from very remote times by the aborigines. The top is a trailing vine. One bushel 5. - like It with Vineless sweet potato. should be kept dry and should be on slightly elevated place. Ipomcea Batatas. if of ordinary sweet potatoes will give from 3. although it is widely distributed in tropical countries. 88). . Yields twice as high as these are sometimes usually set in drills. as the "Vineless Yam. A very coraraon method where they remain until removed from field.running tops.312 The Principles of Vegetable. At 18 x 36 inches. 88. The plants are The plants stand 12-18 inches apart in the secured. They are gathered be gathered. Some varieties have longer vines or tops than others. and this is thatched with cornstalks. This pile is then covered with hay. drill. An average good j'ield of sweet potatoes is 200400 bushels per acre. and some have short not. Sweet potatoes are grown very extensively in the United States.680 plants are required for an acre.000 to the sprouts are taken off twice. which roots at the joints and bears variable but mostly halberd.form leaves.

Alabama. Nearly 50. Barbadoes. a variety with short tops or ). Leaves entire (not lobed). Mississippi. pp. In the South a soft. vines ("vineless" meaning "not running. known is to the people of central Europe. but the tuber diseases are treated to best advantage by rotation of crops and using only bulletins N. pp. For history. healthy tubers for seed. There are two special books on sweet potatoes. AA. dry tuber is is desired. ^ There are several serious fungous diseases of sweet potato see The leaf -blight may be held in check by spraying with Bordeaux mixture. August. depending on where one lives. As with other crops.). In the North wanted.000. . varieties of sweet potatoes are called yams in the southern states. by Fitz and See list. Amer.59. Price gives the alternative of two schemes for : classification of varieties of sweet potatoes A. Spanish. light red. AAA. dull straw color. J. Tubers AAA.. 2. Tubers white-skinned. Price. Nansemond and Jersey are prized for " the North. but the word "yam " properly belongs to a very different kind of produced annually in the plants. Georgia. Leaves shouldered (lobed or halberd-shape at base)." or "bushy is now a very popular kind. Nat. The second A. Exp. The vineless (Fig. and Hy- man are popular far south. Leaves deeply cut or lobed.Sweet Potato of the 313 They are little common foods in all northern cities. purple. Tubers AAAA. the Dioscoreas. Texas. Sta. 698. sugary sweet potato a firm. 699.000 bushels United States. classification is based on the tuber: Tubers AA. Virginia. 1891. Sugar. see Sturtevant. The largest quantities are grown in the Carolinas. New Jersey. 251. every state proCertain duces the best quality. 88).

Give. Shallot.CHAPTER XI BULB CROPS Onion. mostly as a seasoning. The cloves are planted in early spring." which are parts or bulbels of clove is compound The comparable to one of the cores of the multiplier onion. It is grown from seeds (Fig. 89) sown it early in the spring. is a plant of very strong flavor. but the leaves are often used in underground bulbs stews and seasonings. Leek. and the bulbs should mature by midsummer or fall. require a cool season and moist. after the Garlic manner of celery. in the It usually requires the entire season. They are propagated by both These crops are grown chiefly for the seeds and bulbs. of onions. known chiefly to citizens of foreign birth or to those cities. It is stored green. Ciboule or Welsh Onion. being set in the ground pit or cool cellar. Garlic. (314) . leek and the others are above group in this country. They are used both as main-season and secondary crops. The onion is the only commercially important plant in the Garlic. The soft bulb and thick leaves are used in cookery. and Its flavor is usually milder than that should be better known. It is propagated by bulbs. Usually they are not seed-bed crops. who grow products for the large The leek is the most important of these minor bulb crops. All the bulb crops are hardy. rich soil with a loose surface. . "cloves.

. Give is a small perennial plant growing in den?e tufts and not producing bulbs. They are mild in flavor. slender. It is a neat and interesting plant for a permanent edging along the garden walk. or Welsh onion. It is perfectly hardy. but the cloves are separate at maturity. Ciboule. which are used in seasoning. is like a common onion without the bulb. Fig. The onion-like plants may be contrasted as follows : A. hollow. Native to N. Europe and the northern parts of No America. It is propagated by division of the clumps. It is grown for its leaves. Cultivation as for garlic. It mild in flavor. Leek seedlings. whereas they are inclosed in a common skin in the garlic. 89.Like Plan ts Shallot is 315 very like garlic in mauner of growth. Give.Onion . Natural size. Allium Schcenoprasum Lvs. S I. is Propagated from seeds as onions are. Plant truly perennial — . The leaves are used for seasoning.

Syria. The main -season onion crop is grown from seeds. and these are sown directly in the field where the crop (Fig. Allium Porrum. Native to Europe. careful attention to the selection of seed. and the early spring crop. — Leaves cylindrical. Onion crops are of two general kinds: the main. Garlic.Gardening AA.316 The Principles of Vegetable. var. able plant-food.or late -season crop. var. Producing bulbs of many Onion. large or evident bulbs. leaves small. Producing pointed Shallot. from either seeds or bulbs. not hollow — Strong-growing. the onions are sold in their immature or green state and mostly tied in bunches. with a Leek. Native to southwestsizes. oblong bulbs in clusters. Siberia. 90. multiplicans. Allium Ascalonicum. hvlbellifera. dividing into bulbels or cloves. In the early-season crop. the most perfect surface are some of the essentials in the growing of a good crop of onions. Native to Europe.) The early spring crop is grown is to grow. Multiplier onion. Bulbs small. Plant practically annual or biennial B. Allium Cepa. ern Asia. Allium sativum. usually from bulbs. Leaves flattish. hollow Not producing: "Welsh onion. Top onion. single bulb which is little thicker than the neck. Allium fistulosum. ONION Cool. the onions are sold in their dry state and are a staple prodnct in market quotations. — BB. These . rather moist possible surface tilth and level land. shapes and colors. In the main -season crop. soil ivith the best and containing much quickly availtillage.

Onion seedlings. seeds are sown very . "potato onions. which are small onions. each component part forming a new bulb." or bulblets that are produced on the top of the flower stalk. 91). Fig." or "multiof flowers. arrested in their growth. Natural size.The top onions (sometimes called "tree onions ") and the multipliers are it is distinct races or types of onions. 90. but sets are only the partially grown bulbs of any common onion which To desired to propa- gate in this way. in the place "sets" (Fig. v." which are compound bulbs. raise sets.Propagation of Onions 317 balbs are of three kinds: "top onions. pliers.

should not be more than one -half or three-fourths inch They are cured and stored as ordinary in diameter. onions are. The plants soon crowd.Gardening thickly ou a rather light and dry piece of ground.318 The Principles of Vegetable. The following spring. they :•"' . when planted. and by midsummer the tops begin to The bulbs die for lack of food. moisture and room.

A About multiplier onion. fertilized." Very recently. particular!}' with the materials rather rich in potash. . and the fertilizer should not be plowed under. are naturallj^ loose and moist. 'J:5. This method as ''the ture. and are transplanted to the open when the season will permit. All onion lands need to be well however. tlierefore lowland areas are nearly always selected for the growing of onions. The best soils are those that a poor crop of onions. and produces a new crop of "tops. 92. finelj- tuerefore the top of the soil should be very pre- pared. there- making heavy applications of fertilizers which are quickly available. ing-house.New Onion is Culture it 319 sends up a stalk planted out the following year. Every attention should be given to preventing the soil from baking and to keeping the surface in uniformly Soils that become dry and hard produce good tilth. Gibraltar and Prizetaker. Onions are relatively surface feeders. may not be long enough for plants In the growing of the main season crop.desired. early onions have been grown to a considerable extent from transplanted seedlings. types of The as large quick-growing southern onions. /^ natural size February or March hotbeds or the of a mul- forc- tiplier onion. may be grown to perfection in the North by this method. whereas the season started in the open. earliness is not particularly. of is less necessity. and there fore." is known new onion culThe plants are Fig. in Crossseetion Fig. started January.

It is customary to fall. from which the roots and peat have been removed. and stones should be removed by a garden rake. Fig. The land should have been good cultivation for some years previous. Each part will produce an onion. Raw and coarse stable manures are rarely used on onion lands be- cause they make the land rough and keep it too open. horse weeder. are excellent. in may not contain seeds of weeds. Lowlands usually have sufficient humus. prepare onion land the previous ness but This earli- not onl}^ insures it also allows the surface to weathered minuted so that the become and comit is in perfect condition for seeds as soon as All the season opens. It is customary .320 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening Reclaimed marshes. it may be supplied by top -dressings of old and fine manure. as it facilitates the use of the hand tools and the finger work which are so essential in the growing of a good crop of onions. 94. but if they have not. and they usually bring in seeds of weeds. It is also of great advantage to have level land. order that it possible. clods in if or other fine-toothed tool. Mullipliei onion beginning to its separate into parts. for weeds are very difficult to eradicate in an onion bed. Commercial fertilizers are usually to be advised in preference to fresh stable manures.

to improve the texture of the soil and adds an available suppl3' of potash and Lands that contain relatively little phosphoric acid vegetable matter and which are leather dry in spring may receive an application of some soluble nitrogenous fertilizer. and also because the plants should ness of the season. Onion seed germinates rather slowly and the and slender-rooted. for there is likely to be failure of the seeds to germinate. thinning is ex- pensive. There is no vegetable -garden crop raised on a large scale which demands such careful treatment of the plantlets are delicate surface soil as the onion. The seed is sown with various kinds of hand seed-drills. The character of the onion crop depends very largely on the seed stock. and if the first sowing does not give a good stand it is rarely advisable to make a second sowing because of the latecool season. Those who make a business of growing . 95. one of which is* shown in Fig. Onion seed should be sown as early possible. The onion -bed condition of tilth is considered by gardeners to be the measure of good treatment of land. and one must take great care to secure good and viable seed. The onion is a plant that quickly inins down or deteriorates if the seed stock is not care- fully selected to and grown Cheap onion seed is always be avoided. The plants must take hold at once if they are to make a good growth. in the spring as This is because the onion delights in a become In established befoi-e the dry. garden practice. hot weather of summer. the seed should be sown thick.Onion to apply fall ISeed 321 wood ashes This it as a surface dressing either in the is likel}' or spring. In field cu-ture.

322

The Principles of Vegetable- Gurdening

onious prefer to buy seed from parties

whom

they know,

even though it costs twice as much as the ordinary seed Poor seed may mean mixed varieties, of the markets. production of lack of uniformity in the crop, the scullions or onions that do not make large bulbs. It is very important that onion rows be perfectly

straight,

as

this

facilirates

tillage.

F'ig.

.'32,

p.

118.

Usually the rows are placed about 14 inches apart, and If the tillage is done by means of hand wheel -hoes. the land is rough, hard and uneven, these hoes cannot
be worked to the best advantage.
so finely pulverized that the
roll

The land should be lumps and clods will not

on the young plants.

Usually the onion patch will

Onion Harvest

323

need to be weeded by hand once or twice early in the season; although in land which is very clean and free of weeds this expense may not be necessary. The better tne preparation of the land the year before, the less will be the trouble and expense of growing the onion
crop.
soils onions tend to run too much to top, on those which have been newly turned over from sod, or which are wet, or those which have received too great an application of rough stable manures. Dry soils and dr}' seasons tend to produce small top growth and a relatively large bulb, although the plants may mature so early in the season that the bulbs do not reach the actual size that they attain on moister land. If the tops are still rank and green late in August, or early in September, and show little tendency of ripening natui'ally, it is well to break them down in order to

On some

particularl}-

check the growth.
roll

A common

way

of doing this

is

to

a

barrel

lengthwise the rows.

The best onion

however, are those that ripen naturally. Late growth is sometimes due to the seed. If the seed has been grown for a number of seasons in a long
crops,

season and moist climate, as in England, the plants will tend to grow very late in the season. The onion is a somewhat difficult crop to handle and to store unless the fall season is warm and one has good facilities for handling the bulbs. The onions are
usually allowed to dry or cure for a day or two before

they are put into storage.

If

they cannot be handled

in the field, they 'should be cured

under cover, for the

bulbs should be drv and free from dirt

when thev

are

324

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening
Curing under
it

sent to market or put iuto winter storage.

cover

is

more

expensiv^e than curing in the field, but
is to

usually gives brighter -colored bulbs and

be advised

when one caters to a special market. The tops must be removed. It is customary to pull the onions before the topping is done. Three or four rows of onions are thrown into one, making a small windrow. After thej- have

A Xew

York onion

field at

harvest.

cured for two or three days, the tops are removed with strong shears, or usually with a shoe knife. Fig. 96. The tops are cut about one-half inch above the bulb. If they are cut shorter than this the bulb is likelj- to
rot or shrivel,

and

if

they are cut

much

longer the bulb

has an untidj- appearance.
clean,

The top should be cut off leaving no ragged ends, and care should be taken

not to tear the covei-ing of the bulb itself. Some growers cut the tops from the bulbs before the crop is harvested.

Onion Storing
This

39.-

may be done
crop
All
is

if

the tops have died naturally.

It is

usually rather
If the

more expeditious than the other way.
uneven, as will usually be the case,
if
it is

advisable to grade the bulbs
secured.

the best prices are to be

small, inferior,
also

moved,

and

those

that

misshapen bulbs are reare of unusual color.

Fig. 97.

Sorting ouions in tbe

field.

A

good means of grading onion bulbs

is

to

run them

over a rack with slat bottom, shown in Fig. 97, the slats being at such distance apart as to allow the large
all the small ones and drop them through the spaces. The large bulbs are worked over the end of the table into baskets or barrels. Mature onions ordinarily will not stand freezing and thawing. Therefore, if they are stored for the winter.

bulbs to pass over, but to catch

to

326

The Principles of Vegetable- Gardening

They must be Winter storehouses in the North are often provided with fire heat. Onions may be frozen with safety, however, provided they do not thaw out until spring and the thawing is then gradual. They may be stored in the loft on the noi'th side of a building, where the sun does not strike the roof, and covered several feet thick
kept dry.
with straw or loose
haj'.

they must be put iu a frost -proof place.

In the spring the straw
is

is

gradually removed and they are allowed to thaw slowlj'.

When

the

winter temperature

very uniform,

this

method of keeping onions may be safe; but in regions in which there are great fluctuations in winter temperaIn fact, it is always ture it is not to be recommended.
hazardous.

Most onion -growers prefer
fall.

to sell the

crop in the

Usually

it

is

put in temporary storage in open
is

sheds,

much
is

as corn

stored in the crib.

One

of these

sheds

shown

in Fig. 98.

There are wide spaces in
is

the outside boarding of the shed, and the floor

raised
it.

a few inches above the ground and cracks are left in

The eaves should
of the sides.

project

enough

to carry all

water clear

If the onions are dry and clean when put into storage and the tops have been carefully removed, the onions maj' be stored several feet deep in narrow bins or cribs of this kind.

Sow onion seed as made ready. In mild
fall.

early in the spring as the ground can be

seed is sometimes sown in the and multipliers may be planted at intervals until steady warm spring weather comes. One ounce of seed is sown in about 150 feet of drill, and 3/^ to 5 pounds to the acre. A good crop of onions is 300-400 bushels to the acre, but 600-800 are secured under the very best conditions.
climates,
Sets, tops,

Onions

327

The two old-time standard varieties are Yellow Danvers and Wethersfield. At the present time, however, a true globeshaped onion is the most popular in the large markets. The

Red

White, Red, and Yellow Globe are now the great commercial varieSouthport Globe is another name for these varieties. The ties. handsome color secured on the bulbs at Southport, Conn., is secured by curing under cover away from the sun. Other popular onions for the North are Michigan Globe, Queen, Portugal, Pearl, Barletta,

Fig. 98.

An

onion shed. The onions are stored in bins along the sides, like corn.

Bermuda; various small Italian sorts are popular for home use. For large late varieties, some of the giant Italian sorts are desirable,
and
ti)e

flavor is mild.

started in the seed bed and transplanted to the field has within the last few years gained considerable popularity at the East under the name of 'the new onion culture.' The procedure by transplanting is probably new as claimed in this country east of the Rocky Mountains; but, as is shown by Wickson in his book on 'California Vegetables,' it is more than a quarter of a century old in California, and was brought to this state by growers from the south of Europe, where it is probably a time-honored practice. Transplanting of autumn-grown seedlings is much more popular in California than growing from
'sets,'

"Growing onions from seedlings

and is largely relied upon for the early crop. The practice could often be more widely followed with profit, as this spring's experience shows. Very profitable rates could have been gained for a month or more back for early maturing onions, grown on

328

The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening

light soils in parts of the state with a

warm wiuter and moderate ra.ms."— Pacific Rural Press, May 5, 1900. See Huntley, Bull. 22, Idaho Exp. Sta., for recent experiments on the transplanting of

onions. In 1889 (Annals Hort.) 78 varieties of "seed" onions were offered by American dealers, and also about twenty kinds of mulFor purposes of careful scientific tipliers, potato onions and sets. study, the varieties may be classified into geographical races, but
for purposes of description they may be assembled into groups characterized by such arbitrary features as form and color of bulb. Goff (6th Kept.' N. Y. State Exp. Sta., for the year 1887, pp. 190-

He classifies first by shape of bulb and then by color. makes four primary groups: bulb oblate, spherical, top-shape, oval or pear-shape. Each of these groups is divided into three
214)
sections: color white, yellow or brownish, red or reddish. Another classification (Bailey, Bull. 31, Mich. Agrie. College, 1887) makes

three primary sections on methods of propagation: propagated by division (multipliers), by bulblets or "tops," by seeds (or sets). The last section (seed onions^ is divided into bulbs silvery white and bulbs colored, and these groups are divided on shape of bulb.
It burrows in the root. is a serious onion pest. no practical means of combating it except to use infested lands for other crops. The rust and smut diseases may be held in check to some extent by Bordeaux mixture spray. Rotation is the Following are references to recent experibest remedy for smut. ment station literature on onion troubles: Onion Thrip, N. Y. Bull. 83, p. 680, with illus. Iowa Bull. 27, p. 139: Fla. Bull. 46: Kerosene emulsion, 1 to 10. Downy mildew, "Wis. Kept. 1, pp. 38 44, desc. and illus.; Conn. Eept. 13, pp. 155, 156; Vt. Rept. 10, pp. 61, 62. Remove all blighted vegetable matter. Weak Bordeaux. Smut, Conn. Rept. 13, pp. 119-148, desc. and illus.; Conn.

The maggot
is

There

;

Rept. 19, pp. 176-182: Transplant seedlings or use sets.

The onion has been cultivated from the earliest times. For history, see Sturtevant, Amer. Naturalist, Jan., 1890, pp. 36-40. Special treatises on onion-growing in North America are: Greiner's "Onions for Profit," and "The New Onion Culture;" Greiner and Arlie's "How to Grow Onions;" Orange Judd Company's "Onion Book "

CHAPTER

XII

COLE CROPS
Cabbage,
Kale, borecole and collards,
Cauliflower and broccoli,

Kohlrabi.

Brussels sprouts,

All
soil,

kales

cole crops are knrdij and demand a cool season and and abundance of moisture at the root. Except the and kohlrabi, all are seed-bed crops, and even kales

are often started in beds.

Each plant

requires considerable

space in order to develop well.

Cole crops are grotvn for

the vegetative aerial jmrts rather than for fruits or roots.

CABBAGE
Cool soil which is deep

moisture, continuous growth

and has power to hold much from start to finish, frequent
in the selection of

and thorough surface

tillage, extra care

seed, avoiding the root maqgot, club root,

and

rot

by means

of rotation, destroying the cabbage -worm as soon as it appears, these are essentials in cabbage growing. Cab-

bage

is

grown

for the dense rosette or head of leaves.

Young cabbage

plants

w^U stand

frost

if

properly

grown. For the early crop, the plants are raised under glass. For the main -season or late crop they may be started in seed-beds in the open. Seeds for late cabbages are sometimes planted directly in the field where the
(329)

330
crop
is

The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening
to

stand,

but this

is

unwise, for the young
It is

plants cannot receive proper care and the bugs get them.

See that the young i»lants are stocky.
to set the plants in the ground

customary

up

to the first true leaves,

and gardeners think that such setting gives better heads, but this belief was not verified in three years' tests at Cornell (summary in Bull. 37). It is important that the young plants make continuous growth, for if stunted they do not give as good crops. The seeds germinate
quickly.

Fig. 99.

Make
ing.

the land rich and keep the cultivator movto save the soil moisture.
If

Use every means

the nearly mature heads cease growing and are then
started into growth again

by means of
is

tillage or rains,

they are likely to crack. In storing cabbages, it

imperative that they are not

infested with the black- rot fungus.

