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Structure

Introduction

Objectives

**Elements of Plate Girder Types of Plate Girder
**

7.3.1 7.3.2 Riveted Plate Girder Welded Plate Girder

**Design Assumptions Design of Flange Splice
**

7.5.1

7.5.2

7.6.1

**Splice of Flange Angles Splice of Flange Plates
**

Rational Splice

**Design of Web Splice
**

7.6.2 7.6.3 7.7.1 7.7.2 Moment Splice Shear Splice

Intermediate Web Stiffener Bearing Stiffener

Stiffeners Design Problems Summary Answers to SAQs

7.1 INTRODUCTION

The plate girders are essentially built-up beams to carry heavier loads over large spans. They are deep structural members subjected to transverse loads. The plate girders consist of plates and angles riveted together. Plates and angles form an I-Section. They are used in building constructions and also in bridges. When the span and load combination is such that the rolled steel beams become insufficient to furnish the requirement and built-up beam becomes uneconomical, then plate-girders are used. The built-up beams are used where overall depth is limited. In the built-up beams a rolled section was strengthened by riveting or welding additional plates to its flanges. In a plate girder the web is a solid plate and hence the plate girders are also called as "Solid web girders". As such the use of beams, built-up beams and plate girders is a step by step approach for the increase in loads and the spans. The object of the design is to achieve overall economy, which involves the cost of fabrication in addition to the cost of material. The cost of fabrication is more for built-up beams as compared to beams, and it is still higher for plate girders as compared to both. Attempt is made to provide deep sections for economy as regards materials and cost of fabrication. The plate girders are economically used for spans upto about 30 m in building construction. The depth of plate girder may range upto 5 m or more, 1.5 m to 2.5 m depths are very common.

Objectives

After studying this unit, you should be able to describe the elements of a plate girder, distinguish between riveted and welded plate girders, design flange splice,

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

e

design and differentiate among the various types of web splices, understand the function of stiffeners. and

e

design intermediate (vertical & horizontal) and bearing stiffeners.

**7.2 ELEMENTS OF PLATE GIRDER
**

A plate girder essentially consists of a vertical plate termed as web plate to which angles are connected at top and bottom to form top flange angles and bottom flange angles. The horizontal plates connected with the flange angles are known as flange plates or cover plates. The web and flange plates are thin, and hence likely to buckle under compression. In order to avoid buckling of web due to shear, and bending, and buckling of web at points of concentrated loads, the web has to be stiffened by intermediate stiffeners, horizontal stiffeners and bearing stiffeners.

Flange. plates

1 Flange angles

Depth over angles

, End stiffener

Flange cover plates.

,Load

I

Flange splice

Figure 7.1: Elements of Plate Girder

**Transverse or Vertical Stiffener - Stiffeners provided perpendicular to the length
**

of the girder to guard against buckling of web.

Design of Hate Girders

**Longitudinal or Horizontal Stiffener - Stiffeners provided along the length of the
**

girder to prevent buckling of web of the girder.

Bearing Stiffeners - Stiffeners provided just under the load. Web Splice - Plates used to joint the two web plates together. Flange Splice - Plates used to joint two flange plates together.

**7.3 TYPES OF PLATE GIRDER
**

Mainly there are two types of plate girders. They are:

1) 2)

Riveted plate girder, Welded plate girder.

Flange plates

Bearing stiffener

Figure 7.2(a): Riveted Plate Girder

Figure 7.2(b): Welded Plate Girdcr

Members in Flexure & Column Bases

**7.3.1 Riveted Plate Girder
**

The shear intensity across the depth of the girder varies, as more than 90% shear is taken by the web. The maximum stresses obtained should be multiplied by the ratio of gross flange area to net flange area to get the actual stresses. The gross cross-section shall comprise of flange plates plus flange angles and the web area between flange angles. The net cross- sectional area shall be the gross area minus the rivet holes on tension side and on compression side deduction shall be made for all open holes. Figure 7.2(a) shows the simplest type of riveted plate girder, in which each flange consists of a pair of angles connected to solid web plate. For larger moments, the flange area can be increased by riveting additional plates called cover plates. In a simple beam, the maximum bending moment generally occurs near the mid-span and it goes on decreasing towards the supports. The cover plates can be curtailed as the moment decreases.

**Riveting of Flange Plate to Flange Angles
**

The horizontal shear per 1 cm is given by where,

F = vertical shear force,

[F

-x A y

-1

**A L = moment of area above the section about N.A., and
**

I = moment of inertia,

If R is the strength of the rivet in single shear or bearing

**R Spacing of rivets = F -xAy .I
**

For plate girders, the shear stress is taken uniform over the whole depth of girder of web, therefore, the horizontal shear at the junction of flange plate and flanges F per 1 cm will be - where F is vertical shear and D is the depth over angles in cm.

D

R Spacing of rivets = F/D

where, R is the strength of one rivet in single shear or bearing.

**Riveting in Flange Angles to Web
**

The rivets will have to be designed for horizontal shear and vertical loads directly applied to the flange expecting where bearing stiffeners are provided to transfer such direct loads to the web. The rivets will be in double shear. The minimum of the strength in double shear and bearing should be taken for design purposes. If F,, is the horizontal shear per 1 cm length and v is the vertical load per 1 cm length, the resultant shear per 1 cm r =

R If R is the strength of 1 rivet spacing of rivets = -

r

Horizontal shear per cm

Now

I and A y =A x. angle sections are used as stiffeners. stiffeners are provided.) D Design of Plate Girden I If the shear intensity is taken uniform on the web I 1 Web Stiffeners: The web of the plate girder is so thin that there is always tendency for diagonal buckling and vertical buckling. . I M-Mn / F i) b Figure 7.3(a) Curtailment of Plates for Girder Carrying Uniformly Distributed Load Moment of resistance varies as effective flange . (approx. 'plus 118 area of web (=A+ -) d Let L. B. Curtailment of Plates As the bending moment decreases towards the supports.e. Therefore.area i. There is not much difference in the effective depth after curtailment and will nearly equal to 'D'. In'riveted plate girders. M = U . A l = total effective flange area. diagram will be a parabola. \ a = net area of plate to be curtailed plus the net area of plates above this as taken in full section. ..M. the depth over angles. area of flange A.be the theoretical length of the plate which is to be curtailed. some of the flange plates may be curtailed.

and M.Members in Flexure & Column Bases ii) Accurate Method of Curtailment In this method.M.3(b) For U.3(b)). the moment or resistance of the section after removing the plate is calculated and the point at which the B. is the moment of resistance of the section after removing the plate and L.kg.D. diagram will be a parabola(see Figure 7.M. will be equal to this moment of resistance. is the length of plate Self weight of plate girder (riveted). If M is the maximum B. if M is in kg-cm and f is in kg/cm2 7. Figure 7.L. w1 380 Depth Over Angles For riveted plate girder.3. depth over angles may be approximately determined from the formula D will be in crn. The flange plate is welded directly to the web and no flange angles . will be the theoretical point at which the plate may be cut-off. For riveted plate girder. the B.M. total self weight may be determined from the formula .2 Welded Plate Girder A welded plate girder is more efficient section as the whole area is effective in resisting loads.

