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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE LAHORE

MERCHANDISING MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
A ROAD MAP TO FUTURE

COMPILED BY:

Muhammad Mubeen Iqbal Puri Project Director

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SN 1 CHAPTERS PAGE HISTORY OF CLOTHING The Functions of Clothing 10 Materials Used for Clothing 12 Beginnings of Textile Production {Wool; Silk; Cotton) 12 Regional Differences in Textiles 13 Recent Trends in Textile Manufacture 13 50 years of textile industry of Pakistan (Cotton industry; Cotton 14
Spinning industry; Cotton Cloth industry; Cotton Wet Processing industry; Man Made Fiber Industry; Knitwear industry; and Garments industry)

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THE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN Exports Imports Going Forward Pakistan Trade Figures (Export of Textile Manufacture %age Share;

Pakistan’s Major Exports %age Share; Major Export Markets %age Share; Major Contributions to Export Earnings; Monthly Exports Structure of exports; Group Wise Growth Performance; Key Economic Indicators)

18 19 19 22

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MERCHANDISING ENVIRONMENT The Modern Enterprises (Manufacturing; Distribution & Marketing;
Design; Branding; and Research and Development) Apparel Industry (Change; Timing; Quality; Price)

25 26 28 29 30 30 31 32 33 38 39 39 40 41 42 44

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Organization of Apparel Industry Departments in an Apparel Industry MERCHANDISING MANAGEMENT Marketing, Merchandising and Selling Merchandising Operations Principal Functions of Merchandising Manager / Merchandiser Information Required by a Merchandiser Merchandising Route MERCHANDISING SKILLS Negotiation (Order Negotiation; Skill Required for Success full Negotiation) Golden Rules for Good Time Management How to Build Your Men and Win Their Loyalty Leaders or Managers How to Improve the Productivity of Meetings Role of Quick Response for Merchandisers MERCHANDISING PROCESS Sampling/Types of Samples (Offer / Marketing Samples; Counter
Samples; Size Sets; Photo Samples; Buying / Seal Samples; and TOPS) Sampling Process (Proto/Counter; Pre-Line/Photo Shoot; Sales Man; Size Set; Buyers Comments Samples; and Pre-Production Samples)

Samples Sending Procedure/Documents Required for Sending Technical Information’s (Lab Dip Descriptions; Sketch Sheet; Specs

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Sheet; Material Sheet; Incidental Sheet; Garment Accessories; Packing; Sourcing; Lead Time; Sourcing Production; Labeling, Ticketing, and Packaging; Minimums; Apparel Product Lines; Product Identification and Development; Product Sourcing).

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Sample Order Sheet GARMENTS TYPES / STYLES / COMPONENTS Types / Styles of Garments (Coat, Jackets and Rainwear; Winter
Outerwear; Male / Female Casual and Fine Wear; Trouser, Overalls and

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

Shorts; Hosiery; Tailored Collar Shirts; Woven Shirts and Blouses; Athletic Wear, Blouses, Knitted / Crocheted / Sweat, T-Shirts; Underwear; Sleepwear and Bathrobes; Sweaters; Swimwear; Foundation Garments; Babies Garments; Other Coated Garments; Smocks and Shop Coats; Other Garments; Misc; Gloves) Garment Components (Top Front/Back, Bottom Front/Back; Sleeves; Plackets; Collars; Cuffs; Pockets; Waistline)

61 62 67 68 69 69 71 75 75 76

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Picture Gallery of Garment Styles and Designs MERCHANDISING TECHNIQUES Garment Analysis Method of Garment Analysis Process of Garment Analysis Product Positioning Strategy Functional / Aesthetic Purpose and
Durable / Disposable Performance; Intrinsic / Extrinsic Cues to Quality; Product Change; Price and Price Range) Sizing and Fit (Sizing System and Size Ranges; Indicators of Size; Fit Indicators; Dimensional Sizes for Men’s Wear)

Material Selection Classification of Materials (Piece Goods; Support Materials; Trims;
Closures; and Threads)

Criteria for Analysis of Materials (Material Name; Material Contents;
Yarn Type and Size; Fabrication; Count or Gauge; Weight and / or Size; Drapeability; Color Application; Structural or Applied Design; Finishes; Care; Application) Garment Structure (Criteria for analysis of garment components)

Final Garment Assembly and Finishing Garment Finishing Process (Trimming; Wet

Processing; Garment Dyeing; Finish Pressing; Post Cure Durable Press; Ticketing, Tagging and Packaging)

77 79 79 80 81 82 86 86 87 87 88 89 91 94 94 94

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Criteria for Analysis of Final Assembly / Finishing Garment Presentation Garment Analysis Guide MERCHANDISING CALCULATIONS Costs, Costing, Pricing and Profit Material Costs (Direct Material; Indirect Material) Labor Costs (Direct Costs; Indirect Costs) Expenses (Direct expenses; Indirect expenses; Factory expenses;
Administrative expenses; Selling expenses; and Distribution Expenses)

Cost of Goods Produced (Primes; Factory; Production; and Total Cost) Costing Exercises Other Factors Influencing Costing (Yarn Count; Knitted / Woven
Fabric; Dyeing and Finishing; Cutting/Styling; Embroidery; Thread; Rates

(Measuring Actual Thread Consumed; Thread Consumption Formulas; Estimating Thread Costs; Approximate Consumption for Per Inch Stitching) Estimating Fabric Consumption (Fabric Consumption Calculations Exercises; Fabric Consumption (Shirt; Pant; T-Shirt; Sweater; Polo Shirt)

Sample Cost Sheet Consumption Calculations Estimating Thread Consumption

97 100 102 102 103

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PRICING, BUDGETING AND SCHEDULING Pricing strategies (Markup Pricing; Target Return Pricing) Garment Costing Parameters Budgets Production Routing and Scheduling (Master Schedule; Time and
Action Calendar Planning and Executing; Gantt Charts; CPM)

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

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MATERIALS MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL Material Management Types of Accessories Support Materials Interlinings Functions of Interlinings Characteristics of Interlinings (Fiber Content; Weight; Fabrication) Interlining Application (Sew-In Interlinings; Fusible Interlinings) Fusible Interlinings (Strike Back; Strike Through; Differential Shrinkage; Cost of Interlinings Linings Functions of Linings (Aesthetics; Performance; Comfort) Characteristics of Lining (Fiber Content; Weight; Fabrication) Support, Enclosure, and Quality Lining Structure / Lining Application Costs of Linings Interfacing, Underlining, and Lining Options. Other Support Materials Adhesives (Direct Application or Direct Stabilization) Shoulder Pads (Materials; Construction; Covers; Installations) Sleeve Headers Tapes Collar Stays Closures (Purpose of Closures; Aesthetics; Performance) Zippers (History; Characteristics; Specifications; Sizes, Types; Application;
Parts and Materials; Terminologies; Picture Gallery of Zippers and Sliders)

105 105 105 106 106 107 109 110 111 112 112 113 114 115 116 116 116 116 117 119 119 120 120 121 128 129 130 135 135 137 139 139 144 144 145 145 145 148 153 153 154 154 155 156 158 161

Button and Button Holes Functions of Buttons and Button Holes (Aesthetics; Performance) Characteristics of Buttons (Materials; Types; Sizes; Application) Cross Stitched Buttons Characteristics of Button Holes Button Holes (Types; Sizes; Placement) Snaps (Parts; Materials; Application) Elastics Functions of Elastic (Aesthetics; Performance, Elastics; Application;
Materials; Fabrications)

Hooks Cost of Closures Trims Nature of Trims Types of Trims (Aesthetics and Performance; Sources of Trims,Knit Trims Embroidery (Direct; Schiffli; Single; Multi head Embroidery Machines)
(Sequins; Emblems; Production of Emblems) (Materials for Embroidery; Design Development; Punching Tapes)

Embroidery Stitches Cost of Embroidery Quality Factors for Embroidery Appliqués (Materials; Quality; Performance; Assembly; Inset Trims) Lace / Types of Laces Screen Printing (Design Development; Materials and Equipment; Process) Quality and Performance of Screen Printing; Heat Transfer Prints Labels (Label Materials; Styles; Application; Sources of Labels) Hangers (Sizes, Types and Styles)

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

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STITCHING Stitching Process (Designing; Selection of Fabric; Accessories; Pattern
Making; Production of Sample Garments; Grading; Marking and Lying; Cutting; Position Marking; Bundle Operation; Fusing; Sewing)

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TEXTILE RAW MATERIAL (FIBERS) Fiber Definitions (Types of Fiber Length; Crimp Property of Fibers; Denier
Property of Fibers; Qualities of Fibers to convert them into Fabrics; Process of Converting Fibers into Yarn; Converting Fibers Directly into Fabrics) Textile Fibers Quality to meet end users (Length; Fineness; Elasticity; Extensibility; Moisture Regain; Abrasion Resistance; Dye ability; Resistance to Weathering; Luster; Density; Thermal Stability; Softness;

165 166 168 168 169 171 171 171 171 172 172 173 173 173 175

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Properties of Cotton How to Care for Cotton Classification of Fibers / Fibers Histroy (Table) TEXTILE YARN Cotton Picking Ginning Process Spinning Mills Operations (Cotton Management; Cotton Testing; Staple
Length; Micronaire; Floating; Presley Strength; Strength; Color +b Value) Nature of Yarn Faults (Un-Evenness; Colored Contamination; Dead Cotton; Barrie; Breakage; Imported Cotton Usage)

Yarn Count Blending of Cotton with any Manmade Fiber Plied Yarn Spinning (Spun Yarn; Filament Yarn) Spinning Process Flow (Blow Room; Carding; Doubling; Combing;
Drawing; Roving; Spinning; Simplex; Ring Frame; Auto Cone; Uster Standards; Conditioning and Packing) Types of Yarn (Carded and Combed Yarn; Line and Tow Yarn; Woolen and Worsted Yarn; Reeled Silk Yarn; Filament Yarn; Double or Plied Yarn; Blended Yarn; Thread; Texturised Yarn; Fancy Yarn; Boucle; Chenille Yarn; Nub Yarn; Slub Yarn; Corkscrew Yarn; Loop Yarn; Splash Yarn; Thick and Thin Yarn; Marl Yarn; Viol or Crepe Yarn; Printed Yarn; Kicker Broker; Blended Yarns)

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Chief Value of Mix Weave or Mix Knit Example of Mixed Weave / Mix Knit Weight Calculation of Fabrics of Spun Yarn/Filament Yarn Skill to determine the Substance of a Yarn FABRICATION (WOVEN) Weaving Fabric Construction Identification of Warp and Weft Fabric Weight Preparation of Weaving Types of Looms (Shuttle Looms; Shuttleless Looms; Circular Looms) Salvages (Plain; Tape; Split; Fused; Leno; and Tucked Salvages) Classification of Weaves (Plain; Basket; Ribbed; Twill; Satin; Crepe; Pile;
Double Cloth; Gauze Leno; Mock Leno; Swivel; Lappet; Dobby; Jacquard)

176 176 177 177 179 179 179 179 179 180 180 181 183

Types of Woven Fabrics (Barathea; Batiste; Bedford cord; Blanket Cloth;
Blazer Cloth; Brocade; Broderie Anglais; Brushed Cotton; Calico; Cambric; Cheese Cloth; Chiffon; Cyldella; Corduroy; Flannel; Gaberdine; Ginham; Lawn; Needle Cord; Silk Organdie; Pique; Poplin; Reversible Fabric; Satin; Seer Sucker; Towelling; Velvet; Velveteen; Viyella; Winceyette; Wool; Armure; Birdscye; Cloque; Cavalry Twill; Crepe; Damask; Drill; Glen Urquhart; Guard’s Check; Leno; Helling Bone; Honey Comb; Hop Sack;

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

Hounds Tooth; Matelasse; Repp; Shepherd’s Check; Shark Skin; Tattersal Check; Prince of Wales Check; Denim; 3 X 1 and 2 X 1 “Z” Twills; 3 X 1 “S” Twills; 3 X 1 Broken Twills) History of Denim (Origins in Europe, America, Denim meets 21st Century) Basic Material of Denim (Fiber Yarn Spinning, Open End Spinning, Ring Spun, Construction, Plain Weave, Twill Weave)

188 191 192 193 194 195 195 196 197 199 200 204 205 205 207 209 209 210 210 211 211 211 212 212 212

Denim Washing Characteristics of Jeans (Weight; Shrinkage; Shrinkage in Rigid Fabrics;
Shrinkage in Stretch Fabrics; Skewness; Stretch Fabrics)

Identifying the right side of a fabric Identification of Gray Fabric Defects (Major and Minor Defects) Woven Fabric Defects (Burl Mark; Draw Backs; Dropped Pick; End Out;
Fly; Harness Breakdown; Jerk In; Knots; Mixed End (Yarn); Mixed Filling; Open Reed; Slub; Smash; Soiled Filling or End; Spot Mark; Thin Place) Fabric Inspection Standards (Grey Fabric) (Ten Points; Four Point System Penalty Point Evaluation; Point Calculation)

Skills to Order Fabrics (Woven / Knitted) Weaves and their Characteristics Tables: (Cotton, Woven Fabrics Construction; Corduroy Fabrics; Denim
Fabrics Specifications; Stretch Fabrics Specifications)

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FABRICATION (KNITWEAR) Construction of a Knitted Fabric Classification of Knitted Fabrics Weft Knitting (Plain Knitting; Purl Stitch; Rib Stitch; Cable Stitch) Warp Knitting (Tricot Knit; Raschel Knit; Ketten Raschel Knit; Crochet;
Milanese Knit; Simplex Knit; Jacquard Knitting; Pile Knitting; Fleece Knit; High Pile Knit; Terry Knit; Velour Knit)

Fabric Weight and Yarn Size Weight System of Knitted Fabrics Knitting Defects (Barre; Birdseye; Broken Color; Drop Stitches; End Out;
Hole; Missing Yarn; Mixed Yarn; Needle Line; Press off; Runner; Slub)

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Knitted Fabrics Types(Brushed Acrilan; Brushed Nylon; Jersey; Stretch Jersey; Velour) Table Knitting Defects Felted and Non Woven Fabrics Decorative Fabric Construction TEXTILE DYEING Selection of Dyes Natural Dyes (Vegetable Dyes; Animal Dyes; Mineral Dyes) Synthetic Dyes (Basic or Cationic Dyes; Acid or Anionic Dyes; Acid PreMetalized Dyes; Mordant or Chrome Dyes; Developed Dyes; Disperse Dyes; Vat Dyes; Pigment Dyes; Oxidation Bases; Acid Milling Dyes; Azoic Dyes; Neutral Pre- Metalized Dyes; Direct Dyes; Sulphur Dyes; Reactive Dyes; Optical Brighteners) Selection of Dyeing Methods (Stock Dyeing; Top Dyeing; Yarn Dyeing; Solution Pigmenting or Dope Dyeing; Garment Dyeing; Piece; Beck Dyeing; Vacuum Impregnation; Pad Dyeing; Beam Dyeing; Solvent Dyeing; Cross Dyeing; Jet Dyeing; Jig Dyeing; Cold Pad Batch Dyeing; Foam Dyeing; Tumble Dyeing) Dyeing and Finishing Defects of Fabrics (Skewed or Bias; Back Fabric Seam Impression; Bowing; Color Out; Color Smear; Crease Mark; Crease Streak; Dye Steak; Mottled; Pin Holes; Puckered Selvage; Printer Machine Stop; Print out of Register; Sanforize Pucker; Scrimp Selvage)

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TEXTILE PRINTING Dyes used for Printing

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

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Methods Used for Printing (Direct; Discharge; Resist Printing) Types of Printing (Block; Vegetable; Roller; Screen; Batik; and Tie dyeing) Printing on Denim TEXTILE FINISHING Kinds of Finishing Processes Preparatory Processes (Singeing or Gassing; Bleaching) Stabilizing Process (Mercerizing; Ammoniating; Shrinking; Fulling;
Tentering; Crabbing)

215 215 216 217 217 217 218 219

Textural Process (Temporary / Permanent Stiffening; Weighting;
Calendaring; Glazing; Embossing; Beeting; Raising; Napping; Sanding; Shearing; Wrinkled effects) Functional Effects (Shape Retentive Finishes; Wrinkle Resistant Finish, Wash and Wear Finish; Permanent Press; Water Repellency; Water Proofing; Absorbency Finish; Soil Repellency; Soil Release; Flame Retardant Finish; Mothproofing; Mildew proofing; Anti Bacterial Finishes; Slip Resistance; Antistatic Finish; Heat Reflectant Finish) New Trends in Denim Finishing (Sand Blasting; Tinting / Over Dyeing; Discharge Printing; Resist Bleaching; Enzymatic De-colorization)

221 223 224 225 227 227 227 230 231 233 233 234 235 237 237 238 244 246 248 250 252 257 258

Problems of Denim Yellowing ABC’s of Washing Techniques for Denim (Unwashed; Mill Washed;

Pre-Washed; One-Washed; Stone Washed; Double Stone Washed; Sand washed; Bleached; Sky Blue; Stone Bleached; Bomber Washed; Old Blue) Finishing Techniques of Blue Denim (Finishing; Sizing; Singeing; Desizing; Bleaching; Dyeing; Emery; Napping; Finishing; Anti-Twist; Shrinking; Mercerizing; Printing; Bonding) Bleaching Free from Chlorine (Control in Wet Processing of Denims)

Garments Wet Processing Different Working Techniques (Garment Wash; Normal Wash; Pigment
Wash; Bleach Wash; Stone Wash with or without Bleach; Size of Stones used; Stone Ratio; Washing Time; Amount of Bleach) Stone Wash Procedure (Desizing; Stoning; Bleaching; Neutralizing; Soaping; Softening; Hydro Spinning; Tumble Drying) Types of Stone Washes (Acid or Enzyme Wash; Garment Wash Over dye)

Sand Blasting Methods of Sand Blasting (Sand Brushing; Sand Blasting with Gun; Laser
Sand Blasting; Spray Sand Blasting; Spraying; Color Spray Technique; Indigo Reducer Technique; Manual Sand Blasting with Sand Paper)

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Wrinkle Free Finish on Garments Technology of Wrinkle Free Finish (Fabric for Wrinkle Free Finish) PATTERN DRAFTING Designer, Stylist, and Pattern Maker; Definition of a Pattern Designing Patterns (Points to Note When Pattern Drafting) Important Terminologies in Pattern Drafting and Sewing How to Measure Standard Body Measurements Ease and Allowances (Seam Allowance; Ease Allowance; Wearing Ease;
Design Ease; Hem Allowance; Gathering Allowance; Dart Allowance; Pleat Allowance; Shrinkage Allowance) Pattern Symbols (Symbol Key; Pattern Adjustment Lines; Grain Lines; Place on Fold Line Cutting Lines; Notches; Stitching Lines; Dots) Basic Blocks (Block Patterns; Blocks; Drafting the Blocks; Paper Patterns and Size Specification; Missing measurements)

Jacket Pattern Measurements Pant Pattern Measurements

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Core Spun Threads. Major Causes and Solutions to these Problems) Damage Done During Pre-Washing Thread Cost (Ways of Reducing Cost) Seam Quality Defects (Re-Stitched Seams / Broken Stitches) Minimizing Thread Breakage Skipped Stitches (Minimizing Skipped Stitches.) What Makes a Good Thread? (Elongation. LAHORE 21 INDUSTRIAL SEWING A Stitch. Overedge Chain Stitches Class-500. Broken Stitches. Edge Finishing (EF) Class-6. Uniformity and Consistency of Physical Properties) Factors that Affect Thread Breakage (Yarn Construction. Seam. Bound Seams (BS) Class-3. Seam Class-8) 259 259 260 261 262 262 264 269 282 288 290 290 290 292 293 295 296 296 296 296 297 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 298 299 301 302 303 306 308 309 310 311 Seam Types and Common Uses Stitch Properties (Length. Lock Stitch Class 300. Cotton Covered Polyester Core. and Stitches Seams Properties Seams Dimensions (Seam Length. Sewing. Chain Stitch Machines. Nylon. Thread Finishing) Thread Types (Spun Threads. Thread Lubricant. Thread Tips. Thread Selection Summary) Other Causes of Thread Breakage and Skipped Stitches Thread Facts (Fiber Content. Ornamental Seams (OS) Class-5. Fiber Twist) Types of Thread (Cotton. Identification. Proper Loop Formation. Seam Slippage. Specialty Threads. 504 Over edge stitches) Ragged / Inconsistent Edge – Overedge or Safety Stitch Un-Raveling Buttons Sewing Machines (Sewing Machine Parts and Different Sewing Beds) Thread (Types. Uniformity – Absence of Yarn Imperfections. Stitch Depth) Seam Types (Superimposed Seams (SS) Class-1. Seam Class-7. Thread Care. Continuous Filament Stitch Cracking. Seam Failures. Monofilament Thread) Thread Sizing (Sizing Standards. Multi Thread Chain Stitch Class-400. Solutions) Feed Puckering (Identification. Weight/Size Comparison) Minimizing Thread Breakage (Characteristics in Thread Affecting Breakage/Skipped Stitches. Depth. Ply-Security. Fiber Length. Solutions to Feed Puckering) Optimizing Seam Performance for Denim (Core Spun Threads.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Lapped Seams (LS) Class-2. Thread Twist. Flat Seams (FS) Class-4. Lubrication. how Thread is made. Minimizing Seam Failures in Fabric) Threads. Width. Tension. Elongation and Initial Modulus. Proper Frictional Characteristics. Sizing Systems. Stitch consistency) Stitch Classes (Chain Stitch Class-100. Textured Threads. Silk. Polyester. 401 Chain. 8 . Open Seam. Minimizing Seam Failures. Rayon. Good Ply Security or Ply Adhesion. Seam Width. Minimizing Seam Failures – Seam Slippage Needle Cutting On Knits (Minimizing Needle Cutting on Knits) Excessive Seam Puckering – Wovens Minimizing Excessive Seam Puckering Puckered Seams – Knits and Stretch Wovens Excessive Seam Grain Improper Stitch Balances (301 Lock. Hand Stitch Class-200. Uniformity. Covering Chain Stitches Class-600) Seam Types and Stitch Types (Tables) Classification of Garments by Sewing Articles Classification of Sewing Machines Seam Puckering Yarn Displacement or Structural Damage (Solutions to Puckering) Tension Puckering (Solutions to Puckering Caused by Tension Puckering) Lock Stitch Machines.

Shank. and Printed Fabric) Accessories Inspection In-process Inspection (Spreading. Quality Control) Inspection (Objectives. Buttonholes. Top and Under Stitching. Second Party Audit and Third Party Audit. Metallic Needle 312 313 313 313 315 315 316 316 317 324 324 324 325 325 325 326 326 Thread Machine Needle Chart Parts of a Basic Five Pocket Denim Jean Stitching of Basic Denim Jean (Operations and Machines. Valuation Form. Strength. Defects. Invoice List. Quality Garment. Waistband. Packing List. Fit. Neckline. and Final) Raw Material Inspection (Woven. Pleats & Tucks. Gathers. Zipper) AQL Inspection Procedures Environment to Proceed an Audit (Tolerances. Cold Water Migration. Knitted. In-Progress.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Needle Work. Seams. E-Form. Pre-Production. Jersey / Ball Point Needle. Documents against Days) Imports and Re-Exports (SRO 440. Critical) 330 331 333 337 342 354 362 367 368 369 369 370 371 374 376 381 383 387 390 394 Basic Quality Inspection Standards for Apparel Quality System Audits (First Party Audit. Shipment Audit. Collars. Auditors Activities and Attributes) 23 Care Labeling Standards IMPORT EXPORT PROCEDURE Shipping and International Trade Terms Exports (Shipment Track. Inspection Report) Classification of Non-Conformities (Major. Top Stitch Needle. SRO 554. Means of Shipment. Interfacing. Light Fastness) Sewing Needles (Selecting the Proper Machine Needle) Minimizing Needle Heat (What Causes Needle Heat. Stitching. Custom Clearance Documents. All Threads are not Created Equal) Color Fastness of Thread (Wash Fastness. Belts. Finishing) Final Inspection Quality Construction Checklist (Overall Appearance. Types of L/C. Cuffs. Revocable. Tenacity. Sublimation. Twist. Pockets. Front Groove) Machine Needle Types (Universal. Stretch Quilting. Minor. Sewing Operation Rates and Payment Sheet) 22 QUALITY CONTROL IN GARMENT MANUFACTURING Quality (Quality Definition. Auditors Responsibilities. Packing Inspection. Eye. Sewing. Measurements) Conducting of a Audit (Classification of Faults. Crock Fastness. Jeans / Denim. Facings.. Loop Strength. Sleeves. Shaft. Lining. Breaking Strength. Waistline seam. Darts. Bill of Lading. Cut of Date. SRO 450) 24 Flow Chart of Import and Export Letter of Credit Transaction and Complete Export Procedure Packing and Capacities with Examples BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Definition of Communication Process of Communication and Miscommunication Principals of Business Communication Process of Preparing Effective Business Messages Appearance and design of Business Messages 9 . Fasteners. Financial Aspects. Styling Conformation. Hems. Scarf. Irrevocable. Minimizing Heat) Machine Needles Parts (Point. Pressing. Sections of Inspection in a Garment Industry) Inspection Stages (Raw Material. LAHORE Lubricity. Embroidery Needle. Delivery of Consignment. Pressing. Microtex Needle. Sampling Procedures. at Sight) Nondocumentary Credit(Cash against Deposit. Visa) Documentary Credit (L/C. Buttons.

frozen on top of a glacier near the Austrian-Italian border. and the second meaning fabrics used to cover the body. LAHORE HISTORY OF CLOTHING Coverings and garments intended to be worn on the human body. Clothing historians trace the development of dress by studying various sources. they make clothing for themselves out of fig leaves. realize they are naked after they eat an apple from the tree of knowledge. Images. and photographs. Yet today. Fashion refers to the kind of clothing that is in a desirable style at a particular time. THE FUNCTIONS OF CLOTHING: Since prehistoric times. This theory is based on the biblical story of creation. The earliest garments were made of leather and other non fabrics. These sources indicate that although everyday clothing does not usually change as rapidly as fashionable dress. and sports clothes may be influenced by fashion. Furthermore. Adam and Eve. a crudely tanned leather cape. do provide considerable evidence of the history of everyday clothing. but these non fabric garments are included in the category of clothing. One year. the first human beings. Others argued that some clothing was designed for attraction. A grass 10 . including magazines and catalogs. fashion designers often use inexpensive and functional items of clothing as inspiration. A young woman would look odd if she wore the clothing that her grandmother had worn when young. Some argued that the origin of clothing was functional—to protect the body from the environment. Many theories have been advanced as to why humans began to wear clothing. Museum collections are full of fashionable ball gowns. Especially today. but have very few everyday dresses worn by ordinary working-class women. In the book of Genesis. however. Reliable evidence about everyday clothing from the past can be hard to obtain because most publications and images concern the fashions of the wealthy. it does change constantly. and other surviving items. most Europeans and Americans believed that people wore clothing primarily for reasons of modesty.000-year-old male body. for instance. such as paintings. The words cloth and clothing are related. rather than of cloth. only a small minority of people dress in the clothing that appears in high-fashion magazines or on fashion-show runways. people began to offer other theories. a lioncloth (strip of cloth wrapped around the waist and between the legs). originated as functional work clothing for miners and farmers. paintings and photographs. Evidence that early clothing was indeed functional came from a 1991 discovery of a 5. Ashamed of their nakedness. With the rise of a nonreligious worldview. prints. and hats. However. As late as the 19th century. shoes. It was clothed in a fur cap.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. In modern times nearly everyone follows fashion to some extent. clothing that has survived from the past tends not to be typical of what was worn in daily life. 1. leggings. One of the earliest hypotheses is the so-called modesty/shame theory. fashionable jeans may have narrow legs. T-shirts. It is not always easy to tell the difference between basic clothing and fashionable clothing. At different times in history. Blue jeans. even people who dress in jeans. fashionable dress has taken very different forms. the next year the legs may be baggy. people in almost all societies have worn some kind of clothing. Even fewer examples of ordinary men's clothing have been saved. the first meaning fabric or textile. and leather shoes. also known as the fig leaf theory.

and garments worn by clergy or members of religious orders. and hockey players wear matching jerseys and pants designed to accommodate such accessories as protective pads. may require specialized clothing. for example—are used to distinguish between types of work factory or office. and marital status. so it may function as an outward sign of a person's economic standing. In many societies. In most cultures brides and grooms as well as wedding guests wear special clothes to celebrate the occasion of a marriage.g. Clothing most obviously defines a social role in the case of uniforms. and other types of ornamentation even before they began wearing clothing made of fur or fabric. like clothing. This difference can indicate to which group a teen belongs. Clothing metaphors—blue-collar and white-collar workers. When a woman who usually wears blue jeans puts on a frilly. clothing can still provide considerable information about the wearer. religious laws regulated personal behavior and permitted only members of an elite class to wear certain prestigious items of clothing. Within a single high school. These clothes would have provided protection against the cold and rain. such as those worn by police officers and nurses. Most modern societies comprise different social groups. A person wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the name of a rock band is probably a fan of that music group and may have attended one of group’s concerts. Even in modern democracies. including individual personality. In modern industrialized societies. e. Nevertheless. so far as we know. In traditional societies. LAHORE cloak covered the fur and leather clothing. flowered dress. Clothing may also signal participation in leisure activities. Modern scholars believe that clothing provides a mark of identity and a means of nonverbal communication. religion. Body decoration. also influence the clothing that its people wear. which may have been marks of decoration or tribal identity. Although in some societies people have worn little or no clothing. or were perhaps intended to provide magical protection. and funerals tends to be formal and governed by unwritten rules that members of the society agree upon. has served a variety of social and symbolic purposes. different clothing subcultures exist. Clothing with a designer label tends to be relatively expensive. teenagers known as jocks are likely to wear different styles of clothing than teens called nerds. social status. Decoration seems to satisfy a fundamental human need. 11 . especially active sports. or traditions and way of life. economic standing. graduations. soccer. tattoos. she may be stating that she wants to look more traditionally feminine. Clothing also derives meaning from the environment in which it is worn. clothing may represent social standing. even nature of events attended by wearer. Certain types of recreation. The clothing worn for rituals such as weddings. clothing is not so rigidly regulated and people have more freedom to choose which messages they wish to convey. place of origin. A society’s economic structure and its culture. Other animals groom themselves. As a result. clothing functions almost as a language that can indicate a person's age. people have decorated their bodies in some way in all societies throughout history. The Iceman. gender. as he is called. Archaeological and anthropological evidence suggest that early people may have decorated their bodies with paint. football. for example. and each group has its own beliefs and behaviors. or occupation. also had tattoos. but only human beings have ornamented themselves.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

BEGINNINGS OF TEXTILE PRODUCTION: Tens of thousands of years ago. and braiding. can be used to create tightly woven fabrics with smooth surfaces or more loosely woven fabrics with rougher surfaces. However. and make cloth from the thread. In some cultures. Many different types and patterns of weaving are possible. Simple needles made out of animal bone. were also made from animal skins. Weaving is usually done on a loom that holds long threads (called the warp) under uniform tension so that other threads (the woof or weft) can be inserted over and under them. in China. such as knotting. early humans learned to obtain fibers from wild plants. the earliest textiles came from wool. In many Middle Eastern societies. but most cloth is made by weaving. twill (fabric with a woven design of parallel diagonal 12 . This fiber was spun into thread. which lasted from about the 5th to the 15th century. Such fibers could be spun into thread and made into cloth textiles.000 years ago. saddle blankets. By 1500 BC elaborate weaving techniques had been developed. The development of agriculture led to the domestication of fiber plants. Fitted clothes. The production of textiles requires the ability to process fibers. from silk. and in India. hemp. Until about 10. a period that began around 8000 BC. nomadic peoples beat wool into a matted fabric called felt. and Cambodia. 3. 3. knitting. and the thread was woven into cloth. feeding them mulberry leaves and unwinding their fresh cocoons to produce long strands of silk fiber. flexible textile. Peru. Single skins were worn as capes thrown around the shoulders.1 WOOL: Wool was probably the first animal fiber to be made into cloth. hemp. and nettles.2 SILK: China's chief contribution to world clothing has been the development of silk thread and cloth. Silk cloth excavated from tombs dating from the 2nd century BC includes gauze (thin. and it can easily be dyed. loosely woven fabric). the range of materials for clothing was small. and lightweight but warm. provide evidence of sewn leather and fur garments from at least 30. and mixtures of wool with other fibers. LAHORE 2. even when wet. people used animal skins for clothing. In early prehistoric times. such as trousers or a parka (an outer garment with a hood).000 years ago. MATERIALS USED FOR CLOTHING: The development of new materials for use as covering or ornament has played a major role in the history of clothing. and readily accepts a wide range of color dyes. Sheep-raising nomads in the Middle East also invented carpets made by knotting woolen weft threads onto a linen warp. People began to weave fabric during the Neolithic Era. Evidence of early weaving comes from fragments of flax fibers found in Switzerland. Woolens came to be the characteristic textile for European clothing during the middle Ages. spin them into thread. using thread dyed in many colors. such as wild flax. two skins fastened together at the shoulder made a simple garment. which they used to make clothing. 3. such as cotton. either as pure wool textiles or in blends with other fibers. from cotton. Ancient Egyptians wove their earliest textiles from flax. in southern Europe. Silk is lustrous. and flax. and other useful items. soft. tents. found in many sites in Europe and Asia. by pounding sheets of bark to produce a soft. By 3000 BC the Chinese had domesticated silkworms. which produced linen. Different kinds of wool. only with the development of textile technology did greater variety become possible. People began to raise sheep for wool about 6. Cloth can be made in a variety of ways. Wool has obvious advantages as a clothing fabric because it is warm.000 years ago.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. People still commonly use wool for clothing. depending on the fiber used and the arrangement of the threads. people made cloth without weaving.

Beyond considerations of utility and availability. called calico by Europeans (after an Indian textile center named Calicut). Synthetic materials. and it was also exported along the Silk Road. produced from chemical compounds rather than from plant fibers or animal hair. The silk trade. have provided less-expensive substitutes for natural fibers. the textiles people used and depended on the raw materials available locally. such as flax in Egypt. Christian monks finally broke China's monopoly on silk production in 400s. and silk in China. Some textiles are better suited to a particular climate. LAHORE ribs). 5. Rayon was 13 .g. conducted between western Asia and the Mediterranean as early as AD 200. the trend in textiles has been toward lighter-weight materials. and thin woven cotton is more useful in warm climates. Indian textiles have influenced textiles of other regions from antiquity through modern era. however. For centuries. e.3 COTTON: Domesticated cotton first came into widespread use in ancient India. worn wrapped about the waist). people tend to derive regional or national identity from their most characteristic textiles. RECENT TRENDS IN TEXTILE MANUFACTURE: Throughout the 20th century. When people need extremely warm clothes. One type of printed cotton fabric. This helped stimulate the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. China kept the technology of silk production secret. brocade (heavy fabric woven with an intricate raised design). such considerations of identity have weakened amid international trade and international cultural exchange. brought great wealth to ancient China and sustained the economies of towns along the route. a European businessman defines himself in part by his woolen suit. Silk was used in China. damask (fabric woven with patterns on both sides). 4. cotton in India. Imported Indian cotton became extremely fashionable and undermined the European woolen cloth industry. when they smuggled silkworm eggs to Syria on their return from China. it was then dyed and printed by hand using wood blocks that had patterns cut into them. as Europeans tried to develop ways of producing cotton cloth by machine more cheaply than it could be made by hand in India. knitted wool is more useful in cold climates. Thus. Better transportation and improved indoor heating have made warmth a less important aspect of clothing for most people than it was in earlier centuries. Much Indian cotton cloth had a simple weave to take advantage of material’s lightness and airiness. silk-wearing Chinese people despised wool. Synthetic materials can also be superior to natural fibers in strength and durability. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN TEXTILES: The materials used for clothing vary around the world. which they considered the fabric of uncivilized people. an Indonesian farmer by his cotton sarong (skirt of brightly colored cloth. they tend to wear special outer garments such as parkas that today are typically made of lightweight synthetic materials. Since 1900 the weight of average clothing fabric has fallen by more than one-third. was exported from India to Europe in large quantities in the 16th century. Farm women in China of the period were expected to raise silkworms and produce silk as part of their regular household duties. For most of history. 3. the ancient Greeks speculated that silk grew on a special tree in China. Today. this ancient trade route linking China and the Roman Empire was named after the primary export carried on it. and plain cloth embroidered with different stitches.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

after a slow start. 6. to follow the historical development of the textile industry in the country during the last 50 years.e. took stock of this situation immediately and encouraged setting up of textile mills in both the wings of the country and by 1960.000 knitting machines and 100. especially for the younger generation. The balance quantity of yarn was required to be sold. technical support staff and our hard working and inexpensive labor.000 terry towel looms.1 COTTON SPINNING: Areas comprising West and East Pakistan were big producers of good quality cotton and jute fibrous raw materials but the value added conversion industries were mainly located around the Indian cities of Bombay and Calcutta in the respective order. to the weavers of hand 14 . Pakistan has today about 6. Synthetic fibers such as spandex have revolutionized clothing by making possible the production of extremely flexible. but new kinds of polyester that are more durable and have a softer. to woven. industrialists. Planners.000 looms are working in this sector. LAHORE an early synthetic substitute for silk.000 working rotors. a synthetic fiber introduced was another early substitute for silk and quickly became the fiber of choice for women's stockings.000 auto and 15. In addition to this about 10. These very remarkable achievements did not come easily and were due to combined and tireless efforts of Govt. Nylon. Pakistan has been blessed with suitable climate and perennial supply of good quality water to grow about 1.000 looms in both East and West wings. 2 million spindles and 30. 6. cloth and yarn for hand looms were imported. Blended with. range from lightweight but extremely warm or water-resistant fabrics. "silver fiber" that forms a natural and sound base for a viable textile industry. Other synthetic fibers. form-fitting garments.000 sewing machines for the garments sub sector have been installed. Synthetic fibers fell out of favor in the late 1960s and 1970s.060 looms were installed.000 spindles. Textile industry today is the backbone of economy of Pakistan and provides the largest numbers i. At the time of independence. 30. 150. more natural feel to them have become increasingly popular in the late 20th century.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.7 million tons per annum of lint cotton.58 billions last year and this amount is about two third of the total national exports. Polyester found its first use in so-called wash-and-wear fabrics that needed little or no ironing. created for special purposes. On top of these. often through an official channel. rayon or cotton. was introduced in clothing in the early 1950s. The industry also tops as an earner of ever-so-scarce foreign exchange and exported goods worth US $ 5. a form of plastic. bullet-proof fabrics such as Kevlar that serve as body armor.6 million spindles and 83. Pakistan was producing about one million bales of cotton which were exported and from the receipts. 50 YEARS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN: The textile industry of Pakistan especially the cotton textiles has achieved an extraordinary progress and growth during the last 50 years. is now meeting the entire staple and most of the filament needs for local consumption and export. In those days Govt. 500 looms and a wet processing unit to finish the cloth produced in the mills. Pakistan can be rightly proud of growth and achievements of her largest industry and it may be interesting. about 40% of the total industrial jobs and very vast indirect service opportunities. sanctioned only composite mills with 25.000 spindles and 5. The man-made fiber industry. such as polypropylene and the composite polymer Gore-tex. 15. The Govt.000 shuttles. About 60.000 shuttleless looms and about 300 wet processing units for fabrics. Starting from 177. Polyester.

there is also an improvement in the average productivity.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.6 million spindles and 83. 15 . After separation of East wing. the Govt.3 oz) per shift per spindle in 1996-97. the weaving sector witnessed a new development. This is not to be very proud of because yarn is a primary and not a value added commodity. it is either exported in grey form for the lowest end of the market or is printed to cover its shortcomings and then converted into bed sheets and dress material. the Govt. On the basis 20S count. it has been estimated that about 70% of total cotton yarn is exported directly or after conversion into value added products. productivity has gone up from 190 grams (6. In 1996-97.000 rotors. Pakistan was left with about 2. the spinning industry produced 1.2 COTTON CLOTH: As mentioned earlier.5 million working spindles but the growth was continuous and rapid and by 1985. However. it was producing 90% of the fabric in the country.800 million square meters of cloth out of which about 33% was exported securing 6. or "Pay as you Earn" plans. At that time Govt. By 1990. The mill owners made huge profits but their efforts for further investment were hindered due to paucity of foreign exchange. it may be kept in mind that some other factors are also involved in this jump in price.5 million spindles and 38. Pakistan had a substantial textile industry with about 3. With development of exports of the better quality garments and also for the local demand. Unfortunately about 50% of it is shipped in the grey form and so the average export price is low i. A large number of second hand shuttle-less looms were also imported in the 90s. only 1 US$ per Sq meter. Presently this sub-sector is weaving about one third of the total quantity of cloth.531 million kg of yarn. Further.95/kg in 1986 to $2. Development of the spinning sector is not in numbers alone but. Many of the spinning units were then sanctioned on political considerations but went into the hands of genuine entrepreneurs in no time. This Situation. decided to waive the requirement of getting official sanction for setting up a spinning mill.8% share in the world exports. took a decision to convert all the home grown cotton into yarn and for the first time. Sheikhupura etc. As the power loom cloth suffers from some inherent defects. eased when the machinery manufacturers started offering their plants under "the in Suppliers Credit”. tried to disperse the industry away from the exiting industrialized cities and new textile centers emerged in small towns like Kotri. LAHORE looms and later to the power looms. its production equaled to that of the mill sector and then there was no stopping of it. the capacity increased to 5 million spindles. tons that are about 33% of the total cotton yarn produced in 1996-97 and this makes her the largest exporter in the World with a share of about 28%. out of which about 20% was polyester cotton and viscose blended yarn.78/kg in 1996. By 1971. The present working capacity is about 6. In 80s a number of high productivity shuttle-less loom mills were set up that produced quality fabric in comparatively wider widths. This decision opened the flood gate and in just five years. about 60% of the yarn is exported to Japan which is a very choosy country for the quality. At that time. Pakistan produced about 3.500 spindles. however. the figure reached 3 million.000 looms in mills sector and exported textile goods worth US $ 400 million.7 oz) in 1986-87 to 235 grams (8.e. In 1996-97. Improvement in quality of the yarn over the years may be seen from rise in the export price of $1. 6. initially encouraged the power loom industry to create jobs but by 1970. Pakistan exported 508. Incidentally. This facility brought in its wake escalation of price of the textile machines and this started a new development of installing only the spinning units of the 12.

Initially. The 80s and 90s may also be taken as an era of textile printing and large investments were made to print wide width fabrics for the fast growing bed sheet export business of more than US $ 400 million per annum.000 million square meters per annum which is more than the existing requirement of 3.3 COTTON WET PROCESSING: The wet processing or finishing of cotton yam and fabrics was initially started in the composite mills but with expansion of the power looms. independent wet processing units were established. manufacture of the filaments mainly the nylon and acetate started in the late 50s. "synthetic" etc.000 million square meters. These are concentrated in Faisalabad which is now the textile capital of the country. Nowadays total production of the staple fibers in 8 units is 400.000 tons and that of filaments in 18 mills is 80.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. However. Starting from a cottage industry. both local and multinational sectors. "rayon". Lahore and Gujranwala but later Swat and tribal areas also became their centers because of Govt. Up till the late 60s. in Karachi. meter is not very flattering. the industry boasts of an export of US $ 500 million per annum which is about 6% of the total exports. only a very limited number of mills can satisfactorily dye cloth of more than 60 inches width. This industry was then catering exclusively for the domestic demand using the imported filaments and getting the import permit was a big factor in the profit. The independent units had limited funds and so they encouraged manufacture of the finishing machines locally and somehow these competed with the mill sector fairly successfully. At present about 40 units exist in the composite mills and about 300 are working independently. However.. The entire capacity is wet processed in about 150 units. It may be mentioned that the polyester staple fibers are almost exclusively used for blending with the cotton fibers in Pakistan and so this industry strictly is not a part of this paragraph on the filament fabrics. looms were installed mainly in Karachi. "art silk". the M. The total capacity now is about 5.5 KNITWEAR INDUSTRY: Manufacturing of Knitwear or as it was previously termed hosiery goods started as a cottage industry after creation of Pakistan. this is discussed here because both the staple and filament are manufactured by the same processes.000 looms producing about 1. Besides meeting the local requirements. Refugees from Ludhiana (East Punjab).000 tons per annum.4 MAN MADE FIBER INDUSTRY: This industry had been variously called as "silk". 6. be recorded that in spite of the big capacity. In the seventies. but now it has acquired a more accurate generic title of the "man made" fiber industry. Filament industry today has 60.’s encouragement. Faisalabad and Lahore. The fabric is exclusively exported in the finished form and so the unit value of US$ 0. both new and second hand. It may. exporters of fabrics and garments vendors realized the importance and good profit associated with quality of the finished fabric.87 per sq. This sad state of affairs is due to non availability of proper equipment and experienced / trained staff. a centre of hosiery manufacturing in 16 . This realization led to installation of the open width processing machines. however.M. with domination of the polyester fibers in the apparel business. nylon mills were converted into the polyester filament producing units. Gradually many new and large polyester enterprises were started in the public as well as private. Later. the pretreatment of scouring and bleaching were carried out in Kiers and rope washing machines and dyeing was done on jiggers. 6. spread all over the country. LAHORE 6.000 million square meters of fabric annually.

the exports jumped to US$ 334 million with 5. after taking account of wastage at all the manufacturing stages.1% share appears to be an impressive improvement in a few years but figures poorly against respective shares of 40% in India and 75% in China. The exports consist of both the fabrics and garments but recently export of fabric to USA and Europe has declined and is mainly confined to the Gulf countries where the fabric is converted into garments by labor imported from Pakistan. Pakistan's share in the total world export is about 2% but that of clothing is only 0. from US$ 75 million in 1980-81. Their export as a "ready made garment" category has been very remarkable and has gone up by a factor of 10.4% share in the total exports. Pakistan is a key cotton grower.1 % share in total exports. The maximum number of direct and indirect jobs and is thus most valuable to the economy of the country. Compared with the lint cotton. higher productivity and machine efficiency should attract attention of our planners.9% in the total export and 25. The share of the garment export is thus 16. The production was just enough to meet the local demand for under-garments but the poor quality and low productivity completely excluded the possibility of its export. Japan. Last year its exports touched a figure of US$ 671. Share of the fabric in the total knit export now is only about 10%.million with 8. started the business with locally made knitting machines. Malaysia.78% in the national exports. These facts open a lot of opportunities to gain a greater share in the world market. Thailand etc. garments also include the knitwear dresses which are 90% of the total knitwear export. By 1990-91. to US$ 727 million in 1996-97. 6. Considering our rising population and job creating potential of the garment industry. it is essential that all out efforts be concentrated on increasing volume and improving quality of our clothing export. and India etc.1% in the textile export. Bangladesh. The 25. garments made in Pakistan sell at about 10 times more value per unit weight. Korea and Taiwan along with soft flow dyeing machines. has a strong textile industry and cheap labor. 17 .5%. Garment export creates. $ 604 million in 96-97 and so the total garment export is 727 + 671 or US$ 1.398 million. Further the unit prices are low as compared with South East Asian countries like Hong Kong. This growth over the years is remarkable because it has been achieved in spite of the high export quota price.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE pre independence India. a great change was witnessed when a large number of high speed knitting machines were imported from Europe. In 80s.6 GARMENT INDUSTRY: Garments are the ultimate product of the textile and are the most value added component of the industry. This calculates out to be US. Gradually the industry started exporting cheap T-shirts at US $ 6 per dozen and in 1980-81 goods worth US $ 23 million were exported with a share of 0. However. One important and yet inexpensive element for achievement of this goal is to train the technical and management personnel at all levels to attain better quality.

17 billion of high cost external debt. a lowering of the interest cost through the pre-payment of $ 1.1 percent during July-April 2003-04 against a hefty increase of 20. a double-digit growth in per capita income. When viewed against the backdrop of stellar growth (20. LAHORE THE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN Riding on the strong economic fundamentals of last year Pakistan’s economy has gathered greater momentum during the fiscal year 2003-04. The pre-payment of high cost external debt. and various quality of life indicators improving. the strategic re-entry into the international capital markets through the floatation of a Eurobond and the re-basing of Pakistan’s national accounts have been the other stellar occurrences of the fiscal year 2003-04. From the grassroots perspective. a reduction in the fiscal deficit. Two successive years of strong growth along with over Rs. a double-digit growth in exports and imports. a continued accumulation of foreign exchange reserves and stability in the exchange rate. Pakistan succeeded in attaining.8%) last year. powered by stellar growth in large-scale manufacturing and a continuing robust performance in services. sharp increases in the consumption of electricity and gas reflecting rising levels of economic activity.8 percent during the same period last year. During this fiscal year. workers' remittances maintaining their momentum with the current account balance remaining in surplus for the third year in a row. The efforts of the last five years have started yielding positive results and this year has seen the incidence of poverty declining. a strong upsurge in investment. electricity and gas have all showed marked improvements. No efforts to revive the economy will be complete unless these macroeconomic gains are transferred to the masses in terms of an improved standard of living. reaching $ 652. Notwithstanding these improvements. Given the performance of the first 10 months of the current fiscal year exports are likely to cross 18 . and a successful return to the international capital markets through the floatation of a Eurobond. the incidence of poverty has declined by 4. a sharp decline in the public and external debt burden.2 percentage points over 2001 figures. middle and matric levels. an unprecedented increase in credit to the private sector. particularly in private sector investment owing to a rare confluence of various positive developments on the economic scene. middle and matric levels rising. access to sanitation. an increasingly broad and dynamic global recovery with industrial production and global trade picking up sharply. during the year have had a strong influence on this across-the-board improvement. and a further strengthening of the external balance of payments have been the hallmarks of this year's performance. much remains to be done.860 billion of cumulative spending over the last five years on social sector and poverty related programs is now beginning to bear fruit. enrolment in primary. a strong rebound in investment. housing. low inflation and an investment-friendly interest rate environment. 1. and this is that critical juncture in time when maintaining momentum through policy stability is permanent.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Acceleration in growth accompanied by a sharp pick up in industrial production. Other social indicators such as enrolment in primary. on target tax collection. safe drinking water. a higher double-digit growth rate in exports is one of the major achievements of the outgoing fiscal year. a higher than targeted growth in real GDP. a buoyant stock market with an all-time high aggregate market capitalization. While socio-economic and macroeconomic policies pursued. EXPORTS: Exports grew by 13. have aided Pakistan in this endeavor.

3.7 percent on account of 27. chemical. a sharp decline in the Export Refinance rate. The stage is now set for economic growth to accelerate with the private sector expected to play the leading role in taking the economy on a higher growth trajectory. the import of petroleum products was down by 42.2 percent on account of a continuing surge in POL output by local refineries.1 million to $ 73. registered an increase of 14.6 percent. This year. if the unprecedented rise in oil prices persists then given the rising level of economic activity Pakistan's oil bill is likely to cross $ 3. the trade gap has widened from $ 1251. It is also encouraging to see the exports of engineering goods picking up at a much sharper pace.1 billion for the whole year. Almost 71 percent of the contribution to overall export growth came from textile manufactures and 26 percent came from other exports. 2. As a result of the developments in exports and imports.2 percent of total exports grew by a hefty 48. Although stronger. and a competitive exchange rate have contributed to the surge in exports during the year.0 percent during the first ten months (July April) of the current fiscal year against a hefty increase of 22. deeper penetration into the European and US markets. an increased use of gas in industries and electricity generation.5 million. the 19 . primary commodities exports show an impressive growth of 12. prudent macroeconomic policies. Excluding the exports of wheat. in domestic economic activity.0 %). and metal group (7. the widening of the trade gap in the short-run is quite normal. Most importantly. It is no longer fragile and its balance of payments is no more vulnerable to external shocks. Textile manufacturers.4 percent rising from $ 55. In quantity terms. Given stronger than anticipated surge. metal and textile groups. The share of oil bills remained unchanged at 26.7 billion. non-food non-oil imports are up by almost 32 percent against 23. The year is expected to close at a trade deficit of around $ 2. financial discipline and a consistency and continuity in policies. and lesser reliance on fuel oil-based thermal electricity owing to higher electricity generation through hydel.1 %).4 percent of total exports. followed by the agricultural and chemical group (22%). However. the progress made so far not commensurate with the country's considerable potential.5 percent mainly on account of very little export of wheat this year.5 billion for the whole fiscal year. have transformed Pakistan into a stable and resurgent economy in 2003-04. accounting for 65.7 percent.5 million to $ 2011. The major contributors to this year's rise in imports are the machinery group (27. The higher unit values of exports.3 percent while other exports covering 9. IMPORTS: Imports grew by 19. total imports may likely be in the neighborhood of $ 14.5 percent in the same period last year. Primary commodities exports registered a decline of 1.5 percent last year. exports of engineering goods grew by 33.8 percent. The salient features of this year's performance of imports include: impressive growth in the import of the machinery.4 percent decline in the imports of petroleum products.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Notwithstanding the major successes on the socio-economic front.6 percent since last year. showing a deterioration of 60. If extrapolated for the remaining two months of the year. Wide-ranging structural reforms. The exceptionally strong growth in non-food non-oil imports is one of the leading indicators of a surge in domestic economic activity.0 billion in 2004-05. The surge in exports is underpinned by a strong growth in textile manufacturers and others exports.4 million during the first 10 months of the current fiscal year. After five years of hard work the complexion of economy has changed altogether. not seen before.5 billion against the yearly target of $ 0. GOING FORWARD: Pakistan has lived through a difficult and testing period. LAHORE the target of $ 12. The petroleum group registered a decline of 7.

This result is robust overtime and across countries and regions. Linked with these are the challenges of job creation. expand opportunities for them to improve their own well-being. Over the last five years Pakistan has introduced wide-ranging reforms in various sectors of the economy. higher education especially at the tertiary level involves specialization in fields of study and occupation relevant to developing technological capability. appropriate monetary and exchange rate policies. The centrality of economic growth in addressing the challenges listed above is beyond doubt. Few policies have promoted socio-economic development as successfully as effective investment in human resources. The stage is now set for growth to accelerate from 6. and prudent debt management. sectors like agriculture. This is the growth in per capita income which will be required to substantially reduce poverty and unemployment in the country. real per capita income is projected to rise by 5. Of these. These reforms have started yielding dividends in terms of higher growth and macroeconomic stability. To achieve 7-8 percent growth in the next three to four years. With the country's population growing at less than 2.0 percent per annum. health. minimizing social inequality and strengthening country's physical infrastructure. growth implies greater availability of government resources to improve the quantity and quality of education.5 . and other services. the 20 . This calls for allocating adequate government resources to spending on human capital development. It is reassuring to see that the government has allocated substantial resources to the social sector in the PSDP for 2004-05. and a better quality of these services. improving the competitiveness of industries.4 percent this year to 8.6. sanitation. An essential foundation for sustaining this higher growth is the pursuance of sound macroeconomic policies. small and medium enterprises (SME’s). To achieve 7-8 percent growth on a sustained basis Pakistan needs to introduce a second-generation of reforms over the next 4-5 years. No nation can progress without a strong human capital base and investment in this area will be as essential as sound macroeconomic policies in achieving the desired economic boom. Maintaining and building on the macroeconomic stability. the key elements of which include fiscal discipline. and information technology and telecommunications will have to play the central role. This reform agenda must concentrate on strengthening institutions. water supply. increases income and reduces poverty.essential in addressing the income distribution issue. Most importantly. Better access of the poor to education and health care.0 percent over the next three to four years. Economic growth reduces poverty because average incomes of the poor typically tend to rise proportionately with the average income of the population. housing and construction. building a robust financial system and further strengthening of the tax administration. poverty alleviation. agriculture. The current upturn in the economy offers the ideal opportunity to implement reforms needed to deliver faster growth that is sustainable in the long run. It is reassuring to see the government's unwavering commitment to pursue the reform program in the coming years. growth creates employment opportunities.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. SME’s and housing and construction are expected to generate pro-poor growth . At the micro level. While basic education develops basic skills related to literacy and numeric. Education is central to overall human resource development. The country must continue to adjust itself with the changing domestic and external environment. At the macro level.0 percent per annum over the next three to four years. oil and gas. and sustaining and further accelerating the growth momentum will be the continuing challenges. Structural change is the essence of development while reform is a dynamic concept. LAHORE economy of Pakistan has many challenges lying ahead.

148 billion).87 billion for the fiscal year 2004-05 . however. Studies find that gender equality contributes to better education and health outcomes. This is an important step in the right direction. Notwithstanding an anticipated marginal decline in the flow of remittances along with a double-digit rise in imports.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. power. This is a step in right direction. is not the answer as it must be underpinned by improvements in governance to ensure effectiveness and sustainability. Government receives foreign exchange up to Rs. continuity of policies. Good quality infrastructure is essential for promoting and sustaining strong growth. It is in this perspective that the main theme of this year's Pakistan Development Forum (PDF) was infrastructure development. In particular. Sound macro economic policies. transport and communications. Heavy investment in infrastructure is also needed to take advantage of Pakistan’s strategic location in the region for expanding regional cooperation in trade and commerce. LAHORE allocation for higher education has increased by 84 percent in 2004-05. US$ 119 against export of 170 K. All its macro economic indicators show marked improvement over last year. roads. the current account balance continued its positive trajectory. political and regional stability will be the key to sustain the momentum. a strong rebound in the global economy has firmed up demand for the Pakistani goods. On the external front. as well as the entry port for Afghanistan and the Central Asian Republics. Much progress has been made but much remains to be done. As per the statistical information. Pakistan witnessed robust export and import growth during this time period coupled with a healthy increase in foreign exchange reserves. This buoyant trend was broad-based and can be attributed to an improved macroeconomic environment within the country on the one hand and acceleration in world economic growth on the other. To achieve and sustain this Pakistan needs to invest heavily in infrastructure -water. The increase in imports was the direct outcome of higher machinery purchases thus giving credence to the argument of resurgence in the manufacturing sector. The fruits of macro economic gains have also started trickling down to the poor. More recent cross-country research has found that gender inequalities in education impede economic growth. Maintaining the momentum and building on the gains will be both vital and challenging. The macroeconomic policies and reform programmes pursued over the last five years have not only made the economy healthier but also set the stage for taking the economy on a higher growth path.28 percent higher than last year. Pakistan's economy has gained more strength during the outgoing fiscal year. The growth in the external sector of Pakistan gained further momentum during fiscal year 2003-04. financial discipline. Pakistan can serve as a bridge between East and West Asia. Allocation to infrastructure amounts to 59 percent of the total Federal Government PSDP (Rs. Promoting gender equality is not only an important social goal but is also essential for the achievement of the broader development goals. A strong economic growth along with massive spending on social sector and poverty related programmes are now beginning to yield dividends in terms of declining poverty and improvements in living conditions as well as in social indicators. ports. Cutting across this agenda is the empowerment of women by removing barriers to their fuller participation in the development process. necessary to reduce poverty. highways. Pakistan has already moved to a higher growth trajectory and has targeted a 7-8 percent rate in the next three to four years. Realizing the importance of infrastructure the government has allocated Rs. Increased investment in infrastructure alone.g 21 .

9 17.7 2.5 0.8 12.2 4.0 2002-03 12.7 100.7 5.3 6.1 6.4 1.2 100 PAKISTAN’S MAJOR EXPORTS (%AGE SHARE) COMMODITY Cotton Leather Rice Synthetic Textiles Sports Goods Sub-Total Others Total 9091 61.3 3.7 3.6 15. Canvas & Tarpaulin Readymade Garments Synthetic Textiles Made-up Articles Others 1998-99 19.9 8.0 01-02 24.1 100.2 70.9 100.0 2.6 7.8 6.8 4.6 15.5 55 45.1 5.9 83.7 8.5 5.0 9293 59.1 5.2 17.3 78.3 2.0 52.6 17.9 1.0 2003-04* 14.0 100.1 0.0 22.1 7.9 15.6 100.5 5.4 6.0 2.6 3.5 0.9 12.1 5.2 100.4 14.6 17.0 9.0 99-00 24.7 4.6 14.3 7.0 -12.6 4.9 13.7 100.0 1.6 2.9 7.1 100.9 19.7 50.0 0203 63.5 3.Wing.0 6.7 7.6 79.6 16.9 5.6 0.8 8.7 7.3 100.8 47.4 9.8 48.2 2.3 81.8 100.9 12.9 2.1 4.7 45.0 100.6 15.3 49.2 1.1 6.1 3.2 300.0 9900 61.1 7.9 51.6 100.4 53.0 98-99 21.4 5.7 100.4 100.0 2001-02 16.1 5.1 7.1 100.9 21.7 17.9 18.2 82.3 3.8 6.2 100.1 818.3 5.2 7.0 MAJOR EXPORT MARKETS (%AGE SHARE) COUNTRY USA Germany Japan UK Hong Kong Dubai Saudi Arabia Sub-Total Other Countries Total 90-91 10.5 5.0 MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO EXPORT EARNINGS (July – April 2003-04*) EXPORTS Additional Export Earnings Primary Commodities Textile Manufacturers Other Manufacturers Others * Provisional NET INCREASE %AGE $ MILLION CONTRIBUTION 1154.6 5.5 6.9 12.8 6.7 52.3 5.0 5.9 4.6 5.0 0304* 62.6 47.1 19.2 83.6 6.8 13.4 15.1 6.8 8. whereas the same quantity of raw cotton converted into fabric and exported as textile garments.8 6.2 1.9 14.4 4.A.0 94-95 16.0 92-93 13.9 3.9 80.2 5.1 8.8 20.3 5.9 7.0 5.0 4.6 54.9 45.8 3.4 46.7 7.5 5.3 55 45.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 5.6 0.8 0.3 7.9 4.8 20.8 9.3 6.9 7.4 2.9 6.0 9899 59.7 84.2 19.3 4.3 100.3 17.1 6.7 100.1 3.1 100.7 7.0 02-03 23.0 9495 58. fetch US$ 1500 to US$ 1600 as foreign exchange.9 15.7 100.6 9.2 0.5 5.9 18.4 100.0 00-01 24.0 0001 58.0 82.8 7.6 7.2 4.5 4. Finance Division 22 .1 3.0 4.0 9697 61.3 82.6 5.1 6.4 100.5 -1.0 3.0 2000-01 18.0 5.3 18. LAHORE bales of raw cotton.3 2.3 6.8 7.1 6.8 100.0 96-97 17.0 1999-00 19.4 4.9 5.2 9.8 47.7 3.4 5.3 7.0 6.7 2.1 3.0 15.6 54.2 100.2 100.2 5.7 52.0 26.0 0102 59.0 Source: FBS & E.0 100.7 5.9 49.0 03-04* 23.9 4.9 4.8 7. EXPORT OF TEXTILE MANUFACTURERS (%AGE SHARE) ITEM Cotton Yarn Cotton Cloth Knitwear Bead Wear Towels Tents.1 16.6 6.