Keep the water from
and always

the middle of the head, and then keep the heads as cool
as possible, without actually freezing hard,

prevent drying out.
The treatment of all cole crops may be compared to that of The story of growing a crop of cabbages is well told cabbage. in the following sketch by the late J. M. Smith, Green Bay, Wisconsin, who was one of the most expert market -gardeners of his region. The article was written for the author some time ago, and has never been published. "The longer I live," wrote Mr. Smith at the time, then in the midst of a serious drought, "the more firmly am I convinced that plenty of manure and then the most complete system of cultivation make an almost complete protection against droughts of an ordinary character." Mr. Smith's article

now

follows:

Importance of the Crop. There is probably no article in the entire vegetable list of which the consumption has increased so

the large-leaved varieties. be grown per acre with cabbage. are grown. not only increased among them. years ago the consumption of sauer-kraut was confined princiIts use has pally to Germans and other foreign -born citizens. the large quantities of waste leaves are well worth saving for stock food. some vated. like the Premium Flat Dutch. Cabbage — . rather heavy than light. and when grown it is valuable For instance. rather damp than dry. Cabbage seedlings. a much greater amount of food for stock may be raised per acre. but our native Americans are A now using it largely. and about If some of half or two-thirds of that amount if used for man.Cabbage Culture 331 few rapidly within the last teu years ?. but it must be thoroughly drained. including the outside leaves. Two-thirds natural size. the land being well enriched it and then thoroughly would not be unreasonable to expect the plants to average five pounds each.OUO culti- plants. A Fig. if an acre were set with either for man or beast. 99.s that of the cabbage. Tens of thousands of barrels are manufactured yearly. close-growing varieties requiring 10. Even when it is grown for market. Here are twenty -five tons of food per acre if used for cattle. where a few hundred barrels would have supplied very large amount of food can the demand twenty years ago. of the compact. and Soil. I prefer a sandy loam.

which will of course put them back a few days. Sometimes we have a hard frost after our first plants are set. our strawberries are generally gone by the 10th of July. For instance. 26 would be preferable in this latitude. To depend upon tlie papers that are to be found in the windows of the . June used. Very few growers now attempt to grow their own seed. thus accustoming the plants to the open air. and then continuing to sow at intervals of a week or ten days until from the 1st to the 5th of June. the last date we need the quick-growing varieties. I prefer to put about half of the manui'e on the land and plow under. at least part of the day. Seedgrowing has become a business by itself.332 The Principles of Vegetable. in which ease I would plow all under. and the gardener can purchase good seed if ho deals directly with reliable seedsmen. This variety should be set at least thirty inches apart each It way. to mature If the Premium Flat Dutch is before the cold weather comes. then spread on as much more and harrow in thoroughly. We commence setting about as soon as we get the ground in good condition in the spring. and there is no danger of making the land too rich.Gardening is a gross feeder. but will not seriously damage the crop if the plants have been This hardening is done properly hardened in the hotbeds. may be asked. by removing the sash every day for a week or ten days before taking out the plants. We continue setting For plants from the early spring until about the 15th of July.and second. In fact. or as soon as the weather becomes warm and settled? One reason is that if plants are set too early the heads become ripe that and burst. we sow the seed in the open ground in the garden. unless the manure is coarse. Forty good two-horse loads per acre is not too much if one expects large crops. and we can get a good crop of cabbage on the ground by setting a quick-growing sort. For all our cabbage except what we call first. and then taking good care of it. sowing some about as soon as the ground is fit to work. and are very soon worthless. Why not set the entire crop early in the sea- son. and if the — nights are not too cool leaving them ofE during the night. and hence plenty of manure is a necessity. when we sow the seed for our last setting in July. Raising the Plants and Setting Them. The other reason is we wish to double-crop our ground as far as possible. it should be set not later than July 1.earlies.

and do it well. For early cabbages. is to deal direct with the growers. For early cabbage. Then let a boy follow with a basket of plants and drop one at each crossing of the marks. The plants from the coldframe may make heads a few daj's earlier. usually a 2 x4 pine scantling 12 feet long. and we abandoned the plan years ago as no longer worthy of trial. let a man go ahead with a potato hook and loosen the ground where the plants are to be set. Some persons advocate sowing them very early. as with the hay rake. I have tried it repeatedly and had plants large and beautiful in appearance. so as to have them larger and more stocky than is possible in the original hotbed.Cabbage Culture 333 grocers would be the height of folly. but when the crop was grown I have never once had it as good as when the plants were taken direct from the hotbed to the open ground. we use a marker similar in form to a rake. The safest way. if it is hard. before putting them in the open ground. and then. the head being of some light kind of dry timber. I can give no reason for this and will not attempt any. but the crop has in every case been an indifferent one. The boy must be followed by the setters. but must not be allowed to get ahead of them. Good head of summer cabbage. For the ground. with holes bored at different distances marking off common hand hay apart in such a manner that the teeth will slope a little back instead of forward. two feet apart each way is sufficient. four or five inches apart each waj'. and then transplanting them into a mild hotbed or coldframe. if there is failure. if possible. we know where the blame belongs. start our seeds in a hotbed about five or six weeks before they will be needed for setting in the open ground. With this a man can mark two acres in a day. we Fig. as a few minutes of dry and hot sunshine will seriously . 100. When the ground is prepared and marked.

and then with the closed hands press the earth firmly about the newly set plant. provided it is well watered. even in very dry. we let a boy lead the horse. I know of no plant that will bear transplanting. But a shower came setters damage the The rows. setting two rows as they go. as the plants are so small that a horse cultivator will cover some and damage others. and we were doing our best to protect them against the drought by extra cultivation. so apparently perfect was the condition. This is all done very quickly. and at the same time with the right open the ground and set the plant. Although they are very strong and rapid growers. The plants will need cultivating very often if they are to grow rapidly. better than the cabbage. Still I thought going through them again might possibly aid them in their struggle with the drought. and one would hardly have been able to find weeds enough to fill his pockets from the three or four acres. going through them for the last time. Nearly all the work is done with the horse and cultivator. as we well knew. go upon their knees between the They pick up the plant with the left hand.Gardening plants. make the difference between a paying crop and a partial. and do it well. — . but few plants are more sensitive to neglect than the cabbage.334 The Principles of Vegetable.000 or 8. But when the plants are well started.000 plants per day. We had a good illustration of this last summer. The ground was apparently as dry as hot ashes and almost as mellow to walk upon. except a very little near the plants. In the summer we often put one quart of water on the plant instead of half a pint. and doing it at the right time. Tilling. As the plants are but two feet apart. It is well to go through them the first time with a hand cultivator. The weather was very dry. but the doing of the work well or ill. unless the ground is quite damp and the weather wet. Few persons would have thought that any further cultivation would have been of any use. You may think all this pains in setting and watering quite too much trouble. Some of my men will set 6. They had become so large that we were. failure. hot weather. and even then it is sometimes necessary to repeat the operation within three or four days. it is best to put at least half a pint of water upon each plant. cultivator. or more favorably affected by extra good care. press the earth back. and the cultivator needs careful handling. After setting. or perhaps total. we like the horse and the Planet Jr.

if you do your work thoroughly and well. although the variety was the same. and they received no further cultivation.— Liike other garden vegetables. other was a very large one. 335 leaving about In the morning on going to the garden. list. My son and myself estimated that the cash value of that threefourths of an acre was at least fifty dollars less for lack of that One was simply a good crop. and was allowed to choose. but with me not equal to others. we found that the the result portion left uncultivated was not nearly as good as the balance of the piece. I found my teamster at work elsewhere. For first early. we usually expect to begin to market the crop in June. the manure. Varieiies. It is it well to test some of the more prom- ising novelties. and : ties enlarges rapidly. Try the standard varieties first. but has never done equally well with me. in preference to the other. adopt them. The Chicago Market is very good and is valuable in the gardens near that city.Cabbage in the afternoon and drove the three-fourths of an acre undone. experiment carefully. the land. but found they had grown so much he thought his work there would do more after myself examining them I fully agreed with him. Culture cultivator out. its near neighbor. Differdifferent sections of country. I believe I should take this in preference to any other that I have ever tried. The Bergen Drumhead is one of the finest varieties in the region of New York city. and if on trial you now have. but do in a small they prove better than those ent varieties thrive best in way at first. being onh' about two weeks later than the u'akefield. he said he had tried to do it. the Charleston Wakefield stands at the head of the ns. and cultivation were the same except the last cultivation. and on asking him why he had not finished cultivating the cabbage. If it is and well cared are planied out as early as the season will allow with for. In fact. if I could have but one variety. Now for when we came to harvest the crop. while the last few hours' work. and you will soon find what you can safely rely on for a crop. while the Newark Flat Dutch. mer among The Newark Flat Dutch and Henderson Early Sumthe best for second-early. is one of the best and most profitable varieties I have ever cultivated. Hence we only and as they are larger are chosen set enough of the . the list of new variin the night that harm than good.

3-45) are good preventives of attack. of excellent quality. The heads are nearly round. the best market being outside. but supply retail grocers and others who sell direct to the consumers. The great drawback with us in growing early cabbage is what we call the cabbage maggot. Throw a few inches of straw over them and then cover with earth. and others. and wrap the leaves closely around them. we have found that it gives better satisfaction to our customers to put in the crates neither the very largest nor the smallest heads. very solid. and also very good keepers. Pull up the cabbage without shaking the dirt from the roots and retaining all the leaves. leaving the very large ones and the small ones to be worked into kraut. It is the product of a fly very similar to a small house fly. I rarely throw them on the market. or if you let them freeze too hard they will just as surely be spoiled when the frost comes out in the spring. Succession. After the weather — : . Early Spring is only a few days behind the Wakefield. Duritg the summer and until late in the fall it is cut and packed in crates that will hold from 50 to 100 each. often sell in bulk to those who are laying in a stock for winter.not more than three or four inches at first. It is always our object Late in the fall we to keep just as near the consumer as possible. It grows an immense mass of leaves. Being sold by the head. Two dangers must oe guarded against: If you get them too warm they will surely rot.Gardening Wakefield to last until the others are grown. As a main-season variety the Premium Flat Dutch has been invaluable. This variety is now displaced by Autumn King. We have sometimes kept a few hundred in the following manner Dig a trench about four feet wide and at least one foot deep. close together. and there is sure to be more or less loss and waste. requires to keeping it through the winter. a good deal of room and more or less care.336 The Principles of Vegetable. and if grown for feed would have extra value on that account. Place the heads in the trench with the roots up. but to have them of good. But it is also an excellent variety for the table.growing varieties. Paper pads {p. fair size and to run as evenly as possible. We always prefer to sell our entire crop in the fall in preference It is bulky to handle. Then in case of a few cold and freezing days or nights before cabbages are gathered. Marketing and Storing. this will not be damaged as much as the quick. Our cabbage is mostly shipped away from our city.

.

. even if we are obliged to sell at a low rate. I — Interest and taxes per year Forty loads of manure at $1 per load Plowing and fitting the ground 10. a market-garden crop of cabbages 10 j^ears ago. Cabbage is now stored on shelves in a cool dry building. put on vnvre earth. but have again lost the entirs lot by too hard freezing. We need firstclass land.. freezing somewhat. Following were figures for the growing of Costs and Profits.(Jardening cold. I think a have had good success with cabbage kept in this manner. After-cultivation Harvesting and marketing .338 becomes The Principkfi of Vegetable. $1. we prefer. if possible.000 plants at $4 per thousand Setting and watering . Hence..5 . to sell lae entire crop in the fall. and will assume it to be worth $200 per acre: foot will do no harm.

therefore -sown kale is rela- . from ten to twenty inches apart. however. and the plants stand out of doors during the whole winter and are ready for use In the northernmost states. Often they are allowed to stand in the field all winter and are not injured by freezing. In fact. it is a form of the cabbage The species that is very near the aboriginal type. care. these j'oung plants are likely to perish unless fall protected under frames. or the whole may be harvested at once. very earl}' in the spring. the seeds being placed where the plants are to stand. and the plants may eventually stand. Greens from kale are prized in the market only very late or early in the season when many other kinds cannot be had in quantity. northern states. The older leaves usually improved by being frozen. is l-ale requires less exacting hardier. Kale may be likened to a cabbage plant that produces no heads. are leaves. atul the seed is usually sown where the plants Kale is grown for its large to mature.Kale 339 KALE OR BORECOLE As compared with cabbage. is For early spring use the seed ordinarily sown in late summer or early fall South and middle South. plants are extremely hardy and are therefore grown mostly for fall or spring nse. kale is ordinarily sown in the spring. allowing each plant an opportunity to develop to its The plants are not used until late fall or even best. not even in the winter. after the thinning process. In the North. The rows may be far enough apart to allow of horse cultivation. plant in the and leaf-stalks are The tenderest leaves are picked from the plants at intervals.

except that the plants are al- grown as a fall crop and they are usually started The plant is grown for the small heads in seed-beds.840 The Principles of Vegetable. in order that the plants may get a good growth before hot weather sets in. It grown on a very extensive scale about Norfolk. the seed being sown verj^ early the spring. averages one of from "sprout. particularly in those regions which warm that good cabbages cannot be raised. BRUSSELS SPROUTS The culture demanded by Brussels sprouts tially that required is essen- by kale.Gardening tively little is known in the colder parts of the countrj*. strong is closely allied to kale. for Brussels sprouts is essentially that In the North the seeds ordinarily are sown rather late in order that the plants ma^- not mature . and these are the edible parts. tvays Brussels sprouts the straight. but along little bages are borne. stem The treatment for cabbage. usually in a seed-bed under protection." as diameter. When inches in the sprouts are one to two small and tender. Virginia. The leaves are ready for eating in the fall. In the southern states a form of kale lards is are so known as colmuch grown. The grown as in plants are cabbage plants are. and is shipped to the northern markets from New Year's until the opening of spring. buds or miniature cabA good the buds is called. Sometimes young cabbage plants are raised for greens and are known as collards. they constitute one of the best and most delicately flavored vegetables of the cabbage tribe. along the main stalk.

In the northernmost states. however. If seeds are sown in June. A down when ticed. Cauliflower is a difi&cult plant to grow to perfection . care must do not sunhurn. requiring moist season. which grow from sixteen to eighteen inches high and which are in favor in short-season climates. as the plants tend to run after the 232.Brussels too earl}'. There are dwarf varieties. however. climate. it is vitally important that the very best strain of seed is used. careful selection in seed -raising is not prac- A strong plant of the ordinary varieties of Brus- sels sprouts makes a stalk from two to three feet high. CAULIFLOWER From cabbage. A large part of the growth of the plant weather of fall. the plants may be set in the field after the manner of cabbages in late July or August. something in the cool made method described for celery and leeks. demands a constant supply of be exercised that the heads soil -moisture. producing sprouts from near the base to the large canopy of leaves at the top. Sj^routs — Caidiflowe?' 341 in late fall is for the sprouts are most prized and winter. chiefly as follows : the culture is of cauliflower differs to it The plant a relatively more ixirticular as cool. plants are usually dug late in the fall and planted out in pits. on page good crop of Brussels sprouts is dependent very largeh' on the strain of seed. In the middle states the plants maj' be left out of doors during the winter as the light freezing does not injure the sprouts. The plant is grown for its white tender heads formed of the shortened and thickened flower-parts.

parts of the country. When thus grown. Low but welldrained bottom-lands are usually chosen in order that . as it is. There is a famih' of long-season and late-maturing cauliflowers. and in the Puget Sound region. care should be taken that they are not sunburned. like the Snowball and Paris. it is well to tie the leaves together over the head or to break a few of the leaves over it in order to shade it. Its requirements are similar to those of the cabbage except that it is injured by hot suns and dry weather. For this crop some of the later and larger -growing varieties may be used. In the American climate the effort is usually made to secure the crop early or late and thereby to avoid growing it in the heat of midsummer. and by starting the plants under glass. in special locations in Wherever irrigation can be grown successfully. which is known under the general name of broccoli. cauliflower is grown with success. near the Great Lakes. also. may also be In order that the heads of cauliflower may be white and tender.342 The Princivles of Yegetable. it many practiced. Every effort should be made to conserve the moisture by deep preparation of the land in the first place and by frequent surface tillage thereafter. If the heads mature in midsummer. Along the seaboard of the northeastern states. This crop is secured by growing the early varieties. Under this system.Gardening in the hotter and dryer parts of the country. relativeh' little grown in this country. its range of adaptability is' much extended. and it therefore needs a cool and moist atmosphere. The late crop is matured late in the fall from seeds that are sown in summer in seed-beds. the early crop is usually off in June or July.

ground.ABI The treatment required by flat turnips. this precaution is uunecessarj". and also to allowing the plants to become checked and then starting them into new growth by renewed tillage. It is. therefore. On very Long Island. exceedingly important that the very best strain of seed be secured if the best results are to be attained. The cauliflower has a tendency to "button " or to throw up irregular growths from the head. since the moist from proximity to the ocean and the water-table is not deep. Keep the plants in a uniform condition of thrift. the plant is a very excellent garden vegetable . however. atmosphere is Probably there is no other vegetable which so quickly runs down from poor seed as the cauliflower. running as high . However. This is due to poor seed. as three to five dollars per ounce but the cheap seed gives a smaller percentage of heading plants and the heads are usually irregular and broken. The cauliflower seed of the market is grown in the Old World.Kohlrabi the plants 343 may have a constant supply of moisture. where the cauliflower is largely grown. but just now the Puget Sound country is developing as a region for the growing of cauliflower seed. the best of it coming from Denmark. KOHLK. dry soil and too great heat. Kohlrabi produces a turnip-like tuber just above the It is grown raostlj" as a stock food and is relatively little known in this country outside of Canada. is The best cauliflower seed expensivs. Tfie hij liohlrahi is that demanded plant is grown for the tuberous stem.

B. Sta. for 1886. Head egg-shaped. Head flattened. Foliage red.) American seedsmen offered 110 varieties of cabbage. N. 185): A. 7 of kohlrabi. BB. Head round.. 7 of Brussels sprouts. 29 of kale. „ Kohlrabi. Successive sowings may be made and the plants should be ^%. ^. It belongs to the Crnciferce or mustard family. State Exp. BB. For kohlrabi. rig.344 if The Principles of Vegetable.Gardening used before the tubers become large and stringy.102. Head elliptical. BBBB. B. Head conical. Head elliptical. . to the French under the generic name European sea-coast species. esti. Brassica oleracea. BBB. p. c. ^ . Seed required per acre and distances apart for Brussels sprouts and cauliflower are essentially as kale is usually allowed to stand for cabbage somewhat closer in the rows. . In 1889 (Annals Hort. White Vienna is the leading garden variety. Head conical. The tubers should be used when they are from two to three inches in diameter.*^' thinned to six to ten inches apart in the vovf. BBB. for turnips. Y. Foliage smooth. Foliage blistered (Savoys). Foliage green. 53 of cauliflower. ^ mate as -. otherwise they are tough and bitter. BBBBB. AA. Head round. C. "pai'^^ Fig. cc. Foliage green. Goff classifies cabbages as follows (5th Annual Kept. cc. Foliage red or purple. The plant is perennial and now grows on the cliffs of southern Eng- The cole plants (known of chou) are probably derivatives of one . 102. it is essential that they should have grown quicklj^ K\ jiS^ |P^ -'^^<i ' and continuously.

5 lbs. N. Var. on lower and upper sides of leaves if possible when small. its In some of earliest times. 1887. . Bull. p. August. ill. N. concentrated lye. wild or original form. 657. Same as for worm. Cornell Bull. The really efficient means of circumventing or destroying the cabbage maggot. 34. Eesin. . . 270. See Slingerland. Tobacco pyrethrum Persian insect powder. injecting crude carbolic acid emulsion. Illustr. Bull. acephala. except tallow. first Capture. See pictures in Cyclopedia Amer. crop. p. botrytis. On insects and diseases the following publications sulted : may be con- Eoot maggot. Cornell Bull. 144. capitata. pp. Fla. N. Persistent use of Paris green on . 1 pt. 83. Kohlrabi. who recommends tarred paper cards placed snugly about the plants rubbing eggs from base of the young plant. The types may be ar- ranged as follows: Brassica oleracea. 83. 805-808 for kale. Bull. forms cabbage has been cultivated from the For history. pp. 673. gemmifera. p. 1888. pp. Amer. pp. lb.. The cultivated offspring are mostly biennial. . Var. May. The injections are best made with a specially . Hort. . resin. 104. Cabbage. 520-523 for cabbage. aside from rotation. 78. or bisulfide of carbon into the ground about the plants. 1887. Y. Worm. Looper. or Butterfly. water. under Cabbage.Notes on Cole Plants 345 land and other parts of Europe. 5 gals. Y. Kale. Cutworms. Bull. June. Bisulfide of carbon kerosene emulsion diluted with ten parts water. September. see Sturtevant. Cornell Bull. Var. The wild cabbage is very like a tall kale.lime mixture: Pulv. Aphis. 701-703 for cauliflower. Nat. Very complete. Cauliflower. Var. are very few. Var. 440-442 for Brussels sprouts. Y. constructed syringe. 78. Brussels sprouts. 1887. 1 fish oil or any cheap animal oil. caulo-rapa.

34. p. Bull. p." Pedersen." et " How to Grow Cabbages and Cauliflower most Lup- ton. N. Clean culture and cleanliness to deprive of winter shelter. Bull. p. . Bull. J. Kept. X. 683. 108. "Cauliflowers and How to Grow Them. Cauliflower and Allied Vegetables. Y.: Air-slaked stone lime. "Cabbages. "The Cauli("How to Cook Cauliflower" is a reprint of one chapter in Brill.346 The Principles of Vegetable. Y. Fla. acre. 268. Bull. 83. 17." flower" . N.Gardening Harlequin Cabbage Bug. Profitably . Should not get foothold. N. Rotation: see p." Allen's this book) "Cabbage. : : Special al . N. 525. . Y. to Bull. p. N." Crozier. Club root. "Cabbage and Cauliflower for profit. 75 bus. J.. J. Hand-picking. J. N. 1895. 121.J. 200 of this book. 98. N. book literature: Gregory.

For home nse it may be had during the summer by making successional sowings in rather cool and moist ground. SPINACH Spinach lights drills. Formerly spinach was (347) . the ground must have good surface tilth and much available plant -food. Chard or leaf-beet. moist weather.HERB CROPS Spinach. Spinach or spinage is the standard plant for spring and fall greens. grown mostly It is usually a succession -crop. but as a commercial crop. and nearly all of them are partial-s?ason crops. Purslane. Orach. Mustard. it is not grown in warm weather. Most pot-herb crops demand a cool season. nearing completion. is essentially a spring and fall crop. It is It dein in cool. Pot-herh or ^^greens. Dandelion. Pe-tsai." are leaves: therefore they of soluble nitrogenous substances particularly when the growth is is usually important. the application crops. grown for fheir must make quick growth in order io be crisp and tender. and are therefore treated as succession.or companion -crops.CHAPTER Xin POT.

to sprinkle the ground early sulfate of with a weak solution of nitrate of soda or ammonia. even in the northern states. ten- der leaves. is a crop that profits by an application It is of soluble nitrogenous fertilizers. The land should be also well drained. in some parts of the in the spring country-. that the plants It is rich. leaving the land for other crops. in order to secure perfect surface drainage. Since spinach it is prized for its crisp.Gardening rather large scale. North. using from 50-75 pounds of the .348 The Principles of Vegetable. The earl}^ spring spinach is grown from seeds that are sown in the field in September. may not ''heave" by frost. On the opening of spring the spinach resumes growth. but of late j-ears brought to early maturity iu the North under glass on a it is grown in such quantities about Norfolk and other parts of the South that it is seldom grown in frames in the North except for home use. in mild seasons it may grow throughout most of It should be read}' for use in April and the winter. The plants should become thoroughly established before winter. the distance depending on the means that are employed for tillage. it may be covered lightly with straw or first litter to prevent heaving and thawing. customary. May. Lengthwise these beds the spinach is sown in rows 12-18 inches apart. customary to plow the laud into low ridges or beds 6-9 feet wide. In fact. even as far north as New York state. having made a spread of leaves of three or four inchies The crop is usually left uncovered in the at least. although if material is at hand. In the South it is marketed from late November to March and early April. and be off the ground early in June.

There is always more or less loss of fall -grown plants in the northern states. cies The New Zealand spinach.Spinach fertilizer 849 applications. plants are to remain. to edible maturity or March in order to hasten the plants. 103. and it is sometimes grown under frames. is sometimes used for summer . Fig. manure in the fall. and somerangement. Henmanure is sometimes used. For home use. applied by means of a street sprinkler or similar arSometimes the beds are top-dressed with and the leachings from the manure will then start the plants quickly in the spring. times for market. Sometimes beds of fall -grown spinach are covered with sash in February and transplanted to the open. but the plants do not mastand by this spring Spinach is sometimes started under glass ture so early. Spinach seedlings. plants are started in the spring in a warm position. which is a distinct spefrom the above. the seed usually being sown where the It is more easy to secure a good sowing. Two-thirds natural size. per acre at eacli of two or three successive These applications may be made from ten The applications are often days to two weeks apart.