The flange plate is welded directly to the web and no flange angles are used. Flange plates shall be joined by butt welds. webs: the greater of 11180 of the smallest clear panel b) For vertically. a thinner plate may be used.3 and z . Flange design by approximate formula : The approximate formula for moment of resistance is given by where. Wl 400 where W is the total superimposed The overall depth may be fixed from the formula where. These butt welds shall develop the full strength of the plates. d l G dl< dl and but not less than 1344 85 8 16 dl' = depth of web as defined in 1. . = web plate area Trial section can be fixed and checked by moment of inertia method and if found unsuitable. the depth of web will be overall depth minus twice the thickness of flange = D . = calculated average stress in the web due to shear force. stiffened ddf d2 but not less than dimension and 3200 200 . D = overall depth M = maximum bending moment f = allowable stress Flange: Each flange should preferably consist of a single section rather than of two or more sections superimposed. -. . The thinner and thicker plates may then be butt welded. The thickness of the web is fixed so that the average shear stress does not exceed 945 kg/cm2 and the ratio of depth of web to thickness of web does not exceed 200 if horizontal stiffeners are not to be provided.2tf. . Minimum thickness-The thickness of the web plate shall be not less than the following: a) For unstiffened webs: the greater of where. . but the single section may comprise of series of sections laid end to end and effectively welded at their functions. Web: Assuming thickness of flange tf. It is uneconomical to use a number of thin cover plates as flanges one thick plate may be used as a flange and where it is desired to decrease the flange area. D ' = Distance between centre of flanges A = flange plate area A . the section may be modified. . The box girders may also be fabricated by using two or more webs. I Design of Plate Girders The self weight in kg may be taken as load in kg and 1 is the span in metres.are used.

therefore the flange thickness calculated for the maximum bending moment is not necessary to run throughout the span. d2 is twice the clear distance from the compression flange angles. and but not less than 4000 250 d) When there is also a horizontal stiffener at the neutral axis of the girder.and but not less 6400 fl than 400 d2 In (b). Table 7.(c) and (d) above. In the case of welded crane gantry plate girders intended for carrying cranes with a lifting load of 15 tonnes or more. nor the lesser clear dimension of the same panel exceed 180 t.'7 for information.r __ 169 d2 d2 1G4 160 156 151 146 142 i38 Variation in Flange Thickness: The bending moment varies the span. Note: In no case shall the greater clear dimension of a web panel exceed 270.4 .1 0 0 200 dn dl dz j g da 198 1 9 1 -d?_ 185 d > 179 d 174 d d1 d d dl dl _s . the dl greater of 11180 of the smaller dimension in each pane1. Where the difference in thickness of the two plates is 6 mm or more. thicker plate shall. The moment of resistance of the girder with reduced thickness of flange plate is calculated and the point at which the bending moment is equal to the calculated moment of resistance is worked out analytically or graphically and at that point the flange thickness may be reduced.Members in Column Bases & C) For webs stiffened both vertically and horizontally with a horizontal stiffener at a distance from the compression flange equal to 215 of the distance from the compression flange to the neutral axis: the greater of 11180 of the smaller dl d2 dimension in each panel. the thickness of web plate shall be not less than 8 mm. either be bevelled so that the slope of (b) Figure 7. Where bending moment is less. The minimum thickness of web plates for different yield stress values are given in Table 6.1 : Minimum Thickness of Web Minimum Thickness of W e b for Yield Stress f y ( in MPa ) of dZd& 3 2oo 200 dn 200. flange thickness may be reduced. where t is the thickness of the web plate. The plates are butt welded at function to form continuous flange. or plate. or tongue plate to the neutral axis.

one weld on each side of the stiffener. the effective length of each weld should be not less than 4 times the thickness of the stiffener. The bearing stress on the web should not exceed 1890 kg/cm2. the vertical loads are directly transmitted to the web by direct bearing. F = shear force at the section I = moment of inertia A y = moment of area above the section about the N. be sufficient to transmit to the web full reaction or load. The load is assumed to disperse at 30' through the flange.. Welding between Stiffeners and Web: The size of the fillet welds should be in relation to the thickness of the web or stiffeners whichever is greater. Horizontal shear per 1 cm ! where. The connection of flange plate to web is done by intermittent welding. Using welds on both sides of the web of intermittent lengths I. the distance between the effective lengths of any two welds.A. or the weld metal shall be built-up between the two parts as shown in Figure 7. the effective length of each weld should not be less than 10 times the thickness of the stiffener. Where intermittent welds'are placed on one side of stiffener only or on both sides but staggered or where single plate stiffeners are butt welded to the web. therefore. I Where intermittent welds are placed in pairs. even if staggered on opposite sides of the stiffeners should not exceed 16 times thickness of the stiffener 30 cm. 1 1 --Fh Spacing of welds 2 Sw The minimum ratio of effective length of intermittent weld to centre to centre distance of welds . For bearing stiffener the welding should. Where intermittent welds are used. in addition. Spacing of welds = Fh 2Sw 11 . provided the thickness of the thicker part is not more than 50% greater than that of the thinner plate.4(a).4(b). Design of Plate Girders Connection of Flange with Web: The web is machined and is in close contact with flange. I . of strength Sw per 1 cm length.Fh -2S w 2 sw 1 1 Clearing spacing = -1 1 Flz Web Stiffeners: Flates are used as stiffeners and are welded to the web.surface from one part to the other is not steeper than 1 in 5 as shown in Figure 7.

