TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT 1 QUALITY, TOTAL QUALITY, TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES  By the end of this chapter students should be able to  Understand the meaning of quality  Explain the basic frame work of Total Quality Management  Explain the various stages of development of TQM  Understand various benefits of TQM

QUALITY
Definition: What is quality? It is a relative word. It lies in the eyes of the perceiver According to ISO 9000:2000, it is defined as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills the requirements. Q = P/E where P is performance and E is expectations.

DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY

N.Venkatesh, CEC, Bantawal

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758
INTRODUCTION to TQM
Basic definition: What is TQM? Total- made up of the whole Quality - degree of excellence of product and service Management - act, art of handling, controlling, directing, etc. It is defined as both philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization.  TQM is a corporate business management philosophy which recognizes that customer needs and business goals are inseparable. It is appropriate within both industry and commerce  TQM is an integrated organisational approach in delighting customers by meeting their expectations on a continuous basis through everyone involved within organisation working on a continuous improvement in all products, services and processes along with proper problem solving methodology

BASIC APPROACH
The success of TQM rests with following six concepts 1. A committed and involved management to provide long term top to bottom organizational support You must remove fear from work place, then empower employee... you provide the proper environment. This work of removing the fear from the total work force should start from the top management and spread throughout the organization. Management commitment is indispensable in achieving quality management in a company: such commitment is to be shown to employees, customers, and other stakeholders. A management decision can lead a company either upward or downward. It is not difficult to find examples of established companies, with long-standing fame, being hit hard by scandal—seeing their favorable public reputation being lost quickly. Therefore, in order to achieve sustainable business management, it is necessary for management to implement TQM to convincingly articulate to its subordinates its firm commitment. 2. An unwavering focus on the customer, both internally and externally Whatever you do for quality improvement, remember that ONLY customers are the kings who determine the level of quality. Whatever you do to foster quality improvement, training employees, integrating quality into processes management,

N.Venkatesh, CEC, Bantawal

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758
ONLY customers determine whether your efforts were worthwhile. Today the customers hold the key which open the lock of the fate of any manufacturer. 3. Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force TQM is mentioned by Japanese as CWQC – Company Wide Quality Control, means TQM is not to be restricted to one department or one part of the organization. People must be encouraged not only just to do their job but to improve their job through innovative ideas that contribute to the growth of the company. 4. Continuous improvement of the business and production process Using analytical, quality tools, and creative thinking to become more efficient and effective. Superior quality/performance is not a luxury, it is essential to survival. Emphasis on continuing system’s analysis even when a satisfactory solution to a problem is obtained. Improvement needs to be a regular part of daily work in order to achieve the highest levels of quality and performance excellence 5. Treating suppliers as partners. There exists in each department, each office, each home, a series of customers, suppliers and customer supplier interfaces. These are “the quality chains”, and they can be broken at any point by one person or one piece of equipment not meeting the requirements of Customers or Suppliers. Failure to meet the requirements in any part of a quality chain has a way of multiplying, and failure in one part of the system creates problems elsewhere, leading to yet more failure and problems, and so the situation is exacerbated. The ability to meet customers’ (external and internal) requirements is vital. 6. Establish performance measures for the processes. Processes if not measured will not yield the result as anticipated. Hence quality must be measured in terms of productivity, cost, customer satisfaction, etc. to understand the progress.

N.Venkatesh, CEC, Bantawal

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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 NEW AND OLD CULTURES TQM FRAME WORK Source: Dale Besterfield. pearson education. Total Quality Management. Bantawal Page 4 . et. 2005 N.al.Venkatesh. third edition. CEC..

CEC. particularly in customer and business results.  Today it has become the life blood of all the industries As we move into the 21st century.Venkatesh. Masaki Imai introduced the concept of TQM at Toyota and other industries  The world opened their eyes to TQM after oil shock of 1970’s  Then GM. TQM has developed in many countries into holistic frameworks. The evaluator examines how the theme has been established according to needs and how much the improvements result in contributing to future activities. Bantawal Page 5 .  After World War II Edward Deming and Joseph Juran gave series of lectures in Japan  Kaoru Ishikawa. and other automobile industries in US and Europe introduced these concepts  Malcolm Baldridge and Deming’s award were introduced to recognize the commitment to quality. and to the achievement of the set goal. Taiichi Ohno. aimed at helping organisations achieve excellent performance. In this connection ‘the Malcom baldridge Award” by US and the Deming’s prize by Japan have played an exceptional role in promoting the awareness of quality in industries.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 HISTORICAL REVIEW  It started during the middle ages  Industrial revolution saw the development of specialization of labour  Eli whitney introduced concept of interchangeable parts  In 1924 Walter Shewart developed a statistical chart and later Dodge and Romig developed that how scientifically acceptance sampling can replace 100% inspection. Ford. The awards are based on evaluation of the achievement and effectiveness of the applicants’ quality management process—from its establishment of a theme and goal. N. to its kaizen activities.

Bantawal Page 6 .Venkatesh.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 DEVELOPMENT OF TQM N. CEC.

Paying inadequate attention to internal and external customers 8. Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data and results 7. every time 3. Lack of management commitment 2.Venkatesh. Suppliers feel a part of the system OBSTACLES TO TQM 1. Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork 9. Incompatible organization structure and isolated individuals and departments 6. Improper planning 4. As every one is involved. Problems are prevented than fire fight 5. Bantawal Page 7 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 BENEFITS OF TQM 1. Inability to change organization culture 3. Failure to continually improve N. CEC. Lack of continuous training and education 5. Induces customer satisfaction due to most optimized product/service is available to them 2. Reduces waste and hence total cost and improves productivity 4. Customers feel delighted as their requirement is met first time. Because of involved top management proper planning takes place 6. Hence the gates are opened for creativity which delivers work satisfaction 8. the cooperation and commitment improves 7.

Philip Crosby – Quality treatment 4.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 2 EVOLUTION OF TQM LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter the student will be able to:  Understand the contribution of various gurus like Edward Deming. cause and effect diagram. Kaoru Ishikawa – Company wide quality control. PDSA cycle 2. Bantawal Page 8 . Kaoru Ishikawa. etc. A.Venkatesh. Create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of product and service       Set the course today for better tomorrow Preventive maintenance Long term planning of resources Take care not to get tangled in one while loosening the other Stability with innovation Minimization of variability and dispersion Adopt the new philosophy for economic stability  Quality is important than quantity N. Joseph Juran – Quality trilogy 3. Fiegen baum – Total Quality Control and Price of Non Conformance (PONC) Deming’s 14 points 1. Joseph Juran. towards the development of TQM  Study the relative methods Contribution of Quality Gurus 1. Genichi Taguchi – Quality loss function 6. quality circles 5. Edward Deming – 14 points. Fiegenbaum. CEC.

CEC. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service     Search for problems Prevent rather than fire fight Never get into bottleneck stage Innovation must be applied to the whole system Institute training on the job       Knowledge must be enhanced by all employees Training is not non productive Experience is not the solution for everything Theory of optimization – win-win situation Knowledge of statistical theory Knowledge of psychology Page 9 N.Venkatesh. Bantawal .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758    Higher quality at lower price Mobilization of everyone is required A paradigm shift is required 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality      Build quality during design/development stage through off line inspection and in production through online inspection Eliminate inspection of final product Do ‘right first time’ instead of ‘do until right’ Checking without considering how to improve is not useful Fallacy of divided responsibility End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone     It is not the fault of operator for faulty material Price is not the only ultimate source Stick to sole supplier Loss of using lowest priced product is always high 5.

Adopt and institute modern methods of supervision and leadership      Supervisors should be teachers than observers Motivate by example than fear Counselors and not judges Should be supportive. posters and exhortions    Slogans remain as words not facts People are good. encouraging Variety among people should be taken for improvement 8. Bantawal Page 10 . Drive out fear     Encourage two way communication Fear is a barrier for improvement Fear is counterproductive Stick to what you know becomes inevitable 9. CEC.Venkatesh. Break down barriers between departments and individuals     Work as team Destructive competition must be overcome by constructive Contribution to the company as a whole Everyone is customer to everyone 10. sympathetic. Eliminate the use of slogans. system make them bad Give proper training instead of slogans Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas Eliminate MBO    Competent leadership develops productivity MBO expects more than what can be done Ratio of 85:15::common problems: special problem N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 7.

Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of right to pride in work     Remove physical and mental obstacles Barriers are MBO and performance appraisal These increase internal destructive competition Reduces risk taking 13.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 12. Define top management’s permanent commitment to ever improving quality and productivity Deming’s (PDSA) cycle PLAN DO STUDY (CHECK) ACT Plan   Plan the route of action Decision based on objectives. Bantawal Page 11 . persons responsible. Institute vigorous program of education and retraining   Training and retraining must continue Commitment to permanent employment 14. performance measures.Venkatesh. availability of resources N. CEC. changes needed.

survey of customers. pearson education. analysis of results and feedback Deviations from the original plan should be evaluated Joseph Juran Juran’s trilogy Source: Dale Besterfield. et. identification of core process Small scale implementation of planned change Study (Check)   Act   Take corrective steps Standardize the improvement Measuring and observing the effects. 2005 N. Total Quality Management.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Do    Involvement of everyone Training. third edition.Venkatesh.. CEC.al. Bantawal Page 12 .