2 268.5 881.1 204.7 28.5 4.0 1038.3 -9. Textile Manufacturers Cotton Yarn Cotton Cloth Knitwear Bed Wear Towels Readymade Garments Synthetic Textiles C.3 1066.5 5.0 JULY – APRIL %AGE 2002-03 CHANGE 830.9 10. Rugs & Mats Petroleum Crude Petroleum Goods Sports Goods Leather Tanned Leather Manufactures Leather Garments Chemicals & Pharmaceutical Engineering Goods D.6 863.5 15.6 55.5 3.8 1038.8 188.Wing.7 2002-03 1.4 34.8 884.5 -94.A.4 -1.4 184.5 1094.3 110.4 156.8 46.5 916.3 313.9 8.6 2003-04* 13.5 824.1 861.1 1730.0 39.3 13.6 9.1 -2.5 133.9 10001.8 891.4 52.1 24.2 40.6 1024.0 776.2 902.4 616.7 11.3 7.9 -1.9 340.9 174.2 -7.6 -2. Others Total * Provisional JULY – APRIL 2003-04 818.7 16.5 28.8 1132.7 890.3 2.7 869. Other Manufacturers Carpets.3 508.0 990.1 891.2 935.1 Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics GROUP WISE GROWTH PERFORMANCE (%AGE Share) GROUP Food. Beverages & Tobacco Textile and Apparel Leather Products Paper and Board 2001-02 4.2 1095.4 312.1 262.8 1006.6 73.7 7.0 7.0 6535.1 396.6 5717.8 854.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE MONTHLY EXPORTS MONTH July August September October November December January February March April Monthly Average * Provisional 2002-03 2003-04 $ MILLION $ MILLION 816.5 -4.7 109.7 68.6 1000.9 283.5 2.4 906.8 1681.1 946.8 -20.8 48.5 454. Finance Division STRUCTURE OF EXPORTS ($ Million) PARTICULARS A.4 82.4 1033.9 126.2 15.5 6.0 1136.3 -11.2 1045.1 33.8 -38.9 23 .2 10.0 210.6 8846.7 181.3 776.0 27.9 257.1 Source: FBS & E.3 14.8 1370.8 19.4 964.4 176.7 192. Primary Commodities Rice Raw Cotton Fish & Fish Preparation Fruits Tobacco Wheat B.5 439.

1 4.5 236.1 Imports Billion $ 10.5 16.7 15. # As on April 16.8 7.4 484.6 External Debt and FOREX Liab Billion $ 37.5 3. Billion 237.0 13.0 Foreign Direct Investment Million $ 322.3 4.9 2.0 40.2 17.9 9.8 Remittances Billion $ 2. External Sector Exports Billion $ 9. Fiscal Sector Revenue Collection Billion Rs.8 664.7 3.7 9.8 Debt Servicing % of Total Revenue 57.73 12.1 36.0 Credit to Private Sector @ Rs.6 5.1 2.6 3.4 Tax Collection (CBR) Rs.9 Portfolio $ Million -45.3 2715.7 -2.7 FDI $ Million 632.0 147.0 * July-February @ As on March 27.March 2.0 21.0 33.5 35.5 6. 2004.7 198. LAHORE Pharmaceutical Chemicals Petroleum Group Tyres and Tubes Non-Metallic Mineral Products Basic Metal Industries Light Engineering Goods Electricals Automobile Overall Growth * July . 396.5 9.0 Current Account Balance % of GDP -0.4 Of which FC.0 101.5 603.1 4.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 57.0 7.8 178.0 Public Debt** % of GDP 99. PERFORMANCE OF KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS UNIT 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 (T) 1.0 51.0 19.0 17.9 0.2 9. Billion 352.4 27.9 14.7 100.3 658.7 Appreciation Stock Market (KSE Index) # Index 5582.9 160.26 10.2 -3.0 Foreign Exchange Reserves Billion $ 3. Billion 1489.7 -0.4 17.7 31.5 6.4 0.8 52.6 9.4 5.3 10.3 Large Scale Manufacturing % 9.2 7856.3 45.9 49.7 Inflation % 3.8 Investment % of GDP 15.0 Fiscal Deficit % of GDP 4.1 Source: Economic Advisor Wing.4 3.9 8.2 12.5 Market Capitalization Rs.7 -11.8 1.2 Exchange Rate (Avg.6 37.8 90.1 4.4 14.7 2.5 4.5 84.1 -11.6 Exports $ Million 8902.27 6. Finance Division KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS (JULY-MARCH) ITEMS UNIT 2003-04 2002-03 %AGE CHANGE Large Scale Manufacturing* % 15.5 FOREX Reserves (End March) $ Billion 12.0 1500.4 310.5 7.1 9029.3 Non-Food % 3.7 9.3 3.3 Trade Balance $ Million -1599.7 8.0 1.5 National Savings % of GDP 15.1 Inflation % 4.8 36.9 33.0 Foreign Investment (Total) $ Million 586.3 Deterioration Current Account Balance $ Million 1422 1910 (Excluding Official Transfers)* Remittances $ Million 2875.4 5.0 2.7 3. REAL SECTOR Real GDP Growth % 2. March) Rs / US$ 57.4 403.5 4.9 -1173.1 11.2 12.9 461.3 13.8 0.2 4.2 3.1 -15.3 3230.7 2.6* T: Target *: End March 2004 **: Adjusted for Grant Assistance.4 4.4 2.3 12.6 510.5 External Debt and Liabilities % of FOREX Earnings 259. denominated % of GDP 51.1 4.1 5.8 16.1 3.5 52.8 13.1 35.3 Agriculture % -2.6 31.5 Food % 4.7 15. 24 .6 3.6 47.3 Imports $ Million 10502.7 105.

locating and arranging a central warehouse. selection of sole agents in foreign countries. 9. 14. machines were competing with hands. 1. At the beginning of industrial revolution. selection of shipping or airline companies. Stitching methods and processes. new designs are developed somewhere and reach us through fax and email from our customers and we are asked to develop them and send them samples. 8. At least twice every year. THE MODERN ENTERPRISES: The concept of successful enterprise has changed dramatically all over the world. accessories and in house testing. We also are aware that a little difference in styling can sometimes increase or decrease the price. & time motion study and work sample. Modernizing manufacturing and production of garment is what we should be aiming for. It is one of the parts of the selling aspect of the trade and thereby also including marketing. LAHORE MERCHANDISING ENVIRONMENT 1. 5. Cutting techniques. Process design. and as discussed above. Finishing. 4.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and nomination of forwarding agent is specified.1 MANUFACTURING: Garment factory is just the manufacturing part of the apparel business.e. planning and investment. Why is it that local companies seldom design their own products? How many of us have trained designers in our factories? 25 . 10. Safety and health of the workforce. Management tools and methods. Organization chart and designations in a medium scale garment factory. Majority of us are simply working on style given by their customers local agents and the mode of shipment. In future Apparel companies will have to look at selling differently. 3. 7. 11. We just follow the procedure and that’s it. Motivation and improvement of productivity of the workforce. selecting transportation companies from warehouse to eventual destinations. It is important to note that each link in the distribution chain has a cost associated and therefore profit margin. delivery date.e. Pattern making techniques for quality improvement and cost reduction. computers. process analysis. Internal training of workforce. Factory layout plans and facilities.3 DESIGN: It is this aspect of the apparel business. and implementing / managing all above through modern methods i. visiting trade fairs. 6. etc. we should break it up into different stages i. 13. Hand made products in homes or small workshops are quickly being replaced by machine made products because they are cheaper and consistent. Equipment selection. Distribution chain for manufacturing to overseas retailing is marketing and selling tools including costing. 2. which is the most important and also the most rewarding. We all know the importance of designs in the trade. 1. it is relatively the easiest part. Any successful Company must have following areas of work: 1. selection of forwarding and clearing agencies. It also means the method in which you get the product from the manufacturing facility to near by outlet or can involve warehousing agents. 12. Selection criteria of personnel and job descriptions. pressing and packing techniques. Purchasing of fabrics. 1. since production of garment is a vast area. Today machine are common & cheaper.2 DISTRIBUTION & MARKETING: It can be visualized as the method in which the product reaches the intended target. trucking.

consumers quickly become bored with whatever is widely accepted: thus. A Fashion is the styling or mode that is accepted by a particular group of people at a particular time and place. a lot of promotion and a clear vision. the consumer is willing to pay more just for the name. the apparel business has evolved from custom fitting and assembling of individual hand sewn garments to the mechanized. LAHORE 1.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. then you plan to fail” 2. 1. These expansions do not mean in any way that the existing work will be curtailed. manufacturing garments and related products. Two types of change have profound effects on the apparel business: Fashion change and seasonal change. 2. Because of the variety of product categories. They are the identifying and creating new designs and material and developing better and more efficient manufacturing capabilities.1 CHANGE: Change in apparel is accepted and expected by most manufacturers. 26 . It also means that for the same product. and marketing finished goods to retailers and ultimate consumers. All of it can be summarized in few words as “If you fail to plan. Seasonal change is modification of products available in market and used by consumers according to the time of the year. styling. APPAREL INDUSTRY: The apparel industry is a broad based international system of merchandising. But there are million other small brands all over the world trying to create their version of styling and recognition. producing. The apparel business is widely known as the fashion business because fashion change is so intimately associated with apparel in the minds of most people. According to fashion theory. holidays. when we think about LEVI’S our REEBOK. It requires a long-term investment. and cultural and religious traditions. marketing. Seasonal Change is often confused with fashion change. merchandising product lines. It involves sourcing textiles from international markets. but complexities of manipulating flexible materials and dealing with constantly changing styles limit the degree of automation for many production operations. retailers and consumers. Apparel companies who wish to expand business through design and distribution must also invest in branding. the endless change in materials and styling. and consumers. Fashion change relates to change in color. Factors’ influencing seasonal change includes the weather. Over the past 150 years. apparel manufacturing remains labor intensive. Compared to many other product lines.4 BRANDING: This is probably the toughest aspect of the apparel business. Advancements in technology have increased the functions and capabilities of machines and equipment. silhouette. and financing. and performance to reflect fashion trends. apparel manufacturers. manual production operations are usually needed. and the difficulty in handling soft goods. automated. they constantly seek new and different variations of products and activities. fabrication. it only gives a road map to the future. Participation in the textile and apparel business requires complex interactions and relationships among material suppliers. retailers.5 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: There are two areas in apparel business where initially research and development can play an important role. Business success is dependent on meeting customer’s needs. beginning and ending of the school year. and sometimes robotized mass production and distribution of ready to wear in the world market.

fit. and advertising are common extrinsic cues.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and assembly methods. some introduce new styles on a monthly or even weekly basis. and expectations. Managing change requires careful timing. interpretations of relationships between apparel quality and performance are subject to individual experiences. Established product lines are often known for their quality and value. However. and designer price are widely used to describe merchandise sold in apparel markets. Consequently. or a perceived level of value. and better are used to describe quality and performance characteristics that are consistent with expectations within a particular price classification. LAHORE 2. Apparel professionals plan and implement product changes based on interpretations of target customer’s needs and wants. Intrinsic quality is created during product manufacturing and is dependent on styling. value. an inherent or distinguished characteristic or property. 2. Each price classification represents a general price range. and garment assembly processes to evaluate intrinsic quality and performance of apparel. quality is goodness or luxury. From a merchant’s perspective. The performance and quality of products produced and marketed in this environment are dependent on intensive interactions of apparel manufacturers. constant fashion and seasonal change. Mass merchandisers and discounters. Manufacturers / retailers frequently use extrinsic cues to influence perceptions of product quality. Extrinsic cues originate from outside the product and are not inherent parts of the product.2 TIMING: The combination of fashion change and seasonal change makes the apparel business the most change intensive business in the world. Thus. labels or high prices. brand names. Exact characteristics that are perceived as quality features vary according to the standards of each individual. and performance. To others. reputations of retailers. An objective analysis of the intrinsic quality or performance of apparel is often not possible. Quality is the essential nature of something. Apparel firms must be flexible and completely oriented to change since many develop five product lines a year. moderate. fabrics. Terms budget. materials. 2. people rely on wide variety of cues to determine whether products meet their quality standards. and essential timing make the apparel business unique. extrinsic cues are sometimes regarded as indicators of intrinsic quality. finishes. A fashion or seasonal product that hits the market a few days late may be totally un-salable. visual merchandising techniques. beauty. Labor intensity. budget. and consumers in the world market. Many challenges must be over come to maintain product quality and performance while meeting deadlines and delivery dates. apparel manufacturers and retailers are constantly working against deadlines. excellence. retailers. Perceived quality is a composite of intrinsic and extrinsic cues to quality. moderate. yarns. quality is durability. Clearly. the quality characteristics that should be incorporated into a product line are those that customers desire and are willing to pay for and that can be cost effective. The general population is not well informed about properties of fibers. such as 27 . Intrinsic cues relate to the innate and essential parts or inherent nature of a garment. To some people.4 PRICE: Price is one of the primary extrinsic cues relative to quality. standards. understandings. Extrinsic cues seem to be less complex to interpret intrinsic cues. Low end and budget price classifications make up well over half the apparel merchandise sold in retail market.3 QUALITY: The term Quality as applied to apparel has a multiplicity of meanings. Prices. better. The general price classifications of low end. soft materials. superiority.

Some of which may be typical of budget or better categories. Moderate merchandise makes up most of what is sold in community and regional malls. Styling and quality are the primary selection criteria for this price classification. while comparatively low in price. and quality needs. uniqueness. Result is usually greater focus on intrinsic quality. Better market demand. At the mill level i. and production of products. In Low end and budget markets. quality. and commitment to a total image. 3. Wall Mart. lower moderate prices merchandise. trims.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Moderate priced merchandise often has a conglomeration of product characteristics. Markets for apparel sold within the better and designer price classifications represent a comparatively small proportion of the population. and buttons are manufactured and sold to apparel firms. beginning with the production and distribution of materials at the mill level and ending with the consumer. thread. Apparel manufacturers have two types of organizational structures: (1) those that perform all or nearly all of their manufacturing within their own facilities and by their own employees and (2) those that contract some or all of the manufacturing functions to other firms. Most department and specialty stores carry the majority of their merchandise in the moderate category. Moderate price classifications have their own core customers plus fringe customers from the budget and better price ranges. as well as a few specialty chains and local independent retailers. A few nationally known retailers specialize in better. Production costs may also be contained by combing or eliminating steps in manufacturing processes. Manufacturers of better and designer apparel meet market demands with more focus on styling and fit. zippers.ORGANIZATION OF APPAREL INDUSTRY: The organizational structure of the apparel industry can be divided into four levels. Target. Better customers may shop moderate merchandise when they perceive styling. LAHORE Kmart. moderate. At the apparel manufacturing level i. selection of unique fabrics and other materials. Low end and Budget manufacturers control costs by using less expensive materials and different quality standards for production. Level-2. merchandising.e. Most budget merchandise. Level-1. and Sears have high proportions of their assortments made up of budget merchandise.e. higher priced apparel. materials such as fabrics including piece goods and interlinings. price is the primary point of competition. Manufacturers of better apparel have more options available in design and production because they have different cost limitations than manufacturers of budget or moderate. 28 . and use of more complex construction techniques. and others have products developed to their specifications. Budget customers may shop for moderate priced garments when they are on sale or for special occasion garments. apparel firms are responsible for the marketing. Some mainstream department stores carry some better apparel in a few departments that specialize in upscale quality. which makes controlling costs of production and materials a necessity. performance. Nationally advertised brands of apparel tend to be upper moderate. more exclusivity. Some apparel manufacturers buy from vendor’s open stock. Few apparel manufacturers are vertically integrated with textile production and therefore may produce in their own plants all or some of the materials used in their garments. or status to be less important. Moderate merchandise is designed to meet the fashion. provides adequate performance and quality to meet the needs of a large proportion of the population.

20. 4. many manufacturers hire contractors to supplement their own production facilities. Satisfied consumers make business growth and profitability possible. 18. Contracting part of the regular production allows a manufacturer to maintain a level work force without having to hire additional personnel to meet seasonal demands. Many manufacturers and retailers hire specialty contractors to perform processes for which they lack skills or equipment. 3. 5. of the entire textile and apparel industry. Human Resource Department Marketing Department Merchandising Department Export Department Accounts Department Internal Audit Department Production Planning and Control Department (PPC) Production Department Quality Control Department Fabric Department – Woven Industry Knitting Department – Knit Industry Dyeing Department Washing Department Pattern Department CAD Department Cutting Department Stitching Department Finishing Department Packing Department 29 . This gives the manufacturer direct contact with the consumer which can aid decision making during product development. Administration Department. LAHORE Apparel contractors are sources of many goods and services. and / or embroidering. 19. 4. 2. they are responsible for meeting specifications and delivery dates set by the firms that contract their services. manufacturers have entered the retail business through factory owned stores and manufacturers outlets. 6. 9. regardless of location. 16. pleating. 7. 12. Contractors sometimes enter competitive bidding for sewing jobs by submitting bids based on estimates of production costs for a given volume of output. 13. 15. who are the target and purpose. If manufacturers and retailers are not vertically integrated. 10. 17. DEPARTMENTS IN AN APPAREL INDUSTRY 1. Special operations. such as making belts. At Level-3. during the peak of a seasonal production period. merchandise is sold at wholesale through apparel markets or traveling sales representatives. Contractors do not own the products on which they work. In addition. thus bypassing the manufacturers. 14. 8.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. are contracted as needed for certain styles in a line. printing. Contractors are firms that make a profit by providing sewing or specialty services to one or more apparel manufacturers. 11. Some times apparel retailers also interact with apparel contractors to produce apparel that they want to sell in their stores. At Level-4 are the consumers.

MARKETING. Effective merchandise planning and control are required in order to meet deadlines. Selling is only the tip of marketing iceberg. delivery dates. 5. Receiveing inquiry and lab dips from buyer. Order Development Confirmations. Merchandising is a process through which products are designed. For a managerial definition. 3. All that should be needed is to make the product or service available. 13. and sales goals. Receiving Sample Grey Fabric in Grey Fabric Store. Bulk Production Approval from the Buyer 30 . Stitching of Samples 16. Provide Purchase Order copy to Import and Export Department 18. Merchandisers may be involved in both the whole sale and retail levels of the apparel business. Receiving sample swatch and check possibility of fabric 4. Merchandising is central coordinating point for product lines. MERCHANDISING OPERATIONS 1. 12. and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. 2. Dyeing starts. and timing. 6. In both manufacturing and retailing firms. Dyed fabric inspection Department checks the fabric Quality. Actually. Analyzing trim detail (local and imported accessories). promoted and presented for identical target markets with regard to prices. Finalizing pricing and costing. Check Fabrics 10. developed. Knitting starts 9. 11.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Contract Confirmation by the Buyer 17. MERCHANDISING AND SELLING: Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating. offering. marketing is an art of selling products. and the emphasis on quick response relationships. LAHORE MERCHANDISING MANAGEMENT 1. Cutting starts and cutting Audit 14. styling. Prepare Sampling Plan 8. marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. Arranging Yarn. The role of merchandising in today’s apparel business has become increasingly important and centralized compared to years past because of increasing complexity of line and product development. 7. complex channels of distribution in the market. but people are surprised when they hear that the most important part of marketing is not selling. Ideally. planned. marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. 2. the growing rate of fashion and seasonal change. Selling is the process in which sales operations implement marketing and merchandising activities by physically selling the line to retail customers according to the marketing plans. assortments. merchandisers are responsible for developing and presenting product lines that will meet profit objectives within a firm’s strategic plan and marketing strategy. Embroidery / Printing starts (if required) 15.

2. Makes arrangement for final audit of order. if Rejection. Give Production Status to the Buying House (If Needed) 28. 4. Merchandiser PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS 1. 31 . Monitors all type of fabric development programs and seeking approval Coordinates with all departments for monitoring all related activities. 9. 3. Bulk Production Starts 25. 10. Provide Sealed Pre-Production Sample to Stitching 24. Shipment is Ready. Planning 20. Prepares lab-dips program of buyer for seeking approval.1 FUNCTIONS OF A MERCHANDISER Job Title Reporting To Reporting Staff : : : Merchandiser Senior Merchandiser Nil PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS 1. 2. Submission of Wash Test Sample for Approval 27. Makes pricing & negotiates with the buyer consulting with CE. 3. Prepares shipment schedule for on time delivery. Prepares booking schedule & confirms booking space from the buyers. 3. make Correction otherwise shipment out. Delivers POs to export. makes costing and negotiates price. 7.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Intimate to Quality Assurance Department of Buying House for Final Audit 30. PPC. Monitors & controls sampling program. 5. ROUTINE FUNCTIONS 1. Dye Lot and Production Dye Lot Approval from Buyer (if needed) 26. Extension in delivery date (If required) 29. arranges & monitors check list for local & imported accessories. 6. 3. 2. 4.2 FUNCTIONS OF A MERCHANDISING MANAGER Job Title Reporting To Reporting Staff : : : Merchandising Manager CE / DO (A) Merchandiser (B) Asst. 8. Prepares gats pass for samples. LAHORE 19. Get the paper patterns adjusted from Sampling Department 22. Receive inquiry. 3. A Copy sent to Import & Export Department and Production. Monitors sample preparation & approval from buyer. Prepares & plans booking schedule. production & purchase officer. Develop the Size-Sets 21. Monitors & Controls all activities regarding merchandising department. Prepares. Gets internal factory PO # from PPC for further proceeding. Plan and execute order. Submit Pre-Production Sample to the Buyer for Approval 23.

Program Name 7. Printing details 16. Leading and controlling. Sets Priorities of all programs & adjusts accordingly. INFORMATION REQUIRED BY A MERCHANDISER 1. He should keep in mind the flow chart of the order for quick execution and communication. Packing List 17. Monitors & controls all Pos on time deliveries. Freight on Board (F. Garment Specs. Sample / Size Range 22. / Measurements 11. Product Type 6. Planning is the first step in merchandising function. Style Number 5. It is the process of setting performance objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish them. Washing Instructions 12. Yarn Specification 21. Embroidery details 15. Tag Sample / Main Label Other then these information’s. 2. Planning sets the stage for good organizing. Shrinkage details 21. Arranges & consults all visits & meetings with all buyers. and there own standards of performance. LAHORE ROUTINE FUNCTIONS 1.B. Fabric Color 20. 5. 32 . 4. For monitoring & controlling all activities. 3. Quality details 18. Monitors & involves in all types of fabric department & sampling programs. Name of the Buyer 3. Garment Type / Sketch 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Coordinates all concerned depts. Date) 10. Season 1. availability of accessories & proper execution of orders. 6. Trim Placement Sheet 14.O. Work Order Number 8. Fabric Weight 19. 4. the merchandiser must also know his companies strength. Style Name 4. Monitors/ensures receipt of all factory POs by the concerned merchandiser.

80/20.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 60/40) 1.g. LAHORE 5. DOUBLE COTTON /POLY CASE. 2. 3. MERCHANDIZING ROUTE   (1) INQUIRY RECEIVED E-MAIL GARMENTS FOR REFERNCE STYLE SHEET   TELEPHONE (INCASE REFERENCE ALREADY PRESENT)  PERSONAL REQUEST YARN CONTENTS 100% COTTON (2) ANALYSIS OF INQUIRY (A) FABRICATION (CHIEF VALUE COTTON (CVC) COTTON/POLY RATIO (e. SINGLE 100% COTTON (B) DYEING FINISHING ROUTE REQUIRED GSM 33 . YARN COUNT GAUGE DIA CVS (CHIEF VALUE SYNTHETIC) Send Packing List.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. WASHING EFFECTS (IF ANY) PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTES (DRY FIT ETC. SEWING CONSTRUCTION (3. TRIMS & ACCESSORIES (IMPORTED AND LOCAL. LAHORE © GARMENTS FEATURES TO BE DEVELOPED DIFFICULTY LEVEL OF THE GARMENT (CONSTRUCTION & FASHION IF APPLICABLE) EMBELLISHMENT (INHOUSE & COMMERCIAL)     EMBRIODERY PRINTING FLOCKING HEAT STICKERS ETC. SINGLE AND F/L STICHING NATURE. 4 AND 5 THREAD.) (3) COSTING & PRICING 34 .

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE (1) PROTO DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDING (2) LAB / YARN DIPPING PROCEEDING (3) SAMPLING PLAN FABRICATION       REQUIRED YARN ARRANGEMENT KNITTING AS PER REQUIRED PARAMETERS KNITTED FABRIC INSPECTION DYEING WASHING PLAN DYEING / WASHING & FINISHING FINISHED FABRIC INSPECTION (4) SAMPLING PLAN (CUT TO PACK)          PATTERN MAKING CUTTING CUTTING AUDIT EMBELLISHMENT (IF ANY) INDUCTION (INLINE) FOR SEWING QUALITY AFTER OFFLINE ALTERATION IF REQUIRED PACKING SUBMISSION OF PROTO SAMPLES. (5) PRECEDING OF SIZE SETS AFTER APPROVAL OF BUYERWITH COMMENTS (IF ANY) 35 .

LAHORE (6) PO CONFIRMATION BY BUYER AFTER APPROVAL OF SIZE SETS. (10) SALESMAN / PROTO SHOT SAMPLES (WITH EVERYTHING IN ORIGINAL) (11) KNITDOWN & DYED LOTS SUBMISSION FOR APPROVAL OF BULK PRODUCTION FOR FABRICATIONS & DIFFERENT TYPES OF TESTS. (12) SUBMISSION OF EMBELLISHMENTS AS STRIKE OUTS IN ORIGINAL FABRIC AND SHADES OF APPROVAL. (9) ORDERING OF IMPORTED ACCESSORIES. (4) PROVISION OF SEALED PP SAMPLE TO PRODUCTION 36 . ACCESSORIES & FABRIC. (7) ISSUANCE OF PLAN OF ACTION TO PPC DEPARTMENT. PACKING MATERIALS. (14) ON APPROVAL OF PP SAMPLES. APPROVAL FOR BULK PRODUCTION IS GRANTED BY THE BUYER. (8) ISSUING FACTORY W/O AGAINST BUYER’S PO.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.AFTER TESTING THE FABRICATION. CUTTING APPROVAL BY THE BUYER. (13) ON APPROVAL OF FABRIC LOTS PP SAMPLES ARE PREPARED IN EVERYTHING ORIGINAL LIKE ALL PACKING MATERIAL.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE (5) TRIAL RUN IN SEWING (6) BULK PRODUTION STARTS (7) BOOKING OF VESSEL BY THE EXPORT DEPARTMENT (8) INTERNAL & EXTERNAL QA CHECKUP (9) PRODUCTION STATUS TO BUYER DAILY (10) TOPS (11) SHIPMENT SAMPLES (12) SHIPMENT READY (13) CONDUCTION OF AUDIT (14) FINAL AUDIT (15) SHIPMENT OUT (IF APPROVED) 37 .

He has already finished his home work and fully aware of the market price for that particular type of garment. When what you want is under the control of others. If quoted price is higher it may be due to.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 1234567Higher overheads in the factory (high CMT) Lower productivity in the factory Higher mark-up Raw material costs at high prices. Nor. But if both sides can arrive at an amicable agreement which more or less satisfies mutual interests. NEGOTIATION: It is a stimulating way to arrive at an acceptable solution to the need for something. do others necessarily get what they want. The buyer always has a target price for the merchandise he hopes to buy. Most factories do this in a hurry and invariably arrive at out of focus cost. whether it is a need to resolve difficulties or to settle terms. Wrong consumptions etc. Buying officers not only should have knowledge of company’s performance but also their average CMT prices. their representatives should not consult companies operating at very high CMT to do very low priced merchandise. it is not always easy to accomplish your ends. LAHORE MERCHANDISING SKILLS 1. he will do his best to buy the garment below his target price or for this target price. 38 . the manufacturers will promise the best quality and prompt delivery to convince the buyers to pay his merchandise. in other words a good image should do the trick. neither side ever totally achieves what it sets out to achieve. A premium is charged for the label / buyer. We should not forget the globe is full of manufacturer or country if he fails to buy at his price. 1. The buyers are always trying to get this garment make at very low prices whilst the manufacturers are hoping they get at least 2 per cent more than what they got last time for a similar style. A higher price for the quota. the order negotiation between he buyer and the manufacturer is not always an easy task. Therefore. Negotiating plays a vital role in whatever you mange. The buyers are generally more conversant with the costing and would be able to judge almost immediately the manufacturer’s operations if price quoted are much different from his target price. if you are in control. but it may be possible to do so if the company has a good relationship with the buyer or if the company has a very good reputation for excellent performance. This situation will cause frustration to both parties during an order negotiation. Buying Officers. On the other hand. In reality.1 ORDER NEGOTIATION: Order that have been sent to factories will be negotiated for price. Another important aspect in the order negotiation is to know the fairly accurate cost of making the garment. delivery. It enables to try to get what they want while giving others chance to do same. the negotiation can said to be a success. quota and quality etc. It is rather difficult to convince a buyer to pay more than his target price.

Only take work home if you intend to do it. 3. interpretation & Judgment. and then act. Do one thing at a time. Arrange breaks at times when you cannot work effectively. Do the important jobs when you are at your best (lark or owl). high. they achieve more. 2. 39 . LAHORE 2. 4. GOLDEN RULES FOR GOOD TIME MANAGEMENT 123456789101112131415161718192021Development of a fixed daily routine. don’t be a perfectionist. Dealing with emotion and conflict Gaining agreement and commitment. Establishing rapport. HOW TO BUILD YOUR MEN AND WIN THEIR LOYALTY Since manger gets results through efforts of his men. but attainable goals for them. Set time limits and stick to them. Wherever possible. Influencing Skills. SKILLS REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATION:               Assertiveness Inventing creative options. Removal of personal issues. Plan phone calls and stick to the plan. it feels good.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Do similar type jobs at same time. Set up a quiet hour and publicize it.Interpret goals into individual results expected from each. his basic job is to develop his men because as they develop their value increases. Do things adequately. ALL THESE SKILLS NEED PRACTICE. Keep a notebook to collect ideas in one place. Questioning skills.Set realistic. Manger can build his men consistently and improve their effectiveness by careful attention to following requirements: 1. e. Learn to say no. Never put-off unpleasant or difficult tasks if they are also important. Observation. Think. Discovering interests and common grounds. Conduct a time audit about once in every four months. through them. Communicate routine matters at routine meetings. the manger achieves more. do routine things at routine times. Establishing facts.Develop co-ordination and teamwork for your people. the week. Understanding body language. Set a task for the year. 3. Win-win solutions. Analyze interruptions. all phone calls one after another. and thus. finish your task. Listening effectively (including summarizing & reflecting). the day. month. take steps to avoid them. Put-off everything that is not important.g. Make lists and cross-off tasks when done.

4. my friend Sight your target right now before it’s too late 40 . Do not get annoyed at trivialities. Leaders shape the outputs Managers chase the inputs Leaders focus on group products Managers’ focus on individual jobs Leaders encourage new ideas Managers enforce old ideas Leaders stimulate right things. 6. He must first demonstrate his loyalty to them and wins their loyalty in response to his treatment of them. 9.Inspire them to reach higher and to give their best efforts and greatest value. 22. thinking ahead and on improvement by all. 10. to help people attain desired results. 10. The manager will never have fully productive team unless he wins the loyalty for his men. Managers see scant need for comparison Leaders thinks of involvement programs Managers’ thinks of suggestion programs Leaders empower others to make decision Managers control the decision process Leaders see leading as animate & proactive Managers see managing as inanimate and reactive Leaders thinks of a dynamic. 1. culture & climate Managers assume that neither is a bog deal. 20. 8. 23. 3.Provide staff help. LEADERS OR MANAGERS 1. 11.Use controls to show actual results. LAHORE 4. 14. 12. 7. He must earn their loyalty through a fair exchange. 8. 9. call them to account when they fail to achieve. Use controls to build selfreliance. Keep your temper under control. 18. Play no favorites Make few promises.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 13. 15. 19. 21. caring human system Managers think of a business as followings a script Leaders things of improving initiative and innovating Managers’ things of improving compliance & conformance Leaders shape organization charter. 5. 17. 12Be fair. Scrupulously keep those you do make.Having given results to achieve. 11. 16. for their job What would you like to be. or force them to be loyal to himself or the company. 5. 5.Stimulate them and keep them from lagging at difficult times.Set realistic performance standards for them and guide them toward measuring up to these standards. 2. Managers monitor for wrong things Leaders thrive on though competition Manages talk little of competition Leaders prize comparison with others. Faithful observance to following guidelines will help to win loyalty of people. 24. 12.Insist on creativity. 7. He cannot persuade. deviations from expected results and get people to take corrective measures when deviations. 13.Supervise them wisely and give them needed direction and guidance. 6.Set an example which will induce progress & achievement.Give them adequate authority to attain desired results. if needed. not retard the efforts.

Participants come unprepared for the meetings. of hours spent by participants If the same outcome is achieved by a lesser number of participant hours.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Every one should participate and no one should dominate 9. both the quality of the outcome (decision made) and the man hours spend would be critical for optimum productivity. 1. Participants should seek permission from the Chairman before they speak 5. Start and end the meeting on time 2. Stick to the agenda and the time frame 8. These meetings are attended by public servants. About 8000 – 10000 man hours and costing over Rs. The Chairman should establish ground rules for the conduct of the meeting and should communicate these rules to all participants. production goods and services. professionals. the productivity would be higher and similarly. Do not interrupt when one participant has the floor 3. 7. not much attention has been paid for the improvement of productivity to these meetings. businessmen and others holding important position in society. Do not criticize the ideas of others 10. In other worlds. Hence the productivity of a meeting depends on the preparatory work done for the meeting and the actual conducting of the meetings. Productivity is defined as the efficient use of resources labor. An executive summary highlighting the important issues is not provided. Avoid cross talk. Participants get late for the meetings Participants get involved in cross talk during the meeting Participants discuss matters outside the scope of the meeting The Chairman fails to manage the time allocated for each agenda item The Chairman fails to control the meetings. discussions should be directed to the Chairman 4. Summaries the important decisions made at the end of the meeting. Make compromises when necessary 6. but conceptual Productivity = Outcome of the meeting Total No. LAHORE 6. 41 . The productivity of a meeting is measured in terms of the outcome of the meeting per man hour spent. Please note that the equation is not mathematical. HOW TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTIVITY OF MEETINGS: It is estimated that over 500 important meetings are held in Sri Lanka on a single working day for different purposes. etc. It is seen from the above that the two parties responsible for the proper conduct of a meeting are the Chairman and Secretary. However.2-3 million would be spent on a day for these meetings. energy. the productivity would be higher again. It may be noted that the quality of the discussions (input) and number of participants for a meeting are sometimes beyond the control of the organization convening the meetings and is based on the statutes (in case of an official meeting) or based on nominations made by the organization represented on committee. materials. Reasons for low productivity at meetings are. capital.            The objectives of the meetings are not clear to the participants The working documents are not sent in time to the participants Adequate notice of the meeting is not given The working documents are too bulky. Following are some examples of the ground rules. Allocate time to each agenda items. if a better outcome (in terms of quality and quantity) could be achieved by the same number of participant house.

for briefing the Chairman on important issues that may come up to the meetings. He should be knowledgeable on the subject matter. cooperation and technical investment among vendors. should have good public relations. He should be a good communicator and should be able to guide the committee for a compromise solution when everything fails. 7.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. apparel manufacturers and retailers. The alarming need of QR in apparel industry has given more versified dimensions to the duties of merchandisers. Lead time (Time between placement of an order and goods delivery) is closely monitored and retailers get sufficient time to anticipate profits on the selling floor. 42 . LAHORE The Secretary is responsible for the preparation and transmission of documents to the participants. for making arrangements for the meeting. It is always better for the Secretary and the Chairman to meet before the meeting and discuss the agenda items. ROLE OF QUICK RESPONSE (QR) FOR MERCHANDISERS: Quick Response (QR) works wonders with planning. QR programs have helped to create customer driven market. diplomacy and tact and should be unbiased. The personal quality of the Chairman will also contribute to the productivity of the meetings.

PPC is consulted at this point that provides the ETD for the order depending on the order quantity and difficulty level. booking has to be placed with a shipping company and goods have to be sent to the docks in time to make it to the intended vessel. order conformation. The fabric average per garment for the approved sample is provided to the Commercial department. a size chart or sample of the garment. In response. It usually takes about 2-3 samples before final approval is granted. and Production status. Packing List. pocket lining cost per garment. Some alterations in cutting might do the trick in which case GGT are informed to alter their pattern. If there are any special fabric requirements not available in the market in running quantity. the customer places the order and specifies the quantity he wants. for bulk fabric purchase. After the order is ready for packing (and inspected in cases where the customer sends his inspector). Periodic follow up is kept with these departments to check the progress of fabric and accessories. trims cost. At the same time. fabric cost per meter. fabric cost per garment. stitching cost. lab dips are provided to the customer for his approval on the washing or dyeing required on the fabric. Customer sends his comments on the sample and any amendments he may want. fabric arrival date. Some of these include difficulty level of the garment. After the price has been negotiated. Before the bulk fabric is purchased.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The information maintained in booking status are samples / size set approval date. stitching. accessories arrival date. a sample is made and sent for customer approval. 1st batch in washing is also checked by VMD and any alteration to make in recipe are told to GWPD. standard 3 dates. LAHORE MERCHANDISING PROCESS The whole process starts with an inquiry by the customer along a sketch. The documents to be provided to the Import / Export department to book a place in a vessel are Container Requirement (mentioning the CBM requirement for the shipment). MMC are provided with standard 3 for the procurement of all accessories to be attached to the garment. This sample is made in Sampling hall after VMD issue them Standard 0. After pre production samples are approval by VMD. the bulk production of the order is started. and profit margin. production standards for cutting. This pre production sample of an order. Price negotiations start at this point and a variety of factors have to be considered while quoting the price. L/C receiving. lab dips approval date. is checked and any fault that might be occurring is rectified. the R & D department is contacted to get the fabric manufactured on demand. along with Standard 2. fixed costs. The expected arrival date for fabric and accessories is informed to PPC for planning purposes. While fabric and accessories are in process of arrival. and Delivery Note 43 . standard 2 dates. A Booking Status is maintained by each account Manager which shown the progress of his order. An order confirmation is send to the customer which mentions all these negotiated points. before bulk production is started. Follow up to the order in each production stage has to be maintained and any problem occurring at any stage has to be solved either on their own or by consulting the customer. washing and packing are handed over to PPC who distribute these standards to the concerned departments.

1. SIZE SET: This set of samples is send to the customer is a variety of sizes for him to check for measurement in each size. The customer usually sends a garment along with its size chart and asks for an exact copy. Only if he is satisfied by quality of the counter sample does he place the order. The customer places his seal of acceptance specifying that he has approved this particular sample and the bulk production should be exactly as per it.2 SAMPLING PROCESS: Sampling procedure is started when an inquiry is send to VMD. COUNTER SAMPLE: This sample is send in reply to an initial inquiry by the customer. and another booking has to be made with the shipping company. The sample is to be worn by a model whose picture. 1. The operators in this department are on monthly wages so that they don’t rush their work to increase earnings. measurement and fitting. The customer is to be informed in this case and the new date of departure of his goods is provided to him. It shows the level of quality and workmanship that the company has to offer.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.1 TYPES OF SAMPLES OFFER / MARKETING SAMPLE: This sample is made for the purpose of marketing the product of a company. PHOTO SAMPLE: Kind of sample is send to the customers with catalogues after they have placed their order. VMD provide the size chart and sketch/sample along with Standard 0 to sampling department. would be included in the company’s catalogue. with the garment. which are randomly picked from the bulk production and represent the whole production. Marketing samples are usually shown to fresh clients to attract new orders. As the TOPS are sent to buyer for review and for some buyer this is compulsory that the shipment cannot be handed over until factory receives the TOP’s comments from the buyer. TOP OF PRODUCTION SAMPLES (TOPS): These samples are garments. 1. LAHORE If the shipment does not reach the vessel by the deadline (as placed by the shipping company) the booking is cancelled. The customer places these samples on mannequins to check for styling. The operators have huge amount of experience and skill and produce samples that exhibit the highest quality of workmanship. All the samples made in the department are for approval purpose only. So to meet this requirement these TOP’s should be submitted to customer office at least 7-8 working days before the final audit date so that company could have buyer’s comments before planned / agreed handover date. Pre production samples are made in the stitching halls after the order 44 . SAMPLING: Sampling is one of the most important departments in a garment company since all orders are confirmed by the customer after viewing samples made by this department. BUYING / SEAL SAMPLE: This is the final sample on which the order is placed and has to be followed completely in bulk production. For Men’s style the sample size is “L” while for Ladies it is “M”. They are sent to buyer for approval. The color and size requirements are specified by the customer.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 45 . Buyer’s comments hold a very important place. The size set samples is required only for first order and not for repeated orders. available color. color and accessories as per the buyer’s request. Buyer can make a request for pre-line samples before salesmen samples for their reference. At submission time of actual required quantity of Photo Shoot Samples. Once buyer receives Photo Shoot Samples. provides the imported accessory sources. company will also submit the reference samples at the same time. Sampling and bulk production should be as per these comments. Company will be advised the buyer’s comments for those reference samples. to use in these samples. so it is imperative that the stitching and styling should be as per buyer requirements. As these samples make customer realize the company’s capabilities and performance for their particular style/item. The size set should be in actual fabrication and trims. Proto Sample can be made from available fabric or color as well as in actual fabric or color to fulfill the buyer’s requirements. SIZE SET SAMPLES: The size set in actual fabric and color with actual accessories is required to finalize the specs/patterns of that particular style. All buyers require both preproduction and production samples from the company. PRE-LINE SAMPLES / PHOTO SHOOT SAMPLES: Pre-line Samples are made after receiving the Proto Sample comments from the buyer. Buyers can request to make pre-line sample in actual fabric / color/accessories as per their requirement. For company’s comfort the sample may be in available fabric weight. The basic concept of any proto sample is to show it to buyer for taking the confirmation regarding styling and stitching details of that particular style. Details of these pre-production and production samples are given below. photos are taken of theses samples and a catalogue (a major marketing tool) is prepared which helps buyer to market these items to its Customers. so it is important that these samples fabrication & workmanship should be excellent. PROTO / COUNTER SAMPLE: Specifications and sketch sheet / BOM sheet of the style is received from the buyer in order to make the sample for styling and stitching approval. These samples are always made in actual fabric. But if there is any major change in specs. Standard colored threads are used in denim and matching colors in twill. dyeing and cutting plan of these salesmen samples and sends the demand of yarn to the yarn dealer on the yarn purchase form. Merchandising Department makes the knitting. Merchandising Department provides the information of all the accessories and forwards the information to the Logistics Department in order to place the orders of local and imported accessories used in these samples. Normally for Men’s sample size is “L” while for Ladies “M”. For Men’s the sample size is “L” while for Ladies it is “M”. Buyer sends the complete range of imported accessories details and their sources along with complete BOM/Spec/Sketch Sheets. The pre order samples made in sampling department are usually attached with neutral buttons. SALESMEN SAMPLES: Salesmen Sample request is received from the buyer as per their specified requirement for their sales meeting after sending the Proto Sample comments. then the jump size set will be required for buyer’s approval. and available garment accessories. LAHORE has been confirmed and before the bulk cutting and stitching is started. Merchandising Department provides the specification or measurement sheet to the Sampling Department in order to make the samples. rivets and other accessories unless explicitly specified by the customer. The buyer.

A list of all goods and services furnished for production of merchandise. color and accessories.  AIRWAY BILL . and any wrong denotation can lead everyone to a big confusion. bulk production starts. buyer will review these dips and will approve the best option i.For airfreight collect shipments.3 SAMPLES SENDING PROCEDURE: Salesman sample purchase orders will either go by courier or airfreight collect. stitching is begun of pre-production sample in actual fabric. Pre-Production sample represents bulk production so the sample should be with original fabrications. It is better that lab dips should be in actual fabrication.Include purchase order number. total cubic meters and number of pieces broken down by size and color per carton.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. company will be given the color standards to develop the lab dips options.4 DOCUMENTS REQUIRED: Regardless of the shipping mode it requires the following documents for salesman sample shipments. carton dimensions (Height x Width x Length). unless customer informs the factory otherwise. For Men’s the sample size is “L” while for Ladies it is “M”. While submitting the lab dip options to customer. actual required specs and all original accessories. Lab dipping is the part of pre-production. 1. Buyer’s comments are extremely important and patterns should be adjusted accordingly. so it should be developed and approved at least two months before the ship date. The Merchandising Department provides size set comments to the Sampling Department in order to make the pre-production sample.1 LAB DIPS DESCRIPTION: Once a style is confirmed. close match to color standard. Once factory submits the size set to customer. buyer’s comments will be with factory within next 7-8 days. The day factory submits lab 46 . All Salesman Sample orders are for non-mutilated garments.  COMMERCIAL INVOICE . 2. After approval of pre-production sample. Sometimes buyer may require PPS just to reconfirm that all details are clear to company regarding that particular style. as one dip is one complete recipe. Please include the net weight and gross weight of the shipment as well as the carton dimensions. and net and gross weight of shipment. TECHNICAL INFORMATIONS 2. LAHORE BUYERS COMMENTS ON SAMPLES: Factory needs to submit the size set samples at least 15 days before the planned agreed cutting date so that factory could have buyer’s comments well before time. company should mark each option very carefully. It is the duty of the Merchandising Department to get the pre-production sealed samples form the buyer and provide it to the concerned stitching unit through PCD department for reference. SEALED PRE-PRODUCTION SAMPLE: After receiving the comments on size set sample from the buyer.e. DRI will advise the agent and / or factory on the details. 1.  PACKING LIST . Customer will inform the factory of the shipping mode when it issues the purchase order.The quantity shipped and the price per piece on the purchase order must be on this document. and a complete description (including component fiber breakdown) of merchandise must be included.

being used for an order. buttons and button thread. It will enable the company to have the exact status of accessories. it will take another week to develop and take buyer’s comments. stitching details and color combo’s etc of that particular style. from customer. sewing thread. 2. shoulder tape. packing accessories details. This is very much important and company must have this sheet at least 45 days before the actual ship date so that all labels are followed up. LAHORE dips to customer it will take next 7 – 8 working days to advice to factory the buyers comments. The company must have this sheet with clear understanding before proceedings for this style’s sampling / bulk production to avoid any confusion. The company must have this sheet with clear understanding before proceeding for this style’s bulk production to avoid any confusion / misconceptions.2 SKETCH SHEET: It comprises of garment graphic representation. 2. Specs sheet will be issued to factory at pre-production time. If any change is required. factory should immediately book the order with approved sources (if any) so that the accessories should be with factory at least 30 days before the actual shipment date. This is of much importance and the company must have this sheet with clear understanding before proceedings for this style’s sampling / bulk production to avoid any confusion / misconception. to commence bulk production.6 GARMENT ACCESSORIES: The accessories which are directly involved with garment stitching like woven labels. Factory is required to pay extra care and attention while following up each accessory’s specification. garment accessories and their placements.3 SPECS SHEET: It comprises of garments of all required sizes of that particular style.5 INCIDENTAL SHEET: This sheet comprises of the names / codes and placements of all labels. 2. If any change requires. and twill tape etc come under this category. 2. specs sheet will be updated and forwarded to factory before. 47 . grommets. The company must have this sheet with clear understanding before proceedings for this style’s bulk production to avoid any confusion. 2. hang tags. patch labels. Factory should try its level best to develop the closely matched dips in first go. This is factory’s primary responsibility to get all specifications from customer on time. Factory is supposed to check the quality and quantity of the bulk accessories received from suppliers on timely basis. Sketch sheet will be issued to factory at pre-production time. Once all details like specifications. sketch sheet will be updated and forwarded to factory before bulk production starts. this is vital to improve the delivery efficiency because if dips are rejected. to book the order with sources (whether its local or imported) and have a strong follow up with them and inform customer wherever its help and coordination is required. care instructions and shrinkage standards.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. checked and approved well before time. It is issued to factory once all details are finalized with factory. names and codes are cleared to factory. purchase order labels.4 MATERIAL SHEET: This sheet comprises the complete fabric and trims description / construction. Factory is required to take approval of each accessory. gross grain tape. This is necessary that fabric details should be finalized at least 45 days. color combos and all stitching details.

the factory should immediately book the order with approved sources (Local or Imported) so that the accessories should be with factory at least 15 days before the actual shipment date. designer names. 2. career type garments sold by full service retailers. or all of the above. manufacturers and retailers want customers to recognize and identify with certain brands of merchandise to develop “Customer Loyalty”. Tickets may include human readable. Packing and hanging devices provided by manufacturers often become part of retail displays. 2. The accessories which are required for garment packing like poly bag and poly bag sticker. Label information includes fiber content. AND PACKAGING: The use of brand names. and means of attaching labels. Other target markets require more subtle presentation of brand names. and price. safety and proper placement of a garment. country of origin. Packing instructions may vary from packing all the packed garments in polythene and put them in a box or. quantity.7 PACKING: As packing plays a main role to enhance the presentation. This is factory’s primary responsibility to have a strong follow up with them and inform the customer whenever its help / coordination is required. Tickets may also be attached to garments where they are difficult to find or covered by hangers or other display devices. cartons sticker etc come under this category. methods and requirements for that particular style advised by the concerned buyer. size. which are required by law. Tickets. Factory is supposed to check the quality and quantity of the bulk accessories received from suppliers on timely basis. machine readable. In case of any non-conformance. enclose the box in big polythene. provide essential product information such as style number. hangtags. The use of large.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Once all details are cleared to the factory. Large hang tags are easy for customers to find. and tickets. Factory should be very much careful while following up each accessory’s specification. Bar codes that can be scanned into computer systems are regarded as the most effective means of recording machine readable information. and manufacturer’s identification. final audit will be rejected. or both human and machine readable information. care. Dresses for babies may be placed on frame type hangers and padded 48 . cartons. which may be added by the manufacturer or retailer. Most apparel is shipped ready for retailer’s racks or shelves. color. jacquard labels may be sewn to the inside of garments and / or presented on simple hang tags. tissue paper. On better. the factory is required to follow the same packing instructions. hang tag. Some machine generated tickets are difficult for consumers to read and may result in lost sales. colorful hangtags may be an effective strategy for target markets served by self service retailers. Garments are folded and packed or placed on hangers and covered with plastic bags. TICKETING. Whatever the labeling technique is. and private labels is a key factor in hanger appeal and product differentiation. It will enable company to have the exact status of accessories shipments and in case of any problem (quality or quantity) necessary measures could be taken to avoid any delays. At the time of final audit it will make sure that factory has followed the same packing as advised by concerned buyer. trademarks. type. Factory is required to take approval of each accessory from customer being used for an order. LAHORE shipments and in case of any problem (quality or quantity) necessary measures could be taken to avoid any delays.8 LABELING. Merchandisers and marketers must determine the size.

10 LEAD TIME: Lead time varies with point of origin. Styles that do not sell in adequate numbers are canceled and do not go into production. Lines that require a wide variety of decorative trims can create costly inventions of materials. while domestically produced fabric requires 2 weeks – 3 months depending on availability and additional processing. other types of costs are incurred when deliveries are late and materials are not available when styles are scheduled to go into production. the manufacturer may take a loss on the piece goods. Not only does the fabric have to be appropriate and suited to the garment design and end use. Fabrics from canceled styles may be used for different styles or sold to jobbers. 2. or production is closely associated with and may be a part of merchandiser’s responsibilities. or retailers. On the other hand. for both wear and renovation.9 SOURCING: Sourcing is determining the most cost efficient vendor of materials. and thread.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Compatibility with other materials. If the entire group does not sell. whether materials are open stock or custom designed. Lines are often planned with several styles or a group from the same fabric. but a loss on fabric is less than a loss of fabric plus garment production costs. Findings require the same careful planning as piece goods. Successful visual presentation in the retail sector is essential to complete the merchandising process. shipping methods. Materials selection and sourcing are often a responsibility of merchandisers in cooperation with designers when product development is part of the line development strategy. which eliminates the opportunity for repeat orders. but it also must be available at the precise time that it is needed. Ordering materials as close to production as possible reduces inventory costs associated with early commitments. especially if the yardage is to be used for prototype garments. and whether products are performance tested before production begins. Hangers may be designed so as not to cover the neckline labels of garments. zippers. 2. production. Trims are also more difficult than fabrics to sell at the end of a season. LAHORE with multiple layers of tissue paper. Piece goods order is committed very early in line development. buttons. The fabric is committed to other styles in the group that do sell in adequate volume. Fashion apparel may be placed on specially designed hangers to emphasize the silhouette or keep the garments from falling off the hanger. and / or finished goods at the specified quality and service level. Deliveries of all materials required for a style must be coordinated for production to begin on time. Sourcing finished goods. Merchandisers must consider the anticipated sales volume for each style since manufacturing capacity for fashion fabrics may be committed early in the selling season. fabric wholesalers. thus imposing considerable risk with each order. Lead 49 . Multiple supports are often used to maintain the perfectly formed appearance of collars. Men’s dress shirts may be boarded and pinned. Examples of findings include interlinings. Piece goods are fabrics that are cut and assembled into garments. materials. Materials include piece goods and findings. is a major consideration that must be examined and resolved before purchasing. Imported fabrics or other materials may require 6-9 months lead time. Findings are all the materials other than piece goods that are required to make a garment. trims. Orders for materials may be placed before styles have been tested.

If sales and profit figures are below the projected level. and shipping costs. and the fashion colors of the season. profitable product lines. white. can meet delivery dates. Some merchandisers depend on specifications provided by fabric producers.12 SOURCING PRODUCTION: Merchandisers may be responsible for scheduling and sourcing production for their lines. others develop their own specifications for the materials they need. Goods can be printed or finished to order. Merchandisers continually review orders and or retail sales.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Open stock materials are often available for immediate delivery. production of certain styles may be canceled. 2. black. compare forecasted sales with actual sales. and meeting deadlines and delivery dates are constant parts of merchandiser’s jobs. Merchandisers may have fabrics custom designed to have materials unique from competitor’s lines. Apparel manufacturer’s quality control procedures determine whether the performance of materials is tested prior to garment assembly. or compatible with other materials. 50 . and / or international sources may be used. Open stock usually consists of widely used. An apparel firm may gain exclusive use of a fabric produced by a particular vendor by buying a complete run of vendor’s production for the season. LAHORE times are reduced significantly when QR programs are put in place. Textile and apparel producers often disagree as to what is a reasonable minimum order. Inadequate performance testing of materials can result in poor performance and unsatisfactory finished garments. Greige goods may be purchased and stored in anticipation of need. The amount of materials testing performed by the apparel manufacturers is another factor in determining the lead time. Testing is usually done to sample yardage before major purchase commitments are made. blue. 2. This provided flexibility and delayed decision making. domestic contractors. and provide consistency of quality. Many fashion firms want to buy fabrics and other materials in small quantities of various fabrications and colors to provide variety in their apparel assortment. It is safer to do some performance testing before ordering large quantities of piece goods rather than finding out after the fact that fabric or trim is not colorfast. This frees production capacity to concentrate on those styles that are in greater demand and have greater gross margin. Meeting peak demand and minimizing lead time are two primary considerations in determining sources of merchandise. Producing custom designed fabrics requires extra lead time for developing and producing the designs and materials. A firm’s own plants. materials vendors establish minimum quantities that are feasible to produce and distribute. These materials are often manufactured to stock in anticipation of demand. Minimums established for vendor efficiency may be inconsistent with an apparel firm’s needs for variety in materials selection.11 MINIMUMS: Order minimums are another factor affecting materials selection. A merchandiser must coordinate these activities in order to present salable. basic colors such as red. Dealing with product change. These options are analyzed to determine which are most cost effective. packaging. and evaluate gross margin for profit potential. washable. negotiating compromises. However. Minimums also relate to order processing.

development. within Pants line there may be a line of women's Pants. it is better not to pursue the order. term “product line” refers to a group of items that is (1) closely related because it satisfies certain needs. (3) sold to the same target market." or simply "number. and from then on are simply referred to by manufacturers as a "style.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. strategies. Analysis includes quota positioning. This general product line often has several divisions. and each of these may also be referred to as a product line but is more specific. In this context. This gives the firm broader market coverage. the pricing of a garment would be structured accordingly. A design is a specific or unique version of a style that has not yet be accepted into a product line. If a special quota has to be purchased to pursue the order. and projected sales volume. under a different label. 51 . size. e. 2. Product line is an apparel firm's source of potential profit. Each of these lines may have a different merchandise manager. (4) marketed within the same outlets. Number of lines produced in a year and number of styles or variety in each line depend on nature of product(s) and individual firm's objectives." a "style number. For a firm. (2) used with other items. Moreover." A style number provides identification of product throughout manufacturing / distribution process. availability of yarn is checked thoroughly. sizes. Large apparel firms may have several product lines for each selling season.13 APPAREL PRODUCT LINES: Merchandisers develop product lines using combinations of styles that satisfy similar or related needs. Classifications in men's Pants might include dress Pants. In a general context it is used to refer to all items presented for sale by a firm. in which products are offered. which is range of choices offered at particular time. quota price is generally not included in the garment price. Each product line may be marketed at a different price range. The term product line is used in at least two ways. Within each line and classification the merchandiser builds an assortment. and work Pants.14 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: Buying houses gives a fabric swatch to the factory to develop along with garment description. Each of specific lines of Pants may be divided into classifications or categories. LAHORE 2.g. and/or (5) priced within similar price ranges. and colors. The assortment is determined by number of styles. If there is any shrinkage or heating errors in the fabric at sampling stage. total product line may be Pants or Shirts. If there is a large order with sharp prices that can go over months and touch only the break even point. and targeted to a different market segment. and production require constant analysis and planning. therefore. Children’s Pants and men's Pants. a factory generally accepts it. casual Pants. These problems can cause a big trouble in bulk production. Wrong mix of products may not appeal or meet the needs of specific target market and thus would limit sales and profits. its content. Now it becomes essential for the factory merchandisers to quickly carry out the analysis whether the product with that specified fabric would be feasible to manufacture or not. If not. Designs that are accepted into a line are given a style no. Styles in a classification are often modified from one season to next.

3 76.9 20.1 32.1 24.7 48.7 26.0 55.5 81.5 18.7 53.5 23.3 76.7 18.2 18.7 18.5 23.0 31.0 18.5 81.5 76.5 86.1 31 16.6 21.5 20.9 33.7 32.7 23.5 19.5 86.5 76.7 35.5 18.8 32 16.0 30.5 31.5 29 16.7 76.0 41.0 32.5 86.8 25.5 57.5 86.5 18.5 28.0 50.5 22.0 33.2 18.0 48.5 52.0 29.0 35.5 86.4 31 16.1 76.5 36.0 52 .5 21.5 18.0 18.5 21.7 18. LAHORE Supplier: Trademark: Season: F/S 2001 Date: 17/10/2000 Order 10304 Article: 25248-0 Article men’s jeans Description: Comments: MEASUREMENT 28 047 Zip 085 ½ waist 091 ½ seat 092 deep of hip/below waist 093 front rise excl w/b 094 back rise excl w/b 096 inseam “30” 096 inseam “32” 096 inseam “34” 098 ½ leg opening 099 ½ thigh 110 ½ knee width 16.0 24.2 40 20.0 37.2 19.0 22.5 81.0 40.5 81.5 20.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 86.9 35 18.5 33 16.5 28.0 43.5 60.2 51.0 58.5 86.9 76.5 86.0 36.7 76.7 76.5 81.0 38.5 19.5 81.5 86.5 81.7 38.9 76.1 35.0 47.0 44.5 30.0 23.0 45.5 81.5 76.0 24.5 86.0 28.6 27.5 31.2 56.5 81.5 34.4 39.3 36.0 27.0 27.5 86.2 18.0 35.5 33.5 22.0 25.5 34.2 34 18.5 81.0 50.0 53.0 26.0 25.3 33.0 18.0 28.4 23.0 29.3 21.1 42 20.5 18.1 76.5 81.3 38 18.5 81.0 29.6 36 18.5 86.0 61.0 38.