5. The distribution of bending stress in the flanges is uniform. the transportation facilities .. for example.e. 7. In welded connection the flange splice is done through a full strength butt weld or through a single cover butt or double cover butt joint for the flange force at the section. they should not be welded to tension flange subjected to dynamic loads by welds transverse to the longitudinal axis of the girder. A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of the flange angle or plate is known as flange splice. The two flange angles should not be spliced at the same section preferably one flange angle should be spliced in one . of the flange element spliced as possible. i.may not permit transportation of plate girder for the entire span as one piece. The centre of gravity of the splice plate should be kept as close to the c. sometimes it becomes necessary to make flange splices.5 DESIGN OF FLANGE SPLICE When plate girders are longer the elements of their flanges.1 Splice of Flange Angles When one flange angle is spliced at a section.Members in Flexure & Column Bases (a) Single .4 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS The approxilnate design is based on the following assumptions: 1) 2) The shear force is carried wholly by the web and the shear stress is uniformly distributed throughout the cross-sectional area of the web.g. In general the flange angles and flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder. 7. flange angles and flange plates may not be available in the required lengths so their splicing becomes necessary. but in no case should the strength developed be less than 50 per cent of the effective strength of the material spliced. The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible. In spite of availability of full length of flange angles and flange plates. a single splice angle may be provided in case it provides sufficient area. care should be taken to see that it is not located at the points of maximum stress.ingle Splice (b) Double Angle Splice Figure 7. There shall be enough rivets or welds on each side of the splice to develop the load in the element spliced plus 5 per cent.5: Flange Angle Splices (c) Splice . In locating the flange splice. 7.Angle and Plate Where stiffeners are required to be welded to the flanges. The flange splices should be located at the section where some excess of flange area is available and not at the points where web splice is done. The bending moment is resisted by the flanges.

7. (n R.cal= (V'de) The horizontal shear per unit length in one plane The horizontal shear per unit length in one plane where.half and the other flange angle in the other half of span of the girder.5(a) is the direct splice as the area of spliced angle there is spliced by the area of splice angle which is in direct touch with the force.. The length of splice plate is kept sufficient to accommodate necessary number of rivets. in the case of splicing with two angles or one angle and one plate on the two sides [Figure 7. The strength of rivets in considered single shear because P is force to be carried in one plane only. Splicing of angles can be achieved in either of the following three ways: Design of Plate Girders i) ii) by one angle on the side of flange by two angles on either side of the flange iii) by one angle on the spliced side and additional plate on the other side The splice angle should be suitably shaped at the heel to match with the fillet of the spliced angle. = Y where. However. The shear force between the web plate and the flange angle in this case is not affected by splicing. the length of splice angle should be sufficient to accommodate the sufficient number of rivets already used for connecting flange angle with the web plate so that full strength of splice angle is developed. = strength of rivet in single shear. The strength of rivet is found in .2 P 1 n=[Rs-5 v Splice of Flange Plates In case it becomes necessary to splice an outer flange plate a splice plate of same cross-section as the plate is provided. The horizontal shear per unit length T~f. The splice shown in Figure 7.5(a) and (c)] the shear force between the web and flange angle is increased by the amount of force carried by the splice plate. The strength to be transmitted by rivets connecting splice plate is equal to force in splice plate plus force due to horizontal shear. + Horizontal shear) n = no of rivets required to connect splice plate on each side of splice P = force to be carried by splice plate R. Therefore.5. p = pitch of rivets V = shear force at the splice section de = effective depth of the girder . The force in the flange angle is assumed to be distributed to the elements of the splice in proportion to their cross-sectional area. So no additional rivets are required to connect the splice angle with the spliced angle.

6. A joint in the web plate provided to increase the length is known as web splice. In case. The splice plate is in direct contact. The splice plates B need not be provided.9 tonnes.5 m deep and 8 mm thick.6 DESIGN OF WEB SPLICE When the requiretl length of the web plate is longer than that which can be secured from the rolling mills. where maximum bending moments occur. which is placed outside of all flange plates. only one splice may suffice for full length of the girder. 3. it may be located at such sections. The splices should not be located at the sections. If sufficient excess flange area is available at the splice section. the force to be transmitted by splice plate is not affected. splices may be located under stiffeners.1 Web Splice (Rational Splice) This type of web splice is shown in Figure 7. it becomes necessary to splice an inner flange plate. The stresses are transmitted directly in this type. In many cases. As the best design. The web of a plate girder carries both bending and shearing stresses. if the web was not spliced. The outer plate is extended. These plates are designed for shear and moment which would be resisted by the portion of the web. the web has to be spliced due to the limitations of the handling equipment. the 'splice may be located at the theoretical cutoff of the next outer plate. The splicing of web plates is achieved by fixing splice plates on both sides. The pitch of rivets connecting splice rivets to the web is found as under: Vertical shear per unit depth. the splice plates should directly take up all stresses borne by the web plates covered by them. There are following three types of web splices which are commonly used. The stiffeners provide additional strength to the splice. The splice plates A as shown in Figure 7. The rivets may be designed to take full strength of flange plate cut and the shearing stress due to transmission of flange increment is neglected.6(a). Therefore. This type is most satisfactory than other two types. The excess flange areas are available at sections prior to the curtailment of flange plates preferably. the weight of the web alone will be 3. In case. The web splice are designed to resist the shears and moments at the spliced sections the splice plates are provided on each side of the web. The splice plates B are provided for portion of web underneath the flange angles. A clearance of 6 mm is left between splice plates and flange angles.Slembers in Flexure & C:ulumn Bases single shear. This serves as a splice plate splicing of an inner plate is also done by providing an extra plate. The size and the weight of the plate are fairly large and it will be convenient to splice the plate. 1) Rational Splice Moment Splice Shear Splice 2) 3) 7. The bending stress up to the level of rivets connecting flange angles . Supposing we have to fabricate a plate girder with web 25 m long 2.6(a) are provided between flange angles. As far as possible. the web plate must be spliced. web splices may be located at sections where excess flange areas are available. The area of cross-section of splice plate is kept equal to the cross-sectional area of flange plate cut. The rivets are provided at uniform spacing in this type.

R If the computed pitch of rivets is less than minimum pitch. if rivets are provided in two vertical rows. The horizontal force in the portion of web beneath flanges due to moment. The width of splice plates A is kept sufficient to accommodate the rivets. but not less than 6 mm. ' The horizontal force per unit length due to moment If the rivets are provided in one vertical row and P is the pitch of rivets.Design UP Plate CirUers I I 6mm clearance I I t ++:+++I I I I I I+ + + I + ++ Slice plate B k s l i c e plate A 'Y I I Figure 7. = distance upto the level of rivets connection flange angles from neutral axis . the resultant of vertical and horizontal forces per pitch should not exceed the rivet value. The rivets are provided at spacing of three times the pitch computed above if rivets are provided in three vertical rows. The thickness of splice plates A is kept equal to half the thickness of web. The rivets are provided at spacing of twice pitch computed above. M = bending moment at the splice section 1= moment of inertia of the girder y.6(a) : Web Splice (Rational Splice Method) where. rivets are provided in two or three vertical rows. The horizontal shear force per pitch length .