Quality treatment Diagnosis of troubled company 1.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 I stage: Quality planning – Identify customers (internal and external) and their needs – Translate needs to everyone’s language – Optimize the process of production – Transfer process into operation II stage: Quality control – Corrective action to control sporadic (special) problems – 15% – Aim to reduce chronic (common)waste – 85% – Compare actual performance to quality goals and act on the difference III stage: Quality improvement – Quality breakthrough is needed to improve to very high levels – Requires long range planning. good coordination. top management commitment. Having reworking and field service 2. No top management’s commitment resulting in workers setting their own performance standard 4. CEC. company wide training.Venkatesh. Not accepting 85:15 ratio 5. Ignoring costs of non conformance N. Philip Crosby . Defect is seen as necessary evil and non conformance is the norm 3. etc. Bantawal Page 13 .

not goodness o o o o Quality is based on customer’s needs Provide proper communication to workforce Provide appropriate tools and training Provide continuous support II. unnecessary servicing. CEC. The system of quality is prevention o Identify opportunity for error o Avoid final inspection III. reworks. The measurement of quality is the price of non conformance o Higher the PONC lower the quality o PONC represents 20% to 40% of total costs o PONC = rejects. warranty costs. Bantawal Page 14 . The definition of quality is conformance to requirements. N.Venkatesh. The performance standard is zero defect o Do right first time every time o This is a dream not the reality o Never use this as slogan o Aim towards continuous improvement IV.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Quality vaccine Crosby’s absolutes for quality management I. etc.

N. Kaoru Ishikawa has suggested ten principles: 1. CEC. Customer and supplier should respect each others independence. Cause and effect diagram and quality circles Quality circle is a voluntary team that discusses the quality problems on a regular basis PRINCIPLES OF CUSTOMER/SUPPLIER RELATIONS Dr.Venkatesh. Supplier should provide quality to meet customers satisfaction. Supplier is entitled to complete information from the customer. Customer and supplier are fully responsible for Quality control.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Kaoru Ishikawa His contribution towards TQM is in the form of CWQC. 5. quantity. price. 3. Non-adversarial contract between customer and supplier is needed for quality. 2. 4. delivery method & payments. Bantawal Page 15 .

Amicable settlement of disputes between customer and supplier should be established in the contract. Total loss to society – bad product vs good product 2. Best interest of the end user should be considered while doing business transactions. Identify the primary customers 4. production. 10-Step Quality Improvement Cycle 1. 7. Incessant reduction in variations 4. 10. 8. Bantawal Page 16 . Design and manufacture – put emphasis on manufacturing nearer to design N. CEC. Staying in business – requires service it provides for the society 3. 7. Determine the customer’s expectations about the process 5. both the parties should do procurement. Implement improvements 9. and inventory planning. Identify root causes of problems/challenges/deficiencies/etc. Product quality evaluation methods should be decided by the mutual consent of both the parties. Revise as needed Genichi Taguchi He has devised Taguchi methods of applying statistical theory to manufacturing problems. His quality loss function is studied in 7 categories 1. Determine if expectations are being met and identify opportunities for improvement 6. To maintain an amicable relationship. Continuous information exchange will improve the product or service quality. Define the purpose of the process 3. Evaluate improvements 10.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 6. Identify a process 2. Plan improvements 8.Venkatesh. The customer’s loss 5. 9.

Bantawal Page 17 . increasing quality is the answer to the problem Improvement – you need not have to do this. CEC. Statistically planned experiments Armand Feigenbaum He has written the book “Total Quality Control” The four steps for quality control are: 1. Planning for improvements in the standards Problem is not to increase quality. Reduction of performance variation 7.Venkatesh. SURVIVAL IS NOT COMPULSORY N. Acting when standards are exceeded 4.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 6. Setting quality standards 2. Appraising conformance to these standards 3.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 3 LEADERSHIP AND QUALITY COSTS LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter the student should be able to  understand the meaning of a leader  Explain the characteristics of a leader  Define and differentiate between different quality statements  Explain the 7 steps of strategic planning  Understand the various quality costs  Classify various quality costs into proper segment  Understand how to manage the quality costs  Explain the economics of quality costs  Enumerate the process of reducing the quality costs LEADER  A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals  Senior leaders should serve as role models through their inspired ethical behavior and their personal involvement throughout the organization CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY LEADERS There are 12 characteristics that leaders demonstrate 1. They emphasize improvement rather than maintenance 4. They encourage collaboration rather than competition 6.Venkatesh. CEC. they train and coach rather than direct and supervise N. Bantawal Page 18 . They give attention to internal and external customers and their needs 2. They emphasize prevention 5. They empower rather than control subordinates 3.

Venkatesh.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 7. Research. CEC. They choose suppliers on the basis of quality rather than price 11. They encourage and recognize team effort QUALITY STATEMENTS  Quality statements include vision. Mission statement   It is the statement which elaborates the function of an organization It gives the ways of achieving the vision N. inspirational and become deeply shared within the organization It gives a distinct guideline for the decision making Vision of VTU     "To become an outstanding Technological University at the cutting edge of Science and Technology that produces world class Knowledge-delivery. They learn from problem 8. They establish organizational systems to support the quality effort 12. They continually demonstrate their commitment to quality 10. Extension and Leadership in Technology innovation for Industry and Society". They continually try to improve communication 9. Bantawal Page 19 . mission statement. and quality policy statement  Once developed they need to be reviewed and updated occasionally  They are part of the strategic planning process  It varies from one organization to another  They play a very important role in Malcolm Baldridge award Vision statement  The vision statement is a short declaration of what an organization aspires to be tomorrow It is the ideal state which every organization should strive to achieve They are timeless.

Implementation 1. N. Customer positioning 3. with a view to generate qualified and competent manpower. responsive to technological and societal needs".Venkatesh. Alignment 7. Find ways of exceeding their expectations 2. Quality policy statement  It is the guide to everyone in the organization as to how they should provide products and service to the customers Quality Policy Statement example • “The company is dedicated to the quality policy that will ensure that its products and services fully meet the requirements of its customers at all times. Predict the future Economic and technological forecasts. 3. Bantawal Page 20 . The goal of the company is to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction at all times”. Customer positioning Next. CEC. Customer needs Discover the future needs of the customer. STRATEGIC PLANNING There are 7 basic steps to strategic planning 1. Identify them and their needs. demographical studies will help to predict the future. to establish value-based and needbased education and training in engineering and technology. Closing the gap 6. Customer needs 2. what position does a customer has in the company will highlight the concern of the company towards the customer. Predict the future 4. Gap analysis 5.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  • Mission of VTU "To plan the development of technical education.

QUALITY COSTS The value of quality must be based on its ability to contribute to profits The efficiency of business is measured in terms of money it earns This cost is no different than other costs It is the sum of the money that the organization spends in ensuring that the customer requirements are met on a continual basis and also the costs wasted through failing to achieve the desired level of quality CLASSIFICATION The quality costs quantifies the quality problem in the best language that the management can understand – rupees Quality costs identify the opportunities for quality improvement and establish funding priorities by means of Pareto analysis It identifies the hidden buried costs in all functional areas Feigenbaum has identified four different types of quality costs viz. External failure costs N. Prevention costs 2. 1. Implementation This step is very crucial as this will decide the fate of the plans and procedures.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 4. Appraisal costs 3. Alignment As the new plan is developed it must be aligned with quality statements 7.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 21 . Closing the gap A proper plan has to be developed to close the gap 6. Gap analysis Identify the gap between the current state and the future state of the organization 5. CEC. Internal failure costs and 4.

Quality administration Appraisal costs These costs relate to testing. Marketing/customer/user 2. execution and examination to assess whether specified quality is being maintained These are the costs incurred in assessing that the products or service conform to the requirements Various categories of appraisal costs are 1. Bantawal Page 22 . External appraisal costs 4. Purchasing 4. CEC. Product/service/design development 3. non-conformance.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Prevention costs These costs relate to efforts to prevent failures These are the costs incurred on preventing a quality problem from arising The categories of these costs include 1. Miscellaneous quality evaluations 1. Review of test and inspection data 5. Quality administration Internal failure costs These costs arise when a product or service fail to meet the requirement before delivery These costs occur within the organization as this occurs before it is transferred to the owner/customer This occurs because of scrap. Purchasing appraisal costs 2. Operations appraisal costs 3. Operations (manufacturing or service) 5. N.Venkatesh. rework.

CEC. Customer or user goodwill 8. Purchasing failure costs 3. Penalties 7. Liability costs 6. Bantawal Page 23 . Lost sales N. Product or service design failure costs 2. Retrofit or recall costs 4.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Its various forma are: 1. Operations failure costs External failure costs These arise from rejection of the products by the customers due to poor quality These occur after the transfer of the ownership These losses have future implications also as customer goodwill loss or future loss of sales Hence it is very important for the companies to recognize the relative importance of these costs Its various forms are 1. Complaint investigations of customer service 2. Returned goods 3. Warranty claims 5.Venkatesh.

Invest the right prevention costs 3. CEC. Bantawal Page 24 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs Systems development Net cost of scrap Quality engineering Net cost of spoilage Quality training Rework labor and overhead Quality circles Re-inspection of reworked products statistical process control Retesting of reworked products Supervision of prevention activities Downtime caused by quality problems Quality data gathering. and reporting Disposal of defective products Quality improvement projects Analysis of the cause of defects in production Technical support provided to suppliers Re-entering data because of keying errors Audits of the effectiveness of the quality system Debugging software errors Appraisal Costs External Failure Costs Test and inspection of incoming materials Cost of field servicing and handling complaints Test and inspection of in-process goods Warranty repairs and replacements Final product testing and inspection Repairs and replacements beyond the warranty Supplies used in testing and inspection period Supervision of testing and inspection activities Product recalls Depreciation of test equipment Liability arising from defective products Maintenance of test equipment Returns and allowances arising from quality Plant utilities in the inspection area problems Field testing and appraisal at customer site Lost sales arising from a reputation for poor quality. Continuously evaluate and redirect the prevention effort to gain further quality improvement N. Reduce appraisal costs where appropriate and in a statistically sound manner 4.Venkatesh. analysis. MANAGING QUALITY COSTS The following strategy is used to manage the quality costs (economics of quality costs) 1. Reduce failure costs by problem solving 2.