5 OZ 205 stonewashed Shipment date: 200502 Herren Jeans ____________ 100% Baumwolle. Description EUR 200500 Herren Jeans ____________ 100% Baumwolle. If shipment is delayed supplier has to dispatch the goods per airfreight from any airport to Hamburg airport latest 10 days after the respective latest shipment date. 53 . LAHORE Order 00301563 ORDER No. In this case Air way bill instead of BL/CMR required and consigned to Terms of Delivery. If not all requirements are full filled from supplier side than order sheet-contract will not be valid. blue denim. This is valid for all requested things out of our timing sheet including documents. : Email : Price/each EUR Value/ Page No. 14. 14. 'These requirements are content of order sheet-contract. CFR Hamburg.1 Article No. Please sign and send this letter back to us.5 OZ 205 stonewashed Shipment date: 200504 Herren Jeans ____________ 100% Baumwolle.2003 Supplier : 219636 In Charge : Tanja Schilling Telephone: Fax No. blue denim. 14.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 OZ 205 stonewashed Shipment date: Amount Terms of Delivery Shipment Terms of Payment : FOB : Shipment by sea : L/C _________________ Cost for required details for approval plus freight charges for all send parcels (Preferable DHL. blue denim.06. FedEx) have to be send free of charge to office. : 301563 Date : 11.

stating: 301563/20050-0/-2/-4 . c) Paper pocket plaster: Imagine paper pocket plaster to be fixed on right backside pocket with matching yarn.to be sewn behind wash and care label Shell 100 % Baumwolle Cotton Cotton Algodon Washing symbols and instructions Wash dark colors separately Dunkle Farben separat waschen Laver les couleurs foncees separement Lavar cola res oscuros par separado Size of care label: 3. 1 loop on mid saddle. all further details as per original sample 2. stonewashed denim 14. so that we can check with our scanner: General Remarks for print label: 1.width: 3. 2 rivets on each front pocket 2 loops beside front fly. color dull silver full metal rivet with_________ Color dull silver Belt loop out of self fabric (for Size 40.5 x 8 cm Material: printed Ground color: white Lettering col. Barcode/Price label Should be printed on paper size label. LAHORE Order 00301563_OPS_SPEC SPECIFICATION Description: Quality: Waistband: Zip: Zip Puller: Button: Rivet: Belt loop: Pocket: Pocket: Pocket: Pocket: Saddle: Yarn: Position: Zip: Button: Rivet: Belt loop: Pocket: Saddle: Yarn: Men's denim jean 5pocket style 100 % cotton.LABEL! b) PU. please make 7) 5 pocket style front side pocket front with coin pocket right side backside pocket saddle at back contrast yarn as per sent sample hidden under front fly on waistband/front fly mid 2 rivets on coin pocket.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. d) Paper size label: Imagine paper size label to be fixed on backside waistband beside PU-Iabel with matching yarn.length: 1.5 cm . Print label: . I Shell ATTENTION USE FULL LIGHT BLUE AND WHITE______. 15 cm from front fly.5 cm . full metal waist button with__________. 54 .: black Type: looplabel Delivered by: supplier Position of wash and Care label: separate care instruction loop label has to sewn at left side of inner waistband. position as per overview EAN Barcodes: please find enclosed Please make sure that the EAN Barcode film could be read. 1 loop on each side seam mid on front pocket on top of backside allover LABEL AND CARE LABEL a) Flag label: Imagine woven flag label to be fixed on left backside pocket left side on top.label: Imagine PU-Iabel to be fixed on backside waistband between mid and right side belt loop. self fabric YKK metal old brass no 5 Normal zip puller old brass.50z waistband. Please send sample for our approval.

take care that there is no empty space in the carton -short shipped cartons are not acceptable -markings on each length.. 15 kg gross weight per carton Carton no 1/up Borghorst / Germany Packing instruction: -20 pcs. LAHORE Order: 00301563_OPS_SPEC PACKING AND CARTON INSTRUCTION Carton instruction: .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.and front side required -for closing the cartons do not use metal clips but adhesive paper tape only Order: 00301563_OPS_TIMING SAMPLE ORDER / TIMING REPEAT ORDER as 301365!! Quantity Lab Dips Approval sample Size Set sample Accessories Size As per Sent swatch No Need No Need Pocket paper label size paper label selvadhesive tape woven “imagine! Barcode label No Need Jumping Sizes No Need Deadline ETA Hamburg ASAP Photo Sample Preproduction sample Shipment Sample ASAP 55 . -max.: 301563 "" Style: __________________ Article-No. per polybag (recyclable polyethylene.. solid size + solid length 'per carton -each garment 3 times length folded -2 pcs.carton size: length = 60 cm width = 40 cm height = 30 cm Carton Marking ___________________________ Order No. with air condition holes + with self adhesive stripe) -no master polybag! -pis.: 200500/2 /4 -strong seaworthy recyclable export Quantity: carton Colors: stone washed (205) Size: .

padded sleeveless vests. treated to protect the wearer from the rain (water resistant or water repellent). a set of garments composed of two or three pieces. girls and children. ponchos. Coats include overcoats and similar articles extending to the knee or below (e. and children. a waistcoat/vest. down or fore filing and quilted lining). skirts including divided skirts (culottes) and woven saris for women. crocheted or woven fabrics. style and composition whether or not of the same color. one pair of breeches or one bib and brace overall. duffel coats. jackets and blazers (i. and can be worn independently of each other. A ski overall. tufted fleeced or napped linings weighing not more than 140 g/m2 are considered not to possess thermal characteristics and. and Children’s are categorized into Tops and Bottoms. These are further categorized into under garments and upper garments. three-quarter coats). windcheaters and wind-jackets. jacket or similar article). cloaks and other similar articles (e. MALE / FEMALE CASUAL & FINE WEAR: Male casual and fine wear includes knitted. zippers or other convenient means of fastening.g. for men. boys. Jackets include wind-cheaters. crocheted or woven fabrics. sports coats) for men. comprising one garment for the upper part of the body (e. girls. all components of a "ski ensemble" must be made up in a fabric of the same texture. and ski pants and other similar articles (e. not to provide protection against cold. are garments generally worn over all other clothing for protection against the weather. and trousers whether or not extending above the waist. boys. capes.g. and possess none of the thermal characteristics. Other garments include car-coats. crocheted or woven fabrics. that is. can have sleeves and a collar as well as pockets and footsteps. or a ski ensemble. Girls. brushed and fleeced jackets and quilted shirt like garments with tailored collar).g. and must be of corresponding or compatible size. Rain wear include raincoats and similar garments. Garment used to cover upper part of the body are called Tops and garments used to cover lower part of the body are called Bottoms. These includes ski suits. snow suits. bib and brace ski overalls. WINTER OUTERWEAR: Winter outerwear. These Garments can be divided into separate garments by means of undoing buttons. These products are made from knitted. ski jackets. are garments which have an outer shell manufactured substantially by surface area of woven textile fabrics that are lined or filled (e. Women’s. The phrase "thermal characteristics" means a textile product that is designed to protect the wearer against the cold.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.g. that is. anoraks. These products are made from knitted. top coats. These products are made from knitted. for men. wind-jackets. sleeve less jacket worn over the overall. the "ski ensemble" may also include an overall and a type of padded. great coats). girls and children. women. women. parkas. 56 . GARMENT TYPES / STYLES: Garments for Men’s. and are generally worn over all other clothings for protection against cold. The brushed. JACKETS & RAINWEAR: Coats. anoraks and similar articles that do not extend to the knee. boys and children and dresses.g. Definitions of the Garments Types / Styles are given below: COAT. jackets and rainwear. LAHORE GARMENT TYPES / STYLES & COMPONENTS 1. Boy’s. crocheted or woven fine suits.e. anorak. snowmobile suits. a one piece garment designed to cover the upper and lower parts of the body.

but has shiny silk or imitation silk lapels. Also included are the morning dress. pants with foot straps and trousers with back bibs. draped garment in which the costume is constructed entirely by draping. whether or not they cover the knee. All of the components of a suit must be of the same fabric construction. culottes) are one-piece garments not extending above the waist. knickers. Included are jumpers. breeches or shorts (other than swimwear) having neither braces nor bibs. Skirts or divided skirts (e. gauchos. dusters. jacket or blazer. Included are kilts for women. house dresses other than sleepwear. breeches. bib and brace overalls. knickers. The Dresses comprises of one-piece garment extending above the waist. wedding gowns. A sari is a woven.) for men. footless tights.. Garments which resemble culottes but do not have fullness about the leg and that cling close to leg shall be regarded as shorts. LAHORE The suits are composed of two or three pieces made up in same fabric and comprising one garment designed to cover the lower part of the body and consisting of trousers.g. The leg separation of culottes or divided skirts. i. 57 . jodhpurs. and one suit coat or suit jacket the outer shell of which. in which the jacket is similar in style to an ordinary jacket (though perhaps revealing more of the shirt front). and similar articles (e.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. They have the same characteristics as the suit coats and suit jackets. TROUSERS. gauchos. jackets and blazers. These also include sports coats. These Garments also include trousers. and facings or collar. comprising a plain jacket (cutaway) with rounded tails hanging well down at the back and striped trousers. if any) consists of at least four panels (two in the front and two at the back) sewn together lengthwise. designed to cover the upper part of the body. they retain a frontal appearance of a skirt. shorts. boys women. cover knees and usually extend to or below ankles. (exclusive of sleeves. is not apparent when viewed from the front. coveralls. Overalls & Coveralls are one-piece garments. evening gowns. slacks. leggings. evening dress (tailcoat). It does not extend below the mid-thigh area and is not for wear over another coat. The term "leggings" means garments similar to trousers or pants but are designed to be worn tightly against the skin (footless tights). boleros or other similar components are not included. extending above the waist in form of a bib and brace or other structure which partially or fully covers the upper part of body.e. except that the outer shell (exclusive of sleeves. Other garments include leggings (other than those used for ballet) jodhpurs. with a full front opening without a closure or with a closure other than a slide fastener (zipper).. breeches and other similar articles which envelop each leg separately. they must also be of corresponding or compatible size. and as such are regarded as skirts. etc.g. without cutting. men. when worn. golf skirts and wrap skirts. pants. color and composition. A tailored waistcoat may also be included (the material of the back panel need not be same as the front panels). if any) may consist of three or more panels (of which two are at the front) sewn together lengthwise. Shorts are trousers which do not cover knee. OVERALLS & SHORTS: These Garments include knitted. girls. vests. does not close and has narrow skirts cut in at the hips and hanging down behind. jeans. dinner jacket suits. coveralls and jumpsuits. boys and children. Garments of this subcategory include bib and brace overalls. the jacket of which is relatively short at the front. Complementary components to dresses such as matching or coordinated jackets. generally made of black fabric. girls and children. and usually do not extend beyond waist. Presences of braces do not cause these garments to lose their essential character of trousers. crocheted or woven trousers. and facings or collars. style.

women.SHIRTS: These include knitted or crocheted shirts. Other garments include singlet. or knitted or crocheted shirts having an average of less than 10 stitches per linear centimeter in each direction counted on an area measuring at least 10 cm x 10 cm. i. blouses and shirt-blouses. Shirts. nominally worn next to the skin or directly over underwear. Garments with pockets below the waist. vests and garments which might otherwise qualify as a shirt or blouse. all of which are fitted with a tailored collar. crop or halter tops. or that have a full front or back opening. ATHLETIC WEAR/BLOUSES/KNITTED/CROCHETED/SWEAT/ T. crocheted or woven garments designed to cover the upper part of the body. or with a ribbed waistband or other means of tightening at the bottom of the garment. blouses and shirt-blouses.. Tshirts. Other garments include singlet. whether knitted. WOVEN SHIRTS AND BLOUSES: These Garments include woven shirts. or with a ribbed waistband or other means of tightening at bottom of garment. quilted shirt like garments. blouses and shirtblouses are garments designed to cover the upper part of the body. are normally worn next to the skin or directly over underwear. or sleeveless. These Garments include knitted or crocheted shirts. and may be designed to be worn either inside or outside of pants. vests and garments which may have a ribbed waistband or other means of tightening at the bottom of the garment. or sleeveless garments (men's or boys') are not considered shirts. lining. garments having pockets below the waist. Tailored collar shirts for children are classified according to sizes 2 to 3x and 4 to 6x. dress shirts. Shirts having a front opening on the neckline which fastens or overlaps left over right are considered to be garments for men and boys. shirt-blouses. blouses. Also include shirts with detachable collars. crocheted or woven. or garments which cover only the 58 . blouses or shirt blouses. A tailored collar consists of one or more pieces of material which are cut and sewn or cut and fused and designed with two pointed or rounded ends. LAHORE TAILORED COLLAR SHIRTS: Tailored collar shirts. women. These are garments for men. Garments with pockets below the waist. singlet and vests (other than underwear) and other similar articles. blouses and shirt-blouses are garments designed to cover the upper part of the body. with a full or partial front opening which may include a zipper. with tailored collar. and stiffening by any means. garments which may have a ribbed waistband or other means of tightening at the bottom of the garment. These Garments must have an average of 10 or more stitches per linear centimeter in each direction counted on an area measuring at least 10 cm x 10 cm. with a full or partial front opening which may include a zipper. boys. worn next to the skin or directly over underwear. Shirts. boys. sweatshirts and track suits and other athletic wear. and knitted or crocheted ski suits. girls and children.e. sports shirts and leisure shirts. are knitted. or garments which cover only chest. singlet and vests.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Shirts having a front opening on the neckline which fastens or overlaps left over right are considered to be garments for men and boys. with a full or partial front opening which may include a zipper. that do not reach shoulders. girls and children. The construction may include stays. and may be designed to be worn either inside or outside of pants. for men. Shirts having a front opening on the neckline which fastens or overlaps left over right are considered to be garments for men and boys. blouses or shirtblouses. and may be designed to be worn either inside or outside of pants. singlet and vests (other than under wear) and other similar articles for men. those with a ribbed waistband or other means of tightening at the bottom of garment. or sleeveless garments (men's or boys') are not considered shirts. boys and children. These does not include sleeveless garments. Garments of this type include interalia.

Excluded are sweaters. Garments of this type include. jockey silks. T-shirts used as underwear & thermal T-shirts are not included. it is generally fastened by means of a slide fastener. T-shirts are knitted or crocheted garments of the vest type. a collar and pockets. ballet skirts. other than lace.g. all components of a "ski ensemble" must be made up in a fabric of the same texture. without opening in the neckline. These garments may have decoration. a waistcoat/vest. T-shirts are generally worn against the skin and are not intended to be used for the purpose of underwear. A garment meant to cover the upper part of the body down to or slightly below the waist.g. without buttons or other fastenings. crop or halter tops or sleeveless garments. However. or a ski ensemble. Knitted or crocheted "ski ensemble" may also include an overall and a type of padded. obtained by printing. style and composition whether or not of the same color. A second garment (a pair of trousers) which may be either close or loose fitting. nor of pile or terry fabric. lined or unlined but sometimes with a raised inner surface (nap) which.. including drawstrings. and must be of corresponding or compatible size. drawstring or other means of tightening. sleeveless jacket worn over the overall. pullovers. a one piece garment designed to cover upper and lower parts of the body. with an elasticated waistband. are clearly meant to be worn exclusively or mainly in the pursuit of sporting activities. that do not reach the shoulders. in one or more colors. knitted or crocheted ski suits and other special articles of apparel used exclusively for certain sports or for dancing or gymnastics (e. or that have a full front or back opening. Knitted or crocheted ski suits are garments which by their general appearance and texture. because of their general appearance and the nature of the fabric. Similar tightening elements. with or without pockets. Woven ski suits and swimwear are excluded. usually hemmed. knitting or other process. without collar. with ribbed or elasticated bands. not napped. inter alia. anorak. fencing clothing. with long or short close-fitting sleeves. pictures or an inscription in words. It may or may not be fitted with a hood. boys. is never made with a ribbed waistband. are generally to be found at the bottom of this garment. with or without pockets. They may or may not have foot straps. in addition to sleeves and a collar the ski overall may have pockets or footsteps. Athletic Wear for men. waistcoats and other similar articles. Sweatshirts are knitted or crocheted garments that cover the upper part of the body and where at least one side is brushed or fleeced (napped). LAHORE chest. with no opening at the waist and therefore no buttons or other fastening system. The bottom of these garments. comprising one garment for the upper part of the body (e. It has long sleeves. zip fasteners or other tightening elements at the cuffs. When it has a partial or complete opening at the front. slide fasteners (zippers) or other tightening elements at the bottom of the trouser-legs which generally go down to ankle level. judo sets. drawstring or other means of tightening at the waist. that is. women. cardigans. boat shaped or V-shaped). in the form of advertising. tube tops. tank tops. Track suits are woven or knitted/crocheted articles consisting of two pieces. are identifiable as intended to be worn for skiing. square. one pair of breeches or one bib and brace overall.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. girls and children means track suits. a set of garments composed of two or three pieces. leotards covering the trunk of the body). such trousers may be fined with ribbed or elasticated bands. jogging suits. They consist either of a ski overall. 59 . jacket or similar article). Track suits consist of two garments. and trousers whether or not extending above the waist. having close-fitting or lower neckline (round. midriffs. turtleneck shirts.

etc). they may be sleeveless and made with or without pockets. BABIES GARMENTS: These are garments made for young children of a body height not exceeding 86 cm (or the equivalent of O to 24 months). they may have full frontal or back opening. including bathrobes. suspensory bandages. camisoles. Bathrobes for men.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. FOUNDATION GARMENTS: This category covers articles. boys. or no collar. braces. and any type of neck line. nightdresses. singlet and vests packaged together with slips. sweater vests. dressing gowns. hygienic belts. girls and children are garments worn under other garments. girls and children. slips. These garments may have a collar of any type. boy's. singlet and vests of the underwear type.. boys. ponchos. suspenders. lightweight T-shirts. underwear) will be considered garments of underwear type. women and girls are garments normally worn for sleeping including nightshirts. Sleepwear for men. women and girls are garments normally worn in private. suspender jock straps. garters. Such articles may be furnished with trimmings of various kinds (ribbons. crocheted or woven garments worn for swimming or bathing. These garments are classified without distinction between male or female. whether or not knitted or crocheted. shirt-sleeve supporting arm-bands and armless. and similar articles. lace. loungewear. etc). pullovers. pajamas. boxer shorts. commonly in plain white with no pockets and are commonly made of cotton or manmade fibers. women. jerseys. usually to the knee. post pregnancy or similar supporting or corrective belts. including a hood. Swimwear includes one-piece or two-piece bathing costumes. panties. beach robes. girdles and panty-girdles. t-shirts of the underwear type and similar articles of underclothing (e. thermals. briefs. panties and similar articles (i. beachwear sets or cabanas are excluded. bloomers.e. T-shirts. These garments include sweaters. SLEEPWEAR & BATHROBES: Sleepwear and bathrobes are knitted. maternity. etc). with or without buttons. briefs. etc). and similar articles. T-shirts of the underwear type means but not necessarily restricted to. Items excluded from this category are suspender-belts. cover the upper part of the body from the neck or shoulder to the waist or mid-thigh. SWEATERS: Knitted or crocheted sweaters for men. nightshirts. boys. swimming shorts and trunks.g. cardigans. boys. girls and children are knitted. turtleneck sweaters and other similar articles (e. such as short sets. corselet’s (combinations of girdles or panty-girdles and brassieres) and corsets. not suitable to tuck underneath other clothing. bed jackets.g. LAHORE UNDERWEAR: Woven or knitted or crocheted undergarments for men. nightdresses. Garments include pajamas. This includes garments constructed from knitted. women. Nightshirts may be distinguishable from shirts by the mere length of the garment. negligees. waistcoats/vests. dressing gowns. whether or not elastic. bathrobes and similar articles (e.g. woman's or girl's suit or ensemble. It also covers knitted or crocheted tailored waistcoats except when these are presented with and constitute one of the components of a man's. SWIMWEAR: Swimwear for men. negligees. body belts. smoking jackets. They include underpants. crocheted or woven garments worn for sleeping or in privacy. women. Products belonging to this category include brassieres. of a kind designed for wear as body-supporting garments and are worn under all other clothing. Garments which complement swimwear and are not used for swimming. petticoats. beach robes. loungewear. boys. union or combination suits. crocheted or woven fabrics or from coated fabrics 60 .

OTHER GARMENTS: These are men's. woven tailored waistcoats included MISCELLANEOUS APPAREL ARTICLES: These include apparel goods and other made up clothing accessories and parts like Shawls. and pockets are small parts that are usually constructed independently for final assembly. include smocks. boys'. socks. If the coating material is 50% or less by weight. clerical. seams. specialized clothing for airmen. medical. but cuffs may be 61 . mittens. vestment. top backs. women's. professional or scholastic gowns. bottom backs. and clothing accessories. girls'. bottoms. children's and babies. tights. Ties & Handkerchiefs. garments made from coated fabrics where the textile material accounts for less than 50% by weight. gloves. men's. leggings and gaiters (including "mountain stockings" without feet). SMOCKS & SHOP COATS: Garments of this category for men. children and babies made up from impregnated. coated or covered with plastics or rubber and gauntlets or other long gloves that may cover the forearm. women. stockings. bootees and other similar articles. boys'. women. covered or laminated knitted. rubberized or other coating material. Articles such as mitts or mittens. friction gloves for massage or toilet use. gloves and mittens for babies. OTHER COATED GARMENTS: Included in this category are garments for men. crocheted or woven fabrics of plastic. cuffs. crocheted or woven aprons. boys. These also excludes women's full-length or knee-length hosiery. Also included are textile work gloves impregnated. girls'. sleeve plackets may be attached to sleeves prior to final assembly. and sleeves) before final assembly. The stitches.e. GARMENT COMPONENTS (STYLES AND DESIGNS): These are garment parts that require one or more separate pieces to be assembled as a unit. etc. laboratory and shop coats. children's or babies knitted. pockets. i. sleeves. mitts or mittens of paper. Many small parts are attached to the major garment components (tops. boys. e. cuffs / sleeve treatments.g. (other than knitted or crocheted). and / or bonding are used to assemble components and final garment. bottom fronts. collars / neckline treatments. women. Hems may be completed as a part of a component or final assembly. knitted footwear with applied soles. boys. tights. WORK GLOVES: This category includes work gloves and work glove liners made of textile material. plackets. cellulose wadding or webs of cellulose fibers are excluded. Garment components are basic sections of garments including top fronts. pantyhose. LAHORE where textile material accounts for 50% or more by weight. coated. the garments will be treated as rainwear for men. measuring per single yarn less than 67 decitex. women's. where the coating material is more than 50% by weight of the textile material. girls.. and surgical gowns. girls or children are woven garments worn over other clothing to protect the body or other clothing. Components such as collars. and waistline treatments. HOSIERY: These includes knitted or crocheted footwear without distinction between male or female. barber. Excluded are: felt and non woven garments. girls and children. and. ecclesiastical.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. clinical. Garters and Similar Articles etc.

provide entrance to a garment. Particular treatment given to a component involves consideration of functional use. component shape. PLACKETS: Plackets provide a finished opening in the garment to allow a body part to pass through. and costs. particularly on jeans. CUFFS: Cuffs and other sleeve treatments are components used to finish the lower edges of sleeves. and elastics. and design. materials used and methods of assembly and attachment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. They are functional in covering all or part of the arm. or both. Sleeves also provide opportunities for creative styling. LAHORE added after the sleeve is attached and the underarm seam is sewn. such as facings and knitted bands. may finish. Plackets often require some type of closure. Other sleeve treatments include casings. quality. SLEEVES: Sleeves are fundamental parts of a garment design. silhouette and fit. aesthetics. and hems. Cuff type varies with the style. Fronts and backs may be one or more pieces depending on the styling of the garment. materials. Types of placket formations and methods of assembly vary widely in cost. facings. frequently with additional components. Waistline treatments involve formation or application of bands. complexity. sequence of assembly operations. KNITTED COLLARS Crew Round Boat U-neck V-neck Shawl High Turtle Off turtle Henley Button Polo 62 . and provide aesthetic emphasis for neckline of a garment. aesthetic. Fronts and backs often have other components attached to them before the garment is assembled. Sometimes side seams are eliminated so that fronts and backs are one piece. Left and right sections are frequently minor images of each other but may be different if the garment is asymmetrical. COLLARS: Collars and other neckline treatments. casings. They may be sewn onto garment parts. POCKETS: Pockets may be functional. or incorporated into garment structure. WAISTLINE: Waistline treatments include components that serve to define the waistline of a garment. support. Neckline treatments may also involve closures and plackets to allow the head to pass through and still maintain a close till at the neck. and function of the component and garment. and / or hold a garment in place on the body. such as sleeve plackets and cuffs attached. TOPS AND BOTTOMS OF FRONTS AND BACKS: Are the major sections of garments. cut into the body of a garment. facings. quality. Pocket treatment may also involve a closure. Pockets are sometimes used as a means of differentiating brands of products.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE SHIRT COLLARS A Arched Regular Long Points Mitre Pin hole Button down Riley Round Short Point Stand Tab NECKLINES High Round Off shoulder horse shoe Low Round Square Heart Shaped Built Up Drapped Twist Key Hole Beteau Halter VShaped Low Cowl High Cowl COLLARS Band Barrymore piece shawl piece notched Belted Bias cuff Eton Bias roll Buster brown Chin Chinese Mandarin 63 .

LAHORE Choir-boy Convertible Dog’s ear Elizabethan Sailor Scaft Flat Gladstone High Shawl SHIRTS Italian Shakspare Pierrot Aloha/hawalin Ascot Ascoted Athletic Cow Boy Football Body Shirt Boson Cleric Guayabera Dress Lvy Drawstring Dress evening Epaulet Oversided / Big Pilot Polo T-Shirt Tank top Tee-Shirt Sports Shirts Sweater Shirt Work Wear SLEEVES Bag Ballon Lantern Bell Juliet Regular Bishop Motton Melon Puff Epaulet Kimono Reglan Tree Seam Split Rollup Cap D-Shoulder 64 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LAHORE SHORTS Bermuda Cargo Cut-off Pleated Short Skort POCKETS Breast Breast Hip Ticket Watch Pleased Change Bound Welt Slash Cross Cargo Seam Flap Kangaro PANTS Gusset Pin Tucks Western Ankle Tied Baggy BellBottom Cargo Pocket Contine ntal Cropeped Flares Gaucho Culotte Pant Drawstring Harem Jodhpurs Knickers Overalls Oxford Bags Palazzo Plus Forus Riding Breeches 65 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE SKIRT Accordion Pleate A-line Balloon Bell Box Pleate Unpressed Built up Waistline Circular Culotte Dimdl Dome Wrap-around Drapped Escargot Flared Flounced Flying-panel Torso Foyr gored Garhered Gored Harem Hip Yolk Trumpet Inverted Kilt Mini Multi-gored Panel Tulip Pegged Peg-Top Peplem Sarong Side Tunic Six Gored Six goredtrunpet Slit Sun-burst pleat Rapered Tiers Umbrella 66 .

and consumer appeal. Durability?. Care?. Products produced by their competitors. These costs are often interrelated. quality. as part of their job responsibilities. Analysis may be focused on one particular aspect of a product as production costs or specifications. production. materials. and overheads. the purpose of the analysis. do customers focus on intrinsic or extrinsic cues in making apparel choices? The answer to these questions provides apparel professionals with priorities for line development. The choice of less expensive materials may result in 67 . The process of conducting a systematic product analysis can be very extensive or limited. The thoroughness of the analysis depends in large part on the type of garment being sought and the consumer’s level of product knowledge. Products are developed and marketed to suit large groups of target customers in terms of styling. processes. and limitations:          Products are examined from a business perspective with the goal of positioning products to satisfy the needs of target customers. and value? What aspects of apparel serviceability are of particular concern to consumers? Comfort?. What are the target customer’s priorities among aesthetics. Garment Analysis procedure differs depending on who performs the analysis. The “Bottom Line” always is considered in evaluating alternatives. The ultimate goal of apparel merchandisers is to satisfy consumer needs for apparel. professionals are constantly faced with pressure to control costs of labor. LAHORE MERCHANDISING TECHNIQUES 1. Consumer’s perceptions of products may be based on intrinsic or extrinsic cues to quality and performance depending on personal preferences or priorities. The results of professional analysis determine what will be available to consumers on the retail sales floor. cost. Sound technical knowledge of materials and garment assembly is needed to determine product performance. Consumer’s purchases determine success of decisions made by apparel professionals. Apparel. Professional apparel analysis involves following goals. performance. Alternative product development. producibility. Outcomes may be conclusion related to product positioning. and Products and processes developed by suppliers). Consumers engage in garment analysis every time they shop for apparel. Apparel merchandisers are constantly faced with the responsibility for analyzing the (Products produced by their factories and / or contractors. reducing costs in one area may increase costs in another. quality. value.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Products made available by vendors. Decisions are made in the context of product line and firm’s strategic plan. price. Most apparel Merchandisers engage in some type of garment analysis. either formal or informal. and marketing processes are assessed. depending on the purpose and desired outcome. and marketing decisions. functional use. production. Quality standards are based on perceptions of target customer’s expectations. and value. product development. and the methods of analysis that are employed. fit. GARMENT ANALYSIS: Challenges to apparel professionals include providing target customers with products that satisfy the customer’s priorities and needs while making a profit. fashion.

and Laboratory analysis with standard test methods. higher shipping costs. specialize testing equipment. aided by simple tests. intrinsic characteristics of garments include materials. Analysis may involve intrinsic and / or extrinsic factors depending on the purpose of the analysis. cutting. The reliability of visual analysis is completely dependent on the skill of the individual conducting the analysis. yarn twist. Visual assessments may also compare with more scientific analyses for verification. Augmented visual inspection. Both visual inspection and augmented visual inspection can often be performed without destroying the product. Production costs provide a baseline for determining lowest price that will allow a reasonable profit. styling. It is effective in evaluating overall garment appearance and aesthetics. which thus raises spreading. Use of home laundry equipment can provide insight into latent defects such as color bleeding and shrinkage. Garment analysis using augmented visual inspection provides more information and increases the ability to reach reliable conclusions. high-power magnification. Choice of sourcing production in a developing country with lower labor costs may result in increased risks of nonconformance to specifications. Extrinsic aspects originate from outside the product and are not a physical part of the product itself. Price. A skilled person can conduct a quick and reasonably reliable assessment of these product characteristics using visual inspection. and estimating numbers of stitches per inch. Visual inspection is frequently used by consumers and retail buyers when viewing product lines for the first time. and / or home laundry equipment. appearance. The less experienced analyzers or those requiring extremely consistent results need more than visual inspection as a basis of analysis. and time. simple magnification and measuring equipment. and missed delivery deadlines. For example. visual merchandising techniques. reputation of the manufacturer or retailer. and so on.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Use of microscopes increases the details that can be observed in fabric structures relative to interlacing patterns. Experience in garment analysis develops the ability to see and feel quality in products. methods of color application. simple burning or solubility tests might he used to verify fiber content. Three different methods of analyses could be used are:    Visual inspection. Developing higher levels of intrinsic quality and performance requires increased investment in materials. Skills are developed through comparing similar characteristics and performance of a wide variety of products. methods of assembly. A myriad of option differing in quality. 68 . skills. Use of tests and equipment increases costs of analysis but also amount of information available. performance. and pressing. Yarn types. identifying stitch and seam types. and highly calibrated measuring equipments. fit. and advertising are common extrinsic cues to quality and value. equipment. METHODS OF GARMENT ANALYSIS: The purpose of garment analysis determines the methods and complexity of the analysis. The tangible. brand name. estimating fabric quality. LAHORE using materials with more flaws or handling problems. and cost have to be evaluated by apparel professionals in making decisions about the development of each product characteristics. Visual inspection is the least sophisticated and least complex method of garment analysis. 2. and sewing costs. more second-quality goods.

time-driven nature of the apparel business. Materials selection. Sizing and fit Component assembly. 3. An actor/actress is a target customer that requires an extreme of visual and aesthetic needs in stage costume. Analysis of these aspects can be used to determine the compatibility of materials and suitability to particular end uses. Visual effect is of comparatively little importance as long as an extensive list of functional needs is accomplished. experimentation. PROCESS OF GARMENT ANALYSIS: Professional garment analysis can be accomplished by evaluating six aspects of garments: 1. quality of execution may also be secondary. Firms may establish and operate product testing labs or contract laboratory services. An extreme in functional purpose is an astronaut's space suit. Product positioning strategy. Apparel intended for general consumer use usually represents a blend of functional and aesthetic priorities. air permeability. 4. Final assembly and finishing. and extra materials and garments must be sampled according to specified methods. rapid changes. An astronaut's apparel must provide protection from highly hostile environments. may require extensive knowledge of certain aspects of the apparel business. Laboratory analysis with textile testing equipment may be particularly useful when concerned with performance aspects such as shrinkage. and frequent laundry. and low end / budget / moderate / better / designer price ranges. Laboratory tests with standard test methods endorsed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC). 69 . does a garment serve primarily a functional purpose or an aesthetic purpose? This is closely related to the level of intrinsic quality and durability needed in end use. 5. durable / disposable performance. and testing.g. Factors that are useful in describing a product's purpose and styling include functional / aesthetic priorities. LAHORE The most scientific garment analysis involves laboratory tests of products and materials. Tests are frequently destructive. In-house testing is less timeconsuming but requires equipment. Appearances of theater costumes are evaluated from a distance therefore. analysis conducted to cost a garment requires an in depth understanding of apparel production and materials. colorfastness. Comfort and protection may be sacrificed for the appearance of the garment. Garment analysis. non-seasonal / seasonal use. conducted to meet particular business needs. Visual effect is primary requirement.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Quality is judged. basic / fashion styles. or other professional organizations and controlled laboratory conditions provide the most reliable results. and shading. Each set of factors forms a range of possibilities that can be selected to position a product to make it desirable for a particular target market. Appropriate garment performance is accomplished through engineering. Functional / Aesthetic Purpose And Durable / Disposable Performance: For a particular target customer. e. time. Garment Presentation. 2. and personnel. intrinsic / extrinsic cues to quality. stage costumes may also need to be durable enough to withstand the rigors of stressful use. 3. abrasion resistance. However. 3. strength. on whether the item accomplishes its visual purpose. 6.1 PRODUCT POSITIONING STRATEGY: The foundation for garment analysis is the purpose or intended use of a garment. The time required to have the tests performed may be prohibitive given intense. primarily.

Other intrinsic factors such as quality of materials and construction may be overlooked by manufacturers. depending on the purpose of garments and priorities of target customers. Many intrinsic characteristics that contribute to quality also contribute to costs of finished products.e. Each characteristic represents a group of options that creates a range from high to low quality. Advanced technology and automation are means of reducing labor costs. Other firms invest in extensive product testing to determine the performance capabilities of their products. uniqueness. Thus. Extrinsic cues include price. retailers. Developing intrinsic quality requires greater investment in materials. stitches and seams. Cost is the value surrendered in order to receive and / or produce goods or services. Sometimes what is perceived as high quality meets functional needs. equipment. i. they copy styles from other firms lines using lower-cost materials and production methods. and popular labels. labor. trade-offs must be made. Costs of production include a combination of costs of materials. Profitable positioning and satisfactory performance can be accomplished at different levels of quality and durability. The desired intrinsic quality level determines the selection and use of materials. Intrinsic quality is built into garments beginning with product development and design. production methods. acceptance by peer groups. a design may begin with making original sketches. price reductions to promote good value and brand names and trademarks to promote consumer confidence. Or making patterns from other firms' finished garments. The investment in creativity. maintain quality throughout production. skill and time. draping piece goods on a body form. other times it meets aesthetic needs. transportation. Manufacturers and retailers use advertising to romanticize and glamorize products. and overhead. and perfection of fit depend on quality and fashion level acceptable to the target market. fit. The wearable life of a fashion garment may be only 8-12 weeks. However. some garments intrinsic cues to quality are more important.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. apparel firm’s repu tation. The perception of quality in fashion goods depends more on extrinsic cue then intrinsic ones. The most significant intrinsic cues for fashion goods may be styling and color. and advertising. thus. brand name. e. and control costs. Selection and evaluation of fashion goods are often based on fashion advertising. Some firms invest in product development by having designers and merchandisers travel all over the world for design inspiration and selection of unique fabrics and trims. product presentation. higher-quality goods cost more to produce than lower-quality goods. For example computer-aided design equipment may increase the accuracy of pattern development and efficiency of use of time and materials. and consumers in favor of styling and effective fashion promotion. LAHORE Intrinsic / Extrinsic Cues To Quality: Quality standards tend to be arbitrary in terms of meeting consumer needs. 70 . equipment.g. fabrics and other materials. sizing. and finishing. Still others "knock off" styles. Normally. therefore. Tangible intrinsic cues of quality include styling. for others extrinsic cues are more important. and the degree of accuracy that is expected. The product images created using extrinsic cues may or may not be consistent with intrinsic quality. Specifications are developed to ensure an appropriate combination of quality characteristics. the processing sequence. high-quality garments may not be producible within the price range of the target customer. and increasing production efficiency and accuracy while increasing intrinsic quality.

71 . and seasonal offerings. Firms establish their definitions of product lines to include the price range of merchandise and position products considering their competitors at similar prices. price may not be a reliable indicator of quality. Price and Price Ranges: The general price ranges of low-end. consumers who buy the finished garments are seldom exactly the same size or shape as the body forms. often within whatever current fashion suggests as acceptable fit. A firm's sizing system is a means of product differentiation. Thus.g. The responsibility falls on manufacturers to develop appropriate systems of measurements to suit target customers. Product Change: How does the product relate to the fashion / basic. Manufacturers and retailers recognize that garments must be labeled in a manner that allow customers to find the right size. However. LAHORE intrinsic characteristics that affect durability are less critical to acceptable performance. Analysis of combination of price and quality result in relative value of product. children. budget. non-seasonal functional service? Or. On the other hand. Potential sales volume is higher for garments that have versatility in fitting a variety of body shapes. Analysis of these factors and matching product characteristics to preferences of the target market provides a framework for successfully positioning products. e. seasonal / non-seasonal continues for example. Consumers seek garments that provide an attractive appearance and comfort during wear. retailers. merchandise is developed and produced and / or selected to be marketable within the intended price classification. basic garments with little change year after year depend on intrinsic characteristics for better performance. is the garment intended to provide fashionable styling at a budget price? What is the general price range at which the garment should be offered? Principles of design. and designer are deeply embedded in the apparel business. seasonal color story. However. apparel industry has no universally used sizing standards. moderate. high price does not always mean high quality or vice versa. thus. The challenge is to offer consistency in sizing among styles. sizing terms infants. Styling may be a vehicle for setting a higher retail price without increasing other intrinsic quality characteristics. These performance traits are the result of the characteristics of materials. Junior. The body types are classified by body proportions as related to age and gender. Unfortunately. better. Manufacturers usually test the size and fit of garments on specifically designed body forms and live fitting models. and current fashion are sources of criteria for analysis of the visual appearance of garments. It is imperative for a firm to develop its own sizing and fit standards with tolerances for variation consistent with consumer expectations. Customers want to be able to select the same size for a new style of a favorite brand name and have it fit in a similar manner to products already owned.2 SIZING AND FIT: Apparel manufacturers. and finishing processes. toddlers. and consumers are concerned about sizing and fit. and preteens relate to age and common proportional changes during human body growth and development. assembly. Sizing Systems and Size Ranges: A body type is the fundamental basis of sizing systems. Each garment or style has certain performance characteristics that are needed in order to meet performance needs and expectations. 3. does the customer prefer a garment that provides basic. product lines.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Effective merchandising and marketing programs can make it possible to sell a product at a higher price than the quality represents. Consumers are willing to pay a higher price because of the value they place on styling.

32. 38. 201/2.38. 36.32 for collar and sleeve length of men's dress shirts or 34-33 for waist and inseam of men's trousers).42. 11 for juniors). 8. or C for pantyhose). or large variations. 12. Proportional relationships among body parts (10. 10. 12. 9. 6. and women's sizing systems represent different proportional relationships among body parts of fully formed females. 30. 12. 12. 14 Boys-preschool and elementary school-age male 4. 2T. 18. M. 9. 15 Misses-mature female figure over 5'4" 2. or number i. 3. 14 for missy or 7. 13 Junior-young. 221/2. 24 months Toddler-stocky. 28. 34 Men's-mature male 32. 5. A sizing system includes a range of sizes based on gradation of dimensions for a body type. 261/2 Women's-full-bodied female figure over 5'4" 32. Age / height / weight (size 6. 20 Preteen-pre-puberty female 7. 52 Indicators of Size: Size of a garment is indicated by a word. S. 5. 10. 241/2. LAHORE missy. 46. size A. 44.46. or 24 months for infants.50.40. fully formed female figure 1. 72 . 20 Half-size-:-full-bodied female figure less than 54 141/2.52 Young men's-young male 27. L). 6. Apparel firms identify body types that are representative of their target customers and develop what they perceive to be appropriate proportions for each size and graduations between sizes. 181/2. 7. 12. 29. 18. 42.48. 13. 48. Sizes for additional body types are achieved by using petite. 34. 40. 18. 16. 11. 6. 12. 18.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. B. 7.44. not mobile Newborn 3. 16 1/2. or Dimensional sizes of body parts (151/2 . 50.34. letter. 8. tall. 11. 4T Girls--preschool and elementary school-age female 4. large. 14. 4. 6.36.     General body size (small. 10. 14. Commonly used size ranges are given below: Infant-baby. 16. 9. medium.e. 31. 31. 6x. 8. 33. mobile 1T.

and / or weight provide specific information about suitability of garment size to certain body dimensions. arm length. For example. length or circumference of specific body parts including neck. Fit or cut is determined by proportional relationships among measurements used in a firm's sizing system. height. as ready-to-wear was developed for women during nineteenth and twentieth centuries. and 24 months sizes. 18. extra large (S-M-L-XL) within "normal" size ranges. waist. blouses. Fit is how a garment conforms to or differs from the body. Actual garment dimensions are not indicated by numbers. Infants' garments are commonly offered in newborn. LAHORE Indications of general body size include one-size-fits-all. and include garments such as caftans or bathrobes. However. sizing systems were developed that used size designations unrelated to any specific garment dimensions. but information is provided at point of sale about range of height and weight that will fit within a given size. a garment 73 . and sweats. 10." A well-cut garment conforms to the body in a comfortable and flattering manner. large. e. and 11/12 size designations to indicate appropriateness for a broader target market. Sizes of men's apparel have long been based on dimensional measurements.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 11 sizes of the junior classification. Labels may also indicate body weight. Firms that style garments to appeal to a broader age category may use 7/8. Garments with dimensional sizing tend to have more consistency in measurements among styles and brands. S-M-L is used to describe men's. garments with a one-size-fits-all size indication are usually very loosely fitted or made of stretch materials. 12 in the misses system represents the proportions of a more mature figure than the 7. men's sport shirts. there is wide variation in infant body size related to age. women's. It has long been believed that women do not want to be reminded or reveal their body dimensions when shopping for clothes. 12. The two sources of information about fit are labels and garment structure. C. size A. do not specify body dimensions. Fit is sometimes described as garment "cut. Therefore.g. These designations are commonly used on basic pants / slacks. that is. Fit Indicators: Size alone does not determine garment fit. but the general size of people who wear a 7 or 8 may be similar. for an age / weight size designation to be meaningful. and leg. small. age is not a good indicator of garment size. Pantyhose sizing systems may represent a breakthrough in size information for women's apparel. Therefore. B. T-shirts. Garments of the same size from different manufacturers are unlikely to have exactly the same measurements because each firm customizes its sizing and fit according to its perception of fashion and its target customer. a sizing system must be developed that is based on body dimensions for a given age. or D. 6. chest. Labels often describe the body type the garment was designed to fit. Commonly used size indicators. Garments tend to be more basic in nature and wider size ranges tend to be offered. Garments that commonly have general body size include sweaters. Examples of dimensional sizes used for men's wear are shown below. may be unisex.e. However. i. Perhaps the only sizing system for women that uses body height and weight has been developed for pantyhose. thus. 3. 9/10. or children's body types. the 8. Anyone who is larger or smaller than "normal" knows that one-size-fits-all does not always fit all. Measurements specified by size relate to dimensions of a garment component relative to a particular body part such as collar or inseam. and shirts. Sizes for adult females usually consist of a number assigned to a particular set of unrevealed dimensions. Size designations that indicate age. 9. medium.

or husky. 34. shoulder width. and control of fullness. such as trim. 34. 18 Sleeve length: 32. 16. Information about garment circumference may be indicated by descriptors. regular. and gathers. 141/2. pleats below the yoke on the back of a shirt allow expansion of back width with arm movement. 46 Inseam: 28. number and location of limited fit points. 30. For example. 17. closer the silhouette conforms to body shape. stocky Large and tall versions are also available. 36 MEN'S SUITS OR SPORT COATS Chest size: 36. and amount. 35. Examination of garment structure reveals the general silhouette of a garment. and (5) quality control. (2) factors that determine garment fit. 33. 46. long Body type: regular. Stretch fabric may allow a garment to conform exactly to a greater variety of body shapes of similar size than rigid fabrics. 38. Silhouette is an indicator of how closely a garment conforms to the body. side tabs. 38. tapered. 40. 30. petite. (3) sizing standards used by firms. 36. Generally. 29. 32. 36 MEN'S PANTS Waist sizes: 28. 31. 44. waistbands sometimes have a small section of elastic. or other adjustment built in to allow variance in waist size. Collar length. Contributors to variance include (1) lack of industry-wide sizing standards. Dimensional Sizes for Men's Wear MEN'S DRESS SHIRTS Neck sizes: 14. For example. Limited fit points include rigid garment components that do not readily expand or contract to accommodate different body shapes and dimensions. 50. or tall. LAHORE might be labeled short. 40. tucks. Fullness in a garment is controlled by darts. Fullness also allows different shapes to fit within the garment. Skirts with front pleats will accommodate a greater variation in hip circumference than fitted skirts. 32. 161/2. 171/2. trim. more limited the garment is in accommodating varying body proportions. 42.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. long. 42. regular. 33. pleats. 74 . 33. Garments marked the same size not have same fit because of many factors contributing to the dimensions of a particular style of a particular size. 151/2. stocky. 48. 34. 52 Length: short. slim. 44. or hip circumference may provide fit limitations depending on the style of the garment. 29. More extensive evaluation of sizing and fit requires analysis of pattern development and apparel production processes. placement. Garment components may be modified to allow more variance in fit. (4) production tolerances for garment dimensions. These indicators of fit provide a basis of judging appropriateness of' garment selection for a particular body type. waistband length. 31. 15. Fullness allows for comfort and freedom of body movement within the garment.

more reliably. yarn type / structure / size. government has taken a position that the apparel industry should set its own sizing standards. closures. abrasion resistance. is too complex. and quality. fabrication. weight / size. weight. color.S. sleeve. pilling and snagging resistance. Lack of consistency in fit of garments of same size creates confusion for consumers. Interlinings are frequently intrinsic parts of collar. Piece goods are often the primary focus of material analysis because of their role in garment aesthetics performance. and research is under way related to a sizing system for mature females. Based on recent research. and cost. structural / applied design. These properties may be estimated through visual analysis or. and durability. there is variation in measurements used for different styles of the same size. finish(es). Materials used in apparel manufacturing include piece goods and findings. The technical nature of quality and performance of materials. trims. this category of materials has a number of common names including: sundries. For garments in which intrinsic quality and durability are particular concerns. collar stays etc. Piece goods analysis involves material content. count / gauge. SUPPORT MATERIALS are used on inside of a garment to provide shape.3 MATERIAL SELECTION: Section 3 of apparel analysis guide identifies a list of types of materials and criteria that are commonly used for analyzing materials. So sizing needs to be consistent with their expectations. LAHORE There is no generally adopted industry wide standardization of fit or sizing with mandated sets of dimensions specifying garment sizes. a comparison of dimensions for size 8 dresses produced by four manufacturers revealed the dimensions reported each of these size 8 dresses would fit differently because of differing proportional relationships among key measurements. Piece goods are fabrics that are cut and assembled into shells of garments. these properties may be analyzed in addition to the criteria listed here. and color fastness. stiffness. 3. labels and accessories. such as strength. Without widely used sizing standards. shoulder pads. Recently. care. findings. and method of application. Compatibility of support materials and piece goods is essential to assure acceptable garment performance. Quality aspect must also be consistent with product positioning strategy. and waistline treatments as well as pockets and hems. Many apparel professionals and consumers believe that there is a need for a massive anthropometric study involving measurements of thousands of people of different ages and ethnic origins to provide a basis for industry-wide sizing standards.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. threads. reinforcement. In apparel business. care. Customers are not able to try on garments before ordering. fabrication. sizing standards are now available for infants. color application. Proper selection and consistent quality of materials are important to apparel quality and performance. quality. tapes. 75 . For example. and notions. determined using standardized laboratory tests. Customers need to understand the firm's sizing system in order to choose the appropriate size. resiliency. trims. Classification of Materials: classified as under: Materials commonly used for the purpose are PIECE GOODS make up the outer shell of a garment. shape retention. Factors to consider for evaluation of support materials include material content. Incorrect or inferior material can impart a lower quality level to entire garment. They are first target when cost reduction is desired. the U. Findings include all the rest of materials required to complete garments including support shaping materials. Included are linings. interlinings.

Zippers. resiliency. Yarns and threads might be smooth or textured filament combed or carded. Evaluation of trims may be based on material content.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Each criterion represents a range of possibilities that relate to quality and performance. gauge. Precise type and size can be determined by lab analysis. A garment may have closures at the neckline. care. THREAD is a linear medium used to form stitches in fabric. Sometimes these can be determined by general observation. 76 . structural / applied deign. fabrication. Fabrication of zipper chain may refer to coils or scoops. hook-and-loop tape. size. and machines that are used. hand / drapability. color application. top stitching. (shirt material includes piece goods. Thread can be analyzed based on material content. Compatibility of trims with the piece goods is essential because of the potential for latent problems like bleeding or differential shrinkage. YARN TYPE AND SIZE relates only to textile materials. Yarns are long continuous strands of textile fibers that make up most textile fabrics. type. Trims may be dual purpose in providing both aesthetic focus and functional service such as a braid or tape that serves as an edge finish or hem as well as a decorative effect. plastics. color application. yarn type and size. Specific characteristics are identified by fabric names such as denim. and embroidery). seams. care. melting point. weight / size. but useful and reasonable estimations can be made. other times lab analysis is required. FABRICATION refers to the process used to produce the material. sleeve openings. spun. or stamped. and absorbency. knitted. and so forth. snaps. or cotton count. Yarns and threads are sized by denier. waistline. MATERIAL NAME should identify each material and where it is used in garment. or non-woven fiber web. size. MATERIAL CONTENT refers to type and proportion of textile fibers. effectiveness of operation. metals. Functional closures are often combined with plackets in order to open and close garments and keep them closed. methods of attachment. and quality of woven and knitted fabrics. care. findings. tricot. elastic. and quality. It is a major factor in the strength and appearance of seams. hems. hooks. Textiles are woven. as well as where the thread is used and the durability needed. appearance. Materials content is determinant of product performance and properties such as strength. Closures may be functional and / or aesthetic. LAHORE TRIMS are materials or stitching applied primarily for aesthetic reasons to provide decorative details. thread for seams. CLOSURES are devices that secure a garment around the body. and method of application. fabrication. finishes. cast. and finishes. abrasion resistance. Thread is a special type of yarn used for sewing materials together. color. Analysis of closures requires evaluation of the material content. or other substances that make up the product. fabrication. Thread choice depends on type of piece goods. Fabrication of other materials such as snaps or hooks may refer to whether the material is molded. Criteria For Analysis of Materials: This include material name. finishes. Plied construction provides greater strength and durability. pockets. plied. durability. size. and / or core spun. and method of application. and gingham. and drawstrings or ties. stitches. Yarn type or structure and size are major factors in the hand. material content. tex. The basic types of closures are buttons. finishes.

COLOR APPLICATION refers to methods that are used to add color to materials. and count. support materials. For example. Costs and performance of application methods must be evaluated. yarn dyed. making garments suitable for continued wear. care labels are required by law to describe appropriate renovation procedures. yards to the pound. printed. finishes may make an important contribution to fabric weight. embossed.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. glued. 77 . or product dyed. Solution dying of artificially made textiles. Materials may also be starched.4 GARMENT STRUCTURE: Garment structure refers to the manner of assembling materials into garments. garment structure must also be consistent with the product positioning strategy. METHOD OF APPLICATION refers to technique used to hold a particular material in place in a garment. Gauge is the number of Wales per inch in knit fabrics. the design is formed as the material is made. fused. trims and closures when considering compatibility of materials and desired appearance of finished garments. and molded zippers causes color to become a part of the material because it is added before material is formed. Weight and / or size of materials other than fabric frequently involve a special measuring system such as "lignes" for buttons. Materials that are combined must be compatible in terms of laundry or dry cleaning. DRAPABILITY refers to the manner in which a material hangs or bends over a three dimensional object. CARE refers to processes for garment upkeep. Textiles may be solution dyed. yarn size. In lower quality fabrics. buffed. or added-in some other way to the surface of the material. LAHORE COUNT OR GAUGE is used to describe textile materials. so choice of materials for production of a particular garment may be limited by equipment availability. buttons. WEIGHT AND / OR SIZE is unique to each type of material. STRUCTURAL OR APPLIED DESIGN refers to how the design is incorporated in the material. Special equipment may be required for some application methods. Structural designs are more expensive and require more lead time but are more durable for extended use and care. fiber dyed. Applied designs may be printed. Piece goods may be made resistant to wrinkles or moisture and printed or napped to create a particular appearance. These characteristics are particularly important in the choice of piece goods. polished. Structural design suggests the appearance is an intrinsic part of the material. For garments. labels may be produced by a jacquard weave or by printing fabric tapes. or ounces per square yard. Analysis of the formation of garment structure can be divided into two phases: (1) assembly of garment components and (2) final garment assembly and finishing. Count is the number of yarns per square inch in woven fabrics. Fabric is purchased by ounces per linear yard. 3. Various materials may be stitched. Fabric weight is determined largely by fiber content. or glazed to improve their texture or appearance. Count and gauge are factors related to fabric quality and durability. FINISHES refer to mechanical or chemical processes that modify the appearance or performance of the material. or stapled. piece dyed. clamped. tacked.

machine settings. higher the quality tends to be. problems such as differential shrinkage are eliminated and appropriate care procedures are consistent for all materials. The second step is to examine the structure of each component individually. and handling. e. inventory. method and complexity of assembly. use of trim / bindings. Garment structure may be enclosed by selection of specific seam types. Most stitch and seam types are identified according to US Federal Government Standards 751a. Within garment structure materials must complement each other. and skill of operators. Materials must be compatible within each garment. Piece goods chosen for drapability may be lower in count and have a tendency to ravel. predetermined quality level. Larger the numbers of materials in components. and performance are achieved initially as well as after use and care by the consumer. use of non-woven interlining on facings that receive abrasion may be unsatisfactory due to pilling. Combinations of materials are successful when the appropriate appearance. seam may be completely enclosed between the parts of cuff. Particular stitches and seams need to be chosen to compensate for the less desirable fabric characteristics. sequence of assembly. selection of seams. operational breakdown. cutting. and partial or full linings More enclosed the interior of a garment. and handling costs for the garment. marking. and amount of handling that is required. Assembly methods and materials must also be compatible. An operation breakdown is a sequential list of the steps in the production process. and aesthetic requirements. compatibility of materials and assembly methods. The greater the number of materials in each garment the greater the risk of non-compatibility. determining number of pieces and number of materials in each component. In general. The interior of a garment may be open. or some combination of the two. Open construction reveals raw edges or exposed seams on the interior of a garment closed construction has all seams or edges enclosed on the interior of a garment. Different materials may be used in various components of same garment because of different performance expectations. performance expectations. degree of enclosure. For example. all of which contribute to the cost of production. sewing. Stitch and seam quality depends on appropriate selection. when setting a cuff to a sleeve. Selecting stitch and seam types depends on materials used. choice of over-edge and cover stitches. Each garment piece requires developing a pattern. First step is to identify the components used in the garment structure.g. closed. cost limitations. assembly methods that enclose seams. Appropriate methods and sequences are determined to meet cost and quality requirements. The process of component assembly determines the methods and sequence of assembly operations. and performance expectations. compatibility among materials. The number of pieces in a component is a significant factor in labor cost. LAHORE CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS OF GARMENT COMPONENTS: Garment analysis guide lists criteria that may be used for analyzing components of garment structure. types of stitches and seams. These criteria include identifying components. Each material must be acquired and prepared for the assembly process. thread tension and performance. Degree of enclosure is usually an indicator of quality of garment structure. hand. and pressing. the greater the number of 78 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. with assembly procedures. A seam covered with fabric may be higher quality than a seam covered with thread. When materials are compatible. the more enclosed the interior of a garment. greater the sourcing. equipment available. or seam may be constructed with raw edge covered only by an over-edge stitch. Determining the operation breakdown is the next step in the analysis of components.

plackets to sleeves. It is used to make handling and placement of pieces easier and increase accuracy of sewing and also improves appearance of garment components and finished garments. and forming hems. These finishes may enhance visual effects or performance but may also reveal irregularities and latent defects of materials. LAHORE production processes and the cost. which. Wrinkled. and cause soil retention. Tickets include UPC codes. 3. involves pressing component parts during assembly process. called under-pressing. and price. attaching waistbands. flecked. inserting linings. In-process pressing. Trimming is indication of quality and attention to detail in production. crinkled. GARMENT DYEING: This provides an opportunity to use fashion colors as demand dictates and reduces risks associated with use of fashion colors. garment dyeing. TICKETING. Hang tags are 79 . Poor pressing can distort a well-made garment. FINISH PRESSING: It makes a contribution to finished appearance of a garment. WET PROCESSING: This includes rinsing. and waistbands to skirts or pants. Garment finishing may also create potential for additional latent defects. TAGGING. and final pressing called off-pressing. AND PACKAGING: This prepares the garment for retail presentation. Garment dyeing can result in shading problems among materials that may be visible only after processing. Combined components are assembled to make a complete garment by inserting linings and closing seams. Wet processing usually removes fabric sizing and may cause latent fabric defects to be revealed. Potential steps in garment finishing include trimming. Post cure finishes are activated by heat or steam after a garment is completed to permanently set the shape of garment. Smooth seams are indications of quality assembly and final pressing. It involve pressing open (busting) seams. Efforts are also made to keep the combined components as small as possible so operators will have less material to manipulate and handle. shaping pockets. Each finish requires special selection of materials that are compatible with finishing processes. or creasing hems in preparation for operations that follow Under-pressing is an added operation that increases processing and handling time. POST CURE DURABLE PRESS: These finishes on materials may be used to increase permanency of finished appearance.5 FINAL GARMENT ASSEMBLY AND FINISHING: It is the process used to combine garment components and produce the finished appearance of the garment. GARMENT FINISHING PROCESSES: Garment finishing process involves: TRIMMING: This removes thread ends and loose threads and contributes to a neat appearance. Pressing is used to camouflage poor construction. wet processing.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. setting sleeves. Processes that might be included in final assembly are attaching collars. style number. or other fashionable looks may be created by special types of wet processing. In-process pressing is regarded as important part of component construction for higher quality garments. may increase production costs. closing side seams. Operations may be planned so the product remains flat as long as possible. change hand of piece goods. Small components are attached to larger components such as pockets to fronts. washing and / or bleaching and abrading of garments after assembly. Post cure durable press may limit alteration of garment fit. post curing.

if used. Products may be hung or folded/pinned to enhance shelf or hanger appeal. Accuracy of color matching depends on a firm's quality standards and effectiveness of sourcing. consistency. Criteria for analysis of stitches & seams are same as when evaluating components. Identifying the total number of components and materials contributes to understanding the complexity of garment assembly and the difficulty of materials management. and degree of enclosure. Criteria include total number of components and materials in the garment. "One hundred percent plaid / pattern match" means every seam has fabric design perfectly placed for unity of appearance. The degree of color matching among materials indicates the attention paid to detail and the aesthetic quality of the garment. The analysis process addresses the operations used to achieve the finished garment as well as the overall quality of the finished garment. and zippers are found on better-quality garments unless design criteria dictate contrasting appearance. Final garment assembly operations. Manufacturers establish quality standards that result in garments of a particular quality level. Correctly formed stitches are called “balanced”. The degree of matching is an indication of quality. matching of seams and design. Partial or full linings. seam width. Matching thread. For example. Care in planning and accuracy of garment assembly are visible in matching corresponding seams and fabric design. and more time. Quality of seams is judged on the selection of the stitch type. operation breakdown for final assembly. extra materials handling. therefore.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. including operation sequence and choice of stitches and seams. and overall appearance. Shading in piece goods is another colormatching problem. finish. The operation breakdown for garment finishing identifies all the finishing operations used on the garment. number of' stitches per inch. finishing operations break down. Criteria for analysis of finishing include appropriateness. LAHORE added to identify trademarks for materials or manufacturer. buttons. Fabrics can be pre-shaded by electronic instruments at the mill to comply with rigid quality control standards. color matching of materials. the amount of matching used is designated to meet cost and quality goals. Matching requires additional planning. Incorrectly formed stitches are “unbalanced ”. Garments of different quality levels serve 80 . All of these factors increase costs. High standards for color consistency mean piece goods are carefully matched prior to cutting so there is little or no shade variation in a garment. are usually added in final assembly process. CRITERIA FOR ANALYSIS OF FINAL ASSEMBLY/ FINISHING: The apparel analysis guide identifies the garment structure criteria appropriate for final assembly and garment finishing. and appropriateness of the seam type for the fabric and styling. types and quality of stitches and seams. These factors are most obvious when a garment is considered as a finished whole. all parts may be matched or only specific seams may be matched. greater sewing skill. While linings are usually regarded as a quality feature. and uniformity. effectiveness. shading. lower utilization of piece goods. Evaluation of the quality of stitches is based on the correct formation of the stitches as compared to Federal Standard 751a. Design of components and final assembly sequence determines degree of enclosure that is achieved in finished garment. Shading an expensive problem for both apparel manufacturers and textile mills is color variation that occurs within or among dye lots of the same fabric and color number. This improves quality of finished goods and reduces handling and production costs particularly in spreading and cutting. Consistency is a major factor in determining quality and value. make a major contribution to product quality and performance. they sometimes cover poor quality in other aspects of garment assembly.

accessories.g. 81 . Not all garments need to be highest quality. final assembly. Consistency is the primary indication of conformance to manufacturer's quality standards such as stitch and seam selection. brand name. Garments are rejected when they do not meet the firm's sizing standards. and boxing. assembly. ticketing. 3. Analysis of the effectiveness of labeling and ticketing involves answering the following questions. Labels and tickets that are sewn into garments need to be durable enough to last the life of the garment. Measurements of different garments of same style and size should be same or within tolerances. materials selection. such as belts. shipment. or display. Functional packaging protects garments during storage.)? Are legal requirements for labels met? Are labels and tickets effective. The accessories that are sold as part of the style are not to be confused with accessories added for display purposes at the retail level. The product must look attractive to the customer. What types of labels and tickets are included with the garment? Are the labels and tickets intended for consumer use placed in locations where they are easily accessible? Are the types of information that consumers normally seek easily readable (e. Display devices such as hangers. padding. sometimes interfere with customers’ access to label information.. pinning. Are display devices appropriate to the garment? Do display devices interfere with being able to see the garment? Effective presentation may determine the financial success of the product. scarves. and bubble packs add to the appeal of the garment at point of sale. and finishes. or other objects. pins. components. and packaging. materials performance. Display devices such as collar supports.g. Garment presentation involves extrinsic cues to quality and value such as labeling. accuracy. and the development of garment structure. These accessories are then sold with the garment. LAHORE different purposes. bows. but garments should be of highest quality for which customer is willing to pay. The apparel analysis guide identifies criteria for analysis of garment presentation for effective hanger / shelf appeal. and included in the garment price. All the efforts towards product positioning. Judgment of overall appearance requires consideration of purpose of the garment.6 GARMENT PRESENTATION: Hanger and shelf appeal is critical for selling product to the target consumer. considered a part of the style. and. materials. Each item must provide adequate quality and performance to ensure serviceability in use and renovation. size. skirt or sock hangers. to garments to complete the aesthetic appeal or function of a product. fiber content. clips.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Aesthetic packaging includes visual presentation of a garment including hanging. consistency of size measurements is a major concern for some manufacturers. Accessories may make a small addition to cost while making a major contribution to hanger appeal. Evaluation of labeling and ticketing involves examination of the availability. for marketing? Is there any reason to believe information on labels and tickets is misleading? Merchandisers often add accessories. e. care. Packaging may provide functional protection and / or aesthetic appeal. finishing may be in vain if garments are inappropriately presented. Accessories that are part of the style may be evaluated based on compatibility with garment from both the aesthetic and performance perspectives. and effectiveness of printed information attached to garments. draping. size standards. folding. Labels also provide specific product information. display devices. price.