It is assumed that moment plates resist moment resisted by web.-.) The rivets connecting splice plates B to flange are provided at close spgcing. Splice . and shear plates resist shear resisted by web. Similarly the moment resisted by splice plates B is small compared with splice plates A. + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Splice plate A 4 * .6.-a S lice . . shear resisted by splice plates A is small compared with plates B. This type of splice may be used for girders about 2 m deep.P. each set of plate resist shear as well as moment. There are four moment plates (two on each face).c + + + + + + + + + + + r Figure 7. y is the distance of rivets connecting splice plates B to the flange angles ftom the neutral axis if n is the number of rivets required n = P 2 / ( R . but in case of deep girders. A clearance of 6 mm is provided between splice plates A and flange angles and between splice plates B. 7. The web splice (moment splice) is designed as under: The moment resisted by the web plate is as under - + + + 4 t + + + + .6(b). so that their length is small. marked as splice A plates and two shear plates (one on each face) marked as splice plate B. which one is assumed The horizontal force in the portion of web beneath flange angle6 due to moment P2 = M. p ate A . B . I' + + ++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . x (Area of portion of web beneath flange angles) where.The pitch of rivets is assumed Af= gross area of flange excluding web equivalent P = pitch of rivets.6(b): Web Splice (Moment Splice Method) . In fact.2 Web Splice (Moment Splice) This type of web splice is shown in Figure 7.

. The moment of resistance of four moment plates is A . and assumed uniform in these plates.cal is the bending stress at the extreme fibre of the web plate Let t. I. abl/R) where. The number of rivets. Shear Plates The shear plates B resists shear at the web splice section. required to resist shear . (Tbc. d. . d .where. and d = diameter of rivets. I = gross moment of inertia of the girder. = gross moment of inertia of the web. Moment Plates The moment of resistance of four moment plates (splice plates A) is equal to moment resisted by web. nl = number of rivets in one vertical row. a. R = rivet value. where. = depth of moment plate. Mw = A. where. . and M = bending moment at the web splice section. The horizontal force in the two moment plates A = (Al x obi) The number of rivets required to connect moment plates A to the web plate on each side of web splice is given by n = (A. d. The combined thickness of these plates is designed to resist shear at web splice section. A. al . = distance between centre to centre of splice plate A (moment plates). The width of the splice plates B is kept sufficient to accommodate rivets. = net area of two moment plates. d. . Therefore. be the thickness of the moment plate where.= bending stress at the centre of splice plate A. ab.

6(c):Web Plates (Shear Splice Method) . V is the shear at the web splice and R is the rivet value. and d.Members in Flexure & Colun~nBases n = (V/R) where. Total thickness of splice plates Area of the splice plate Width of the splice plate Figure 7.3 Web Splice (Shear Splice) In this type of web splice the splice plates are provided between flange angles.6. A clearance of 6 mm is left between splice plates and flange angles. A.. From the triangular distribution of bending stress. Thus where. B. = Area and depth of splice plates A. = Area and depth of web plate. The web splice (shear splice) is designed as under : The moment of resistance of splice plate is kept equal to moment of resistance of web plates where. is the bending stress at the extreme fibre of splice plate and obc the bending stress at the extreme fibre of web plate. 7. and d.

When the thickness of the web is less than the limits specified in IS: 800 6. = gross moment of inertia of the web I = gross moment of inertia of the girder M = bending moment at the splice section The splice plates resist a total moment M. = (Me + M. These stiffeners also have a second function.3. plates are used as stiffeners.The splice plates are designed to resist shear and moment which would be resisted by web.1(a) vertical stiffeners shall be provided through-out the length of the girder. angle sections are used as stiffeners and in welded plate girders. horizontal stiffeners are provided throughout the length of the girder. This local buckling of the web is prevented by stiffeners.7 7. The vertical intermediate stiffener divide the web plate into small panels.1(b) horizontal stiffeners shall be provided in addition to the vertical stiffeners.7 STIFFENERS The web of a plate girder buckles locally either under pure shear due to diagonal compression or under flexure due to bending compressive stress.G. I .C .) The rivets connecting splice plates to the web are designed to resist a vertical force ' V ' and a moment 'Me' or shown in Figures 7. The resistance of web plate to buckling is measurably increased. These panels are supported along the lines of stiffeners. 7.3.7. if web was not spliced Design or Plate Girders where. . vertical stiffeners. or under concentrated loads due to bearing compressive stress. then they maintain the original 90' angle between the flanges and the web when the dimensions of the web are very large. When the vertical stiffeners are fitted against the top and bottom flanges. In riveted plate girders. They are used to avoid diagonal buckling of the web depending upon the ratio of clear depth to the thickness of web (dlt. then the panel dimensions are reduced by providing the horizontal stiffeners on the compression side of the web. When the thickness of the web is less than the limits specified in IS: 800 6.7. I I I Mc C.).1 Intermediate Web Stiffeners The intermediate stiffeners are used for the economical design of the web plate of the plate girder. + I I * ! I I I I +VXe qi v ' + L 6.of rivets pet 1 te".7(a) and (b).7.of rivets I I I (b) Figure 7.

The M. d is the distance between the flange angles. The greater unsupported clear dimension of web panel should not be greater than 270 times the thickness of web. If dlt. of the stiffener should be calculated about the centre line of the web if the stiffener consists of a pair of angles and about the face of the web if the stiffener is made up of one angle only. They are used to safeguard the web against buckling due to longitudinal bending compression. t.5 d and not less than 0. a longitudinal stiffener is used on the web at a distance of dl5 from the compression flange. filler plate of thickness equal to that of flange angles is inserted between the stiffener and web plate. I = the M.I. The vertical stiffeners are provided throughout the length of the girder when the thickness of web is less than the limits specified for the minimum thickness of the web plate. between each component of the stiffener and the web of not less than . another horizontal stiffener should be used. Vertical Stiffeners The vertical stiffeners are also termed as transverse stiffener. They are fitted tightly between outstanding legs of top and bottom flange angles. The length of the connected leg of vertical stiffener should be sufficient to accommodate the rivets connecting the stiffener to the web. ratio of the web exceeds 200. The vertical stiffeners are provided at spacing not greater than 1.I. is larger than 200. of a pair of stiffener about the centre line of web. The requirement for moment of inertia for horizontal stiffeners should not be less than 4c15 where. Longitudinal stiffeners need not be continuous and may be cut at their intersections with transverse stiffeners. C1 is the actual distance between the vertical stiffeners. The vertical stiffeners divide the web plate into number of panels. = the minimum required thickness of the web. of this stiffener should be not less than d l t. The M. where t is the thickness of the web plate. This should be placed at the neutral axis of the web.--In Cotunul Bases In no case shall the greater unsupported clear dimension of a web panel exceed 270t nor the lesser unsupported clear dimension of the same panel exceed 180t. They are joggled or ciimpled. The length of outstanding leg of vertical stiffener may be taken equal to 1/30 of the clear depth plus 50 mm. and the lesser unsupported clear dimension of the same web panel should not be greater than 180 times the thickness of web.33 d where. so as to withstand a shearing force. Horizontal Stiffener The horizontal stiffener are also termed as longitudinal stiffeners. They may be provided straight in that case. The moment of inertia I of the stiffener selected should not be less than where. and C = the maximum permitted clear distance between vertical stiffeners. The outstand of the stiffeners should not exceed 16 times their thickness. When the ratio of dlt.I. Connection of Intermediate Vertical and Horizontal Stiffeners Intermediate vertical and horizontal stiffeners not subjected to external loads shall be connected to the web by rivets of welds.