Appraisal costs Is 100% inspection necessary? Can inspection stations be combined.Venkatesh. third edition. 2005 REDUCING QUALITY COSTS 1. et. Total Quality Management. CEC. relocated or eliminated? Are the inspection methods most efficient? Could the inspection and test activity be automated? Could data be collected.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Dale Besterfield. Bantawal Page 25 .. analyzed using computer? Should operating personnel be made responsible for inspection? Is appraisal being used as substitute for prevention? 2.al. Failure costs Failures should be deleted in the beginning than at the end which will be very costly The project team must see the root cause of the problem Prevention of quality costs should be followed N. pearson education.

Reactive improvement 3.information from real world Three stages of CI 1. Proactive improvement N. reactive improvement and proactive improvement  Enumerate the relative importance of seven quality tools and seven management tools CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT      Continuous improvement= systematic improvement + iterative improvement Systematic improvement is a scientific approach for improvement It considers a variety of possible solutions until the best and not just the most obvious is identified factually Iterative improvement carries on from where the systematic improvement had left This ensures that the improvement is not stopped W-V MODEL . analyzing .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 4 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter the student will be able to  Understand the meaning of continuous improvement  Explain the various stages of the W-V model  Differentiate between process control. Process control 2.Rumination. planning. CEC.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 26 .

A new American TQM..TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. et. CEC. Bantawal Page 27 . productivity press. 1990.al.Venkatesh. four revolutions of Management. Process control  This is used when we have a standard process to perform some function  This follows S-D-C-A cycle S – Have standard D – Do standard C – Check/evaluate effect A – Act to return to standard N.

Bantawal Page 28 . The process used determines the actual output 3. The actual output inevitably has variance 4. productivity press.Venkatesh. CEC. 1990. Customer needs determine the desired output 2. Inspection is a poor method of control 5.al..TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. reduce variance of the actual output by finding and removing the sources of variance in the process N. A new American TQM. To meet the desired output specification. four revolutions of Management. The principles of process control are 1. et.

.al. productivity press. CEC. four revolutions of Management. A new American TQM. Bantawal Page 29 .Venkatesh. N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. et. 1990.

Select theme 2..TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Reactive Improvement Source: Shoji shiba. productivity press.al. four revolutions of Management. Reflect on process and next problem N.Venkatesh. et. A new American TQM. Analyze causes 4. Evaluate effects 6. Seven QC steps 1. Bantawal Page 30 . CEC. Standardize solution 7. Plan and Implement solution 5. 1990. Collect and analyze data 3.

Check sheet / stratification 2. Scatter diagram Check sheet / stratification They are used for easy collection of the data Ex: estimating the no.Venkatesh. Control charts 6. Bantawal Page 31 . Graphs 5. CEC. Pareto diagram 3. of passengers in each stop to decide the size of the train Stratification is used to compare the two different data Ex: performance of two teams in cricket N. Cause and effect diagram 4. Histograms 7.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Seven QC tools 1.

Bantawal Page 32 .Venkatesh.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Pareto diagram It is used to arrange different problems prioritized through their difficulty level Named after the person who started this Helps the organization to tackle “Vital few” Source: downloaded from www.vertex32. CEC.com Cause and effect diagram This diagram gives the details of causes versus effects A very simple way to identify the causes for a particular problem N.

width. we could measure the weight of a sack of flour.com Graphs – radar graphs 1/9/2002 1/5/2002 40 30 20 10 0 1/6/2002 Series 1 Series 2 1/8/2002 1/7/2002 Control charts Control charts are a very important quality control tool. the width of a tire. When the production process is operating within expectations. These charts are used to evaluate whether a process is operating within expectations relative to some measured value such as weight. CEC. For example. we say that it is “in control.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: downloaded from www. We will study the use of control charts at great length in the next chapter.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 33 . or volume. or the volume of a bottle of soft drink.vertex32.” N.

We can see from the plot what type of distribution a particular variable displays. Bantawal Page 34 . CEC. such as whether it has a normal distribution and whether the distribution is symmetrical. N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Series 3 Series 2 Series 1 Histograms A histogram is a chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable.Venkatesh.

increased production speed and number of defects could be correlated positively. For example.Venkatesh. N. increased worker training might be associated with a decrease in the number of defects observed.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Scatter Diagrams Scatter diagrams are graphs that show how two variables are related to one another. For example. between two variables. They are particularly useful in detecting the amount of correlation. or the degree of linear relationship. Bantawal Page 35 . CEC. Two variables could also be correlated negatively. so that an increase in one of the variables is associated with a decrease in the other. so does the number of defects. as production speed increases.

Bantawal Page 36 . four revolutions of Management. CEC. 1990. et. productivity press.al.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 7 QC steps versus 7 QC tools Source: Shoji shiba.Venkatesh. N. A new American TQM..

et. four revolutions of Management.Venkatesh. productivity press. 1990.. A new American TQM.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Basic cycle for process control is S-D-C-A CYCLE and for process improvement P-D-C-A CYCLE Source: Shoji shiba. CEC.al. MANAGEMENT DIAGNOSIS  Diffuses good improvement practices throughout the organization by example  Acknowledges team accomplishment  Increases improvement skills of the team  Creates management BUY – IN to standardize the solution  Ensures legitimacy of conclusion GENERAL GUIDELINES  Senior management attends  Comments highlight positive lessons and areas for further improvement  Non verbal signs show management interest N. Bantawal Page 37 .

Vote on the most important low level issues and draw conclusion N. Write and understand the data 3. CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Do not suggest going back  The process should follow 7 steps format PROACTIVE IMPROVEMENT  It is used to find the upstream criteria  No standard format  Fully developed format is Quality Function Deployment (QFD)  Data type 1 is collected in proactive improvement  Data 1 is completely qualitative  Data 2 was both qualitative and quantitative  Data 3 was completely quantitative Procedure to collect data 1 1. Bantawal Page 38 . Layout groups and show relationships among groups 6. Stepping stone approach 3. Group similar data 4. Title groups 5. 3600 view 2.Venkatesh. By chance 4. Agree on a topic (theme) 2. Collect qualitative data K J Method This involves problem solving approach for gathering and analyzing the data developed by Jiro Kawakita The steps of the KJ method are 1. Believe your intuition 5.

N. CEC. et.al. A new American TQM. Bantawal Page 39 . productivity press.Venkatesh.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Standard steps 1. 1990.. four revolutions of Management. Sense problem – avoid biased opinion 2. Formulate problem – get the most optimal solution by taking all the constraints Source: Shoji shiba. Explore situation – keep a flexible schedule to pursue unexpected opportunities 3.

Relations diagram 3. Arrow diagram 7. Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) diagram 6. Matrix data analysis Affinity Diagrams The affinity diagram is a tool for organizing a large number of ideas.Venkatesh. Answers ‘WHAT’ type of questions. and facts relating to a broad problem or subject area. Affinity diagram 2. In developing a vision statement. senior management might conduct a brainstorming session to develop a list of ideas to incorporate into the vision. for example. Bantawal Page 40 . N. opinions.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 THE SEVEN MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING TOOLS 1. CEC. Tree diagram 5. Matrix diagram 4.

Venkatesh. Matrix Diagrams Matrix diagrams are “spreadsheets” that graphically display relationships between ideas. used to answer ‘WHICH’ type of question N. A matrix diagram is one of the most versatile tools in quality planning. activities. or other dimensions in such a way as to provide logical connecting points between each item.” This technique is often used after the affinity diagram had clarified issues and problems. Used to answer ‘WHY’ type of questions. It shows that every idea can be logically linked with more than one other idea at a time. and allows for “lateral thinking” rather than “linear thinking. CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Relations diagram An interrelationship digraph identifies and explores causal relationships among related concepts or ideas. Bantawal Page 41 .

Bantawal Page 42 . Answers ‘HOW’ type of questions N. a team can be established to recommend steps to solve the problem or implement the plan. A clear statement specifies problem or process. From this general statement.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Tree Diagrams A tree diagram maps out the paths and tasks necessary to complete a specific project or reach a specified goal. the planner uses this technique to seek answers to such questions as “What sequence of tasks will address the issue?” or “What factors contribute to the existence of the key problem?” A tree diagram brings the issues and problems revealed by the affinity diagram and the interrelationship digraph down to the operational planning stage.Venkatesh. CEC. Thus. The “product” produced by this group would be a tree diagram with activities and perhaps recommendations for timing the activities.

anticipates possible problems. CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) diagram A process decision program chart (PDPC) is a method for mapping out every conceivable event and contingency that can occur when moving from a problem statement to possible solutions. Answers the question ‘WHAT IF’ N. A PDPC takes each branch of a tree diagram. or (2) be in place if the deviation does occur. and provides countermeasures that will (1) prevent the deviation from occurring. Bantawal Page 43 .Venkatesh.

operations management. Some of these alternatives are similar to decision analysis matrixes that you may have studied in a quantitative methods course. Adding arrow diagramming to the “quality toolbox” has made it more widely available to general managers and other non-technical personnel. is too quantitative to be used on a daily basis and have developed alternative tools that are easier to understand and implement.Venkatesh. while worthwhile for many applications. matrix data analysis is a rigorous. It is a simplified PERT chart used for scheduling events and identifying bottlenecks. Many feel that this method. and other business and engineering for a number of years. Bantawal Page 44 . statistically based “factor analysis” technique. In its original form used in Japan.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Arrow Diagrams Arrow diagramming has also been taught extensively in quantitative methods. Answers ‘WHEN’ type of questions Matrix Data Analysis Matrix data analysis takes data and arranges them to display quantitative relationships among variables to make them more easily understood and analyzed. N. CEC.