Jan.. It is annual. Bloomsdale. greens. No. Amer. p." Sturtevant. pp. The pricklyseeded is hardiest and is commonly used for fall sowing. For an acre. Bull. Y. For spinach troubles. in 1770. Y. in N. Nat. although Drills for spinach are usually 12-18 in. apart. N. August. It is probably native to southwestern Asia. Other standard kinds are Viroflay.. Sow at intervals.) and "seeds prickly. Nineteen varieties were in the American trade in 1889. 32. N. pp.350 The Principles of Vegefohle. and appears to have come into cultivation within the Christian era. Amer. allied to beet. 99. 41. sending up its flower-. Sta. Anthracnose. Rotation. the pricklyseeded and round-seeded (the "seeds" are really fruits^ and these are regarded as distinct species by some writers. Spinacia oleracea. New Zealand. The plant is annual. 1890. "This plant was first found by Sir Joseph Banks. I. Bull.. 1 oz. Y. but a member of the Fig Marigold family {Mesemhryanthemacece) It is Tetragonia expansa of the botanists. dividing them into "seeds not prickly" (9 vars. and ill. Bull. 225-230) reduces the varieties to 10. of seed is used. Mildew. of drill. Burn all affected parts. Various fungous diseases. Y." For history. 70. Leaf Blight. New ^''at. and its merits discovered to the sailors of Captain Cook's expedition round the world. There are two races. is one of the Chenopodkicece. apart. . State Exp. N. It endures hot weather and therefore may be substituted for spinach in summer. sows about 150 ft. White Smut. In the drills the plants may stand 4-6 in. 10-12 lbs.Gardening it has never gained much popularity. Treat soil with mixture of flowers of sulfur and air-slaked lime. as for spinach.stalk in sum' mer if sown in early spring. : Clean cultivation to destroy all lamb's quarters. Round-Leaved. 724- 726. R. see Sturtevant. Goff (6th Rep. at Queen Charlotte's Sound. Zealand Spinach is not a spinach. one reason being that greens are not in great demand in hot weather.. Spinach. late fall or early spring plowing of fields. It reached Kew Gardens in 1772. 1890. . or pigweed family. desc. see: Leaf miner.

or later. plants. Seeds are sown early in the spring as ordinary beet seeds are. particularly the common quarter. Mustard is much used for greens in home gardens.Chard.in tially a cool -season plant. and thereafter it is of no use as a pot-herb plant. It is are often used for greens. the seed being sown the spring and the foliage used before midsummer. Small plants of the common beet. which are usually white or tinted rather than green. finally they and the plants are thinned as used until stand 6-12 inches apart in the row. Some white of the common weeds much prized for this purpose in the rural districts. or pigweeds. Orach. as explained on page 279. the plant sends up a strong flower- stalk four or five feet high. Mustard 351 OTHER GREENS Many are kinds of plants aside from spinach are used as greens or pot -herbs. Sometimes these are blanched by tying up the bunch of foliage. where the climate is too hot for many other potherb crops. or leaf -beet. root-leaves. is one of the best of pot-herb nearly a full season in It ordinarily requires which to mature. Orach is allied to the amaranths. The following are garden plants. and it is also grown to a large extent in parts of the South. dandelion pigweed or lamb's and dock. although it will give a supply of edible foliage from early summer until fall. The chard has very broad and thick leaf-blades and midribs. grown for the large succulent It is essenearlj. pusley or purslane. Chard. Some of the improved varieties of curled- . By midsummer.

and gives a large amount of The mustards represent several species of herbage. It is -plant. and the tender bunch of foliage is ready for use in May or June.352 The Principles of Vegetable. although the seeds Care should be exercised not to let the plants seed themselves too freely. The seeds ai*e sown very early in spring. The Chinese Broad -Leaved is a most robust plant.Gardening all pot-herb In midsummer the plants run to seed. may Brassica. . the plant makes a very early in the spring. and runs to seed withsuccession a cool -season mistake of treating like out making It It much foliage if sown late in the season. the seeds maj^ be sown in the fall on sand}' warm and the plants soil will be ready for use in early spring. largely taking the place of both spinach and lettuce. resembles a large and It dense -headed lettuce plant rather than a cabbage. the Southern Giantbecome weedy. resembling a Cos lettuce. Curled Mustard is much used. thick. not germinate in the fall. Chinese cahhage. oblong head. When well grown. and the broad white midribs and tender leaf-blades make it a very acceptable product. as they are likelj" to escape into unoccupied areas and In the South. known in this country. It is little delicate -flavored of all the pot-herb plants. and people usually it make the an ordinary cabbage. or early in the fall in the more southern parts. fact. or Pe-tsai. It is one of the best and most is really a mustard. like mustard. even in the northern states. In leaved mustard are amongst the best of plants. should be sown may also be grown as a fall crop by sowing the seeds late in the summer.

If the plantation is to be tilled by hand tools. but usually the seeds are sown where the plants are to stand. and the plants are transplanted to the field. the rows Since the should be two or more feet apart.Dandelion 353 Dandelion. is demand for usually greatest in early spring. it spring. or the plants are allowed to remain in the ground until the following Although dandelion will grow anywhere. is food. The young plants are thinned until they stand one foot apart in the row. The rosette of foliage should be dense and wide -spreading. In the dandelion treated must have deep rich soil and good tillage if it is to make and succulent foliage. large the plants may be apart each way. the plants are generally allowed to stand where they grow through the They are then ready for use as soon as the early growth starts. greens winter. but allowed to stand as close as one foot if horse tools are used. the crop is harvested in the fall. and in parts of the East it is an — important commercial crop. The distance between the rows will depend entirely on the value of the land and the means that are employed for tilling. It is also grown in private gardens of this country. and is grown in Europe to a considerable extent as a garden plant. w . Occasionally the seed is sown in seed-beds or in frames. and the foliage is often handsome for garnishing as well cultivation as useful for as an The seed is sown in early spring and annual crop. covering a space from 12-20 inciies The crop is harvested hj cutting off the rosette across. The daudeliou lias been much improved by the French. Some of the varieties with large leaves and others with cut or frilled leaves are great improvements on the wild plant.

of the field is a weak- stemmed plant trailing on the ground. and greens may be had during the cold weather. " of the plant-breeder. Sometimes they this are forced in in way a dark place in order to give blanched leaves. oi ''pus- has been much improved hy the arts ley. and has very thick and succulent stems and very large leaves. and there is no danger that the plant will become a The small and inferior plants which are not fit pest. of leaves just at the crown. 104. quick garden soil from seeds sown in early spring where the . The roots of the garden -grown dandelion are sometimes taken up in the fall and removed to the hotbed or forcing -house. whereas the improved. Fig. or French purslane. It is easily grown in any good. Fig.354 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening The land is then plowed. for sale should also be cut in order to prevent them from going to seed and becoming a nuisance. Even in the field the leaves may to be tied up so as blanch the inner part of the crown. Spray of Trench purslane (X The ordinary pusley 3^). Purslane. much as endive is treated. 104. grows more or less erect.

other kinds of pot-herb plants. as greens are not in demand at that danger of the cultivated purslane self-sowing and becoming a bad weed. unlike it is not injured by is weather. to have no unusual merits. There seems to be — . and it would not be great violence to include cabbage in this group.Various Pot -Herbs plants are to stand. However. Kale (see Chapter XII) is really a pot-herb plant. the crop little usually harvested before midsummer. It 355 many warm time. but as these are perennial they are discussed in Chapter XX. the foregoing pages. and. which is sometimes offered by seedsmen. Several docks and sorrels are grown as pot-herbs. The strawberry blite {Chenopodiuni capitatum or Blitum capitatum) is a native pigweed-like annual of easy culIt seems ture. An allied plant is Quinoa. To the plants discussed in Other Pot-herb Plants. which is grown in all ways like orach. matures quiokly. several others might be added.

and it is difficult to state They are closely principles that apply to all of them. On •Bull. . Some of the plants are used both as salads and pot-herbs. Cress.CHAPTER XIV SALAD CROPS Lettuce. connected with the pot-herb crops. Celery. cool best it may and he said that salad plants require if the moist soil. ExT). Celeriac. . as endive. a quicT{ continuous results are attained. is boiled. Celery and lettuce have little in common. but the above grouping seems to be as satisfactory as any. Endive. Corn Salad. benefited by a siwcial ajiplication of They are often quicMy available fer- species during growth. what heterogeneous company. the necessity of giving extra care to the rearing of salad plants. 54. As a growth tilizers general statement. Parsley. but they are placed in the group to which their most common use assigns them A salad is eaten uncooked a pot-herb or " greens Horse-radish is properly a salad plant. Chicory. Waugh writes* as follows: "Doubtless (356) Vt. particularly of nitrogen in those which are desired chiefly for a quick growth of The plants iueluded in this chapter are a someleaves. . Sta.

very easy of cul- and ivell-prepared is grown as a seed-bed crop. the seed may be sown where the plants are to stand. who do not have their own gardens. mer months. quickly available fertilizers and continuous grotvth start to finish. salad plants reach edible maturity so quickly that any reasonable attention should secure good returns. from In this country it is Jcnoivn is in the open mostly as an early spring crop. plenty of water. Lettuce is little grown in America during the hot sumThere are certain varieties. ture in rich It soil. particularly for the mi^season and later crops. it is not time and little money that are required for suc- but a thoughtful promptness of action. It is always a succession. Yet most of the true plants are not worth gathering." • LETTUCE Lettuce is a hardy. A rich spot of ground.or companion -crop. however. A good salad cannot be made this reason the be'st from wilted or stale plants. but with salad plants the demand is imperative. Here salads are practically prohibited to people again cess. wilted. The plants should be freshly picked within half an hour of meal time. weed-choked bine for best results. moist soil.or companion -crop. Up to this time thej' should have been rapidly and vigorously grown. short. must comDrj'. clean and thorough culture with favorable weather. In some cases. those of the Cos strain .season succession. tough. Lettuce usuallj" which thrive in the hot weather.Salad Plants all — Lettuce For 357 vegetables ought to be fresh. requiring melloiv. cool-season.

Lettuce seedliugs. soil somewhat greater care and are more particular as Lettuce usually does best in a that is loose and Soils warm. growth to be at are not so much grown as make a quick and succulent The large-heading varieties the others. Such companion -cropping is shown in Fig. and a is usually too dry It at that time of the year to give quick germination. In such case field is it is best to sow in a seed-bed.358 The Principles of Vegetable. or one that the gardeners call "quick. essential that lettuce its best. late in August or in September. because the moisture conditions can be controlled better. since it will mature before the other plants need all the space. Natural size. Lettuce may be grown in the fall from seeds that are sown Fig. since they demand to soil. celery or various other succession-crops. early cauliflower. 106.Gardening Lettuce perhaps being the best. may be followed by cabbages." . Sometimes lettuce is transplanted between the plants of earh' cabbages or cauliflow-ers. 105.

lOfi. or sometimes in boxes in the house. For the late spring and thickly summer crops the seed is usually and the thinnings are used on the sown rather table. Lettuce as a companion-crop to cabbage. are ill -adapted to the crop.Lettuce 359 that are very heavy. Fig. the ordinary spring lettuce may be grown with success throughout the summer. and particularly if the exposure is somewhat cool. In order to secure a quick growth. it is sometimes advisable to . and particularly those that have much clay. If one's soil is moist. The plants that are to attain the largest size should stand as much as a foot apart. Successional sowings may in ten days to three weeks. The be made as often as once earliest spring lettuce taken from the open is usually started in frames or forcing -houses.

B. 156-202) reduces the varieties to 87. Lettuce {Lactiica sativa) is probably native to Europe and Asia. The surface of the ground should be kept well tilled in order to conserve the moisture and to promote all those activities which result in quick growth.or curled-leaved. or purple. c. State Exp. cut. Leaves pinnately lobed.000 plants for each ounce of seed. .leaved. Borders of leaves ruffled. Sta. Calcu- on 1.) BB. Cos. (Color divisions as above. apply nitrate of soda soon after the plants are nitrate is The usually sprinkled broadcast on the surface and raked or cultivated in. to G-12 inches apart in the row. Lettuce is commonly grown in lows 8-12 inches apart. BB. Y. His classification is as follows late varieties. tending to grow upright. and nari-ow. An application at the rate of 200-300 pounds to the acre may be made with good results. For summer use. A.) AA. For early use. start in forcing-house. Summer Cabbage. By some it is supposed to have descended from Lactuca Scariola. Most of the forcing under glass. although its wild prototype is not definitely known. AAA. as the young plants are taken out. as Deacon. B. cc. Goff (in 4th Rept. pp. head lettuce. Leaves oblong. Hanson. There are four well-marked tribes or races. Sow in succession till warm weather. started — . Cos. Foliage green. Leaves roundish or but slightly oblong. Foliage red. plant varieties that withstand the heat. (Color divisions as above. frame or kitchen. N. spreading. more or less tinged or spotted with brown. as Tennisball. Boston Market. The last is little known to gardeners. Borders of leaves plain or nearly so. Simpson. are good for early use. a tall homely plant that has now become a weed in many parts of the country. Leaves oval or spatulate. Leaves lanceolate. and thinned eventually.360 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening set.

Ang. (Minor divisions. The culture is not unlil'e that of lettuce. For history. In respect to soil. (Minor divisions.. c. AA. see Sturtevant. Sept. Amer. (Divisions much as in A. Seeds sown in June raaj^ be expected to give plants fit for the table by August and September. Nat. Field -grown lettuce has few enemies. He describes 99 varieties. 903. R. Oct. A condensation of his scheme is as chiefly follows A. Exp. the care of endive differs little from that of lettuce. pp. 711: Cress. Leaves entire near the apex. 1897) classifies lettuce on the shape. Nov. Corn Salad.. color and margin -characters of the leaves. I.) CC. p.. p. except that the plant requires a longer time in which to mature. Parsley. p. p. Sta.Lettuce — Endive 361 Kinney (10th Kept. Chicory. 1890. Color green. 984-7. Leaves dentate near apex.. . ENDIVE'^ Endive affords a good snppleraeiit to lettuce. B. 1888.) BB. distance apart and other treatment. Leaves as long as or longer than broad. 42.. Jan. tillage. 1887. The plants should stand about a foot apart each way. Color red or blotched.) ** American seedsmen offered 119 varieties of lettuce in 1889. Leaves not as long as broad. p. Nov.. 1887. The green. since it a smnmer and fall crop and thrives at a season when lettuce is somewhat difficult to grow to j)crfection. 1887. 1887. may 980. rank leaves are likely to be bitter is essentially *0iie desiring accessible historical sketches of some of the following vegetables consult Sturtevant's writings in American Naturalist: Endive. 831...

Gardening and tough. By thus excluding the light. the crowns must be examined occasionally to see time. may blanch in transportation. If that they are not decaying.s.size.362 The Principles of Vegetable. Endive is little known to people of American parentage. or the thej- heads are packed securely in well -ventilated barrels. is This tying desired for done two or three weeks before the plant Fig. requires nearly or quite twice that length of heavy rains and cloudy weather follow the tying. 107. use. although it is much prized by foreigners and there is considerable demand for it in the larger cities. It is customary to blanch the interior leaves of the crown or head by gathering all the leaves into a bunch and tying them near the top. times blanched in ten days tions it In very hot and wet weather the heads are somebut under ordinary condi. The later plants. Two-thirds natural . they will set in. must be used quickly or decay taken in the fall. After the interior leaves are well blanched. the is inner leaves are whitened. Endive seedling. are someif times blanched by being set in cellars or pits. It deserves to be better known .

and gather the crown of leaves in the spring." F. closely allied to chicory. although plants grown in the heat of midsummer have not the best quality. the white varieties especially give very pretty white leaves from the inside of the head. From forty-five to fifty days 54. on "Salad CHICORY The tender blanched leaves that arise from the crowns of chicory roots make excellent salads. The roots are grown as parsnips or carrots are. "Endive may be sown early in coldframes or in the open ground like lettuce. the production of blanched leaves. ing cooked. the strong . by soil up to the plants. For eat- we prefer to take the plants quite young. drawing the frequently blanched like celery or Cos lettuce. and cuttings of leaves may be made during the season. leaves are gathered in their natural state. Exp. Sowings may also be made at anytime during the summer. the lions are. The unblanehed leaves are sometimes used for greens. Cichorium Endivia. however.. or are developed from roots that are transferred to a dark jjlace.Endive Eudive is — Chicory 363 a perennial or biennial. Bull. Vt.crops are . It is usually preferable to grow a may new lot For of plants each year. Waugh. or he take them to the cellar or greenhouse and secure the leaves in winter. "Endive means. is tying up the leaves. Fall-grown plants may be taken up with a good supply of adhering earth and stored in a dry cellar or coldframe for winter use. and similar When blanched in this way." Plants. is required to grow the crop. One may ter also leave the roots in the ground over win-. Sta. as dandeThe jjhints are grown as root. and before they have had time to stage and the time make heads. With ordinary outdoor culture they will lose rather than gain in tenderness between this when satisfactory heads can be produced. J.

Agric. 108. roots are usually taken The place should be kept dark.364 The Principles of Vegetable. the crown projecting an inch or so above the earth. the best roots may be trimmed and then planted upright under greenhouse benches. See Circular 29. the small leav^es (sometimes are produced. for coffee. which are eaten as The 3'oung tender roots are chosen. The Fig. ble crown of leaves forming beneath the manure small heads of lettuce. Seedlings of chicoi-y. is Dept. S. . this The dry roots of chicorj^ are also used as a substitute and the plant is now coming to be grown in country for that purpose. In a month or as barbe less. Chicory {Cicliorium Intyhns) a perennial tall- growing blue -flowered plant of the Composite family. is will resemoften are known Chicory' also carrots or beets are. grown for the roots. The roots are buried in a sloping direction in sand in a pit or cellar. Two-thinls natural size. These heads as witloof.Gardening up in the fall. 1900. and the crowns covered two feet with manure or other loose materia!. known de capucin) Or. U.

thriving in very moist places and in running water. 109. the plant will thrive and it will not be necessary to have it covered with water. plant. roundish leaves. permanent place. to a large extent. although thej' are ciferae or members is of the Cru- Water {Nasturtium officinale) a prostrate perennial. however. The common garden cress {Lepidinm sativum) is a where may be watered in the pit of short-season annual. or by bits of the stems planted in the mud. on the vigor of . may best development. and clean. The plant is best grown. Fig. it will persist indefinitely. mer. shady place in the garden grown frequently. A rather cool and rich soil is to be chosen. cool. If the ground is kept moist. it When a natural brook may be grown it in a moist.Cresses 365 CRESS Cresses are cresses in grown for their piquant leaves. It is a cool-weather Usually the leaves are not desired in the sumSeeds may be sown as soon as the ground is fit in is the spring. belonging to all somewhat common mustard family. There are three kinds of cultivation. the water should be pure. cress three genera. Sometimes it is an abandoned hotbed. for the value of the foliage will depend. order that in a it It is readily propa- which may be scattered along cool In reach its brooks. When once established not to be had. by being colonized along brooksides and about springs. into which water may be run with a hose. for the plant hardy or half-hardy. or even wet. gated by seeds. taking is care of itself. which are used in salads and garnishings. with small.

pr(BCox) is usualh' a biennial. It is grown in pots or boxes in the house in winter. varieties.366 its The Principhfi of Vrgctahle. or seeds may be sown in earliest spring. Two-thirds natural size. and sending up the flower-stalks early the following spring. it is little known in general cultivation either in this country or abroad. Eig. the plant runs quickly to seed. may be sown easily For fall use. Leaves fit for use may be had the seed. Late in the season and in late in warm weather. The upland or upright cress {Barharea vulgaris and B. Curled cress seedlings. the mon plant. Although a comennial. In cultivation. . the sow^ing of in six to eight weeks from under ordinary conditions. The plant is perfectly hardy and it is common in the natural state over a large part of the United States. 109. the young plants becoming established from seeds dropped in summer. it is treated as an annual or as a winter perThe seeds may be sown late in the season and young plants are ready for use the following spring. some of them with The garden cress is less pop- ular in America than abroad. There are a number of beautifully curled foliage.Gardening growth. the seeds summer and in early fall.

. as does the garden cress. matures in six to eight weeks. Two-thirds natural size. the plant will give edible herbage in the fall. and are thereby apt to be soiled by rains. summer 'irops are better grown in partly shaded situations. It is a cool-sea- may be sown It as soon as the ground is in spring. Bull. the garden cress. This term might doubtless be shortened by treatment proper to that end. The The upland cress requires a longer time from planting to picking than The crop sown this year July 28. in If sown late summer. both in form known water cress. CORN SALAD Corn salad son crop. all winter. Com salad seedlings. the plant soon runs to seed. The flavor. A. is It is fit grown as hardy and lettuce is. The leaves lie flat upon the ground. giving a bunch of leaves somewhat like smallleaved spinach.Cress — Corn Salad 367 "Upland and to cress bears a considerable resemblance. It will be acceptable gardeners and cooks on that account. Sta. Exp. or fifty-two days after sowing. was ready September 18. and in a mild climate or an open winter it may be used protected in winter as advised for spinach. to the better many plant does not run rapidly to seed. 54. but during hot weather the leaves soon become tough and bitter. Vt." F. In warm weather and in dry places. Waugh. It mav be sown in the fall and Pig. 110.

111. Parsley demands no special care. The plant year. Plants should stand about 6 \ery easy of culture in any cool in. soil. The plant is known in America. leaves should be removed from the plant all at Not all the any one time.368 The Principles of Vegetable. The seed is slow to germinate. little is used both as It belongs to known is to botanists as Valer- It is native to Europe. Parsley seedlings.000 plants.000-3. Fig. Natural size. and it is best to sow in a seed-bed unless the ground is in excellent tilth .Gardening Corn salad or fetticus (Fig. An ounce of seed should give 2. is biennial. PARSLEY A cool moist soil is hest suited to jxirsley. The leaves are used also for salads and for flavoring. but It is prized as a fall and win- ter salad abroad. but the foliage is gathered the first and the plants are then destroyed unless seed is wanted. Parsley is the most popular of garnishing herbs. and ianella olitoria. chiefly the former. 110) is salad and pot-herb. apart in the row. the Valerian fainih'.

dry weeks from the seed. unless the particular location is It is hardy. and where winters are not severe can be carried over the cold season by light cold-frames The plant reaches a or even by protection of brush. which is another plant. chervil is an annual plant much little like parsley and very popular in Europe. is most desired. giving a cutting of leaves in six to eight in our hot. Thin or transplant inches apart each way. one of the Umbelliferae. but It is known in used for garnishing and seasoning. height of nearly two feet when mature. and therefore should be grown as a spring or fall crop. SALAD CHERVIL The salad this country. is Parsley (Fig. see Chapter IX. It does not thrive summers. X . and leaves may then be gathered all The plants will stand considerable frost.reqnires three Make successional sowings. but the young cool. usually. months from sowing to bring good The strongest plants may be foliage for gatherings covered witli sash. foliage The plants should stand 10 to 12 Salad chervil is Scandiz Cerefolium. and and is Europe. Ill) nip family.Parsley — Chervil to 369 8 to 12 It and is moist to the top. inches apart. for which the curled-leaved variety is the most popular. It is winter. For turniprooted chervil. a good plan to lift a few roots in late fall and set them in pots or boxes in the honse: from these a winter supply may be secured. native to southern Europe. more or diseases. The plant is of easy culture. To botanists it known as Carum Prfroselinum. celery insects It is one of the Umbelliferae or Parsless subject to parsnip It is native to S.

are usually chosen for commercial celery growing. are requisites of good celery culture. For home use celery can be grown in almost any well -tilled and rich garden soil. This seed-bed should have perfect surface tilth the and . such lands are very rich. the celery grown on high lands may be fully as good as that raised in reclaimed marshes. Fig. mu. Successful commercial celery growing on high lands is usually possible only when much stable manure is added aud when irrigation is practiced.370 The Principles of Vegetable. Celerj^ is always a transplanted crop. that satisfactory results can be expected in raising the plants. 112. The crop must be stored from frost if kept during winter.or companion-crop.st always be blanched. It may be treated as a succession. Celery is always a seed-bed crop. although it usually is the sole occupant of the land in any season.stalks. however. and the seedlings are deliIt is only in a well -prepared seed-bed cate. Usually. but ordinarily more care is required in securing deep tillage and in conserving moisture. Celery is nearly always grown on bottom lands because it then receives a sufficient and constant supply of moisture. Fig. Under those conditions. The seeds ai-e small and slow to germinate.Gardening CELERY CooL tillage vertj rich and very moist land. the best surface most careful attention to all care of the plant. 113. in which the water-table does not fall below 2 or 3 feet in summer. Level black -soil marsh or bottom lauds. which are the edible parts. Celery of excellent quality can be grown on uplands. also. The leaf. and more expense is entailed in adding fertilizers.

however. Some persons prefer to have the bed partially shaded. brush or straw. Preferably. In order to secure stocky plants. it is well to remove it gradually as the plants germinate. but if the covering is left on too long. and they are killed by whenever possible. they should \q transplanted once or twice in the seed-bed. to have it the seed-bed in such place that can be watered every Fig. but care must be exercised that the watering is not so heavy that it packs and puddles the soil. but which holds the moisture of itself. when taken sun -scald. 112.Celery 371 and should retain moisture to the top. Celery seedlings. it should be protected from hot and dry winds. If covering is used. the plants make a very weak and spindling growth and are worthless. but if the shading tender is too dense. the plants are likely to be soft and to the field. or they . evening if necessary. It is advisable. Sometimes the bed is covered w'ith boards. is one that does not need a cover. This may be advisable. Xatural size. The ideal seed-bed. in order to maintain the moisture until germination has taken place.

or on large beds by a scjthe. it does not occupy the land during the whole of the grow- ing season. The main crop is sometimes planted as a succession. In the case of lowland celery however. Celery is grown as a short -season crop. Plants are usually set from 6 to 12 -inches apart in the rows. fit ing the light. two or three crops of celery are raised same time. and the distance between the rows varies with the method of blanching. the later or main crop being planted between the rows of the early crop. The plants may be cut back a third or a half their growth by shears or sickle. In some celerygrowing regions. but there early celery. which is used for winter consumption. Celery must be crisp. early cabbages or other spring crops having been grown on the land. that is. tender and well blanched to be The blanching is accomplished by excludfor use. spring to allow of any early planting. on the land at the may be planted in the field as late as the middle or last early crop of July in the northern states. spring. There are three common methods of . thinned until they finally stand at 2 or 3 inches The labor of transplanting is so great that most growers now prefer to secure stocky plants by the thinning process and then by shearing off the remaining plants when they become too tall. set in the field as The may be the soon as the weather is settled in is relatively little demand for very The plants should be 4 or 5 inches high and stocky and dark green when they are planted. The main or late crop.Gardening may be apart. since the land is usually too wet in the fields. the celery crop is commonly the only one grown.372 The Principles of Vegetable.