Extrinsic cue to quality Basic styling ………………………………………………. Aesthetic Durable ………………………………………………………………………. ………. of piece & materials in each Operation breakdown Type of stitches & seams Compatibility of materials / assembly Degree of enclosure In-process pressing Final assembly Finishing Finish pressing Labeling & ticketing Accessories Packaging Display devices Final Assembly and Finishing  Total No.... of Components & materials  Final assembly operations  Types of stitches and seams  Finishing operations  Color matching / shading of materials  Quality of stitches and seams  Matching of seams & design  Degree of enclosure  Consistency & overall appearance (6) Garment Presentation  Hanger / shelf appeal  Accuracy of information  Placement/readability of information  Appropriateness to product 82 . Better price (2) Sizing and Fit Appearance  Gender Comfort  Body Type Versatility  Size indicators / codes Consistency  Fit indicators (3) Material Selection  Material name and content  Yarn type / size  Fabrication  Count / gauge & weight / size  Hand / drapability  Structural / applied design  Color application & finishes  Care  Method of application of material Components Assembly        (5) Piece goods Support / Shaping materials Trims Closures Thread (4) Top fronts Top back Bottom fronts Bottom backs Sleeves Collars / neckline reatments Cuffs / sleeve treatments Plackets Pockets Waistline treatments Identify components No... …….. Disposable Intrinsic Cues to Quality ……………………………………………...……………………….PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE....Seasonal Budget price …..…..…...….. LAHORE GARMENT ANALYSIS GUIDE (1) Positioning Strategy Functional ……………………………………………………………….…Moderate price ……………..........…......... Fashion Styling Non-seasonal .......……………………………………………………..….

_________ (Circle or write in the appropriate indicators. _________ (For each pair of criteria. LAHORE GARMENT ANALYSIS GUIDE (1) Product Positioning Strategy Style No.) Sizing System Classification by Gender and Body Type Unisex Infant Toddler Children Student Adult Male Boys Young men’s Men’s Female Girls Preteen Young juniors Juniors Misses Women’s Specificity of Size Indicator / Code General body size: small medium 1x 2x 3x 4x 5x large extra large other _______________________________________ Number code used to indicate garment size: ______________________________________ Dimensional Size: Collar ______ Sleeve ______ Chest _____ Waist ________ Inseam ______ Other __________ Fit Indicators: Height: Short Medium Circumference: Trim Slim Long Petite Tall other ____________ Tapered Stocky other _____________________ Weight : ___________________________________________________________________ Silhouette: Closeness of conformance to body: Amount of fabric: Components that limit fit: Control of fullness LOCATION Darts ________________________________________________________________ Tucks ________________________________________________________________ Pleats ________________________________________________________________ Gathers _______________________________________________________________ little little moderate moderate high high Top front Top back bottom front bottom back sleeves Collar cuffs plackets pockets waistline hems 83 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Circle one number that represents the relative priority for this style) (“0” shows equal priority) Band Name ___________________________ Garment Description _____________________ Functional Durable Intrinsic cues / quality Basic Styling Non-seasonal Budget price 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 Aesthetic Disposable Extrinsic cues / quality Fashion Styling Seasonal Better price (2) Sizing and Fit Style No.

bottom back. closures. bottom front. pockets. collar. top back. thread) (Use this analysis process for each material in the garment. of Pieces _______ No. sleeves. _______ Component _______ No.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. _________ (piece goods. Design ________________________________________________________ Color application ________________________________________________________ Finishes _______________________________________________________ Care _______________________________________________________ Application method _______________________________________________________ (4) Components Assembly (top front./appl. LAHORE (3) Materials Selection Style No. placket. trim.) Material Name ________________________________________________________ Material content ________________________________________________________ Yarn type/size ________________________________________________________ Fabrication ________________________________________________________ Count/gauge ________________________________________________________ Weight/size _______________________________________________________ Hand _______________________________________________________ Struct. of Materials ___________ Operational Breakdown Operation 1 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 2 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 3 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 4 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 5 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 7 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 8 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 9 ___________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 10 __________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 11 __________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Operation 6 ___________________________ Operation 12 __________________________ SPI _________________________________ SPI _________________________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Stitch/seam type _______________________ Quality Summary Compatibility among material ___________________________________________________ Commutability materials/ assembly _______________________________________________ Quality of stitches and seams ____________________________________________________ Degree of enclosure ___________________________________________________________ Under pressing _____________________________________________________________ 84 . hems) Style No. support fabrics. cuffs. waistline.

finishing pressing) Final Assembly Operations Finishing Operations Operation 1 ___________________ Operation 1 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Operation 2 ___________________ Operation 2 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Operation 3 ___________________ Operation 3 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Operation 4 ___________________ Operation 4 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Operation 5 ___________________ Operation 5 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Operation 6 ___________________ Operation 6 _________________________________ SPI __________________________ ____________________________________________ Stitch/seam type ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching seams ________________ ____________________________________________ Matching design ________________ ____________________________________________ Quality Analysis of Finished Garments Color matching ______________________________________________________________ Color shading _______________________________________________________________ Quality of stitches and seams ___________________________________________________ Degree of enclosure ___________________________________________________________ Consistency of quality _________________________________________________________ Overall appearance ____________________________________________________________ (6) Garment Presentation Analysis of Labeling/Ticketing Information Types ____________________________________________________________________ Placement _________________________________________________________________ Readability ________________________________________________________________ Completeness _____________________________________________________________ Appropriateness ___________________________________________________________ Accuracy _________________________________________________________________ Analysis of Hanger / Shelf Appeal Accessories ________________________________________________________________ Ticketing _________________________________________________________________ Packaging _________________________________________________________________ Display devices ____________________________________________________________ Other extrinsic cues to quality ________________________________________________ Appropriateness to product ___________________________________________________ 85 . of Components ________ Total No. wet processing. dyeing. _________ Total No. Post curing.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE (5) Final Assembly and Finishing Style No. trimming. of materials ________ (Final assembly.

When costs exceed revenue. or an inefficient marker. a specific short-sleeve blouse requires 1. About 3% to 10% is common. revenue minus costs equals profit or loss. Costing is the process for estimating the total resource investment required to merchandise. splicing.35 yards of fabric that is not used is considered waste even though it is required for cutting the garment. and re-cuts. but some waste is inevitable. PRICING AND PROFIT: In this competitive age. This figure may vary with the item based on past history of the material and vendor.3 yards of fabric. labor and other charges which jointly complete the cost of the product. An Income statement has three sections: revenue (sales) cost of goods sold / produced. Many firms use a percentage of the cost of each material to cover waste. For the successful functioning of an industrial enterprise. The 0. COSTS. Many firms have established standards for fabric utilization. Pricing is the process of determining exchange value of goods that are made available for sale. Actual calculations show the fabric to be consumed by the blouse is 0. Each firm develops its own policy for costing material waste. and overhead expenses. e. Wastes may also result from poor quality materials. In order to make a profit. It is made up of three main elements. This may be the result of a poorly engineered design. When general operating expenses are deducted from the gross profit margin. in-consistent fabric width. patterned fabric. labor costs. it is necessary for a factory that the advance information about the cost of manufacturing orders to be put through should be available before taking up the actual production.g. Cost of goods sold / manufactured includes all the expenses that are incurred in making a finished product available. 1. COSTING.1 MATERIAL COST: Materials costs are affected by the percentage of utilization. Price is the dollar amount asked or received in exchange for a product. a loss is incurred. fabric used in manufacturing of a garment thread or zips / buttons used for making a garment is direct material. The difference between the price and the cost of a product is profit or loss on that product. LAHORE MERCHANDISING CALCULATIONS 1. For a firm. as much as possible without affecting the quality. one of the most important considerations is to reduce the cost of manufacture of the apparel item. Thus. The gross profit margin also called gross profit or gross margin is the amount of income remaining after cost of goods sold / produced is covered. Cost of goods sold / produced represents all expenses associated with the manufacture of the product line including material costs. the bottom line becomes profit or loss. The different probable elements of costs to be recorded are material. Utilization depends on how much of the material is actually used compared to the amount that actually becomes part of the product.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Costing may be defined as a system of accounts which systematically and accurately records all expenditure in order to determine the cost of a product after knowing the different expenses incurred in various departments. Revenue is the total of all receipts from the sale of the firm’s products during a stated time period. and market a product. and general operating expenses. revenue must exceed costs. Cost is the total amount invested in a product. produce. It is the material which is consumed in the manufacturing of a product and which can be measured and charged directly to the cost of the product.95 yards. 86 . It is further divided into two groups:a) DIRECT MATERIAL: Direct material is that material which becomes a part of the product.

Wages of such labor can be charged directly to job under preparation. and crane drivers etc. factory overheads.3 EXPENSES: Apart from material cost in each factory there are several other expenditure such as depreciation charges. grease. Power such as steam. These are the expenses which can be charged directly to a particular job and are done for that specific job only. Thus workers or operators engaged for operating on various production machines are known as direct labor. coolants and allied materials. grease. It is the labor which helps the productive labor in performing their duties. Factory expenses are also known as factory on-cost. It is also further divided into two classes a) DIRECT LABOR: Direct Labor is one which is directly employed in manufacturing operation. Thus e. maintenance cost.g. 1. production overhead. hydraulic or compressed air. Depreciation. Expenses can be divided into two classes. works on-cost. costs of layouts. electricity. All the expenses over and above prime cost are indirect expenses. Direct labor is also called as productive labor. cotton waste. These can be classified as: (i) FACTORY EXPENSES OR PRODUCTION EXPENSES: These expenses cover all indirect expenditures incurred by the undertaking from the receipt of the order until its completion and ready for dispatch. It is the material required for maintaining and operating the plant and equipment but can not be a part of the product. All these expenditure are known as overheads or expenses.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. rates and insurance chargeable against works. Foreman. internal transport. various lubricants. supervisors. designs and drawings or experimental work on a particular job etc. It is the labor which actually processes material either manually or with the help of machines. Indirect Labor e. cost of transportation.g. 87 . maintenance and repair of buildings. Factory expenses may include Rent. all other expenditures are known as expenses. plant. chowkidars. supervisors. LAHORE b) INDIRECT MATERIAL: Indirect material is that material which cannot be traced as a part of the product. e. burden or on-cost. salaries and commissions etc. Overhead is the sum of indirect labor cost.g. hire of special tools or equipment. gas. cost of special jigs or attachments or some special patterns. a) DIRECT EXPENSES: Direct Expenses also known as chargeable expenses and includes any expenditure other than direct material or direct labor incurred on a specific cost unit. factory manager etc.2 LABOR COST: It generally. b) INDIRECT EXPENSES: These are known as overhead charges. So. oil etc. operating labor or process labor b) INDIRECT LABOR: Indirect Labor is the non-productive staff engaged upon general services connected with the running of a factory as a whole. Expenses include indirect material cost and indirect labor cost and other expenses.g. supervision such as salaries of foreman. Consumable stores and all forms of indirect material such as cotton waste. indirect material cost and other expenses including service which cannot be conveniently charged to specific cost unit. machine tools etc. works overheads etc. from above it is clear that except for direct material and direct labor cost. 1. constitutes fifty per cent of the total cost to produce an article. storekeepers. e.

Expenses of making blocks and posters. heating and cooling. Traveling expenses of sales engineers. coolers and other modern equipments. office staff including clerks and peons.4 COST OF GOODS PRODUCED 1. Such as Salaries of directors and managing directors. These expenses include: Finished stock storages. Insurance of building and employees. Sales stock storage charges etc. Cost of preparing tenders and estimates. FACTORY COST = Prime Cost + Factory On-Cost. Stationery.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Salaries of cost. Salaries of the sale department staff including sales manager and sales man etc. charges of electric consumption for light. 3. LAHORE (ii) ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES: These expenses include all the expenses incurred on managerial or administrative staff for the planning and policy making work. 1. (iv) DISTRIBUTION EXPENSES: These are expenses which are paid for the distribution of products. (iii)SELLING EXPENSES: These consist of the expenditures spent towards securing orders. repairs. finance and secretary. Loading. It includes the expenditure made on holding finished stock. maintenance and depreciation of building. PRIME COST = Direct material + Direct Labor + Other Direct Expenses. 2. These includes: Advertising and publicity expenses. unloading charges. freight and warfare. 4. auditing expenses. TOTAL COST = Production Cost + Selling Expenses + Distribution Expenses Profit Selling Costs Revenues General and administrative cost Fixed and miscellaneous expenses Indirect Labor Overhead Cost Cost of goods sold Cost of good produced Area of Concentration Of a quality cost Program Indirect Materials Direct Labor Direct Materials Prime cost A traditional cost and price structure. packing cost and dispatching them to customer. 88 . PRODUCTION COST = Factory Cost + Administrative Expenses. and finding or retaining markets for the products manufactured. and Expenses of transportation and vehicles. Traveling expenses for attending meetings. Expenses of direct amenities like telephone. Cost of packing.

5 COSTING EXERCISES PROBLEM-1: Find out Prime Cost of a company.000 10.915 = Rs. 42.16. 42. 35.000) = Rs. 1.000+12. (5.0 = Rs. 32. If selling cost is 50% of factory cost.147 PROBLEM-3: An operation of a garment can be made either manually or on an automatic machine. If the material cost is Rs.50 = Rs.100 = Rs.000 Lining: Zip ’s: Cutting: Washing: 25. 97.100 = Rs.000 + 90.70 = Rs.0 = Rs.50 = S – 15% 0f S) Selling Price per Unit: = (14.000 30. LAHORE 1. and overheads chargeable are Rs. 65. 1.50) Selling Price: (Let Selling Price be “S”) = (97. 97. 9.000+25. how many operations can be made per day on the automatic machine. 97. direct labor cost Rs.000 12. and Selling Cost. 28. (5.000) = Rs. (6. 28 Overheads: = Rs. 10. 10.000 PROBLEM-2: A product is manufactured in batches of 100. Cost of Production. 6. 06.000 = Rs.000 X 30%) = Rs. 97. 21 Factory Cost: = (16 + 28 + 21) Selling Cost: = (65 X 50%) Total Cost: = (65 + 32. 1. 6.000+30. (9. 114.0 89 . (9.000 + 1.0 = Rs. 2. (10.000+20. 5. Labor cost per operation: Factory Overheads: Material Cost for One Operation: Factory Cost per Operation = (2 /8 X 4) = (1 X 100%) = (4 + 1 + 1) = Rs. In the former case the time taken is 2 hours and factory overheads are 100% of the labor cost.000 10. 10. 1. 00.015 ÷ 5. 4 and Rs.915) = Rs. Direct cost is Rs. 21. (6.015 = Rs. 09. 1. 35. 06. Provided that Works On-Cost = 40% of Prime Cost and Office On-Cost = 15% of Factory Cost Fabric: Thread: Buttons / Rivets Stitching: SOLUTION Material Cost: Labor Cost: Prime Cost: Works On-Cost Factory Cost: Office On-Cost: Production Cost Cost Per Unit = Rs. if 5. 208.000 = Rs.000) = Rs.100 + 1.00 = Rs.000 + 2.000 20. (10. 8 per day respectively (For 8 hour’s working day).70 ÷ 100) = Rs. so that the factory cost is same in both the cases? SOLUTION Manual Operation One operation is made in 2 hours. 00. 4 per operation. The operator is paid at a rate of Rs.000) = Rs.000 90. 16 Direct Labor Cost: = Rs. 87.100) = Rs.100 X 15%) = Rs.000 jeans are to be manufactured. 06.000 = Rs. 4. 87. what must be selling price to realize a profit of 15% of selling price)? SOLUTION Direct Material Cost: = Rs.00 5.50 = Rs.000 + 10. In the latter case the factory overhead expenses are 200% of the labor cost. Also find Cost per Unit.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 09.

0. He increased his output to 15 pieces per hour. 0.25 = (0. SOLUTION Total labor cost for one day: Weight of material for 20 jobs: Material cost: Administrative & factory overheads: Total cost for 20 jobs: Cost of production per unit: = (6 + 4) = (20 X 5) = (2 X 100) = (150% X 10) = (200 + 10 + 15) = 225 ÷ 20) = RS. 200 = RS. in a shift of 8 hours. and overhead expenses amount to 20% of the total factory cost. on his machine. 15 = RS. 11. 0. LAHORE Automatic Operation If number of operations done in one day Material Cost for One Operation: Labor cost for one operation: Factory Overhead (200% of Labor cost) Factory cost per article: =N = Rs.60 ÷ 15) = (0.90 = Rs.0 per day. 40. If the overhead and administrative expenses are 150% of labor cost. 0. They are paid at the rate of Rs.00 = KG. 4. Find his new rate per hour and new cost per piece. 4.10) = 6 Pieces = Rs.60 per hour.10 = Rs. each weighing 5 Kg. 0.25 PROBLEM-5: A workers ordinary pay is Rs. 0. find the factory cost of the component? Suppose factory cost of the component = F 90 . Allowing a net profit of 10% on the selling price.0 = (8 ÷ Y) = 16/Y = 12 = (8 ÷ Y) X 200% = (4 + 8/Y + 16/Y) PROBLEM-4: Two operators engaged on a machine complete 20 jobs.19 = Rs. 225 = RS. The material costs Rs.15 = Rs.15 + 0. He is engaged on a machine operation.25 PROBLEM-6: The selling price of a product is fixed at Rs.60 = Rs. 6. his output being 6 pieces per hour. 2 per kg.0 and Rs. 0.90 ÷ 6) = (0.60 = Rs. as work done. 2.15) = Rs.15 + 0. 0. Find the factory cost per piece (Ignore material cost). 10.04) = (15 X 0.15 = 15 Pieces = Rs. amounts to Rs.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 100 = RS.15 per piece. The man is put on piece work. the rate being fixed at 0. find the cost of production per unit.60 ÷ 6) = (0. 0. The overheads to be allocated. SOLUTION First Case: Output per hour: Workers pay per hour: Workers pay per piece: Overheads per hour: Overheads per piece: Factory cost per piece Second Case: Workers pay per piece: Output per hour: Overheads per hour: Overheads per piece: Factory cost per piece: Workers pay per hour: = (0. 0.90 per hour.04 = Rs. 0.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

SOLUTION Profit (10% on selling price): Total Cost: Overhead expenses (20% of factory cost) Total Cost: = (40 X 10%) = (40 – 4) = (20 ÷100) X F = F + 0.2 F 1.2F = 36 = Rs. 4 = Rs. 36 = 0.2F = 1.2F = Rs. 30

PROBLEM-7: A factory is producing 1000 pieces of a product per hour on a machine. Its material cost is Rs. 400, labor cost Rs. 350 and direct expense is Rs 75. The factory On-Cost is 150% of the total labor cost and office On-Cost is 25% of the total factory cost. If the selling price of each product is Rs. 1.75, calculate whether factory is going in loss or gain and by what amount? SOLUTION Overhead Charges Total Factory Cost: Office On-Cost: Total cost of production per 1000 pieces Production cost per piece: Selling price Profit per piece: = (150% X 350) = (400 + 350 + 75 + 525) = (1350 X 25%) = (1350 + 337.50) = (1687.50 ÷ 1000) = Rs. 1.75 = (1.75 – 1.69) = Rs. 525 = Rs. 1350 = Rs. 337.50 = Rs. 1687.50 = Rs. 1.69 = Rs. 0.06

PROBLEM-8: For manufacture of 1000 pieces per hour, a unit undergoes expenses of Direct Material cost Rs. 350; Direct Labor cost Rs. 200; Direct Expenses Rs. 75; Factory On-Cost 150% of total labor cost; and Office On-Cost 30% of total factory cost. Pieces are sold at Rs. 1.025 per piece. Work out loss or gain per piece? Solution Prime cost: Factory On-Cost Factory cost Office On-Cost Total cost: Total cost per piece: Selling price per piece Loss per piece: = (350 + 200 + 75) = (200 X 150%) = (625 + 300) = (925 X 30%) = (925 + 277.50) = (1202.50 ÷ 1000) = (1.2025 – 1.0250) = Rs. 625 = Rs. 300 = Rs. 925 = Rs. 277.50 = Rs. 1202.50 = Rs. 1.2025 = Rs. 1.025 = Rs. 0.18

1.6 OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COSTING:
YARN COUNT: Yarn count mainly affects the cost sheet. The higher the count, the thinner the yarn and so higher the price. It means that the yarn counts and prices are directly proportional to each other.
100% Cotton of 10 Lbs
COUNT 16/1 20/1 30/1 COMBED Rs. 480 Rs. 520 Rs. 610 CARDED Rs. 400 Rs. 445 Rs. 540

HEATHER (Mélange) of 1 Pound
Color Grey 10% Medium Grey Charcoal 20/1 Rs. 54 Rs. 80 Rs. 100 30/1 Rs. 64 Rs. 90 Rs. 110 24/1 Rs. 48

PV 1 Pound
34/1 Rs. 54 44/1 Rs. 60

KNI TTED FABRIC: Normally fabric weight is measured in GSM (Grams per square meter). If we 91

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increase the GSM of fabric then its over all weight will increase due to increase in course and vales per inch and so the cost of the fabric. Waste factor on Cotton is 2% and in Polyester is 5%. Knitting rates of fabrics are:
Fabric Types Single Jersey Pique Fabric Interlock Rib Auto Striper Feed Striper Fleece Sherpa Fleece Terry Fleece Raising Rates Gauge (GG), Ply, Count GG 14, 3, 20/1 GG 14, 4, 30/1 Fashion Collar in Cotton Fashion Collar in Polyester Cost in Rupees 9 to 10 9 to 10 9 to 10 15 to 16 60 to 70 25 to 30 12 to 13 12 to 13 and 25 to 30 12 to 13 2 to 3

Collar Arm Band Rs. 22 Rs. 11 Rs. 22 to 24 Rs. 11 to 12 Rs. 20 to 10 for one piece Rs. 15 to 20

DYEING AND FINISHING: There are two types of dyeing. Namely Solid dyeing or Fabric dyeing and Yarn dyeing. Fabric dyeing is cheaper than Yarn dyeing. If we use Fabric dyeing (100% Cotton) then normally it is about 45/- per kg and if it is blended (Cotton + Polyester) its price will go higher i.e. about 70/per kg. If we use Yarn dyeing then its cost is above 115/- per kg. Rates of dyeing and finishing vary due to shade’s being dark, medium and light.
Yarn Dyeing For Cotton Solid Dyeing (Accruc Fabric) Mercerizing Stenter Garment Wash (Silicon Wash) Garment Wash (Simple Wash) Rs. 80 to 120 Per Kg. Rs. 80 to 115 Per Kg. Rs. 125 Per Kg. Rs. 20 to 30 Per Kg. Rs. 6 to 7 Per Kg. Rs. 2 to 3 Per Kg.

CUTTING AND STYLING: Cutting rates for different styles are different. In styling we look about the garment shape (i.e. Short sleeve, long sleeve and front open). So, there are different prices for all the styles. The prices change based on fabric consumption and labor charges based on garment styling.
Polo Shirt (One Dozen) Rs. 24 Round and V-Neck (One Dozen) Rs. 15 to 60 Collar Opening (One Dozen) Rs. 5 to 6

EMBROIDERY: Imported thread and best quality embroidery rates ranges from Rs. 1.70 to 2.00 per thousand stitches. Local thread with inferior quality embroidery rates rages Rs. 1.30 to 1.55 per thousand stitches. These rates are quoted as on 14-09-2004. SEWING THREAD: Royal Korean Length, Cone 2200 yards Rs. 60/STITCHING RATE FOR ONE POLO SHIRT

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PREPARATION (SHORT SLEEVE ON HANGER SYSTEM)
Operation Fusing Cuff / Sleeve Half Moon Fusing Label Sewing Placket Marking Machine Type Threads Time in Seconds Iron / Pressing 36 Over Lock 3 36 Over Lock 3 18 Lock Stitch 2 72 Manual 20 Rates in Rs. 3.50 5.00 2.00 5.00 Salary

ASSEMBLING
Operation Loading Placket Katcha Half Moon Attach Shoulder Seam, Twill Tape Shoulder Top Stitch Collar Katcha, Twill Tape Hala Cutting Collar Pakka Placket Pakka Sleeve Attach Arm Hole Top Stitch Hemming Front Back Separately Side Seam Excluding Side Vent Side Vent Top Stitch + Twill Tape Cuff Bar tack Clipping Pressing Finishing Machine Type Manual Lock Stitch, Scissors Lock Stitch Over Lock Flat Lock Lock Stitch Over Lock Lock Stitch Lock Stitch Over Lock Flat Lock Flat Lock Over Lock Lock Stitch Lock Stitch Threads 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 5 2 3 4 2 2 Time in Seconds 32 54 54 36 18 96 18 54 115 54 36 36 72 180 36 Rates in Rs. Salary 7.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 10.50 3.00 8.00 18.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 8.00 21.00 4.00 8.00 per Doz. 8.00 per Doz. 4.00 per Doz.

ACCESSORIES: Accessories may be local or imported. Local accessories are cheaper then imported one’s but inferior in quality.
Accessories Tag Button Care Label in Paper Zipper YKK Length 5 Inches Sticker Transparent Hanger Packing Tape Tag Pin Poly Bag Individual Poly Bag Price in Rs. 0.50 to 2.50 10.00 to 1.50 0.50 to 0.60 12.00 to 13.00 per zip 0.50 to 0.60 3.00 to 4.00 30.00 100.00 to 150.00 One Packet for 1000 pins 40.00 to 50.00 & 80.00 to 100.00 Per One Kg. 1.00 to 1.50 for One Poly Bag.

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COST SHEET
STYLE: PATTERN: DESCRIPTION: S. N. DESCRIPTION 1 CLOTH ----59” 2 PKT LINNING 3 THREAD 4 ZIP 5 ELASTIC 6 SIZE/CARE LABEL 7 BUTTON 8 REVIT 9 WOVEN LABEL 10 PU LABEL 11 EMBROIDERY 12 TWILL TAPE 13 BUCKLE SUB TOTAL S. N. PACKING 1 BACK POCKET CARD 2 SWING TICKET 3 PRICE TICKET 4 RIDER CARD 5 LEG STICKER 6 CORD 7 POLY BAG 8 CARTON 9 TAPES 10 STICKERS SUB TOTAL S. N. WAGES / PAR PC 1 CUTTING 2 STITCHING 3 WASHING / DYEING 4 FIXED FOH SUB TOTAL Rejection 5% Profit 10% Sea freight C & F Sub total GRAND TOTAL FINAL CALCULATI ONS COST IN GBP @ SIZE RANGE: DATE: RATE

QUANTITY

AMOUNT

QUANTITY

RATE

AMOUNT

AMOUNT

2. CONSUMPTION CALCULATION
Consumption refers to the required use of fabrics and accessories to produce given garments. The consumption of fabrics and accessories differs from dress to dress and size to size, but the exact consumption figures mainly depend on the minute measurement of the concerned dress. So, readymade garments business largely depends on proper measurements. 2.1 ESTIMATING THREAD CONSUMPTION: It is important to know the amount of thread consumed in a sewn product so to Estimate the number of cones needed and calculate cost of the thread needed to manufacture the finished product. Thread consumption can be determined in several ways. To calculate the amount of thread in a seam, you can measure actual amount of thread consumed in a specific length of seam; calculate thread consumption by using mathematical stitch formulas, and calculate the thread consumption using thread consumption estimates.

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MEASURING ACTUAL THREAD CONSUMED: Specified seam, e.g. 3 inches, is measured on seam and then thread is removed by carefully unraveling stitch. Then calculate amount of thread consumed in 1 ”, multiply this factor time’s total length of seam measured. EXAMPLE      Length of seam is 42 inches or 1.17 yards. Stitch and seam construction: 401 SSa-1. Specified length of thread removed from a seam equals 3 inches. Needle thread removed = 9 inches Looper thread removed = 8 inches

CALCULATION         Needle thread factor=9÷3 = 3 inches of needle thread per inch of seam. Looper thread factor=8÷3 = 2.67 inches of looper thread per inch of seam. Total needle thread consumed = factor 3 X 1.17yards = 3.51 yards. Total looper thread consumed = factor 2.67 X 1.17yards = 3.12 yards Total Thread = 3.51 + 3.12 = 6.63 yards per seam. 15 -20% waste factor is added due to chaining-off, thread breaks, repairs, etc. If a waste factor of 15% is selected then: 6.63 yards/seam X 1.15 = 7.62 yards/seam including 15% waste factor.

THREAD CONSUMPTION FORMULAS: Union Special Machine Company published a "Thread Consumption Booklet" that consists of a number of thread consumption formulas for various stitch types based on stitch length and thickness of seam. These consumption factors can be multiplied times the length of the seam to estimate combined amount of top and bottom thread. On some over-edge and coverstitch types it is necessary to also know the seam width or needle spacing to properly calculate the amount of thread consumed. EXAMPLE:     Stitch and seam: 401 SSa-1 Stitches per inch: 8 Thickness of the seam: .075 inches (measured with a micrometer) Length of the seam: 42 inches or 1.17 yards. Union Special 401 Chain Stitch Chart Seam Thickness 8 SPI 0.055 4.88 0.060 4.96 0.065 5.04 0.070 5.12 0.075 5.20 CONSUMPTION BASED ON THE MATHEMATICAL EQUATION: C = 4 + 2ts; C = 4 + 2(.075 X 8) = 5.20. if t = seam thickness; s = stitches per inch 1.17 yards X 5.20 = 6.08 yards / seam. 6.08 yards/seam X 1.15 = 7.00 yards per seam including a 15% waste factor. 95

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As you can see from the Union Special chart, the more stitches per inch and the thickness of the seam impacts the amount of thread consumed. However, most heavy fabrics are sewn with fewer stitches per inch and most light fabrics are sewn with more stitches per inch. Therefore we have come up with estimates based on typical seam thickness and stitch length. EXAMPLE: Stitch & Seam – 401, SSa-1 and Length of seam – 42 inches or 1.17 yards Estimated Thread Consumption = 1.17 yards. X 5.0 (Ratio) = 5.85 yards / seam 5.85 yards/seam X 1.15 = 6.73 yards/seam including a 15% waste factor Estimated needle thread = 6.73 X 40% = 2.69 yards Estimated looper thread = 6.73 X 60% = 4.04 yards
STITCH TYPE 301 Lockstitch 401 Chain stitch CONSUMPTION RATIO 3.0 to 4.0 (1) 5.0 to 7.0 NEEDLE THREAD 50% Lt. Wt. 40% (2) M. Wt. 50% H. Wt. 60% 60% 25% BOTTOM THREAD 50% 60% 50% 40% 40% 75%

503 Over-edge 7.0 to 10.0 (2 thread) 12.0 to 16.0 504 Over-edge (3 thread) 515 Safety stitch 12.0 to 17.0 55% 45% (4 thread) 17.0 to 23.0 37% 63% 516 Safety stitch (5 thread) Use lower estimated thread consumption numbers for light-weight fabrics or long Stitch lengths. On the chain stitch construction, the amount of looper thread does not change unless the stitches per inch changes. On the other hand, the needle thread will change based on the thickness of the seam. Therefore, percentage of needle thread goes up when the fabric gets heavier. Lt. Wt. (light weight) is generally like shirts and blouses; M. Wt. (medium weight) is generally like slacks or chinos; and H. Wt. (heavy weight) is generally like denim applications.

AVERAGE THREAD CONSUMPTION BY GARMENT: Following is a list of sewn products and thread consumed totals based on thread consumptions. These figures include a 25% waste factor based on a garment construction. ESTIMATING THREAD COST: The thread cost can be estimated by multiplying the thread consumed times the cost of thread in the same unitss. For example: Men’s Dress Shirt thread consumption with 25% waste factor = 131 yards. Average Cost of T-24 Poly Wrapped Core Thread = $4.50 / 6000 yard cone. Cost per yard = $4.50 ¸ 6000 = $.00075/yard Calculation: 131 yards./shirt X $.00075/yard = $.09825/shirt
Product Sewn Men’s Slack Jean Jean Short Yards/Garment Product Sewn Boy’s 225 Jeans 200 Pants 160 Jacket Yards/Garment 168 183 175

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Work Pants Suit Coat Dress Shirt – long sleeve Work Shirt Knit Polo Shirt Fleece Sweat Shirt Tee Shirt Tank Top Knit Brief Women’s Lined Coat Blazer Dress Skirt Blouse Pants Jeans Shorts Robe Night Gown Panties Bra

238 175 131 115 130 280 63 58 68 246 153 141 192 122 162 250 151 300 135 62 63

Dress Shirt Knit Shirt Baseball Cap

101 83 44

Girl’s Blouse Dress Swim Suit

73 118 65

APPROXIMATE CONSUMPTION ON MACHINES PER INCH STITCHING 1. Plane Machine 2. Over Lock three thread machine 3. Over Lock four thread machine 4. Over Lock five thread machine 5. Kansai Special machine (four Needle) 6. Two Needle machine 7. Back Tape machine 8. Flat Lock machine 9. Zigzag machine 10. Bar Tack machine ¼” 11. Button Hole 3/8” 12. Button Hole 1/2” 13. Button Hole 5/8” 14. Button Stitch 1 Eye Button 15. Button Stitch 2 Eye Button 16. Button Stitch 4 Eye Button = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 2½“ 12” 15” 18” 17” 5” 7” 17” 3” 2” 6” 8” 10” 2” 3” 5”

3. ESTIMATING FABRIC CONSUMPTION
3.1 FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF A SHIRT GIVEN SPECIFICATIONS Body Length: Yoke Length: Sleeve Length: Cuff Length: Collar Length: Band Length: 32” 23” 25” 10.5 ” 19” 18” 27” 5” 24” 2.5” 2” 1.5”

Body Width: Yoke Width: Sleeve Width: Cuff Width: Collar Width: Band Width:

97

5 X 1.5” = = = = = = = = = Pocket Length: Pocket Width: Placket Width: 7” 5” 1” 1728 115 1200 53 76 54 87 35 22 3.21 yards.59 ÷ 36 2.5% wastage . LAHORE Box Plate + Button Plate Length: Box Plate + Button Plate Length: Placket Length: CALCULATIONS Body Yoke Sleeve Cuff Collar Band Box Plate + Button Plate Pocket Placket 29” 3” 5.5) X 2 (19 x 2) x 2 (18 X 1. IN METERS = 76.5 x 1) x 4 TOTAL: = = = = = = = = = = Consumption of shirt body: (Length x Width x 2) ÷ Fabric Width ÷ 36 + Wastage Consumption of shirt sleeve: (Length x Width x 2) ÷ Fabric Width ÷ 36 + Wastage Others: As per the above formula but the basis will be number of required parts. 3.5” 1.95 meters + 4.37 = 1.5) x 2 13” 1.5) x 2 (29 x 3) (7 x 5) (5.12 + 0.12 yards + 4.68 1.07 = = 1.5” 7.95 + 0.59 ÷ 39.370 (32 X 27) X 2 (23 X 5) (25 X 24) X 2 (10.5% wastage 2.5” Body Width: Waist Belt Width: Zipper Box Width: Inner Pocket Width: Back Pocket Width: Zipper Fly Width: = = = = = = = = = = = = 2080 53 11 09 85 23 TOTAL: = 2.5) x 2 (7.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5” 3” 6.5) (7.68 ÷ 36 = = 98 37.5 X 6.5” 3” 6.5) (3 X 3) (6. = = 2261 ÷ 60 37.02 meters.5% wastage 2.59 2.262 Consumption of Pant body: (Length x Width x 4) ÷ Fabric Width ÷ 36 + Wastage Others: As per the above formula but the basis will be number of required parts.5” (40 X 13) X 4 (35 X 1.2 FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF A PANT GIVEN SPECIFICATIONS Body Length: Waist Belt Length: Zipper Box Length: Inner Pocket Length: Back Pocket Length: Zipper Fly Length: CALCULATIONS Body Waist Belt Zipper Box Inner Pocket Back Pocket Zipper Fly 40” 35” 7.5 X 2.5 X 1.5” 1. IN YARDS = = = 3370 ÷ 44 76.09 = = = 76.05 yards + 4.

10 yards. Rib Length: 54 cm. per dozen + 12% wastage 3.02 K. Sleeve Width: 58 cm. per dozen. Sleeve Length: 25 cm.5% wastage 1.5) X 2 = 270 X 250 X 12 = 810000 ÷ 10000000 = 0.25 = 8.G = As 1 K.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.312 = 19312 X 300 x 12 = 69523200 = 69523200 ÷ 1.000 + Wastage + Rib FABRIC = 11.04 = = = 1.G = 2. Body = (78 X 54) X 2 = Sleeve = (22 X 54) X 2 = Pocket = (16 X 13) = 8424 2376 208 TOTAL: = 11.70 + 0.G.05 + 0.96 + 0. CALCULATIONS (T-SHIRT K.5 FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF A POLO SHIRT GIVEN SPECIFICATIONS Body Length: 78 cm Body Width: 54 cm Sleeve Length: 22 cm Sleeve Width: 54 cm Pocket Length: 16 cm Pocket Width: 13 cm Collar Length: 52 cm Collar Width: 08 cm Rib Cuff Length: 40 cm Rib Cuff Width: 03 cm CALCULATIONS: MEASUREMENTS IN CM.96 meters + 4. LAHORE Or = = = 1.20 X 2. Body = (80 X 68) X 2 = 10880 Sleeve = (62 X 68) X 2 = 8432 = 19. Rib Width: 2.09 K.G. 00. 00.008 99 .24 = 18.081 + 0.G.68 ÷ 39.09 K.4 FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF A SWEATER GIVEN SPECIFICATIONS Body Length: 80 cm Body Width: Sleeve Length: 62 cm Sleeve Width: (Length x Width) X GSM X 12 ÷ 1.252 X 200 X 12 = 27004800 ÷ 10000000 = 2. 0.37 0. 00.000 = 6.95232 K. = 3.009 = = = = = = = 27004800 2.37 Lbs 3.95 + 1.70 K.0 meter. 3.000 + Wastage + Rib 68 cm 68 cm MEASUREMENTS IN CM.252 Consumption = (Length x Width) X GSM X 12 ÷ 1.3 FABRIC CONSUMPTION OF A T-SHIRT Given Specifications: Body Length: 72 cm.20 K.G per dozen + 18% wastage = 6.05 37. PER DOZEN.081 + 12% wastage 0.32 = (54 X 2.G 3.G + 0. 00.02 K.G per dozen RIB RIB + FABRIC = 3.5 cm.) Body = (72 X 58) X 2 = 8352 Sleeve = (25 X 58) X 2 = 2900 TOTAL: = 11.24 Lbs = 8.G per dozen.11 K. 00. 270 810000 0. 00. Body Width: 58 cm.

G per dozen.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. PRICING. development. per dozen+ 12% 0. Better. Cost estimating provides the basis for pricing. per dozen.G + 0. RIB COLLAR = = = = (52 X 3) 416 X 280 X 12 1397760 ÷ 10000000 0. allowances. and Designer.G per dozen 3. There are two types of pricing strategies.14 K.25 K. RIB COLLAR: TOTAL: 0. The list price is the suggested retail price identified in a manufacturer’s catalogs and price sheets.09 K. The list price is often an estimate of the value of the product to the ultimate consumer. BUDGETING AND SCHEDULING 4.G. profit and subsequent price reductions.16 K. apparel manufacturers identify what general price range of merchandise they will produce. When setting prices. it is desirable to establish a markup that is sufficient to cover variable and non-variable costs.G. Under most pricing strategies.08 K.02 = = = = 416 1397760 0. Over the long run. a firm must sell its products at prices that will cover costs and provide a profit.G.0096 kg.G.G. managers take into account the firm’s goals and strategic plan.G.90 K. status pricing. per dozen + 12% wastage = 2.25 K.G per dozen + 12% 0. 00.000 + Wastage + Collar + Cuff = 11. Determining an appropriate pricing strategy requires careful evaluation of market including positioning of competitors and product demand. 00. 100 .008 X 220 X 12 = 29061120 = 29061120 ÷ 10000000 = 2. The differences between list prices and wholesale prices are discounts and allowances. LAHORE = (Length x Width) X GSM X 12 ÷ 1. or profitability. Moderate. cost plus pricing and return on investment pricing. e. Discounts and allowances are reductions from list price that are granted by a manufacturer to a firm that performs some marketing or distribution function.g. Demand – Based pricing strategy involve prices based on costs.g. but many other factors such as discounts. 0. pricing strategies may be designed to impact a particular phase of the firm’s growth. wastage RIB CUFF = Wastage = FABRIC: RIB CUFF: = (40 X 3) X 2 = 240 = 240 X 280 x 12 = 806400 806400 ÷ 1. As a part of defining their business. = 0.35 = 3.1 PRICING STRATEGIES: The prices on a manufacturer’s product must first cover costs and then meet the profit and volume goals of the firm.50 K. market penetration pricing and market pricing. per dozen 4.G. per dozen 3. 0000000 = 0.90 + 0.16 K.08 K. and pricing strategies must be considered before establishing the list price and the wholesale price. Firms position themselves within the general price range in order to appeal to their target customer and respond to the competition in market. per dozen. In short run. Most whole sale price structures are based on list prices. Cost – Based pricing strategy involve determining manufacturing costs and adding some amount of markup to determine wholesale price. e. The general price ranges in apparel markets include Low-End.14 + 0. per dozen.09 K. Budget. The first step in setting prices is having an accurate knowledge of costs.

High – Value Strategy 5. 20/- 101 .2 MARKUP PRICING: The most elementary pricing method is to add standard markup to product’s cost. Good – Value Strategy 9. Fixed cost Rs. This is equivalent of cost markup 100%. Overcharging Strategy 7. 3. Strategy 3 says the same thing and offers an even greater saving. Rip – Off Strategy Price Medium 2. Suppose a garment has costs and sales expectations as. 3. Medium – Value Strategy 8. The customers will feel “taken” and will probably complain or spread bad word of mouth about the company. Expected unit sales Rs. 4.000 ÷ 50.2) = Rs. False Economy Strategy Low 3. 1 million in the business and wants to set prices to earn a 20% ROI. High High Product Quality Medium Low 1. Premium Strategy 4. LAHORE The company must decide where to position its product on quality and price. If quality – sensitive customers believe these competitors.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.quality strategies. 00. 4/. those who insist on price. and those who balance the two considerations.000 Rs. Then the manufacturer’s markup price is given by: Markup = Unit Cost ÷ (1. “Our product has the same high quality as product 1 but we charge less”. they will sensibly buy from them and save money (unless firm 1’s product has acquired snob appeal). 2. Target return price Target return price = = Unit cost + desired return X invested capital ÷ unit sales Rs. they will markup garment to Rs. Variable cost Rs. 16 + 0. and 6 are ways to attack the diagonal positions.000. Strategy 2 says. Economy Strategy Strategies 2. The buyers in turn will markup the garment.000 Unit Cost = Variable Cost + Fixed Costs ÷ Unit sales Unit Cost = 10 + 3. The following figure shows nine price. 4. which need to make a fair return on their investment. 20/The manufacturer would charge the buyer Rs. Super – Value Strategy 6. Suppose the garment manufacturer has invested Rs. There can be competition between prices – quality segments. Target pricing method is also used by public utilities.3 TARGET – RETURN PRICING: In target – return pricing. and still another offers a low – quality product at a low price. If the buyer want to earn 50% on their selling price. All three competitors can co-exit as long as market consists of three groups of buyers: those who insist on quality. Positioning strategies 4.000.desired return on sales) Markup = 16 ÷ (1-0. specifically Rs.per unit.000 = Rs 16/Now assume the manufacturer wants to earn a 20% markup on sales. and 9 can all co-exist in the same market. another offers an average – quality product at an average price. the company determines the price that would yield its target rate of return on investment (ROI). 00. 50. 40/-. The diagonal strategies: 1.000 ÷ 50. 7 and 8 amount to overpricing the product in relation to its quality.per garment and make a profit of Rs. 5. 20/.10/-. that is.000.02 X 1. 00. one firm offers a high – quality product at a high price.

we must note measurements. pricing an unstitched garment and pricing a stitched garment. in which case it earns Rs. and division for selling season and or year. In addition to all these costs. Variable costs. All of a firm’s divisions supply data needed for formulating budgets. rise with the volume. The manufacturer needs to consider different prices and estimate their probable impacts on sales volumes and profits. following management actions can be taken: 1. target return pricing tends to ignore these considerations. The manufacturer’ of course’ is hoping that the market will buy 50.000 units. 2.000/. 5.000 regardless of sales volume. and revenue to be earned. Budgets specify the expected money investment. They are based on sales goals. Comparisons of actual sales and costs to budgets determine the level of success related to execution of the business plan. line. The total revenue and total cost curves cross at 30. Total costs equal the sum of fixed costs and variable costs. Unfortunately. LAHORE The Manufacturer will realize this 20% ROI provided its costs and estimated sales turn out to be accurate. total weight of the garment (consumption). because lower costs will decrease its required break even volume. and profit objectives.4 GARMENT COSTING PARAMETERS: To price a garment there are two procedures. cut weight (GSM). 20. 00. The manufacturer should also search for ways to lower its fixed and variable costs.000 units at Rs. In order to calculate the price of a garment. 102 .00. BUDGETS: Budgets are comprehensive financial plans that establish the allocation of resources for achieving the financial and operational goals of a firm.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Plan Shipping volumes and deadlines.000 units? The manufacturer can prepare a break-even chart to learn what would happen at other sales levels. But much depends on price elasticity and competitors prices. Involving everyone in budget preparation helps ensure support for the goals reflected. all the incurred processing costs and sometimes the quota costs too. The following figure shows the breakeven point.on its Rs. 2. Prepare sales goals. the required finished weight. not shown in the figures. Based on resource allocations reflected in budget. A budget is prepared for each product. Break Even Chat 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Sales Volume in Units (Thousa nds) R u p e e s in T h o us a n d s Total Revenue Total Cost Fixed Cost 4. cost containment goals. Total revenue curve starts at zero and rises with each unit sold. number of units to be produced and or sold. 3. This is the breakeven volume. But what if sales do not reach 50. 25% to 30% wastage is included and profit margin as per your requirement is added to the final price of the garment. 1 million investment. The fixed costs are Rs.

Project timing and money value of accounts receivable.2 TIME AND ACTION CALENDAR PLANNING AND EXECUTING The latest business concept is: “If You Can Plan It. bulk lots and accessories submission time. 11. and administrative costs. 6. Once an order is confirmed / placed. In preparing master schedule. master schedule establishes a relationship between customer’s orders and sales estimates considering the plant capacity and other factors affecting production. Thus it decides the route that work shall follow and the sequence of operations and describes man. Reason behind it is that there may be several ways in which various operations as described in the production order may be executed to get final product and naturally. PRODUCTION ROUTING AND SCHEDULING: Production Order provides information’s about productions operations involved in production process and arranges that information in a systematic manner to carry out the production planning activities of an organization. 5. Time & Action should be detailed and realistic. it will be accepted. several other factors like capital tie-up in completing the product or even loading of capacity must also be considered. knit down. when. You Can Do It” Planning is the key tool to expedite an order. so a solid and realistic planning is required from factory. Shipping. Project timing and money value of capital expenditure. 6. 6. The best way of production strategy is planning through routing and scheduling. Thus production routing and scheduling is the final stage in production planning. Schedule piece goods deliveries to coordinate with the production schedules. one may prefer the way which makes maximum utilization of man. It plans where and by whom each production operation is to be executed. 103 . 4. This is called routing. Further it fixes time taken by each operation and establishes time at which each operation will be complete. Factory should put its best efforts to proceed as per advised Time & Action. 8.1 MASTER SCHEDULE: It is one of the basic tools of production order. Apart from these two most important factors. It is also known as main schedule. next problem comes to decide when and where each operation is to be done. factory will need to advise the Time & Action calendar to buyer. It is a prerequisite for the effective application of production control techniques. how many styles will be produced. Project Sales. stress is laid upon completion of work by due date and allowing sufficient time for the completion of each division of the product. 6. 9. material and machine required to complete the task effectively. Evaluate cash flow.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Time & Action calendar shows / guides the time of each activity like samples. The master schedule shows the production requirements against the plant capacity. Project timing and money value of accounts payable. He will review and if it seems workable. Determine Inventory levels for materials. This covers production activities through yarn procurement to garment packing / final audit. otherwise will be discussed with factory to make it workable. 7. The information about this is collected by the planning department after studying the customer’s orders and sales estimates. As soon as the production order is formulated. LAHORE 3. 10. In this way. Project Costs of Production. Master schedule helps completion of various projects in time. Make sourcing decisions of where. machine and material and minimizes wastage and cost of production. Master schedule is in fact a time table which shows when work on each major part of the product must be started and finished if the whole contract is to be completed by the required delivery or completion date.

The progress of the work may be shown by a bar or a line within the uprights of the activity symbol and its length should represent the amount of work completed. Gantt charts have one disadvantage for which they are found to be unsuitable. The work tasks can be represented on the chart by numbers or symbols. such critical activities should be taken up first. The symbols used on the chart may vary from company to company. 6. CPM techniques can be used effectively in the production planning. This is of vital importance that production status should be according to initial Time & Action advised by the factory. This can also be defined as the sequence of activities which will require greatest normal time to accomplish. Horizontal lines divide the chart into sections which can represent various work tasks (work schedule) or work centers (load schedule). hours. weeks. It is called at critical path because any delay in performing the activities on this path may cause delay in the whole project. or operations to be completed. the time in the chart should flow from left to right and activities be listed from top to bottom. factory is required to prepare and send production status of each order to customer. 104 . it should officially be bring into customer’s notice. months. In the chart. So. Generally. It consists of a simple rectangular grid. orders. The units scheduled or loaded on these charts are always the same because these work tasks are known as having a known standard time. He will review the situation with the buyer and then will advise (whether extension request is accepted or rejected) factory for further proceedings. factory will need to up date customer so that the changes and new dates could be discussed / reviewed with buyer well before time.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. When it shows the same task opposite the work centers at which they are produced – factories. it is known as work schedule. Vertical lines always divide horizontal scales into units of time. CPM is used for scheduling special projects where the relationship between the different parts of projects is more complicated than that of a simple chain of task to be completed one after the other. A CPM is a route between two or more operations which minimizes (or maximizes) some measures of performance. If the factory foresees that a purchase order (PO) might be delayed due to some internal or external factors. This method CPM can be used at one extreme for the very simple job and at other extreme for the most complicated tasks. The problem is overcome by this method of CPM. Factory is required to keep the buyer’s priorities in mind and all agreed ship dates should be met accordingly. Major change in production process should be high lightened / specified in the weekly production status report to make it noticeable. departments. the time which an activity should take in completing the task is represented by the horizontal line. divided by series of parallel horizontal and ventricular lines. The length of the line is drawn in proportion to the duration of time. Whenever there is any change expected or occurred in production activities for any order. minutes or seconds according to the work. workshops. machine tools or men it is known as load chart.4 CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM): The Critical Path method analysis is an important tool in production planning and scheduling. LAHORE Based on the initial Time & Action calendar submitted for production activities. The problem with Gantt chart is that the sequence of operations of a project or the earliest possible date for the completion of the project as a whole cannot be ascertained.3 GANTT CHART: It is the principal tool used in scheduling. Time units can be in years. 6. days. It means that the sequences of activities which require longest duration are singled out. The customer will keep follow up and factory’s submitted production status will be reviewed critically. When it shows only work tasks-products.

rivets and zips are usually imported or CSP. less expensive or less appropriate support materials may be used to reduce costs. For new orders. and customer supplied products (CSP). and / or enclose garment interiors. or cleaning when the original shape or appearance of garment cannot be recovered. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT: The procurement of support material and accessories to be used in the factory. Because of the constant change in styles. support materials are sometimes omitted even though may improve performance of finished garments. reinforce points of stress. nylon pullers. structure. In time procurement of these accessories is the top priority of the department so that the production process is not disturbed or hindered. the process of purchasing and getting the accessories in house is started. LAHORE MATERIALS MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 1. adhesive. Before wash trims include threads. tags. reasonable price and within acceptable time is chosen. stickers. elasticized bands and dori. performance capabilities. 105 . and collar stays. These accessories are attachment on a Trim Sheet and send for customer approval. and guesswork. increase retention of original appearance during wear and care. Inadequate and inappropriate support materials become apparent after a period of display. technical information. Most important among these materials are the before and after wash accessories to be attached to the garments. SUPPORT MATERIALS: Support materials may provide foundations for shape. and costs.1 PURPOSES OF SUPPORT MATERIALS: Support materials are important to the intrinsic quality of garments but are often invisible in finished products. Materials should be selected to serve specific functions. product testing. but not all garments require support materials. care labels. poly bags. and materials. except fabric. Support materials contribute to the aesthetics and / or performance of garment components. Velcro. it is sometimes difficult for the garment manufacturer to know best options for every style. Decisions made during product development determine how the designed shape of the garment will be supported and / or enclosed. linings. TYPES OF ACCESSORIES: The accessories are procured from various sources which include local suppliers. Several different types of support materials may be used in one garment. inquires are sent for samples to various suppliers and the one who supplies the accessory with the best quality. Support materials must be compatible with shell fabrics and other materials in garment if acceptable appearance and appropriate performance are to be maintained over extended periods of use and care 3. ball and chain. All trims are categorized as either before wash or after wash. shell fabrics. 3. Buttons. is the responsibility of MMC. 2. application methods. in such cases. rivets. fabric tapes.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. tapes. and other materials. zips. Support materials may offer stability. and appearance of garments. As soon as an order is confirmed. labels. Then the after wash accessories include buttons. and metal eyelet. Manufacturers determine the needs for support materials in particular styles through prototype development. They include interlinings. and stoppers. wear. shoulder pads. For repeat order. Support materials have a wide range of physical dimensions. As a cost-cutting alternative. the accessories which were attached to the previous order are checked by referring to the Customer Wise Trim Sheet with Rates and the supplier is asked to provide them. sleeve headers. brass buckles. piece goods. international suppliers.

and resiliency of the shell fabric. Proper selection. Some collars and lapels need a soft but not limp hand that will create a gentle smooth roll. and other support materials. performance. 3. components. Also called interfacings. Problems occur because of poor selection of materials. other firms may allow tolerances for shrinkage if both shrinks same amount. Producers of support materials often operate own testing laboratories to develop technical data and to test the performance of garment prototypes. 3. Hundreds of different interlinings are readily available from suppliers that specialize in support fabrics. Aesthetic standards are often subjective and vary with each firm. application. Hand refers to the drape. Interlinings are available in a variety of different hands and must be analyzed with the shell fabric when determining the best combination. For the purposes support materials are classified in interlinings. They may provide shape. Interlinings that enhance hand of shell fabric and create desired aesthetic characteristics for component may be preferred. A fine or stiff hand may be provided by fiber structure. One firm's interpretation of a soft silhouette may be interpreted as limp by another firm's standards. Interlinings that are too stiff cause rolled edges to break and buckle. and lack of quality control or testing procedures. Tailored shirt collars need a stiffer interlining then soft rolled collars. hand. reinforcement. Stiffness is important to those garments. Interlinings help form and maintain the hand. or care may be more critical. 106 . only more commonly used support materials and the major factors affecting their performance will be focused. LAHORE Decisions as to the type of support materials that will provide the desired performance are based on material specifications and product test results provided by suppliers. improper methods of assembly and equipment that does not perform correctly.3 FUNCTIONS OF INTERLININGS: Interlinings serve two major functions: (1) to produce and retain the desired aesthetic appearance and (2) to improve garment performance. Interlinings must be compatible with piece goods and other materials used in the style. In other instances performance during sewing operations. and use of support materials influence the aesthetics. support. interlinings are the most extensively used support material in ready-to-wear and are important factors in garment quality. It is based on the firm's standards for aesthetics. stabilization. quality. durability. particularly by the home sewing industry. Based on this information. Selecting most appropriate interlining is not a simple task. and costs. and improved performance for garments. linings. performance. Dissatisfied customers are often lost customers. Cost of returns that can be attributed to faulty support materials or improper applications is a cost often greater than the cost of the defective product. stiffness. suppliers of support materials may make recommendations for specific uses. or softness of materials used in a garment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. An interlining may be stiff but lightweight without a lot of bulk. and cost of finished garments. sizing. wear. or fabrics that require a lot of support but little bulk. stability. but interlinings with special characteristics can also be engineered to meet needs of a product or manufacturer. Defects attributed to support materials are seldom isolated cases are likely to relate to entire production runs. Aesthetics: Appropriately chosen interlinings provide the foundation for the shape and hand of garments and the stability to maintain the same appearance through use and care. coating and / or resins.2 INTERLININGS: Interlinings are materials that are fused or sewn to specific areas on the inside of garments or garment components. Although it is not possible to cover all the variables. A firm with high-quality standards may determine shrinkage of either interlining or shell fabric is unacceptable.

Differential Shrinkage: occurs when garment. or different materials shrink unequal amounts. The main contribution of cotton and rayon is softness and hand. producing a lightweight material with little bulk. and knits to contribute strength.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERLININGS: Factors that contribute to the aesthetics and performance of interlinings are material (fiber) content. Shrinkage may be attributed to moisture and / or heat. wovens. If either material shrinks more than the other. Mass market merchandise. Shrinkage control is critical to performance of the interlining and satisfaction with the finished garment. hand. and so on. often has a stiffer. To improve performance in end use. clean look. and. Performance: Two performance aspects of interlining may be considered: performance during production and performance in end use. buttons. weight. and resiliency without adding bulk and weight Monofilament nylon fiber may be used for stiffness and resiliency. stability. it will cause puckering and buckling of the garment component. necklines. Interlinings can increase drag during stitching which cause uneven feed of fabric layers. buttonholes. More expensive garments may require a softer hand and different hanger appeal. LAHORE Different interlinings are used for mass market merchandise than for more expensive garments produced for the better specialty markets. unless properly tested. weight. 3. Polyester and nylon fibers are often used in fiber webs. improve resiliency. fabrication. Wool and hair fibers may be used in hair canvas to provide resiliency and compatibility with wool piece goods. interlinings may be used in small areas to reinforce points of stress and weakness and in larger areas for stability and shape retention.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. more resilient type of interlining to provide hanger appeal and to prevent a limp appearance when displayed on the retail flour. Hair canvas is widely used in better tailored suits and coats because of its 107 . Both interlining and shell fabric should be tested to determine the shrinkage potential. which may be warehoused for extended periods. Interlinings are used in large areas to provide body. Whole fronts of jackets or coats are frequently interlined to provide a smooth. Interlinings may be used to reduce raveling and provide stability for the sewing process. may not be apparent until final pressing or garment renovation by consumers. Materials to be used together should be tested together. They are frequently used under embroidery to stabilize fabrics during stitching. Differential shrinkage of interlinings and shell fabrics can be a major cause of second-quality goods or customer dissatisfaction and returns. and method of application and produce specific performance characteristics of particular interlinings. welt pockets. and increase durability of many low-count and lightweight fabrics. This type of interlining is often used in waistbands of skirts and slacks. Interlinings may he used for reinforcement and extended durability of yokes. and resiliency of interlining. Fibers may be blended to incorporate the best properties of each. Satisfactory performance is dependent on similar shrinkage of interlinings and designated shell fabrics. Manufacturers may select certain types of interlinings to facilitate handling and improve the sewability of fabrics and garment parts. Fiber Content: Fiber content contributes to the strength.

Randomly arranged fibers allow some stretch in any direction. Woven interlinings may be. Unless used as true bias for greater flexibility or as straight grain to stabilize a bias component. Over time. like grains of the shell and interlining. and fiber orientation in web. less structured look in men's and women's clothing. which is a benefit during sewing operations. woven interlining should be cut on the same grain as the garment component for satisfactory performance. and ease of engineering specific characteristics into the interlining. but they may provide a softer hand. knits. Fiber web interlinings are most often found in washable garments. pilling of interlining alters the hand of garment components and affects garment appearance. Because fashion trend in recent years has been to a softer. wovens. However. Fiber webs are widely used fabrication for interlining due to low cost. produced from almost any type of fiber. except when horizontal buttonholes are used. Fiber webs are frequently made from lightweight. When. Fiber webs may have fibers randomly distributed or oriented in the lengthwise direction. strong synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester. they show through. All-bias fiber webs may be cut more economically but do not provide stability in areas of stress. and foam laminates. Fabrication: Interlinings are available in four basic fabrications: fiber webs. versatility. which makes it difficult for consumers to relate interlining performance to fiber content since the information is often unavailable. and when used with light-colored fabric. such as buttonholes or waistbands. fabric weight. are not used 108 . . The high strength and resiliency of these fibers are utilized in producing lightweight interlinings of varying hand and performance. This type of fiber web may be called allbias. This fabrication is usually the most expensive and subject to raveling and shrinkage.4 to 1. horizontal buttonholes on a knit fabric will stretch out and not recover. LAHORE resiliency and shape retention. Fiber webs may have less strength but do not ravel in handling. Heavier interlinings provide more support for heavier more structured garments such as coats and suits. Pilling is a problem often associated with the use of fiber webs since fiber webs tend to have low abrasion resistance. Lighter weight interlinings offer resiliency and more support. Length wise orientation of fibers in fiber webs provides lengthwise stability and crosswise stretch. The performance of interlinings made of fiber webs is closely linked to fiber content. lighter-weight interlinings may provide less support. Weight: Interlinings are available in a wide range of weights from 0. Lengthwise-oriented webs may provide appropriate stability for knit garments. High-bulk or high-loft interlinings are also produced as fiber webs. Abrasion from the garment itself may cause pills to form and continue to enlarge with use. which may decrease stability and resiliency of garments. Special consideration should be given to grain alignment in cutting and placement in a garment when using lengthwiseoriented webs. which means it does not have a specific grain orientation. Identification of the fiber content of garment interlinings is not required by law.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. If not stabilized. many newer interlinings are lighter weight. Pills tend to collect lint.0 Ounces per square yard.