N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba.. Bantawal Page 45 . 1990.Venkatesh. A new American TQM. et. productivity press. four revolutions of Management. CEC.al.

Bantawal Page 46 .Venkatesh. CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 APPLYING PROACTIVE IMPROVEMENT TO DEVELOP NEW PRODUCTS Stage I: DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF CUSTOMER’S NEEDS AND ENVIRONMENT Step 1:      Plan for exploration Whom to visit? Who should collect the data? How to visit? Use 7 principles of customer visitation Step 2: Collect the voice and context of the customer  Contextual enquiry means living in customer’s environment to understand real situation Step 3: Develop an image of the customer’s environment  Interpret the voice of the customer to know what the customer is doing and how the product will be used Stage II (Step 4 ): TRANSFER THE VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER INTO CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT Stage II (Step 4 ): TRANSFER THE VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER INTO CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT Collect the voice of the customer Link voice to context Extract the key item Translate to statement of customer requirement Check CR against voice and image Collect and identify scenes of using products 43 Seven translation guidelines N.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758
1. Avoid statements in a negative form 2. Use multivalued attributes to 2 valued 3. Avoid abstract words 4. Avoid statement of solution 5. Avoid premature detail 6. Avoid auxiliary verbs like should, must, etc. 7. Avoid intangible concepts Use Tip of the iceberg principle and multiple thought Step 5: Select the most significant customer requirement

Source: Shoji shiba, et.al., A new American TQM, four revolutions of Management, productivity press, 1990.

Step 6: Develop insight into relations between requirement It is necessary to align everyone’s understanding of what the group process has produced Step 7: Investigate characteristics of customer requirement It is very important to rank the requirement Invisible ideas about quality can be made visible Customer satisfaction for some requirement is proportional to how fully functional the product is with respect to a requirement

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Some customer requirements are not one dimensional

Source: Shoji shiba, et.al., A new American TQM, four revolutions of Management, productivity press, 1990.

STAGE III (STEP 8): GENERATE METRICS FOR CUSTOMER REQUIREMENT Since customer requirements are in qualitative language it is required to translate that in to quantitative language of the engineer Step 9: Integrate understanding about customer requirements Use Quality Function Deployment or quality tables

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Source: Shoji shiba, et.al., A new American TQM, four revolutions of Management, productivity press, 1990.

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et. productivity press.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba.al. CEC. Bantawal Page 50 .Venkatesh. four revolutions of Management.. 1990. N. A new American TQM.

effective under control and adaptable  This involves very little or no cost  Kaizen focuses on the use of:  Value added and non value added activities  MUDA.Venkatesh. transportation. relevance and theme of  Kaizen  Reengineering  Six sigma  Benchmarking  5S  3M  Pokayoke KAIZEN  This is a Japanese word framed by Masaaki Imai to define a philosophy that involves encouraging and implementation of small changes on a continuous basis  These small increments make the progress more efficient. which refers to the seven classes of waste – over production.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 PART B UNIT 5 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN TQM LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter the students will be able to Understand and interpret the meaning. and defective parts. Bantawal Page 51 . processing. inventory. wasted motion. delay. N. CEC.

and with right resources  Poka-yoke to prevent or detect errors  Team dynamics. which include problem solving. CEC. communication skills and conflict resolution Kaizen versus innovation  Kaizen is the brain child of Japanese while Innovation is followed by US and European countries  Innovation achieves the success through some unprecedented ways by investing huge amount  While kaizen achieves success without any sophisticated technologies but entirely depends on people.Venkatesh. N. Bantawal Page 52 . at right time.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Principle of motion study and the use of cell technology  Principles of material handling and use of one piece flow  Documentation of standard operating procedure  The 5 S for work place of organization  Visual management by means of visual displays that everyone in the plant can use for better communication  Just-in-time principles to produce only units in right quantities.

Bantawal Page 53 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N.Venkatesh. CEC.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N. Bantawal Page 54 . CEC.Venkatesh.

Bantawal Page 55 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 REENGINEERING Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance N. CEC.Venkatesh.

• • • SIX SIGMA  It is a TQM process that uses the process capability analysis as a way of measuring progress.5σ  This makes the non conformance rate of 3. because the smaller the deviation value.  This six sigma limits has non conformance rate of 0. strategic goals. CEC. Reengineering recognizes that an organization's business processes are usually fragmented into sub processes and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within the organization.002ppm  However the processes are rarely centered due to which there is a center shift by 1. Bantawal Page 56 . Basic questions are asked.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • • • • • Reengineering starts with a high-level assessment of the organization's mission. For that reason.  This was originated at Motorola company  It is the best measurement of the process variability. particularly in terms of the wants and needs of its customers. Reengineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub processes can result in some benefits. but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally inefficient and outmoded. reengineering focuses on redesigning the process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. This drive for realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally rethinking how the organization's work should be done distinguishes reengineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement. the less variability in the process.Venkatesh.4 ppm N. Only after the organization rethinks what it should be doing. does it go on to decide how best to do it. and customer needs. such as "Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers?" An organization may find that it is operating on questionable assumptions.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N. Bantawal Page 57 . CEC.Venkatesh.

et.. CEC. four revolutions of Management. 1990. N.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 58 . A new American TQM. productivity press.al.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba.

does it improve a process. Bantawal Page 59 . Map and measure process performance and the effectiveness of improvement efforts in meeting customer requirements. and as-needed adjustments. Report what has been done to prevent and/or control problems and how a problem would be recognized and addressed if it occurred again. data analysis. • Measure—Identify the key internal processes that influence the process.00 Six Sigma Methodology In six sigma DMAIC methodology is followed D – Define M – Measure A – Analyze I – Improve C – Control  Define—Identify a suitable project based on customer needs and feedback.33 even though some companies use 2. potential benefits. Confirm the key variables. add value.Venkatesh. or integrate new technologies and ideas? • Control—Set in place a control plan or system to sustain the improvement and ensure that key variables remain within acceptable ranges. CEC. Report on the scope and definition of the project. customer feedback. and quantify their effect. and improvement implementations. N. as well as quality characteristics. and measure the related defects. This plan includes ongoing process measures. • Improve—Prioritize and implement improvement opportunities.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Process capability index IT IS THE INDEX DISPLAYING THE CAPABILITY OF THE PROCESS TO MEET THE SPECIFICATIONS     Cp =USL-LSL/6σ If the value of Cp is greater than one then the process is capable of meeting specifications If the value of Cp is less than one then the process is not capable of meeting specifications By default the most preferred C p is 1. That is. reduce costs. Assess what can go wrong and the impact. • Analyze—Discover what the defects are and identify solutions.

They receive 160 hours of class room instruction and one-onone project coaching from master belts Master belts – they provide the technical leadership and much of the training for the program     Common obstacles for six sigma implementation N.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 60 . CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758    Define specific problem Set goals Identify the customers (SIPOC diagram) Data collection plan Identification of the variation in the process DEFINE MEASURE    ANALYZE  Determination of root cause Cause and effect analysis Identify the potential improvement solution Implement the improvement solution  IMPROVE   CONTROL  Monitor the improvement progress Document and standardize the process Competency levels   In six sigma it is very important for continuous improvement In this regard a small group of trained individuals have a full time job of making these improvements The competency levels of these individuals use the karate designation Green belt – project leaders and have five days of class room training Black belt – these help green belts define their projects. attend the training and assist them with their projects.

Bantawal Page 61 . providing accountability for the initiative. Internal and external benchmarking of the organization’s products. A measurement system to track progress. Educating and informing every member of your organization about the Six Sigma methodology.Venkatesh. 3. BENCHMARKING  It is a systematic method of continuous improvement. not just tweaking it.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  A lot of problems are associated with six sigma methodology  It is not a cost effective venture and hence not suitable for Small and Medium scale Enterprises  Many organizations including Motorola have suffered loss due to heavy infrastructure of these various belts What Makes a Six Sigma Implementation Successful? The following elements are absolutely essential to successful implementation of Six Sigma: 1. Xerox have used this as quality standard tool both at manufacturing and service sectors  Benchmarking is done with the external organizations These tools have been around since 1800s There are two key elements in Benchmarking 1. 5. Setting challenging stretch goals that focus your employees on changing the process. You must find out where you really are.  Benchmarking in essence is the process of borrowing ideas an adopting them to gain competitive advantage  Many companies like GM. by which organizations compare themselves against the best industry practices. services. 4. CEC. Consistent and visible leadership involvement. Chrysler. and processes. Ford. 2. Measuring performance some sort of units of measure – called as metrics N.

Managers should understand WHY their performance differs Reasons for Benchmarking  It is an effective tool to achieve business and competitive objectives  Since competitors are being analyzed the factor of being unaware of the competition is avoided  It is time and cost effective as it involves very less invention Process of Benchmarking 1. CEC. Decide what to benchmark 2. Plan 4. Study others N. Understand current performance 3.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 62 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 2.