^ ^' T: * m:-m .

113) ployed only for the earl}' is em- or summer celerj'. banking up with earth. enough to show a few The plants shoot up for The foliage fills the light. These boards are set on edge close against the crown of the plant. Blanching by means of boards (see Fig. they are awkward to handle. Use boards one foot wide and one inch thick. If the boards ai'e much longer than this. The boards are held in this position by cleats nailed across The first "boarding" is the top. as they are to likelj' do if they are too wet at the core. The board method of blanching celery is one of the most economiand is now extensively used in the large celery fields. Growers usually find that it paj'S to obtain a good Some quality of lumber and to use it year after year.Gardening blauching celery in vogue at the present day: by the use of boards. space between the boards and excludes the light from above. making slender. soft stalks. In from ten to twenty days in warm "growing" weather. In any means of blanching in summer one must see the celery is made when of its only tall leaves above the boards. one on either side of the row. and the boards usually do not afford sufficient protection. that the plants do not rot at the heart. and about twelve or fourteen feet long.374 The Frincijyles of Vegetable. commercial growers think it best to have the lumber cal . blanching in pits or storage. or by wire hooks. the celery may be blanched by this method. and the tops are tipped together until they are only two or three inches apart or until they rest against the plants. because protection from frost must be supplied to the celery which remains in the field after the first of October.

When the plants have spread so much as to are given. 2 say good horse tillage. Planet Jr. particurepeated. crown make a l>y gathering the leaves in the "handled" the celerv is Fig. since the plants are more likely to rot at the Usually two or three "handlings" or bankings heart. larly in large areas. so well in midemployed cannot be expensive and it summer. 3% feet and if the tall-g>'owing at 4 feet. Celery biller. Fig. gives a somewhat better usually earth Blanching by of blanching is method this but quality of celery. In ten days or two weeks the "handling" is In late years the banking of celery. is done almost entirely by means of celery plows. or head a foot or eighteen inches across. the rows are rarely less than apart. which are implements with very high moldboards that throw a great quantity of earth against the plant. 114. varieties are used. hand and holding them whilst earth is shoveled against the plant so as to cover it two -thirds oi* more of its height. the rows are often put . 114. Celery 375 lu the boarding system the enough apart to allqw of far put simply rows may be from to 3 feet.Blanching dressed on both sides. If celery is to be blanched by the banking process.

If it is . thoroughly blanched before putting in storage. successful in small hose. to will not keep well. Under ordinary conditions. workmen. . Storing in outside cellars or pits has already been described on pages 229. Still a fourth system of blanching has been advocated in the last few years celery culture. afford ventilation. Plants are usually grown as close as 6 or 8 inches apart either way. pits or sheds so close together that the blanching pro- ceeds. may be considered. The early winter and midwinter celery. is usually stored in special celery houses. handle the crop at least once in the field in order to induce a straight. Whenever the water-table is close it to the surface or when one can It is usually practice irrigation. It will be seen that this system can be used only when the soil is very rich and when there is a large supply of moisture. however. in order to supply light enough for the Wooden chimnej-s are provided to These houses are sometimes provided with heat by means of stoves." in the system known as the " new This consists in growing the plants so close that the light is excluded and the plants blanch themselves.Gardening Late winter celery is ordinarily blanched in storage.376 The Principles of Vegetable. so that the temperature does not fall much. however. upright growth and to begin the Thereafter the plants are set in blanching process. below the freezing point. it It is usually advisable. home gardens where one can use a There are two or three methods of storing celery. if any. 232. it is not successful. which are permanent sheds with windows at intervals along the roof.

leaving a pointed base to the whole cluster. 705. 1887. p. Celery is planted 6 to 12 inches apart in the row. the style of box and the number to be packed in each depending largely on the market in which one sells.Celery 377 In beds in these houses the celery plants are set close together and the blanching proceeds during storage. One ounce of seed There row in the seed-bed is a liberal allowance. An ounce should give to 200 feet of from 5. Golden Self. now little grown. Some gardeners estimate 2. There are pink-stemmed varieties. Thirty-seven varieties were advertised by American seedsmen in 1889 (Annals Hort. State Exp. These plants are then shipped in open trays or boxes. Goff has monographed the varieties in 6th Rept. requiring about 150. Sturtevant has written the history of Amer. calculate from 20. The elassifi- catory scheme is as follows . the product being blanched in pits. One pound of celery seed should give enough strong plants to set four to five acres. Sta.. In celery. The outside leaves are removed and usually the root is trimmed away. pp. For market. Y.." or self-blanching system. but this allows for an unusual amount of loss. For late winter or spring use. Nat. 217-225. Nat. White Plume. so that all earth and sand are removed.000 plants per acre. and it is therefore advisable to sow the seed very thick.. is usually much loss in seeds and young plants. after allowing for several times that amount in loss. In the "new celery culture. 599-606. Aug.). and are also used for winter. also very tall varieties.000 to 30.000 to 10. (for celery in 1887). The rows vary from 2 to 4 feet apart. N.000 to the acre. July.. He reduces the varieties to 26. Boston Market or Arlington is a standard. pp. the plants are set 6 to 7 inches apart each way.000 good plants.Blanching. See also brief note by the same author in Amer. celery is prepared by being thoroughly washed and usually scrubbed. and Kalamazoo are popular summer and fall varieties. 1886.000 good plants from each ounce of seed.

if attack is. AA. See p. and it has a colored frontispiece of "Rose Colored Celery. with Bordeaux book. blanching leaf. : Leaf spot. Diseases in storage. parsnip. Cornell: Copper carbonate. with red. "How to Cultivate Celery. J. "rogueing" in the seed-field. The long. 250 Cornell Bull. stringy and worthless. 132. 229 of this Special celery Uternture: Consult the special books by Greiner. 167-171. Dipyoung plants in weak solution. Y Bull. Kept.stalks are a result If careful attention is not given to selection or of domestication. AAA." 1860. 132. Vaughan. 12th Kept. Hollister's to large-area work in marsh lands. together with carrot. : Sulfur dusted on. Rawson. type. N. but more or less washed or tinted self. Stewart. Y. Chicago. Crider. The Principles of Vegetable. 117-120: N. 1891. Agric. but none of them seems to have been published. pp. Dept. long since out of print. consult: Mich. On insects and diseases. continue . Asia and Africa. Insects injurious to celery.blanching. Bull. was the first American Book to be devoted wholly to a special It is beautifully printed in large clear vegetable-garden crop. Vaughan's gives particular attention to methods employed about Van Bochove's to Kalamazoo methods. 1886. Hollister. Leaf blight. Cornell Bull. N. 51 eased seed. Ct. . p. Kept. Ct. parsley. 203 205. Cornell Bull. Van Roessle's Boehove. Rawson's to the Boston methods. slender. Stewart's to methods in vogue^in Southern Michigan.378 A." Mr. the varieties soon run down and become green-stemmed. Europe. and was in cultivation before the Christian era. Stems distinctly Celery to is Apium graveolens of botanists.Gardening Stems neither self -blanching nor tinted with red.. Reject disTreat with Bordeaux in seed bed. It belongs to the It is native Umbelliferse. No 102. and treat young growing plants at intervals of 2 weeks. thick. Roessle had other similar handbooks in view.. pp. pp. anticipated. Stems not self-blanching. Greiner's is a general treatise. 21 . 132.

convenient often are.Turnip -rooted Celery 379 CELERIAC is a form of the celery species. transplanting. It is grown as cel- ery in so far as seed -sowing. Y. and this tuber is the edible part. The roots may be kept in winter by being packed in sand or moss. calculate quantity of seed as for celery. 1887. Sturtevant writes of its history in Amer. Nat. 703-4. August. The plant is dwarf and celerj'-like in appear- Celeriac is root ance. but requires no blanching. tillage. It is known to botanists as Apiiim graveolens var. pp. are concerned. It deserves to be better known. It is used either as a salad or as a cooked vegetable. this is usuallj' not the best The plants are given 6 or 8 inches space in the row. 215-217). Exp. by American seedsmen . as other vegetables Celeriac is much' prized abroad.. Several varieties are offered in 1889. It is sometimes known as turnip-rooted celery. rapaceum. and tillage Sometimes the seed is sown where the plants are to stand. and the rows are only far enough apart to allow of plan. In seeding. pp. in which the enlarged like a small tuber. six were advertised Goff described five types in 1887 (6th Eept. N. but since the seeds are as slow to germinate as those of celery. A good root should be 3-4 inches in diameter. .. Sta. but it is little known to native-born Americans.

*Voorhees' Fertilizers. Beans. 269. however. and are therefore capable of using atmospheric nitrogen." * PEA Peas are a partial.CHAPTER XV PULSE CROPS Pea. and thus ma}' not possess the specific nitrogen -gathering bacteria. BoTANiCALLY peas aud beans are very closely rebut they have few points iu common from the cul- tural point of view. particularly they are raised upon land which has not been previously planted with these crops.season crop. requiring cool season soil not over rich. summer they (380) . Garden peas are of the easiest culture. but they also In thrive in fall from late -sown seeds. best in spring rather than in They thrive summer. particularly sired. they may need is applications of nitrogen in order to if secure a quick start. Both are leguminous crops. lated. cool -season plants and beans are tender aud warm -season plants. As garden crops. hardy. an early crop is de- "It frequently the wiser economy to apply if nitrogen. since peas are hardy. grown in drills. seed is sown where the plants are and a to stand.

Fig. If broad- . particularly soil very rich tends to when earliness make the plants run to vine and ings should be to delay the crop. Del. A light soil A is preferable. Exp. It is customary to plant them 3-5 inches deep: the roots are then deep enough to be in cool and moist soil. For early use. are preferred. which are more productive.Pea are very liable to mildew. Two-thirds natural size. Pea seedlings. freezing weather is desired. Even before is past. Successional sow- made at intervals of six to ten days. Pinching -in the excessive growths tends to make the tall varieties somewhat earlier. the dwarf varieties should be selected. Sta. 381 vegetables to be sown in the Peas and onions are the first open ground. peas may be planted.). 115. peas are now extensively grown for canning factories (see Bull. For the main or late crop the tall or climbing sorts. For this purpose they are sown broadcast or drilled in. As a field crop. Early in August in the Northern states dwarf varieties may be sown for fall use. 41.

Champion of England. sowing in drills and giving two or three Peas are usually sown in two rows that stand 6-8 inches apart. State Exp. . Seeds cream-colored or white. Nat. pp.. early there are many popular strains. A race of peas with edible pods. and Stratagem are popular names. Smooth peas. For late. Sta. For very tall varieties of both the wrinkled and smooth types. It has beon cultivated 2. broadcast. N. One pint of seed of the small-seeded varieties will sow 100-125 feet of single drill. 2-3 bushels. if the dwarf kinds are grown. see Sturtevant. For history. P. casted they are not Better results are secured by tillings. classificatory scheme are as follows: •A. pp. DD. These are of the same species as the common pea. one row will help to support the other. c. with purple-and-white flowers and gray angular seeds. known as edible -podded. The main points of his 228-283) fully describes 98 varieties. but the seeds are more There are dwarf and liable to decay when planted very early. row. Amer.000 years and more. Peas are of two kinds: the seed wrinkled and the seed smooth.382 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening tilled. Daniel O'Rourke. Telegraph. Pisum sativum. 144-149. 1-2 bushels will sow an acre . Blue Peter.. B. In 1889 (Annals Hort. The field pea. Philadelphia. Marrowfat. In drills. It is known as P. Feb. Y. If tall varieties are grown. Telephone. These are is considerably grown abroad but is little known here. one row of brush or ehickenwire (the wire is better) will answer for both rows. American seedsmen catalogued 154 names of peas. or sugar peas. GofE (in 3d Kept. American Wonder. Pod straight. comparable to string beans. as First-of-All. McLean Little Gem. The wrinkled are the better in quality. The pea is native to southwest Europe. is probably only a modified form of Pisum saticum. sativum variety arvense.. 1890. Pod recurved. Plant exceeding 4 feet in height.). Between each two pairs of rows a space should be left wide enough for conThe plants should stand 3-4 inches apart in the venient tillage.

and the . p. Bull. 45. As a garden crop they are used mostly as "string" beans. 187. p. Dwarf. see Pea-weevil or bug. No. Farmers' Bull. Farms Kept. 1897. etc.season plants. J. Bull. 26. Eept. No. The leading pea pest. Bush beans are grown both as a field crop and a garden crop. Louse. Kept. Fungicides in Powdery mildew. Kill the insect in the dry peas by : bisulfide of carbon. Florida No.Peas — Beans (Pod as in c. N. Agr.. Div. seed is and require a warm sown where the plants except the tall usnally grown in drills. bush bean is by far the more important since its growing obviates the labor and expense of providing support on which the plants may climb. BEANS Garden beans represent several species. "Wrinkled peas. The common bean is grown in two general types: In this countrj^ the the bush bean. plant 2-4 feet high. spray. Moth. p. kinds. Picking early. 357. bluish. 194. Dept. Half dwarf. plant not exceeding 2 feet. the common hush heans are partial. (Divisions as in a. and rotation.) For insects and diseases. U. the pods being picked when they are two -thirds grown. Seeds green.) AAA. season and su7iny exposure are to grow ." 1894. 14. S. 49. the cultivator following. Device is used for brushing lice off. and the pole bean.) 383 cc. BB. (Divisions as in a. AA. (Divisions as in B. hut all the com- mon l-inds are very tender to frost . Ent. 36. Del.. Canadian Exp.

soft seeds are used just before they . they should make a with very of a *' ilu-^S. Although beans are nitrogen .Gardening pod and beans together being eaten. it is rapid and continuous growth. strains of little fibrous tissue on the sutures. The large. There are other types of garden beans used as "shell" beans. 116. In late summer. A succession may be had all summer. plant again for fall use. and this gives rise to the common term of " snap" beans. The pods good string bean are those which have no strings. i^i Fig. There are certain bush beans that are particularly adapted to this use.384 The Principles of Vegetable. In order that string beans may be of the best quality. Two-thirds natural size. They are such as have thick and fleshy pods. Plant onlj.gathering plants." The pods snap cleanly in two. The soil should be rich and in excellent tilth. nevertheless advisable to apply a start little ni<^rogen at the on land which is not well supplied with humus or in wiiich beans have not been grown within a year or two. Seedlings of wax bean.after the weather has become thoroughly settled.

117. In these. and the pods are not eaten.Beans 385 begin to harden. growth. Lima beau seedlings. plant -food acts secures The tall varieties a good and very early must have poles. quickly and the plant start. therefore. dry weather of midsummer. the plants established as early as possible in order that fruit may set before the hottest weather. the Cranberry or so-called Horticultural Lima be- ing amongst the most popular. It is well. Some of the best of these shell beans are pole or running varieties. Very often the flowers are blasted by the hot. Soils that are light and sandy are usually preferable. to get Fig. Two-thirds natural size. When poles it is a good plan to set rather strong stakes 10 to 12 feet apart and to run wires or heavy cord from are scarce. It important that only the earliest and quickest soil be used and that quickly -available fertilizers be applied some of the is when the seeds are planted. particularly the Lima beans demand a long season and continuous tall or true Lima varieties. .

one bare pole is ordinarily provided for each hill. vines are well exposed to the sun.Gardening pole to pole. and then several plants or hills of to connect these horizontal strands with perpendicular cords. it is usually inadvisable to attempt to grow the large. oue strand near the top and one within a foot or so of the ground.386 The Principles of Vegetable. In the northern states. Two-thirds natural size. 118. and the nights are likely to be too cool. late Lima beans unless one's soil is particularly quick and the exposure is very warm. The seasons are usually too short. Broad or Windsor bean seedlings. Sometimes Lima beans are planted in a semicircle around one strong stake. In commercial plantations. This is a very good plan for the home garden. and strings are run from the top of the stake to the ground. but is too laborious for general market cultivation. Under such conditions it is best . making a cone. since the Fig.

are nearly or quite "bush" in form and in habit. 387 none of which are very high climbers and some of which. Used mostly as shell beans. but sometimes as snap beans. but lit) ^. 1 5 to 10 inches apart in the row.lAma Beans to rely largely on the Sieva kinds. In is peeks tall sown The ally or pole beans are usuin hills.j^af sieva bean. Bush beans drills. to 5 drill. The Broad. These Sieva beans are very heavy croppers and mature in the short seasons of the North. One pint will to 125 feet of the variety. may The White Dutch Runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus) is grown as the tall forms of the common bean are. easy The plants should stand sow from 75 drills. grown Lima beans grown are usually in hills 3 to 4 feet apart each way. are The dwarf excellent for Limas northern gardens. Five or 6 plants stand in each hill. the quality is good. full size. or English Dwarf beans (Ficia Faba are erect-growing plants. are sown in the rows being 18 to 30 inches apart to allow of tillage.^ ^^g ^in^^. . much raised in Europe. depending on bushel to the acre. Windsor. as Henderson and Jackson. Although the beans are not very large.

pp. Sta. or at least plur-annuals. sometimes eaten. Aug.. florus. ica. Mucunavtilis. Sta. pp. and one who ex- . Bot. 665-67. They are as hardy as peas. For further history of Lima beans. Asia. Gesell. 1885. 118. Y.. 235-259). -Figs. Wijig described 102 varieties of beans. Amer. 1887. French Yard. Sci. See Gray and Trumbull. White Dutch Runner and Scarlet Runner. Amer. pp. Nat. N. For a monograph of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) student should consult Von Martens' "Die Gartenbohnen. Nat. Amer. Fig. Tropical Amer- Fig. of the Pole Limas. p. The large nell flat countries. Beriehte der Deutsch. see Bailey. or Large Limas. The botanical places of the commonest kinds are as follows: Bush and ordinary pole beans. Fig. Journ. Wittmack. Phaseolus luuatus var.. (1895). Cornell Exp. In 1889. Sow early in a cool place in drills 2 to 3 feet apart. Broad or Windsor. (1896). Bull. Glycine hispida. 117. Sturtevant.388 The Principles of Vegetable. 1883). macrocarpus." the 1869. Bull. The garden beans are all members of the Leguminosae. distributed in several species (2d Kept. Now believed to be a native of tropical America.Gardening They are tie grown in this country because of our hot climate. May. CorExp. also for stock. State Exp. For an account of the Dwarf Limas. 1899. 26:130 (Aug. Limas are perennials. 87. in their native They therefore require a long season. Phaseolns vulgaris. In 1883. 115. 4 of Windsor or Broad beans. Ticia Faba. 6:374 (1888). 13 of Limas. Tall Soy. 327-333. They were first classified into their species. Japan. 119. 116. Dolichos sesquipedalis. 120-123. American seedsmen listed 141 names of garden beans. Sieva or Carolina Limas. 448-452. South America. Phaseolus mtdtiSouth America. Phaseolus lunatus.. South America. see Sturtevant. The subdivisions were made chiefly on the shapes and colors of the seeds. Velvet.Long. and April. Asia. "The Lima beans are natives of warm countries. used as shell beans. Sta.

This may be done. Coarse. should also be dry. one of the large soil Mammoth Lima class (X }/i) Kidney-shaped. If any fertilizer is applied the year in which the beans are planted. but which have best. especially if they have a warm exposure. ercising great care in the selection of soil attention to cultivation. in the second place. been enriched in previous years by the addition of manure.peets to 389 grow them iu the North should endeavor in every way to shorten the period of growth. raw manure should be avoided The for Lima beans.Lima Beans . by exand iu giving particular Light and so-called 'quick' soils are Soils which are naturally sandy and loose. If nitrogenous fertilizers are therefore. are excellent for Lima beans. in the first place. some of the concentrated fertilizers. 120. Half size. by planting the earlier varieties. it should be such as will become available very quickly and therefore tend to hasten the maturity of the crop. to use . 1-21. Fig. We prefer. and avoid those which contain very much nitrogen. and. Leaf of Extra-Eitily Lima. especially those which are rich in potash and phosphoric acid. because it tends to make too rank and too late growth. Pig.

discharging the white. with red. large. numerous small papery pods which are much curved on the back and provided with a long upward point or tip and which split open and twist seeds. early and rela( Fig. The true Lima bean (P. beans small and flat. the Potato Lima class (X J^). in the fall in order that it with the soil and be ready for use at the earliest up their fertility early in manure is used. truly annual. Challenger. lunatus var. The Sieva or Carolina bean P/iaseo/ws lunatus). 123. one of Fig. greater susceptibility to cold. 115. it should be applied may become thoroughly incorporated moment in the spring. fleshy. thick. with thin. when ripe.390 used The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening at all. perennial in tropical climates." Cornell Bull. size. macrocarpus) distinguished from the Sieva by its tall growth. brown. or variously marked . and fewer thick. Leaf of Challenger. a small and slender grower as compared with the large Limas. 122. Fig. Half tively hardy. short and mostly broad (ovate-pointed) leaflets. 119. lateness. straightish (or sometimes latterly curved) pods with a less prominent point and . often ovate-lanceolate leaflets. they should be applied in comparatively small amount If ordinary stable and be of such kind that they will give the season. The Limas may be thrown into the following classes: 1. 2.

N. and longovate leaflets tapering from a more or less angular base into a long apex.Types of Lima Beans 391 not readily splitting open at maturity. See Figs. Y. with smaller and tumid seeds. with ills. Me. which have large. seeds much larger.Seeded Limas. red. ill. 120 and 121. very broad pods with a distinct point. very fully ill. . shorter and thicker pods with a less prominent point. The Potato Limas. Y. Bull. white. p. Burpee Dwarf is a form of this. N. Of this true or large Lima there are two types in cultivation: (a) (6) The Flat or Large. Kept. as for pea bug. 1893. black or speckled. and broad ovate leaflets. 48. very flat and more or less lunate and veiny seeds. very full. Y. Cover with Bordeaux mixture. Anthracnose. Use bisulfide of carbon. Kumerle are examples. Rust. Remove infected seedlings from field. consult: Weevil. 48. Bull.. For insects and diseases of beans. p. 122. See Figs. 123 ^Challenger and There are dwarf forms. 171. Entomologist. N. 7th Eept. Lintner. 255.