. The outstand of the pair of stiffener should be clear of the flange root or weld and the calculated bearing stress should be less than the permissible value. For any section. the flange angles should transfer the vertical concentrated load directly to the bearing stiffener through bearing.7 times the length of the stiffener. where the concentrated load or reaction of girder exceeds.1 for a slenderness ratio -&.e. where possible. = clear depth of web between root fillets.. B = the length of the stiff portion of the bearing plus the additional length given by dispersion at 450 to the level of the neutral axis. Filler plates of thickness equal to the thickness of flange angles should be connected on both sides of the web (see Figure 7. they are termed as end bearing stiffeners. . t t dl r = web thickness..2 Bearing Stiffener Bearing stiffeners in addition to accomplishing their primary function of stiffening the web of the plate girder help in relieving the rivets connecting flange angles and web from vertical force. load bearing stiffeners should be provided. assuming a section to consist of the pair of stiffener together with a length of web on each side of the centre line of stiffeners equal to 20 times the web thickness. . where. For all sections. The effective length of the column is equal to 0. Load bearing stiffeners shall be symmetrical about the web. load bearing stiffeners shall be provided at points of concentrated load (including points of support) where the concentrated load or reaction exceeds the value of where. t = the web thickness in mm. the shear between the web and stiffeners due to these loads shall be added to the above values. 7. As the purpose of the bearing stiffeners make it clear. and ci. Thus the net bearing area to be provided by the outstanding legs should be sufficient so that the bearing stress is within the allowable limit i. Bearing stiffeners are required at the point of application of concentrated loads known as load bearing stiffeners. o . plus the thickness*of the scating angle. if any. When these stiffeners are provided at ends. . 1890 kg/cm2. 2) . = the maximum permissible axial stress for columns as given under 5.7. and h = the outstand of stiffener in mm For stiffeners subjected to external loads. A bearing stiffener consists of one or more pairs of angles connected on both sides of the web.Design of Plate Gird. Design of Bearing Stiffener 1) Load bearing stiffeners should be designed as columns.8(b). The stiff portion of a bearing is that length which cannot deform appreciably in bending and shall not be taken as greater than half the depth of beam for simply supported beams and the full depth of the beams continuous over a bearing.

Figure 7. SAQ 1 1) Define plate girder and discuss the elements of a plate girder. Bearing stiffeners shall not be joggled and shall be solidly packed throughout.8(a): Intermediate Stiffeners Figure 7 . 3) 4) 5) Explain the basic concepts in the design of flange splice. where possible and at points of support shall project as nearly as practicable to the outer edges of the flanges. What is the function of a stiffener in a plate girder and describe the various types of stiffeners used. The ends of load bearing stiffeners shall be fitted to provide a tight and uniform bearing upon the loaded flange unless welds or rivets designed' to transmit the full reaction or load are provided bet&een the flange and stiffener. .Members in Flexure & Column Bases 3) Stiffeners shall be symmetrical about the web. Discuss the various types of web splices and explain when they are adopted. and The moment of inertia of the stiffener is 4) 5) 6) 7) where. The end of stiffeners should be tight fitted for full bearing. At points of support this requirement should be satisfied at both flanges. R = reaction on the bearing. 2 ) Bring out the differences between the riveted and welded plate girder. The connection to the web should be capable of carrying the full load. At points of support this requirement shall apply at both flanges. 8 ( b ) : Bearing Stiffeners The load carrying capacity of the bearing stiffeners as a column should be greater than or equal to the applied load or the reaction. and W = total load on girder. D = overall depth of the girder. T = maximum thickness of comp flange.

320.3 cm Use overall depth of 180 cm. 25.2 At the average shear stress of 945 kg/cm2 Thickness of web = 127.2549400= 127.000 kg.400 = 254. cm. Taking flange plate thickness as 5 cm. h i po f Plate Girdem Solution Total superimposed load = 10 x 1000 x 24 = 240.M.79 1cm 945 x 170 d As .1 Design a welded plate girder to carry a superimposed load of 10 tonnes per metre on an effective span of 24 metres. cm.7.400 kg kg.200kg . Design by Approximate Formula where. Assuming girders to be laterally supported throughout so that maximum allowable stresses both in tension and compression are 1575 kg/cm2 = 182. depth of web will be 170 cm Maximum shear .8 DESIGN PRBBLENIS Example 7.should be less than 200 if horizontal stiffeners are not to be provided. f = maximum allowable stress D ' = distance between centre to centre of flanges A = flange plate area .400~ 2400 8 = 76. r web thickness of 1 em is used.000 = + 14.000 kg Assuming self weight Total load Maximum B. = 240.200 = 0.

= web plate area w:.4. .320. 4 cm.71 5 Width provided is 52 cm. : The minimum allowable flange thickness Use flange thickness of 5 cm.49.57 ange plate = .300 Ymax 90 Maximum stress = 76. .5 cm for different positions. and 2.973 = 15559kg/cm2 < 1575kg/cm2 Variation of Flange Thickness The flange outside should not be greater than 12 times the thickness of the flange. 248.Members in Flexure & Column Bases A.: P.000 48. Check by Moment of Inertia Method z=--I .404.

400 /2 =17m and 7 m Moment of resistance with 2.cm <frT? " L L .Moment of inertia with 4 cm flange thickness I= 52 ( 1 7 f . Ymax -.400/2 Figure 7. E Design Plate -7- E Figure 7.1575 x 356. B.5 cm flange thickness -&I Ymax (175" .563.5 [1.000+ 409. Flange will be terminated.154.9(b) Let x metres be the distance from end where 5cm.17$) +12 -- 1x1031 87.354.000kg. Total load 2 5 4 .M. 4 0 0 1 ~ ~ ~ 254.300 = 3.300 89 = 63. at this section will be equal to moment of resistance of section with 4cm flange thickness.300 .300] -1575 x 2.300 cm4 Moment of resistance --fX.1703 1 x 17d + 12 12 = 3.936.050.9(c) 254.000+ 409.5 87.