Which processes are causing the most trouble? 2. questionnaires. Learn from data 6. Internal benchmarking 2. What are the competitive pressures impacting the organization the most? 4. What processes or functions have the most potential for differentiating our organization from competition? Understand current performance  Document the current process  Attention must be paid to inputs and outputs  Questioning must be done in a proper way  Quantify the documented process using the metrics – unit costs. Use the findings Decide what to benchmark  Select the critical success factors  Pareto analysis will help Some of the questions that can be useful are 1. etc  Account details are usually not true Plan  Form the benchmark team  Identify the method of collecting the data  Identify the organizations that are to be benchmarked  While planning three different types of benchmarking can be followed 1. asset measures. Process benchmarking Study others • Two types of information should be gathered • Description of how best in-class processes are practiced • How best the benchmarked processes are • To understand the internal processes.Venkatesh. quality measures. Competitive benchmarking 3. viz. internal data can be used • To gather data on external processes.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 5. three techniques can be used. site visits and focus groups N. Which factors contribute most to customer satisfaction and which are not performing up to expectations? 3. Bantawal Page 63 . CEC.

Venkatesh. Market analysis The difference could be negative. Use the findings • When negative gap occurs. in par or positive. 2. Bantawal Page 64 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Learn from data • It is very important to be ready with answers for the following questions • Is there any gap between the organization’s performance and the performance of the best in class? • What is the gap? how much is it? • Why is there a gap? What does the best in class do differently that is better? • What would be the resulting improvement if the same is adopted at our side? The superior practice can be proved in two ways: 1. the objective is to close the gap • In the process two teams must agree for the change • First the process owners • Second the top management N. CEC. By comparison using proper performance measures.

al. 1990. and are both a part of Kaizen -.a system of continual improvement -. productivity press. CEC.Venkatesh. 5S • The 5S Process. or simply "5S".TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. cleanliness. is a structured program to systematically achieve total organization. A well-organized workplace results in a safer.which is a component of lean manufacturing.. et. Bantawal Page 65 . A new American TQM. promoting a sense of pride in their work and ownership of their responsibilities. four revolutions of Management. A Five S program is usually a part of. and the key component of establishing a Visual Workplace. more efficient. and standardization in the workplace. • • N. It boosts the morale of the workers. and more productive operation.

CEC.organize. identify and arrange everything in a work area Shine .regular cleaning and maintenance Standardize . Seiketsu. everyone should be a janitor Seiketsu Standardization Standardize the way of maintaining cleanliness Shitsuke Discipline Practice 'Five S' daily make it a way of life. Seiso. this also means 'commitment' N. and stands for five (5) Japanese words that start with the letter 'S': Seiri.make it easy to maintain .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • "5S" was invented in Japan. Seiton.simplify and standardize Sustain -maintaining what has been accomplished English Equivalent Meaning Context in Japanese • • • • • • Japanese Term Seiri Tidiness Throw away all rubbish and unrelated materials in the workplace Seiton Orderliness Set everything in proper place for quick retrieval and storage Seiso Cleanliness Clean the workplace. and Shitsuke.the first step in making things cleaned up and organized Set In Order . Bantawal Page 66 .Venkatesh. The English translation is: Sort .

is said to be the origin of Lean Production. N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 3M  Toyota Production System or TPS which was created by Taiichi Ohno around the 1950s. Bantawal Page 67 .  Lean consists of a set of tools which helps in the identification and eradication of the wastes. CEC.Venkatesh.

They are: Inventory that consists of products or materials waiting to be processed that have failed to generate an income is considered to be a waste. the management needs to go to the Gemba or the shop floor. Overburden (Japanese: muri) and Unnecessary variation (Japanese: mura). hand-over and task switching. CEC. N. Taiichi Ohno has identified seven wastes that normally occur in the making of a product.  The different types of wastes are classified as Muda. (3M) • • • Waste (in Japanese: muda). observe the Muda and take steps for its eradication. Muri and Mura.Venkatesh.  All three M's must be eliminated to create a sustainable lean process MUDA Muda is any non-value adding activity that the customer is unwilling to pay for.  A customer will not pay for the wastes which add to the cost of production. in lean thinking. and other causes. leading to the loss of certain materials and time. defects. o Waiting time on account of the delay due to the shortage of materials. To eliminate Muda. Bantawal Page 68 .  Waste. o Transportation of materials. o Defects that have been an outcome of the process which has to be reworked. work-in-process or inventory. waiting and unused employee creativity. o Overproducing more than what is required by the customer. Examples are overproduction and overprocessing. product. etc as the customers is not willing to pay for it.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Wastes can be defined as all activities and tools that do not add value to the customer. o Over processing or adding values more than what the customer is ready to pay for. o Motion which denotes the excess movement of the employees or equipment leading to unnecessary wear and tear. is defined as: all activities that do not add value from a customer perspective and that can be removed.

TAKT time = Net Time Available for production / Customer Demand For an example think you work 8 hrs a day for 5 days a week. For a week you have a demand of 100Pcs.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 69 .TAKT time Lean manufacturing systems work on a rhythm. It doesn’t mean that the system should produce an item in less than 24 minutes.  Only very little number of people understand that we should only produce to the customer demand not extra. Whole organization works on the rhythm provided by the customer. It will give you the rhythm in which the system should operate 2. Then your calculation will be as follows. Both these scenarios can lead to inefficiencies and wastes in the system. Production is smoothly planned and operations will be carried out without interruptions 3.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Lean manufacturing . Pull scheduling is enabled 5. The TAKT Time can be calculated using simple formula given below. The system is in synchronization with customer requirement 4. No rush hours in work 7. N. This is the ultimate pull scheduling system anyone can think about. CEC. Takt = 8 x 5 x 60 minutes / 100 Pcs = 24 minutes What is the meaning of this? This means that you have to produce a finished product in every 24th minute. In a system where there is a fluctuating demand the takt will change continuously on the customer demand. No over production 6. WIP reduced and problems in the system will be reveled  Takt time principle will work very well in cases where the demand can be traced easily. This rhythm is known as the TAKT time of the system. So what are the advantages of sticking to the takt time? 1. No this does not mean that you should produce 2Pcs in every 48 Minutes.

A sustainable pace is achieved. overburden is stopped and systematically avoided. This will tell about the jobs that need to be performed per day to guarantee its completion within the deadline. Performance of the job without proper planning leads to overburden which is considered to be a non-value adding activity. and as long as projects and teams are overwhelmed by the amount of work. MURA • The term Mura in Japanese stands for unevenness in the production system which can be related to the man power or the materials. The time requirement for the normal routine can be defined by the takt time.  Limiting demand to capacity and capabilities is exactly what Scrum and Extreme Programming do. Scrum and XP create a pull process and a steady cadence where the team essentially pulls requirements from the product backlog and transforms them into product increments on a regular basis.  As long as people work crazy hours.Venkatesh. the jobs can be broken down into normal routine tasks and other tasks.  By empowering the team to select a realistic amount of work for a given iteration. CEC.  Waste is likely to creep back in unless we limit the amount of work to the capacity and capabilities of the organization. Bantawal Page 70 . the right approach is often to attack a different disease first: overburden. To ease the burden. the removal of waste alone is ineffective. Widely varying workload is a waste as it has a direct impact on the productivity of the employees.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 MURI  Even though most traditional development organizations carry out few activities that truly add value. The task should be performed on the basis of the time set by the customer demand.  Additionally. • • • • • • N.

and “poka” which means “inadvertent errors. are usually used to stop the machine and alert the operator if something is about to go wrong. A lot of Shingo's poka yoke devices cost less than $50! N.  Thus. 4) Low-cost. poka yoke more or less translates to “avoiding inadvertent errors”.  Poka yoke is implemented by using simple objects like fixtures.” Thus. paper systems. 3) Does not require continuous attention from the operator (ideally. 5) Provides instantaneous feedback.  The main objective of poke yoke is to achieve zero defects. warning devices. it should work even if the operator is not aware of it). and not by a set of step-by-step instructions on how they should do their job.Venkatesh. CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 POKAYOKE (Mistake Proofing)  Poka Yoke is a quality management concept developed by a Matsushita manufacturing engineer named Shigeo Shingo to prevent human errors from occurring in the production line. and the like to prevent people from committing mistakes. its implementation is governed by what people think they can do to prevent errors in their workplace. Poka yoke devices should have the following characteristics: 1) Useable by all workers. 2) Simple to install. jigs. even if they try to! These objects. Bantawal Page 71 . In fact.  Poka yoke (pronounced “poh-kah yoh-kay”) comes from two Japanese words – “yokeru” which means “to avoid”. or correction. it is just one of the many components of Shingo’s Zero Quality Control (ZQC) system  Poka yoke is more of a concept than a procedure. gadgets. known as poka yoke devices. prevention.

CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Everyday Examples of Mistake-Proofing N. Bantawal Page 72 .Venkatesh.

Bantawal Page 73 .  Quality function deployment is a team-based management tool in which customer needs are the driving force for the product development process. N.  The main input to the QFD is customer’s needs & wants.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 6 QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) AND FAILURE MODES EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter the student should be able to:  Understand the meaning of QFD  Explain the QFD process  Apply QFD and develop the House of Quality  Understand the concept of quality by design or concurrent engineering  Understand the meaning of FMEA  Explain different types of FMEA  Differentiate between process FMEA and design FMEA QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD)  Quality Function Deployment is pointed way of listening to customers to learn exactly what they want. tools & order of use.Venkatesh. CEC.  Conflicting characteristics or needs are identified early in the QFD process and can be resolved before production. & then using a logical system to determine how best to fulfill those needs with available resources.  QFD translates customer requirements(HOW). requirements (WHAT) into appropriate technical  It helps teams determine the correct methods.