To this family also belongs the potato. at least Usually they groiv until killed hy in the North. and their kin are hot-season They require nearly or quite the entire season in ivhich to mature. eggplants. and they need abundance of quick-acting fertilizers applied relatively early in their They are grown in hills. and the production of a start. growth. or at least tivo or three transplanting s to obtain stocky and continuous -groiving plants. warm season. planting in hills. early fruiting to mitigate loss from fruit -rot and to secure a heavy crop before frost. (392) . frost. but the writer knows of no other single term which can be applied to them. TOMATO Essential points in the culture of tomato are : long. particularly in the North. Husk Tomato. ^^ quick" soil tvith available fertility. Tomatoes. heavy crop depends largely on securing an early They are seed-bed crops. fre- quent. so that these plants have not the exclusive right to the name. plants.CHAPTER XVI SOLANACEOUS CROPS Tomato. Pepper. These plants are here called solauaeeous crops because they belong to the family Solauacefe. Eggplant.

the fruit is grown more abundantly in this country. and to a greater degree of perfection. The plants are usually started from four to eight weeks before they Fig. than elsewhere in the world. Tomato seedlings. In these boxes the plants are displayed in the In flats of various sizes. 124. the plants can be readily handled from the frame to the field. the tomato is grown with the greatest ease. The present custom is to grow them in small flats not more than ten or twelve inches square and that hold about two inches of soil. but in commercial operations this is scarcely practicable. or farther than this if the plants are started very early.Tomato 393 In most parts of the United States. In fact. In the Middle and Southern states. Sometimes the plants are sheared if they become too tall and "leggy." although this is not the best practice. They are thiuued in the flats so that they stand two or three inches apart each way. grocery stores for sale to amateur planters. Two-thirds natural size. even smaller flats are are transplanted to the well to handle the used. field. For the home garden it is young tomato plants in pots. In commercial business. In some cases. the young tomato plants are now rarely transplanted. .

is not to he probably true as respects the heavy application of stable manure.) season. Cloth-covered frames. The securing of a good crop of tomatoes in the North depends very largely on having vigorous and stocky plants that are well in advance of the Fig. in the day. for such It is commonly said that very rich soil advised for the tomato. Used In the Soiith for tomatoes. The cloth is rolled up during the day. Thereafter they need no special care except to keep the land well tilled. and a set warm. 125.394 The Principles of Vegetable. and other plants. as shown. and is rolled up. tobacco.Gardening cloth -covered frames are often used for starting tomato and other plants. quick as soil. (After Earle. 125. This is . The muslin is used for protection at night and in cold weather. The plants should be is in the field soon as the weather settled. Fig.

way. they maj^ this be set as tomatoes are trained in the row. Pinching-in the thought to conduce to early bearing.a rather light single application of nitrate of soda about the time the plants are set. is it The best The mode cord of training for early results to prune the plant to a single stem. although the fruit -rot disease soil is usually more if serious under such conditions.Tomato 393 manare usually gives up delay fruiting. Tomatoes usually give cludes its earlier results when the vines are trained. There are various apart in close as 18 inches The best styles of racks for supporting tomato plants. particularly the surface much coarse manure. the best results may be expected. or of available commercial fertilizer early in spring. When frost threatens. secured at top and bottom to horizontal strands which are stretched When between strong stakes. the soil has been made rich of manure. gives better results than tAvice that amount applied and better at inter- vals as late as the middle of August. b}^ If. full exposure give the plants to sun are those that hang toward the fruits to outside of and allow all the foliage. its fertility somewhat slowly and tends to keep the plant in vigorous growth and to previous applications however. covered In comby the trellis rather than to be mercial plantations. Usually they color well and develop contains is shoots . tying is to a perpendicular cord. but the expense of training pre- use in large commercial plantations. the plants are allowed to spread as they will. the largest green tomatoes may be picked and allowed to ripen in drawers or in other dry and close places. Experiments at Cornell University have shown that.

with one short and one long piece. They are then a field crop. In field conditions. One side is nailed fast to the back side of the bed or in double beds to the ridge-pole. the whole plant may be plete their ripening. Fig. such a is . Thereafter is given the crop except to keep Tomato plants are usually set 4-5 feet apart each way in rich garden soil. A large yield is 12-16 tons to the acre. with a transplanting machine. From 1 ounce of seed. and it is scarcely worth while to mention the particular kinds in a book like this. it is very doubtful whether the variety as originally known is now in existence. double-width or ten-fourths wide sheeting used. "Most commercial growers [in the South] use cotton cloth for covering eoldframes. and the other is nailed between two Ix 2-inch strips. Even though the Trophy name is still in catalogues. Large round "smooth" varieties without angles or creases are now grown almost exclusively. so as to break joints. the average is much below this.396 The Principles of Vegetable.Gardening If the fruits have not reached their full pulled with the fruits on and hung in a barn or other dry place and the fruits will abstract nourishment from the vine and sometimes comsize. and is much easier to handle in opening and closing the beds.630 plants. Tomatoes are now grown on a very large scale for canning factories. as it is much cheaper than glass. At 3x4 feet. an acre will require 3. they are usually set 3-4 feet. 125. "Survival of the Unlike"). warm soil is chosen. 126. On light and early lands they are sometimes planted 3x3 feet. about 2.500 good plants should be obtained. Ordinary unbleached. Frame -grown plants are used and they may be set no special treatment the land well tilled. Varieties quickly run out (see Essay 24. — Fig. and are given no greater care than corn. a good quality.000 to 2. A rather light. thus making a square roller on which the curBy starting tain is rolled up when it is wished to open the bed.

for the single thickness of cloth vpill not turn more than a The beds should always be well banked at the ends slight frost. Sta. Untrained Staked Hilled 7.Tomato Notes 397 It will be necessary to roller can be made any desired length. HOW TREATED. FifT.8 Mulched " 14 " 17.53 ROT- VINES. and [d) showed the smallest percentage of decayed fruit in the experiment."— Jo/. and sides with earth. 126. Type of the large round these was greater than in any other case that (c) staked vines gave a larger percentage of sound fruit than untrained. These are the results obtained during a year of unusually large precipitation during June. Bull. S. Iowa Exp.» Cm/g^. and {g) also the tendency to rot. 7 oz.9 "14 " 4 " " 10. 15 " 7 " 20 44 TEN. 157 lbs. (1900). FRUIT. 34 lbs. Earle. {e) hilling did not give any striking results. 14 oz.5 that («) the smallest yield was given by the untrained vines. 20.&) the percentage of rotten fruit on This summary shows "-~ / r American tomato. and marked by light rainfall in August and September. " Consolidated Summarij of Besults of Methods of Training YIELD ROTTEN PER CENT YIELD SOUND FRUIT. 197 " 5 " 184 " 10 " 2. 108. (/) mulching greatly increased the productiveness. Exp. and that (. Ala. . (1900)."— i^^. Sta. provide some extra cover for each coldframe to use on very cold nights. . 47. Bull.

The advocates of this lateral system claim that it greatly increases the size of the individual and that the bulk of the crop ripens several days earlier than on unpruued plants. 197. Three or four old barrels treated in this way and placed in sunny exposure will produce all the tomatoes needed by a family of four or five persons. Exp. until you reach. Gard. wall or other protection. gions this system is very widely followed. Fill it about half full of fresh horse manure well tramped down and pour a bucketful of hot water on this manure. bore three or four holes in the bottom. Where this seems to be impracticable. When there is danger of frost in August. . Sta. " Tomatoes in very Severe Locations. Veg. at planting time select a barrel as large as a coal-oil barrel. Train one of these shoots from each plant to stakes or nearby building. commercial growers mean the pinching out of all branches as soon as they appear. Ala.." Green. Bull. Then put on 8 inches of good soil and then a mixture of well -rotted manure and rich black loam in about equal quantities.Gardening By pruning. p. and turning the energies of the plant entirely to the growth and maturing of the fruits that are already set. S. sink the barrel about one-third its depth in the ground and pack the earth around it. especially if the plants are covered on cold nights. Earle. thus confining the growth When about three clusters of fruit are set strictly to one stem. in this and trim to two shoots each. a sufficient supply of tomatoes for family use may be grown on the south side of a house.398 " The Principles of Vegetable. three shoots to grow naturally over the sides of the barrel. 108. To do this. 2d ed. thus allowing a greater number of plants to In several of the more important tomato-growing rethe acre. the vines are topped. thus stopping all farther growth of vine. Of course each plant produces fewer fruits than when allowed to grow unchecked." F. a most excellent way is to grow a few plants in barrels placed in warm corners about the buildings. but allow the other fruits — . within about 12 inches of the top .of the Set three plants barrel then heap up manure around the outside. but this is partly compensated for by increased size and by the closer planting that is possible on this system. Be careful to give plenty of water daily —a gallon each day will be none too much.

This year [1891] the same results were secured except that there was less gain in earliness from very early setting. Productiveness is greatly increased by the early planting. even in dark and raw weather.): Very heavy fertilizing with stable manures or concentrated fertilizers has uniformly increased yield in our ex^^Fertilizing. while showing a less increase in of fruits than the large varieties under heavy fertilizing. fruits soil. Sta. "Very early setting of stocky plants in the field. suffered no loss in size of fruits and consequently gave a greater proportionate crop. has value when used number improved or Cherry tomatoes. the most thoroughly disintegrated part should be used. only rials must be quickly available. Transplanting. The tomato can endure much more uncongenial weather when set in the field . unof potash ers it and phosphoric little acid. else it prolongs growth too late. "There appear to be differences in varieties as to the readiness with which they respond to fertilizing. Cornell Exp. In our tests of 1891. — Frequent trans- planting of the young plants and good tillage are necessary to best results in tomato culture in this latitude.] ^^ tests indicated more angular. Nitrate of soda is a good tomato fertilizer on soils containing abundance but like other incomplete fertilizalone on poor soils. but in this latitude it should not be applied later than the first of August. Starting the that poor soil may tend to render [Probably due to the dryness of the poor' Plants. although the common opinion is to the contrary. — pei'iments. augmented earliness and productiveness in 1S90. "Plants started under glass about ten weeks before transplantweek to ten days ea'-lier than those started two or three weeks later. 32. "In 1889. But in order that fertilizing shall produce early fruits. Nitrate of soda appears to give heaviest yields when used in two or three applications. the food mateIf stable manure is desired. etc. while there was a much ing into field gave fruits from a greater difference when the plants were started six weeks later.Tomato Notes 399 Following are summary eonclusions respecting the Held cultivation of tomatoes as derived from six years' experiment (Bull.

ripen their unevenly and the labor of picking from the tangled mass of foliage is great. " Training to a single stem greatly increases the yield per square foot. about a foot high. The plants lop on the cross slats which may be laid on loosely and the fruits ripen uniformly and are usually more exempt from rot than those lying on the ground. "A cheap and rough rack which gives good results is made narrow slats laid crosswise the row upon two parallel bents which stand on either side of the row and about 3 feet apart. the vines as often being wound about them. has given no beneficial results. Plants tied to two or three stakes. three "In 1891. "Trimming the plants crease yield and earliness. the character of the plants and . Early setting on well prepared land therefore appears to be advisable. facilities for handling.Gardening commonly supposed. and in some eases for of — — roarket plantations.400 than is The Principles of Vegetable. gives earlier fruits. " A platform of boards laid under the plants and supported by blocks 4 or 5 inches high and then covered with straw keeps the tomatoes clean and renders picking easy. and decreases injury from rot. But even then they are inferior to stocky ' ' plants. recommended. These bents run lengthwise the row and are made by nailing a The bents or sides stand light board to stakes every 6 or 8 feet." . but it appears to increase the rot. lightly in But it midsummer appears to inshould not be performed in this latitude after the first half of — Training to stakes August. is not desirable unless the fruits plants are pruned. ^'•Training. This system is advisable for home use. "Hilling the plants twice. "Seedling plants are better than cuttings. as potatoes are hilled. two transplantings gave better results than one.or but the value of transplantation depends almost entirely upon the earliness of sowing. " Leggy " or badly drawn plants can be made to give fairly good results by setting them deep and burying the larger part of the slender stem.

Cherry tomatoes. Pear and plum tomatoes. State Exp. {b) Var. 6th Kept. vulgare). and perhaps of other parts of the Andean region. pp. may be primary divisions the cherry tomatoes (var. characterized by slender growth and small light-colored foliage. Aug. and the one variety is known as the Currant and German Kaisiu. pp. and the upright or tree sorts (var. cerasiforme) plum and pear tomatoes (var. The currant tomato is a distinct species. Goff iOth Rep. pyriforme. Agi-ie. 32. and Bull. 26. see Sturtevant. distinguished Consult also Bull. Following is a botanical classification of the tomato (Bailey. 1891. Exp. Mich.) described State Exp. Sei. The common tomatoes (var. ( 1886) aud Essay 30. vulgare) can again be divided for purposes of classification into three subdivisions the oblong. Lycopersicum esculentum.. " Survival of the Unlike " also brief note by Gray & Trumbull. pyriforme). and small globular fruits which are normally 2-celled. Lycopersicum pimpineUifoUum This has not yet varied to any extent in cultivation. 31 (1887). Lycopersicum pimpinelUfolium or "pimpinella-leaved tomato. 2^9-284. angular and apple-shaped tomatoes. College (1886). Amer. pp. Sta. The parent of all commercial . Bull. the large-leaf kinds like Mikado (var..*): species. Y. II. 1883). tomatoes. : : therefore. as follows: I. Bailey. N. The tomato is native of Peru. Lycopersicum esculentum. p. the common market tomatoes (var. Cornell Exp. The common tomato divided into five . and Sept. the tomato was grown as a curiosity. It was cultivated by the aborigines and was early taken to Europe. the classification of the tomato may stand. Bull. 65 varieties. Mich. grandifoUum). Red and yellow varieties are known. 19. Y. . Amer. Nat. 702706. American dealers catalogued tomatoes under 81 varietal names." In tabular form. In Its commercial cultivation is scarcely more than 75 years old. 1891. cerasiforme. Sta. N. (a) Var. Sta.Tomato Notes 401 For history of the tomato. 1889. In 1887. At first. 19. Journ. validum). z . Sta. 800-803. 128 (Aug.

{d) Y ar. 3. plane on top. Large-leaf tomatoes. the placentae usually not meeting the inside of the wall. the walls very thick and firm. Oblong tomatoes: Fruit as long as or longer than broad. but in normal forms more or less rounded on top. z. the monstrous or overgrown specimens developing a scar-like line or ring on the top and the ends of the fruit turning downwards.Gardening from the preceding subdivision chiefly by the pear-shaped or obRed and yellow varieties are known. This is the type of the original Large Red. Leaves of very young plants entire! The terminal leaflet is often Represented by six inches long and four or more inches broad. but purple. cerasiforme) Some of the varieties. Red and purple varieties are known. Represented by King Humbert and Criterion. Nesbit's Victoria has foliage much like that of Section d. to be relied upon as a sec- tional character. perhaps. The common tomatoes. yellow and white varieties exist. and White Apple.402 The Principles of Vegetable . are much like the Cherry tomatoes and should. large (the blade three to four inches long and an inch and a half wide). many of the varieties the leaves are singularly curled. and German Gestreifte. The angular tomatoes In are practically out of cultivation in this country. These comprise by far the larger number of the tomatoes of the present time. one. . Red varieties predominate. like Green Gage. the first market tomato. grandifolium. Angular tomatoes: mostly very flat. leaves very large. Only red varieties are known. Peach. Habit and fruit as in section c. entire. The type is almost lost in many of our later improvements. causing the fruit to feel as if hollow. the lobes most conspicuous on the bottom and sides. Fruit medium or below in size. leaflets fewer than common (about two pairs). vulgare. the but many of them are very light or orange-red. and it is now too inconstant. be classed with them. represented by three (c) Var. more or less cornered. (var. Apple-shaped tomatoes: Fruit various in size or shape. is striped with orange. main groups: 1. The long pendent fruit. the lower side strongly deeurrent. perhaps.

Agric. the plants nearly sustaining themselves. Day. Dept. For special literature on tomatoes. Upright tomato. and ill. Consult the following: grandifolium varieties were purple. vulgare) has given an interesting series of variations. Rept. desc. The Station tomato which is a cross between French Upright and Alpha (var. The Dwarf Champion is perhaps a cross between this type and the common tomatoes. and Thorough spraying with Bordeaux mixture recommended by some. Diseases. one (Red Mikado) has appeared. desc. and greater pains must be taken that the young plants are not checked. Bull.. 66. See paragraph above. Root. There is no specific for either disease. etc. short and dense. Conn. except that the plant requires a still longer season. Puritan. leaves very dark green.Tomato — Eggplant The first 403 of the well-marked Mikado. Dept. practice rotation. 1888. Rot is rarely very serious during the entire season. Scab. . Mitchell. Use Paris green. 347. before the rot takes it. two to two and a half feet high. Fla. desc. An odd plant with much the aspect of a potato plant. p. 392. p. Bull. EGGPLANT The essentials in eggplant culture are practically the same as in tomato culture. 115. two last lines. and burn diseased vines (do not throw them on the manure pile). the leaflets wrinkled and more or less recurved. and others. Agric. Practice rotation. Endeavor to get the crop early. mold. Rept. 48. consult the books of Livingston. See remarks on p. Stem very thick and stout. 1888. but a yellow one and this year [1891] a red Tomato worm. Bull. Represented by the French Upright or Tree. which has red fruits. Train high and use Bordeaux mixture. Ky. is grown. fruit Blight. validum. For blight. and ill.. (e) Var. Eot and ill. The chief diseases of tomatoes are rot and blight. 339. Shah.

They then suffer no check when taken to the field. it is advisable to handle the young plants in twoinch or three -inch pots. ground should be rich also. The plants are started under glass.season things. but it is very important that whatever fertilizer is added should be quickly available so Take that the maturity of the crop may not be delayed. that the plant receives no check from the germination of the seed to the setIf the plants in the forcing-house ting of the fruit. should be 6 or 8 inches high and thrift}^ and stocky when plants It is placed in the field. In the northern states the may be even larger than this when transplanted. every precaution to forward the crop in order to secure it before the closing of the season. early peas. the crop will be very much lessened. as a rule. a warm. The fruits are fit for eating from the time they are one -third grown until the}' are nearly or quite fully . For home use. and the stems begin to harden. particularly in the northern states.climate crop. however. and they lands. It is not adapted to clay loose and fairly dry soil.Gardening The eggplant is emphatically a hot . It demands a long season. It is grown in the South to a large extent as a commercial crop and even as far north as New Jersey and Long In the northernmost states. or hotbed become crowded and stunted. tillage The ground should be kept in thorough from first to last. The land should not be so moist as that which is best adapted to The beets and other cool. home use. The exposure should be warm and sunny. very important.404 The Principles of Vegetable. it is grown only for Island. and sometimes for special market conditions.

also. The New York Improved and the Black Pekin (Fig. variety. Unless started very early and given a warm place and quick soil.000 strong plants. these varieties are not likely to yield much before frost in the northernmost states. 127) are the leading commercial types of eggplant. Good-sized marketable fruits of these varieties are 6-9 inches in diameter. The white eggplants are not popular. A heavier may be they secured fruits by taking off the before their full size. ages two or three good fruits to a plant of the large va- Eggplants are set in rows that are far enough 3%-4 feet. Black Pekin Eggplant. are to be advised. An ounce of eggplant seed should give of horse tillage. since the color . some of the dwarf varieties. reach It is necessar}^ however. large size fruits of fair or rather sell best. however.000 to 3. usually apart to admit the plants are largely by the from 2. that they be well col- ored in order to find sale in the market. although a very ripe fruit worthless. 405 full size Even after the fruits have reached their and out crop color.Eggplant ripe. In these short-season climates. In the rows The distance is determined set from 2-4 feet. particularly the Early Dwarf Purple. 127. they may remain on the plant for a time withis much deterioration. the and usually. ^'S. In the northernmost states the gardener is satisfied if he averrieties.

Nov. Plant low. in Fig.Gardening usually of a yellowish cast. This species II. Eggplant has been grown from the earliest times. but these are known mostly as curiosities. but the aboriginal type is not in cultivation. State Exp. It is probably native to India. does not mention it. 26. I. which is curled at the end. long-peduncled. bushy. It . flowers large and thick. . with large blue flowers. Solanum Melongena. in his flora of Mauritius. leaves mostly conspicuously angled or lobed. leaves and branches more or less densely scurfy. At any rate. 1887. fruits There are varieties with striped and others with long and coiling fruits. but Baker.406 is The Principles of Vegetable. Sta. 273-9) He divided them into four main groups on color disin 1889. Cornell Exp.. and perhaps it is not worth separation. serpentinum. mostly. always spineless. on stout peduncles. leaves small and comparatively more entire. The ordinary form of the eggplant is well shown This differs from the var. He made the following botanical scheme: fifteen varieties. It is a most singular eggplant. globular or oblong. often scarcely angled. pyriform. it appears to be proper to recall the name under which it was long eggplant. GoflE reduced the varieties to twelve in 1887 (6th Kept. 975-9. Dunal says that S. Solanum integrifoUum . It is probably African. depressum. nearly smooth. Var. the present writer described (in Bull. N. in the greatly elongated thin. more or less hairy and spiny herb (or subshrub). white or purple. mostly tall. 127. is sold as the Chinese Scarlet and Ornamental eggplant. var. Var.. Plant stout and erect. weak and diffuse. In 1891 tinctions. and it is the one that has been lately distributed as a great novelty under the name of tomato Its goes under the name of Solanum coccineum. pp. It is a low spreading. thick. esculentum. fruit purple. integrinativity appears to be wholly unknown. fruit various. foUum is a native of Mauritius. and made minor divisions on shape of fruit. esculentum chiefly fruit. flowers small. Nat.. It is the Solanum Melongena of botanists. Y. Sta. dark colored. An historical sketch by Sturtevant appears in Amer. It is known also as Aubergine and Guinea Squash.). fourteen names were offered by American seedsmen pp.

bright scarlet or yellow and conspicuously lobed after the manner of the old Early Bed tomato. practice rotation and plants.. Two or three obscure fungous diseases attack the eggplant in is to the South. Kept. Natural size. The fruit is small. the fruits not being eaten. 1 The potato bng often attacks eggpound to 75-100 gallons of water. 355. Use Paris green. petioles and midribs. and Use plenty of lime. For account Bordeaux spray. with large lobed leaves and the stems. The small white flowers are usually borne in clusters of two to six. the other of spreading habit and lighter color. for which the only treatment to destroy the affected plants. Seedlings of red pepper. one of strong upright growth with purple stems. is 407 and call it the Ethiopian eggplant. or capsicum. Ethiopian eggplant rarely much exceeding 2 inches in diameter. petioles and midribs armed with strong and very sharp spines a half inch long. 128. J. We have grown two types of this plant. p.Eggplant known in early times. The a coarse plant three feet high. Fig. see N. of leaf spot. 1890. . The species is only curious and ornamental.