6=431 kg ..5 m weld with effective length 21. Use 14 intermittent welds. 0 2 + 12 = 3. Members in column & Distance x from left support. where BM is equal to moment of resistance is given = 79.02 m The variation of flange thickness is shown in Figure 7.9(ej.30 x = . .64 + 144 = 64. The clear distance between the effective welds will be 8.+ 8 .98 m and 20.64 (X .12)' = -79. .3 cm and centre to centre of weld 30 cm.7x0. Allowable maximum clear spacing is 16t = 16 x 1 = 16 cm.I -. Effective length = 0. = 1025x0.7 cm. 6mm weld at 30cm centres i Figure 7.705 Centre to centre of welds Use 22.9(e) Connection of Flange with Web Horizontal shear for 1 cm length Used 6 rnm weld Strength of weld per 1 cm length S .

200 92 = 1380kg/cm2 < 1890 kg/cm2. Safe. As the outstand should not exceed 12t.Shear force at 4 metres = 254.400 . minimum thickness required will be 2 cm used 2 flats as shown in Figure 7.3 kg/cm2 :.10(b) Allowable stress from IS code is 1246.254. This spacing is maintained for the remaining position up to the centre.2 cm. The clear distance between effective welds will be 10.8 cm effective length of weld and centre to centre of weld 20 cm.400 x 40 2 24 Design of Plate Girders Use 6 mm weld Use 11 cm weld having 9. End Bearing Stiffeners Stiffeners width is taken as 24 cm.10 Area of stiffener = 2 x 24 x 2 + 20 x 1 Bearing area of the stiffener taking that flat is splayed 1 cm to fit on the weld Bearing stress = 127. Allowable load = 1246. 2 ~ 4 918x13 ~ Moment of inertia = + 12 12 Figure 7.3 x 116 .

This gives clear distance of 11.1 = 0. length of weld with effective length of 8. Use 6 mm.e.1 kg 170 Effective Length of Weld 747.43 Centre to centre of web = 4x431 Use 10 cm.10(c) .14cm4 Connection to web: Shear in tonnes per cm = 2h where.6 = 431 kg Shear per cm. Figure 7.500 kg. intermittent welding on both sides of the stiffener.2 d i.791 cm 1.Mea~BersIn Ftenure & CGhEUl &IS~?E = 144.. = 0. Strength of weld per cm = 1025 x 0.200 kg Safe. > 120.2 x 170 = 204 cm Use stiffeners at 200 cm centres Moment of inertia required = t . Intermediate Stiffeners Use single flat stiffeners alternately one on either side of the web Average shear stress = 127'200 = 748 k g c m 2 170 x 1 Stiffeners spacing for these values of dlt ratio and average shear stress is 1.5d3ti C E m 1 p-52~~1 u i I I ---( a! Minimum width of stiffener Use 12 cm x 1 cm flat as stiffener - =576cm4 >91. 1. length of web = 277200= 747.8 cm and centre to centre of welds 20 cm. t = : web thickness t Safe.7 x 0. The stiffeners are connected to flanges by 6 cm weld.2 cm between effective welds which is permissible.

Assume girder to be laterally supported throughout.000 kg : .000 kg Maximum bending moment Assume girder to be laterally supported throughout so that maximum allowable stress in tension and compression is 1575 kg/cm2 Depth over angles 0 = 5.000 + 16. : Shear per cm = -x1OOO 2 x 12 1 = 41.158 kg = say 16.000 = 256. Example 7. . - w1 380 W = total superimposed load 2 = Span in metres Self weight = 2407000 3 80 24 = 15. Solution Total superimposed load = 10 x 24 = 240 tonnes = 240.h = outstand of stiffener in cm .5 cm between web is the flange plates.2 Design a riveted plate girder to carry a superimposed load of 10 tonnes'per metre on an effective span of 24 m. This gives clear distance of 16 cm between effective length of welds which is permissible. Tota load = 240.5 Adopt 201 cm depth over angles keeping a gap of 0.67 kg Use 5 mm inter~ediateweld on both sides of stiffener - Effective length Centre to centre of weld Use 5 cm weld with effective length 4 cm and centre to centre of welds 20 cm.000 kg Self weight may be taken as where.

55 cm2 .5=23.15[2x 1 .50. Use 0.5)=4.65cm2 Deduction due to holes in legs connected to web =2x2.2 x 15 = 171 cm W Maximum shear force = 2 Minimum thickness of web required : .56 cm2 2 plates 44 cm x 2 cm Gross area = 2 x 88 = 176. Deduction due to holes in flange plates =2x2. Use 1 cm thickness of web = 243.1 = 200 cm Taking length of angle leg is 15 cm d = 201 .Depth of web = 201 .25.3x5.8 cm thickness of web If horizontal stiffeners are not be' used.should be less than 200 mm ' d t : .9cm2 Total deduction = 23.15~(2+2+ 1.56 crn2 Using 20 mm diameter rivets d = 2.15 cm Let the plates be connected to the flange angles by two rivets in each angle by staggered riveting.00 cm2 Total gross area = 261. 5 ] = 4 .78 = 85. 3 ~ 3 = 12. .00= 218.50cm2 Use 2 c s 150 mm x 150 mm x 15 mm Gross area = 2 x 42.75 + 12.9 = 36.

Net flange area = 261.01 cm2 Design Plate The plate girder section i s shown in Figure 7. (b) Figure 7.55 = 225.11.56 - 36.11 Check by Moment of Inertia Method Moment of inertia of gross section = moment of inertia of plate inertia of web + moment of inertia of angles + moment of Maximum tensile stress on gross area Gross flange area = area of flznge plates + area of angles + area of web between the angles Deduction for rivet holes Due to connection of flange plates to flange angles Due to connection of flange angles to web .