Interlining is attached or inserted in a seam as component is assembled. The earlier the interlining is attached in the assembly process. which also provides insulation. 3. causing seam pucker and twisting.5 INTERLINING APPLICATIONS: There are three basic means of applying interlinings: sew-in. and lamination. stability and control in the length. fusing. and tends to have fewer performance problems than fusibles if properly applied. the more structured the garment.g. Sewins requires proper placement and accurate grain alignment. 2. An example of this would be interlining placed at center front of a shirt but held in place only with buttons and buttonholes. This type of knit interlining is commonly used with wool and wool-blend fabrics because of their loft. this is a separate operation that may be automated. low bulk. They require extra handling and manipulation during sewing process. Weft insertion raschels knits are used primarily as a fusible interlining with adhesive applied to one surface. which generally adds to the cost of the garment and need for more skilled operators. and warmth. The performance of the interlining can alter the performance of the shell fabric. and smooth hand. and resiliency. the stretching. or secured only by tacking or minimal stitching in the center. Sew-in interlinings may be attached at different stages during construction of components: 1. durability. sewins is more flexible. e. The weft insertion structure provides resiliency in the width. soft hand. less boardy. the more secure it is likely to be. Foam substrates may be laminated to shell fabrics or linings to improve body and increase stiffness. may be used as interlining on budget and moderate-priced cloth coats. Woven interlining used in collars and front shirt bands may be cut on the bias to provide good flexibility and shaping as the collar rolls and bends. They are used for strength in relation to weight. and poor drapeability of garment pieces can result. Method of interlining application causes modifications in garment assembly process.g. and weft insertion raschels. the 109 . LAHORE together. Foam. Knit interlinings allow more tolerance for grain variation without effecting performance than woven interlinings. During use. flexibility. Interlining may be sewn to a component part before construction of the component. The tricots and raschels used for interlining purposes are produced in varied weights with high stability and little or no stretch. The more secure the interlining. distortion.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Sew-in interlinings may be completely secured along all edges. and good drapeability with a soft hand. 3. interlining may be inserted as pocket hem and is turned and stitched. They are also used with knit fabrics because of flexibility. e. partially secured with stitching along one edge. A third option is inserting the interlining after the component is nearly completed. interlining may be sewn to collar hands and outer cuffs before the component is assembled. raschels. They may stretch or distort as sewn. Sew-In Interlinings: Sew-in interlinings are sewn directly to the garment or garment component. Knit fabrics used for interlinings are primarily warp knit tricots.

reduce labor and improve quality. and time needed for application of heat and pressure. The time required for fusing is called dwell time. Microprocessor control units used in newer machines improve consistency of fusing process. Fused garment parts have more body. LAHORE better its performance. For flat-bed presses and continuous presses. Shuttle trays are placed in fusing machine or paper trays put on a conveyer to be carried to and through continuous press machines. Lack of consistency in fusing conditions (heat. garment pieces that are to be interlined are individually placed facedown on a tray or carrier. the less distortion there is likely to be during additional sewing processes or during care of the garment. and pressure) causes problems for manufacturers and consumers. to allow the resin to set. Most equipment used for fusing differs from the equipment used for garment pressing and finishing. knits. if application has been done correctly. the greater the risk that differential shrinkage will distort garment appearance. Fused garment pieces are stacked and bundled for additional assembly.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Irons have limited use in fusing interlinings. They may be used for application of small pieces of fusible interlining to reinforce points of stress. time. and easy to sewing. (2) flat-bed presses. and temperature. Types of equipment used to fuse interlinings include (1) roller presses. Roller presses are sometimes used for small parts with better productivity and more consistency in heat. and fusible interlining pieces (which are cut slightly smaller) are accurately placed on the pieces with resin side against the back of fabric. The precision of the fusing process depends on three elements: heat that softens the resins. (3) continuous pressing machines. do not ravel. The cooling time is necessary. The fusing process usually requires that garment pieces be individually matched with interlining pieces and fused together. Main problem with iron fusing is inconsistency of pressure. dwell time. 110 . and pressure than irons. pressure that spreads the resin and forces it onto the fabric surfaces. Continuous press machines have high productivity and controlled pressure and temperature. Fusing may require more direct labor initially. Major requirement for successful fusing is setting pressing equipment to desired conditions and maintaining those conditions. Fusible interlinings make certain fabrics easier to handle. Fusible interlinings must be fused to shell fabric prior to the construction of components. The more securely interlining is attached. but they are costly to purchase and operate. The more sewing that is done to secure the interlining. Fusible Interlinings: Fusible interlinings are fabrications coated with some form of resin or adhesive that serves as a bonding agent to hold the interlining to the shell fabric. or fiber webs. Roller presses are occasionally used for fusing interlining to piece goods prior to cutting. and the higher the quality level. Most equipment used for fusing has complex controls for altering and monitoring fusing conditions. but it reduces handling and irregularities. Substrates may be wovens. Fusing is the process of bonding fabric layers by application of heat and pressure for a specific amount of time. time. and (4) irons.

The shell fabric may appear to be bubbled. handling. BUBBLING: is a condition that results in the face fabric or interlining becoming puckered from delamination. but lack of appropriate interlining may decrease its appeal and performance and make it less desirable. and the application of excessive heat and / or pressure. STRIKE BACK: is the penetration of resin through the interlining substrate. Delamination may be the result of under fusing. Strike back is the cause of many other problems of fusible interlining such as color change. This can be the result of over fusing. used in the fusing process. differential shrinkage. uneven temperatures or pressure. and quality control must be figured into the total cost of the garment. not enough cooling time. a stiff hand is produced. Resin. which prevents an effective bond between the two materials. 4. differential shrinkage. or incompatibility of resin and the shell fabric. Performance from the manufacturer's perspective examines the total cost of each alternative compared with the functions it serves. It may be caused by too much pressure. equipment. bulkier. poor strength.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. BOARDINESS: is another problem related to the adhesives used on fusible interlining and inappropriate selection. becomes embedded in the interlining substrate instead of the shell fabric. or cause puckered surfaces of shell fabric. Certain types of dyes may change color with the application of high temperature. more absorbent ones. What matters is whether the interlining provides the characteristics for which the consumer is willing to pay. Often interlinings with similar performance characteristics are available at different price points. Consumers want flexibility and stability but not rigidity and bulk. The increased costs of materials. bubbling. There is no question that the use of interlining increases the cost of producing a garment. If resins liquefy and run together. nonabsorbent fabrics than with heavier. With proper testing the amount of potential shrinkage of the shell fabric and interlining can be determined and adjustments made. Boardiness can also be caused by incompatibility of the shell fabric and interlining. to form a resin coating. 6. quality. over fusing. or too long a fusing time. 3. LAHORE 1. DELAMINATION: is the loss of bond between the interlining and the shell fabric. Interlinings are available in a wide range of prices. instead of being retained in a sintered or dotted manner. the aesthetics. 3. STRIKE THROUGH: is the penetration of resin through to face of the shell fabric.6 COSTS OF INTERLININGS: When evaluating the costs of using interlinings in garments. DIFFERENTIAL SHRINKAGE: may cause performance problems if one garment part shrinks because of application of fusible interlining and adjoining pieces do not shrink. and boardiness. 111 . and inconsistent use of resin. 2. Interlinings require special equipment and extra handling and processing. too much adhesive. production. inventory. and consumer needs and expectations must be evaluated. This may make accurate seaming impossible. create puckered seams. conveyor. 7. because it migrates toward heat. It causes resin to stick to the fusing press. poor bonding. Strike back may be the greatest single factor affecting both cost and quality of fusing. This is a greater problem with sheer. COLOR CHANGE: may be a temporary or permanent discoloration caused by the high temperatures and resins. lightweight. or shuttle tray. too high a fusing temperature. hanger appeal. 5.

handling. or incorrect methods. and other support materials. Linings need to be flexible and soft unless a firmer fabric is needed for support. inadequate training. Sew. but they may alter the drape of the shell fabric and fit of the garment. Hair canvas may be used on tailored garments. linings accomplish these functions. This is often the case with taffeta linings. Some mills specialize in the production and marketing of lining materials. or brand names on lining fabrics to provide identification and differentiation. logos. and special weaves. and additional energy costs. Linings with a stiff heavy hand may be strong and provide support. Garments may have full linings. and comfort of styles. tested. linings may he used to make the shell fabric look more opaque and have more body. The hand of linings should complement the aesthetics of the shell fabric and provide comfort to the wearer. Aesthetically. design. analyzed. and structure of linings. AESTHETICS: Linings are used to enhance the aesthetic value of garments. Performance criteria for jacket or coat linings are quite different from the criteria for swimsuit linings. Stiff linings of filament yarns may also make rustling noises as the lining rubs against itself or the shell fabric during wear. interlinings.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. component linings. Interlinings may be used in small amounts in small areas. Factors that affect the quality and performance of linings include fabric characteristics. and suitability for end use. Fusible interlinings are particularly susceptible to inconsistencies involving the materials. LININGS: These are materials that increase aesthetics and performance by supporting and or enclosing the interiors of garments or garment components. compatibility with other materials and garment structure. which are sampled. The cost of maintaining consistent quality may also be a factor in total garment costs. but this may be included with monitoring other sewing processes. This contributes to the hanger appeal of garments. In the case of lightcolored and / or light-weight shell fabrics. LAHORE Application costs for interlining are often higher than the initial cost. and sourced similarly to other piece goods. lack of operator skill. Lining fabrics are usually different than the shell fabrics. 112 . but it may involve much higher labor costs. prints. but in some instances the same fabric is used for the garment and lining. Extra quality control may be required to inspect the fused garment parts and test fusing equipment and performance of fused parts. In some instances sew-in interlinings are less costly to apply than fusible interlinings depending on the method of application. Sometimes designers choose to use signatures. equipment. which may be used to provide special visual effects. partial linings. poor preparation in pre-assembly. Unacceptable quality of garments with sew-in interlinings may result from poor design. or no linings. FUNCTIONS OF LININGS: Linings may be used to improve aesthetics. PERFORMANCE: Performance expectations of linings vary with product type and end use. and the amount of automation that is utilized. linings are used to conceal the back of shell fabrics and the inner construction of a garment such us Seams. characteristics of the shell fabric. performance. Linings can also be a means of covering poor construction techniques and inferior materials. In garments.in interlinings also may need quality checks. Fusible interlinings require special equipment. and fusing process. but application may require individual handling and processing. Lining fabrics are available in fashion and basic colors.

COMFORT: Linings may provide tactile comfort. swimsuits. absorbent. fabrication. Free-hanging insulative linings may be permanently sewn in or removable. LAHORE Properly designed and properly constructed linings may extend the wear life of garments. Insulative linings may be covered by another lining to improve aesthetics and / or performance. seams. Linings of smooth filament yarns provide ease of movement by reducing friction with other garments the individual is wearing. This prevents absorption of perspiration and body oils that may deteriorate or stain shell fabrics. Lining materials may be selected for breath ability or insulative properties. The synthetic fibers. hand. 113 . Linings absorb the stress of body movement and activity. garment fit. Linings also reduce abrasion on seams and other support materials during use and care. FIBER CONTENT: Fiber content is a major determinant of type of fabrication.7 CHARACTERISTICS OF LININGS: Factors that contribute to the performance of linings are fiber content. When used. Garments may reduce body heat loss by creating wind resistance. and support materials that may be harsh or abrasive to the skin. These are particularly important if the lining is entirely sewn down. using layers to trap air. or has a pleasant hand. Insulative linings are designed to trap body heat and may be inner layers of multiplelayer constructions. nylon and polyester. and drape. The lining also protects the human body from the shell fabric.g. jogging shorts. Linings may also be used to provide thermal comfort. Comfort of a water resistant garment may depend on the absorbency and breathe ability of the lining material used. medium. the layer that separates the body from the garment.g. For this reason fabrics with filament yarns are commonly used. thin. and durability of linings. e. tightly woven linings or shell fabrics. finishes. Materials such as down or synthetic fiberfill are commonly used for quilted constructions. and thermal comfort for a garment. characteristics of the piece goods. performance. linings are the garment part closest to the body. quality level. aesthetics. Tactile comfort is provided by the lining fabric if it is smooth. With slip ease. and lofty. especially for sleeve linings. Coat and jacket linings usually have vertical ease pleats at center back and horizontal ease pleats at hems to allow freedom of movement. Linings also extend garment life by preventing hanger stress and body contact with the shell fabric. Choice of lining materials relates to the intended end use. Wind resistance may be achieved by using highcount. 3. are used for durable lightweight linings. Ease pleats should be deep enough to permit garment alteration without altering the lining. Linings improve garment fit by absorbing the stress of tight fit and movement. and performance expectations for the product.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Insulation materials are available with a soft or firm hand to support various fashion silhouettes. and cost. Higher-quality garments tend to have deeper ease pleats. Fabrics may be coated with resins to improve their wind resistance. Linings also provide the structure for additional details or components such as internal pockets. which prevents stretching and overextension of the shell fabric. and / or using insulative linings. dressing is easier and garments are less restrictive. Linings are slightly smaller than the outer shell to absorb stress that occurs during use. better quality slacks and skirts are lined to prevent bagginess in the knees and seat areas. nylon mesh is used for lining to allow for air circulation. thus allowing the outer garment to hang free and relaxed. Nylon and nylon / spandex blends are used in linings for active sportswear (football pants. e.

Acetate blends are used in warp knits for many of napped or brushed linings found in moderate and budget-priced wind breakers. Cotton and rayon are used in linings because of their hand and absorbency. SUPPORT. type of shell fabric. hand. balanced. Linings need to be long enough to be functional. uniforms. a finished appearance. Wool is an excellent insulating material used only as an insulative lining. Silk is used for its aesthetic appeal. Garments with full lining have completely enclosed interiors. However. Skirts and slacks are best lined with balanced plain weave fabrics due to their flexibility and strength. comfort. Fabrications may affect the drape. Heavy weight is not necessarily required for warmth.cleaned. opacity. expected garment performance. and / or warmth. does not withstand stress and abrasion. Full or partial linings may be assembled as separate components and partially or completely attached to the garment shell. although its performance may be short-lived. and drape ability. AND QUALITY: The amount of lining used for a garment depends on the type and style of garment. ENCLOSURE. Wool materials are used to line gloves and bodies of topcoats. Lining fabrications range from the lightest-weight. Generally. shaping characteristics. do not breathe. retains its shape. but not too long to extend beyond hems and edges of garments. WEIGHT: Weight of lining fabric affects wearing comfort. while the heavier linings are selected for their support. FABRICATION: Linings are available in many different fabrications. Acetate is used extensively for lining coats. and other garments. and cost limitations. skirts. Silk is lightweight. thermal comfort. elasticity. other slick materials are often used to line the sleeves and upper part of garment. durability. Synthetic fibers are clammy. These provide slip ease. smooth. has pleasing hand and drape. and wind resistance with high-count and filament yarns. and protection for the garment shell. It takes a press well. and needs to be dry. Cotton is absorbent and comfortable. If a wool lining is used in a coat. comfort. but its cost prohibits common usage. and opacity. polyester fiber fill.e. Fiber modifications with wicking properties that increase comfort and reduce static buildup are sometimes used for lining fabrics. and slacks. and thermal comfort of the lining and garments. Napped back satins found in women's/men's dress coats are acetate blends.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Many materials provide same amount of insulation for less cost and weight. quality level. Acetate linings often wear out long before the garment shell. lighter-weight linings may be selected for wearing comfort. drapeable. it is possible to have high bulk for warmth without heavy weight. 114 . plain weave fabrics to the bulky quilted or pile fabrics. Acetate also is a very weak fiber. and minimal weight and bulk. and status in better-tailored garments. acetate may be subject to fume fading if not solution dyed. but with less slip ease because of staple fiber structure. With synthetic materials. Common fabrications found in jacket linings are satins and twills. and is frequently available with printed designs. LAHORE and so on) providing high strength. and allow buildup of static electricity. flexibility. Filament rayon makes a comfortable lining that may be used in better suits. i. jackets. durability. or drape ability. and absorbent. hand. compatibility. Cotton lining is a fashion fabric used as part of a component or to match shell fabric. but rayon also has low abrasion resistance. Acetate is less expensive than some other fibers when cost is a major consideration. Cotton or rayon is blended with polyester to improve resiliency and abrasion resistance.

the lining needs to be identical to the outer garment.8 LINING STRUCTURE: Linings should be designed. One of the final processes is the attachment of the sleeve lining at the armhole. and in-process pressing are part of producing better quality linings. Full linings may be completely assembled and attached by machine. shoulder areas. which is often done by hand. With product types. Completely attached linings avoid twisting that might occur during wear. They are used to protect garment components or shell fabric in areas of high stress or high contact. LAHORE Partial linings enclose only a portion of garment interiors but provide some degree of protection and comfort. Generally this method provides better fit and durability but results in costlier garments. 3. but better-quality garments may have some operations done by hand.g. Completely attached linings make it difficult for retail buyers and consumers to evaluate intrinsic construction and alter garment. similar to the garment shell. A fitted lining in a garment with styling case needs to be carefully proportioned to minimize fitting problems that may limit the sale of the style. but the lining must fit the garment accurately and have adequate room for movement.9 LINING APPLICATIONS: Lining construction may be judged by the same standards as garment assembly. Many types of products are never lined and do not need to be. Standards may vary with the quality level. shirts may have lined yokes and pockets. They also provide slip ease to sleeves or across shoulders. are of a more casual nature. if the lining is properly constructed. and structured. and do not depend on the aesthetics of the lining for hanger appeal or performance. when full linings are completely attached by machine. or it may be a complete front and back lining only long enough to cover areas of stress. e. such as jackets and skirts in which linings are optional. Seam busting. Full or partial linings that are 115 . Manufacturers of jackets may choose to line only sleeves. A full pleated skirt needs only a smooth-fitting A-line-shaped lining. Linings do not need to be cut to the same identical shape as the garment. The sleeve lining and garment body lining are assembled and attached as separate components. In some cases. This is a traditional method of assembly that prevents the lining from shifting across the armhole and shoulder area. but reductions in labor costs depend on the methods used. the lining is more functional if it is designed with a basic shape that complements the fashion silhouette. to pucker or draw up. fronts and sleeves. In jackets. T-shirts. Better-quality jackets and coats may have hand-set sleeve linings. Unlined garments have less structure. and equipment. gathered skirt with a lining is regarded as higher quality than the same skirt without a lining even though it may not need the lining to prevent stress. Partial linings are a means of reducing costs of materials. Linings are installed primarily by machine. seam finishes. This lining structure avoids the bulk of the pleats but provides smooth fit that absorbs the stress and allows the skirt pleats to hang smoothly. but they must be complementary and usually maintain a similar grain orientation. 3. and jeans. that are too short or too tight cause garments. If the outer garment has styling ease. Lining may be a part of garment components. operator skill. Lining. greater use of lining normally increases quality. underwear.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. It will hang and drape better if lined. Lining or shell fabrics may be used to enclose interiors of components. A 100% cotton. Components may be lined in garments where full or partial linings are not desired. Partial linings in skirts may protect back that is stressed during sitting. an opening is left in one sleeve lining seam for turning the garment. or other combination that will meet consumer needs and/or cost limitations. such as sweaters.

4. 4. Coats. thermoplastic resins with a variety of chemical compositions and performance characteristics. and skirts are often constructed in this manner. and skirts. Linings of garment components are usually installed as the components are assembled. Adhesives are synthetic. In some cases. Labor costs vary with the number of steps needed to complete the garment lining. the lining forms a whole separate component that is attached only at the waist as may be found in jogging shorts. Linings may be a means of enclosing seams or hems. Linings that do not perform according to consumer expectations may be subject to high costs of returns. Trims. waist. women's jackets.1 ADHESIVES: Adhesives may be used as support materials or as bonding agents to hold support materials in place.10 COSTS OF LININGS: The major costs of lining garments are materials and labor. or upper part of the body and are free-hanging at the lower edge. OTHER SUPPORT MATERIALS: Other support materials-including adhesives. tapes. lower edges of these linings are held in place by lining tacks or long-thread chains. In some garments. The design and production of complete linings can contribute a significant proportion to production costs. and finishing processes used. sleeve headers. 3. and thread may also provide support to certain areas of garments as well as aesthetics or functional use. This allows flexibility but keeps the lining in place. men swimwear. the number of hand operations. They are used to stabilize. closures. Material costs vary with the fabrication and yardage requirements. and collar stays-provide special support needed in specific types of garments. Resin content of adhesives 116 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and / or bond layers of fabric together. LAHORE partially attached are usually attached at the front. shoulder pads. neck. support.

applied as webs or filament threads between two layers of fabric. or applied as polymer paste or powder directly to back of shell fabrics. Adhesives or resins may be applied to surface of substrates to create fusible interlinings. Adhesives and resins. with different heat sensitivities and bonding powers. Adhesives are selected according to specific end use requirements and fusing equipment. A resin web may be used to hold hems in place without use of thread. LAHORE includes polyamides. Shoulder pads provide hangar support for garments and enhance the store presentation. pattern and uniformity of application.2 SHOULDER PADS: Shoulder pads provide support and shape for the desired shoulder silhouette. but often they are not best suited to the style or its appearance on the body. suit coats. designers may make selections from samples shown by sales representatives or work with a representative in designing new shapes. Resins may be used as glues to stabilize fabric pieces for appliqu és or other sewing. and fusing process. and the selected shoulder shape is placed on the body form as the initial garment is draped. Too much or too little resin affects bond strength and hand of fabric. In a well-designed garment. amount of application. polyesters. add hanger appeal to garments displayed in retail settings. Bond strength may be tested after fusing and again after care procedures. DIRECT APPLICATION OR DIRECT STABILIZATION: As it may be called. The designer and / or merchandiser decide on the look that is appropriate for each style. may be added to either piece goods or interlinings. The resin is mechanically applied to the back of garment parts and set by radiant heat. set-in sleeves. compatibility with fabrics. kimono sleeves. Shoulder pads for men's clothing often are an integral part of garment construction and are critical to the aesthetics and performance of garments. and blouses. Shoulder pads are designed for raglan sleeves. Bond strength refers to the strength of the bond achieved by the adhesive. Resins applied as webs or filament fibers between layers of fabric act as a glue to hold fabric pieces in place. thin. Each resin requires a different fusing temperature or glue line temperature for a secure bond. rounded. and life expectancy for the garments is often longer. stabilizes garment pieces without use of a separate interlining. Resins are applied to a substrate as even or randomly printed dots. randomly sintered or sprinkled deposit or as even uniform coatings. 4. This is the best way to get the desired look. poly-ethylene. Glue line temperature is the temperature reached between the fabric and adhesive at the time of fusing. Bonding security is affected by resin type. crescent shaped or domed. Men's wear quality standards are often higher. oblong. Some apparel manufacturers who are most cost-conscious than style conscious by a single style of shoulder pad in large quantities and use the same pad for all garments. 117 . the shoulder pad is an integral part of the design. Shoulder pad shapes are influenced by fashion and may be thick. Improvements in technology of resins and adhesives suggest increases in the use of direct stabilization because of economy and efficiency of application. which may be permanent or temporary. and protect garments from hanger stress over long periods. A peel test determines bond strength by measuring the force required to separate the fused materials. Dot size and number of dots may vary with degree of bonding needed and weight of substrate. Alternatively. Shoulder pads for men's clothing are quite different from those used in most women's garments.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

and less expensive than some other materials. Care and use can weaken their structure and shape. Layers are stitched together to provide stability/durability through use and care. thus. but its use is limited due to cost of process and poor performance of material. fiber bats. the temperature and pressure on the mold are decreased. Shaping materials form the shoulder pads. Garment manufacturers usually do not produce their own shoulder pads. Once the mold has been developed. needle-punched fiber webs. instead. LAHORE They are made of a combination of different materials and are larger and more structured than those used in women's apparel. Fiber webs are layered and shaped to provide the thickness and shape desired. and cut. but resins tend to breakdown during dry cleaning. and compatible care procedures. Bats are die-cut and then molded to the shape desired. The hand or stiffness varies with the baking process. they are often most costly. They are used in men's wear because of their durability. Materials used in sewn pads maybe polyester batting. fused. They are relatively slow to produce because of molding process. needle-punched fiber webs. Large polyurethane foam blocks are cut with an automated knife. Polyurethane foam is molded with a different process. Shoulder pad styles change when fashion silhouettes changes. Sewn shoulder pads consist of multiple layers arranged in a stepped manner to provide a sloped look and smooth blending of layers. woven canvas. Molded pads have good resiliency. Bats and wadding may be used alone or as filler in combination with other materials. flexible. or any combination of these. the firmer the pad produced. exposure to light. Foam is generally the least expensive material but often has the least desirable performance. pads can be mass-produced in the desired shape in a process called baking. cotton or wool wadding. Decisions are based on materials. which puts them at a lower price point. 118 . Fiber bats and wadding are large sheets or bats of fiber. Needle-punched fiber webs may be die-cut and covered to make an inexpensive pad. which can affect the shape of the pad. This is a fairly new process and faster to produce than the molded pad. Fused pads are made from layers of fiber web that are sprayed with resin and then spot fused to hold the pieces together. Foams also may distort easily with high dryer temperatures. Foam pads are generally used in blouses and dresses because they are inexpensive and lightweight. and the baking (oxidation) process used in their production. For a softer shape. High-loft polyester bats are sprayed with a resin that acts as a binder and allows the fiber bat to be heat set in the desired shape. Developing new shoulder pad begins with designing the new shape and producing a mold that duplicates the shape. The higher the temperature and pressure applied to the mold. Shoulder pads for women's garments are made in a greater variety of shapes. molded. which may or may not be covered by other materials before installation in garments. they order from firms that specialize in shoulder pad production. SHOULDER PAD MATERIALS: The most common materials used for shoulder pads are foams. Needle-punched fiber webs are used as the basic shaping material in many types of shoulder pads for both men and women because they are lightweight. sizes and materials. SHOULDER PAD CONSTRUCTION: Shoulder pads are sewn. Molded pads are shaped to a preformed mold or die. Sewn shoulder pads are usually uncovered and used in structured garments with linings. Foams discolor owing to aging. They are time-consuming and require skilled operators to produce them. and wadding. desired appearance.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This process can produce large quantities in short periods of time with very little waste. cost limitations. Cut shoulder pads require very little time to produce.000 different variations of basic shoulder pad. One manufacturer may produce as many as 4.

rayon. which may overstress the shell fabric and seams. flexible fiber webs. and trim plackets and other parts of garments. it crinkles the pad inside the cover so it cannot lie flat. braids. necklines. or used as a separate garment component. This allows shifting during care. Shoulder pads in coats. Tape may be sewn into seams. incorporated in a garment component. proper testing to determine compatibility of materials. Sleeve headers support the tops of sleeves to provide a smooth hang over the arm. The best-quality shoulder pad available will not be satisfactory if it is not applied appropriately. Removable shoulder pads are often attached to the shoulder area by means of a Hook-and-Loop strip. Shoulder pads in blouses dresses are minimally tacked to the shoulder seam and armhole seam. used to cover seams or hems. care process. Many shoulder pad manufacturers provide the service of covering the shoulder pads if the piece goods are supplied. Use of sleeve headers is a quality feature that adds primarily to the appearance of the garment. Shoulder pad coverings are a major cause of dissatisfaction with shoulder pads. polyester. If the covering shrinks. especially after extended wear and renovation. and the equipment used. quality level. and jackets may be permanently attached to the garments. Application of tape may be an intrinsic factor that affects garment quality and its performance. or serve as 119 . They are sewn to the top of armhole seam and provide shape for fall of a set-in sleeve. With the first washing.4 TAPES: Tapes are support materials used primarily for shape retention and / or aesthetics. but benefit may be a better satisfied consumer. acetate. Tapes that shrink cause garment distortion. LAHORE SHOULDER PAD COVERS: Many of the shoulder pads used in women's garments are covered in style-matching piece goods or a basic taffeta tricot in basic colors. SHOULDER PAD INSTALLATION: The application method used is critical to the performance of the pad and appearance of the garment. suits. Some firms preshrink tapes to avoid this problem.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A critical factor is dimensional stability of the tape. The fiber content of tape may be cotton. knits. and armholes of jackets. woven bias. or strips cut from matching shell fabric. These problems can usually be remedied better methods. collar edges. Sleeve headers are soft. provide shape retention of lapel edges.and better quality tailored coats and jackets. They may be sewn or tacked to shoulder and armhole seams and covered lining. 4. Another problem occurs if the inner materials are not caught completely in stitching. and better quality control procedures to ensure that pads have been sewn correctly. which makes the pad totally unusable. Tape is frequently used to prevent stretching along shoulder seams and neck edges of knit garments. styling. Some are set in before sleeves are attached. This is another instance when time must be carefully planned in order to have all materials available for garment production at the same time. It also allows consumers to decide whether they want to use shoulder pads on any given day. price range. 4. Methods used to insert shoulder pads in garments depend on garment type and structure. the investment in materials and labor costs are greater for garment manufacturer. the inner material will fold and wad up. Tape may be used to stabilize seams with potential for excessive stretching that could permanently alter the shape or fit of garment. or blends of these fibers. or it may add color and interest to a style. Tape may be narrow twill fabrics (twill tape). This enables consumers to remove the shoulder pads before care procedures. With Hook-and-Loop attachment. It may be used as a binding.3 SLEEVE HEADERS: Sleeve headers are an additional support material used in moderate. It can be as narrow as 1/8 inch or as wide as 2 inches.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. snaps. PERFORMANCE: Performance criteria for closures may be established relative to garment design. application. Thin flexible collar stays may be superimposed on the front edge seam of the collars as they are sewn. The image of the collar stay may be pressed through to the top collar. widths. comfort. Permanently attached stays are the fastest and least expensive application. CLOSURES: Human body shape requires certain garment components to separate or expand so garment that surrounds and conforms to the body or specific body parts can be put on or taken off.1 PURPOSE OF CLOSURES: Closures may be used as single fastening units. such as zippers. and other devices used to open. LAHORE a garment component such as the plackets on rugby shirts.g. hooks. or the stay may abrade the top collar with use and during agitation in laundry. fit. through an attachment in front of the needle. and care. tape application is a separate step that requires extra handling and processing. Plastic collar stays are available in various types. create an accent. or support the overall ambiance of the garment. e. four-hole buttons are customarily used on men's dress shirts and sport shirts. Some clothing manufacturers may use metal shanked buttons for jackets and blazers. Closures may be selected to blend with shell fabric. This type of collar stay remains permanently attached to the collar. lengths. Under-collar or shirts is structured with two pieces that overlap to form a pocket with an opening through which stays can be removed and reinserted. buttons. and weights. and stitched directly to garment as seams are sewn. color-matched buttons. type. carry out style features. tape is fed directly from a roll. 4. but they may have performance problems. The number. simulated plackets may be designed to carry out a fashion or traditional look. When closures are used as trim. while others use flat. or enhance the piece goods and trims used in a garment. Other flexible plastic stays are stitched through the center as they are attached to the interlining or under collar. durability. Plackets are structural openings that are usually dependent on mechanical devices called closures to secure openings. Removable stays are found in higher-quality garments. Closures contribute to garment aesthetics and performance. end use. Expansion is built into garments through structural openings and elastic materials. and skilled workmanship result in properly working closures. Removing stays during laundry and cleaning prevents bending and permanent distortion. hook-andloop tapes. AESTHETICS: Plackets and closures may be used to add interest. or combined with other types of closures or trims. and molded zippers are used in ski wear. Closures may allow the wearer to adjust openings for personal size or thermal comfort. metal zippers are used in jeans. elastics. close. 5. They fold and become doubled as the collar is turned. and placement of closures are important to garment appearance. When more than one 120 . In many instances. quality standards. 5. and performance standards for other garment materials. Garments are usually designed to surround the body and accommodate body movement. in multiples. Usually closures are subject to more horizontal stress than vertical stress because of the nature of body kinetics. Excessive heat may also cause distortion. four-hole. and secure garments. Flat. Proper selection. buttonholes.5 COLLAR STAYS: Collar stays are support materials often used to build shape retention into structured collars of shirts and blouses. On some garments. Stays that are stitched in place are susceptible to heat during care procedures and may cause excessive wear or abrasion of the shell fabric. Specific styles of closures are traditionally used for certain garment types. Closures are fasteners.

These zippers are 121 . in clothing. decorative zipper tapes. If one part fails. they are essential to the performance of garments. since zipper failures often render garments unusable. types of zippers. who worked at the Universal Fastener Company. mold – Plastic. Many zippers are also used for their aesthetic value such as those with elaborate or ornate pulls. leather goods and countless other objects meeting the needs of consumers.000 specialty colors in its plant. Probably no single element of a garment can cost so little but cause so much dissatisfaction among consumers when it (the zipper) malfunctions. or color-coordinated chains. or coils) are drawn together by a slider. The cut of pant leg determines the use of zipper. e. Gideon Sand back. Factors that contribute to the aesthetics and performance of zippers include type and fabrication of zipper parts and materials. Swedish immigrant and electrical engineer. Zippers that are used on lower ends of side seams in sweatpants and jeans allow expansion of lower pant legs over shoes or boots. YKK. snaps.2 ZIPPERS: Zippers are mechanical slide fasteners. Zippers allow garments to expand for dressing and to become smooth and fitted when closed. Zipper selection should be based on input from merchandising. luggage. all the strain is placed on one small area of shell fabric. Continuous Clothing Closure'. In the 1930's. In 1913. LAHORE closure is used. scoops. 5. In Open-end Zippers.F. When a skirt is closed with a zipper that is supported by both outer and inner buttons with corresponding buttonholes the whole assembly is stronger. which was patented in 1851. The next big boost for the zipper came when zippers could open on both ends. a single fastening unit used on a waistband must absorb all the stress. ZIPPER SPECIFICATIONS: Main Categories of Zippers are polyester. He increased the number of fastening elements. and quality assurance with assistance from zipper manufacturer. all thanks to the early efforts of these famous zipper inventors. CHARACTERISTICS OF ZIPPERS: Hundreds of different sizes and types of zippers are available. also invented the 'Automatic. design. both the ends get separated from each other.' It was patented in 1917 and is what we know today as the modern zipper. In 1937 the zipper beat the button in the "Battle of the Fly" when French fashion designers raved over zippers in men's trousers. A Zipper closes a placket when two rows of interlocking elements (teeth. which was patented on August 29. But it was Whitcomb Judson from Chicago who first marketed the 'Clasp Locker'. had two facing-rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider and increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slider.g. the remaining closures should hold the garment in place. Together with businessman Lewis Walker. Whitcomb launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device. and aluminum. HISTORY OF ZIPPERS: Elias Howe. metal . injection Mold. produced a better model. production. e.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. or other closures. 1893. one of the world's largest zipper manufacturers. a sales campaign began for children's clothing featuring zippers. as on jackets. Until this point.g. the 'Separable Fastener. B. produces approximately 2000 zipper styles in over 400 basic and 1. Goodrich liked the z-z-zip sound they made and coined the term zipper. When used as closures. They may provide closer. horizontal stress may be shared with other fastening units for greater strength and holding power. Today the zipper is everywhere. who invented the sewing machine. and zipper applications.brass. they were called hook less fasteners. but they may be more important from a styling / aesthetic perspective than from a performance perspective. A Box & Pin mechanism is provided on the lower end of the Zippers to join with each other and close it using a Slider. smoother garment fit and accept more seam stress than buttons.

A slider is the movable part of a zipper that disengages or interlocks the stringers to form a chain. and tapes. During zipper application. The zipper chain consists of two interlocking stringers of teeth. Chains-that do not rust or corrode are essential for garments that are wet processed. Zippers with wider chains have more holding power.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. (The bigger the size. Close-end Zippers are non-separating and are normally opened and closed with a Slider. which produces smooth plackets and reduces the potential for the zip per image becoming embossed on the shell fabric during pressing.1 Zipper length (mm) below 250 250 . Metal chains may be stronger than continuous coils and are often used in slacks and jeans where durability and strength are required. 4. nickel.below 1000 1000 . slider. These zippers are used on Trousers. Metal teeth. or garment dyed. Chains are available in varied widths and thicknesses. scoops. LAHORE normally used on Jackets. and Jackets. chemically treated. 10. Jeans. Elements on separate zipper 122 . 3419 Part 2. and they are more comfortable to wear in cold conditions.) Allowable Tolerance of Zipper Length German DIN. stops. This provides a space for stitching or bar tacking across the zipper. coils may also separate during wear but can usually be reunited by operating the slider. made of brass. usually without damage to garment or zipper. Coil-type chains are available in varying sizes and degrees of strength. High-profile zipper chain has more depth and is raised from the tape. 5. Coil zippers that are folded or creased may be weakened and permanently separated at point of damage. The width of the chain and material selection affect holding power. Coils can usually be pulled apart to remove fabric or thread caught in the elements. Synthetic zippers are also available in a much wider range of colors with the chain and tapes dyed to match. Chain made of synthetic materials. Synthetic chains are more flexible and cause less abrasion and snagging than metal zippers. Molded synthetic scoops are an integral part of the tape so individual scoops cannot be removed without damaging the tape. meaning the zipper would have to be replaced or the garment discarded. may have scoops or teeth molded like metal chain or made from continuous monofilament coils.below 100 above 100 ± 5mm ± 10mm ± 15mm ± 3% ZIPPER PARTS AND MATERIALS: Zippers consist of four main parts: chain. Sliders will not operate on corroded zippers. and visibility. 8. are clamped onto zipper tapes. However. or coils that lock or unlock with the movement of the slider. Zipper Sizes: 3. such as molded nylon or polyester. steel or zinc.below 5000 above 5000 Allowable tolerance ± 5mm ± 1% ± 10mm ± 50 mm Errors provided by Japanese YKK in the New Century Fair Zipper length Allowable (mm) tolerance below 30 30 . zipper profile. Teeth can also be pulled off the tape due to stress during use. Low-profile chain is flat and nearly smooth.below 60 60 . metal teeth may be removed without damaging the tape. the stronger the Zipper will be.

or fiber blends. but the enamel may wear or chip off during use. round. used commonly in jeans. Zipper tapes are the substrate for attachment and support of the zipper chain. Tapes may be treated with resins for compatibility with permanent press garments and for dimensional stability. Many metal parts are enameled to hatch the color of synthetic chains and tapes. lightweight and they tend to have less shrinkage potential. teeth. lock if the tab is in a straight up or down position and move easily when the tab is at a right angle to the zipper. or a line of stitching. There are flange / automatic lock. or coils and cause sliders to malfunction. Zipper stops are essential in preventing the slider from advancing and becoming disengaged from the chain. Durability of the tape is a major factor in zipper performance. metal bars. cam / pin lock. or stamped with the logo of zipper/garment manufacturer. Pin lock sliders have a small pin or projection that fits between the zipper teeth. ornate. They are needed at both ends of a zipper chain. It is important to use semi cured tape with semi cured materials since fully cured zipper tapes may degrade with final curing of the garment because of double treatment of the resin on the tapes. Flange lock sliders prevent zippers from being accidentally opened by pressure on the stringers. even though they may be used with synthetic chain. are interlocked. Sliders are usually metal. Zipper sliders have different types of pulls and locking action. and in areas without stress. Cam lock sliders. High count woven tapes are stronger. Tapes may be stable knits or narrow twill weaves produced in different widths. backpacks. Stress may cause the teeth to become detached from low-count tapes. Automatic lock sliders lock when the tab is in a down position. Stops that are not tightly secured may not prevent the slider from advancing. large. 123 . Resin treated cotton tapes may be semi or fully cured for compatibility with shell fabrics. They may be small. and emerge from the mouth of the slider as chain. which allows the zipper to be closed with the tab in the down position but not opened. synthetic. Zipper tapes that shrink cause puckered plackets and seams. They may be enlarged teeth. upholstery. Tapes may be cotton. This happens frequently with slacks when the wearer applies stress to the lower end of the zipper while stepping into the garment. plain. Improper handling and use by manufacturers and consumers may damage the locking device. since metals are resistant to wear and heat distortion. Sliders can also be damaged by excessive pressure in the pressing operation at the factory or dry cleaners. LAHORE stringers enter the throat of the slider. Bar tacks or back stitching across the chain are frequently used to support zipper stops at the closed end of zippers. Synthetic tapes are strong. Zipper pulls are handles for moving sliders and may also lock sliders in place. If the stop does not hold. a seam. Sliders must be compatible with the chain and placed correctly on the chain if the elements are to engage correctly. Too much force in pulling a slider can cause the slider to separate and cease to mesh the chain. the slider continues to unlock the chain until the slider comes off and the chain completely separates. flat. and non lock sliders. and staple like devices that wrap the chain. Pin lock sliders are used primarily on garments such as coats and sweatshirts and tend to give the most operating problems. Non lock sliders do not lock in position and are used primarily on purses.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

and dresses. Some separable zippers use two sliders so the chain can be disengaged from both ends. Continuous Element Zipper Separate Element Zipper Stringer Chain Shoulder TAPES Tape Bead Bead SLIDERS Slider Mouth Pull Flanges Flange Lock Slider The part that opens and closes the zipper The opening in a slider that receives the chain A part connected to a zipper slider used to operate the slider The edges of the slider formed to contain the chain A slider with notches in the flanges that block the shoulders of the elements when the stringers above the slider are pulled apart. Pin Lock Slider A slider that incorporates a projection on the pull that fits between adjacent interlocking elements of a zipper Cam lock slider A slider that incorporates curled projection(s) on the pull that extend through a window on the slider to effect a locking action by pressing against the chain TOP AND BOTTOM ASSEMBLY Stop The device at the top and bottom of the chain or stringer that prevents the slider from leaving the chain Bottom Stop Part affixed to both stringers immediately below. capable of being affixed along the edge of one of the opposing edges of two tapes and being engaged and disengaged with the movement of slider. This arrangement may be found on car coats so that the can unzip the coat from the bottom for more comfortable sitting. Separable zippers consist of two completely separate stringers with a bottom assembly to reengage the zipper. Separable zipper A zipper fitted with special components at the bottom of a chain so as to permit complete disengagement and then reengagement of the two stringers.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Automatic Lock A slider that provides involuntary. skirts. bead. A Zipper consisting of two continuously formed elements. Tape. Non-separating zippers are used in pants. or over the chain Top Stop A part affixed between or immediately above the interlocking elements on either or both stringers Bridge Top Stop A part affixed immediately above the chain. ZIPPER TYPES: There are two main types of zippers: separable and non-separable. Separable zippers are purchased as complete zipper units because of the special ends required for starting the chain through the slider. & element assembly that constitutes one side of chain Formed by interlocking several elements of two stringers. positive locking action on the chain when the Slider pull is released. Non--separating zippers open only in one direction and have a stop across both halves of the chain at one or both ends so that the slider will not run off the chain. holding the tops of two stringers together Non-separable A zipper having two stringers that are permanently attached to each other at one Zipper or both ends. coils A Zipper consisting of two series of separately formed elements. teeth or scoops. LAHORE ZIPPER TERMINOLOGY BASED ON ASTM D 2050-87 Zipper Parts CHAIN Element Definition A device designed for interlocking. An optional enlarged section of the tape located at the edge of continuous interlock able elements and against which the slider flanges bear. The bearing surface of an interlocking element by which the chain is contained inside the flanges of the slider. Separable zippers are used for jackets and coats. They are available as 124 . A narrow strip of material to which the elements are attached An enlarged section on the inner edge of each tape to which interlockabe elements are affixed on a separate element zipper.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

complete zipper units or as continuous chain. A complete zipper unit is constructed to a pre-determined length and consists of the chain and tape, slider, and stops. Continuous chain is purchased by the reel and cut to the desired length as it is applied to garments. Sliders and stops are purchased in bulk and applied to the chain during garment assembly. Continuous chain eliminates stocking a wide range of zipper lengths and provides flexibility in selecting the length for specific garments. Continuous chain zippers are less costly, reduce inventory, and are widely used by manufacturers of basic goods and industrial products. Special equipment is used to strip metal teeth from a portion of the stringers so machines can sew across the tape during application. ZIPPER APPLICATIONS: The two basic types of zipper applications are exposed and enclosed. Many different methods may be used with either of these types of applications depending on the quality level, anticipated stress, climatic conditions for end use, structure of the garment, and aesthetic expectations. Features that improve the durability of zipper plackets are interlining properly placed bar tacks, double stitched plackets, and properly placed supporting closures. Zipper plackets may include a zipper facing installed under the zipper to make the zipper more comfortable to wear. More structure requires more materiel parts, and more operations, which may result in greater cost. Exposed zippers are not covered or concealed by fabric and may be aesthetic as well as functional. Zippers may provide color accent and texture variation for a style. The chain and slider may be part of the garment’s trim. Exposed applications require the least structure and fewest assembly operations. Exposed zippers may be applied in seams but do not require seams for application; they may be installed in a slash cut in a garment. Exposed zipper applications are symmetric and commonly used for neckline openings in knit garments, front openings of jackets and sweatshirts, and pocket closures on various types of outerwear. Exposed zippers may also be selected for the flexibility and lack of bulk associated with this type of application. Minimal fabric is required in applying exposed zippers. Enclosed zippers are concealed by plackets located in seams. Enclosed zipper applications may be symmetric or asymmetric plackets. Symmetric plackets may use seam openings and are formed from seam allowances and continuous topstitching or formation of the zipper tape, which provide equal cover for the zipper from both sides of the seam. The invisible zipper placket is formed by a permanently folded zipper tape that must be flattened during stitching. When closed, the formation of the zipper tape brings the fabric together without a need for topstitching. Application requires a special proprietary sewing machine. Symmetric applications are often found at the center fronts and backs of garments, lower ends of sleeves and pant legs, and so on. Asymmetric applications include lapped plackets or fly plackets. Lapped plackets, which are approximately 1/2 inch wide, also use the seam opening with the overlap and under-lap formed from corresponding seam allowances. Zippers are offset under the seam opening and covered with the overlap half of the seam allowance. Lapped zippers are commonly used in women's skirts, dresses, and slacks. Fly plackets are traditionally used on men's pants and some women’s and children's wear. A fly placket is wider (111/2 inches) and more structured than the typical lapped placket. To construct a fly placket, extensions on the seam allowances or separate pieces of shell fabric are required. A more structured fly placket increases durability and quality.

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

ZY-E YKK Zipper - #5 Aluminum Style YEA56-aluminum teeth; for jackets, outerwear. Open top or separating. 82 colors, sizes from 5 inches up. ZY-F YKK Zipper - #5 Brass Style YEG56-brass zipper for jackets, outerwear. Open top or separating. 82 colors, sizes from 5 inches up. ZS-5B Zipper - #5 Antique Brass

ZY-A YKK Zipper - 2.5 mm Nylon Style 703-open top/closed bottom; auto slider. For skirts, pants, pockets, handbags. 401 colors, sizes from 4" up. ZY-B YKK Zipper - Poly Concealed Style 2CC-sewn into seams for an 'invisible' look; polyester tape, teardrop slider. Open top only. 80 colors; sizes from 5 inches up. ZY-H YKK Zipper - #3 Molded Style VF36-plastic teeth, auto slider. Open top or separating. 9 colors, sizes from 4 inches up. ZY-J YKK Zipper - #5 Molded Style VF56-plastic teeth, auto slider. Open top, separating and 2-way. 88 colors, sizes from 6 inches up. ZY-K YKK Zipper - #5 Molded Ring Pull Style VF56R-plastic teeth, ring slider; for outerwear, luggage. Open top or separating; black or white, other colors available as special order. Sizes from 5 inches up. ZY-M YKK Zipper - #10 Molded Style VF106-plastic teeth, auto slider. Available in open top, separating, reversible and 2-way. 13 colors, sizes from 6 inches up. ZS-6C Zipper - 6 mm Coil ZS-N Zipper - Nylon YKK style. Skirt and dress ZS-I Zipper - Invisible

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

BASIC & FANCY SLIDERS

M51

M31D1

M31M(S) M31W1 M31W2 M31W9

M5101

M51X1

M51H

M51K1

M51N

M56V8

M51F

M51G1 M51L(L)

M31L

M51S(L)

M4YG

M51Y5

M518

M51Y M51V45 M51M(L)

M51V3

M51V3

M51X1O

M31C

M51T(S)

M56

M55EM

M51E1

M51X

M51V5

M51X17

M51Q

M51X18 M51Y9

M51E

M75EM

M51D

M51N104

M51X11

M5108

M51X4

M51X5 M51B1

M51B

M51B2

M31B(S)

M51HL

M51U1

M51U2

M51U6

1

2

3

5.3 BUTTONS AND BUTTONHOLES: Buttons are small knob or disk like devices that are secured to the garments to perform as closures when paired with the button holes. Buttonholes are slit or loop openings that retain buttons. Slit buttonholes have edges finished with thread fabric, or other material. Loop buttonholes are formed from thread, fabric, narrow elastic, braid and so on. Loops are usually attached to garment edges or seams, while other buttonholes are cut through the piece goods. Together, buttons and buttonholes form fastening units or closures. The performance of button and buttonhole closures depends on materials, structure, quality, and performance of each device and its compatibility with garment styling and materials. 128

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

FUNCTIONS OF BUTTONS AND BUTTONHOLES: Button and buttonhole selection is not a simple matter, as many different aspects of garment design and production must be considered. Buttons and buttonholes may be decorative, functional, or both. AESTHETICS: Buttons can be produced in nearly any shape, color and size. Some buttons are works of art made by hand using precious metals and precious and semiprecious stones. Such buttons are used on couture, one-of-a-kind garments. Buttons appearing on apparel are mass-produced just as garments are mass-produced. Buttons may be flat, domed, concave, ball shaped, oblong, round, square, or irregular. They may be produced in the shape of objects, animals, toys, or abstract shapes to complement a style feature. Buttons are often stamped with logos or symbols to increase differentiation for garment manufacturers. They may add interesting texture and color to what might otherwise be a very ordinary shell fabric and garment. In contrast, buttons covered with matching fabric blend with the garment. Buttons used as trim mayor may not he functional or have a corresponding buttonhole. In some cases the buttonhole may be visible but not functional. PERFORMANCE: Functional buttons and buttonholes close plackets, support other closures, or support other buttons, Closing security and flatness of plackets depend on button shape and spacing, and buttonhole size, structure, and placement, Flat, round buttons remain buttoned under stress better than irregular shapes, Closer spacing prevents buckling and gapping of plackets. Garment styling and fit influence button spacing. Buttonholes should retain the button, be stable in size and shape, and not become distorted during use. Buttonholes must be the correct size for the button or the closure will not hold, Buttonholes should be tight enough to prevent buttons from slipping through without manual assistance but allow buttoned garment pieces to move as the body moves, Gapping, distorted buttonholes look unsightly and do not stay buttoned, Interlining is often used to support buttonholes and prevent stretching, Buttons must be accurately placed for the corresponding buttonholes or gaps will be created and plackets will not lie flat. Automation can provide consistent spacing of buttons and buttonholes, but the placement of the garment part depends on the operator. Buttons that support other buttons may be attached inside a garment, directly behind the primary button fastener to reduce the strain on the shell fabric. Support buttons are most often used on better-quality coats and jackets to increase the durability of buttons that receive excessive use and stress. Support buttons reinforce other buttons and do not require a buttonhole. Performance specifications may include mildew resistance, color fastness, heat resistance, strength, launderability, and dry clean ability. High performance and durability of buttons will often elevate costs. Performance tests most often used for buttons are breaking strength and impact strength. Garment manufacturers may chose to do their own performance testing, or they may make their selection based on specifications and testing provided by the button manufacturer. Buttons need to be compatible with the shell fabric, other materials in the garment, determined care procedure, and button-setting equipment. The choice of shell fabrics affects the selection of color, finish, size, and weight of buttons. Heavy buttons may place excessive stress on lightweight fabrics, especially if many buttons are used without 129

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

proper support. Some synthetic buttons are not dry cleanable and will dissolve or become tacky in cleaning solution, while others such as leather and wood may not perform well when washed. Dyed buttons may change color during laundering or dry cleaning and may no longer match the shell fabric. Dye may not penetrate the button so abrasion quickly removes the color, particularly along edges and ridges. Garment end use is also a factor in button selection, e.g. rubber buttons are used, on authentic rugby shirts, while synthetic buttons are often used on rugby styles designed for street wear. Rubber buttons are selected for their comfort and resistance to impact when worn for contact sports. To protect the attaching thread from abrasion on garments that get hard use, buttons may be chosen that are concave on the top, have a deep thread groove, or have a rimmed edge. Even with the best selection of button type and application method, button loss is still a consumer problem. On better garments, extra replacement buttons may be attached to the garment in an inconspicuous place or to a hangtag or contained in a small plastic bag. CHARACTERISTICS OF BUTTONS: Button quality, aesthetics, and performance are affected by the materials incorporated in the buttons, the methods of coloring, finishing, styling, craftsmanship, and method of application. Buttons that are visible should be of similar quality as the garment. A producer of high-quality men's jackets may choose to use pewter or silver buttons instead of antiqued nickel or synthetic buttons. Makers of better topcoats may use leather, bone, or horn instead of buttons made of synthetic materials. Color-matched buttons are found on better-quality garments. Matched buttons create sourcing problems to secure an exact match and require more quality control to monitor shading and button strength. The outer buttons used on men's slacks and women's skirts often match or coordinate with the shell fabric, but inner buttons are often a standard color or clear and a flat style. In order to control inventory costs and setup delays, manufacturers may opt to use a neutral color button that will suit all fabrics and styles. Buttons are often marketed by findings representatives who work with garment manufacturers to meet needs for aesthetics, performance, delivery, quality, and cost. A findings rep may market several lines of buttons produced by different manufacturers and made from a variety of materials. Buttons are often selected from sample cards and ordered by the gross. Manufacturers may also work directly with designers and merchandisers to develop buttons for specific garments. Practical considerations include types of materials, fabrications, buttons, methods of attachment, and costs. BUTTON MATERIALS AND FABRICATION: Buttons may consist of one piece or a combination of pieces and materials that are clinched, clamped, glued, soldered, or molded together. Multipart buttons often have the top or face made of different materials than the back. The security with which the parts or materials are assembled is important in button performance. Button parts that have been glued together may not be adequate to withstand the rigors of buttoning, wear, and care. Glued buttons may also separate in cleaning if glue is soluble in water, detergent, or dry cleaning solvents. Buttons are available in a wide variety of finishes and textures ranging from shiny, glossy buttons to dull, matte finishes. Button finish is selected for compatibility with shell fabric. Buttons may be polished, antiqued, glazed, painted, and dyed after formation of the button blank. Dyeing finished buttons may not be as permanent as adding color to the liquid resin, but it allows the manufacturer to delay color decisions. Dyes may weaken some buttons. 130

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

True, not imitation, pearl buttons, which are cut and developed from natural mussel shells, have long been recognized for the appearance, quality, and status they contribute to garments. Buttons made from shells are fragile and have many variations in color and shape. Designers often try to imitate the natural irregularities in coloring while using more durable synthetic substances to produce a smooth button without irregularities in shape. Irregularities of natural materials may not be compatible with automatic button setting equipment. Buttons are also made of other natural substances, including wood, bone, shell, horn, tagua nuts, glass, rubber, leather, and metals including brass, pewter, nickel, copper, and silver. Plastic buttons are made of nylon, polyester, melamine, and urea. Button manufacturers tend to specialize in certain materials because of the expertise and special equipment needed. Most buttons used on mass-produced garments are made of plastics. Polyester, melamine, and urea are thermo set plastics whereas nylon is thermoplastic. Once hardened, thermo set plastics cannot be re-melted; thus, thermo set buttons are less subject to damage from heat during garment processing and care than thermoplastic buttons. Buttons selected for garment dyeing must be able to withstand dyeing and finishing processes and not take on any color. Buttons and fabrics cannot be dyed to match in the same dye bath. Neutral buttons are used for garment dyed apparel as button materials require different types / methods of dyeing than fabrics and other materials. Plastic buttons are commonly fabricated by casting and molding. Casting is the process of pouring synthetic resin inside a rotating drum. The resin forms a pliable sheet from which button blanks are cut with a dye. Blanks are machined to the desired shape and holes are drilled. Machined blanks are polished for hours with pumice, corn cobs, or other materials to develop desired level of smoothness and luster. More than one layer of resin may be cast for special effects. One method for making a simulated pearl button has streaks of brown or black pigment added to the first layer of resin to simulate the appearance of the back of natural shell buttons. The top layer of resin, with pearl essence (a creamy liquid extracted from fish scales) added, is cast for the luminous appearance of pearl. Casting tends to be less expensive than molding. Casted buttons are commonly used for basic buttons on budget and moderate priced apparel. Compression and injection molded buttons tend to be more aesthetically pleasing than cast buttons, but molded buttons are also more expensive because production processes are much slower. Compression molded buttons are formed by pressing a mold into soft resin, which sets up to form the button blanks. Injection molding requires special molds created to the precise shape and size of desired button. Injection molding is used to achieve 3-dimensional shape and more surface pattern. BUTTON TYPES: There are two basic types of buttons: holed and shanked. Thread or other material is passed through holes or shanks to secure buttons to garments. Holed buttons may have two to four holes extending through the center of the button. Buttons may be all one piece or a combination of parts and materials. Holed buttons may be sewn flat or attached with thread shanks. Thread shank allows button to be elevated to provide more flexibility and ease of movement. Thread shanks reduce strain on the thread and fabric and allow garment to lie flat when buttoned. Length of shank can be varied depending on the thickness of the buttonhole. A special presser foot is used to hold the button above the garment to provide slack as it is attached.

131

or formed from a separate metal part and combined with the face or back of button. They consist of four parts: face. Cloth shanks are found primarily on fabric covered buttons and are least durable. Thread shanks may be wrapped in order to protect thread and help button maintain its position. disk. or stamped and shaped from sheet metal to form a button back that includes the shank. coats. Stamped button backs and shanks sometimes have sharp edges that sever thread and abrade or discolor fabrics. Metal shanks may be cast as part of button. set into molded buttons during formation. Shanked buttons are permanently attached or removable if held in place by a toggle or ring on the inside of the garment. stem like devices (the shanks) on the backs of buttons. The toggle or ring slides through shank to hold button in place. Tack buttons are named for the method of attachment. Durability of molded shanks depends on the thickness of shank and strength of materials used to produce the button. commonly found on jeans. Special button-setting equipment is used to apply pressure and secure the tacks in place. Shanks may be made of fabric. Wrapping makes a more durable button application. thus locking it in place. For removable buttons. soldered to metal. Tack buttons are multiple-part buttons attached with tacks that pass through the back of fabric into molded shanks on the back of the button. screwed into wood. and some skirts and slacks. Once inserted. Tack has a post that consists of one or two prongs to secure tack in place. a small eyelet is made in garment that allows shank of the button to be inserted. It is common for a manufacturer to wrap center front buttons that receive extensive use but not to wrap pocket or sleeve buttons.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. shank. Permanently attached buttons are sewn to the garment or mechanically tacked. Wrapping is a process of placing button on its side after attachment and stitching over the thread shank. which may occur in pressing or consumer wear. Shape of disk causes post to bend when forced through the shank. Face is outer. Molded shanks are produced through injection molding. Shanked buttons have short. and overalls. and tack. or firm's name that wraps the back of shank portion. Tack buttons. formed as looped wire like structures attached to or through the center of button. 132 . Tack buttons are also more rigid and therefore more difficult to manipulate in the buttoning process. Face is supported and protected by a hard concave disk that prevents the tack from piercing the button face. molded of the same material as button face. Removable buttons are used on uniforms and other garments when buttons must be removed for cleaning and pressing. or clinched in place as multiple part buttons are assembled. logo. Shanked buttons are subject to crushing with compression. aesthetic portion that is often stamped with a design. They have no thread to wear and abrade and are strong and durable. LAHORE Wrapped thread shanks are used in areas of excessive wear on better quality garments or if thread shanks are long. are fast and easy to apply but applications must be accurate. Shanks may be glued. jean jackets. tacks cannot be removed without damaging the button and garment. A two-prong tack has more holding power and is less likely to come out. Wrapped button shanks are found on better jackets.