408 The Principles of Vegetable. the country. dure some frost. although best results are secured in a warm climate. .Gardening PEPPER Peppers require the treatment advised for tomatoes. Some of the varieties mature in a rela- tively short season. Peppers are not an important crop in most parts of since their use in cookery is incidental. One of the Chili Red Peppers. 129. but they will thrive in a rather cooler season and will en- Fig.

low-fruited and white-fruited varieties) Feb. 1890. Bot. which is the fruit of The capsicums are native to Pij)er nigrum. had two compartments. The large "sweet berrj". and for this purpose the small Cayenne... Amer. but under the influence of domestication. For history." of the Sweet Mountain and Ruby King type. the American tropics. and are set eight to There are no serious The pepper (often called "red pepper. 329.. with many plates (1898). pp. Mo. tomato. and many of the cultivated forms have been Originally the fruit cells or described as species at one time or another. C. the have HUSK TOMATO Two cies or three spe- of Physalis are husk toFig. compartments been multiplied. They are very diffuse or even decumbent hairy herbs that produce cultivated as a yellowish often glutinous berry inside a papery husk. peppers. pp. see Sturtevant. and CranFig.varieties are grown. 53-110. also Irish's monograph in 9th Eept. Chili. . annuiim very distinct from the pepper of commerce." although there are yel- is a Capsicum. Nat. twelve inches apart in the row." The plants are started in frames. mato and strawberry Natural size. Gard. 151-157.Pepper — Husk Tomato 409 The greatest demand is for the making of mixed pickles. Fruit of a husk tomato. the common It is garden forms now being referred to one species. of another family. pests or diseases. are used for the dish known as "stuffed peppers. Capsicum annuum is remarkably variable. i3o.

410 The Principles of Vegetable. is P. some of which are known The soft. or they may be eaten raw or cooked. The Cape Gooseberry is Physalis Peruviana (Fig. but the Dwarf Cape Gooseberry produces freely as far north as Ontario. The plants are of the easiest cul- In the North it is preferable to start seeds in The Cape Gooseberry is a species that rarely frames. . sweetish fruits are as ground cherry. the Dwarf Cape gooseberry or common husk tomato. 130). a native species. Cornell ExD. puhescens. tivation.Gardening There are several native species. ripens a full crop in the northern states. a tropical species. For sketch of the cultivated species. Sta. see Bull. sometimes used for preserves and pickles. 37.

They are all very tender to frost and they usually grow. Gherkin. grown for their fruits they are tender to . they require a warm season and a full exposure to sun . they are planted in the field or in frames. They comprise a very natural group. Cucurbitous crops are so called because they are members of the familj. they are long-season crops and with most of them a quick start is essential in order that they may mature the crop before fall. they are grown in hills.CHAPTER XVII CrCUEBITOUS OR VINE CHOPS Cucumber. till mand light (411) . Pumpkin. Gucurbitous crops are annuals. depending on the region and the period at which the crop is iranted . Watermelon. There are no fundamental diflferences in the cultivation of the various cucurbitous crops. and if the plants are started in advance of the season they are grown in pots. they transplant with difficulty. Success lies in gaining an early start and in not allowing the plants tc suffer a check. Preservino^ Melon. They all deand verj* quick soil. Luffa. boxes or on sods. frost . both botanically and culturally. The one place at which most people fail in growing these North. as a main crop .Cucurbitacea?. •Muskmelon. at least in the overtaken by frost or disease. Squash.

loose earth or scrapings from the barnyard are mixed with it. In cu- cumbers. since the plants come into bearing earlier. portant. therefore. If the land is hard and late. If one- fourth or one -fifth of the plants escape their enemies. northern states. A handful of fertilizer should be scattered in the soil. The young plants are very likely to be ruined by the coarse. and then the diy weather comes and the blooming is delayed so long that the young fruits are caught by frost. this precaution may not be necessary. where the seasons are longer. this is within reach of the young plant. at least in the is rather hard and spaded up loosely*. quick start is exceedingly important. Many fields of squashes in the North are lost because the plants do not get to work before July or August. and there not sufficient available fertilizer In the North. and on land that A space 1 or 2 feet across is attacks of the striped beetle and other enemies. it is well to remove the soil and to fill the space with fine earth and manure. that the seed be It is im- sown freely. the grower may consider himself fortunate. In the warm and light melon lands of the South.412 crops is The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening that the joimg plants do not secure is is a quick hold on the is soil. Usually each hill should be specially prepared. This usually due to the fact that the soil not thoroughly well prepared or is not warm and well drained. and light. All cucurbitous crops are grown in hills. the quick start not so important as in melons and squashes. since the season so short that every day must be made is to count. In some in the field cases growers plant pumpkin or squash seeds very early in order to attract the striped beetle where .

The plants and the fruits are succulent and need much moisture. it is well Muskmelons are usually to start them in frames. It is imperative that the plants be stocky and hard when taken to the field. in pots or in small boxes. it is likely to consume so much of the energy of the vine that the subsequent fruits remain small. although they If they have been grown too must not be stunted. it may be well to It is ordinarily best to several fruits set simultaneously. therefore is advisable to plant the on inverted sods. warm and are "soft. have the plants so vigorous that If one fruit sets two or three weeks in advance of the others. field. started in frames. cucumber or Squashes." they will be injured will by the sun and winds when transplanted. In fact. The land should be given the best of surface Every effort should be made to get the plants so well established that the fruits begin to set before the severe weather of midsummer. watermelons and cucumbers are usually planted in the field. and the later frame -grown melon plants are then relatively safe. and if this moisture is lost in the spring through lack of proper preparation of the land and neglect of surface tillage. a good crop may be perfect.Squashes and the Like they 413 may be killed. These methods have been described in some detail on pages 190 to 194. . although if early results are wanted and if the region is cold and the season short. and plants that are started directly in the be later than tillage. All cucurbitous plants it transplant with seeds difficulty . even though the subsequent tillage is The land should also contain sufficient humus or vegetable matter to hold a good supply of moisture. impossible.

for the large late varieties. there seems to be a tendency for the plants to go to vine. as soon directlv in the fields as CUCUMBER AND GHERKIN Hills of cucumber are usually made about 4 x 4 or 4 x 5 feet apart. should be available early in the season rather than Lands else the growth may be delayed too long. If seeds of cucumbers are desired. and if the area is large. that are very rich in nitrogenous materials may cause If the. An average acre should yield 100 bushels for pickling. Under the best conditions. this practice is not necessary is unless the season very short. tility Although the land should be late. .414 pick off The Principles of Vegetable . sometimes they are 4x6.722 hills are contained on an acre. The patch should be gone over every two or three days at least. it is best to reserve a few hills Cucumbers for the main or especially for that purpose. however. 400 and 5C0 bushels of pickling cucumbers are raised to the acre. the fer- main crop. it is shoots. or 1 ounce for 70-80 hills.Gardening tlJe first fruit if it sets much in advance of the rich. plants to grow to vine at the expense of fruit. At 4x4 feet. the productivity of the plants may be greatly enhanced by picking the fruits as soon as they are fit. Four or five plants are allowed to remain in each hill. plant heavily. If one fruit is allowed to ripen it may prevent the setting of other fruits on the vine. striped bugs are bad. from seeds planted grown usually are pickling crop frost is past. it should be picked over every day. a good practice to pinch off the ends of the leading Usually. About two pounds of seeds are If the calculated to plant an acre. Since the fruits of cucumbers are used when they are young. 2.

consult the following. For accessible history of cucumber. desc. State Exp. Two-thirds natural size. by American seedsmen. young fruit white or greenish cultivated. The cucumber is Cuciimis sativus. larvae and moths. He divides them into two classes: young fruit green. Spine. Amer. native to southern Asia. amongst others Root and stem: Squash vine borer.Guctimher Notes For very early. 415 some of the small -fruited cucuT^bers planted. and ill. N. Y. and makes subdivisions under each. in various strains. see Sturtevant. small. is may be For midseason and late. 906-910. Cyclo. and well ill. Destroy eggs. G4 varieties Medium Green and Tailby were listed are favorites. a species West Indian or Bur cucumber. the White the standard. Nat. desc. Gherkins are veny Fig 131. J. used as the for pickles. pp. 94. Oct. Giant Pera.. including Cucumis Anguria. The varieties were reduced to 26. into Waugh (Bailey. N. 230-242. Y. A monograph of varieties by Goff will be found in 6th Rept. This is sometimes and its fruits are used for pickles..) divides the field varieties Black Spines and "White Spines. It has been in cultivation from remotest times. Hort. as Early Russian. pp.. Bull. Sta. N. Seedlings of cucumber. known white. Bull. 75. The name is also applied to the small prickly fruits of Cucumis Angurin. immature cucumbers. For enemies and diseases. Niehol In 1889. 1887. ..

N. 94. and illus. . Montreal Market. 75. Bull. Cantalupensis) with hard and warty rinds. the nutmeg or netted type (var. Leading commercial varieties at present are Eoeky Ford. Poison with Paris green acd 45. Thorough spraying with Bordeaux throughout season. N. may be covered with mosquito netting. Bull. insects. growing is confined to light and sandy soils. 105.J. Bull. Commercial melon(Fig. American seedsmen offered 88 varieties of muskmelon in 1889.Y. little grown in this country. Downy mildew or blight. and dese. The hills to show signs of running. New Jersey is an important melon center. desc. The most important types are the cantaloupes (var. is native to southern Asia. N. Ohio Bull. cantaloupe latus) is much used. . Spray thoroughly with Bordeaux mixture. Bull. even as far north as Canada. The poison is likely to injure the vines so plant the squashes profusely and do not poison all of them at once. Striped beetle. good ill. Bull. and poison the beetles on the squash vines. The early crop is planted 4x5 feet. 156. Osage. Plant squash as a trap crop. Spray the cucumber vines with Bordeaux mixture.. Three or four good fruits to the plant is a good yield. reticucomprising most of the American commercial varieties. Hackensack. Y. Cucumis Melo. on the same land. Bull. There are special melon centers in many parts of the country.Gardening Leaves: Flea beetle. 158. Y. although the word . . of remedies remedies. 113. N. and two or three weeks later the main Four by six teet is a 1 . muskmelon. crop is planted between. until the plants begin lime. MUSKMELON hills of muskThe quantity of seed required Sometimes two crops are grown is about the same as for cucumber. held above the plants by means of hoops. dese. It is immensely variable. 38). Y. N. It was grown by the ancients. Ga.416 The Principles of Vegetable. a very early and a main -season crop. making 185 hills to the acre. customary distance for the melons.

The Fig. WATERMELON The first requisite in watermelon culture is a location with suf- ficient length of season to insure maturity of crop. 1889. Exp."— 5^?(^/i X on "Watermelons.. Bull. and at least four years should intervene before the land is again planted in this crop. consult Dept. 38. 671-4. to a certain extent.Melons 417 the winter melons (var. 387. p. attracted by the first melon crop. 8. is an error. Nat. Aug. at least. see Cucumber. By that time insect depredators. little known in this country.. made good. the mid-continental for size and quality of melons. 132. inodorus) ripening late in the season and keeping well into the winter. notion that muskmelons are contaminated by cucumbers that grow near them For the insects. In no case should melons follow melons the next season.. "Rotation is all -important. 64. pp. Sta. Agrie. 1891 Kept. Amer. will have probably become exterminated and the drain from the soil of specific plant food (especially potash) will also have been. Ga. Bull. Consult Sturtevant. p. Muskmelon seedlings. anthracuose. for history. Starnes. Botanical Division. Nearly natural size. AA ." The South Atlantic and Gulf states have occupied first place Recently. For melon diseases and Md.

in hills. Watermelons are always planted which are usually 10 feet apart each way. 'Watermelon seedlings. Only hand tools should be used in the cultivation of crop after the vines have begun to run. A point of special emphasis is that of thorough drainage. All danger of frosts should be over before planting. 133. About 4 pounds of seed is used to the acre. especially before germination of seeds. to expose the soil to the pulverizing action of frost. usually done with shovel. Much nitrogen is thought to diminish the essential saccharine constituent.Gardening coming to the fore. The hills are made by mixing several shovelfuls of well-rotted manure with soil and then covering the whole with several inches of soft earth. — * ' . One-half natural size. 435 hills are contained in an acre.one most universally depended on.or turn-plow. dead When is a tcatermelon ripe? sound emitted by a melon when thumped is the readiest indication of ripeness. At 10x10 feet. as lifting or turning the vines will injure quality and size of fruit. The ideal soil is light sandy loam with only a medium or small amount of nitrogen. "Unquestionably the flat. and the . Swampy or ''soggy" land will not produce favorable results. The hills are made at the intersection of check-rows.418 states are The Principles of VegetaMe. into which the seeds are planted directly. This "checking" is Fig. Avoid baking or crusting of the soil on the hills. In the South the field for melons is often plowed in the fall.

the irregular it is usually a fair sign of ripeness. Only a few of these are commercial and the kinds that are popular in the South require a too long season for the North. ' thereby. half heard. however. than elsewhere in the world. as their carrying necessarily impaired instinct to the expert. 413.' a melon before deciding as to its maturity. while the top ' ' ' melon it lies on the ground. Sta. melon may be pulled with absolute confidence. Ga. because of the short and cool seasons. Stanies." Hugh X. "Frequently on turning the melon and exposing the under white blotch formed where the melon has rested on the ground affords an indication of maturity. as the flesh parts longitudinally in sections under the pressure. American seedsmen in 1889. The watermelon is CitruUus vulgaris.Watermelon Notes If the 419 it is resonance is hollow.' much less to 'press. The plants may be started under glass. Only in favored places are watermelons grown in the northernmost states. with the surface sufficiently hard to resist the finger-nail when scratched. instead of resisting solidly the interior appears to have a tendency to yield —a ' givey ' were — accompanied by a sort of feeling.eight varieties of watermelons were catalogued by North it is rarely that one finds varieties. on a steady pressure by the palm of the hand. " Yet all this. Bull. It has been in cultivation from a remote period. half felt. comes largely by it and necessary to thump. is "But there melon looks ' ' one more test that is corroborative. pimply or warty. probably. When this begins to turn yellowish and becomes rough. native^ to Africa. In fact. 38. There are a number of varieties. . that ripen without difiieulty in the northern states and Ontario when a warm soil and exposure are at hand and where small boys are absent. and are less grown in the North. It is certainly This test should never be resorted to with melons intended quality is for shipment. Exp. They are more uncertain than muskmelons. Fiftj-. a certain proof of immaturity. if. After the ripe and ' of the upper side or thumps ripe. the ripe. side. ringing or musical. as crisp crackling. It is more popular in North America. as stated. as advised on p.

and to feed stock.Gardening is is a feature of American living. pumpkins and field squashes are About 3 pounds of seed is planted in hills 8 to 10 feet apart. see Cucumber. standard variety plant. PUMPKIN AND SQUASH When grown by themselves. the The bush squashes are grown hills Pig. The . and the small boy prizes them for "jack This plant is a lanterns. Seedlings of squash. should be 4 or 5 feet apart if possible. It is a long-running large prange-colored sleek furrowed fruits are used for pies. as the term is understood in this country. but the as close as 3 x4 feet in gardens. From 4 to 5 pounds of seed is required to the acre. The vegetable known as citron only a kind of watermelon with hard." It is commonly grown in corn-fields. inedible flesh. 134. The true citron of commerce is the fruit of a tree allied to orange and lemon. For insects and diseases. In pumpkins. is the Connecticut Field. required for an acre with the field or running varieties. Two-thirds natural size. The rind used for preserving.420 it is The Principles of Vegetable. Two or three mature fruits to a vine is a large crop.

135. maxima do not cross. A third specific type is Cucurbita moschala. 135. place (temperature above 50°). Turban. Cucurbita Pepo and C. . fruits In order to keep well. These squashes are Cucurbita maxima The bush squasiies are of many kinds. although the frosted. Where they are grown extensively. The vegetable marrow. to which belong . free from bruises and internal cracks. Of field or winter squashes the leading tj'pes are the Hubbard. and Scallop or Patty-pan. not and have the stem on. sf^ecial stove-heated houses are built for them and they are stored on shelves or in shallow bins. Essex Hybrid. These They should have a dry and fairly wann are kept for winter.Pumpkins and Squashes 421 form of Cncurhita Pepo. much prized in England. A Pumpkin— Oupurliita Pfiio. Marblehead. the must be ripe. Fig." The leading types are Crookneck. These are forms of Curcurbita Pepo. is a long-fruited form of this species. common notion is to the contrary. Fig. They are "summer squashes. Boston Marrow.

see Goff. J. 211. Cultivation as for muskmelon. For insects and diseases. The Dish-Cloth gourds or Vegetable Sponges. Sci. 94. Tennessee Sweet the Cushaws or Winter Crookneeks. 658-663. 378. Mass. 25. . good. Sturtevant. 727-744. Y. Amer. p. etc. pp. two species of late years. Y. see: Squash bug. Cornell Bull. Examine daily. and usually having a waxy covering. Bull. 75. Wittmack. Journ. See Cornell Bull. moschata may be east-Asian. 94. 225. For descriptions of varieties. or hydrocyanic acid gas: Get at winter quarters. which young is used. GeselL. 31. N. .Gardening Dunkard. Y. p. Bull. Berichte der Deutschen Bot. excellent. Use bisulfide carbon. Bull. N.422 The Principles of Vegetable. N. Melon louse. Y. 243-273. 1890. 75 N. and Aug. State Exp. See Gray and Trumbull. N. 6th Rep. and some. 1890. Cornell: ammoniacal copper carbonate. Bull. Amer. but it is scarcely known as a kitchen-garden product in this country. State Rept. Keep fields free from rubbish. Of wax gourd of the Orient. Y. State Rept. pp.. with plate. although they are unknown anywhere in a truly wild state. Potato pumpkin.others. hairy. C. ISat. Bordeaux (1 to 8 formula) once every 8 or 10 days to frost. with ill. 6. 55 varieties of squashes and pumpkins are described. 372. July.. are in cultivation as curiosities and for the fibrous interior. Bull. N. 119. 67. p. very good desc. Bull.. The fruit is the size of a watermelon. Ky. fruit when dried and macerated. 1892. 1885. maxima are natives of tropical America. Fla. Benincasa cerifera. The mny be eaten when cooked or dried. It is used for the making of preserves and sweet pickles. J. 53. : OTHER CUCURBITS Various other eucurbitous fruits are grown for eating. and ill. p. 34. Powdery mildew. Sta. Downy mildew. Trap with bits of squash leaves. Bull. Mass. In early spring pick old bugs. with plate. has been introduced as the Chinese preserving melon. the Luflfa. Check first appearance. pp. as a sponge. It is now believed that Cucurhita Pepo and C.. X.

okra and martynia are culturally somewhat but they have little else in common.CHAPTER XVni SWEET CORN. quick soil . SWEET COKN As sugar corn are eaten tically a garden or horticultural crop. not grown in the southei'u states or if it It is. plants mentioned above are all irann-u-eather they are annuals. very important product in North America. related. which when the grains are yet soft. and they are cultivated for their immature fruits. (423) . They are placed together here because none of them tits well into the other groups. Corn. or grown as such. it is a sidered here. . sweet corn or is the onlj^ kind of corn that need be conIt is grown for the immature ears. they should have . Although pracunknown in other parts of the world. OKRA. of horticultural field crops in many parts of the country. no special treatment is required. MARTYNIA The crops . sharp Sweet corn is seasons of the northern states and parts of Canada. usually they are not transplanted other than good tillage. the seed is renewed every year from the North. holds its peculiar attributes only in the short. Its importance has greatly increased in recent years because it is It is now one of the most important extensively canned.

Nearly natural size. the fodder may be quite as important as the grain. with the exception that greater attention paid to earliness and to the development of each individual plant. Seed is crop as soon as the ground is planted for the early thoroughly warm. Since . The idea is to secure as many ears and therefore each stalk should be given an In field abundance of room. on the contrarj". an earlier izers. particularly since the advent of the silo. drills. short and the soil is If the season is it is hard and backward. if possible. corn. -with quicklj^ available fertiland it is usually grown in hills rather than in Fig. 136.424 Tlie Principles of Vegetable -Gardening is The field cultivation of sweet corn not unlike that of is corn. and warmer soil. Sweet com seedlings. continuous as possible. each well to add a little commercial fertilizer to hill in order to start the plants off quickly. It is therefore given.

Sweet Corn 425 sweet corn seed is particularly liable to rot in cold well to and damp are grouj^d. Vermont and of ripening Two or three days in time may make a difference be- tween the profitable and unprofitable crop. nevertheless is not able to withstand drought as well as potatoes and many other crops. If the land is inclined to be hard and rough. In market .prepared land to which only quickly available fertilizers have been added. of The usually made the extra -early varieties. Although corn is a hot. In such cases the grower secures the early crop by means of the Fig.gardening. particularh' when one is under strong competition with neighboring gardeners. This is because it is relatively a surface . it Plant of sweet corn. It is it is make the first planting rather early plantings heav. as the Earl}- Minnesota. the value of the green -corn crop is often determined by others. Successional plantings may be made at intervals of one to two weeks. never transplanted.v. of which the Stowell Evergreen is the standard. very earliest varieties and particularly by having quick and well. 137. Early The main crop is from the later or mainseason varieties.weather plant and thrives in the fullest exposure to sunlight. particularly for the home garden or for a continuous supply for the market -garden. usuallj' secured its earliness. it is well to turn it up loose in the fall.

. serve the moisture in the is The moisture content increased by deep preparation of the land and by the incorporation of vegetable matter. or Zea Mays. therefore. In the general market. Sweet corn is a race or variety of common Indian and ill. Nat.426 feeder." Bull. the crop is may be dropped every ten to twelve inches. American seedsmen listed 76 varieties of sweet corn and 22 varieties of pop corn. ears. com. Short rotation. Agric). 8 to 12 dollars being an average price for that quantity after all small and imperfect ears are discarded and some allowance is made for extra husks. one of the grass family. (1899). Dept.000 ears should be secured from an acre. and a native of America. 8. or single ker- apart. As a field crop for the canning factories. For insects and diseases. 107. tural account of corn. amongst others. S. see Sturtevant. At 2/<-3 feet may be tilled in both directions. Cornell Bull. by the late E. 57. see. The ears of the second setting will develop better if those of the first setting are picked just as soon as they are fit for use. pp. plants. The Principles of Vegetable. desc. to presoil. one peck to the acre is required for planting. the price is nearly always retailed ranging from 25 cents a dozen early in the season down to 10 and even 5 cents when the main supply comes in. the ears are ordinarih' sold by the ton. Amer. although For a general botanical and horticulthe wild type is unknown. Stations (U. moisture is Thereafter the saved by frequent light surface tillage. 664-5. Fall cultivation fall. When the corn small. In the row the hills (of 3-5 stalks each) are planted at 2X~3 feet apart. In 1889. July 1885. the ground may be harrowed without destroying the In hills. L. OflBee of Exp. including thorough cultivation in .Gardening Everj' effort should be made. corn by the dozen Rows nels of corn are made at 3-4 feet apart.000 to 10. Sturtevani For history of sweet com. the following: Wiie-worms. see "Varieties of Corn.

and ill. 74. Okra seedlings. Two-thirds natural size. 427 15.worms. however. Y. 138. Cornell Bull. Ky. very Natural checks. The seeds are sown where the plants are to stand. harrowing. the plants are sometimes started in pots. It is generallj.. dese.grown in the southern states. where its partially matured pods are in much demand for soups and stews. 531-33. N. Chinch-bug.. 69. ill. but is cultivated as an annual. dese. the seeds being sown each spring. 52.Okra Cut. Cornstalk disease. plowing. These pods must be cut when still tender and pulpy. Bull. as the young plants are also canned do not transplant with ease. 104. Pods ->C'i Fig. Ohio Bull. etc. dese. rain and fungi. Okra is grown in essentially the same way as corn. Kept pp. Bull. In the Northern states. OKRA OR GUMBO Okra is a hot -weather pereuuial. and dried for subsequent use. befoi'e they have developed strings or woody fiber. and Ohio: Ditching. dese. Neb. boxes . good . and ill.