00 .65 Net flange area = 276 + 17.12 = 1105 kg/cm2 Force in curtailed plate = 45 x 2 x 1105 = 99.55 = 254. Total effective flange area = area of flange plates - + area of angles +web area 8 1 deduction for holes = 2 x 90 + 2 x 42.5 = 280.85 cm2 .6 = 81. Not safe.588.588.2 x 2.MembvsIn-rr& C ~ UB ~ R Total deduction = 23.40. Maximum stress at theoretical curtailments point r 2 1 Figure 7.36.21 Curtailment of top plate: Taking one plate throughout the top plate can be curtailed at a point as calculated below.787+ 666.2013] 1.470 kg .06 = 1564 kg/cm2 Safe.78 + 25.2 = 40.85 = 239.01 cm2 a = net area of flange to be curtailed = 90 .06 cm2 .55 = 180 + 85.667 = 6.15 x 2 = 90 .21 276'06 = 1588 kg/cm2 > 1575 235.0 metres.21 cm2 Actual maximum tensile stress = 1332 280.85 = 235.667 45 12 + = 3.024.768.787 + 666.06 + 85.8.40.56 + 14.36.[20g3.1351 : .750 + 1.00 .56 + 25.21 Actual maximum tensile stress .4 cm2 = 130. 239.204 cm4 Maximum tensile stress on gross area Gross flange area Net flange area = 2 x 90 = 280. The section is revised by providing flange plate of width 45 cm Moment of inertia of gross area = .

8 cm 640 Use pitch of 10 cm.44 = 13 + 0. .88 = 13. number of rows required will be 8.13 Use same pitch of 10 cm as for connection between flange angles and flange plates. ii) Connection of flange angles to web Horizontal shear per cm = A+- Vertical load per km = Resultant force 10 1000 = 100 kg r = 4577.15. 6860 Spacing of staggered rivets = = 10.5 cm the extended length of plate beyond theoretical cut-off point will be 44 cm.6 cm 586 Figure 7.15 x 1 x 2125 = 9137.Strength of one 20 mm diameter rivet = 3430 kg 997470 . + loo2 Use 20 mm diameter rivets Strength of two rivets in bearing against web = 2 x 2.720 kg Pitch of rivets = -----. Length of top plate = 13.00 Number or rivets required = -----3430 Using 4 rivets in a row.29.88 say 14 metres Riveting i) Connecting of flange plate to flange angles Shear per 1 cm length of web - 28'000 = 640 kg depth of web= 200 F Use 20 rnrn diameter rivets Strength of two rivets = 2 x 3430 = 6860 kg.5 kg Double shear strength of two rivets = 2 x 2 x 3430 = 13.0 + 2 x 0. Intermediate stiffeners d = 171 t . Using the minimum pitch of 5.0 = 586 kg.

5)~] = 2 [56.2 x 17 1 = 205.581 I = 2 x 125. = minimum required thickness of c? web I I = 2 [560 + 9.1962 centre to centre distance of stiffeners = 1. Connection of Stiffeners to Web I t2 Shear in tonnes per cm = 2h where.5 d3t: I section required = . Safe.18 + 0.1 12 tonne~ : .5 kg 130 x 130 x 15mn length u '7 Itm.Members In Flenure & Column Bases Average shear stress = 128'ooo = 749 k d c m 2 171 x 1 From IS 800 .682] = 2 [56.16 cm4 > 101.8 I 1.0+ 69. t = web thickness h = outstand of stiffeners in cm -.where t .2 cm say 200 cm Use 2Ls 80 mm x 80 mm x 6 mm as stiffeners clear distance between stiffeners C = 200 .58 = 251.29 x 2.0+ 9. th~ckweb Figure 7.14 .29 x (2. Shear per cm = 62.0 cm4 : .

Weight of plate girder total volume of web s 200 x 1 x 2400 = 480.7 x 198 Area : .75 kg Double shear strength of rivet = 6860 kg Number of rivets = 128.57 Rivets we shown in Figure 7.0.000 73.54.500 kg > 128.000 cm3 . = 138.81 x 1.15.2 x 1.9 cm Pitch of rivets = Use pitch of 16 cm as allowable pitch is =16t=16x1=16cm Bearing stiffeners use 4 L s 130 mm x 130 mm x 15 mm Maximum shear force at the end = 128.80 kg/cm2 Safe load on stiffener = 167.24 cm2 Allowable stress from IS = 1237.5 .80 = 206.Use 20 mm diameter rivets single shear strength of 3430 kg will be least 3430 62. Safe Connection of stiffener to web use 20 mm diameter rivets Strengh of one rivet in bearing in web = 1. Safe. E ~ t r a14 rivets are provided in packing plate.2 x 1.24 x 1237.6 cm = 4 x 36.5 = 73.2 = 1748 kg/cm2 c 1890 kg/cm2 Length of stiffener = 201 .5 = 198 cm Effective length = 0.000 = 28 4568.000 kg Area of outstanding legs clear of root of flange angles = 4 [13 .24 + 40 = 187.81 + 40 x 1 = 147.000 kg.25 x 1 x 2125 = 4568.5 = 4 x 12.2cm2 Stress = 128.

Design end bearing stiffeners.n ~ ) .700 + 432. The section of plate girder at supports is shown in Figure 7.>l\lemRers in ~1e.700 crn3 First flange plate (top and bottom) = 2 x 45 x 2 x 2400 = 432.000 + 410.29 = 40.5 = 40. of 3000 kN.500 cm3 2 bearing stiffeners = 2 x 4 x 198 x 36.650 cm3 Grand total = 1. Support reaction = 1500 kN.81 = 58.300 + 40. Also design the necessary intermediate stiffeners.000 + 40.000 + 252.15 4 flange L S = 4 x 4 2 .794 kg Assumed weight = 16.736. 7 8 ~ 2400 = 410.carr & Column Bascs Figure 7. Allowable bearing stress (Yield stress for steel 250 ~ 1 1 .00785 = 13.757.300 cm3 4 filter plates = 4 x 170 x 40 x 1.500 + 58.16. The uniformly distributed load including own weight of plate girder is 3000 kN. Example 7.160 cm3 Total weight of girder = 1.3 A simply supported plate girder spans 20 m and carries a uniformly distributed load (including its own weight).800 Add 295% for rivets = 42.250 x 0. Solution Step 1 Design of bearing stiffener (end reaction).000 kg Assumed weight is alright.000 cm3 Second flange plate (top and bottom) 11 Intermediate stiffeners = 11 x 2 x 198 x 9.800 cm3 Total = 480.

394 kNIm) Radius at root. 1.8) x 0. select 4 ISA 150 mm x 115 mm x 15 mm (4 ISA 150 115.1984. as shown in Figure 7. r. @ 0.5 ) From JSI Handbook No.Step 2 Bearing area required Design of Plate Girders [ 1500 x 1000 = 8000 mm2 18. for the flange angle is 13.36~ lo4 17568 j"' = 77.66 mm Slenderness ratio of column section From IS 800 .8) x 100 = 17568 mm2 The moment of inertia of column section about the centre line of web. Provide 18 mm thick filler plates.5 mm Bearing are provided = 4 (150 - 13. for the steel having yield stress as 250 ~ l m m * .5) x 15 = 8190 mm2 The bearing provided is greater than bearing are required. The radius of gyration of column section about the centre line of web 1 /2 r =( 10595. I S A 125 x 95 x 8 m m Web 8 m m thick Figure 7.16 Step 3 Check for load carrying capacity. The bearing stiffener acts as a column Actual length of bearing stiffener Effective length of column Cross-sectional area of column section A = (4 x 37. allowable stress is axial compression.52 + (40 x 0.16.