LAHORE 133 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

With automatic feeding systems. e.g. changing button types. shank type. During a cycle. Depending on the production needs and sophistication of the machine. face-up. These systems are regularly used by the shirt industry. buttons may be fed automatically or placed by hand in the foot. for a particular garment. number of holes and the diameter and spacing of holes. Dimension specifications would include diameter and thickness of the buttons. This is the distance that the needle must travel in attaching a shanked button. Automatic button feeding systems feed buttons from a hopper. As many as three different sizes may be used on one garment and some garments may use more than one style. The feeding system must be emptied and tubes changed to accommodate the new button size. buttons are stitched. appearance desired. Irregular buttons may feed through upside down or block the tubes. Automatic systems may have button indexers with automatic spacers that move the garment for placement of multiple buttons. neckline. Button size. Buttons must be smooth and consistently shaped to feed properly through automatic systems. To save time and costs.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 134 . Some types of garments may use different sizes of the same button style. into a tube that carries them to the foot. Cams control the movement of the foot. and rethreaded. depth. reset. and the garment or component is released. is determined by the number of units to be used on the style. and thickness of the bridge. LAHORE BUTTON SIZE: Button diameter is specified in lignes. hole-size. machines are refilled. or colors is not a simple matter. a unit of measure equal to 1 /40 of an inch. thus. BUTTON APPLICATION: Button sewers are cycle machines with templates that are adjusted to produce a specific number of stitches in a specific pattern. and fashion trends. sizes. Operators position the garment or component and engage the machine. automatic button-feeding equipment is most frequently used on basic goods with which changes in types and colors are less frequent. coats often use large buttons for the front and a smaller size for sleeves. or belt.) Button dimensions may be limited by method of application and available equipment that a manufacturer uses. (The bridge is the distance from the end of the shank to the edge of the hole. threads cut. holding strength. manufacturers often limit selection to one size of neutral-colored buttons that blend with many different materials in the line. some men's shirts use larger buttons down the front and smaller ones for button-down collars. which holds the button as stitches are formed.

contract the production of the tubing or purchase basic colors and types of tubing that can be used on different garments. and so on. as with thread loops. method of construction. Straight buttonholes are used on most types of garments and at all price points. Leather is also sometimes used as the binding in buttonholes. and jeans.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF BUTTONHOLES: Buttonhole aesthetics and performance are related to type. stitches per inch. such as braid. Edges of straight and keyhole buttonholes are finished with thread. Cross-stitching uses diagonal holes in button as stitches are formed. Bound buttonholes are sometimes used on leather garments as the tight stitching used on straight or keyhole buttonholes could damage the leather. where there is little stress. LAHORE Buttons are often attached with a 101 chain stitch. Keyhole buttonholes have an enlarged. size. elastic. or thread. CROSS-STITCHED BUTTONS: are often regarded as better-quality. Loops may also be used for their aesthetic value. Bound buttonholes also may be found on better women's coats and on women's custom-made apparel. Four-hole buttons may be stitched with parallel or cross-stitched patterns controlled by a template. round shape at the end closest to the garment opening. The secret of good button application is using a sufficient number of stitches to hold the button and trimming thread close to the last stitch. Thread size varies with the type of buttonhole. Parallel stitched buttons are the most widely used. Loops may be nearly invisible. Manufacturers may make their own tubing out of matching piece goods. but it is also likely to unravel if a loose thread is pulled. and placement of the buttonhole in relation to the button and type of fabric. formations of stitches. the button attachment is stronger. or tape. but the only real difference may be aesthetic. This provides space for shanked buttons to fit into buttonholes without causing the buttonhole to gap open. 5. Stitches encase the gimp and cover the cut edge of the fabric as the buttonhole is formed. Stitches form in first pair of holes and then 2nd set. materials used. Piece goods are made into tubing from bias strips of fabric. A single bound buttonhole may involve several operations. Threads used on shirt buttonholes are much finer than threads used on coats. Keyhole buttonholes are usually found on coats. narrow fabrics. Gimp is extra heavy thread frequently used to reinforce and strengthen keyhole buttonholes. Buttonhole quality relates to stitch type. and the expected performance. leather. Bound buttonholes are rectangular in shape with sides finished with fabric. Tubing may have cord in the center to make it three dimensional and increase its durability. When crossstitching is two separate operations. loop. and keyhole. straight. This stitch can set a button in a minimal amount of time. When cross-stitching is done as one operation it is primarily a merchandising feature rather than a performance feature. Straight buttonholes are a slit with cut edges encased in thread and ends reinforced with stitching. Loop buttonholes are attached in a seam with the loop extending beyond the edge of the garment part.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Loops are used in areas where there is little or no overlap of garment pieces. jeans. or visibility may contribute to the style of the garment such as the button loops often used down the back of wedding gowns. BUTTON HOLE TYPES: Buttonhole types bound. or other material. and where a placket is in back of the loops. Loops may be made of piece goods. and method of construction. jackets. 135 . They are labor intensive and therefore have limited use in massproduced garments. weight of the shell fabric. It is laid on top of the buttonhole ahead of the stitching.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and quality level of the garment produced. fabric type. Stitches that are too far apart do not provide adequate support to the cut edge. The lock stitch is more durable and will not ravel out if a loose thread is pulled. BUTTONHOLE PLACEMENT: Buttonholes may be vertical. The number of stitches used in making buttonholes can be adjusted for each style. With this method. Automated equipment can produce multiple buttonholes at one time similar to button-setting equipment. wear out the fabric. buttons pull to the end of buttonholes closest to the garment opening. A minimum size for a buttonhole is the diameter of the button to be used. The most common type of buttonhole machine stitches a complete buttonhole before a knife comes down and cuts a slit between the rows of stitching. Horizontal buttonholes have better holding power because the point of stress is the end of the buttonhole rather than the center. LAHORE Buttonholes are usually stitched with a lock stitch (301 or 304) or single thread chain stitch (101). Buttonholes are produced with cycle machines that require an operator to position the garment and engage the machine. Other factors that should be considered are depth and smoothness of the button. or prohibit recovery when stretched. During wear. allow fabric to ravel. High stitch count on some stretch fabrics will cause buttonholes to gap unless the fabric has been stabilized. Vertical buttonholes are usually centered on front bands or narrow plackets as found on many shirts and blouses. BUTTONHOLE SIZE: Buttonhole size is determined in relation to the corresponding button. Excessive stitching can put stress on the stitching line. therefore. they may damage the fabric. buttonholes need to be positioned knowing this is the natural button 136 . This method requires that the fabric be heavy enough to support the stitching. and are less durable and aesthetically pleasing. followed by the stitching. and the amount of stretch in the shell fabric. but they must be stabilized. Another method that makes a more finished buttonhole is the machine that cuts the opening first. yarns from the piece goods or interlining may ravel from the cut edges and get caught on the button during the buttoning process. Buttonholes may be placed on the diagonal for special aesthetic or functional effects. This method is more likely to secure all threads and produce smooth edges and a more finished buttonhole. Buttonholes that are too small for the buttons are difficult to use and receive excessive wear. Stitches should be close together but not piled on top of other stitches. If it is too lightweight. or diagonal. as is the case with vertical buttonholes. Buttonhole indexers can make 6 buttonholes in 19-sccond cycle time. The sequence of buttonhole making varies with the style of the garment.g. Horizontal buttonholes are used on fronts of coats and jackets and on cuffs and collar bands of shirts. If they are too close. When this happens. horizontal. diagonal buttonholes are sometimes used for the support button on the underside of waistbands to keep waistband ends from showing. the stitches over the cut edge will draw the fabric together and the buttonhole will not lie flat. e. Buttonholes that are too loose will not retain the button during wear and stress. type of equipment. snags and pulled yarns can occur in the piece goods in any direction from the buttonhole.

exhibit a logo. Studs are the projecting half of the closure unit with an expanded rim. 16. Larger sockets generally house one of two types of springs: a floating ring spring or parallel springs. Snaps may be used to secure garments and accessories that are too bulky or stiff for buttons and buttonholes such as belts and purses. depths. LAHORE position. Compared to buttons. A floating ring spring expands and contracts behind the expanded rim as the stud is forced into the socket. The gripping power of snaps tends to increase with size since larger snaps have more gripping surface. and many types of casual apparel. They are available in varied diameters. e. and some dresses. which makes opening a pocket or placket faster and more accessible to the wearer. Interlining should be chosen that is stable in at least one direction. If buttonholes are used on knit or bias-cut woven fabric. Snaps are available with varied degrees of opening and closing action. The more common sizes are 15. A closure unit consists of two different closure parts: a stud and socket that must be compatible. Buttonhole placement too close to the edge of a garment may allow too much stress on a weakened area of fabric. or flattened end that must fit the socket half of the closure unit. active sportswear. ASTM has standard tests for evaluation of snap performance relative to lateral holding strength and snap action. This provides a base for a stable. Snaps are sized by lignes the same as buttons but produced in fewer sizes.g.g. Buttonholes should be set far enough into the garment to prevent buttons from extending over the edge of the component or from putting too much stress on other closures. are separate coverings used on the outside of the snap unit.5 SNAPS: Snaps are mechanical closures that are frequently used on adult and children's clothing in place of buttons. The spring and corresponding shape of the stud provide the holding power for the closure unit. and shapes that affect the holding power of the snap. but the collar band buttonhole is horizontal. and sockets are attached to the overlap. However. although special sizes and types may be produced to specifications. When this happens on skirts or slacks. snaps are quick and easy to press closed and pull open. the primary visible part of snaps. 5. which are 12 or 14 lignes snaps. Caps may be made to look like buttons. Vertical buttonholes are centered on the button. 20. Snaps also may be selected for their aesthetic value. Sport snaps. Center closing horizontal buttonholes should be located just beyond the center of the garment to allow the button to center itself. particularly when a less formal look is desired. The stable grain of the interlining should be aligned parallel with buttonhole. Occasionally only the decorative half of the snap is applied to the garment if it does not have to be functional. Parallel 137 . flat buttonhole. Snaps allow easy access and fast change. bias-cut woven interlining used in button-down collars is straight grain under the collar buttonholes. the length of the buttonhole should be stabilized to prevent gapping. Studs are attached to the under lap of a garment or component. Sport snaps are used extensively on both woven and knit sport shirts. blouses. Buttonholes should be perfectly aligned with the buttons in order to avoid gaps and buckling of the garment. Caps. e. and 24 lignes. or provide aesthetic enhancement. 18. are a smaller version. D 4846-88. they require precision matching and strength that may not be necessary for buttons. SNAP PARTS: Snaps are paired mechanical closures that consist of a closure unit and an attaching unit. Sockets are the hollow half of the closure unit that contains a spring to retain the stud. ball. Ring springs are generally more durable and have greater holding power. the buttonhole may eventually tear out. They are used as closures on outerwear.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. buttonholes are commonly vertical down the center front of a shirt.

leather. lingerie. This eliminates drilling holes prior to setting the snaps. enameled. color. knits will pull away from the prongs unless stabilized. flatter snaps. The barrel is inserted through the fabric into the closure unit and compressed to clinch the fastener. An eyelet consists of two parts: a top. Plastic snaps are seeing wider usage on specific types of products such as children's wear. 138 . Pronged rings or disks are used to secure smaller. and nickel. Fine prongs are sharper and able to penetrate fabrics with less damage to yarns. and some packaging. polyester. The strength and holding power of pronged snaps are dependent on the length and number of prongs used. painted. which means the barrel cuts a small slit in the garment as it is inserted. or cloth covered. Rings are available with four or five prongs. Snaps are attached to garments by sewing or clinching. which are sometimes referred to as press fasteners or grippers. Long-length prongs are designed for use with bulky fabrics in order to provide better penetration. similar to those used on buttons. Caps may be made of nylon. brass. cloth. Snaps must be compatible with other materials used in the garment and the required care procedures. MATERIALS: Materials used in producing snaps are primarily metal: steel. Barrels may be self-piercing. nickel plated. Pronged rings need to be supported with interlining. Prongs penetrate the fabric and are clinched to the closure units by means of a special tool. The eyelet of the under lap unit consists of a flange that supports the snap and protects the surrounding fabric. Snaps may be plated with various metals to produce a product more compatible with processing and care procedures. urea. which is often called a cap (also called a button or cover). Caps may be formed separately and attached to the rest of the snap or formed as part of it. different prong lengths. Attaching units establish the position and provide holding power for setting closure parts. Caps may be antiqued. There are two main types of attaching units: eyelets and pronged disks or open-top rings. vinyl. LAHORE spring snaps can be identified by two parallel bars on either side of the socket. bone. The cap is the decorative part of the snap and the most visible portion. size. and a barrel.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. or stamped metal and produced in nearly any shape. brass. When stretched. especially on knits. or white enameled. The eyelet with attached cap is used to attach the socket or overlap unit. Sewn snaps are attached with a 101 chain stitch similar to button setting or by hand as may be the case with custom sewn garments. Snaps used on most mass-produced garments are clinched in place by attachment parts positioned behind the closure parts. Many different types of finishes are available. plated. or finish. melamine. rain wear. and fineness. Pronged rings may be stainless steel.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. regardless of the complexity and degree of automation. logos. Elastics used as facings are protective coverings and finishes for garment edges. Elastics must be suited to the desired aesthetics and expected performance of the product. the holes required by hollow barrel eyelets mean they cannot be applied in another location. LAHORE APPLICATION: Accurate placement and durable snap setting are important factors in producing quality garments. jacquard patterns. Elastics used in casings are often referred to as insert elastic or commodity elastic. however. Snaps can be applied with manual or automatic equipment. They are often a factor in determining garment structure. Logos may be incorporated into elastic structures to provide differentiation for garments. Snap-setting equipment. Elastic components include bra straps and waistbands made entirely of elastic. Vendors of open-stock elastics usually provide a specification data sheet that apparel manufacturers may use in making purchase decisions. Structural design elastics include stripes. Casings are fabric or thread enclosures that completely encase elastic so is not visible or in contact with the body. Throat depth of the attaching device is a factor in how far from a garment edge a snap can be set. edges of bras. The die holds the cap of the snap. The degree of expandability and recovery is provided by the structure of elastomeric fibers. A snap that is lost or not clinched properly causes a defective garment. Elastics may be sampled and tested. Automated snap setters have automatic feeding systems that alternately feed the appropriate parts. and for jogging shorts. fit. as is often the case with underwear elastic. Improper fit of the die and snap or the die and chuck will not allow the snap to be set properly. The loss or reduction of either function inhibits the aesthetics and performance of elastic and the garment to which it is attached. The performance of elastic may determine the life of the garment in which it is used. Facing elastics are used for waists of underwear. The equipment used to attach or apply closures is often proprietary and will fit only on that supplier's product. Trim elastics are applied to the outer part of the garment so they 139 . A die is the lower portion that must be the proper size and shape for the specific cap to be used. Inventory and the setting process can be simplified if only one type of attaching part is used. AESTHETICS: Elastic used as trim may be selected for its particular color or design. and garment prototypes with elastic incorporated may be tested to determine if the performance of the elastic is adequate. or applied directly as a facing or means of incorporating fullness. fabrication of the elastic.6 ELASTIC: Elastic may be used to create an expandable closure or opening in a garment. FUNCTIONS OF ELASTIC: Performing a variety of functions. applied designs are printed on elastics. and comfort. incorporated in garment components. Snaps with pronged rings may be pried loose and reset if the fabric has not been damaged. Elastics may be purchased from open stock or ordered to specifications. Vendors determine minimum orders that will qualify the manufacturer to have title to the attaching equipment without monetary outlay. or special constructions. is dependent on pressure applied with a chuck and die. 5. Elastic has two functions: to expand when stretched and to recover to its original dimension when released. Once snaps are set. The chuck that must fit the die exerts pressure for clinching. Clinched snaps usually cannot be removed and replaced without damaging the garment. there is little flexibility in changing position. and application methods. elastics may be separate garment components.

protection. it will cause gathering when it relaxes. and some types of intimate apparel. Once installed. Elastics provide a comfortable fit for waistlines. tops of hosiery. From the manufacturers and retailers perspectives. Garments or components with elastic expansion require fewer materials and operations. LAHORE are readily visible instead of being concealed in a casing. Elastics. PERFORMANCE: Elastic materials are selected for their specific performance characteristics such as the amount of stretch. protective devices. Garments with expandable waistlines may often be sized in small / medium large as one size fits a wider range of customers. Elastics with high elasticity and little resistance to strain provide low holding power. As body moves and bends. and stretch rather than remaining rigid and firm. Without elastic. This allows the wearer to move freely without being restricted. shape. Higher holding power is required for athletic apparel. and hand. fabric edges would roll and curl when stretched and would not return to the original flat state. and smooth the human body. shape. must be suited to the size of the opening needed and the tightness of fit expected. Elastics provide flexibility for comfort and movement and in size and fit for a variety of body shapes. and foundation garments. Casual skirts and shorts sometimes use elastic trim as the waistband. are often used in support clothing. Elastics with a high degree of stretch are used to retain gathers or fullness in areas needing easy expansion and recovery. and shape to muscles and body parts. Elastics are often used to produce firm edges and provide shape retention for fabrics such as nylon tricot. and necklines as long as they are sized correctly. Power stretch elastics. and swim wear fabrics. The performance in any given application is dependent on the elongation and recovery of a particular type of elastic. holding power. Probable uses include the cuffs or sleeves of children's dresses and sleepwear. method of application. and weight and structure of shell fabric. fold. bend. Elastic may also contribute to aesthetics as part of garment fit and styling. those with a greater resistance to stretch. comfort. Resistance elastic exhibits to strain provide holding power. Special elastic garments or elastic components are structured to provide support. Elastics used inside a woven waistband can be stretched only to maximum of fabric casing. 140 . garments structured with power stretch fabrics may be used by athletes to support muscles and retain special types of pads or for surgical wraps and support devices. Used in a component. must contract to its original dimension. while elastics used on waist of knits are limited only by stretch of fabric. The expanded elastic whether high or low control. If elastic is sewn in an expanded condition. Elastics may gather a sleeve or waistline. power net. flexibility in size and fit means one garment will fit a greater variety of body shapes and dimensions and fewer SKUs are needed. which are produced in varied amounts of elasticity.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Elastics allow for a close body fit and expansion without a placket as long as the garment itself is large enough. flexibility. thus reducing production costs. Elastic expansion makes it easier to pull on garments and in many cases eliminates the need for plackets or other closures. High-control stretch provides greater resistance to strain and thus more holding power. elastics cannot expand further than the garment component in which they are contained. finish an edge or provide shape and support to garment components. cuffs. Full. and appearance. in order to provide consistent fit. it can provide a tight fit with flexibility that would otherwise be uncomfortable and restrict movement. Elastics are made with varying degrees of stretch and holding power. soft elastic will flex. Power stretch fabrics and elastic components are also used in foundation garments to firm.

but rubber. and fabricated for a specific garment category. Broad elastics may be cut and sewn similar to other fabric yardage. The wrapping contributes to aesthetic effect and comfort. Braided elastics. woven elastics provide better appearance and are frequently used in garments with tighter specifications and less tolerance. satin weaves. flat filament yarns. approximately four one inch strips can be woven at one time as compared to warp knitting. elastics used in the waistline of men's briefs may have 100-110% stretch. ages faster. Elastics produced for swim wear are sometime treated to increase resistance to chlorine. and chlorine bleach. and polyester in yarns and fabrics. Rubber costs less than spandex. nylon. The high extendibility of elastics is due to elastomeric fibers: rubber or spandex. Facing elastics have approximately 160% stretch. Woven elastics are heavier than knitted and braided elastics and have more width stability. have a high degree of stretch and are often used on children's wear. Elastic thread or yarn can be woven or knitted into fabrics or used for decorative rows of stitching. better rigidity to fold over. and strap elastic has 70-80% stretch. Braided elastics usually have a high degree of stretch but become narrower as stretched. and size. or a novelty variation. LAHORE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELASTICS: Characteristics of elastics depend on materials. in the same size fiber or yarn. while elastics used in women's briefs may have 130-140% stretch. and wovens. Plush elastics are constructed of stretch nylon and 141 . or finished narrow fabrics in widths ranging from 1/8 inch to 15 inches. Plain weaves are used for the commodity insert types of elastic. which may create problems with recovery after stitching. In spite of this modification. stretch. and care of elastics. Flat strips of elastomerics may be encased in thread during the sewing process or used as inserts. knits. Both of these elastomerics have excellent elongation and recovery properties. Elastomerics may be combined with cotton. rayon. This application is often found on underwear or in leg or cuff casing of sweats. On a 36 to 40 inch bed. has lower strength. The amount of stretch is determined by fiber content and fabrication. and is susceptible to damage by heat. sun. performance. with high or low stretch. satin weaves are used to produce strapping elastic and plush elastic. Elastic thread or yarn commonly consists of an elastomeric core wrapped with cotton or acetate. Most military uniforms that require elastic specify wovens. According to specific quality standards. Woven elastics may be plain weaves. Spandex tolerates both dry cleaning and laundering.g. dry cleaning solvents. The percentage of elastomerics included may have a direct relationship to the percentage of stretch and recovery that can be expected from a specific type of elastic or material. which can produce up to twenty-five one inch strips on a machine of the same size. Plush elastic is used as an edging or facing that may be used next. and it facilitates the sewing operation. and salt water.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. yellows with age. and more holding power because the elastomerics are easier to control. Common narrow elastic fabrications are braids. deteriorating elements will eventually reduce effectiveness of elastic. fabrication. acetate. e. because they are widely used in casings. MATERIALS: Fiber content is a major factor in the longevity. to the skin. Woven elastics are more expensive to produce because fewer strips can be produced at one time and more operations are required. FABRICATIONS: Elastomeric material may be used as broad elastics made in widths that exceed 15 inches. as thread. depending on the type and closeness of the stitches. Elastics are often produced for a specific end use. Stitching through elastic that has narrowed while stretched may prevent total recovery after stitching. which may be called tunnel elastics.

This elastic is attached in the traditional manner. or picot edge. It requires the elastic be attached or closed off in a seam. The cut ends of the cord are drawn out and positioned ready to tie. Lightweight. Sewing channels are lengthwise spaces without elastomers where the elastic can be stitched to a garment but not damage the elastomers or reduce elastic recovery. Most exposed applications have elastic fed from a reel and sewn directly to flat components. sweatpants. Exposed elastic applications are often used at the waistline of underwear and lingerie. Knit elastics weigh less than woven. Warp knitting machines can produce more yards. Yarns are knitted around the elastomers to hold them in place vertically and horizontally. Needle spacing may be adjusted on knitting machines to form channels or sewing tracks in the elastics. which may be bulky and uncomfortable to the wearer. lingerie. Better lingerie may have seams in elastic covered with a small square of fabric to conceal the scam area. more yarn is incorporated. The nylon "bulks up" when the elastic is relaxed to produce a plush surface. to knit structures to provide. Direct application of exposed elastic is often the fastest and least expensive method of application because it involves only one operation. but the operation of inserting a draw cord through a casing is eliminated. In other instances. The filler yarns. such as sleeves of children’s dresses. This type of elastic is frequently used on shorts. which is a variation of this type of construction. Width of knitted elastics is controlled by the number of needles and the amount of space between the needles used in the knitting operation. LAHORE spandex that elongate when stretched. These may be referred to as toppings. extra body may be needed to produce the hand or aesthetics desired. APPLICATIONS: Elastic applications may be exposed or enclosed. and other active wear. which adds aesthetic value to the elastic and garment. can be added. 142 . Manufacturers may choose to bar tack across the seam to make it lie flat or cover it with a label. increasing yarn size of filler yarns. open-construction elastic allows body heat to escape and is less bulky. Knit elastics are produced on warp knitting machines with individual needles fed by separate yarns. more stiffness or substance. Direct application of elastic requires uniform stretch of the elastic during the entire stitching process in order for the elastic to contract evenly. is an elastic with a draw cord knitted into the center in place of elastomeric fibers. Knit elastics are cheaper to produce as raw elastomeric fibers are used instead of covered yarns. Woven elastics may be produced with a scalloped. which increases both weight and cost. Additional weight or body may be added to elastic by use of filler yarn. This is done with a metering device that can be adjusted to apply a specific amount of tension to elastic as it is being sewn to garment. and raising the number of courses per inch.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. which may be referred to as courses. looped. Needle spacing on sewing machines must be compatible with the sewing tracks for effective application. This provides vertical elongation and horizontal stability and does not allow the elastic to become narrower when elongated as with braided elastics. underwear. Exposed elastic may be applied to the outside or inside of a garment and not covered by a casing or cover stitch. and swimwear. Quick / Cord. which may be an advantage for some uses. As more courses are used. It has direct contact with the body or other garments which may limit its durability and aesthetic appeal. per hour because more strips can be knitted at same time.

Peel strength is a measure of the amount of force needed to pull the two tapes apart from one end. 5. an over-edge stitch is used to combine operations of finishing the cut edge of' the casing and attaching the elastic in the same operation. In some cases. or using a cover stitch over the elastic. gloves. or the elastic may be cut and sewn together prior to enclosure. Hook-and-loop tapes have many uses. force is applied to opposite sides of the paired tapes. Exposed applications on lingerie may be attached with a 406 cover stitch or a 308 multiple zigzag. hook-and-loop tapes provide a means of attachment or closure. They may be allowed to remain free in the casings without additional stitching that could restrict recovery. In measuring shear strength. Enclosed elastic applications are concealed by a fabric casing or cover stitching. LAHORE Elastics are most often applied with a chain stitch because of the stretch built into the stitch. Enclosed elastic may be more comfortable and aesthetically pleasing because the elastic is covered or concealed. structure of the tapes. or as fasteners on jackets. It is used to hold accessories or garment parts such as shoulder pads in place. Holding power is affected by the amount of pressure applied to the tapes. Durability of hook-and-loop tape is determined by testing the holding power and checking the appearance of' the tape after a specified number of opening and closing cycles. shorts. shoes. In some types of garments. but parts of production process are still protected. one covered with tiny hooks and one covered by tiny loops. including but not limited to apparel. Enclosed elastics may be applied directly prior to final seaming. rubber bands of specified dimensions may be used in a casing. although they have been a fashion closure in active sportswear and are available in a variety of basic colors. the more interlocking there will be between hooks and loops. such as 5.000. Shear strength is the amount of force required to cause two parts to slide on each other thus separating the tapes. Vibration or agitation also increases holding power by allowing hooks to attain a deeper grasp of the loops. hooks 143 . Performance of hook-and-loop tape is determined by peel strength and shear strength. Research efforts are ongoing to improve product and production processes. Closure strength or holding power may be altered by increasing or decreasing the size of the tapes. who noticed how tenaciously cockle burrs clung to his dog and clothing. PERFORMANCE: Hook-and-loop tapes are more important functionally than aesthetically. slacks. This is a fast method of encasing elastic and eliminating bulky seams. doublestitching two adjacent garment pieces together.000. On clothing.7 HAND AND LOOP TAPE: Hook-and-loop tape was developed as a touch fastener by a Swiss engineer. Casings may be formed by folding fabric around elastic for stitching or applying casing materials to the garment. and lingerie. Tapes may be tested after a specified number of cycles. The more pressure that is applied. Hook and loop tapes are often used on clothing for children and people with disabilities because of the ease in opening and closing compared to other types of closures that require a higher degree of skills and strength.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This method is risky unless special attachments are used to protect the elastic. and method of application to the garment or product. and most costly. Hook-and-loop fasteners consist of paired polyamide tapes. Original patent has expired.000. Enclosed elastics may also be more durable because the elastic is covered and protected but bulkier due to the double thickness of fabric used. swimsuits. A casing is a fabric channel to encase elastic or a drawstring. Hook-and-loop tapes are contact fasteners with hooks to grasp and hold the loops. most time-consuming. the latter is the neatest. Two tape structures are closed by touch and pressure and opened or separated with peeling action. or 20. 10.

Performance problems related to the use of hook-andloop tape include tendencies of the hook side of the tape to attach to other materials or garment parts. and pressure-sensitive backings for easy application to specific products. Meanwhile. loops.8 HOOKS: Waistband hooks are paired metal fasteners. and dimensional stability of tapes. inventory management of closures is a major responsibility. that are set prior to waistband assembly. For manufacturers of outerwear and sportswear. all of which may impact costs. and order requirements. Construction that is not appropriate for the closure type. LAHORE per inch. and hook length in relation to the size of the closure. impact performance of the closure and customer satisfaction. Closure failure can be attributed to faulty garment design. in multiples. Variables include minimums. faulty materials. Back coating involves coating each tape with a synthetic resin to prevent yarn slippage. poor sewing or application procedures. Hook-and-loop tapes are available in standard widths (5/8 to 4 inches). MATERIALS: Apparel hook and-loop tapes are fabricated from nylon filament that is knitted or woven into narrow fabric with 1/16-inch selvages. or other fasteners may cause excessive strain during use and result in closure failure. Hooks may be used singly. APPLICATIONS: Hook-and-loop fasteners may be applied by sewing. hook-and-loop fasteners are available with a wide variety of factory applied adhesive pre-coats. labor costs for placket formation and closure installation. and cut. shell fabric. or heat sealing depending on the particular type of hookand-loop fasteners used and the product to which it is applied. that are too short or poorly placed. The loop tape is interwoven or knitted to form a dense pile surface consisting of a mass of fine loops. There are also liquid adhesives suitable for most applications. 144 . The pile surface is napped to disorient the surface and provide better holding power. a hook and a bar (eye). which can be an advantage during application but uncomfortable when used in garments. Flexibility of the hook affects hook strength and the amount of resistance the hook has to straightening when stressed. Hooks attached may be used on many types of pants and skirts at all price levels. heatactivated. 5. improper selection of closures. It contributes to the stiff hand. including solvent-activated. and customer abuse. hook strength. The more hooks per square inch. and cost of returned garments because of closure failure. back coated. Both hook-and loop tapes may be heat-set to ensure shape retention of hooks. It involves a large number of vendors and dozens of SKUs from each vendor. the more force it takes to separate the tapes. COSTS OF CLOSURES: Closure costs focus on four main areas: cost of materials and inventory maintenance. ultrasonic sealing. lead times. costs of purchasing or leasing specialized equipment. The hook and bar are designed with staple like devices on the back. or supported by buttons. Poor design and in-correct installation methods may not be apparent until garments have been worn. This may put turn around time for problems at 4 – 6 months after initial production. It is available on reels for continuous application or in dispenser packages for easy access and handling by operators. Each part of the fastener is held in place by a clinch plate that is placed inside the band. Tapes are dyed. Although sewing is the most common application used on apparel. The surface of the hooked tape is formed from monofilament loops that are cut to form hooks. Prongs on the hook or bar penetrate the band and clamp around the plate. especially during laundering. adhesive bonding. The plackets. incorrect production methods. a lot of garments can be produced with potential for closure failure. and shapes may be die cut to specified dimensions.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

6. 145 . flat applications and other trims. and straight design lines and on curved edges such as necklines. Narrow bindings work best on sharp contours while either wide or narrow bindings can be used on straight edges. 6. These materials are applied to garments as bindings. Possibilities for trim are limited only by availability. or finished garments or they may be garment components such as knit collars and cuffs. Bindings are primarily functional trims that finish outer edges of garments or garment components by encompassing them. Trims may be added to piece goods. They are visible parts of garments that may be used to increase hanger appeal. armholes. is difficult to shape. edgings. A selected type of trims includes embroidery. Trims include a broad range of materials and treatments that may be superficially applied or structurally incorporated into nearly any type of' garment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. They may be applied to edges or included in seams of garment components. Bindings need flexibility to conform to garment curves. TRIMS: Trims are materials used to ornament or enhance garments. outline shapes. Trims are grouped into four categories: bindings. LAHORE 6. They are used to finish neck lines. relate to current fashion trends. e. knit trims. and carry a theme through an entire collection. and special purpose fabrications. hems. knit collars and cuffs. including piece goods. provide product differentiation. screen printing. Bindings may be made of a wide variety of materials including bias cut wovens. and so on. lace. Edgings on straight edges need to be flexible but not necessarily shapeable. Piece goods are embroidered or narrow fabrics have edgings applied prior to cutting. and absorb wear and abrasion that would affect seams. which are an integral part of garment design. Stiff piping lacks flexibility.2 TYPES OF TRIMS: Wide varieties of materials are used as garment trim. Examples of decorative trims are embroideries. may distort component shape. may be decorative and / or functional. Binding width and stretch must be appropriate for the amount of contour expected. tucks. buttons. ribbon. costs and equipment to produce and apply them. Edgings are used to accentuate style lines. edgings. and is more susceptible to abrasion than a more flexible type. They become a more integral part of a garment if applied early in production process. appliqués. screen printing. Edgings can also be gathered for aesthetic appeal and shaping along contoured seams. design creativity. and labels. or to compartmentalize blocks of color. Functional trims are an integral part of garment structure and use. They are applied using methods specified in the Bound Seam Class of the Federal Stitch and Seam Specifications. Types of edgings are piping. thread. and folded braid. knit strips. Decorative trims are selected and applied to enhance the aesthetic appeal of a garment but are not essential to garment function and performance. ruffles. support materials. tapes. Used to stabilize seams. Bindings are selected to match or accent piece goods or to carry out a specific color theme in a garment design. and other trims. Piping is a covered cord that forms a raised edge along seams. picot trim. Trims are often applied to garment components prior to assembly to facilitate handling and application. which might be used to bind the edge of jogging shorts. Knit and bias bindings have more stretch and flexibility than woven gods cut on straight grain. Screen printing may be applied to garment components or finished garments depending on the nature of design and customer needs. but rarely are structural trims added after assembly. and labels. edge finishes. closures. Finished garments may be trimmed to customize a product. Edgings are used on straight edges such as hems. fringe. garment components. flat applications. and appliqués. outline components. front openings. heat transfers.1 NATURE OF TRIMS: Trims. lace.g. They serve a specific purpose in garment performance and aesthetic contributions are optional.

Bindings and edgings are used in areas of high body contact such as armholes of sleeveless garments. use. Piping. Appliqu és may be in high demand some seasons. ribbons. Wider trims are difficult to curve and manipulate for a flat application. and hems. Flat trims are applied to the surface of garment components to ornament a style. Scrolling requires very narrow and flexible trim. warp knit bands. Width affects use and application. grommets. and skill of operators. Bindings. Fiber content is a selection criteria related to durability. e. while leather trims and rhinestone studs are popular another season. narrow weaves. have a soft hand and resist abrasion. and trims to create special visual and textural appeal. abrasion resistance. and (3) are dimensionally stable or dimensionally compatible with piece goods. Work aids such as folders and guides are frequently used to facilitate 146 . (2) are colorfast. necklines. For good performance. Trims are also part of the fashion scene. or used to stripe sleeves or pant legs or to cover seams. particularly of sleepwear and infant and toddler dresses. rivets. Braids. appliqué. knit tubings. and flat applications should be flexible. appliqué. lace. equipment. easy-to-wear fashions. Use of these trims is subject to fashion acceptance. lace trims and ruffles on little girl’s dresses are more important to the gift market and certain ethnic markets than more functional trims. Unfinished edges of trims should be enclosed in seams or covered by garment components. durable applications. Coverage of seams with trims requires wider. twill tapes. and care. and other types of edgings may be applied as lapped seams or superimposed seams depending on whether the edging has one or two finished edges and where it is being applied to the garment. Prongs may cut yarns and damage shell fabrics if not properly selected and carefully applied. garment components. Care must be taken to select trims that (1) have similar care requirements as the piece goods. scrolled on collars or fronts of blouses and dresses. Other trims. ribbons. the wrong trim can make garments un-salable. Dimensional stability during application. are sewn or clinched into garments with special equipment. trims serve best when they can embellish basic. Soft and knitted piece goods often need a backing to stabilize and support metal trims. Excessive stretching during application may result in uneven application. while cheap buttons or laces can ruin the appeal of well-made garments. Edging laces have a stiffer hand. tapes. Bindings are especially subject to abrasion because they surround garment edges and rub against the body. and screen printing are applied to garment piece goods. and buckles. edgings. Flat trims include braids of all types and designs. and bands may be sewn to garment components in single or multiple rows. including nail heads. A softer hand is more comfortable and considered to be better quality. embroidery. AESTHETICS AND PERFORMANCE: Appropriate trim selections can make ordinary garments special. From a production standpoint. That is why little children become fussy when dressed in frilly dresses with scratchy lace edging around the neck and sleeves.g. and distortion. fronts of jackets. rhinestones. and screen print ing. LAHORE Laces are often used to trim necklines and sleeves. easy-toproduce. and care is important to aesthetics and performance. Shrinkage can cause puckering of garment components and poor fit. Flat trims is applied with lock or chain stitch machines. Edgings with two finished selvages can lap edges of components for application. pucker. Some trims have specific appeal to certain market segments. Highquality trims can make otherwise inexpensive garments look terrific. Embroidery. These trims are available in a vast variety of widths and fabrications. trims must be compatible with other materials used in the garment and suited to assembly methods.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Prongs or other attaching devices need to grasp and hold shell fabrics securely without cutting or snagging the garment or scratching the wearer.

This enables garment manufacturers to work with fewer vendors in sourcing materials for their product line and reduce the marketing done directly by a trim manufacturer. or fabric consistency but benefits of ordering from open stock disappear. such as collars and cuffs. KNIT TRIMS: Knit trims are primarily functional trims used as bindings and edgings with aesthetics added through color. shrinkage. Trim wholesalers market a variety of products produced by multiple sources that may include appliqués. depending on methods of fabrication. but they may also be used to trim woven sports wear. and some knit braid may be produced as a tube and cut to specific lengths or widths as needed. On completion of a run. delivery is more dependable. Trim pieces may be knitted to specific size dimensions. which create difficulties in matching specific colors a garment manufacturer may use. buttons. Open-stock items have smaller minimum orders and are easier to reorder but have limited confinement. When trims are produced in house or by affiliated plants. quality control is easier. SOURCES OF TRIMS: Apparel manufacturers may purchase trims or produce their own. A better understanding of aesthetics and performance of trims is gained by the more in-depth discussion of the production methods and characteristics of some major types of trims. Flat-bed knitting machines may be used to produce knit trims. distortion during application and distortion following renovation. LAHORE sewing operations and to improve quality and consistency of application. such as collars or cuffs. Manufacturers may choose to produce some types of trims and contract production of others in order to limit investment in specialized equipment and skills. stretching. Purchased trims may be selected from open stock or produced to specifications. Many trim manufacturers work with fabric houses and garment manufacturers to develop trims to coordinate with piece goods or to enhance garment styling. Fashion sometimes dictates knit trims on wovens or woven trims on knits. pattern. logo. exclusivity. Knit trims are designed and used primarily on knit sportswear. cuffs. may be ordered to specifications to obtain a specific color match. Narrow tubes may be cut to specific lengths and used as a tubular trim. and less opportunity to be copied than when trims are contracted or purchased from open stock. Common performance problems include failure of trims in laundry or dry cleaning. Yarn-dyed stripes and jacquard designs are frequently part of knit trim structures. Knit trims may be cut and sewn or knitted to specified dimensions. lead time is reduced. and narrow fabrics. and texture. Trims. Neckbands. shading and matching problems are reduced. embroideries. knit collar and cuffs.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Circular knit trims are produced in tubes that range from 1 inch to 60 inches in circumference. Garment manufacturers that produce their own trims may have their own specialized machines or contract production. and inventory adjustments are easier. and laces. Trim buyers depend on a vendor's testing and specifications when ordering from open book. Moisture-soluble yarns may serve as connecting courses between pieces of trim. color bleeding. They are available in traditional colors and limited fashion colors. or be shaped by decreasing and connecting Wales to form fashion marks. while wider tubular piece goods may be cut crosswise as a continuous strip and rolled for application during assembly. When a firm produces its own trims. braids. leaving separated 147 . have finished edges. Tube size depends on the size of a needle bed and gauge. application of steam dissolves the soluble connecting yarns. but compatibility with other garment materials must also be checked. there is more product control. Trim manufacturers specialize in certain types of products such as lace. Knit trims may be used for flat applications such as stripes or bands or for components.

Completed garments are embroidered to customize garments with logos and special designs. Garment components and finished garments may be embroidered directly with single and multi-head machines. garment component and finished garments. Stretch and recovery are affected by fiber content. Garment components may be embroidered with designs or logos prior to assembly to facilitate handling and manipulation of materials. Knit trims are often the same fiber content as knit garments on which they are applied. Some of the first embroidery machines made it possible to apply names on individual garments. embroidery is made by using advanced technology to mass produce trims for the garment industry. It becomes an integral part of garment structure as stitching cannot be removed without damaging piece goods. Two-ply trims may also be seamed before folding to enclose the seam and form a tube. Modem embroidery machines only require the operator to place the garment or fabric to be embroidered. Embroidery has evolved from a customized hand-sewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Some preshrink knit trims to tighten gauge and provide more stretch. Two-ply folded trims may be used as sleeve. This forms a binding to cover the seam and a single ply ribbing at the neckline to reduce bulk. DIRECT EMBROIDERY: Direct embroidery may be applied to materials.4 EMBROIDERY: Embroidery is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate. The outer edge of the band is single ply. Narrow knit trims are used for racing stripes on pants. sleeves. Trims may also be separated by cutting or pulling the connecting yarns. Piece goods are embroidered with Schiffli embroidery machines. Rib trim with one finished edge may be used as single-ply trim on sweater necklines and cuffs of polo shirts. which can cause compatibility problems. such as hats and shirts. or garments. This is used on sweaters and bulkier knits. 6. trims. LAHORE pieces that are the prescribed size. Embroidered designs may be applied directly to piece goods and finished garments. Today. waist. Rib trims used to complete necklines and lower sleeve edges are produced as 1 x 1 or 2 x 2 ribs depending on the amount of bulk and stretch needed. Edge structures determine whether a knit trim is used as a single or double ply. knit structure and gauge. and shoulder trims on athletic uniforms. or neck bands. Knit trims often need to stretch and recover as a garment is put on and taken off. three-dimensional. Another type of ribbing used on sweaters is formed on a machine with two needle beds. it is regarded as better-quality construction because the seam is enclosed. When knit trims are used on woven piece goods or other fabrications. surface designs to embellish piece goods. Folded trims applied with a superimposed seam results in an exposed seam at neckline and cuff edges. 148 . Warp knit tricots may be produced in standard widths and cut to size for specific types of trim such as bindings on lingerie and sleepwear and spaghetti strapping. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate garments and form the lettering. Spandex yarns are often knitted into trims to provide better recovery and shape retention. or produced as individual emblems. and the attaching edge is double ply.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of cultures to an established art form. Warp knitting can be used to produce yardage for cut and sew trims or flat narrow trims with finished edges. This treatment is often found on letter jackets with ribbed cuffs. the fiber content may not be the same. and method of application.

and levers. and cost of Schiffii equipment and specialized training and expertise needed to operate it. or embroidered trims can be special ordered. SCHIFFLI EMBROIDERY MACHINES: Schiffli embroidery machines are large. Needle bars move needles horizontally in and out of piece goods in synchronization with frame movement. Schiffii embroidered fabrics may experience a reduction in yardage due to the heavy concentration of stitches. apparel firms use contractors that specialize in Schiffli work. Needles are pushed into framed piece goods and retracted for stitch formation. Actions of Schiffli machines are controlled by an automat a system of rods. A stitched pattern evolves from frame movement. Fabrics can be sent to contractors to embroider.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE UNLV Baseball Brave Santa Fe San Diegan Elk Grazing Hill House Clark County Rodeo City of Covina Toy Train Operators Jake's Wire Rope Naval Aviator Wings Mojo Lures Malanois Monogramming is a means of personalizing finished garments for specific consumers by direct embroidery of their names or initials. have controlled vertical and horizontal movements directed by a punched tape to form stitch patterns. or 21 yards depending on machine size-are spanned or pulled taut onto a frame. and make novelty and Venise lace trims. used to read punched tapes and direct embroidery frames in forming a design. cams. 149 . size. Two fabric lengths 10 15. The frames. They are used to embroider piece goods. Needles are mounted on two horizontal fixed tracks that span the length of the frames. loom like machines used to stitch designs on lengths of piece goods. produce emblems. Borers puncture fabric and push aside yarns prior to stitching that encompasses the edge. Monogramming is usually done on a special order basis or by retailers. Because of complexity. Eyelet fabrics and trims are made by borers mounted directly below the needle bars. which are mounted vertically.

The largest single customer in the world for embroidered emblems is the U . Computerized embroidery machines have preprogrammed alphabets that can be produced in any size. Border machines may provide the most flexibility. Sequins are often attached to embroidery with. Designs may involve more intricate lettering. slant. All the operator needs to do is place the garment. The number of heads per machine is limited by machine size and area to be stitched. Emblem designs may be customized for a particular firm or organization or sold by souvenir shops. Applications are found in party wear. beads. Typical diameter ranges are 6-16 mm. This allows the manufacturer to customize its service and produce very small orders as needed by its customers. They generally have a shiny. insignia. Sequins are used wherever color. 150 .6 EMBLEMS: Emblems are individual embroidered designs with finished edges. and costume and clothing with an ethnic design. metallic finish. that would otherwise be too heavy or awkward to embroider.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Compared with direct embroidery. underwear. They may be manually operated or computer controlled. bridal wear. and so on. or as an alternative to. or badges frequently used on outerwear. dance wear. government. LAHORE SINGLE-HEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINES: Single-head embroidery machines are similar to basic lock stitch sewing machines. figures. Single-head machines are most often used for monogramming and custom work. sparkle or glitter is desirable. Emblems may be applied to visors or hats. 6. They were developed for small orders and may be used for customizing garments. larger patterns need a wider needle range and fewer heads. Smaller areas are best done with more. To stitch a small order of three on a large multi-head machine would waste a lot of capacity that could be better used for large orders. as close-set heads can be spaced close together and alternate ones uncoupled to allow stitching of a wider pattern. Garments or components are secured in hoops or frames to span or hold materials taut for stitching. garments may be individually framed and inserted horizontally under each head. the term Swiss embroidery is often used even though the emblems may be produced in the United States or other countries. more complex. Garment manufacturers select machine types that best suit product lines and sizes of embroidery. sleeves. Emblems are used in place of direct embroidery when materials are not suitable for direct embroidery. and more stitches. With multi-head machines. Because of the quality and tradition associated with the industry in Switzerland. Manually operated machines depend on skilled operators to position and manipulate materials under the needle. close-set heads. A computer network can interface and control ten different embroidery machines so that each machine can run a completely different embroidery program at the same time. appliqu és. They are mass-produced trims known as embroidered patches. coat fronts. emblem designs are often larger. Each-head may utilize one to six needles in stitching a design and produce designs with up to six colors. Emblem embroidery was originally developed in Switzerland under extremely high quality standards. but some are nearly transparent and some are iridescent. there is a need for a specific customized emblem with great detail and trims are stocked for sale. 6. MULTI-HEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINES: Multi-head embroidery machines are similar to single-head machines except they may contain four to twenty-three heads operated by a common drive shaft or belt. or symbols. or lettering type. colors and thread. The heads are controlled by a punched tape or computer disk that programs needle action and stitch formatting. Technology has expanded the use of single-head embroidery machines.5 SEQUINS: These come in a wide range of shapes and are usually made of plastic.S. emblems are more cost-effective than direct embroidery.

color and surface texture are important factors. Color bleeding is a major problem with thread if compatibility not considered. and compatible with the care procedures for the garment. punched tapes are essential for the operation of the equipment and will be discussed later. Some types of embroidery also require backings. monogramming. Fine thread requires more stitches to form a design and cover an area but it is frequently related to better-quality execution. Backing does not cover stitch buildup. Thread shrinkage can distort a design and garment components. Emblems are frequently backed or coated with plastic substances to provide a firm hand. while others are developed for fine detail stitching. Time and volume of production are major factors in the wide usage of Schiffli machines for large quantities and multi-head machines for producing small quantities. heat sealing. lustrous. Excess backing may be cut away by hand. flexible. Emblems are applied to garments by sewing. and edges finished with a tight 504 stitch for easy application and durability. Stiffer. and produce more aesthetically pleasing designs. When ground fabrics are the background for designs. Synthetic threads may range in size from 70 denier. for over locking edges. and fine embroidery. Backgrounds of emblems may be solid stitching or exposed ground fabrics. greater durability. Emblems may be backed with plastic films for heat sealing or adhesives that make emblems pressure sensitive for stick-on. thin-lined areas. and electrostatic adhesion. and to secure loose threads. Backings are of varied weight and hand. Durable ground fabrics make it possible to use a high stitch count and more overstitching without damaging piece goods. Piece goods need to be sewable and durable enough to withstand a high stitch count. Emblems are stitched on lengths of piece goods. tear-away backing may not tear away completely. Embroidery threads may be plied for strength and texture. leaving rough and scratchy areas. or a tear-away backing may be pulled away from the stitching. These can also be very irritating to the wearer. buckram is often used to back piece goods used to produce solid stitched emblems. ease in handling. Cotton threads are used for some laces. Back coating provides extended body and life. while Schiffli machines can produce hundreds of emblems at one time depending on the size of the emblem. MATERIALS FOR EMBROIDERY: Materials required for all embroidered designs are piece goods (also called ground or base fabric) and thread. Backings for direct embroidery are usually pieces of non-woven material placed under garment components as they are framed for stitching. Due to stiffness. and it must feed evenly. 600 denier. or loose threads that may accumulate during the embroidery process. Thread used for embroidery must be strong. for extra-fine lettering and definition to. Some threads are specific to cover stitching. Backings are used with direct embroidery and emblems. Fiber contents most used for embroidery threads are 100% rayon and 100% polyester. but usually this is only a temporary application until it can be sewn in place. Thread size is an important factor in interpreting and punching a design. Some of emblems may be stick-on. cut or separated from other emblems. Metallic threads are difficult to run due to a tendency to knot and break. Medium and lightweight fabrics may need backing for additional support.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. prevent distortion. knots. LAHORE PRODUCTION OF EMBLEMS: The majority of embroidered emblems are produced on Schiffli machines because of efficiency and cost. Direct embroidery is often backed to provide support. Solidstitched designs depend on ground material for support and strength. Metallics are not as flexible as other threads and are not a good choice for small. and they must be able to maintain dimensional stability. 151 . Multi-head machines can produce one emblem per head during one run.

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EMBROIDERED DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: Design development begins with submission of a sketch by the customer or the sales representative. Artists determine a design's suitability to embroidery, interpret the design, and examine potential execution for a specific garment or location. Artists develop designs based on a customer's specifications. Final designs are produced in exact dimensions with full color representation and submitted to the customer for final approval. 6.7 PUNCHING TAPES: Approved designs are interpreted and translated into stitches by punchers. Stitch patterns are formulated by varying stitch types, length, spacing, direction, placement, and density. Stitch patterns are noted on an enlarged (six times) detailed drawing of the design. It is the puncher's interpretation of the design and skill in executing it that adds life, beauty, and quality to a design and determines the look and feel of finished embroidery. Punchers need to understand the performance of piece goods, yarns, equipment, and their effect on execution and performance of design. Punchers determine placement of tie-in stitches that fasten embroideries together, loft and tensions relative to stitch size, color changes, the number of stitches to cover an area, and the operational functions needed to complete a design. Tie-ins are needed to connect parts of embroideries or lace with open designs. Less tension is used with large stitches to reduce pulling and allow piece goods to lie flat. Density of stitches is directly related to stitch length and yarn size. Finer yarns require more stitches to provide density and cover needed. Machine functions such as boring, color change, cord in-lay, and tension change are controlled. Punching also involves the process of developing the controlling tape or pattern that regulates movement of frames and needles on embroidery machines. Punching may be manual or computerized depending on the equipment and degree of automation used by a manufacturer. With manual punching, each stitch and function noted on the enlargement are recorded and transferred to a punch drum that perforates the pattern tape. When the puncher activates trip mechanism it is recorded by punching the tape. Computerized punching involves scanning and enlarging a design. A digitizer is used to plot stitches and functions based on input commands. A developed design can be checked on a screen or printed on a plotter for checking and analysis. Completed designs can be reduced or enlarged by the computer as needed for different-size garments. A computer can calculate completed designs to be punched based on a variety of commands. Completed designs can be stored and recalled for later use or revisions. Computer output can be converted to punched tape, electronic tapes, or disk, depending on equipment requirements. Regardless of the method, decision making by the puncher is the puncher is the same but punching time is greatly reduced and flexibility is increased with computerized punching. Punching may be contracted by some firms, while others do all their own punching. Large firms may do both. Firms that do their own punching reduce the risk of having their designs copied. Trims are knocked off just as any other fashion goods, but no two punchers will interpret a design in precisely the same manner or with the same quality characteristics. Considerations of a puncher in preparing punched tapes are:         How will the piece goods respond to framing? How will piece goods respond to heavy concentration of stitches? How much will piece goods pull in with stitch formation? How small can a stitch be on piece goods and still be visible? How will the thread react? Where tie-in stitches should be placed? Where should tight tension and loose tension be used? How close should the stitches be relative to yarn size? 152

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EMBROIDERY STITCHES: Machine embroidery uses three basic stitch types that can be varied and manipulated to produce a wide variety of affects. A design should contain more than one type of stitch for best execution. Steil stitches are small, closely aligned stitches that follow a tight back-and forth pattern. They are often used for edges and reinforcements for scallops, finishing edges of eyelet embroidery, and so on. Blatt stitches are wider 1/8 inch or more with the same back-and-forth configuration and less tension. Often called satin stitches, they create dramatic textured effects when used in different directions. Blatt stitches require more stitches per inch unless an underlay is used to prevent gapping. Running stitches form a design with one thickness of thread. They can be placed in any direction and may not be covered by other stitching. Running stitches are often used for shading and connecting parts of a design. Changing stitch direction changes the way light reflects off the thread and creates an interesting effect. Many variations and combinations of these are used by the puncher in creating an embroidered design. Other stitch formations include chain stitches and chain-stitch variations. Chain stitching, forms loop on the surface of the fabric from a single thread source. Moss or chenille stitches are formed by a chain-stitch machine with a drop stitch or loop formation on the back side of the piece goods. Moss stitches are used to fill and provide a three dimensional appearance. They are used on award letters for sports. A similar stitch, looping, is rapidly gaining attention. Looping stitches attach to the fabric surface by a monofilament thread instead of being pulled through the fabric. Looping stitches are used to add a three dimensional look to designs. These stitches require much heavier yarns than other embroidery stitches. COSTS OF EMBROIDERY: Costs of embroidery relates to size of a design, No. of stitches in a design, materials used, complexity of design, color changes, and handling of garments or components. Smaller designs or repeats cost less, Costs increase by using more stitches, finer yarns, more detail, more expensive materials, more handwork, and more finishing. Manufacturers with a concern for cost of a design may establish a ceiling on number of stitches to be used in a design. Number of stitches required is related to size of the design and thread to be used. For embroidery to look good, a fixed amount of stitches must be used for each size yarn. Smaller design requires fewer stitches, and coarser yarns require fewer stitches to fill a space. It is important not to lose sight of design or cost control. Both factors are important to the salability of garments. The time required to produce each piece of embroidery determines its cost and production capacity. Stitching time is determined by dividing the number of stitches required to produce a design by the speed of the machine. Stitching speed is affected by the type of automat, stitch size, type of piece goods, size of embroidered design, number of stitches required, and other technology utilized on the machine. Older multi-head machines are controlled by mechanical automats that allow stitching speeds of approximately 350 stitches per minute (SPM), while newer electronic readers can increase the stitching speed to 800 SPM. Stitch lengths may range from 0.1 to 15 mm. Under-thread trimmers, automatic color changers, break indicators, and so on, all help reduce handling and production time. 153

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QUALITY FACTORS: Quality of embroidered trims is based on designs and execution of the products. Many variables can be evaluated: thread type and size, stitch count and size, stitch formation, stitch patterns, and materials selection. Each of these variables can affect a product's aesthetics, performance, and quality. Planned placement of embroidered designs is important to execution, aesthetics, and performance. Embroidered designs should not cross seams and yet should be far enough away from seams that an embroidered area can be secured in a hoop during stitching. 6.8 APPLIQUÉS: Appliqués are emblems or cut-out fabric shapes, figures, or motifs that are superimposed and sewn or fused to garment components. Appliqués may be a single ply of fabric, pre-embroidered sequin, or beaded emblems, Venise lace, or other materials. Appliqués have had a strong fashion emphasis with the popularity of these designs on sweat-suits, sweaters, children's clothing, and other types of sportswear. MATERIALS FOR APPLIQUÉS: Materials used for appliqués are limited only by their sewability and compatibility with other materials used in a garment. Contrasting and unusual textures are often used for appliqu és that may create care and performance problems. Leather is often selected for its interesting texture and ease of stitching with little concern for the limitations and complications of dry cleaning the garment. Compatibility is often taken for granted as appliqués are often small and seem insignificant to performance of a total garment, although a small piece of fabric that is not colorfast or dimensionally stable could render an entire garment unusable. Appliqués are often backed with some type of fusible interlining to facilitate handling and sewing. Fusible interlining adds body to small pieces that may be difficult to grasp and position. Backing also reduces potential for raveled and stretched edges during sewing. Some appliqués may have a heat-activated adhesive applied to the back for fused applications to hosiery, lingerie, and so on. Others may have a glue substance that enables immediate attachment to a variety of surfaces. This type of application is usually considered temporary but can be used for accurate positioning prior to sewing. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE: Quality and performance of appliqu és are related to creativity of design, materials used for appliqu é and garment, method of application, stitch selection, sewability, and product testing. Well-designed appliqu és are integrated into style, structure, and aesthetics of a total garment; they are not just an add-on for color or detail. Carefully planned and accurate placement of appliqu és is also a factor in garment aesthetics and quality. Appliqu és are often used to establish or support a focal point on a garment, but they also distract from a focal point if not well planned and positioned. Execution of details affects quality of appliqués. Use of intricate shapes, more stitching, and added trims may enhance interpretation of a design, but too much detail that is poorly done can have an adverse affect on quality. Fabric appliqu és are frequently die cut for accuracy and greater consistency. Die cutting produces a smooth, well-defined edge that facilitates sewing operation and results in better-finished products. METHODS OF ASSEMBLY: Most appliqu és are manually applied by sewing operators. Emblems, which have finished edges, are often applied with a basic lock stitch. A lock stitch is secure and does not distract from emblem designs. Fabric 154

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pieces may be attached with a basic zigzag (304 or 404) stitch to accent shape and design. With this type of application, stitches must be close enough to prevent raveling, create a solid outline for the appliqué, but not so close as to damage piece goods. The execution of stitching patterns on corners and curves affects appliqué appearance, performance, and quality. Corners must be stitched down without stitch buildup or irregular stitching. This is often dependent on skills and quality standards of operators. A high stitch count with accurate stitching requires more time and increases costs but creates a more defined outline and better-quality appliqu é. Thread selection and use require thorough preplanning. On better-quality appliqués, thread color is often matched to each part unless a dominant outline is needed in which case contrasting thread, braid, sequins, or other trim may be used. Use of several thread colors on one appliqué requires extra handling or thread changes that are time consuming and costly. 6.9 INSET TRIMS: Inset trims are frequently formed from laces, sheer, or contrasting fabrics and used on fronts of sleepwear, blouses, dresses, and so on. Insets are a structural trim that are cut to a specific shape and inserted into a garment component. They are a single ply of material that is different from the shell fabric. It may be a sheer material inserted into an opaque fabric or a contrasting color used as an accent. In mass-produced garments inserts are usually along edges of components because application is easier. The shell fabric is removed where the inset will be inserted, and the cut edges are finished. The inset depending on the type of material and shape of the inset may be applied with an LSa or an SSa. Quality of workmanship is important to aesthetics and performance of insets as they become focal points of a garment. 6.10 LACE: Lace is an ornamental openwork fabric or trim made into a variety of designs by intricate manipulation of fiber or yarn. Traditionally, laces were formed by hand, but today most laces are machine made.

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PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

TYPES OF LACES: Machine-made laces are produced on Leavers machines, raschel knitting machines, or Schiffli embroidery machines. Leavers’ lace is controlled by a jacquard system and formed by bobbins that wind yarn around a set of warp yarns to form a pattern. Quality and cost of Leavers lace depend on yarn quality and intricacy of design. Many European laces are produced on Leaver machines. Raschel knit laces resemble Leavers lace but are less intricate, produced at much higher speeds, have a stiffer hand, and are much less expensive. Raschel laces are used extensively on moderate, budget lingerie and children's wear. Many of stretch laces used on intimate apparel are also produced on raschel knitting machines. Schiffli embroidery machines are used to produce novelty and Venise lace trims. This method results in a lace type of trim that is widely used on apparel. It can be fine, soft, and have an intricate and open design that meets high quality standards even though it is produced in a nontraditional manner. Venise lace is produced by stitching designs on a base fabric with Schiffli embroidery machines and dissolving the base fabric to leave only the stitched threads or open lace trims. This is a process called aetzing. Designs are stitched to net or Solvron. Solvron is a moisture-sensitive non-woven material that dissolves during the bleaching process. Once the backing is dissolved, only individual lace trims remain. This process is used to produce lace collars, cuffs, medallions, yokes, and a variety of other small lace trims. Shapes of laces made on Schiffli machines are limited only by the stitch range of the machine. This makes it possible to produce small or large irregular shapes that can be used for collars or insets. The quality of Venise lace depends on the originality and intricacy of design, thread fineness, and stitching pattern. Tie-ins are especially important for Venise lace in order for parts to link together. Better-quality Venise lace may be made from 300count 100% cotton yarn. Lace selection should be based on appearance, hand, color, and care procedures. Many lace trims are produced for a specific style, use, and location, and in any size, shape, and dimensions needed. 6.11 SCREEN PRINTING: Screen printing is the process of applying a printing medium through a mesh stencil to produce a surface design. It is commonly used for printing piece goods. However, the focus of this discussion is screen printing as it is presently used as trim for garments or garment components. Screen printing may be used to convert an ordinary, plain garment into a garment with identity, fashion humor, or status. Designs focus on contemporary themes, humor, politics, logos, status symbols, or aesthetic enhancement. Screen printing is used to place designs on many garments including T-shirts, jackets, hats, shorts, blouses, dresses, and athletic uniforms. Designs may be simple or complex, large or small, one or multiple colors. Screen printing may be used for limited or large volume production, although design development costs are the same regardless of whether one or a thousand garments are printed. Screen-printed designs are less costly to produce than embroidered designs and allow a wide variety of aesthetic effects. Garments may be screen printed to strategically place a design that would otherwise create excessive waste if the fabric were printed with a large repeat. Screen printing may be used on larger garment pieces if design is large and only limited yardage is needed. In some cases it is less costly to screen print a garment individually than to purchase printed fabric with high minimum yardage requirements. Screen-printed garments or components offer design confinement and less lead time than many other types of fabric printing. 156

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: Designs for screen printing is developed from original artwork or by cutting and pasting from a variety of existing artworks, lettering, and so on. Once the desired appearance is achieved, designs may be enlarged or reduced to specified dimensions. To print the design, color separations must be planned and accurately executed to produce clear, well defined screen prints. Register marks are used to accurately align garments and screens for precise color placement. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT: Basic materials and equipment required for screen printing include screens that are made into stencils, squeegees, and ink. Screen making involves frame selection, mesh selection and preparation, and stretching. Frames are used to hold and tension mesh materials used for stenciling. Frames are wood or metal, rigid or self-stretching. Wood frames are less expensive, lighter weight, and easier to stretch onto, but not adjustable. Adjustable frames make it possible to take up slack in a screen that may occur with printing and cause poor registration. Metal frames are easier to reclaim after use, but they are more expensive, heavier, and take longer to stretch. Screen materials are polyester or nylon mesh that is stretched over frames to make a stencil. Mesh needs to be abrasion-resistant and dimensionally stable. Polyester has less elongation and retains stretched tension with varying atmospheric conditions better than nylon. Mesh count (the number of openings per linear inch) affects quality of a print and the amount of ink deposited with each pull of the squeegee. Greater thread diameter results in greater ink deposit. High-count mesh with finer yarns allows less ink deposit, while low-count mesh with coarser yarns allows more ink deposit. Garment piece goods are also a factor in selecting mesh to be used. Finer mesh is better for hard-finish piece goods; coarser mesh is better for soft surfaces and garments, such as uniforms, which need a high deposit of ink due to high abrasion during use. Stretching the screen is one of the most important factors in successful screen printing. Improper stretching of the mesh screen material can cause poor registration, excessive wear on screens, breakdown of stencil materials, and poor prints caused by crimping the screen as the squeegee passes over it. Stencil making involves coating a screen with photo-sensitive emulsion. Designs are placed on the emulsion-coated screen and exposed to light to burn the design into the emulsion. This leaves areas of the design open so ink can pass through the screen onto a garment. A squeegee is a rubber or plastic blade held by a wooden strip and used to force ink through the openings of a screen-printing stencil. The type of squeegee, angle of the blade, form of the edge, pressure, and sweep speed all affect the quality of a print. Imaging materials are the inks used to print the designs. Inks are blends of vinyl chlorides, dispersion resins, plasticizers, pigments, heat and light stabilizers, surfactants, fillers or extenders, and other additives a particular printer may choose to use, On proper heat curing, the ink forms a tough flexible film on the piece goods that withstands stretching and rubbing. Various types of additives may be selected to achieve the desired hand and performance of the printed design, e.g. puff inks are used to create three-dimensional portions of screen-printed designs. SCREEN PRINTING PROCESS: The printing process may be a manual operation or carried out with varying degrees of automation. Garments or garment components are precisely placed on a palate. Sometimes an adhesive spray is used on the palate to ensure stationary placement of the item to be printed. A screen for each color in the design is loaded onto a rotating carousel. An operator lowers each screen, one at a time in a predetermined sequence, over the garment on the revolving palette. A squeegee is used to force a thick, viscose ink through the screen and onto the garment. 157

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE, LAHORE

For multicolor designs, the ink may be partially cured (flashed) between applications to eliminate discoloration or smearing. Inks are cured by exposing them to heat, usually between 300 - 350 0F. Heat softens resin particles and causes them to swell. Resins absorb liquid around them and meld together to form a film. Ink curing time and the amount of heat required vary with each brand of ink, amount of ink applied to a garment; blend of ingredients, and the type of drying oven. Light-color inks may require more heat than darker inks due to reflection characteristics. Garment color may also alter curing time. Curing can be tested by stretching printed design forcefully. If cracks appear, crumbles or smears when rubbed, film is under-cured. QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF SCREEN PRINTS: Printing quality involves uniform ink film thickness, maximum resolution of detail, and adequate curing. All of the materials and processes can affect print quality. The combined effects of the screen mesh, squeegee blade, ink, and piece goods determine quantity and distribution of ink. Correct size and the tightness of frames and screens allow for appropriate action of a squeegee and flexing of the screen for contact of' ink with the garment. Correct curing makes the design permanent. Precise color registration involves placement of a garment or substrate as well as placement of screens during color applications. Accurate registration is essential for clarity of a design. Correct registration is achieved by precise placement of garment and careful matching of register marks within design as each color is applied. HEAT TRANSFER PRINTS: Heat transfer is the process of transferring an image to a substrate by applying heat and pressure. A design is printed on paper with special dyes and transferred to a product by application of heat and pressure. Specific temperatures and dwell times change a dye from a solid to a gaseous state and back to a solid form on the product. Heat transfer prints are available in stretch, flock, puff, reflective, and foil designs. Heat transfer designs used to be limited to synthetics or synthetic blends and non-stretch fabrics but improved technology now makes it possible to heat transfer on cottons and knits of various kinds. Heat transfers may be applied by fabric converters, garment and trim manufacturers, and retailers. Garment manufacturers can make applications before or after sewing. Heat transfers are colorfast. The depth, of color depends on temperature, dwell time, and pressure used in application and the amount of color available on the paper for vaporization. The paper printer is responsible for design development, definition, color matching, and ink selection. Advantages of the use of heat transfer prints are speed and flexibility for meeting specific orders. Printed goods do not have to be carried in inventory. 6.12 LABELS: Most garments have multiple labels that provide information for both the apparel firm(s) that manufacture and distribute the garments and the consumers who select and use them. Brand name and / or RN number (the manufacturer's identification number), fiber content, country of origin, and care information are required by law. Other product information such as style number, size, and construction features. Brand labels are the large, colorful, image builders that are strategically located for obvious visibility. Size labels help the apparel firm(s) and the customer identify a garment. Other informational labels may be used by consumers to formulate performance expectations and determine the garment's suitability for their needs. In some instances, the label information is combined on a single label, but many times each bit of information is provided on separate labels, e.g. not all size 12 blouses will be 100% cotton, and not all 100% cotton will have the same care requirements. Thus, for accuracy and flexibility, multiple labels are used.