Jan. Two the or three confused species are in cultivation. It demands no special treatment. the okra. should stand from 1 to 3 certain dwarf feet. and these the row. only 11 being offered in North America in 1889. Aug. It is now widely grown For^istorj-. and is therefore to hollyhock and cotton. or even apart for the larger varieties... There are no very important insects or diseases. tropical. Amer. There are few varieties. odd showy flowers.. Okra is a large -growing 5. in tropical countries. Nat. pp. hair}' leaves. and early -maturing grown. Nat. Give much room. MARTYXIA Martynia is grown for the half-matured seed-pods.. p. 33-35. but is commonest one southern Indiana to Iowa and southward. Seeds may be started in frames or planted in the open as soon as warm weather comes. for a good plant will spread over an area 3 or 4 feet across. feet plant and the rows should be from 3 to 4. is native to tropical one of the Mallow family. allied It is may varieties are usually stand as close as 1 foot apart in Hibiscus esculentus. see Sturtevant. See historical note by Sturtevant. and long-beaked hairy pods. with very large. 1889. The plant requires a warm soil and exposure. They ai-e members of the Pedaliacece a small family allied to the Biguonia family. native from Others are They .428 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening or on inverted sods in frames. 670. Asia. are annuals. Amer. 1890. . In the row the plants In the northern states. which are used for pickles. It is a nearly prostrate plant. Martynia proboscidea.

What are commonly known as "the sweet herbs. Although the growth is usually most profuse in rather heavy and moist soils. for which they are particularly^ esteemed.CHAPTER XIX COXDIMEyTAL AXD SWEET HERBS Although there is little desire on the part of Ameri- cans for condimental and flavoring herbs. to produce a full development They of the plant. them are grown for medicinal purposes. Some of Nearly vation. are such plants as are used as an incident to cookery. some some for the decoration of culinary dishes and others for salads and minor home uses. warm and open soil. all the sweet herbs are of the easiest culti- thrive in any loose. or those must be resown every year. Of these the most popular in America is sage. for flavoring. are more pronounced in soils in which the plants do not make an exuberant growth. What are commonly known "herbs" in the trade comprise a great variety of plants." however. The sweet herbs that are of two general classes as respects the general methods of cultivation: the annuals. and the perennials. nevertheless every complete home garden should have a small area set aside for the cultivation of at least a half dozen of as the leading kinds. The land should always be rich enough. however. it is believed that the aromatic qualities. (429 J or .

the species to which . When such species are grown from seed.Gardening those that persist for a number of years. When the clump begins to fail. it is well to dig it up and discard all the older parts of the roots and to replant the younger and more vigorous parts. although some of them maj* give a cutting the first fall Ordiif they are started early and if the soil is good. as in a barn.430 The Principles of Vegetable. Some of the sweet herbs are prized for foliage. when the seeds are nearly read}' to be shed and hanging the plants in a dry. place. caraway and spearmint. should be resown or replanted frequently in order to keep the plants in vigorous condition. although twice that area may be desired for such popular species as sage. and the place will have more than a commercial or culinary interest. In fact. they are usually not strong enough to supply a heavy product until the second year. It is weli to grow all the sweet herbs together on one side of the garIt is advis- den. whether they are annual or perennial. and others for seeds or fruits. A strip 3 or 4 feet wide along one side of a garden can be made a collecting -place for these herbs. The strongest -growing perennial species may be propagated easilj^ by division of the roots. able to devote a strip of land to this purpose and to grow a clump of a particular herb each year in its accustomed Even the perennial species. The grower may save his own seed by cutting off a few plants cool place. particularly if the cli- mate is severe and if the plants are not given some winreadil}'^ ter protection. as sage and hyssop. narily a space 4 feet square will contain enough of any herb to supply a family.

but there is much satisfaction in growing one's own. Those species of which the seeds are used are mostly members of the parsley family. although some of them. coriander and dill. ously they will be weakened. or Umbelliferse. It is evident that if the plants are cut severely and continu- dried herbage winter. cut or pulled just before the seeds are ready to The plants are then dried under cover threshed out. Sometimes there is a fair market for home-grown herbs. or Labiatfe. The grown for seeds is are allowed to ripen before the product gathered. is then in condition for use during the Continual cuttings of the young herbage may also be made during the season for current uses. The stems are cut off near the ground and are then tied together in bundles and hung in a dry. Of such are sage. are members of the sunflower family. as an attic. hyssop. are those that The plants that are grown for herbage are usually cut when the plant is in full growth and before it has become woody. horehound. The seed-bearing plants are annual. and that species that are it may be neces- sary to raise a fresh stock to take their places. The following lists contain the leading species of sweet and culinary herbs cultivated in this country.Sweet Herbs the 431 particularly re- name sweet herb should be more have aromatic foliage. and the seeds are Seeds of the seed -bearing herbs and dried herbage of the true sweet herbs are usually to be had at drug stores. cool place. thyme. The larger number of these stricted. tansy. The plants are usually fall. mints. Most of these plants are members of the mint famil\'. . Of such are caraway. as tansy and wormwood.

tansy. (Man other plants of minor importance might be included. balm. summer savory. as such caraway (biennial) clary (biennial).432 Tlie Principles of Vegetable. dill sweet basil. pennvToyai. rosemary. coriander.. lovage. costmary. marjoram. tarragon. . sweet marjoram (biennial or perennial) Perennial sage. lavender. peppermint. winter savory. horehound. spearmint. (biennial). wormwood. thyme. hyssop.Gardening to their arranged with reference duration. Annual or grown anise. fennel. catnip.

CHAPTER XX PERENNIAL CROPS Asparagus. in the fact that the chief tillage and care are required early and late in the season. and early spring. All cultural classifications are more or less arbitrary. become tvell established before a crop is cut. are general The plants should he of asjyaragus culture. and preparation of the BB (. rich. and also because the fertilizing is secured chiefly hy surface dressings in spring and fall. and therefore must he given an area to themselves where they will not interfere ivith the customary plowing and tilling. a ivarm exposure. Rhubarb.*33) . fertile. to place these vegetables in a group bj^ themselves. Sea-Kale. Sorrel. seems to be advisable. heavy manuring. although otherwise they have It little in common. The management they are more or less of perennial crops differs from that of other vegetable -gardening crops. ASPARAGUS A deep. therefore. thorough thorough requisites tillage in late fall allowed to land. moist. Artichoke. in the fact that permanent occupants of the ground. Dock. for cultural reasons. cool soil.

grow ami to store up The tops are wou-n in its Asparagus is grown for last young shoots. A good pulantation should twenty years and more. Asparagus is a gross feeder. and the quality is determined by the succulence of these shoots. 75 to 100 feet long. The asparagus plantation should be made Therefore it for a lifetime. it is ordinariij' and richest soil available. one row alongside the garden. at least in the I^^orth. should be prepared a year or two in advance by the raising of some thoroughly tilled crop. and to till it with horse tools rather than with hoes and finger weeders. It usually looks best at the farther side of the garden.Gardening the cutting of the plants should cease in early summer in order to allow them opportunity to energy for the following year. and the land is top-dressed with manure before winter sets in. Propagated by seed. so that it will not interfere with the plowing of the garden area. and with this crop as much manure as possible should have been nsed. For the ordinary family. late fall. new idea is to plant asparagus in rows as one would plant rhubarb or coru. as potatoes. is well to give careful attention to the selection of the soil and to the choice of a place that can be permaneutlj^ set aside for the purpose.4-34 The Principles of Vegetable. asparagus should be in rows one side of the plantation. at In the home garden. best As a field crop. where its beautiful herbage makes a background border in summer and The old idea was to have asparagus " beds. grown The permanency in the of the plantation will depend largeh' on the original quality of . it too rich." The fall. may be expected to furnish a sufficient supply. Laud can scarcely be If the laud is originally hard and coarse.

plowing in a heavy coating of well -rotted manure if necessary. The plants should be set deep. the trench is . The custom is to subsoil the land. if it is hard beneath the surface. Natural size. The roots of asparagus should be in moist. 2 or 3 inches. to place the rows not closer than 4 feet. broad crowns. the preparation of the ing. dicularl}-. The roots run horizontally rather than perpenIt is well. 139. Aim to secure large. The plants are then set in furrows 6 to 10 inches deep. Seedlings of asparagus. As the plants grow. therefore. cool soil.Asparagus the land. 435 soil. They should have opportunity to forage as far as they -^ r ? > Fig. The crown of the plant is covered with loose earth or old compost to the depth of will. the method of plantand particularly on the subsequent care and fertil- izing of the plantation.

to which one may add these are night soil. They should be one-year-old seedapart in the row. and hy the succeeding fall the furrows should The plants should be set about 3 feet have been filled. also. if available. times the furrows are partially filled by running a light harrow over the ground.436 The Principles of Vegetable. When the asparagus appropriates so much of the plant -food and moisture that there is less danger from cernicious weeds. It is well to dress the plantation heavily in the fall with manure. It may be well. Since the crowns of asparagus are so far beneath the it is possible to till the whole area with shallowlate in fall or early in spring. It is essen- working tools tial that this general tillage be given in order to keep the plantation free of weeds and to maintain the physical texture of the tillage soil. the young plants may not have strength enough filling to push through the earth. When the crop is being harvested. gradually' If the trench is filled at first. to make another dressing of more quickly available fertilizer early in the It is very important that the plantation be spring. During the growing season. and later in it is not practicable to till to any extent the season when the tops are allowed to grow. given the best of surface tillage for the first one or two years in order to get it into ideal condition. . The plants are usually set in spring. In a commercial plantation. Two or three -year -old plants usually give less satisfactory results. this Somemaj' be done by the subsequent tillage. surface. lings. the .Gardening filled. the whole is surface occupied. bed finally comes into full bearing. refuse salt or animal fertilizer. little can be given.

but particularly to conserve the moisture and to afford material for covering the tender shoots . folienergy of the crown and roots is supplied from the Without a age that developed in the previous summer. be will there berries. Whilst the crop even removed. growth good a expect heavy growth of top. for that purpose. or if it is top coarse off. one cannot tops The year. remove and to be given tillage thorough burn them in order to allow a dressing as given a be then The bed should in the fall. the plants produce so many seedling plants as to make trouble.Asparagus 437 The plants should grow two full years before shoots Sometimes a few stalks may be taken the secare cut. tops to lie on the ground as a winter protection. following roots and a heavy crop the of should be mown late in fall. both for the the spring the In -food. and it is usually allowed are tops the Thereafter to stop before this time. It should be remembered that the to grow as they will. protection and to supply plant it is better to burn the tops. every stalk bed the eating: for poor though it is too small and the should cases rare "cut clean. is being too long a period each season." Only in should be better bed be cut after the 4th of July. be should harvested. in that case. oud year. Some persons allow these If. the rougher parts may be forked again to well is it After a thorough spring cultivation. but it is usually better to wait until the third estabyear and to allow the plants to become thoroughly it for cutting by bed It is also easy to injure the lished. winter affording of purpose already advised. It is also well to be cultivated under. however. many however. dressing may cover the bed wuth litter or manure in order to afford some nourishment.

438 Tlie Principles of Vegetable . When grown without blanching. It is customary to harvest asparagus by cutting the shoots 3 or 4 inches beneath the surface of a long knife. much as one would hill celery. . and the shoot will not break in the tough and stringy part and therefore the product is sure to be tender and crisp. This is no doubt the ideal method. but any long butcher-knife will answer the It is important that this knife be inserted in an oblique direction so as not to injure the new shoots which are rising from the crown. There is a common notion that asparagus with white stalks is the tenderest and best.Gardening in case there is lies in its danger of frost.-irtributes by very rich soil These and by thorough off attention to good tillage. the green Asparagus is often part of the shoot is the best. notwithstanding its better quality. but this is an error unless the stalks are artificially blanched. Some of the best growers now advise the breaking of the asparagus shoots rather than cutting them. 1-40). In this country asparagus is chiefly used in its green or unblanched state. A little experience in the use of the knife will enable one to cut the shoots without injury to the succeeding picking. blanched in the field. This is done by hilling up the rows early in spring by means of the furrowing plow. If asparagus is to be purpose. . by means There are special asparagus knives (Fig. There is then no danger of iiijuring the crown. The value of asparagus succulence and tenderness. and these qualities are secured are usually associated with large size of shoot. but the formal demands of the market make it difficult to sell broken asparagus in some places.

It is grow one's own plants. Seedlings may be expected to vary consid- erablv.Asparagus 439 grown for blanching. particularly if he has a rich piece of land and can give it careful attention. 140. Blanched asmore popular in the Old World than here. however. Give frequent tillage throughout the season. Asparagus is sold in bunches 4 or 5 inches in diamis These are tied with soft cord or raffla. Asparagus "bunchers" which are forms for holding the bunch and cord. At 3x4 feet. also the knife or spud for cutting plants in the field. The plants should be thinned to stand 3 or 4 inches apart in the row.630 plants are required 1 plants should be secured from pound of for an acre. to plants of seedsmen. it should be planted somewhat deeper than under ordinary conditions. paragus eter. Asparagus buncher. although 4-5 . now use rubber bands. One can buy asparagus usually better. and a knife for cutting the butts — can 140. be had of dealers in supplies. 3. The seed is sown in drills from a foot to 18 inches apart and it is covered about an inch in depth. Usually the market requires that the butt end of the bunch be cut off square. Fig. The following spring these plants will be ready for setting in their permanent places. These good seed. An average bunch although some growers is 7 to 9 inches long. The seeds may be soaked in warm water a day before planting. gardeners' Fig.

but bunches of all lengths and sizes.Gardening is often recommended. Soc. Five dozen bunches can be put together in an hour by an expert hand and neatly squared at the retailers asparagus. pp. 1889. The gatherer takes two rows at a time. "It is a custom among manj'. The doing away with the necessity of careful rules for cutting asparagus and the forms of implements best fitted for the purpose. There are few varieties. For an accessible history. Garfield before Mich. The leading insects and diseases are discussed in the following . Asparagus has been cultivated for 2. like lettuce and pie plant. there Hort. by the use of the knife. to give their bunches the required length by cutting far beneath the surface. see Sturtevant. our have not as yet taken this progressive step. Nat. Asparagus should be sold by weight. and we have all grades of quality in the market. It is native to temperate Europe and Asia. 129 131. Feb.of our gardeners. Conover Colossal is the leading kind.440 pounds The Principles of Vegetable. In the growing season the field is gone over every day.. the process of bunching has been greatly abridged. are decidedly important steps in progressive asparagus culture.000 years or more. and the elimination of a large proportion of the expense in preparing the field. Since I have used rubber elastics instefid of string or bark for tying. breaking oflf the shoots just beneath the ground. and it has several allies in cultivation in greenhouses for the graceful foliage. 1887. not only of ends. unfortunately. TV. but. at the lowest point where they will snap squarely off. " If I can have a trusty hand to do the gathering. I do not allow a knife to be taken into the field. July. Asparagus is known to botanists as Asparagus officinalis. stems. These greenhouse species are climbing or drooping. About 400 dozen bunches is a fair yield per acre. lowering the quality of their product and demoralizing the market. By following my method of breaking the is no waste and the quality of the lower part of the stems is as excellent as any part of them. the simplifying of the tying process. Only nine were listed by American seedsmen in 1889.." Chas. It is one of the lily family. Amer.

In hot weather brush off and insects are baked on soil. p.stalks. In rare eases. J. 30. Paris green or London purple. The cutting. . Bull. 281 and plates. careful collection and immediate all visibly affected stalks but of all asparagus brush. A tvell -prepared and well-handled rhuPro- barb plantation should last twenty years or more. good plate. 61. be very careful with poisons on asparagus that is to be used. p. and in very dry seasons practice irrigation if possible. Agric. 20th Rept. Bull. all perennial It is prized for its large.Asparagus — Rhubarb 441 Beetle. 61 Iowa . p." burning. juiey acid leaf. an early spring crop. Rept. the land. to 50 lbs. 1896. N. leave small trap. N. shoots twice a week cut these and destroy. therefore. application while yet damp thoroughness. 1 lb. p. 425. thick. both cultivated and wild. 1896.. early in the autumn. Y. pagated by divisions of the root or by seed. East. second ai^plieation a week later. p. In young beds treat with fresh air-slaked lime as soon as larvaa appear. 1898. No. Farmers' Bull. Rept. Yearb. quick. Exei'cise every effort to secure vigorous plants. 407. which are used in early spring for The size of the stalks depends partly . 53. of dry hydrated or air-slaked lime. not only of RHUBARB OR Rhubarb PIE PLANT Since its value delights in a deep rich soil. J. 457. : Bull. Mass. Dept. N. 342. Ct. 75. Destroy volunteer asparagus. size depends on the succulence and is of the leaf-stalks^ every It care must be given that will contribute to leaf growth. sauces and pies. all good ills. In beds being cut. Rhubarb is one of the most popular of vegetable -garden plants. should be and the plants should have made a sturdy growth the previous year in order to have energy to start quickly and vigorously . Book literature: Hexamer's "Asparagus. p.

and it is therefore important that to be avoided.442 The Principles of Vegetable . Linnaeus. but it thrives best in land that is mellow and fertile to a considerable Fig. but the old-fashioned rhubarb will often produce a better leaf. but particularly on the soil and the tillage. If the land is not in good tilth. as potatoes or some root crop. 141. and Mammoth Red. and to use lib- erally of stable manure in that year. the original preparation of the land should be of the best. Rhubarb seedlings. it is best to grow a preparatory crop. There are only three or four popular varieties. Land should be heavily fertilized. depth. The rhubarb is not particular as to soil.stalk when given high cultivation than the best strain of Victoria will when grown under neglect. particularly if the soil is either very hard or very loose. Two-thirds natural size. If the land is . Soils that have a high subsoil or hard-pan are The rhubarb plantation should last for a number of years. There is little danger of adding too much stable manure. of which the best known are Victoria.Gardening on the variety.

before harvest has begun. as for corn or potatoes.Rhuharh not naturally deep. it may be forked from . and of protection. and the plants This surface are likely to start earlier in the spring. 142. it is 443 it well to subsoil just before the rhubarb is planted. mulch may be removed early in the spring and a thorough cultivation given to the land. Fig. feet for the — not less strong-growing varieties. purposes of enriching the of the surface. fall that de- the bed should be given a heavv rig. or if the land is in good tilth and free from weeds. soil. than four In the row the plants may be placed from 3 manded. is all Good is surface tillage. u-j A Long Island rhubarb field in early spring. This dressing serves the of preserving the texture heavily mulched do not affording a winter mulch and are Lands that freeze so deep as those that are left bare. The rows should be far enough apart to allow of easy horse tillage. dressing of stable manure. In tlie to 4 feet apart.

and the . After the market season of rhubarb is past. and they not give a full crop until the third year. the plants crop is the crowns and allowed to harvested. and they separate readily at their insertion. breaking off the strong projecting parts. A heavy crop of rhubarb in any year depends to a large extent on the strong leaf -growth of the jear before. rhubarb sion of the roots. but it is usually a better practice to trim the roots with the plow or the spade. The commercial rhubarb season is short.444 The Principles of Vegetable. It rarely extends over more than two months. In order to renew rhubarb plantations. Some growers are allowed to grow as they will except that the seed- stalks are cut off as fast as they arise in order to force the energy of the plant into the production of foliage and roots. These will pieces are planted 3 or 4 inches deep.Gardening lie between the rows until the hill up the rows in fail by means of a plow and do not apply a fall mulch. Only the largest and best leaves are harvested. time and the seedlings are Rhubarb is but this requires a year's more likely to vary to some extent. pieces as there are is propagated by means of diviThe root may be cut into as many strong eyes. The plants should grow two years before readily a cutting is made. Others are usually allowed to remain unless they are very numerous. the roots are sometimes taken up and reset. The leaves are pulled. Ordiuarih-. and as much as possible of the root is allowed to remain with each eye. the land is The seeds may be sown inches apart. in which case the larger part of them are pulled off in order to allow the strength to go to the main ones. grown from seeds. or closer early in the spring in drills 18 if valuable.

There are no troublesome insects or diseases. but in milder climates it may be planted in the fall. 1890. An of acre of rhubarb requires about as asparagus. In the Northern states rhubarb is nearly always planted in the spring whether from seedlings or root -cuttings. For historical sketch by Sturtevant. see Amer. In 1889. pp. Sometimes used for wine. they remain for years. From and an acre should produce 3. when they are one year old. vals in a rhubarb field wagons. and it has the advantage of being a week or ten days earlier. once planted. Rhubarb (Elieum Bhaponticum) is one of the Polygonaeese or buckwheat family. perhaps. Book literature: Consult Morse and Thompson. to allow the entrance of 2 to 5 stalks are tied in a bunch DOCKS AND SORRELS "Various species of docks and sorrels have long been Some of them are very desirable additions to the garden because they yield a pleasant food in very early spring. other the Large Belleville (Oseille Large de Belleville).. Nat. The number It is same as in asparagus. . The former is the better of the two. It is native to eastern Asia. much seed as an acre seeds in an ounce is about the a good plan to leave alleys at interof for market. The broad crisp leaves appear early in April when there is cultivated as pot-herbs. that is. April. North American seedsmen offered six varieties of rhubarb.Rli uhnrh — DocJcs 445 young plants are thinned to 6 to 8 inches apart in the row. . 328-332. The plants are set in permanent positions the year following. We have grown two of the French docks for years and find them to be very One is the Spinage Dock {Oseille Epinard) the good.000 dozen bunches. and.

61. It has also become spon- taneous in some of the eastern parts of the country. The other. In some countries this sorrel yields oxalic acid sufficient for commercial purposes. It is a country. ARTICHOKE plants are known as artichoke. Cornell be procured of American seedsmen.' Bull. is a plant allied to cardoon and thistles. Sta. one of the sunflower tribe and is grown for its thick. of the cultivated docks can greens. or Rumex Patientia of the botanies. underground tubers.leaved or true French {Bumex scutatus) would probably be preferable to most persons. rnn wild in some parts of this sparingly and it has The Belleville is native of Europe. Two very unlike 'artichoke. and they can be cnt contiunously for a month or more. and is really a sorrel. The under that name in this country known commonly one It is is the plant known abroad as Jerusalem artichoke. at least. and afford a succession. has long been an inhabitant of gardens." Exp. It is Bumex Acetosa of botanists. This dock is the Herb Patience. and are very plants to those who are fond of early Some. with spear-like lobes at the base. lighter green and longer -stalked leaves than the spiuage dock.Gardening nothing green to be had in the open garden. but they are later. or the true potato -like. sorrel The Round. and will probably not prove to be so generally agreeable as those of the spinage dock. and . acceptable ' "All these docks are hardy perennials. The leaves are very sour.446 The Principles of Vegetable. It also a European plant. It has thinner.

of food. 143. tuber-bearing stems. lands. this is one of the best means of harvesting the crop. the young shoots as salads. amount cooked. by means of which If the the tops do not have an opportunity to grow. Two-thirds natural size. It The tubers may be eaten raw or its long unIn poorly cultivated likely to spread rather than to has a tendency to become a weed in waste places. many of the roots will be exposed and they may be picked out.Jerusalem Artichoke the edible part is 447 the large unopened flower -head. Swine . If the plant becomes a weed. are also sometimes blanched and eaten It is often known as the globe or bur arti- choke. although it is so exceedingly productive and thrives under such adverse conditions that it might be made to supply a considerable Fig. Globe artichoke seedlings. In fact. plowed in the fall. it may be eradicated by thorough field is tillage. The Jej'usalem artichoke is little prized in this country as a garden vegetable. the plant is diminish because the tubers are severed and transported by the cultivator. spreading inveterately by means of derground.

p. but it it m-a. second year the plants may be expected to produce edible heads. The roots are broken plant belongs to the sunflower genus. into the field they will aud if they are turned soon destroy the plant. 244). but they must be transplanted with much care. Sci. however. The plant is perfectly hardy.growing. The They should be planted The plants are propagated 3 to 5 feet apart each way. and these are chieflj' used in the Old . Suckers are freely produced about the crown of the plant. as they are by the customary digging of the tubers. In this country there are no named varieties that are generally known. As a cultivated crop. Journ. if it is becomes weedy. being botanists as Relianthus tuherosus. in order that used vated areas. Seedlings started early in a hotbed may give edible heads the same year. The seeds either by seeds or by suckers from the root. the artichoke little nearly alwa3's placed in some remote or corner. and the grow 4 or 5 feet high. with large woolly divided leaves. Amer. 25. In the Old World the plant seems to be more prized than here as a garden crop. it will take care of will produce more freely of tubers if the When and divided now and then. and are therefore not to be recommended if one desires the best strains.y not encroach on the cultionce planted.448 The Principles of Vegetable -Gardening are very fond of the artichoke. It was cultivated by the Indians (see Gray & Trumbull. up- right perennial. Seeds may be sown where the plants are to stand. and there are improved strains of it. itself. do not reproduce the variety. known to The plants true or globe artichoke is a strong. It is native to the northern parts of the United States aud parts of Canada.

it is too old and woody for eating. The plant is quite worth the growing as an ornamental subject. leaves and shoots of which are blanched and is In the kitchen. p. see Circular 22. prepared after the manner of asparagus. CC . Dept. Agric. The suckers are usually planted directlj^ where the plants are to mature. . Usually the plant begins to decline after or three heavy crops. Olobe artiCynara Scolymus.1887.. The edible parts of the flower-head are the fleshy portion on and the "bottom" or The heads are gathered before the blue flowers begin to show.. In this country the artichoke is little prized. but it is much used in parts of Europe. S. that is. . is chokes. be well protected in winter with straw or the inside of the large outer scales receptacle of the head. For notes on culture and methods of cooking. Fig. . " . One-fourth "=»tur«i ^i^*^native to the Mediterranean region. (1899).. SEA -KALE Sea-kale is a low. and in the second year the heads may be gathered. In cold climates the crowns should litter. 144. Feb. Nat.. Amer. fleshy-stemmed it perennial. Fig. See Sturtevant.ArticJiolie — Sea - Kale 449 World for tbe propagation of the variety. the young eaten. when the head is in the' bud.. the artichoke. As soon as the head begins to expand. 144. The plant is little known in this country'.. It is it has borne two therefore advisable to re- plant it frequently. 125. U.. . Division of Botany.