Thickness of filler plate = 18 mm.31 kN > 1500 kN 1000 (Support reaction) Hence design of bearing stiffener is safe. the minimum thickness of web needed is found as under. such the vertical stiffeners are required.rnin - [ d2 134 . The filler plate (packings) are properly fitted with the bearing stiffeners. = 8 mm.4 kN...4) = 26. R = 56.. as . Calculated average stress in the web plate due to shear force. the web plate is to be unstiffened.59 The filler plates are provided on both the sides of web plate.. In case. ii> tW.fin 2200 x 25dI2 1344 I =25. then the thickness of web required is as under (d2 = 2200 mm). Provided 30 rivets in 2 rows at pitch p = 130 mm Step 5 Design of intermediate stiffeners clear depth between flange angles of plate girder d = (2500 -2 x 150) = 220 mrn Thickness of web t.Members in Flenure & Column Bases a = 147. or Actual thickness of the web 8 mm is less than the above values of t. Number of rivets required to transmit reaction = (1500156. In case.88 mm. These filler plates are subjected to direct compression only. the vertical stiffeners are used only.331 ~ / m m ~ Load carrying capacity of stiffener ( Step 4 147'331x 17568 = 2588.. Connection of bearing stiffener to web plate use 22 mm diameter power driven rivets. Strength of rivet in double shear Strength of rivet in bearing Rivet value.

actual thickness of web 8 mm is still less than that t.. Let the spacing of vertical stiffeners be = (0. (d2 = 2200 mm) a horizontal Since. in From IS: 800-1984..6 d spacing and the stiffened web plate of steel with fy = 250 ~ l m m d/tw ratio ..1 100 = 440 mm) and also at the neutral axis of the plate girder. the permissble average shear stress.6 x 4 = 0. Step 6 Design of vertical stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders ii) Actual thickness of the web 8 mm is less than t. the minimum thickness of web needed is as follows (d7 = 2200 mm) Therefore.. the vertical Therefore. in which case. At support. shear force = 1500 kN Actual average shear stress in web plate The smaller clear panel dimensions for the actual thickness of web = 180 x 8 = 1440 mm. and horizontal stiffeners become necessary. z and~ 0. both.6 x 2200 = 1320 mm . Table 6. stiffener is also necessary at the neutral axis. the web of 8 mm thickness has to be stiffened using vertical and horizontal stiffeners at a distance from the compression equal to 215'~ of the distance from the compression flange to the neutral axis (215. The vertical stiffeners may be provided at spacing smaller than 1440 mm. thickness required shall be as below...6(A). then. The great clear panel dimension for the actual thickness of web = 270 x 8 = 2160 m..

89 kN/m Use 22 mm diameter power driven field rivets strength of power driven rivet in single shear Strength of rivet in bearing Rivet value R = 43.35 kN Pitch of rivets = - (:::::) = 0. . @ 0. .95.487 m = 487 mm Provide rivets at a pitch of 200 mm Provide ISA : 125 mm x 95 min x 8 mm and 22 m rivets to connect the stiffener with the web at 200 mm pitch. The length of outstanding leg of the angle section is 90 mm.133 kN-m). Clear distance between vertical stiffeners Depth of plate girder = 2500 mm Minimum required thickness of web Required moment of inertia.Members in Flenure & Column Bases Length of outstanding leg of the vertical stiffener ($x clear depth of girder + 50 1 mm Provide ISA 125 mm x 95 mm x 8 mm (ISA 125. = 409 x lo4 mm4 Moment of inertia about the face of web plate provided Step 7 Connection of vertical stiffener to web plate. : ( 8 2 ) = 88. Shear force = ($1 = l 2 .

75 x lo6 cm4 and subjected to B.6 7T .10 ANSWERS TO SAQs - -- SAQ 1 1) 2) 3) 4) Refer Section 7.2 Refer Section7. The girder is effectively supported in the lateral direction.9 SUMMARY Let us conclude this unit by summarising what we have covered in it. Evaluated the design of web splice and differentiated among various types of web splices. Design the web splice 22 mm power driven rivets are used. Design a flange splice for a section of riveted plate girder. In this unit we have 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Introduced the concept of plate girder.1 and 7. Studied the design of welded and riveted plate girder.5 Refer Section 7.Dealgn of Plate Girders SAQ 2 1) Design a plate girder of effective span 16 m and simply supported at ends. Understood the design concept of intermediate (Hor and Ver) and bearing stiffeners. 2) 3) 7.M. Described thk design of flange splice. web splice. of 280 t-m. Discussed the elements of a plate girder. It carries a UDL of 50 kN/m and two concentrated loads of 800 kN at 4 m from each support.3 Refer Section 7. 7) 7. The bending moment and shear force at a particular section of a plate girder are 5760 kN-m and 1080 kN respectively. Studied the function of stiffeners. having I = 2. 22 mm dia rivets have been used at 8 cm pitch and horizontal shear per cm length between web and flange angles is 450 kg.

Member-s in Flc Column Bases 5) Refer Section 7. .7 SAQ 2 Refer examples given in the text.

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- Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Different Mineral Admixtures as Cement Replacements
- Experimental Investigation of Precast Horizontal Wall Panel Connection using Reinforcement by Push Off Test
- Novel Technique of Sodium Silicate in Healing of Concrete

- Footings
- How to Control Your Brain at Will - Roger Vittoz
- Ultimate flexural Strength Hollow Sections
- Design Examples Mega Columns
- Nucleus Column Design
- Foundation Design
- List of CIVIL IS Codes Updated as 1st April 2013
- Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation
- Column Splicing
- Unit 6 (Design & Detailing of Beams)
- Floor Bracing Systems
- 400kV Overhead Line Construction
- Air Cooled Condensers
- Splices & Connections
- TRUSSES Detailed Drg
- Centroid and Moment of Inertia
- Is 800 - 1984 & 2007 Comparative Study
- Material Spans
- Settlement Analysis
- Example Calculations
- Extracts From EuroCode3
- Fosroc Presentation -L&T,Dhuvaran
- FINAL - SKILLS - Design of Built-up Columns - V3
- Is 800 - 1984 & 2007 Comparative Study
- Truss Design Considerations-Slides
- Allowable Sizing
- Pipe Supports
- Explanation - Reinforced Beams Under Flexure
- STeelCON Presentation - Connections

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