Venkatesh.  Prior quality control methods were primarily aimed at instead of fixing a problem during or after manufacturing. Katsuyoshi Ishihara introduced the Value Engineering principles merged with these new ideas.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 History of QFD  QFD was developed in Japan in the late 1960’s by professor’s Shigeree Mizuno and Yogi Akao. Bantawal Page 74 . the fishbone diagrams used till that time. refashioned into a spreadsheet or matrix format with the rows being desired efforts of customer satisfaction and the columns being the controlling and measuring causes. N. generating ever new applications. CEC.  The HoQ translates the Voice of Customer into design requirements that meet specific target values and matches those against how an organization will meet those requirements.  At the same time. QFD eventually became the comprehensive quality design system for both product and business process.  The first large scale application was presented in 1966 by Kiyotaka Oshiumi of Bridgestone tire in Japan.  The purpose of professors Mizuno and Akao was to develop a assurance method that would design customer satisfaction into a product before it was manufactured.  The introduction of QFD to America and Europe began in 1983. Benefits of QFD  Improves customer satisfaction  Reduces implementation time  Promotes team work  Provides documentation  Lower costs.S and Western Europe. with the application of QFD to the design of an oil tanker at the Kobe Shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy industry. greater productivity HOUSE OF QUALITY  The primary planning tool used in QFD is the HoQ.  Today QFD continues to inspire strong interest around the world. QFD caught across a wide variety of industries in the U. practitioners and researchers each year.  In 1972.

CEC. Consistency of product is provided through engineering characteristics.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 The parts of the house of quality  The Exterior walls of the house are the customer requirements. The foundation of the house is the prioritized technical descriptors.    N. The interior walls of the house are relationship between customers’ requirements and technical descriptors. The ceiling or first floor of the house contains the technical descriptors. Customers’ expectations are translated into engineering characteristics. The roof of the house is the interrelationship between technical descriptors. design constraints and parameters. On the left side is a listing of the voice of the customers and on the right side are the prioritized customer requirements. Bantawal Page 75 .Venkatesh.

 Information from competitor’s products are also used. N. Parts and components that will be critical for the product are identified and then the part properties are set. Bantawal Page 76 . Process Design (Process Planning) 4.” Product Design • • The design concept is chosen that best fulfils the given target values in the house of quality.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 QFD process The Four Steps of the QFD process: 1. Production Design (Production Planning) Step 1 Step 2 Customer Requirem ents Engineering Characteristics Engineer ing Characte ristic Parts Characteristic Parts Key Process Key Process Production Operations Requirements Characte Operations ristic Step 3 Step 4 13 Product Planning  The requirements of the customer (voice of the customer) are transferred to the properties or characteristics of the product. CEC.Venkatesh. This is done by building a “house of quality. Product Planning (House of Quality) 2. Product Design (Parts Deployment) 3.

Methods for process control and process improvement are decided upon.Venkatesh. Ends with prototype and production launch.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Process Design • • The critical detail properties are transferred to production operations and their critical parameters are identified. The operator needs exact descriptions of the parts that have to be measured and the measurements that have to be observed. CEC. Example of QFD N. Bantawal Page 77 . Production Design • • • Production instructions are designed.

al. A new American TQM.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. QUALITY BY DESIGN  It is the practice of using multidisciplinary team to conduct conceptual thinking.. CEC. productivity press. 1990. four revolutions of Management. product design. and production planning all at the same time  This is called as CONCURRENT ENGINEERING or simultaneous engineering N.Venkatesh. et. Bantawal Page 78 .

Venkatesh. A new American TQM. Bantawal Page 79 . productivity press. N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  The earlier method of sequential engineering has been replaced by concurrent engineering as this will reduce the time product development time Source: Shoji shiba.. et.al. CEC. 1990. re-verification in order to compile all previous stages.  In sequential engineering each steps in product development process is sequentially followed  This requires repeated steps of redesign. four revolutions of Management.

al. eliminate or reduce them and document the procedure  FMEA can be broadly classified as design FMEA and Process FMEA. et.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Hence it takes long time. productivity press.  FMEA includes identifying failure modes. N. FAILURE MODE EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA)  It is a technique that combines the technology and experience of people to identify foreseeable modes of failure of a product or process or planning.Venkatesh. Quality by Design helps control cost by shifting the design changes to the beginning of the project rather than throughout its life cycle. Fewer design changes and shorter lead times respond to customer needs quickly Lower reject and scrap improves the profit Source: Shoji shiba. 1990. RATIONALE FOR IMPLEMENTATION      Earlier the increase in production cost were passed onto customer in the form of increased price. CEC. A new American TQM. Bantawal Page 80 .. But now this is not possible as customers are smart enough to choose the best product. four revolutions of Management.

misjudgments and errors that may have been made. assigning action responsibility.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Design FMEA aids in design process by identifying the known and foreseeable failure modes and ranking them according the relative impact on the product. CEC. Bantawal Page 81 .  Helps to reduce the cost of manufacturing and development time  Process FMEA is used to identify potential process failure modes and ranking them in relative impact on the internal and external customers. Quantifying risk – probability of cause. Detailing action. risk priority number 3. check points on conclusion 4. effectiveness of control to prevent cause. root causes. effects. Correcting high risk causes – prioritizing work.  This helps to identify the assembly and manufacturing causes in order to establish controls for occurrence reduction and detection. Re-valuation of Risk – recalculation of risk priority number N. Specifying possibilities – functions. detection and prevention 2. severity of effect. possible failure modes. Stages of FMEA 1.  This helps to establish priorities based on expected failures and severity of those failures and helps to uncover oversights.Venkatesh.

CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Source: Shoji shiba. FMEA number – used for tracking 2. Bantawal Page 82 .Venkatesh.. Item – clarifies exact component or process 3. A new American TQM. Design responsibility – the team in-charge of the design or process should be identified N. Design FMEA document The document has the following documents 1.al. four revolutions of Management. et. 1990. productivity press.

Item/function – the name and number being analyzed along with its function is recorded 10. Occurrence. telephone number. Risk Priority Number – RPN is the product of Severity. Brain storming method can be used for this. Key date – the date the initial FMEA is due 7. FMEA date – the date the original FMEA was compiled 8. subsystem or component along with year to avoid confusion 6. (Table 14-2) 16. Severity (S) – it is the assessment of the seriousness of the effect of the potential failure mode to the next component. Potential cause mechanism of failure – all mechanisms of failure are listed 15. 11. (Table 14-1) 13. one. This ranges from 1 to 1000 with 1 being smallest risk possible and 1000 being the highest. Classification – classifies any special product characteristics for components. Current design control – the activities that assure the design sufficiency for the failure mode or mechanism are listed 17.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 4. Detection (D) – it is the relative measure of the assessment of the ability of the design control to detect either a potential cause or mechanism table 14-3 18. N. Prepared by – the name. address of the team 5. Bantawal Page 83 .Venkatesh. Potential failure modes – here the two reasons arise. system that may require additional process controls 14. Potential effects of failure – these are the effects as perceived by the customer 12. sub system. CEC. sub system. Occurrence (O) – it is the chance that one of the above listed causes or mechanisms will occur. Core team – the persons or teams responsible for performing tasks 9. system or customer if it occurs. the method that may cause the potential failure. and Detection RPN = S*O*D 19. Model number/year – both the name and the identification number of the system. the method in which the item being analyzed may fail to meet the design criteria or two.

N. The RPN is recalculated following the previous steps. CEC. Responsibility and target completion dates – groups or individual responsible for the recommended actions must be indicated along with target date 22.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 20.Venkatesh. 21. Action taken – after implementation the brief description of actual action and its effective date must be entered to track the progress of the plan. Recommended actions – the corrective actions that may be employed starting from highest risk factor. Bantawal Page 84 .

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N.Venkatesh. CEC. Bantawal Page 85 .

Including all the concerns from all the involved departments 3.Venkatesh. Actively involving members from all affected areas 2. Treating the document as a living document that is being revised constantly and updated over time N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Process FMEA document The process FMEA document is almost identical to design FMEA document The notable similarities are: 1. Bantawal Page 86 . CEC.

Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 87 .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N. CEC.

Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 88 . CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 N.Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 89 . CEC.

Bantawal Page 90 .Venkatesh.  Most countries have accepted ISO 9000 series as their national standards  In USA these series as ANSI/ASQ 9000 series (American national Institute / American Society for Quality)  In a two party system. the supplier of a product or service would develop a quality system that conformed to the standards.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 7 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (QMS) LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter the student should be able to:          Understand the meaning of Quality Management Systems Explain the ISO 9000 series of QMS Differentiate between different ISO series of QMS Understand the procedure of ISO implementation Study the factors affecting ISO implementation Study the documentation procedure of ISO Understand the importance of ISO implementation Understand the Meaning of the word BIS Explain the ISO 14000 EMS INTRODUCTION  The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is based in Switzerland  Started in 1946 at Geneva  More than 150 countries are under its umbrella  The ISO technical committee (TC) published series of international standards (ISO 9000.  The customers would then audit the system for acceptability  This two party system results in multiple audits and is too costly N. 9001 and 9004)  These were first published in 1987  They were intended to be advisory and to be used for two party contractual situations and for internal auditing. CEC.

manufacturing or service. It can be applied to large or small. CEC. large or small. and Whether it is a business enterprise. engineering. in any sector of activity. a public administration. Regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness. whatever its product or service.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758  Hence this is replaced by third party registration system who is a registrar  When the conforms to a system the registrar issues a certificate  This registration ensures customers that a supplier has a quality system in place and it is being monitored ISO SERIES OF STANDARDS  It is generic in scope Generic means that the same standards can be applied:     to any organization. and Facilitating continual improvement Three different standards are being followed: ISO 9000 : 2000 – Quality management system – fundamentals and vocabulary discusses the fundamental concepts related to the QMS and provides the terminology used in other two standards N. legal or any other professional services In simpler terms the standards require an organization to say what it is doing to ensure quality and then do what it says and finally document or prove that it has done what it said. or a government department. Checking output for defects. with appropriate and corrective action where necessary. Bantawal Page 91 . construction. Characteristics • • • • • • • • A set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business. Keeping adequate records. Monitoring processes to ensure they are effective.Venkatesh.