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labels must be durable. and folded loops. Flat labels are finished on two sides and heat sealed as they are cut on the other two sides. plain. smoother for printing.g. Woven-in messages tend to be the most durable but also may be more costly. Labels may have a short life if the consumer decides to remove them because of their discomfort.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Narrow woven fabric labels may range from 114 inch to several inches in width. Labels are available in nearly any fiber content. coated labels cannot be used indiscriminately inside garments. which may reduce number of labels needed. e. Flat labels can be superimposed on a garment and sewn on all four sides as may be done to apply brand labels with a special label setter. There also may be a problem with blurring or loss of printed images after chemical treatments such as laundering. There are also many different types of fabrications for labels including non-woven fiber webs. In many cases the style determines how the label will be attached. pockets. easy to attach. Apparel firms frequently use woven-in messages for brand names and less expensive printed labels for the rest of the information. STYLES OF LABELS AND APPLICATION METHODS: Labels are made in four basic styles. flat with no ends folded. and label tapes may be coated to make them easier to handle and less likely to be affected by care procedures. Labels that are double with a single fold are designed to be sewn into a seam or attached to another label. and more receptive to inks. and meet cost constraints. thus. Label materials must be selected to be able to withstand garment finishing operations. Information is often on both sides of fold so the folded end needs to be free. Some jacquard weaves may be coated on the back to prevent yarn slippage. Often they are used for combining different types of information such as care and RN number. Coatings also add stiffness that consumers may find uncomfortable. LAHORE LABEL MATERIALS: Label materials must be compatible with the garment materials. Fabric coatings are used to make labels more durable. twill. yarn-dyed. This prevents raveling so they can be applied almost anywhere on a garment. Images and messages are woven in or printed on the narrow fabrics. from 100% combed cotton to vinyl. jacquard fabrications. garment dyeing may alter the appearance because the labels pick up the color of the dye. and molded designs. double with a single fold and open at one end. or facings where the stitching only needs to go through one ply of the shell fabric. Sewing all 159 . In addition. appropriate for the location in which label is placed and processing to which garment will be subjected. flat with ends folded in. This application may be used to sew labels to the outside of garments as well as to back yokes. narrow weaves in satin.

additional processing that is done. This type of label is a brand label and often inserted in neckline seams of jackets and sport shirts. When labels change frequently. The ends are folded toward the underside so the cut edge will not ravel or be irritating to the wearer. garments are all assembled the same. The attachment of private label brand names is sometimes done in the warehouse or distribution center. Differential shrinkage can be a problem if label shrinks and stresses the shell fabric. They are usually stitched on each end with a 304 or 404 stitch type. on collar bands. Labels may be attached as separate pieces. Producing labels in house provides shorter lead times and more flexibility. which allows good flexibility for the label and garment. it may be cost-effective to produce their own. 160 . garment construction methods. label type. If fancy woven labels are desired. Label application methods are determined by the look desired. They have a horizontal orientation with diagonally folded ends that are inserted in a seam. Flat labels may be sewn on two sides or inserted in seam / hem. and equipment that is available. waistbands. and so forth. Because the center of the label is loose. and all but the brand label are attached during construction. They are frequently used inside of garments. These may be fused in place rather than sewn so the stitching does not show on the finished garment. Label costs vary with the intricacy of the design. Labels are often sewn to other labels so when they are finally inserted into a garment. Manufacturers that produce private-label merchandise for multiple retailers may add the individual retailer's brand name just before garments are shipped. They work closely with the apparel firm to determine the requirements for image building. Placing incorrect information in a garment is much worse than no information at all. they are best ordered from a firm with high-tech equipment that specializes in fancy narrow weaves. or fused to the garment. Some firms order custom-made brand labels and produce their own printed information labels. and available equipment. Application of this type of label requires a separate process and is usually done with a label setter. LAHORE four sides is probably the most secure approach. it allows flexibility of the garment. Apparel firms that choose to make their own labels purchase label-making equipment that can print and fuse-cut labels as needed. Flat labels with folded ends are another commonly used style. but it requires a label with three finished edges. Compared to printed labels. SOURCES OF LABELS: Labels may be purchased from firms that specialize in the production of certain types of labels or apparel firms may produce their own. sewn in seams. With this type of product line. fancy woven brand labels are considerably more costly for a small quantity because of the design and setup cost. Prior to shipping the label for an individual retailer is added. Firms that specialize in label production have the capability to design and produce labels on a custom order basis.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Labels of jacquard weaves or printed tapes can be ordered on rolls or fuse-cut ready to use. sewn to other labels. the size of the label. This takes diligent attention to specifications and order numbers. One major concern of application is getting the correct label into the appropriate garment. Folded loop labels are functional as well as informative. there is a whole collection of the various types attached in one operation. but it is most likely to show problems with differential shrinkage. back neck facings. a separate label-setting operation is not necessary. and the volume ordered. If labels are inserted as seams or hems are sewn.

12". 15". 15*7" 8". 12" 10". 12" 8". 12" Profile TOPS Poly-Pro TOPS Poly-Styrene SETS BOTTOM No-Show BOTTOM No-Show Loop BOTTOMS Croc-Lock OUTERWEAR Metal Hook OUTERWEAR 18" 12" 161 . the style and the texture of hangers. What good is a beautiful face-out when the hangers convey a different story? Good in-store marketing is implemented with the help of the hanger.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 14" 16". Conversely. 10". ” Hangers are the link between fixtures or end cap and marketing. you may question the quality of the clothing as well. 10*7" 12*4".you want to pick it up. The hanger is a touchable extension to your store. 12*7" 14*4". As we know. 17” 17" MedWht 17" HvyWht HvyWht* 19" MedWht 19" HvyWht* 10". 15" 15". some broken. perception is customer reality. Hangers invite customers to the clothing. 12" 10".13 HANGERS Hangers are an integral part of any showroom or retail store. 18" 19" MedWht 19" HvyWht 10*4". When you see a garment hanging nicely on a hanger . 12". The personality of your store or showroom will be reinforced by the color. Think for one minute. when you see clothes shoved on discolored "clear" hangers. Hangers provide an immediate perception of high quality clothing. 10" 11". LAHORE 6. The functionality goes without saying: “Take one step further into the world of a visual merchandiser and understand continuity of display. Category Length 10".

19" BOTTOMS BOTTOMS Long Jaw BOTTOMS Coordinates CLIPS Prong Style TROUSER BAR TOPS 162 . 14" 10" 12" 8". 14" 16". 12". 19" 12" 14" 10" 12" SETS FRAMES INTIMATE APPAREL 10" INTIMATE APPAREL 10" 8". 11". 14" 7" 8" 8". 12" 15". 14" 10". 19" 12". 14" 17". 10" 12". 15" 17". 17". LAHORE OUTERWEAR HvyWht OUTERWEAR Up-Slope BOTTOMS Gripper BOTTOMS Gripper-Loop TOPS JACKET 12". 11" 8". 19" 18" 8". 10" 12".PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 11" 10".

free from knots. etc. covers. Their goal is to produce a pattern which. DESIGNING: Firstly. while meeting correct size. The pattern maker drafts the pattern necessary to produce the desired creation. It starts from the designing of the garment till the garment is finished with necessary trims or accessories. color combinations. Pattern making is highly skilled technique which requires technical ability of understanding of the process technology used by the factory. It involves pattern making. must have minimum tendency to snarl and have good abrasion resistance. from choosing the type of fabric to the choosing of the right type of sewing machines for appropriate operations. elastic. 3. The fabric and the sewing thread used should more or less have the same characters e. it consists series of operations to complete one garment. type of people. zippers. eyes. interlinings. laying.g. hemlines – lower or higher. etc.) and then the designer designs the finished garments taking into consideration all the facts about the season. 4. it is sent back to the designer for its necessary corrections. hooks.g. Other major accessories used are. also include packing materials like poly bags. One should choose the fabric with great care about the design and the purpose of the garment. tissue papers. Pattern making is the most important stage of making a garment. Drawings and notations usually guide them from designers. fiber composition. dropped shoulder. Seam allowance. the thread must be of uniform diameter. ACCESSORIES: Like fabric accessories should also be chosen with good care. The Mannequins include details of shirring. Designed garments are draped on Mannequins to show how the finished garment would look on the human figure. plackets and necessary trims. required shade. Cost calculation is done for the sample garment and after its approval by the Sales team. the desired style is set (e. The type of weave. other accessories used in garment also should be of good quality. LAHORE GARMENT STITCHING Stitching is not one single operation as the name suggests. buttons. 2. composition. hangers. dirt/pleat/folding allowances are then added to give a working pattern. darts. If any difficulty is observed during manufacture of sample garments. Otherwise the purpose of the whole garment will be lost. lining and fusible to cut components which are sewn together to produce sample garments. etc. pleats and tucks. age group. fabrics and accessories go side by side. which have to be cut for a garment. Considering the durability of the fabric. style and the trend. fabric weight. Designing is either done by hand or by computer. PATTERN MAKING: This function connects design to production by producing paper templates for all components such as cloth. blend. Working pattern is generally prepared from basic blocks based on Average standard body measurements. only polyester threads are used for stitching polyester fabrics. etc. when assembled or stitched will produce design on paper. 1. 163 . PRODUCTION OF SAMPLE GARMENTS: Working Patterns are placed on cloth. and lining. lining and fusible. These blocks are paced on hard paper to mark their boundaries. production pattern is prepared from the working pattern. cutting.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. SELECTION OF FABRIC: Fabric is the basic requirement or raw material for making a garment. For the sewing process to be trouble free. 5. etc must be taken into consideration. There are a number of accessories used in garments out of which sewing thread plays an important role.

Notches. Laser Cutting. with maximum utilization of fabric and most importantly with minimum waste”. Drills. A drill marker is used for marking pocket positions. the procedure. 10. Round Knife. knitted.e. 7. and Ultrasonic Cutting. Marker planning is done by using the full size patterns made from cardboard. CUTTING: After the patterns are ready.e. Appearance after drycleaning or washing. the base cloth influences the following characteristics in the finished garments: Handle and bulk. the fabric is laid and the patterns are laid on the fabric the fabric is ready for cutting. Marking can be made on fabric or on paper. and Notches. GRADING: Production pattern is prepared from approved working pattern on hard paper. FUSING: The term fusible interlining is applied to a base fabric having a deposit of thermoplastic resin (usually on one side only) which can be bonded to another fabric by heat and pressure. Irrespective of construction and fibers used. and the type of sewing machine to be used. The composition of each spread i. The mark can be a small hole or a mark made by a chalk-based liquid taken through the spread by the drill flutes. POSITION MARKING: This operation marks components with guides for sewing and other operations. Lying is “the spreading of fabric on the cutting table one on top of the other according to the length of the marker is called lying”.e. LAHORE 6. MARKING AND LYING: “The entire part of the garment or more garments to be cut from a fabric marked on a paper or fabric within the width of the fabric to be cut. their actual composition determined by the requirements of sewing room. 8. Die Cutting. The base cloth is an interlining material on which the thermoplastic resin is coated. A production pattern must contain the marks i. like stitch type. Plasma Cutting. Appearance in wear. Crease recovery. Button attaching positions. Shrinkage control. Drill holes. etc. Hand Shears or Scissors. and the thickness of fabric. Base clothes may be of woven.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Pattern grading is the drafting process of enlarging or diminishing the patterns for a particular design into patterns for other sizes without changing the style sense of the original design. BUNDLE OPERATION: Bundles of cut work are prepared according to size. There are several methods of cutting i. 11. 9. Grain-line marking. But marking and lying are followed only in the garment industries or where garments are mass-produced. 164 . Band Knife. Dart marking. and Durability. dart lengths etc. SEWING: Sewing is the last process of stitching. Water jet. type of fabric itself (rough or slippery). This involves great attention too. sprayed or painted. volume of production. Number of plies depends upon the capacity of the cutting machines. Straight Knife. Bundle tickets identify each bundle and in themselves play on important role in production planning and control for sewing and finishing sections. buttonholes. 12. There are several types of sewing machines for each special operation like stitching buttons. Shape retention. with due importance to the grain line. the number of plies of each color is obtained from cut orders plan. In addition the final cost of the garment is influenced by the type and amount of fusible used in its construction. or non-woven from natural or synthetic fiber and each type has a specific applications. Button-hole marks. color and quantities. Centre front line and Centre back line marking.

Making yarn from fiber is a fairly simple procedure. Rayon. Pliability. 165 . As we can see from the definitions. and Strength to Be Spun Into Yarns and Woven or Knitted Into Cloth C. an important characteristic of fiber is that it can be turned into yarn. Length: 2. It Is The Matter Either Existing Naturally Or Made Artificially Which Has Following Properties: 1. LAHORE TEXTILE RAW MATERIALS (FIBERS) 1. and is then twisted. Fiber Is a Unit of Matter Characterized By Flexibility. Denier: - Wave - Crimp - It is the unit of measurement of cross – section.4 QUALITIES OF FIBER TO CONVERT IT INTO FABRICS: For the fiber to be converted into fabrics the fiber must have ability to be spun excellently. A Fiber has cross section 1 denier if 9000 m of this fiber weight’s 1 gram. Fineness and a High Ratio of Length to Thickness Fiber Is A Slender Filament or Fine Strand of Sufficient Length. Nylon etc. the ends of some fibers overlapping the ends of others. Crimp occurs naturally in cotton and wool. Cotton. a yarn or thread will be made. Curl 3. 1. must be available in bulk.3 DENIER PROPERTY OF FIBER: It is the unit of measurement of cross section. 1. 1. FIBER – DEFINITIONS: Textile fibers may be defined as follows: A. and staple (Short Fiber) e. 1 denier = 1 mass in grams 9. The value of denier depends upon weight per unit length. If a bundle of fibers is arranged with the strands parallel to each other.2 CRIMP PROPERTY OF FIBER: This property of a fiber is explained as under:     Crimp is the curl or wave nature to improve process ability of the staple fiber.5cm It is the curl or wave to improve processability of the fiber.g.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 1.000 m B. cost of production of fiber must be economical and physical properties of fiber must be desirable to the consumer. Crimp is produced artificially in synthetic fibers. Wool etc.1 TYPES OF FIBER LENGTH: There are two types of fiber length continuous Filament (Infinite Fiber) Silk. Crimp: It should be appropriate and not less them 0. Crimp is also produced in continuous filament to change their appearance and feel as in nylon carpet yarn. from which cloth can be produced.

household articles (Bed-Sheets.5 PROCESS OF CONVERTING FIBER INTO YARN: The process of converting fiber into yarn is called spinning. i. This act requires that the labels of all textile products must show the fiber contents both by fiber name a family name.0cm. e.27 – 6. 3. filter cloths. are non-woven. LENGTH: Fiber should have sufficient length to Spun into yarn. skirts. Construction and sports. clothing. 2.) 1. It there were no fiber. Irregularity and process costs are increased and quality is reduced. Various end-goods can then be made from the fabric. fishing nets. namely apparel or clothing (Such as shirts. fabric (the technical term for cloth) can be produced. Unevenness and reduction in strength in the yarn spun. A lot of disposable articles. Carpets awnings and many others) and textiles for technical use in industries (Agriculture. TEXTILE FIBER’S QUALITIES TO MEET END-USES: No fiber has all desirable properties. To standardize this identification procedure the federal trade commission (FTC) assigned generic groups of manufactured fibers according to chemical composition.34cm. blouses. and Problems in yarn appearance by increasing slubs.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.8 – 38. there would be no textile industry.000m or more). CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS: To avoid any confusion by the names and identification of fibers for the consumers the United States Congress Enacted the “Textile Fiber Products Identification Act” this became effective on March 3. Fabric is therefore the basis of the textile industry.5cm it will be very difficult to produce yarn from it.e. intermediate goods and end products in the textile industry is set out as under: As you can see above that a fiber is the starting material and yarn / fabric are intermediate products or intermediate goods in textile industry. In cotton short fibers are responsible for Increasing the waste & losses. such as diapers for babies. CATEGORIES OF END-PRODUCT: Three large categories of end-product can be made from fiber. and Silk upto 2. 1. The final products are made from fibers. If fiber is too short. 166 . LAHORE “FIBER” THE BASIS OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY: Once fiber has been made into yarn. sun-screens of green house. sail cloths etc.g. for example less than 0. suits and so on). 1. are called textile end product.6 PROCESS OF CONVERTING FIBER DIRECTLY INTO FABRIC: It is now possible to convert fiber directly into fabric by a process called non woven-fabric production. The relationship between fiber. trousers. Wool 3. 1960. naps. Flax (linen) 50cm average. The yarn is then usually converted into fabric by either weaving or knitting. each fiber having a different combination of properties. Length of common natural fibers are (Cotton 1. Fabric produced by this method is usually known as non-woven fabric.

socks etc. LAHORE 2. extension. LUSTER: Generally it is more difficult to increase the luster of fiber except cotton which may attain silky luster by mercerization or finishing process. Fiber should have good resistance to weathering if we use the end product for out door use such as umbrella. Absorption of moisture cause loss of strength and changes in dimensions due to extensibility and damage the fiber. 167 . RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING: It is the resistance of a fiber to sunlight and moisture. DYEABILITY: It is the ability of fiber to take color. 8. During ironing a high temperature is given. Yarn made from low density fiber make goods bearing full solid appearance more cheaply. In cotton if yarn spun from the fine fiber will be more even and strong than the yarn spun from the coarser fibers. Advantage of this property gives long life to fiber. garments. Stronger a fiber. RESISTANCE TO INSECTS AND MICRO ORGANISMS: Fiber should have resistance against attack of insects and microorganisms. blouses.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. so fiber should have the ability to bear the temperature etc. and creasing. 3. baby wear. MOISTURE REGAIN: It is a quality of a fiber to absorb moisture. raincoat etc. i. Cloth with frequent washing should have good resistance to moisture. ELASTICITY: It is the ability of a fiber to recover from the deformation involving bending. and socks etc. 4. higher the tenacity. 14. THERMAL STABILITY: Fiber’s ability to withstand high temperature such as:(i) (ii) (iii) During washing we use the boiling water along with detergents or soaps. FINENESS: Represents the size of cross section dimensions of the fiber. SOFTNESS: Softness is very acceptable Quality / Property in a fiber. underwear. Fiber damage on exposure to sunlight for long or becomes yellow or brown in color. 13. A fiber with good elasticity will recover from deformation very easily. It is very important in those cases where the garment is at maximum exposure to rubbing. 10. if a fiber has 2% extensibility at break. a fiber 100 mm long will extended to 102 mm before it breaks. 6. TENACITY: It is max specific stress that fiber can withstand without breaking when tension is applied along its length. 12. undergarments require maximum softness properties. such as underwear. During dyeing high temperature is also used for fixation of dyes on fibers and if the fiber would have less thermal stability then it can be damaged. 9. shirts. towels. 5. No body would be happy if all garments were white because of non availability of this property. 11. such as undergarments i.e. 7. ABRAISION RESISTANCE: It is the resistance of a fiber to abrasion or rubbing. EXTENSIBILITY: It is the property of a fiber to extend or elongate under tension.e. For example. DENSITY: Mass per unit volume is called density.

try and wash it off.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 4. Stains can be easily removed from cotton. Tip: If garments you own start to fade. 4. tents and tarpaulins that are exposed to the sun a lot. wash them carefully before storage. 8. Examples of products taking advantage of this quality are medical products such as bandages and cotton balls. 10. 3. 6. If it gets to damp. If you are not going to be wearing your cotton clothes for a while. Tip: The longer you leave stains in. Following are a few tips: Tip: Make sure you read the instructions on the label before washing. You can always consider having clothes redyed. Tip: Try if possible to keep your cotton clothes in a dry cupboard. this means that any oils from your skin and dirt won’t settle into the fabric. Cotton can be dyed in various colors. not the cotton. 7. Cotton is very soft. Cotton is long lasting if well looked after. 168 . It draws heat away from skin to keep cool. Tip: When ironing 100% cotton. that is why it is particularly favored in underwear ranges that get close to the skin. which can be used to soak up blood or other liquids. making it very comfortable to wear. 2. Cotton absorbs moisture easily and can take up to one fifth of its weight in water before it actually feels damp. it is most likely that the colored dye. Most clothing has clear washing instructions on the label. the harder they will be to get out. 4. It doesn’t irritate sensitive skin or cause allergies. making them last longer and therefore getting better value for your money. the garment can start to melt and/or get shiny. Tip: Wash any of your new cotton clothes soon after wearing them for the first time. make sure the iron is on a medium to high heat setting. 5. These instructions are particularly important in for cotton fibers. PROPERTIES OF COTTON: 1. the clothes can become mild way. Cotton does not contain any chemicals and therefore is a natural product. If the iron gets too hot when ironing a cotton/synthetic fiber blend. 9. The ends of cotton fibers are spun very tightly into the yarn so that the fabric doesn’t irritate skin or cause static electricity. As soon as you spill something on any cotton garment. If the garment is a blend of cotton and synthetic fibers then the iron should be a little cooler. Cotton can be easily blended with other fibers such as synthetics.1 HOW TO CARE FOR COTTON: There are lots of other ways you can take care of your cotton products. Cotton tends to not be affected by sunlight so it can be used for curtains. Cotton is a good conductor of heat. is starting to lose quality.

stainless steel Silica sand. silica Carbon Vegetable Animal Mineral Manmade Fibers Cellulose Non-Cellulose Polymers Rayon Acetate Triacetate Nylon Aramid Polyester Acrylic Modacrylic Spandex Olefin Vinyon Saran Noveloid Polycarbonate Polybenzimidazole Alginate Fluorocarbon Graft Matrix Anidex Lastrile Nytril Vinal Azlon* Rubber Metal Glass Ceramic Graphite Protein Rubber Metallic Mineral 169 . etc. LAHORE CLASSIFICATION OF FIBERS TYPE Natural Fibers NAME OF FIBER Cotton Linen Jute Hemp Sisal Kapok Ramie Coir Pina Wool Silk Hair Asbestos SOURCE OR COMPOSITION Cotton boll (Cellulose) Flax stalk (Cellulose) Jute stalk (Cellulose) Hemp or abaca stalk (Cellulose) Agave leaf (Cellulose) Kapok tree (Cellulose) Rhea or China grass (Cellulose) Coconut husk (Cellulose) Pineapple leaf (Cellulose) Sheep (Protein) Silkworms (Protein) Hair-bearing animals (Protein) Varieties of rock (silicate of magnesium and calcium) Cotton liner or wood Cotton liner or wood Cotton liner or wood Aliphatic polyamide Aromatic polyamide Dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid Acrylonitrile (at least 85%) Acrylonitrile (35-84%) Polyurethance (at least 85%) Ethylene or propylene (at least 85%) Vinyl chloride (at least 85%) Vinylidene chloride (at least 80%) Phenol based novalac Carbonic acid (polyester derivative) Tetraminobiphenyl and diphenyl isophthalate Calcium alginate Tetrafluoroethylene Molecular graft of polymers Mixture of polymers Monohydric alcohol an dacrylic acid Acrylonitrile (10-50%) and a diene Vinylidene dinitrile (at least 85%) Vinyl alcohol (at least 50%) Corn. Natural or synthetic rubber Aluminum. limestone. silver. other minerals Alumina. soybean. gold.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Silk culture began about 1725 BC. was by Hercules Incorporated. Spandex is used in filament form. Used by people of Late Stone Age.600 BC SILK 1910 RAYON 1924 ACETATE: NYLON: 1939 1950 1953 1954 1959 ACRYLIC: POLYESTER TRI ACETATE SPANDEX 1961 1989 POLYOLEFIN Or POLY PROPYLENE MICRO FIBERS OR MICRO DENIER 1993 LYOCELL 170 . under the “ Tencel” trade name. Two monks smuggled seeds of mulberry tree and silkworm eggs out of China.500 BC. I. It is made of two continuous filaments cemented together and used to form the cocoon of silk worm. Turkey.000 years. Soviet States. Belgium and France. I du Pont de Nemours & Company. lyocell is produced from the wood pulp of trees grown specially. It is this country. Egypt. New Zealand. and Argentina.S. First commercial production of an olefin fiber manufactured in the U. behind polyester. polyester. others include Poland. The major producer and exporter is Japan. China. Major producers: United States. Inc. Polyester is the most used man-made fiber in the U. Secrets of cultivation and fabric manufacturing were closely guarded by the Chinese for about 3. Germany.000 BC WOOL 2. using a solvent spinning technique in which the dissolving agent is recycled. First commercial production of lyocell in the USA was in 1993 by Courtaulds Fibers.S. 40 breeds of sheep. Environment friendly. Lesser producers include Pakistan. Brazil. Mexico Iran and Sudan. Human hair is more than 100 times the size of some micro fibers. First commercial production of micro fiber in the USA was by E. finest of all man-made fibers. Today. I. Inc. Today micro fibers are produced in a variety of synthetic fibers (i. Development of the power loom in 1884 brought significant improvement and variations to cotton fabrics. Polyolefin was the world’s first and only Nobel-Prize winning fiber. MAN-MADE FIBERS Commercial production of rayon fiber started by the American Viscose Company.000 BC COTTON 3. It developed two basic types’ viscose rayon and cup ammonium rayon. Domestic Triacetate production was discontinued in 1985 First commercial production of spandex fiber in the USA was in 1959. It is an electrometric man-made fiber (able to stretch at least 100% and snap back like natural rubber). 3. sponsored by wife of a China’s emperor. Major producers include: Australia. South Africa. du Pont de Nemours & company. reducing environmental effluents. First commercial production of polyester fiber in the USA was in 1953. Fine linen was used as burial shrouds for the Egyptian pharaohs’. Largest producer: Soviet States.000 BC FIBER FLAX: BACKGROUND AND PRODUCTION NATURAL FIBERS Considered to be the oldest natural textile fiber. Largest exporters are Northern. Micro Fiber is the thinnest.) A Micro fiber has less than one denier per filament. only viscose rayon is being produced in U.S First commercial production of triacetate fiber was by the Celanese Corporation. for this purpose. acrylic etc. Belgium Worn by Egyptians earlier than 2. produce approx 200 types of wool of varying grades. nylon. LAHORE FIBERS HISTORY HISTORY OF PRINCIPAL FIBERS USED IN TEXTILES FOR APPAREL DATE 5. Soviet States. First commercial production of acetate fiber in the USA was in 1924 by the Celanese Corporation First commercial production of nylon was in 1939 by the E. It is specially processed. China and India.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The first commercial production of acrylic fiber in the United States was in 1950 by E. du Pont de Nemours & Company Inc.e. Ireland. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin 1793 revolutionized the processing of cotton.

e) Breakage: Due to low twist or weak and or improper splicing. Range of 0. Australian. d) Barrie: Appearance of stripes. b) COTTON TESTING i. 2. straws and other contamination materials are a part of trash. American. Color dots. Normal moisture contents in Bales are around 7-8% but ginners add additional 2-3 % moisture for gaining extra weight to their benefit.is acceptable. leaves. But the advantage of manual picking is that irrelevant material is avoided i. Red. Pakistani cotton has +b value of Yellowishness range 7-9. Color +b Value: It is the degree of Yellowishness of raw cotton.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE TEXTILE YARN 1. Egyptian. Straws. COTTON PICKING: Pakistani Cotton is hand picked mainly due to small land holding.25+/.92. Basically there is a difference of almost 8% in trash between Pakistani and imported Cotton i. immature cotton balls. leaves. 4.e. Only mature fibers / cotton balls are picked during manual picking process. SPINNING MILLS OPERATIONS: Spinning mills operations involve: a) RAW COTTON MANAGEMENT: Proper placement of incoming raw cotton by lots i. ii. Hair. one lot consists of 100 bales of raw cotton. CIS.e. Polypropylene fiber etc that causes appearance of Black.e. Big Contamination i. Presley Strength: Pakistani cotton ranges 80. b) Unevenness: Appearance of thin and thick yarns in the fabric. Imported cotton trash % is normally 2% -3% only. 3.000 PSI Strength: Long staple cotton has higher Presley. The ginners add water contents to the raw cotton for gaining weight. light or dark mainly in the dyed fabric. Leaves. Green.10 ” Micronaire: It is number of micro grams per inch of raw cotton. Generally 18% floating Fiber Index in Pakistani raw cotton is acceptable. GINNING PROCESS: In ginning process oil seeds are separated from raw cotton. c) Dead Cotton: Appearance of white dots / specs on the fabric. iii.e. Its range of 4 to 4. NATURE OF YARN FAULTS: Some common yarn faults are: a) Colored Contamination: Presence of Jute. Normal trash contents in Pakistani cotton are around 8 % but can go as high as 10-11 % due to poor ginning process. straws etc.000 . 171 . colored marital are separated to a certain extent. iv.5 is considered to be the best as matured Cotton. Floating: It is number of short fiber % at drawing. farmers do not have proper storing facilities thus contamination is always added to the raw cotton. The raw cotton is pressed in the form of bales. v. vi. Staple length: Pakistani cotton has a staple length of 1” to 1.

Tex/10 = 590. e. = 13440 / 560. = = = 4 lbs 53760 / 4.e. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. it is explained by the example: (53760 yards weigh 4 pounds.5 Kg.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Weight of 53760 yards Yards / Lbs Worsted Count 7. D-Tex/10 = 590. of hanks that weigh 1. No. Find the count in (i) Worsted (ii) Linen (iii) Cotton (iv) Wool (York’s) (v) Wool (gala). 172 . Due to the nature of soil characteristics. 6.54 x 10/NE = 590.g. D-Tex. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. yarn count is 30/1 (30 Single). separate carding machines are used for producing such slivers. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. Pakistani cotton has better dye-ability. No. If 30 hanks of 840 yards weigh one pound. Likewise. YARN COUNT: Count is determined by the number of hanks. of hanks that weigh One Ounce No. blending of 60% cotton with 40% polyester.94/20 D-Tex = 295. Australia. soft hand feel and a better luster which adds value to product quality. of hanks that weigh One Pound Cotton English Spun Silk Continental Worsted Linen Metric Fiber Glass Silk Wool (Galashicls) Wool (West of England) Wool (York’s Skein) Asbestos (England) Asbestos (America) To elaborate.e. Mixing of slivers / Blending is carried out as per required ratio of a certain blend during a spinning process i. IMPORTED COTTON USAGE: Pakistan imports raw cotton from USA. CVC 60:40 means Chief value Cotton means i. Pound Ounce 1.54 x 10/20 D-Tex = 5905. West Africa etc mainly imported cotton is being used to produce contamination free / very low contamination yarn. Pakistani yarn is generally good for medium and dark color use.5 Pounds 1 Pound 1 Pound 1 Pound 1 Pound COUNT No. of hanks that weigh 0. = 13440 24S BLENDING OF COTTON WITH ANY MANMADE FIBER: Separate blow rooms are used for making laps (Rolls) of cotton and man made fiber. Pound Pound Kg. and N-M Tex).E. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. CIS. Conversion system between these is: Tex = D. P/C 65:35 means blending of 65% Polyester with 35% cotton.5 Pound No. where contamination is critical. Various yarn count measuring systems are (N. Each of 840 yards weighs one pound gives the count of the yarn.54/NE D-Tex = 590. Such yarns are used for white programs.27 INDIRECT SYSTEM SYSTEM UNIT OF LENGTH 840 Yards (Hank) 1000 meters 560 Yards (Hank) 300 Yards (Hank) 1000 Meter (Hank) 100 Yards (Hank) 1000 Yards 300 Yards 320 Yards 256 Yards 50 Yards 100 Yards UNIT OF WEIGHT Pound 0. China.5 Kg.54/NE = 1000/NM EXAMPLE Convert NE 20/1 to D-Tex i. of hanks that weigh 1 Kg. of hanks that weigh One Pound No. LAHORE 5.e.

e. PLIED YARNS: Twisting of two or more yarns together is called plying of yarn or doubling of yarn. N. In the trade. 9. is as follows: 9. Flexibility permits the fibers to be twisted around one another. In other words. the remaining impurities must be removed. the thicker the yarn is. 10/2 means 10 count 2-plies and 60/4 means 60 count 4-ply etc. 10s means 10 count of 1-ply. Thus. High pressure air blow is used as a means of transportation of raw cotton. we use a very different system to control the size. woven or knitted are made from yarn. Before the raw stock can be made into yarn. 140 . small number. it was necessary to invent simple methods of disentangling. For spun yarn. other than by using the fingers. 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. we usually write 10s.1 SPUN YARN: Spun yarn is a kind of yarn we make by gathering together a bundle of staple by means of an action called spinning with a tool called spindle which spins at a very high speed to twist the staples together to form a piece of yarn. These two factors depend upon the type of fiber. BLOW ROOM: (Waste Extraction – 5% to 6%). the finer the yarn is. 20/3 means 20 count 3-ply. the small size.g.2 FILAMENT YARN: Unlike spun yarn. 20s and 40s to mean 10 count single. 9. The objectives of the process is opening. The formation of yarn from fibers by spinning becomes possible when they have surfaces of cohesiveness. 8400 yards to weigh 1 pound and so on.Denier.denier or 160 denier.denier and 140 . 20 count and 40 count etc. CARDING: (Waste extraction 6%). The big number is the thick size. and 20s is twice as thick as 40s. All fabrics. 1 count yarn means 840 yards of it to weigh 1 pound. but the greater strength thus produced and the many uses soon found for articles made from continuous yarns led to the invention of hand implements to aid and improve the process of twisting and spinning. Filament yarn usually comes in 70 . 9. of no more than a few inches long. we call the yarn size 10 count. When stated in terms of basic manufacturing processes. wool or ramie etc. or smaller the number is. We usually make two kinds of yarn called spun yarn and filament yarn. Staple is a fiber of cotton. LAHORE 8. cleaning and mixing of Raw Cotton. we can make a piece of yarn of any size. This was probably accomplished slowly and laboriously at first. SPINNING: Primitive people discovered that a succession of short fibers could be twisted to a continuous yarn. Theoretically. 20/2 means 20 count 2-plies. Fiber is a generic term for a slender thread like substance called a staple. Eventually. 10s is twice as thick as 20s. At the same time. This process is called the “Heart of Spinning”. separating and arranging the fibers according to their length. and of 10 count yarn.E 20/2 carded yarn means two yarns of 20/1 carded twisted together to make 20/2 carded yarn. techniques were refined. the bigger the number is. the fibers must be 173 . 20 count single and 40 count single etc.3 SPINNING PROCESS FLOW: detailed below: Spinning process involves steps as 1. crude methods of carding were invented to separate the fibers according to their length of staple.Denier is twice as thick as 70 . similarly.

is placed in the spinning frame. but produces relatively coarse yarn. DRAWING: (Waste Extraction 0. 9. 11. Thick. This produces finer yarns. The combining of several slivers for drawing. and parallelization and cleaning of fibers. process eliminates irregularities that would cause too much variation if the slivers were put through singly. The result from the carding machine is called as card sliver. Objective of the process is removing short fibers. Combing process forms comb sliver made of longest fibers. USTER YARN STANDARDS: Uster standards are used to determine the quality of yarn. This results in a relatively narrow lap of compactly placed staple fibers. DOUBLING: After carding. Spinning machines are of two types: ring frame and mule frame. or drawn out. 10. The compactness of staple fibers permits this cotton stock to be attenuated. to a sliver of smaller diameter without falling apart.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 4. parallelization of fiber for blending double passage for carded and three passages for combed yarn. where it passes through several sets of rollers running at successively higher rates of speed and is finally drawn out to yarn of the size desired. After several stages of drawing out. SIMPLEX: Preparing package for ring frames. where rollers draw out cotton further.e. For very fine yarns mule frames are used. ROVING: The bobbins are placed on the roving frame. 8. the results which 5% top standard mills are producing of a certain count are (thin -50%). or drafting. When the fiber is intended for fine yarns. Roving is the final product of several drawing-out operations. The objective of this process is straightening. There are two stages in roving: intermediate and fine. 3. 6. and (Neps +200%) of actual yarn count 174 . the condensed sliver is taken to the slubber. drafting. LAHORE disentangled. The ring frame is faster process. where further drawing out and twisting take place until the cotton stock is about the diameter of a pencil lead. 7. AUTO CONE: Removing faults by cutting the yarn i. and they must be straightened. on bobbins. drafting of sliver and twisting of sliver at initial stage. The objective of the process is conversion of cotton tufts into individual fiber state and cleaning them. (Thick +50%). For example 5% Uster result means. Neps and Winding the yarn on cones for final packing. This straightening process puts the fibers into a somewhat parallel lengthwise alignment. The operations are identical. 5. Here the slubbing is passed to the spindles. COMBING: (Waste Extraction up to 20%). where it is given its first twist and wound on bobbins. extra straightening. The initial process of arranging the fibers in parallel fashion is known as carding. SPINNING: The roving.5%). This process eliminates 25% of card sliver. Thin. the sliver is put through an additional straightening called combing. several slivers are combined. RING FRAME: Final spinning process in yarn manufacturing after drafting and twisting (draft means increase in length per unit weight).

Fibers may be blended during the spinning process. Twist less spinning. sliver. 6. 1. 8. As the fibers pass through these processes. It gives the filaments a coil. Air-jet spinning. Integrated Composite spinning. BLENDED YARN: Yarn. 4. The tow yarns are made from short fibers and used for making coarse yarn and are dry spun. Melt spinning. 7. A good thread must be strong. Electrostatic spinning. TEXTURISED YARNS: Any filament yarn which has been modified to change the basic characteristics is known as texturised yarn. Threads are made of cotton. WOOLEN AND WORSTED YARN: Wool fibers which are coarse and spun after carding are known as woolen yarn finer and longer fibers which are subjected to combing are first converted to wool tops. The worsted yarns are smoother and have hard outer surface. having characteristics that vary according to construction and treatment given yarn manufacture. REELED SILK YARN: The pure silk yarn obtained from cocoons is termed as reeled silk. smooth and elastic. If an eight cord cotton thread is to be made eight strands are twisted together.e. Conditioning also helps to set the yarn twist in order to avoid un-twisting at the time of final use. Dry spinning. CONDITIONING AND PACKING: Moisture is being added to the yarn cones in order to increase the strength of yarn. The fibers which are subjected to spinning process after carding without combing are termed as cared yarns. FILAMENT YARN: The yarns are continues and slightly twisted. silk. Worsted Yarn is combed. made from two or more kinds of fibers. more uniform and stronger yarn. DOUBLE OR PLIED YARN: Two or more yarns twisted together. Selfil. even. 2. roving and finally yarn.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 175 . Vortex spinning. The finer yarns known as line yarn are generally wet spun. CARDED AND COMBED YARN: The purpose of combing fibers is to strengthen and makes fibers more parallel in order to have a smoother. LINE AND TOW YARN: Flax or linen yarns are spun either wet or dry. 9. 5. 3. Self-Twist spinning. Bi-constituent spinning. crimp. Film splitting. Men made yarns are generally converted into filament yarns. THREAD: If a number of strands of yarn are twisted together the resultant yarn is know as thread. The fibers which are combed before spinning are termed as combed yarns. Cover-spun. they are successfully formed into lap. The raw silk is spun on conventional spinning system.4 TYPES OF YARNS: There are various types of yarns. 24 Hour’s time is generally required for such conditioning. Fancy yarns are made on fancy yarn twisting machines. nylon and polyesters etc. Open-end spinning. and Aerodynamic spinning 9. smooth and compact yarn with long fibers and higher TPI. Wet spinning. linen. 10. curt & results in greater bulk & stretch. FANCY YARN: Fancy yarns are used in fabrics which have special appearance and effects. Bi-component spinning. Friction spinning. LAHORE 12. The blending procedure varies with its compatibility with particular spinning techniques i. Some yarn may consist of single filament as Nylon is called mono filament yarns. The worsted yarn is spun from tops.

Silk – Cotton. then this fabric is CVC 176 .e. Polyester – Rayon.5% Polyester and 17. Polyester – Rayon – Cotton Polyester – Wool. this fabric is TC. Sometimes. 15. With the above basic key materials. warp (vertical threads) one kind. THICK AND THIN YARN: Produced by varying diameter of man-made fibers.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 21. KNICKER BROKER YARN: Neps of singlw color are placed in carded sliver.6 CHIEF VALUE OF MIX WEAVE OR MIX KNIT: When it is a mixed weave / knit. 18. SLUB YARN: The yarn forming slubs may be continues or made of tufts of roving inserted at regular intervals in the yarn. SPLASH YARN: Elongated slub yarn tightly twisted about base yarn.5 BLENDED YARNS: In order to achieve certain appearance. and weft (horizontal threads) another kind. they are made of yarn of only one kind of fiber. This yarn is held in place by two or more binding yarn.Polyester Cotton Warp (TC) 65% 35% Weft (100% Polyester) 100% 0% 165% ÷ 2 = 82. when we plan to mix them. Generally used for knitting sweater. we may use 2 or even 3 kinds. and effect on fabrics. fabrics of the above composition are made of blended yarn. we should consider their characteristics to create a hybrid with the characteristics we need. dressed and upholstery. and sometimes. bur we mix two kinds of yarn. 16.5% Cotton If we change the weft from 100% Polyester to 100% cotton. . 17. Acrylic – Wool. MARL YARN: Color combined in roving where two roving are drafted together. As each kind of fiber has its own characteristics. to achieve this effect. 13. 82. PRINTED YARN: Yarn with regular or irregular dyeing effect throughout length. and rayon. 19. NUB YARN: It is made by twisted one end around the other many times in a very small length causing nubs on the surface of yarn. If the warp thread is of 65% polyester. the size of yarn on the warp and the weft is the same.5% Cotton. and Rayon – Cotton. 12. BOUCLE: It can be described as yarn with tight loops which projects from the body of yarn at regular intervals. LAHORE 11. LOOP YARN: The loose twisted yarn is twisted to form loops and curls. also the density of warp and weft is the same. CHENILE YARN: Special. 9. we often mix different fibers in the yarn to make fabrics. soft and lofty yarn with pile on all sides. Polyester – Cotton Blend. It is generally made from the blend of cotton. we must calculate %age of each fiber used to make sure the chief value of the fabric. wool. 20. Instead of using only one kind of fiber. we usually do the blending i. 35% cotton and the weft is 100% polyester. 22. CORKSCREW YARN: This effect is produced by twisting fine and coarse yarn. This is called “mixed weave” or “mixed knit” 9.5% Polyester 165% 35% 35% ÷ 2 = 17. this fabric is TC. 14. EXAMPLE – MIXED WEAVE: On a fabric. VOIL OR CREPE YARN: yarn with extra twist as such these tend to curl. Used for sweaters and other knitted outer wears.

LAHORE .Polyester Cotton Warp (TC) 65% 35% Weft (100% Polyester) 0% 100% 65% ÷ 2 = 32.320 yards ÷ 1.Polyester Cotton Thread of TC 65% 35% Thread of 100% Cotton) 0% 100% 65% ÷ 2= 32. it requires good knowledge and experience to make a good judgment.160 yards of 20s yarn 36” X 60 weft threads = 2. Above formula is based on 12% weaving shrinkage which may go up to 18% or down to 6% and should be adjusted based on size of weft yarn and weft density.0352 ounces =1.5% Polyester 65% 135% 135% ÷ 2 = 67. 9.007 grams = 52.61 ounce per square yard.9 X 0.050 yards per ounce Now. as garment merchandisers.0352 grams.862 ounce per square yards Dyeing and weaving shrinkage say 8%.320 yards of 20s yarn in one square yard of this fabric which means this fabric is 4.5% Polyester.160 yards of 20s yarn 2.7 SKILL TO DETERMINE THE SUBSTANCE OF A YARN: To determine what the substance is of the yarn.5% Cotton and 32.5% Cotton.800 yards of 20s = 1pound or 16 ounce? It also means that 16.000 yards of 70d filament yarn is 70grams It also means that 7.11 ounce per square yard Dyeing / Weaving shrinkage 12%. 20s X 20s It means warp 60pcs of threads each of 20s and weft 60pcs of threads each of 20s In one square yard of this fabric we have 36” X 60 warp threads = 2.11 ounce ÷ 12% = 4.9 grams Since 1 gram = 0.862 ounce X 8% = 2 ounce per square yard.560 yards of 70d yarn X 0.800 yards of 20s yarn ÷ 16 ounce = 1.320 yards of 20s yarn As 20pcs of 20s yarn each of 840 yards = 1pound or 16 ounce Which means 20pcs X 840 yards = 16.050 yards = 4. this fabric is CVC. 52. WEIGHT OF WOVEN FABRICS MADE OF SPUN YARN Fabric Construction: 60 X 60.160 warp threads + 2. 67.320 yards of 70d yarn 36” X 90 weft threads = 3.5% Cotton and 32.240 yards weft threads = 7. 70d X 70d Means warp 120pcs of threads each of 70d and weft 120pcs of threads each of 70d In one square yard of this fabric we have 36” X 120 warp threads = 4. However. we should be able to use some skill to get the answer quickly. 4. EXAMPLE – MIXED KNIT: You can use thread of 32s in TC and the next thread of 32s 100% cotton to knit. If we want to be very accurate we have to send it to a lab for a scientific analysis. the fiber contents of this knitted fabric are: . Through following methods we can analyze the yarn our self without any equipment.160 yards weft threads = 4.560 yards of 70d yarn As 10.320 warp threads + 3. As a result. this fabric is CVC.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5% Cotton. WEIGHT OF WOVEN FABRICS MADE OF FILIMENT YARN Fabric Construction: 120 X 90.240 yards of 70d yarn 4. 177 .5% Polyester.5% Polyester 65% 135% 135% ÷ 2= 67. 1. 67. we have 4.

2. You would suspect either it is wool or synthetic. When you burn it. 178 . it burns to grayish white ash like burning paper. LAHORE 1. RAMIE: When you untwist. WOOL: When you untwist. it burns to grayish white ash similar to cotton. it burns to dark grey hard ash like a bubble. you will see that the fiber length is very long and even in thickness. SILK: When you untwist. acrylic etc. When you burn it.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. When you burn it. unravel the yarn and pull out the fiber from it. very soft and even in thickness. When you burn it. unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it. COTTON: When you untwist. the smoke is black. You can crush it by hand into dust. unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it you will see that the fibers are much longer than 2 ”. 4. unravel the yarn and pull out the staples from it. you will see that the fibers are longer than 2” and they are not very straight and not very fine and pliable. it melts first. unravel the yarn and pull out the fiber you will see that the fiber length is very long. when you untwist. not too pliable. In process of burning you do not see anything melting. They are thick and stiff. During the process of burning. When you burn it. you will see that all the staples are less than 2 ”. when you untwist. When you burn it. it gives you a very strong smell like burning human hair. SYNTHETICS: If it is rayon. all those from petroleum. nylon. it does not melt. it burns like paper or cotton to grayish white ash. 5. unravel the yarn and pull out the fibers from it you will see that the fibers are much longer than 2 ”. They are very fine and soft. 3. If it is polyester. When it catches fire.

3 FABRIC WEIGHT: In order to determine the cost of grey fabric it is important to know the weight of fabric. Ends: Number of thread warp wise. which will be either starch or a synthetic. warping. Or they may have seen rushes naturally interlacing as they grew. called as Weft. and Picks: No. they are shuttle looms. WEAVING: A major method of fabric construction is weaving. These yarns are un-wound to be put through a sizing bath. In course of time. beating up (battening) – pushing filling yarns firmly in place by reed and taking up & letting off – winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp from the warp beam. following table may be helpful. Weaving is the process of interlacing two or more yarns at right angles to each other (Warp and Weft) to produce woven fabric. Weft: Yarn which run in the crosswise direction. Crosswise yarns are the fillings. The modern power loom used in textile industry today essentially performs the same operations. and thatch like huts and fence. and thus discovered how they could make clothing for themselves. ITEM Sized yarn Amount of twist Yarn spacing Tension Selvage Bowing Thread Linear density of yarn WARP Yes Higher Uniform Tighter Parallel No Greater Finer WEFT No Lower Uniform Looser Perpendicular Yes Smaller Coarser 1. Both types of yarns undergo certain treatment for type of fabric for which they will be used. shuttle less looms. and slashing to withstand strain of weaving. The sized yarns are then wound on a final warp beam and are ready for the loom. The sequences of four operations that are fundamental in any weaving operations are shedding – raising specific warp yarns by means of the harness or heddle frame. picking – inserting filling yarns through the shed. circular looms 179 . rude looms were made. Warp yarns undergo spooling. of threads weft wise. Primitive people may have observed the interlaced grasses and twigs in the nest of birds. Spinning developed when people discovered that the raw materials could be improved before they were woven. there are three types of looms in constructing the fabric. which were crudely simple and hand-operated. 1. the lengthwise yarns run from back of the loom. Both Ends and Picks counted per inch. 1.4 PREPARATION FOR WEAVING: In weaving operation. baskets and nets. based. Weight of fabric consists of Weight of Warp and Weft. forms basic structure of fabric and called Warp.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.2 IDENTIFICATION OF WARP AND WEFT: To identify warp and weft direction and their basic properties. In spooling the yarns is wound on large spools or cones placed on creel from which it is wound on a warp beam.1 FABRIC CONSTRUCTION: Construction of fabric consist Warp: Yarn which runs in the lengthwise direction. LAHORE FABRICATION (WOVEN) 1. Weight of Warp = Number of Warp Ends X 36 X Shrinkage% X Width Warp Count X 840 1. The technique probably became known before spinning.

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1.5 TYPES OF LOOMS SHUTTLE LOOMS: The conventional loom utilizes a shuttle that contains a bobbin of filling yarn, which emerges through a hole in the side. As the shuttle is batted across the loom it leaves a trail of the filling. The shuttle loom is the oldest kind of the loom. It is effective and versatile. Shuttle looms operate more slowly than new looms they are also noisier. SHUTTLE LESS LOOMS: To overcome disadvantages of shuttle looms, several different kinds of shuttle less looms have been developed. Each type uses a different method of picking, which provides specific characteristics / applications. Different types of shuttle less looms are Missile or Projectile Looms, Rapier Looms, Water-Jet Looms, Air-Jet Looms CIRCULAR LOOMS: Circular looms are specially designed to produce tubular rather than flat fabrics woven by the looms heretofore discussed. They require the use of a shuttle device that circulates the filling in a shed formed around the machine. The circular loom is used primarily for bagging material. 1.6 SALVAGES: As the shuttle moves back and forth across the width of the shed, it weaves a self edge called the selvage, or selvedge, on each side of the fabric. The selvage prevents the fabric from raveling. It is usually made more compact and stronger than the rest of the fabric by using more or heavier warp yarns or by using a stronger weave. There are different kinds of selvages. The kind of selvage used depends upon economy of production and the expected use of the fabric: PLAIN SALVAGES: These salvages are constructed of the simple plain weave with the same size yarn as the rest of the fabric, but with the threads packed more closely together. Such selvages are fairly durable and firm. TAPE SALVAGES: These are sometimes constructed with the plain weave but often are made of the basket weave, which makes a flatter edge. Tape selvages are made of heavier yarns or ply yarns, which provide greater strength. SPLIT SALVAGES: These are made by weaving a narrow width fabric twice its ordinary width with two selvages in the center. The fabric is then cut between the salvages, and the cut edges are finished with a chain stitch or hem. FUSED SELVAGES: These are made on fabrics of thermoplastic fibers, such as nylon, by heating the edges of the fabric. The fibers melt and fuse together, sealing edges. This technique is sometimes used to split wide fabrics into narrower widths. LENO SELVAGES: These are used on some shuttleless looms. Construction utilizes a narrow leno weave which locks cut ends along fabric edge. A loose weave generally requires a tight leno selvage, whereas a light weave may have a leno selvage with less tension. TUCKED SALVAGE: This is a technique used on some shuttleless looms. A device is used to tuck and hold the cut ends into the fabric edge. The construction of the selvage is dependent upon the particular weave and a number of other factors. A formula for weaving the tucked selvage considers fiber density, the diameter of the yarns as well as the yarn diameter balance, or ratio of the diameter of the filling yarn to that of the warp yarn.

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2. CLASSIFICATION OF WEAVES: Manner in which groups of warp yarns
are raised by harnesses to permit the insertion of filling yarn determines the pattern of weave, and in large measure the kind of fabric produced. Weave patterns can create varying degrees of durability in fabrics, adding to their usefulness and their appearance. The weaves can be classified as: PLAIN WEAVE: The plain weave is also referred to as the tabby, homespun, or taffeta weave. It is inexpensive to produce. It requires only two harnesses. In plain weave construction each filling yarn goes over and under the warp yarn across the width of the fabric; on its return the yarn alternates its pattern of interlacing. It is used extensively for cotton fabrics. Plain weave does not have a wrong side, e.g. gig ham, voile, calico, muslin and taffeta. There are two variations of the plain weave i.e. Basket Weave and Ribbed Weave BASKET WEAVE: The variation of the plain weave known as the basket weave uses doubled yarns to produce the design that resembles the familiar pattern of a basket. Two or more filling yarns with little or no twist are interlaced with a corresponding number of warp yarns. They are woven in a pattern of 2 X 2, 3 X 3, or 4 X 4, instead of 1 X 1, which is the plain weave. Due to the characteristic looseness of construction and the low tensile strength of yarns that have little or no twist, this weave is not considered desirable for clothing purposes where the factor of durability is a primary consideration. RIBBED WEAVE: Ribbed, or corded, effects are further variations of the plain weave. The rib may be produced in the warp or in the filling by alternating fine yarns with coarse yarns. Most ribbed effects are medium weight. The ribbed, compact structure generally provided greater drapability than the plain weave. The cloth may be smoother and softer, depending upon the yarn and finish used. TWILL WEAVE: In twill weave, the filling yarn interlaces more than one warp but never more than four as strength would be sacrificed by doing so. On each successive line the filling yarn moves the design one step to the right or to the left, thus forming the diagonal. Whichever the direction of the diagonal on the face of the fabric the design runs in the opposite direction on the reverse side. The direction of the diagonal lines, which come from upper left-hand to the lower right-hand, is left-hand twill, and from upper right-hand to lower left-hand is right-hand twill. There are two types of twill Even Twill and Uneven Twill SATIN WEAVE: It is similar to twill weave. It uses from 5 to as many as 12 harnesses. The difference from twill weave is that the diagonal of satin weave is not visible. They may have warpface or filling-face construction. Warp-face weave is woven so that warp is seen on the surface. Filling face satin weave is also called as sateen weave. The filling yarns are seen on right side.

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CREPE WEAVE: It gives the fabric a pebbly crepe surface. True crepe is woven with highly twisted yarns and textured yarns. Similar effects can be obtained by variation in the plain and the satin weave with the use of dobby attachment on the loom. Irregular indistinct patterns using both plain weave and varied lines of satin floats in warp and/or filling produce crepe weave. The result is somewhat rough textured material. PILE WEAVE: It is a fancy weave that also includes plain and twill construction. This introduces a decorative third dimension creating an effect of depth. It gives softness, warmth and absorbency. Weaving additional warp yarns or filling yarns into the basic structure produces the pile. The additional yarns, which form the loops in regular intervals, are drawn away from the surface of the fabric by thick wires. The loops maybe cut or uncut, hence the two variations are Cut Pile or Uncut Pile DOUBLE-CLOTH WEAVE: In a double-cloth weave, the two fabrics are woven on a loom at same time, one on top of the other. The fabric may have a plain weave on one side and a twill weave on other. Each of fabrics requires its separate sets of warp and filling yarns or by means of a complete fifth set of stitching yarns. Surfaces of such fabrics may show different patterns or color on each side by varying the yarns as to color and size. Double cloth weave produces two pieces of fabric combined into one fabric so woven are commonly regarded as strong and warm. Double-cloth fabrics are by their nature heavier weight materials. They may be made of spun yarns or of spun and filament yarns. GAUZE LENO WEAVE: Leno weave improves the stability in ‘open’ fabrics which have a low fiber count. A form of plain weave in which adjacent warp fibers are twisted around consecutive weft fibers to form a spiral pair, effectively ‘locking’ each weft in place. Fabrics in leno weave are normally used in con-junction with other weave styles because if used alone their openness could not produce an effective composite component. MOCK LENO WEAVE: A version of plain weave in which occasional warp fibers, at regular intervals but usually several fibers apart, deviate from the alternate under-over interlacing and instead interlace every two or more fibers. This happens with similar frequency in the weft direction, and the overall effect is a fabric with increased thickness, rougher surface, and additional porosity. SWIVEL WEAVE: The swivel weave is the method by which decorative effects, such as dots, circles, or other figures, are interwoven on the surface of a fabric while it is being constructed on a loom. The weaving of the design requires an extra filling yarn and additional small shuttles or insertion devices and a separate shed is made for them. While the fabric is being constructed, the row of small shuttles drops across the width of the loom, each interweaves its separate design with a 182

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circular motion on a small area of the warp. Different colors may be used in each of the designs because each figure is woven with its own specific bobbin. The decoration produced by swivel weave is not considered durable, because the swivel yarns are cut when the fabric is completed and cannot be securely fastened. This swivel weave is employed with sheer lightweights, such as dotted Swiss and grenadine and medium weight such as Madras LAPPET WEAVE: The lappet weave is also used to super impose a small design on the surface of the fabric while it is being woven. In the lappet weave, the design is stitched into the fabric by needles that operate at right angles to the construction. The floating threads on the back may be cut away when the fabric is completed, but the ends are fastened securely and will not pull out easily. Therefore, the fabrics made with the lappet weave are superior to similar ones made of swivel weave. The simplest form employs an extra set of filling or warp yarns differing in weights and often in colors from those used in the body of the fabric to produce the design. These yarns are thrown into the figure of the design on the face of the cloth and are carried from selvedge to selvedge. The same yarns float on the back of the cloth as appear in the design on its surface. These floats between the figures or in case of warp yarns they run entire length of the fabric. The durability of design is dependent only on compactness of the ground yarns, which hold the heavy designing yarn in place. DOBBY WEAVE: The dobby weave is a patterned weave used to conduct designs cannot be produced by the plain, twill or satin weave. The designs are simple, limited in size and geometric in form. This weave is constructed with filling yarns floating on the surface in such a manner that they produce small diamond shape design. Most familiar type of dobby weave is bird’s eye small diamond pattern made with short floats gives an impression of eye. JACQUARD WEAVE: The jacquard mechanism controls thousands of heddles, which lifts one or more warp yarns independently of others without the use of harnesses. The preparation of a jacquard weave is the most expensive part of its construction. Floats are inevitable in the jacquard weave because of the elaborate designs.

3. TYPES OF WOVEN FABRICS: The range of fabrics available today is so
varied and exciting that it is easy to get carried away with enthusiasm and not take careful account of how it will make up as a garment. Some of the fabrics we can expect to find are as follows: BARATHEA: This was originally a close woven silk used in the making. It was later made from a silk and worsted wool mixture, and is now made entirely from worsted wool. It makes very good suits, blazers, trousers and coats. BATISTE: Fine soft cotton now made with a percentage of polyester. (Some 100 per cent polyester batistes are also available.) It is very useful for lining bodices and yokes because of its fineness, and used for shirts, blouses, under slips and nightwear. BEDFORD CORD: This is made from any yarn, but identified by a lengthways ribbed effect. Used for heavy duty wear, riding breeches, winter coats and trousers.