Western Europe. as into a box inverted over the crown.. retain its vigor for a but one of which should be removed. In either case. July. one of the Cruciferae or Mustard family. Two or more plants are likely to come from each of these fruits. but it is them two seasons' growth. It is native to sea-coast regions of Sturtevant has an historical note in Araer. . Sea-kale is propagated either by seeds or divisions grow as it in asparagus of the roots. Nat. 644-5. the plant to will for the remainder of the season for. on the vigor aud energ}' of the plant in the preceding year. The plants should not be less than 3 feet apart each way. and rather moist. they may stand as far apart as 8% all The "seeds" are really fruits. They are ordinarily sown without being shelled. better to allow some shoots may be cut the following 5'ear. is After allowed the early spring shoots are removed. and if the land is not too valuable. Sea-Kal3 is Cramhe maritima. is vested until the plants have grown two or three If the root divisions are large and the soil strong.spring. fine earth in earlj. the vigor of the young shoots of any season depend. After the plants are blanched are well established. but if the plants begin to show signs of decline. The soil should be deep and rich. or even 4 feet. the crop is not to be harj^ears. as and rhubarb.450 The Principles of Vegetable. It is much benefited by an autumn dressing of straw or light manure. to a large extent. the young shoots by covering the crown to the depth of a foot or more with loose.Gardening it is although deserving of popularitj-. a new crop should be started. pp. Sometimes the shoots are allowed to grow upward into a dark receptacle. 1890. Sea -kale will number of years.

112. Brill. 82. 205. 240. 242. 13. 316. Barbarea vulgaris. book by. Buggy peas. 82. 433-. 316. 10. 240. Anise. 383. 13. longevity of seeds. 346. American Agi-ieulturist. 242. storage. 244. 316. 316. 246. 355. Black salsify. longevity of seeds. quantity of seed. Beta vulgaris. 246. Burr. 286. 83. 432. Allium Cepa. 135. 345. 241. 340. 344. 328. Arthur. Brooklyn market. 240. Basil. Bosson. Brassica Rapa. 378. 132. Barrels. trucking book by. books by. 245. storage 233. Buist. Beckett. 233. 388. on soil. 242. 211. on peas. book by. 240. in. acreage. 8. acreage. Brassica eampestris. 135. 241. Atriplex hortensis. germiird- tion. 134. 316. on scolymus. on tomatoes. Books. Allium flstulosum. 158. 292. 220. Beet. on turnips. Allium sativum. books by. book by. 135. on soil. acreage. 264. 432. 422. Bean. 62. on soil. 440. Barbarea prjecox. on potatoes. Brassiea oleracea. book by. 401. 225. 446. 241. Allium Porrum. Brussels sprouts. 217. Cochove. Broad bean. quoted. 241. trucking in. Buist. 24S. 315. 241. Apium Arlie. 171. 240. 143. Bushel box. 240. 328. books by. soil. 366. Anderson. Allium SchcEiioprasum. 280. 242. Beningasa. Bailey. 241. 244. Brill. 245. Barnard. 247. book by. 82. lox 242. 339. Allium Ascalouicum. 209. 387. Beadle. 245. Bridgeman. 125. 307. 10. on onions. 246. 132. 46. 342. Van. Blitum. books by. books by. (451^ . 240. 273. Burpee. 239. Beets. Bulletins. graveolens. 246. germination. 288. Bisulfide of carbon for seeds. 248. on Beal. 36. on beans. Beadle. 192. Artichoke. Buckman. 13. 241. 134. 241. 304. Asparagus. 366.INDEX Alabama. on pai'snip. lon- gevity of seeds. 290. Asparagus officinalis. 240. 314. 245. 135. longevity of seeds. Barrows. book by. 287. 241. 247. Baxter. Bridgeman. Arsenite of lime. Bordeaux mixture. Borecole. Broccoli. 378. 240. book by. Blite. 293. Bailey. 277. Arkansas. quoted. Bulb crops. for transplanting. Balm. 432.

Cucumis Anguria. Chinese. 242.341. Cress. Chenopodium capitatum. 242. 304. 242. 241. 346. 13. 315. 238. germination. 351. 450. 233. 241. selection of seeds. Carriers. 329. book by. 112. Compartment pit. ^U. 15. cucurbita Pepo. Celeriac. 432. 125. 98. 416. 242. 78. Cobbett. 136. Craig. Copper carbonate. 281. books by. 338. 421. turnip-rooted. Copper sulfate. Commercial fertilizers. sweet. seeds. germination. 93. Cucumis sati^-us. 200. 432. 409. Covers for beds. Cranefield. longevity of seeds. sash. 422. 129. 95. 242. 309. 19. Cover-crops. 12. 78. 355. 432. Carrot. of. Celery storage. 284. 241. tering. 414. 136. Crops. 183. Catnip. Census. Crozier. 158. 136. 422. 151. Cucumis Melo. 432. 249. longeN-ity of seeds. quoted. Carts. lon- gevity of seeds. Cibcule. 315. 432. 178. win- Corrosive sublimate for potatoes. salad. 13. 422. 229. 241. 233. 352. 240. seeds. mentioned. Climate. Companion-cropping. Coehlearia Armoraeia. salad. Chieorj-. longevity of . Caraway. on tomatoes. 2. composition of. books by. 284. Cloth for hotbeds. wintering. Cicborium Endivia. 11. . number 200. 241. 315. selec- Clary. selection of seeds. 363. 298. 364. Coldframes. Cicborium Intybus. 241. 151. quantity of seed. Com. Cueumber. 248. 1. 3:9. Cabbage maggot. seeds. . 415. 234. in sasli.3C. 379. 46. 169. 169. Cape gooseberry. 410. 283: on radifh. 429. 65. 369. 129. 13. Club-root e. 132 141. Coriander. 124. 227. 378. 211. Cive. acreage. Chervil. Celery. 124. Chasrovbyllum bulbosum. number in Corn 309. Capsicum annuum. 240. storage. 419. Carman. 128. book by. acreage. 211. 210. 127. 416. 34. Index Citrullus vulgaris. 124. longevity of seeds. Canteloupe. 213. 240. Cucurbita raosehata. 345. 67. seeds. Color and germination. 169. 276. 241. 415. 1. 420. on carrot. 241. Cole crops. CitTou. 80. germination. Cabbages. classification 355. 421. 50. Costmarj-. City man's garden. 128. germination.37. Cauliflower. 363. 369. tion of seeds. acreage. 65. Chard. Carbonate of copper. 90. 370. Composts. 36. 397. 131. Crambe maritima. 240. 249. 233. 151. 152. 46. Cucurbita maxima. Club root. 238. Capital. 249. Catch-crops. [on. 421. Crider. 352. 213. preserving melChives. 365.xperiment. Classification of crops. Condimental plants. on irrigation. Climate and seeds. 241. Cabbage storage. 181. Chinese cabbage. Carum PetroseLinum. 152. composition of 98. Cellars.452 Cabbage. germination. 367. 422. 93. 241. 175.

Glass for gardeners. 141. trucking iu. 104. 283. number in sash. 141. 73. book by. germination. books by. 346. 85. 304. 114. 46. 71. 314. 403 Devol. Flats. Formalin for potatoes. Hardening-oflf. 211. 427. edible. 230. Dibbers. Gardiner. Geography of vegetable-gardening. . 283. book Forks. Eggplant. Growing of seeds. 161 239. 449. 69. 397. 241. on beet diseases. Germination. 77. 328. 448. Fertilizing land. 415. 422. making. 432 . Germination vs. longevity of seeds. 07. book by. 414. 217. Gregorj'. by. 21. Goodrich. cellar of. Daubeny. 149. Dolichos sesquipedalis. book by. . seed samples. 241. 406. 62. 165. Glycine hispida. 251. Hale.Index Cucurbitaese. Forcing-hill. management. Gray & Trumbull. 17. Greiner. on bushel box. Frame Dandelion. 242. Franke. Daucus Carota. 151. Dish-cloth gourd. 313. 398. 124. 251. 280. on soil. quoted. 401. Ground cherry. on tomatoes. 249. Day. defined. Fitch. 193. 353 Darlington. 241. 403. Goflf. 308. 388. quoted. Dill. 432. 64. 250. book by. 398. 164. Green. Fennel. book by. 453 Cucurbitous crops. 28. Greiner. book by. Georgia. Endive. 242. 2. book by. 242. Earls. 137. Drainage. Cultivating. Double-cropping. 40. 124. 44. 6. 252 273. Exports. 440. Fitz. Dock. 144. on tomatoes. sprouting. 276. 8. 50. Drawn plants. Garlic. Hardy plants. book by. seeds. on storage. on asparagus. Hand-box. 250. 41. 111. 281. Florida. 15. Fungi. Glazing. 252. 189. 81. Green. 100. 240. Flue-heated hotbeds. Frame. 250. Emerson. 137. 199. Drills. census by. 249. Frames. Cynara Seolymus. Cultivators. 12. Fessenden. 344. 378. 134. 241. book by. 360. 308. 350. 229. on potato. 46. germination. 152. 361. 388. 240. Garfield. 328. Cummins. books by. trucking in. 422. 379. Formula for fertilizers. Halsted. Gherkin. 72. 382 290. Fertilizer tests. 243 252. 181. Gumbo. longevity of seeds. edible. Fall-sown plants. 82. Curing seeds. Elder. 410. quoted. books by. 161. 118. 19. cost of 49. 287 377. Forcing defined. Dreer. 250.?55 445. 388. 219. on soil. Fungicides. 45. . Half-hardy plants. on vegetables. Duggar. 243. Grading. Farm garden. 94. 8. 64. 114. 252. Duggar. 411. Equipment. 75.

211. Lovage. 346. Hose. . Marketing. 242. 401 Management of frames. 255. 254. Luifa. storage. 137. Jager. London purple.. 171. wintering. A. 160. Henderson. 241. 129. 254. by. 208. Index Kale. 158. 294. . 253. acreage. 2. book by. 214. 116. M. 209. Lycopersieum esculentum. 403. 185. longevity of seeds. Jacques. Henderson on quantity of Henderson. 241. Harromng. 241. seeds. in longevity of seeds. Lepidium sativum. 242. 114. ilarket Garden (journal). quoted. quoted. Lelievre. Peter. Landreth. books by. 214. 373: quoted. Howard. 54. Long Island wagon. 22. 111. 241. Marjoram. 255. longevity of seeds. Hunn. 46. 138 65 number Hotbed covers. on celerj-. 409. Lactuca sativa. Jerusalem artichoke. Leaf-beet. Ipomoea Batatas. Hotbeds. 447. book by. 357. 432. 240. 242. 215. 388. wintering. Irish. 343. 401. Kohlrabi. 83. Hauck. 37. on onions. quoted. 409. 132. Holmes. 243. 24. Home garden. 114. 208. Jeffries. Henslow. on peppers. 119. Kiely. quoted. quoted. 78. Larbaletrier. book by.. Insects. 20. Lavender. Market-gardening.. longevity of seedc. on soil. Lupton. 35. book Lima bean. 378. 122. 422. Irrigation. Helianthus tuberosus. 255. 360. 240. Hibiscus esculentus. Kinney. quoted. 240. on lettuce. germination. book by. 30. book by. Kerosene emulsion. 73. Hepburn. 17. Henderson. 72. books by. 428. 328. 339. quoted. W. 361. Leek. Hicks. 134. H. quoted. 312. 19. Harrows. 351. Liudley. Imports. Horebound. 241. of. Implements. Market-gardeners' private stock. sweet. 224. 78. 243. 242. 360. Hyssop. quoted. Leggy plants. 432. 233. 314. Loudon. Livingston. 432. 8. 242. 168. 151. arsenite Humus. book by. sash. Manure for heating. Latitude and seeds. 255. Huntley. Hollister. Insecticides.55. 432. 56. 31. Landreth. 107. 254. book by. 137. Landreth. 199. Lime. 134. 429. 138. 365. Herbs. Hellebore. Hoes. book by. 385. 134. 432. Lactuca Scariola. quoted. 254. book by. Labels. 93. 173. 241. quoted. 255. 13. 209. quoted. 448. Lettuce. . P. Jenkins. 239. Husk tomato. 112. 254. quoted. 241. Holiister. Horse-radish.454 Harris. Longevity of seeds. Hoeing. 253. Lycopersieum pimpinellifolium.

195. 388. Nozzles. 432. 152. seeds. stor- Onion. Oemler. acreage. 365. Niven. 241. Pie plant. 410. book by. McXeD. 428. of seeds. Potato. Minnesota garden. 126. seeds. 241. book by. 316. Nageli. Pisum arvense. longevity Pastinaca sativa. 83. 139. 256. 441. 428. 306. 240. 351. 116. 215. 204. Moss. 227. Plowing. 240. 138. seeds. 63. 288. 159. 258. Physalis Peruviana. 382. Olcott. 416. discussed. 242. longevity of seeds. 1. longevity of seeds. Muskmelon. germination. 258. 242. 244. 408. 82. Onion bed picture. Phaseolus lunatus. Melon. Mucuna Mulch. 257. 352. Packages. book by. 139. 305. Paris green. 241. 241. Price. 368. 66. Piper nigrum. Mats for hotbeds. 313. acreage. 141. Packing. Xorfolk. 14. 158. 416. 256. 241. Martynia. Provancher. Physalis. MMahon. 138. 242. 241. 139. book by. 167. Price of seeds. Outfits. 139. 387. Portulaca oleracea. 24. Pea. 232. composition of. on seeds. Phaseolus %Tilgaris. 124. Paillieux & Bois. quantity of seed. Marshall. 124. quoted. Nobbe. 101. 258. 347. Principle. at. 144. 241. 145. Parsnip. 138. 43. Pennyroyal. Peas. 380. Outside cellar. Ma^tJ^ua proboscidea. Parsley. Plows. Preservation of seeds. Plant diseases. Pepper.Index Market view. book by. Pedersen. longevity of seeds. composition of. lon- Pe-tsai. 13. buggy. 241. potato sorters. Physalis pubescens. utUis. 240. Peppermint. Pisum sati^Tim. Xew Zealand spinach. 124. NeiU. Orach. selection of seeds. quantity of seed. Mustard. 223. 132. Plants for fertilizers. Xobbe. Okra. book by. 388. Munro. 290. Paper for hotbeds. Medicago lupulina 145. on soil. 233. 128. 14. book by. 388. 350. book by. 301. 226. 171. Oemler. 259. 98: longe%'ity of seeds. 241. Nasturtiiim officinale. 169. 256. Pit. longevity of seeds. Pipe-h-ated hotbeds. longevity of seeds. 409. 211. Mushroom. 237. capital Novelties. acreage. 30. book by. 158. germination. 259. 98. 242. 13. 432. 205. . book by. 258.52. 258. 219. 241. 351. 139. 220. on soil. 211. book by. Provancher. 240. MitcheU. 427. 13. 4. 91. gevity of seeds. 118. ideal. 208. 410. 222. 455 65. 403. age. 225. 382. 111. Pot-herb crops. Phaseolus multiflorus. book by. 258. book by. Profits. 409. book by.

Rawson. 155. on seeds.114. Sea-kale. 240. Scolymus. 1. 155. 378. species. on storage. Rane. 240. 292. ' Rotation. Solanum tuberosum. Spearmint. quoted. 166. Spanish. 15. 233. Shaw. 61 170. description of. quoted. 3. 41. 21. Roe. 112. 143. testing. 26. 240. account of. 406. book by. growing. 151. Shinn. 166. . 260. Roberts. 406. 388.^naceous crops. Salad crops. 243. 93. 159. 273. 292. Root crops. seeds. Soil. 449. 240. Purity of seeds. books by. 260. Rolling. 164. 140. book by. Smith. 276. 403. on soil. Schenck. price of. Pumps. Scarlet runner. Solanum integrifolium. 120. black. 291. 242. Solanum cocciueum. 2C9. Soap insecticides. 241. 219. 380. 293. 260. 82. 392. 212. 51. 160. on potato. 240. 29. Shaw. Sol. where grown. 202. 165. 125. on double-cropping. 240. Resting land. quoted. 369. of seeds. 293. 445. 315. Radish. 85. 119. 288. 420. 122. 143. book by. Roberts. Solanum Melongena. Seed-drills. 4-15. Selecting seed plants. 271.')5. M. 226. 240. Sorting. Scorzonera. 240. quantity of seed. Seed-bed. 157. Roots. 16L Seed control stations. 241. 114. Quinoa. I. Rutabaga. 159 -. 293. 203. 354. Rolfs. 139. Rawson. Rhubarb. Seeds. 446. account of. quoted. Rollers. 2. J. Rumex.. 259 Quinn. 308. 260. 241. 112. quoted. Sorrel. 259. germination. on sterilizing soil. 330. Roberts. Quick soil. Scarifiers. 378. Rakes. 432. Rogueiug. book by. 216. 240. Smith. 292. 441. 432. 185. Sowing in Sowing of Spade. 241. Scorzonera Hispanica.^8. 20. sowing. 260. 61. Sage. on soil. 124. 293. book by. Salad chervil. Index Salsify.35. 210. 390. 260. discussion of. forcing. storage. 144. Spanish salsify. 355. 91. 80. on cabbage. book by. Quantity of seed required. Quinn. Rosemary. 242. 82. longevity Pumpkin. 432. 406. 241. Sash defined. 140. 309. 46. Root. quoted. C. 111. 242. Sieva bean. Rheum Rhaponticum. Seedage. Seed Seed Seed Seed farms. book by. 122. longevity of seeds. Shovels.456 Pulse crops. Rawson. Raphanus sativus. 80. 130. 43. edible. 243. hotbeds. 114. Roessle. Shallot. Savory. hotVjeds. Scolymus Hispanicus. Rawson. 356. Round seeds. 432. seeds. 69. 242. quantity of seed. Purslane. Sagot.

261. 98. 417. 152. book by. 135. Vegetable sponge. 122. germination. on carrot. Sweet corn. Strickland. trucking in. 262. longevity of seeds. on germination. 239. 260. 241. 170. Trenching. Vine crops. 241. 292. Testing seeds. 13. 14. acreage. 415. longevity of seeds. book by. 379. 280. 290. 142. 328. 309. 272. book by.Index Sphagnum moss. 107. Starnes. 240. 381 Thompson. Taft. Washington. Tools. 221. 161. quoted. 283. Vilmorin. 112. 440. Truck wagon. Velvet bean. 241. Vick. 140. 105. 426. 91. 350. 00: on irrigation. germination. Succession-cropping. 417. on watermelon. 14. 422. Sweet potato. 292. acreage. Spinage. 73. 285. 445. Storing seeds. 261. 124. 134. reclaimed. 130. on hotbeds. Sturtevant. composition of. 242. Voorhees. truck. 202. Spinach. 401. 406. Truck gardening.50. seeds. 86. Tile draining. 261. 347. 13. Watering hotbeds. Vicia Faba. 382. Surface muleli. Henry. book by. book by. Spinaeea oleracea. 66. 14. UmbeUiferte. Toba<"co dust. Terrj'. book by. 214. Todd. 87. Transplanting. 365. 4. Turnip. 141. 2G1. Viability. 143. 33. book by. Straw mats. Vilmoriu. Threshing and seeds. 429. 350. 120. 298. 350. 210. 140. Homer L. . histories of vegetables. 3. 241. 24. acreage. 105. 223. Storing. Stewart.50. 7. 392. 432. 283. 422. 151. 242. quoted. 10. 203. 345. quoted. 293. 368. 241. 378. Taraxacum Tarragon. 420: longevity of seeds. 132. 131. 114. 75. 240. choosing. Thyme. 132. 378. Tomato. 313. plan by. 231. New Zealand. 130. Tender plants. Stewart. Vaughan. Starnes. 449. Sweet herbs. Water cress. Subsoiling. 445. 262. 3S8. seeds. . 387. Trowels. 187. position of. book by. book by. 224. Wagon. Wagons. 240. 432. number ic sash. Valerianella olitoria. Sturtevant. 409. 89.. 223. 114. Spraying machinery. Swamps. Tuber crops. 276. 419. 411. Vilmorin. 377. com- Squash. 423. Texas. 240. Tools and equipment. Vitality. account of. 308. 124. 224. 128. 98. 46. Tefragonia expansa. Tillinghast. map of Georgia. 134. Tansy. 262. 2. 388. 98. 301. book by. 457 Till-ge. 122. 242. 13. 243. 11. 428. Unripe seeds. Varieties. advice by. 241. officinale. 310. Tracy. 432. Thorbum. Ventilating hotbeds. 91. Warner. 81. 194. 114. 152. 172. Trucks. 135. Spraying. 361. 104. Tragopogon porrifolius. books by. 181. 226.

WTieel-hoes. Index 242. 243. Wickson. gevity of seeds. 3S7. lon- Wliitner. book 413. Waugh. 210. 263. 367. 242. 244. 112. Wickson. 417. White heUebore 262. 315. 363. 112. Williamson and Dunn. 263. 262. book by. 2ii. book by. Zea Mays. 196. acreage. 242. 388. on cucumber 356. White. on soil. Weeds. Welsh onion. on beans. Zit-kwa. book by. . 13. book by. Wintering plants. Windsor bean. 422. 77. 242. Weeders. by. book by. 83. Waugh. on salads. 426. 262. Wittmaek. Watson. 138. writings of. 114. 388 42*4 Wormwood. Whale-oU soap. book by. Winkler. 46.458 Watermelon. 432. Wing. Was gourd.

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