sector specific requirements. German. and other aerospace organizations ISO/TS 16949:  This is entitled as Quality Systems automotive suppliers – particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001  It harmonizes the supplier requirement of the US with French. Bantawal Page 92 . AS 9100. and company specific requirements  If appropriate levels for division specific. ISO/TS16949 and TL 9000 are being followed AS 9100:  This is the aerospace industry quality system introduced by Society of automotive Engineers in May 1997  In March 2001 International Aerospace Quality group aligned AS 9100 with ISO 9001:2000  This attempts to unify the requirements of NASA. emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain  There are three basic levels – ISO 9001.Venkatesh. and Italian auto makers  The goal of this technical specification is the development of fundamental quality systems that provide for continuous improvement.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • ISO 9001 : 2000 – QMS – requirements is the standard used for registration by demonstrating conformity of the QMS to customers. CEC. N. regulatory and organization’s own requirements ISO 9004 : 2000 – QMS – guidelines for performance improvement provides guidelines that an organization can use to establish a QMS focused on improving performance • Sector specific standards  Some ISO systems have been developed that are specific to a particular industry  These systems use ISO 9001 as their basic framework and modify it to their needs  This requires suppliers to meet standards for a specific industry. which will burden their work  Currently three systems viz. commodity specific and part specific requirements  GM has reported that the use of this has resulted in 85% improvement in first 5 years.

delivery.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 TL 9000:  This is the telecom standard  This was started by Motorola. and maintenance of telecommunication products and services ISO IMPLEMENTATION Steps necessary for successful implementation of a QMS are 1. Appoint the management representative 3. Lucent  It is a specific set of requirements based on ISO 9001 that defines the design. N. Time schedule 7. installation. Top management commitment 2.Venkatesh. Install the new system 11. Management review 13. CEC. Write the documents 10. How well the ISO system integrates into their business practices. production. Select element owners 8. Bantawal Page 93 . submitting an application. Appoint an implementation team 5. Internal audit 12. and improve quality. Pre-assessment 14. control. Registration – choosing a registrar. Review the present system 9. and conducting the registrar’s system audit Factors affecting ISO implementation • • Commitment of Senior Management to monitor. Awareness 4. Training 6. development.

Records  These are the forms that are filled and obtain a stamp of approval on a product or a signature on a document N. photos. precise. Policy    This defines what will be done and why The quality manual should be written so it is clear. Auditors that can clearly identify and communicate areas of improvement in language and terms executive management understands allows the companies they audit to act on improvement initiatives. routing sheets. etc. when the task should be done and where documentation will be made showing that the task was performed 3. • DOCUMENTATION  It is very important to document the quality procedure in a QMS  There are four tires in the documentation procedure 1. only then will you be able to sustain improvements in your customer experience. practical and easy to understand The why question can be answered with the help of quality policy statement 2. CEC. your suppliers. 4.Venkatesh. Work instructions    These are usually department. How well the auditor finds and communicates areas of improvement.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • How well the ISO system focuses on improving the customer experience. This means taking into account all processes that deal with the three stakeholders (your customers. and your organization). Procedure    This is the second tier which describes the method that will be used to implement and perform the stated policies These are more detailed than policies The procedure defines who should perform specific tasks. Bantawal Page 94 . machine or product oriented and spell out how a job will be done These are the most detailed in the documentation tiers These include drawings.

Venkatesh. N. awareness. where Work instructions or practices . Bantawal Page 95 . when. CEC. and morale Promote international trade Increases profit Reduce waste and increases productivity.how Records or proof .who.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758   They help to trace the procedure and work instructions. They provide for corrective actions Documentation pyramid Policy – what and why Procedures .evidence ADVANTAGES OF ISO REGISTRATION • • • • • • • • Create a more efficient. effective operation Increase customer satisfaction and retention Reduce audits Enhance marketing Improve employee motivation.

• • • ISO 14000  In 1991 ISO formed strategic advisory group on the environment. Mumbai. Chennai. CEC. As a corporate body. and 19 branch offices. Product evaluation standards N. it has 25 members drawn from national and state politics. Organizational evaluation standards B. Systems and Supporting Techniques These have been classified into A.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 THE BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS) • The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national standards body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs. and consumer organizations. Chandigarh and Delhi. which led to the formation of the technical committee (TC) 207 in 1992  The mission of TC 207 is to develop standards for an environmental management system (EMS) which is known as ISO 14000  The EMS addresses how the overall business activities. industry. It also works as WTO-TBT enquiry point for India. Government of India.Venkatesh. including its products and services impact the environment  The EMS maximizes the company participation in environment performance now and in future ISO 14000 series of standards These are Guide to Environmental Management Principles. The organization was erstwhile known as the Indian Standards Institution which was founded in the year 1947. scientific and research institutions. Food & Public Distribution. Bantawal Page 96 . Its headquarters are in New Delhi. with regional offices in Kolkata.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Organizational evaluation standards Standard Title / Description Environmental Management Systems . improved version.Specification with Guidance for Use General guidelines – provides only information not used for registration Guidelines for Environmental Auditing .Audit Procedures-Part 1: Auditing of Environmental Management Systems Guidelines for Environmental Auditing .Venkatesh. This means what the organization does to: minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities. Bantawal Page 97 .Qualification Criteria for Environmental Auditors Guidelines on Environmental Performance Evaluation 14001 14004 Environmental management systems 14010 14011 Environmental Auditing 14012 14031/32 Environmental Performance evaluation 14050 Glossary Product evaluation standards Standard Title / Description Guide 64 EAPS guide Environmental aspects of product standards 14020 14021 14022 14023 14024 14040 14041 14042 Basic principles Self declaration Symbols Testing and verification Third party Life Cycle Assessment General Principles and Practices Goals and definition Impact assessment Environmental labeling Life Cycle Assessment 14043 14050 Improvement assessment Glossary • • • ISO 14001:2004 is the latest.General Principles of Environmental Auditing Guidelines for Environmental Auditing . N. CEC. ISO 14001 is for environmental management.

ISO 9001 (CONT. Both ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 concern the way an organization goes about its work. The biggest increases in certification are to the sector-specific ISO 22000:2005 food safety management system standard which is up by 34% and to the issue-specific ISO/IEC 27001:2005 information security management system standard which has risen by 21% PROBLEMS • • A common criticism of ISO 9001 is the amount of money.457. They are process standards. Page 98 • • N. The added cost to certify and then maintain certification may not be justified if product end users do not require ISO 9000. They are not product standards. most US consumers are not aware of ISO 9000 and it holds no relevance to them.Venkatesh. THE ISO SURVEY .TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • • • • • • • to conform to applicable regulatory requirements.)2010 • • • • The worldwide total of certificates to ISO 9001:2000/2008 at the end of 2010 was 1. CEC. time and paperwork required for registration. Certificates had been issued in 178 countries compared to 175 the previous year. Wade argues that ISO 9000 is effective as a guideline. They are not service standards. They can be used by Product manufacturers and service providers . This was increase of 6. Bantawal .912.23% over 2009 when the total was 951 486 certificates. but that promoting it as a standard "helps to mislead companies into thinking that certification means better quality” While internationally recognized. and to achieve continual improvement of its environmental performance. ISO 9001 is not in any way an indication that products produced using its certified systems are any good. The cost can actually put a company at a competitive disadvantage when competing against a non ISO 9000 certified company. A company can intend to produce a poor quality product and providing it does so consistently and with the proper documentation can put an ISO 9001 stamp on it.

companies should utilize the ISO 9000 model as a benchmark to assess the adequacy of its quality programs.Venkatesh. do not rush to certification Even without certification. CEC. SUMMARY A good overview for effective use of ISO 9000 is provided by Barnes: "Good business judgment is needed to determine its proper role for a company. Another problem reported is the competition among the numerous certifying bodies.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 • • The standard is seen as especially prone to failure when a company is interested in certification before quality. leading to a softer approach to the defects noticed in the operation of the Quality System of a firm. Is certification itself important to the marketing plans of the company? If not." N. Bantawal Page 99 .

Bantawal Page 100 . at the end production Ensure that the quality level is within the level that has been predetermined Can be either 100% inspection. where a random sample is taken from a lot. CEC. • Purposes – – – Determine the quality level of an incoming shipment or. • Complete inspection – – Inspecting each item produced to see if each item meets the level desired Used when defective items would be very detrimental in some way N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 UNIT 8 PRODUCT ACCEPTANCE CONTROL LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter the student should be able to:     Understand the various terminologies associated with acceptance sampling technique Study various acceptance sampling plans Understand the meaning of IS 2500 part 1 and 2 Enumerate the advantages of acceptance sampling • Acceptance Sampling – Statistical quality control technique. and upon the results of the sample taken the lot will either be rejected or accepted. or a few items of a lot.Venkatesh.

CEC.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING TAKE SAMPLE INSPECT SAMPLE Type title here DECISION ACCEPT LOT REJECT LOT SAMPLE AGAIN DECISION RETURN LOT TO SUPPLIER 100% INSPECTION • Problems with 100% inspection – – – Very expensive When product must be destroyed to test Inspection must be very tedious so defective items do not slip through inspection • Acceptance sampling advantages – – – – Less handling damages Fewer inspectors to put on payroll 100% inspection costs are to high 100% testing would take to long • When to use acceptance sampling Page 101 N.Venkatesh. Bantawal .

” either passing or rejecting it o Also filter from suppliers to you – – – – – When products in use could be damaged easily When using new suppliers When new products produced When current supplier in question Testing whole lot could be harmful Important terminologies • Acceptable Quality levels(AQL) – • Number of defect percentage allowed in a lot which can still be considered accepted(Type I error) Lot Tolerance Percent Defective(LTPD) – Amount of defects that will come with a lot of goods(Type II error) • Sampling Plan – Forms after n and c values have been found The Producer's Risk (Seller's Risk) is the probability of rejecting a good lot. CEC. or  ("beta"). N.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 – – Between your organization and outside world Samples taken run through “filter. It is the Type II error rate. Bantawal Page 102 .Venkatesh. It is the Type I error rate. or  ("alpha"). • Producer’s risk • Consumer's Risk The Consumer's Risk (Buyer's Risk) is the probability of accepting a bad lot.

Venkatesh. Bantawal Page 103 . fraction defective are shown in the following table.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 Type I & Type II Errors State of the Lot H0 True Decision Accept H0 Accept the lot Good Quality Lot Correct Decision Ho False Poor Quality Lot Type II Error Accepting a Poor Quality Lot Reject H0 Reject the lot • N – • C – • Type I Error Rejecting a Good Quality Lot Correct Decision Sample size taken for your sampling plan Where rejections would occur when defects exceeded this percent Operating characteristics curve(OC) – A graph. n = 89 and c=2 The probability of acceptance for different values of p. N. displaying standards at which shipments would be accepted Example 2: N=10000 . CEC.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758
The OC curve is shown in the figure below.

The ideal OC curve which has perfect discriminatory power is as shown below.

The following figure shows the effect of sample size on the OC curves. It is noted that the discriminatory power of the sampling plan increases with sample size.

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Double Sampling Plan Decision of acceptance or rejection based on two samples A lot may be accepted if the sample is good enough or may be rejected if the sample is bad enough If the first sample is neither good enough nor bad enough, decision is based on evidence of first and second sample combined. This is shown in the following .

OC Curve of a double sampling plan:

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Types A and B Sampling plans for screening single lots are called Type A plans and use the hypergeometric distribution. Here the model is that there is an existing single lot of size N and it actually contains a fixed number D of defectives, which is unknown to us. The true fraction defective is D/N. Sampling plans for screening a series of lots are called Type B plans and use the binomial distribution. Here the model is that there is a process which is producing a series of lots and the true fraction defective p is characteristic of the series of lots. ______________________________________________________ Type A Single lot Unknown number of defectives, D Type B Series of lots Fraction defective, p

Hypergeometric Binomial Type-A OC curve always lies below the Type-B OC curve.

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Total Quality Management for Engineers: M. Retrieved December 1. New age pub. A New American TQM. TQM: Lessons We Can Learn From Industry – Total Quality Management. Oregon.gov. 1990 2. Edition 03/e Paperback (Special Indian Edition) 2. Publisher: Wood head Publishing REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. David Walden. Brigham. ISBN: 1855730243. (1993).TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 SUMMARY • Acceptance sampling is a statistical method that enables us to base the accept-reject decision on the inspection of a sample of items from the lot Acceptance sampling is used by organizations to determine i f there process’s are running within a controlled limit and to see if they should reject or accept lots • TEXT BOOKS: 1. Lal.Venkatesh. Steven E. Shoji Shiba.[Courtesy: www. Alan Graham.dti. Edition – 1 3. Bantawal Page 107 .com/p/articles/mi_m1254/is_n3_v25/ai_15331762 N.uk/quality/gurus] 5. Organisational Excellence through TQM. CEC. 2008 4..Pearson Education India. Publisher . Productivity press. four revolutions in management. Bester field. ISBN: 8129702606. Zairi. 100 Methods for Total Quality Management: Gopal K. ISBN: 0803977476. Inc. H. Publisher: Sage Publications. The original quality gurus.findarticles. 2006 from http://www. Kanji and Mike Asher. Total Quality Management: Dale H.

htm 7.).TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 6. Re-engineering and TQM: Approaches t Organizational Change told as a “Tale of Three Villages”.html 9.saferpak.eiro.int/1997/05/feature/uk9705113f.com/tqm. Explain any two points of Deming.D. 10. What is the contribution of Juran? 3. TQM Didn’t Work For Us – So Now We’re Going Lean. CEC.). What are the symptoms of a troubled company? 13. Explain the TQM frame work with the help of a block diagram.htm 8. How fitness to requirement is different from fitness to goodness? 15. What are the contributions of E. 4. 7. Employee involvement in Total Quality Management. European Industrial Relations Observatory on-line. CEO.Venkatesh.com/village. Chaudron. A. What do you do in the stage STUDY? 5.eurofound.eu. Explain the incidence of Oil shock.organizechange. 2010 from http://www. Other (N. What is PONC? 16. What is the famous ratio as given by Deming? 6. Total Quality Management. How Crosby has contributed to TQM? 9.N. Who practiced Scientific Management? 11. Which company started practicing TQM? What is its earlier name? N. David PhD (2006). Deming? 14. 2010 from http://www. Retrieved December 4. 2006 from http://www. Define quality.wiley. Retrieved December 4.com/college/sc/reid/chap5. Eironline (N.D. What is zero defect? 12.pdf] Question bank 1. 2. What do you do in the stage ACT? 8. Retrieved December 4. [courtesy: www. Bantawal Page 108 .

29. What are the basic approach for the success of TQM? 28. What are the obstacles to the implementation of TQM? 31. What are the potential benefits of TQM? 30. What are the stages of W-V model? Compare them.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 17. Explain the cause and effect diagram with an example. What is Kaizen? 19.Venkatesh. Ishikawa? 24. CEC. Explain Deming’s cycle with an example. Define TQM. Explain briefly the process of paradigm shift that has occurred from past to TQM era. Name the book written by Feigenbaum. 35. What are the contributions of K. What are absolutes of Quality as told by Fiegenbaum? 23. What is Quality Circle? 25. Explain the concept of quality loss function of Taguchi. What are the dimensions of quality? 26. N. Explain the characteristics of process control. What do you do in the stage PLAN? 20. 38. How Kaizen is different from Innovation? 21. 37. Bantawal Page 109 . What do you do in the stage DO? 18. How Juran has contributed to the development of TQM ? 34. 27. Which factors way lay in the success of TQM? 32. 33. 40. What is continuous improvement? 39. What are the different names of cause and effect diagram? 36. Who delivered series of lectures in Japan after WW II? 22.

What is Reengineering? What are its characteristics? 60. seven QC tools and seven management tools. Elaborate on the relationship between PDCA. Bantawal Page 110 . 57. What are the seven translation guidelines? 54. seven QC steps. 53. What are the standard steps of proactive improvement? 48. What is Six Sigma concept? How does it help the organization to control defects? 61. How does Kaizen differ from innovation? 59.Venkatesh. 62. Explain 7 QC tools with one example for each tool. Explain the six sigma methodology. How do you use proactive improvement to develop product? 51. Explain the quality table. Explain the process of KJ method for proactive improvement. CEC. Explain the 7 QC steps. What is Kaizen? 58. Explain the KANO diagram. 44. What is ‘tip of iceberg’ principle? 55. How do you decide the competency level in six sigma? N. What are the seven advanced QC tools? Why are they used? 49. What are the principles of process control? 42. How do you collect Data type1? 52. What is the importance of management diagnosis? 46. How do you use process control and process improvement alternately? 45. 50. 56. 43.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 41. What is the characteristic of three types of data? 47.

What is FMEA? What are its different forms? 84. Bantawal Page 111 . 79. Explain the 4 phase process of QFD with the help of block diagram. Explain the process FMEA documentation. What is bench marking? 64. Why do we need to implement quality by design? 83. 74. 80. 85. What are quality costs? How do you classify them? 76. Explain the concept of benchmarking with a neat block diagram. What is quality by design? How is it different from sequential engineering? 82. 72. 67. How does 3M concept help the organization in reducing waste? 71. 77.Venkatesh. N. 65. What is 5S’? 68. What is the necessity of benchmarking? 66. What are the different characteristics of a leader? 73. Explain the economics of the quality costs. Explain the design FMEA documentation. What are the different quality statements? How they are important for the organization? Explain with example. Explain the concept of 5S with an example.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 63. 75. What is strategic planning? Explain the process of strategic planning. Explain the concept of QFD with an example. How do you reduce quality costs? 78. Explain different steps involved in benchmarking. What is Pokayoke? Give two examples of mistake proofing. 69. CEC. What are the potential benefits of QFD? 81. What is 3M? 70.

91. Bantawal Page 112 .Venkatesh. BEST OF EFFORTS N. Briefly explain various sector specific standards. Why do we need ISO registration? 94. Differentiate between Type A OC curve and type B OC curve. What are the different sampling plans? Explain them briefly with a neat flow chart. What are the different characteristics of ISO standards? 90. 98. 93. Explain briefly the problems associated with the implementation of ISO. What is product acceptance control? Discuss briefly the different terminologies associated with sampling. 95. 96. 102. 99. What are the limitations of acceptance sampling plans? 101. CEC. Explain the process of ISO documentation.TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT – 06ME758 86. What is EMS? How do you classify the ISO 14000 series of standards? Explain them briefly. With the help of a diagram explain the OC curve. What is the most significant part of the FMEA process? 87. What are the necessary steps to implement the ISO standards successfully? 92. Write short notes on BIS. What are the advantages of acceptance sampling plans? 100. 97. What is a Quality Management System? 88. What are the different series of standards of ISO 9000? 89.

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