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BLANKET CLOTH: Originally made for covering beds, this is a thick, non-frying fabric made from wool or a mixture of fibers. Often available as a reversible material, it is suitable for capes and duffel coats. It is produced with a napped finish like velvet. BLAZER CLOTH: Warm and lightweight, this is available in pure wool and in mixed fibers. A type of flannel that is good for children’s coats. BROCADE: Originally a heavy silk, but now a name for any fabric that has a raised woven pattern and a simple weave for background. It is used for bridal and bridesmaid dresses, and fancy dress costume. BRODERIE ANGLAIS: This is an embroidered fabric (usually cotton) that has small holes in the motifs. Imitation broderie anglais is available, but the embroidery does not incorporate the small holes, which identify the real thing. BRUSHED COTTON: This is 100 percent cotton, available in plain colors or prints. The brushing process, applied to the right side of the fabric, gives it warmth. Use it for dresses, blouses and skirts, but it creases and will require careful ironing. CALICO: Creases very easily, but is strong and washes and wears well. It is usually 100 percent cotton, but can be mixed with synthetic fibers. CAMBRIC: First made in cambrai, France, from a linen yarn, this fabric is now usually 100 percent cotton of a very fine quality. CHEESECLOTH: This loose woven cotton fabric has a wrinkled appearance. If 100 percent cotton, it is not hardwearing, but the addition of synthetic fibers improves both the wear and washability. CHIFFON: This is a very delicate fabric woven from highly twisted yarn, which makes the edges roll after cutting out. Can be made from nylon, polyester and pure silk, and drapes beautifully. CLYDELLA: A trade name for a soft, plain or print mixture of cotton and wool. CORDUROY: Usually made in cotton, but can be a mixture of fibers. Firm to handle and with long, velvety ribs running down the length of the fabric. Corduroy mist is cut in one direction ply to avoid shading. FLANNEL: This is loosely woven wool, or a mixture of wool and other fibers. It wears well and does not fray easily, so is therefore useful for many garments, such as trousers, blazers and coats. GABERDINE: The twill weave of this cloth makes it water repellent and it is also sometimes proofed for raincoats. Mixed fiber fabrics, and 100 percent synthetic fabrics, such as trevira, are excellent when produced with the gabardine look. GINGHAM: This is very strong and hard-wearing 100 percent cotton, or a cotton mixture. Often produced in checks or stripes, it is widely used for children’s blouses, shirts and school dresses. LAWN: This is a very soft and delicate cotton fabric, also available as a mixture of cotton and synthetic fibers. It is often used for baby clothes, and many famous trade names (including liberty) use this fabric for blouses, dresses and shirts. NEEDLECORD: This is a fine-ribbed version of corduroy, which is hard-wearing and usually washable. It is normally made of cotton, but can be made with a percentage of synthetic fibers. It must always be cut in one direction to avoid shading. 184

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ORGANDIE: Made from very fine yarn to give a transparent effect, organdie is usually stiffened and has a glazed finish. Use it for collars, pinafores, special dresses and delicate blouses. PIQUE: This is a hard-wearing cotton or synthetic fabric, which is very similar to needle cord in that it is woven with a close rib. Use it for making shirts, trousers, dungarees, collars and cuffs. POPLIN: This is a plain cotton or synthetic fabric with a characteristic shine on the right side. It is very hard-wearing and often used for pockets. As it is difficult to hand sew, be careful with hems, which can look better machines. REVERSIBLE FABRIC: Many fabrics can be used on both sides, which can look very attractive if we want to create a trimmed effect without buying additional fabric. Some reversible fabrics are made from two layers of cloth of different colors or design, stitched, or permanently stuck, together. These fabrics are excellent on such garments as capes or duffel coats when not use a lining, edges should be bound. SATIN: This word describes a type of weave as well as a type of fabric. It always has a smooth, lustrous surface and is made from a continuous filament thread such as pure silk or nylon. Take care to avoid iron marks when pressing. SEERSUCKER: This is usually cotton, or a cotton mixture, which washes well and needs no ironing. It is a characterized by its bubbly, uneven surface. SILK: An expensive but very beautiful fabric that is not difficult to handle. Try to use silk thread and always test for ironing on small pieces. TOWELLING: This fabric, often called terry toweling, is made from thick cotton with close loops, and is ideal for beach robes and dressing-gowns. It is often possible to make children’s garments more cheaply, and in better quality toweling if we use household towels rather than buy from a roll. Stretch toweling, which is jersey backed, is ideal for beach wear, anoraks and shorts, but is usually available only in very wide widths. VELVET: A sophisticated pile fabric was originally made in 100% cotton with velvet surface cut after weaving. Velvet is now available with mixed fibers, but 100% cotton velvet is recommended for satisfactory home dressmaking. It must be cut in one direction only, decision being made after assessing which way to prefer. VELVETEEN: This is very short pile cotton velvet, highly recommended for children’s clothes because it handles and washes more easily than true velvet. It must be cut in one direction. VIYELLA: Like clydella, Viyella is a trade name, but often used to describe any soft, warm mixtures of wool and cotton. It can be plain or printed. WINCEYETTE: This is a type of brushed cotton that wears and washes well, but should only be bought if flame-proofed by the manufacturer. Always ask about this when buying the material; small additional cost is more than offset by safety factor. WOOL: This is a traditional and beautiful fabric, but if 100 percent pure wool, it is expensive. Some wool mixtures feel and handle like the real thing but have the added bonus of crease resistance, strength, shape retention and washability. ARMURE: French term for a small irregular pebbled or embossed effect. The fabric surface has a wavy rib character that produces an all-over textural effect.

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BIRDSEYE: A worsted suiting type, featuring a small design based on the diamond principal with a small dot in centre of each figure, achieved by weave and color. CAVALRY TWILL: A firm and sturdy warp-faced fabric in which the weave has steep double twill lines separated by pronounced grooves formed by the weft. The term is derived from the fabrics once used for making riding breeches for military. CLOQUE: A double fabric with a figured blister effect produced by use of yarns of a different character or twist, which respond in different ways to finishing treatments. CREPE: Puckered and crinkled fabric that has weave construction produced by random distribution of floats using highly twisted yarns, crepe is available in variety of weights and fibers. The CrÍpon is a variety of crepe with more prominent fluted effect in the warp direction giving a tree-bark effect. DAMASK: It has also become known as a type of weave. It produces a figured fabric usually, in silk or linen, in which the pattern is created by reversing the weave alternately between warp-faced satin and weft-faced sateen. The pattern is often selfcolored but can be emphasized with the use of colored yarns. DRILL: A robust twill fabric similar to denim most commonly used for heavy weight shirting’s and work wear, the grain runs in the opposite direction to normal twill. GLEN URQUHART: This check is one of the most common and forms the basis for numerous variations. The alternate blocks of coloring in warp and weft on a 2/2 twill produce panels of hounds tooth check and panels of guard's check. GUARD’S CHECK: When a 2 and 2 color order is used in both the warp and the weft of a 2/2 twill, a distinctive vertical line effect is produced. HERRINGBONE: A combination of twill weaves in which the direction of the twill is reversed to produce a striped pattern resembling herring bones. Also, called, feather or arrowhead twill. HONEYCOMB: A fabric in which the warp and weft threads float to form a diamond shape with ridges and hollows to produce a cellular cloth. Brighton and Grecian weaves are adaptations of the honeycomb principle. HOPSACK: Also known as basket weave is a modification of a plain weave fabric in which two or more ends and picks are woven as one. This produces a rustic surface, especially if loosely woven. HOUNDS TOOTH: One of the most easily identifiable checks is the hounds tooth or dogs tooth check. This weave is produced in a pattern of four light and four dark yarns in both warp and weft. The gun club check is a variation of the hounds tooth but using a different color sequence traditionally on a light colored ground. LENO: Gauze weaves with an open effect in which warp threads are made to cross one another between the picks. The lightweight fabric produced is often used as a ground for more elaborate ornamentation. MATELASSE: A double cloth with a quilted appearance commonly made with two warps and two wefts. The quilted effect can be accentuated by the use of wadding threads and the designs are formed by floating threads or small areas of fancy weaves. REPP: Plain weaves fabric with a prominent weft way-rib effect, made from two warps and two wefts. Both the warp and the weft threads are arranged alternately

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SHARKSKIN: This originated as a closely woven twill fabric with a rather stiff handle. Duke of Windsor became the Prince of Wales and he favored a black and white Glen Urquhart check and the two designs became confused in many people's minds. where a 3 x 1 twill is required. This causes the diagonal line to be formed in the cloth from bottom right to top left which is why this twill is sometimes called a 3 x 1 right to left twill instead of ‘S’ twill.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The twill angle is steeper than 45  which enhances fabric appearance. it is being replaced by 3 x 1 ‘Z’ twill. or ‘Z’ twill in otherwise identical constructions will have 187 . but now a fashion fabric in many shades. The points of intersection move one to the right and one upward on succeeding picks. poult. especially for the more fashionable end uses. Twill weave cotton or polyester cotton is most widely available. Warp threads running the length of the fabric are yarn dyed and the weft threads going across the fabric are usually natural. Coarse threads are raised above coarse picks and fine threads are raise above fine picks. However. A delustred continuous filament yarn is most commonly used for woven sharkskin to give the effect of a finely grained surface. are taffeta. The interlacing of 3 x 1 ‘S’ twill is similar to 3 x 1 ‘Z’ twill but in this case the points inter-section move one to the left and one upward on succeeding picks. It is a warp faced weave where each warp thread interlaces over 3 weft picks and less than one. with grey or some other contrasting color being used occasionally to achieve a special effect. This causes a diagonal line to be formed in the cloth. a misunderstanding arose when Edward. Some examples. in increasing order of prominence of the rib. faille and grosgrain. 3 X 1 ‘ S’ TWILLS: In the past. The angle of the twill line is a result of the relationship between the warp and weft threads per cm. The names comes from famous horse auction rooms in London and the equestrian influence continues as the designs are still most commonly used for riding shirts. Window pane checks are a much larger version of tattersal and frequently appear as over checks on other designs. 3 x 1 ‘S’ twill has been quite commonly used for denim but recently. In otherwise identical constructions the ‘Z’ twill gives a more even appearance and slightly better warp cover than ‘S’ twill. Instead solid square shaped blocks are produced where the colors intersect. Fabrics produced 3 x 1 ‘S. 3 X 1 ‘Z’ TWILLS: 3 x 1 ‘Z’ twill is the weave most commonly used for denim. which is especially useful for tight jeans. Denim washes and wears well. True denim is a woven construction which gives good fabric stability and an attractive rugged appearance. All 3 x 1 weave Z twills must be pre-skewed. in this case from bottom left to top right which is why this twill is sometimes called 3 x 1 left to right twill instead of Z twill. A stretch variety can now be bought. DENIM: Traditionally blue. TATTERSAL CHECK: Is a simple design that was originally a small scale version of horse blanket checks. but will crease in wear. And because in twill denim there are always more ends than picks per cm. the rib effect being accentuated by different tensions in the warps. The group of Repp fabrics is known by different names depending on the prominence of the rib. PRINCE OF WALES CHECK: It is actually a very large check with a repeat of nine inches in bold red or brown on a cream ground with a grey over check. SHEPHERD'S CHECK: This is sometimes confused with the hounds tooth but is woven with a color sequence of five or more yarns alternating and a 2/2 twill weave that causes the hounds tooth shape to be lost. LAHORE coarse and fine.

movie stars. HISTORY OF DENIM: Denim is more than a cotton fabric. “then denim certainly qualifies. When.” a serge fabric from the town of Nimes in France. 2 x 1-twill is slightly more difficult to weave than 3 x 1 twill because of the more frequent interlacing of warp and weft but apart from this.” meaning a fabric that resembled the part-wool fabric called nim? Was serge de Nimes more well-known than serge de nim and mistranslated when it crossed the English Channel? It’s likely we will never really know.” Serge de Nimes was made of silk and wool. 3 x 1 broken twill where used in an otherwise identical construction to a ‘Z’ or ‘S’ twill results in fabric that is 2 – 3% narrower. 4. there was also a fabric known in France as “nim. Most reference books say that denim is an English corruption of the French phrase “serge de Nimes. At the same time. finished square fabric in this weave has no potential to skew. France. twills must be pre-skewed. it inspires strong opinions from historians. The points of intersection move one to the right and one upward on succeeding picks. this is no longer such an advantage and in Australia at least. reporters and writer. ORIGINS IN EUROPE: There are a few scholars of thought on the derivation of the word “denim.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE the same performance except that potential skew will be in opposite directions and appearance will be different. It is a warp faced weave (but to a lesser degree than previous 3 x 1 twills) where each warp thread interlaces over 2 weft picks and under one. teenagers. However. “Denim is one of the world’s oldest fabrics. The question then arises: was this fabric imported from France or was it an English fabric bearing the same name? Fabrics which were named for a certain geographic location were often also made elsewhere. All 2 x 1 twills must be pre-skewed. 188 .” If continuous use of and interest in an item makes it “eternally young. To call it twill is somewhat of a misnomer because the broken up surface appearance is more like a crepe than twill. though both fabrics are twill weave. because it allows for the design of a lighter fabric which still maintains good fabric stability despite reduced ends. Legend and fact are also interwoven when scholars discuss the origin of the name denim. yet it remains eternally young. 3 X 1 BROKEN TWILLS: 3 X 1 broken twill is a combination of 3 x 1 ‘Z’ and ‘S’ twills. 2 ends of ‘S’ right across the fabric. However. fabric construction economics are in favor of 2 x 1-twill. picks and mass when compared to 3 x 1-twill. Again. Serge de Nimes was also known in England before the end of the 17th century. especially for women’s wear. 2 X 1 ‘Z’ TWILLS: 2 x 1-twill is increasing in popularity. designers. For the same warp to weft ratio 2 x 1-twill will show more weft than 3 x 1-twill. alternating as 2 ends of ‘Z’. and not in Nimes. this relation between fabrics is in name only. now that pre-skewing of twills is possible. In 1969 a writer for American Fabrics magazine declared. All 3 x 1 ‘S. but denim has always been made of cotton.” T he serge de Nimes fabric traces back to France prior to the 17th century. the better appearance of 3 x 1 ‘Z’ twill is required by most major manufacturers. the name was used to lend a certain cachet to the fabric when it was offered for sale. Is the real origin of the word denim “serge de nim. Therefore a “serge de Nimes” purchased in England was very likely also made in England. There still remains the question of how the word “denim” is thought to have descended from the word “serge de Nimes. some scholars have begun to question this explanation.” Both fabrics were composed partly of wool. 2 x 1 twill directions is almost entirely ‘Z’ and is the only one we need concern ourselves with.

mostly as a way to become independent from foreign producers (mainly the English). Webster’s Dictionary from the same year contained the word “denim. a New York clothing manufacturer advertised topcoats. it was apparently quite popular and imported into England in large quantities during the 16th century. Mechanics and painters wore overalls made of blue denim. including “New Creek Blues” and “Madison River Browns.” referring to it as “a coarse cotton drilling used for overalls. etc. the magazine American Fabrics fan an article that stated.” Research shows that jean and denim were two very different fabrics in 19th century America. That same year. black. The first Blue jeans in 1962. when they were not made out of the fabric called out of denim come to be called jeans. white and blue jean. seems to have been reserved for work clothes. and unpretentious. they did have one major difference: denim was made of one colored thread and one white thread. such as durability and comfort. but it did not offer the added benefits of denim. one of the first printed references to the word “denim” in the United States appeared: a Rhode Island newspaper reported on the local production of denim among other fabrics. vests or short jackets in chestnut. In 1849.” terms that still sound contemporary today.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Italy was called jean. and thought the two fabrics were very similar in some ways. By the end of this period. “If we were to use a human tern to describe a textile we might say that denim is an honest fabric – substantial. another fabric known as “Jean” also existed at this same time. when both durability and comfort were needed. jean was being produced in Lancashire. 189 . contains sketches of weaving methods for variety of denims. wore more tailored trousers make of jean. Denim’s popularity was also on the rise. then. cotton fabrics were an important component of American mills product line. when they were not made out of the fabric called jean? One very important reason can be found in the life and a Bavarian-bran jean? One very important reason can be found in the life and work of a Bavarian-bran businessman who made his way to San Francisco nearly 150 years ago.” published in 1792. A Factory in the state of Massachusetts wove both denim and jean. American President George Washington toured this mill in 1789 and was shown the machinery that wove denim. In 1864. valued especially for its property of durability even after many types of washing. Research on this textile indicates that it was fustian – cotton. DENIM COMES TO AMERICA: As denim moved across the Atlantic in the late 18th century. LAHORE To confuse things even more. This is evidence of a fabric being named for a place of origin. “So how did this utilitarian and unpretentious fabric become the stuff of legends that it is today? And how did pants made out of denim come to be called jeans. The book “Weavers Draft Book and Clothiers Assistant. By the 18th century. olive. jean was woven of two threads of the same color. linen and / or wool blend – and that fustian from Genoa. American textile mills started to produce their own denim fabric on a small scale. an East Coast wholesale house advertised that advertised that it carried 10 different kinds of denim. They also differed in how they were used. It was stronger and more expensive than jean. Fine trousers were offered in blue jean. jean cloth was made completely of cotton and used to make men’s clothing. forthright. Other American advertisements show working men wearing clothing that illustrate this difference in jean and denim usage. Denim. Working men in general. overalls and trousers make for work were offered in blue and fancy denim. From the very beginning. including those not engaged in manual labor. Jean was a sturdy fabric.

This attitude could be seen very clearly in the “decorated denim” craze in the 1970s. where Loeb ’s half-brothers ran a wholesale dry-goods business (selling bolts of cloths. His mission was to open the West Coast branch of his brothers’ wholesale drygoods business. he got a letter from Jacob Davis.” Today. as well as from Canada and the Bahamas. paper and computer keyboard. LAHORE Levi’s ® Jeans. Though our tools are now pencils. Knowing that the riveted pants were going to be perfect for work wear.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. but didn’t have the money he needed to file the paper. The following year. He wanted to patent the idea. shows a variety of denim products for sale. embroidered. in Bavaria in 1829.000 entries from 49 of the United States. which was published after the earthquake. DENIM MEETS THE 21ST CENTURY: American Fabrics magazine predicted back in 1969 that denim would become a fashion statement for many occasions when it said. He left his thriving manufacturing and dry goods business to his four nephews who helped rebuild the company after the big earthquake and fire of 1906. Jacob Davis sold back his share of the company. his mother and two sister left Germany in 1847 and sailed to New York. Levi and Jacob decided to make them out of denim rater than jean because denim was a very sturdy fabric appropriate for work wear.” Levi brought Jacob Davis to San Francisco to oversee the first manufacture of their copper riveted “waist overall.” Levi knew a good business opportunity when he saw one. and in 1873 he and Davis received a patent for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings. These products included pillows. sponsored a “Denim Art Contest” in 1973. etc. In 1872. In 1853. young Loeb worked for this brother. The company received 2. Levi Strauss died in 1902. which included beaded. Further advantages are its absorbency and moisture 190 . and acquired a reputation for quality products over the next tow decades. The winning garments were sent on an 18-month tour of American museums and some of them were purchased by Levi Strauss & Co. It has climbed the ladder of taste. “What has happened to denim in the last decade is really a capsule of what happened to America. we know hat the very first people to wear Levi’s ® jeans worked with pick and shovel. underwear and clothing whose manufactures are no longer in business. “makes a very large amount of money.1 BASIC MATERIAL OF DENIM: The basic material of Blue Denim is cotton. who had come up with a great idea. To improve the strength of the pants he makes for his customers. Levi worked hard.” the old name for jeans. a Reno. blankets. and by 1850 had changed his name to Levi. These pants were made from brown cotton duck and blue denim. we have been moved to wear the same thing: denim jeans. the two men could make riveted clothing and. he obtained his American citizenship and decided to make a new start and undertake the hazardous journey to San Francisco. are named for the founder of the company that invented them: Levi Strauss. he added metal rivets. for the company archives. which proved to be a big success. at the age of 73. saying that if he would pay for the application. inviting customers to send in pictures of their decorated denim. Looking back. Nevada tailor. He sold common drygoods products to small stores all over the West. millions of p eople wear jeans to work. So he wrote to Levi. linens.) For a few years. as Davis put it in his letter. He. which he started as soon as he got off the boat. a city enjoying the benefits of the recent Gold Rush. painted and sequined jeans appearing on streets from California a New York and abroad. where the suit once ruled. clothing. of course. The oldest surviving catalog in our company archives. 4. Personalizing one’s jeans was such a huge trend in the United States that Levi Strauss & Co. The highly wear and tear resistant features of this vegetable fiber are even increased when the fabric is wet.

easy cleaning. This can be done in two different ways: OPEN END SPINNING (OE): Open End Spinning was developed in the 60s and represents today's standard quality. today also a small percentage of synthetical fibers are admixed into some Denim qualities (such as. as it is so typical for traditional Denim . It is characterized by the fabric's uneven surface. Warp and weft are made of ring yarn. LAHORE receptivity. Due to its natural development and its natural advantages cotton became the basic material for Denim. and no pilling (nubs). Stretch-Denim or fabrics elasticized in the warp or weft). Especially this "roughness" is nowadays asked for. 191 . the productivity per spinning station is 7 times higher than with ring frames. the yarn is spun. a fiber ring of predefined strength is formed by the application of the centrifugal forces. This makes production faster and more cost efficient.2 FIBER YARN SPINNING: From the freshly harvested flake to the final yarn the cotton is subject to the following processes: After that. However. The open end of the fire is joined to the fiber ring and drags it out. Moreover. the warp and/or weft yarn are produced by open end spinning (rotor) which means that no roving is required. Furthermore. In the rotor. As a "ring" is used for spinning this manufacturing process is called ring spun. and as a longer fiber is used the yarn also shows thin and thick places. the fed card or drafter sliver is dissolved and cleaned down to individual fiber. For rotor spinning. which was succeeded by today's open end spun quality for the above reasons. Here. This method requires more work than open end spinning. the contexture of the Denim qualities is comparatively uniform.an effect which is even enforced by stone washing.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Therefore. In the course of the Retro Denim Wave it was re-discovered and now serves as a fashionable highlight in many of today's ranges. This special effect is due to the yarn type used. rotor spinning is also called open end spinning. RING SPUN: Ring Denim is the former standard Denim. good dyeability. 4.

LAHORE 4. For this. the wrong side by the white weft. This pattern is kept over the entire length of the weft row. Pre-washing makes the trousers soft 192 . They are pre-washed first. Canvas. There is also Popeline available. How often the jeans are pre-washed depends on how soft and light in color the fabric should become. In the next row. the so-called twill line which comes from the side wards racketed crossing points Examples: Gabardine Twill. the weft is worked in racked by one warp. ("Flats" are jeans made of the former and equally important as the Blue Jeans and their fashionable variations.and Sportswear the typical plain woven cotton fabrics are: Popeline. TWILL WEAVE: Twill weave can be recognized by its diagonally running lines.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.3 CONSTRUCTION OF DENIM: To produce a fabric warp and wefts are regularly crossed.4 DENIM WASHING: Once the jeans have been sewed they are. TWILL is a light and soft twill woven fabric. not directly shipped to shops. the right side of the fabric is dominated by the blue warp. Warps are vertical yarns and Wefts are horizontal yarns in fabric PLAIN WEAVE: The fundamental weave is plain weave. The weft runs from the right under three warps and comes up over the fourth warp. 4. the warp and weft or even the ladle of which consists of plied yarn. in which the tightest crossing of warps and wefts is achieved. Denim (also see Brothers and Sisters of Blue Denim) GABARDINE is a dense fabric with steep running fine twill lines. coarse cotton fabric. The look of Denim fabrics is characterized by its diagonally running streaks which are achieved through a 3:1 twill weave. Fabrics with a typical flat and smooth surface structure are generally referred to in the jeans industry as flats. So. fabric disposes of certain stiffness and a dead gloss. This is done once or several times in huge washing machines. POPELINE possesses fine ribs in weft direction which result from the use of an especially densely woven fine warp and a relatively rough weft. The CANVAS is a long-wearing. The diagonally running streak is created by rackedly worked in wefts. and Chambray. CHAMBRAY is made of a white warp and an Indigo blue weft. of course. In Jeans.

washing them once does not make a perfect. 5. We offer jeans from light 10 oz. width of thigh. and width of foot FORM: Various types of fit are slim fit (Tighter Fit). 4. denims to heavy 15 oz. and loose fit (Wide Fit) Denim Weight: Ounces/Yard: The weight of the denim is in ounces of fabric per yard. then the shrinkage for all the rolls is considered to be the same. the right jeans can be offered for any taste . 8. 7. Their wear behavior significantly improves. denim. In case the fibers were too tightly twisted during spinning. Rivets At The Front Pocket Entries STYLES: Essential for different styles are corresponding modifications to the width of waistband. of the same fabric. width of seat. 4. individual jeans look. Thanks to technical progress jeans are nowadays mostly mechanically treated. Saddle Construction Striking Saddle Stitching And Lap Seam Fillings Leather Label On Patch Pocket Or Waistband Five Pockets: Two Patch-Pockets Two Swing-Pockets (Front Pockets) One Watch-Pocket (Watch Pocket on Right Front). LAHORE and fuller in handle. You may select jeans that will be most comfortable in your climate. 4. If there are differences within the values. 193 . Most jeans are made out of 12oz. However.5 DENIM JEANS CHARACTERISTICS: The classical Five-Pocket-Jeans is defined by very specific production features. Classic Fit). If there is a considerable difference between the two values. it is checked for shrinkage by cutting swatches of fixed size and getting them washed. they loosen up after washing. more swathes are cut from different rolls. The gaps left in the fiber during spinning fill up because the fibers get tightly twisted together. A Basic Jeans is characterized by following features: 1. If these values are not consistent as well. SHRINKAGE IN RIGID FABRICS: Four swatches are cut from randomly selected rolls and are washed. The reason for this is that shrinkage in swatches is usually more than that in the stitched garment. then all rolls will have to check for shrinkage calculation. then GGT are informed and they make alternations into their patterns according to the revised shrinkage values. then it is fine. this is considered a medium-weight fabric.6 SHRINKAGE: It is the natural characteristic of cotton fiber that after some processing (usually washing) they contract/shrink. If there is minor difference between the two shrinkage values.from one wash to stone washed and up to bleached and sky blue.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Not long ago. When fabric is being inspected for quality. This phenomenon is known as elongation. 6. straight fit (Straight. width of knee. The shrinkage pattern is also checked when pre production samples are made. young people "pre-washed" their jeans treating them with brushes and discharging washing detergents until they looked "properly". denims. 3. If the result of the four rolls are the same (or nearly same). So. 2. and are washed.

as a rule. and solid colors. LAHORE SHRINKAGE IN STRETCH FABRICS: Due to high amount of variation in shrinkage within rolls of the same stretch fabric. The skew percentage is calculated as follows: Skew = difference between the two ends x 100 Fabric width The acceptable level of skew in a fabric is 7%. we may still have sufficient elasticity. The weight of Lycra is usually 2% to 8% of the fabric weight depending on the yarn size used in the fabric. the more lustrous side is the face. A skew test is performed by placing the four corners of the fabric together and noting the displacement between the ends that do not meet. The swatches are grouped together using the Fabric Analysis Report according to their shade and further according to shrinkage in each roll. However. When the cloth is on a bolt. It is to be noted that when we dye the stretch fabric. We can make most of the fabrics elasticized. a pre production sample is made and the rest of the swatches are washed with it. the fuzzier side. When the Lycra is fatigued from excess heat in dyeing. We can also make it in poplin weave or all kinds of twill weave. Heavy fabric makes the percentage of Lycra small. or right side. It is not up to us to specify what percentage of Lycra we want in the fabric. Off the bolt. When the fabric has a nap. that is the right side. and width extended on our purchase order to avoid argument. 194 . STRETCH FABRICS: They are usually stretchable horizontally. 5.1 illustrates the quality procedure in fabric checking in the form of a flow chart. The construction and the yarn size will dictate the weight percentage of Lycra in the fabric. we may use Lycra on every other one of the weft thread to save 50% of Lycra. the face is. Figure 3. SKEWNESS: Another characteristic of cotton fabric is that they tend to go back to their original shape after cutting. When slub yarns are used. there is the following method the weaver may use to adjust the percentage of Lycra in the fabric: If the fabric is heavy. yarn dyed stripes. Since the fabric is of light weight. When we order stretch fabric in solid color mention this point to the mill and specify the width of the fabric relaxed.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Initially 4 randomly selected swatches are cut and their shrinkage noted. such as: Yarn dyed check and plaids. The elasticity is from the Lycra mixed in the weft. If one side of the fabric is shinier than the other. if the fabric is light. to identify the face. 100%shrinakge has to be done. not vertically. it is necessary. other characteristics may be observed. Anything more or less usually results in the garment being displaced from it original shape with time. This result in skew in the finished garments too much of which damages the shape of the garment. But. the heat used in the dyeing process may hurt the lycra resulting in the fabric width being wider than what we plan to have but with insufficient elasticity or recovery. IDENTIFYING THE RIGHT SIDE OF A FABRIC: For cutting and sewing purposes. identification is easy because the fabric is wound or folded with the right side inside to keep it clean. 7. of a fabric. Next. we usually will use Lycra on every piece of the weft yarn to give it a strong elasticity or recovery. it cannot be revitalized. The result of the sample and swatches are compared. If a printed fabric has a more distinct design on one side. light fabric makes the percentage of Lycra big. they tend to be more outstanding on the right side.

it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major. Even when there is no wale.A defect that would not cause the product to be termed a second either because of severity or location.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The lappet weave usually has a trail thread passing on the back of the fabric from one design to the next in the row. are clearer and more outstanding on the face. IDENTIFICATION OF GRAY FABRIC DEFECTS. LAHORE TWILL WEAVE: Since twills often have a diagonal with a distinct wale or ridge on the face. By partially separating out a thread along the edge of the material. End Out . – Major. since the Inspector will not know where defect may occur on the item. which would be on the face. 195 . The dobby design including piques. The back of the cloth will show the ends of the clipped yarns used for the design. MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS: Definitions central to fabric inspection are: MAJOR DEFECT . it is often removed by a "burling tool". The filling yarn appears as "kinky".Caused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttle less loom not holding the filling yarn. Often Inspectors are given the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects and their causes. SATIN WEAVE: If the fabric is very smooth and lustrous. The Quality Control Manager can provide this list to inspectors as a practical tool for achieving uniform inspection decisions. WOVEN FABRIC DEFECTS: Some of the common Woven Fabric Defects are: Burl Mark . This will leave an open place in the fabric. – Major. FANCY WEAVES: The smoother sides of swivel and clip-spot weaves are the right sides. would cause the item to be a second. Jacquard patterns stand out from the background although the pattern is not always raised. of course. the diagonal of the twill is likely to be more discernible on the face of the fabric. (A "second" is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the sale ability or serviceability of the item. the fabric should be examined closely for floats. There will also be areas of "end out".A defect that. The cloth should be held so that the wrap yarns run up and down. A magnifying glass will help. Usually the ends are broken. This section provides a list of defects and explanations and simplifies the language and the judgments used in making visual fabric evaluations.Caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run.Caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction. When inspecting piece goods prior to cutting. The defect will appear as a thin line. The ultimate solution. the right side may be identified in this manner. if conspicuous on the finished product. Dropped Pick .) MINOR DEFECT . PILE WEAVE: The prime purpose of the pile weave is to provide textural interest to the fabric. Therefore the pile will be on the face of the fabric. one could observe whether the yarn forms the characteristic floats of the satin weave. causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. – Major. Drawbacks . When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. – Major. is to provide actual examples or photographs of both major and minor defects.When a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven into the fabric.

– Major or minor. Smash . It states that no more than ten penalty points may be assigned for and single defect. Jerk-In . Mixed End (yarn) .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. but severe size and color contamination could make it major.Dirty.Results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart.Usually caused by the spinning process. resulting in a streak in the fabric. – Major or minor depending on how close the patterns are cut to the selvedge edge. It will appear. – Usually a minor defect. oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns. when loom starts again. PENALTY POINT EVALUATION: Defects in both the warp / weft direction will be assigned points using the following criteria: Any splice and hole shall be assigned Ten Points for each yard (meter).Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. – Major. but severe caused by lack of precautions to prevent contamination. Mixed Filling . POINTS 1 point 3 points 5 points 10 points IMPERIAL Defects up to 3” Defects size 3” to 6” Defects size 6” to 9” Defects size greater than 9” METRIC Defects up to 75 mm Defects size in between 75mm to 150mm Defects size in between 150mm to 230mm Defects size greater than 230mm 196 . Harness Breakdown . – Major. – Major.Usually Minor. – Major. – Major or minor. FABRIC INSPECTION STANDARDS (GREY FABRIC): Generally grey fabric inspection is conducted in accordance with Ten Points System.Often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem. – Usually Major. Spot Mark . or on package-dyed yarn. Minor depending the defect will appear at the selvage. Often is caused by fly waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process. – Major.Usually caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. TEN POINTS SYSTEM: Ten Points System derived its name from basic grading rules. No more than ten penalty points may be assigned to one linear yard (Meter).Caused by tying spools of yarn together . LAHORE Fly .Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. exposing the filling yarn will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarns on wrap and shuttle. Often defect.Caused by warp ends that have been repaired. 8. the slack is woven into the fabric.Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the warp frame. as a distinct shade change. Knots .Caused by the harness straps breaking on a conventional loom. Slub . – Major or minor. Thin Place . the yarn elongates under tension. regardless of the number of defects within one yard / (meter). There will be a definite pattern change in the weave. small fibers spun into yarn of another stock.When the loom is stopped. Open Reed . It can also be caused by thick places in the yarn. Soiled Filling or end .

In order to avoid this kind of detrimental ambiguity. Packing: e. b) Loom state . Pre / Post Secured m) Crinkled 10. holes PENALTY POINTS 1 2 3 4 9. 5. or Carded) Width of fabric Woven by shuttleless looms or shuttle looms. except net floats and holes) SIZE OF DEFECT 3 inches or less Over 3” but 6” or less Over 6” but 9” or less Over 9 and small net floats.Desized – Softened c) Pre-washed crinkle effect d) Brushed on front or both side e) Sanded on front side only f) Skewed g) Sanforized h) With chintz finish on front side. This allows both surface and transparent type defects to be found. 6. i) With resin finish j) With water proof / repellant finish k) Peached on front side l) Permanent press. we need 75% of the fabric longer than 80 yards per piece and maximum 25% between 30 and 79 yards. 7. or what colorfastness standards we need..E. Following list of items should be considered in our preparation of the contract.g. Composition (fiber contents) Construction Yam count of warp and weft Kind of yarn (O. fully combed. 2. Being a buyer we do not have too much ground to argue since no relevant specifications were detailed in the contract. Piece Length with no seam.g. What dye. LAHORE POINT CALCULATION: All textiles are evaluated on linear yard computation. or Folded at one yard length and then each piece in an "untearable" polybag. ring spun. Total point x 100 / Inspection meters / 1. This is likely to lead to unpleasant arguments and is to our great disadvantage because after delivery of the fabrics. Classification of Defects :( According to defect size. and then so many pieces in a 3-pJy carton.0936 = Point per 100 linear yards FOUR POINT SYSTEM: Goods must be 100 % inspected and burled.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 8. 4. WOVEN / KNITTED FABRICS: 1. SKILL TO ORDER FABRICS: When we order fabrics. Semi combed. or in nylon "jute" bales. it is very easy for us to leave certain details unspecified. we need Rolled on tube and then each roll in an "untearable" polybag. 197 . A grade. The inspection speed should not exceed 15yd/min. 3. when we order fabrics. 9. they have the right to say that the things we complain about were understood and accepted by us. The accepted method employed to assess detection of defects is to pass goods over an inspection machine that is illuminated both from above and beneath the fabric. Finishes: (Please consider the following for what we need): a) Preshrunk with maximum residual shrinkage of certain percentage. we should spell out our specifications as much as possible. if we find certain particulars incorrect and complain to the suppliers. The formula used to determine the point count level of a roll of fabric is as below: Imperial: Metric: Total point x 100 / Inspection yards = Points per 100 linear yards per roll. e.

we should discuss them with the garment buyer. we should suggest to use better dyes even if we have to pay an extra amount to do so. and yardage. if the standards achievable are seemingly too low for the garment buyer. We are sure there are reputable mills that only use the best dyes. our buyers expect the products to be of acceptable quality standards by common sense. Weight per square meter 14. we can easily find out if the piece has been cut.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. shrinkage and other details can affect the cost or a fabric substantially. LAHORE 11. Marking and labeling: We may want the suppliers to stamp both ends of the fabric with their company chop or any stamp they have so that in case of shortage. Only when he accepts the standards. we should discuss with the mill about what dyes they plan to use for each of the colors. Type of knit 13. 12. selvedges will not curl up. but we should not take a chance. it is not wrong to use the less expensive dyes. the most important ones are the specifications of dyes and colorfastness standards. Among the above terms suggested. Common sense by a test from a laboratory using the current standards. color quality. color. we should write up the fabric contract as clearly as possible. we may want to have both selvedges starched so that when it is laid on cutting table. Please see the following which is not impossible: If we don’t specify Reactive dye or vat dye Residual shrinkage below 5% Minimum piece lengths Colorfastness standards Combed yarn We may get: Direct dye 8% Some pieces of less than 20 yards Any standard Carded yarn 198 . color staining. If we have a group of colors. As dyes. If what they plan to use does not seem to be good enough to meet our required standards. on the contract. we should put down the dyes and color standards (color change. roll no. wet crocking and dry crocking) as the mill has agreed. However. When this is all settled. We also may want them to write the yardage of the piece on the out side end of the fabric in addition to yardage written on paper label. If the fabric is of a light weight type. but the mill may feel since there are no specific dyes or standards detailed. and name or color no. we are exposed to tremendous danger. If we do not get the color standards clarified between the garment buyers and the fabric mills. we may want the suppliers to put a paper label to be affixed to one end of the roll showing style no. we then place the fabric order.

absorbent. Decorative design. Attractive. somewhat flexible and resilient. Ribbed Plain weave with Wales or Cords in warp or filling. Left-or right-hand diagonal. cork-screw. generally Jacquard Attractive. design yarns tend to roughen on back and may pull out. often with corded effect which my give textured surface. Open-mesh with yarn securely held. serviceable but durability dependent upon weave and yarn. basket or checkerboard pattern. interesting designs. multicolor effects. Pile Double Cloth Gauze (Leno) Swivel Lappet Dobby Attractive. Decorative designs. variations produce corded effects. excellent drivability. Strong. Attractive. soils more easily. Two fabrics of independent weaves woven together with extra set of yarns. Strong. less durable than plain weave. smooth. or other designs. Compact. warn. durability depends on yarn count and balance. sometimes reversible. Drapes will. Small designs interwoven on surface of fabrics with extra filling yarn insertion mechanism. drapeable. adaptable for printing and other finishing processes. design more durable than swivel. variations provide chevron (herringbone). LAHORE WEAVES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Plain Plain Structure Each filling passes alternately over and under each warp in a square pattern. enhanced by colored yarns. may be bulky. Variations of plain weave. heavy. Soft. possible yarn slippage from tension. increased drapability and resilience. inexpensive. firm texture. attractive. geometric designs composed of short floats created by dobby loom attachment. interrupted diagonal discernible with magnifying glass. Decorative designs. extra yarn of design are cut on reverse side but held firmly. maximum yardage. Twill Satin Three (or more) shaft. Properties Easily produced. extra yarns forming design are cut on reverse side. warp or filling floats over two or more counterpart yarns in progressively stepped up right or left direction. Basket Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more fillings giving balanced structure. Four (or more) shaft with warp floats in interrupted diagonal. warm. may develop shine. Appearance Flat. floats subject to snagging. sometimes multicolored. Sheer but durable for its weight. Pairs of warps twisted over each other with each passing of filling. resilient. Extra set of warps or fillings woven over ground yarns of plain or twill weave to form loops. Unlimited range of intricate design on all types of backgrounds. Any combination of weaves and patterns possible since each warp in individually controlled with each pick passage. hounds tooth. good body. contrasting colors often used. absorbent. no distinct design unless yarns have contrasting colors or thicknesses.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Inexpensive. sometimes multicolored. Lustrous. Small. Variation of plain weave. ribs or cords provide texture and design. durability affected by pronounced ribs. Two different surfaces. interesting surface effects. drapes will. 199 . Three-dimensional effect formed by yarns entering perpendicularly into the ground weaves. Small designs interwoven on surface of fabrics with extra filling yarn insertion mechanism. thick.

LAHORE 100% COTTON.M. WOVEN FABRICS DESCRIPTION 7+7X7+7 70X38 10X10 70X42 36/2X16 94X48 21X21 90X52 21+21X21 108X40 21/2X10 70X42 7X7 68X38 10X7 70X42 10X10 70X42 12X10 80X46 16X12 108X56 16X12 108X56 20X16 128X60 20X20 108X58 24X24 96X48 16X12 96X48 30X30 130X70 36/2X24/2 114X57 30/2X24/2 112X58 60/2X60/2 114X76 21X19 51X59 14X14 60X62 32X7 130X60 14X10 102X52 16X20 44X134 40X40 77X177 40X40 133X72 16X16 103X51 32/2X21/2 72X50 18X18 108X58 20X16 120X60 21X21 108X58 60/2X30 156X76 45/2X21 135X70 30X30 130X70 33/2X33/2 111X55 20/2X20/2 42X40 32/2X12 70X34 20X20 100X56 20X20 60X60 45/2X45/2 100X53 45/2X23 88X64 45X45 139X94 45X45 133X72 45X45 110X76 20X16 128X60 75D/72FX150D/216F 127X74 75DX162D 200X102 32/2X32/2 58X52 32/2X32/2 99X56 WIDTH(INCH) 44/43" OR 58" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" OR 58" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" OR 36" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" 44/43" COMP.Q. 100%POLY. 366 264 200 172 171 263 353 291 261 269 265 233 231 189 160 236 151 251 269 181 131 199 307 306 209 153 132 241 220 221 231 195 184 222 160 252 201 236 202 146 178 162 136 121 106 244 103 153 212 261 200 . 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 100%COTTON 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C 100%COTTON 100%POLY. 65/35 T/C 65/35 T/C WEIGHT G/S.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.0OZ 10.0OZ WIDTH 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 59"-60" 50/52” 52/54” 58"-59" 55/57” 58"-59" 56"-57" 48/50” 59"-60" 53/55” 58"-59" 58"-59" 58"-59" 201 .5oz 7.5oz 6oz 6.5OZ 8.5 Dyed Corduroy 3.5OZ 7.0oz 6.5OZ 6.5OZ 9. LAHORE CORDUROY FABRICS Name Wales Dyed Corduroy 2.5 Dyed Corduroy 4.5OZ 11.5oz 5.5 Dyed Corduroy 6 Dyed Corduroy 6 H-L Corduroy 6 Dyed Corduroy 6 Bubble Corduroy 8 R/C Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 8 Dyed Corduroy 9.5 Dyed Corduroy 3.0 oz 5.5 Dyed Corduroy 4.5OZ 7.0OZ 9.5OZ 7.5OZ 7.5 Dyed Corduroy 11 Dyed Corduroy 11 Dyed Corduroy 11 Dyed Corduroy 11 Dyed Corduroy 11 Dyed Corduroy 14 Dyed Corduroy 16 Dyed Corduroy 19 R/C Corduroy 21 Dyed Corduroy 21 Dyed Corduroy 21 Dyed Corduroy 28 Yarn Count Density Composition Width 16x16 58x180 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x16 58x180 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x16 54x150 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x20 58x180 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x134 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 58x180 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x21 58x180 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 32/2x16 52x165 R50%C50% 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 58x170 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x12 48x148 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 21/2x21 45x220 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 21/2x16 43x179 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 21/2x16 45x190 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 58x170 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 21/2x16 45x190 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 12x16 64x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 57x134 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 57x150 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x16 72x128 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 16x20 44x134 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x21 58x134 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 42/2x32 58x150 R30%C70% 43/4" or 57/8" J40xJ40 77x177 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" J42/2xJ32 58x150 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" 60x60 102x212 100%Cot 43/4" or 57/8" DENMIM FABRIC SPECS DESCRIPTION Check /Stripe/Colors Check /Stripe/Colors Check /Stripe/Colors Check /Stripe/Colors Check /Stripe/Colors Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved SPECIFICATION 58/60'' 21x21/68x54 58/60'' 16x16/68x54 58/60'' 16x21/80x46 58/60'' 16x16/80x46 58/60'' 12x12/72x44 CM40/2XR/C20 CM32/2X(N140D+SP30D)Color weft CM32/2X(T150+SP30D) (2/1) CM32/2XT300D CM32/2X(T300D+SP40D) CM32/2XT360D CM32/2XR/C10 C10X(T/R32/2+SP70D) C16XR/C20 (2/1) C16X(T150D+SP40D)(2/1)Color weft R/C32/2XT/C40/2 (2/1) R/C32/2XR/C32/2 R/C10XR/C10 WEIGHT 4.0 oz 8.5 Dyed Corduroy 4.

5oz 8oz 10oz 12oz 8oz 10oz 4.0 oz 12.0 oz 9.0 oz 6. LAHORE Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Blended & Interweaved Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Comb 100% Cotton Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Glistened Denim Imitation Corduroy Imitation Corduroy Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Denim Indigo Plain Indigo Plain Indigo Plain Indigo Plain Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo R/S Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch Indigo Stretch R/S Indigo Stretch R/S Indigo Stretch R/S Jc Indigo Denim Jc Indigo Denim Jc Indigo Denim Jc Indigo Jc Indigo R/C10XR/C10 (2/1) R/C10X(T/C32+R30)/SP70D (C12+SB10)X(T/C32+R30)/SP70D CM40/2XC21 (2/1) CM40/2XC21 (2/1) CM40/2XCM40/2 CM32/2XCM40/2 (2/1) CM32/2XCM32/2 CM32/2XC20 CM32/2XC16 CM32/2XC16 CM32/2XC12 CM32/2XC10 C6XT600D(2/2 ) C7XT600D (3/1) C7XT600D (3/1) C7XT600D (3 1/1 1) (Color weft) C7XT600D (3 1/1 1) C7XT600D (2/2) (Twill) C10XT450D (2/1) C10XT600D (3 1/1 1) C16XT300D (2/1) C16XT450D (2/1) C30/2XC12 C10XC10 21x21/80x46 16x21/80x46 16x21/80x46 12x12/72x44 12x12/80x46 10x10/76x46 7x10/72x46 7x7/72x46 X 21x21/68x54 16x16/68x54 12x12/68x44 10x10/68x38 12+16x16/80x46 8+10x21//72x46 8+10x16/72x46 8+10x10/72x46 8+10x7/72x46 8+10x8+16/72x46 8+10x8+10/72x44 32x40+40D/138x68 21x21+70D/118x46 16x16/+70D/118x46 10x16+70D/90x46 10x10+70D/84x46 7x10+70D/72X42 7x10+70D/84x46 12+16x16+70D/100x4 8+10x8+16+70D/88x4 8+10x8+10+70D/84x4 60/2x40/130x70 60/2x60/2/130x70 60/2x32/130x70 32x32/130x70 40/2x40/2/96x52 10.5oz 4.0 oz 4.0 oz 11.5 oz 6.0 oz 7.0 oz 7.5oz 6.5oz 7.0 oz 8.0 oz 13.5oz 4.0oz 6.0OZ 12.0 oz 7.0 oz 8.0 oz 5.0 oz 10.5oz 6 8oz 6 9oz 6 11oz 4oz 4.5 oz 10.5 oz 13.0 oz 8.5 oz 5.5oz 58"-59" 51/53” 47/48” 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 56/57” 58/60" 58/60" 57/58” 58/60" 58/60" 62/63” 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 45/47” 48/50'' 50/52'' 50/52'' 50/52'' 50/52'' 50/52'' 48/50” 50/52'' 50/52'' 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 202 .5oz 5.0 oz 7.0oz 10oz 12oz 12oz 4.5oz 8oz 9oz 10oz 12oz 13.0 oz 8.0 oz 12.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.0oz 6.0oz 7.0 oz 13.0 oz 13.5oz 8.5oz 6oz 7oz 8oz 6.5 oz 8.

5oz 6oz 9.5OZ 7.0OZ 11.5 oz 8.0OZ 8.0OZ 8. 100% Cotton Slub.5OZ 8.0OZ 12.5 oz 6. LAHORE Jc Indigo Jc Indigo Lurex threads Slub. 100% Cotton Slub. 100% Cotton Slub.5 oz 8. 100% Cotton Slub.0 oz 5. 100% Cotton Slub.5OZ 9.0OZ 12. 100% Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Stretched Cotton Wrinkled Stretched 40/2x40/103x85 32/2x40/2/80x52 C10X(C16+C16/Lurex) (2/1) (16+SB14)XC21 (2/1) (16+SB14)XC16 (2/1) (12+SB10)XC12 (2/1) (12+SB10)XC10 (2/1) (12+SB10)XC7 (2/1) (12+SB10)XC6 (2/1) C7X(C10+SP70D) C7X(C21/2+SP70D) C10X(C16+SP40D) C10X(C16+SP70D) C10X(C10+SP70D) C16X(C16+SP40D) (2/1) C16X(C16+SP70D) (2/1) C16X(C16+SP40D) (2/1) C16X(C16+SP70D) (2/1) C16X(C32/2+SP40D) (2/1) CM21X(C30+SP30D) (2/1) CM32/2X(C21+SP40D) (2/1) CM40/2X(C32+SP40D) (2/1) CM40/2X(C21+SP40D) (2/1) (C12+SB10)X(C16+SP40) (2/1) C7X(C10+C21/2 / SP70D) 5.0OZ 9.0 oz 11.0OZ 10.5OZ 8.5OZ 6.5 oz 6.0OZ 12.5 oz 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 58/60" 51/53” 50"-52" 51/53” 50"-52" 50"-52" 53/55” 50"-52" 53/55” 50"-52" 50"-52" 50"-52" 50"-52" 48/50” 50"-52" 53/55” 53/55” STRETCH FABRICS NAME T/R Jean taille gleamy Silk n/C Poplin n/C Poplin n/R Faille WEIGHT DENSITY 240/350 260/390 108/135 125/150 125/150 235/340 90¡Á70 150¡Á58 133¡Á72 133¡Á72 90¡Á65 112¡Á74 90¡Á85 90¡Á100 90¡Á60 WIDTH CONTENT T/R/SP 57" 100D+40D¡Á10s 64/34/2 T/R/SP 57" 150D+40D¡Á10s 39/56/2 47" T/SP 97/3 108D+10D¡Á40D N/C/SP 47" 40S¡Á70D+40D 39/68/3 N/R/SP 47" 40S¡Á70D+40D 29/68/3 N/R/SP 57" 75D+40D¡Á10s 34/64/2 N/T/SP 44" NT-0D+70D¡Á40D 29/69/2 R/N/SP 57" 70D+40D¡Á21S 29/69/2 N/R/SP 57" 70D+40D¡Á30S 59/69/2 N/T/SP 70D+40D¡Á100D+75D 57" 29/69/2 T/R/SP 47" 40S/2¡Á75D+40D 39/59/2 T/R/SP 49" 40S/2¡Á40S/2+40D 64/34/2 T/R/SP 49" 40S/2¡Á40S/2+40D 64/34/2 MATERIAL n/T Plain Wool 160/180 n/R Elastic Poplin n/R Elastic n/T Elastic t/R Poplin t/R Plain t/R Twill 165/240 125/180 135/NT-0 90¡Á110 125/150 133¡Á72 NT-0/260 89¡Á65 255/330 110¡Á62 203 .0 oz 9.5 oz 8.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.0OZ 10.

Also. which does not allow the fabric to stretch to any marked degree unless it is especially stretch woven. LAHORE FABRICATION (KNITWEAR) Knitting is the second most frequently used method of fabric construction. fit to the body contour better. the fabric that has more Wales will shrink less in the width. which starts a run. A course corresponds to the filling. The construction of the knitted fabrics varies with the type. such as pak-nit or permasized are used. Knitted fabrics are very absorbent. In metric terms. Some knitted fabrics tend to lose their shape and sag. Even then the fabric can be stretched only in the direction of the diagonal cutting. is said to have 40 Wales and 50 courses. The loops may be either loosely or closely constructed as required. thus pushing air through close fitting garments. Yet they are porous and provide breathing comfort because body movements cause the loops to expand and contract. Woven fabrics are constructed by the interlacing of two or more set of yarns. This disadvantage can be eliminated by variation in the stitch. When the interlocking loops run lengthwise. each row is called a course. but the fabric with more courses in it will be more rigid and stable in length. woven fabric must be cut on the bias that is in a diagonal direction. The advantage of stretchability in knitted fabrics is an important consideration. CONSTRUCTION OF KNITTED FABRIC: The thread count or the number of threads per square inch is used to evaluate the construction of woven fabrics. the fabric with less Wales and courses per area will be less rigid. The earliest known knitted fabric was a pair of thick hand knitted wool socks found in an Egyptian Tomb. light in weight. and 50 loops in 1 inch of length. All other factors of yarn and knit type being equal. they fit the figure but do not bind it. it is not windproof. Knitted fabrics also give warmth because of the insulative air pockets contained in this type of construction. a knitted fabric having 16/cm loops or stitches across the width and 20/cm loops in the length is said to have 16 Wales and 20 courses. each row is called a wale. while the fabric that has more courses in it will shrink less in the length. the fabric that has more Wales in it will be more rigid and stable in width. Knitted fabrics may be constructed with a single yarn that is formed by interlocking loops by the use of hooked needles. whereas. 1. However. a hole is made. which protects the fabric from raveling if any single stitch is broken. Hand knitting was an early invention. they may shrink considerably more than woven cloth unless special techniques and shrink proofing process. Thus a knitted fabric having 40 loops or stitches in 1 inch of width. If a certain amount of stretching is necessary. It is usually unnecessary to iron them after packing and laundering. but have poorer recovery ability. or weft. The construction of knitted fabrics is evaluated by the number of stitches or loops. When the loops run across the fabric. and each type has its own particular appearance and properties. Unless fabric is napped or foam laminated. Certain kinds of knitted fabric have one serious disadvantage: if one of the loops breaks.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A wale corresponds to the direction of the warp in woven fabrics. and wrinkle resistant. 204 . The quality of needle will affect the quality of knitted fabric. The fabric that has both more Wales and more courses per area will also have better recovery from stretching than one with fewer Wales and courses per area. stretch more easily.

the plain knit stitch is widely used for underwear. hosiery. the pearl knit will run up and down if a loop is broken. warp knitting.and links stitch. PURL STITCH: This construction is also referred to as the links. But a purl knit fabric will not curl at the edges. Multicolored designs called intarsia patterns can be knitted into a jersey fabric through the use of highly specialized flat bed machines. As the fabric will stretch more in the width than in the length. Jersey fabrics have a tendency to curl at the edges. rib stitch. If a yarn is broken in a plain jersey knit. 1. When technical side is used as face. It is a slower and more costly technique. The use of double hook needles enables ready changeover during fabric construction to include flat and rib stitches. gloves. Like the plain knit. 2. The plain knit produces a relatively lightweight fabric compared with the thicker fabrics produced by other stitches. and pile knitting. textured surfaces produced by raised designs. The sides will curl towards the technical back. which makes it possible to duplicate virtually any hand knitted 205 . 2. and sweaters. terry. The fabric looks the same on both sides and resembles the back of the plain knit. Pile surface variations are also created by napped. purl stitch. The count may be determined by a line grating device similar to that used for weaving. It can be produced in flat knit or in tubular form. and novelty stitch. and pile effects. either side may be used as the face. Horizontal stripes can be knitted in plain jersey by using yarns of different colors and / or different types of yarn on different feeds or by setting certain feeds to produce a looser stitch. It has a high rate of production and is in expensive. multicolored patterns. Most jersey sweaters are knitted with two ply yarns. fabric is called reverse jersey. Gauge refers to number of needles per inch. Although. this characteristic can be reduced by techniques of fabric construction and certain finishes. it can not be completely eliminated. unless a finish or print is given which produces a specific right side. It is made on flat-bed and circular machines by needles using hooks on both ends. CLASSIFICATION OF KNITTED FABRICS: Knitted fabrics are divided into weft knitting. The knitting is done with a row of latch or beard needles arranged in a linear position on a cylinder. It is used in knitted colored designs as a means of passing colored yarn on the back of the material. they are plain knit stitch. Plain flat knit may be shaped or full fashioned. Although. The flat knit is called jersey stitch because the construction is like that of the turtleneck sweaters. a run will form vertically as the broken loop drops the loops above and below it. The spacing of the needles is referred to as the gauge or cut. The tuck stitch is a variation of the plain knit used to create special effects of raised designs which generally impart a lofty appearance and a soft hand. while the top and bottom will curl towards the technical face. and velour effects. The miss or float stitch is another variation.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 2. jacquard knitting. providing greater strength and shape retention.1 WEFT KNITTING: There are three fundamental stitches in weft knitting. there is a technical face and a technical back to the plain knit (jersey stitch). and lends itself readily to variations in design by pattern devices. PLAIN KNITTING: It is the basic form of knitting. These variations include stripes.

The rib construction will not curl at the edges. jumbo stitch that produces the familiar bulky effect. One type. and this may have given rise to the name double knit. resembling two separate 1 X 1 rib fabrics interknitted. production is slow. It lends itself to the heavy. There are several forms of double knit construction. particularly in the 2 X 2 rib structure. However. Vertical stripes can be achieved by removing selected needles. RIB STITCH: Rib knit fabrics have alternating lengthwise rows of plain and purl stitches constructed so that the face and back of the fabric appear alike. yet a bit spongy. Simple double knits are almost identical on both sides. It has the same appearance on both sides. To accomplish this. Because the purl stitch has crosswise stretch and excellent lengthwise stretch. and so on. particularly sweaters. CABLE STITCH: It is formed by small groups of plain Wales plaited with one another in ropelike fashion. 2 X 2. and absorbent. 4. thus utilizing six needles. such as waistbands of sleeves and waist bands of garments. the interlock stitch is also a variation of the rib stitch. This may be produced either on a flat rib machine or on a circular rib machine. distinct stitches. Other variations of the rib stitch includes the full-cardigan stitch is a bulky rib knit having same appearance on both sides. firm. it is used in infants and children’s wear. Double knits have a very desirable property and characteristics customarily found in knitted fabric as well as those found in 206 . An extension of the vertical stripe is the variation of producing pleats. and pattern variations are limited. The construction on the back of the fabric is the reverse of the face. It is used for underwear and socks for men and children. 3 X 1. They are usually thicker and heavier than jersey. The fabric is relatively firm and smooth. The double knit stitch is made on the rib or interlock machine. Fabric edges will not curl. One familiar form is made of two groups of three Wales each. The interesting and textural effect has made this construction popular for outerwear. and a broken interlock stitch will cause a downward run only. but the effect can produce more interesting textural variations. The limited widthwise but excellent lengthwise extensibility of this stitch has been used to advantage for knit shirts and other sportswear. looks like a fine ribbed fabric on the face and a fine jersey on the reverse. called double jersey. Double knit fabrics lay flat and do not run. also as in jersey. This characteristic has resulted in its extensive use in apparel where snugness of fit is essential. which look much like a regular rib knit with close. A combination of 1 X 1 and 2 X 2 is called an accordion rib. This is particularly true when the coarser stitches and textured yarns are used. A variation of this stitch is the rack stitch which has a herringbone pattern on the face. The rib stitch has excellent widthwise elasticity. stitches may catch or snag. LAHORE structures. 3. Horizontal stripes can be knitted in plain rib fabrics in the same manner as in jersey. Rib construction is costlier because of the greater amount of yarn needed and the slower rate of production. 2 X 1. it will cause a run down only. If yarn breaks. Horizontal and vertical stripes can be knitted by using yarns of different colors and or different types of yarn for textural effects. Rib stitches can be 1 X 1. the half cardigan stitch is a variation of the full cardigan stitch. The cloth is quite compact. The fabrics made with the interlock stitch are extremely soft. looking like slightly stretched jersey fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Swiss double piqué is made with similar. since one guide bar is used for each set of warp yarns. Satin tricot is a variation of the plain tricot and is made with long under laps of up to 6 Wales wide. Warp knits have superior dimensional stability. and the stitches on the back appear horizontally as floats at a slight angle. and weft-insertion warp. or under laps. loungewear.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. is the basic fabric using two bar construction. They lend themselves to such apparel as sportswear and women’s suits and dresses. but at a slight angle. These floats called laps. Warp knits will not ravel or run and are less susceptible to sagging. dresses. Consumers like warp knits because of their smoothness. Double knit fabrics have firmness. The fabric does not curl and has excellent stability in the width. They have hand and drape similar to that of woven cloth. depending upon the machine and technique employed. In the tricot production. Milanese. crochet. and automobile upholstery. indicate the number of guide bars used to produce the fabric. It can yield cloth with a dimensional stability almost equal to that of woven fabric. also have certain other advantages. Yet. The seven types of warp knitting are tricot. Double pique is produced on circular machines. etc. body. They range from the coarsest of 14 to the finest of 44. The surface of this fabric can vary to look like diamond or honeycomb pique or the reverse side of wale piqué. the terms of one bar tricot. Another typ e of double knit is double pique. the lighter the fabric and the greater its strength per ounce. Ketten raschel. Products ranging from hairnets to rugs may be produced by warp knitting. LAHORE knitted goods. two bar tricot. is a distinguishing identification of warp knits. The gauge in tricot knit is expressed in terms of the number of knitting elements per bar inch. bonded fabric material. They have controllable elasticity. wrinkle resistant. the double knits are naturally shape retentive. possible sheerness. wrinkle resistant. Tricot Knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights and designs. and they do not run fray. and have good drapability. Consequently. or tricot jersey. the greater the design flexibility. Typical uses are lingerie. raschel.2 WARP KNITTING: Warp knitting differs from weft knitting basically. Warp knit fabrics. Quality is usually better. simplex. wrinkle and shrink resistance. uniforms for nurses and waitresses. These characteristics have made double knit fabrics very popular. stitch definition. Tricot fabrics are soft. and dimensional stability. 1. texture. slacks. They therefore do not sag or get baggy. sleepwear. blouses. finer loop than the French double pique. Mesh and fancy open effect tricot also refers to a range of fabrics. and they are promoted for men’s suits and slaks. the number of warp beams determines the number of guide bars employed. The mesh or open effects are produced either by eliminating needles and yarn at certain points or by threading certain guides with 207 . strength and abrasion resistance. and fabric cover are generally better than in weft knits. outerwear. TRICOT KNIT: The word tricot comes from the French word “tricoter” which means to knit. Warp knitting may be flat or tubular and can be produced in many varieties of patterns. in that each needle loops its own thread. which provided an extremely smooth hand. The greater the number of bars. 2. The stitches on the face of the fabric appear vertically. Other factors that contribute to the fabric’s strength are the fiber and yarn structure. Tricot construction contributes to good abrasion resistance and high bursting and tearing strength. shirts. and quite durable. as compared with weft knits. The higher the gauge. It is used for the widest range of applications. These fabrics may be identified by type: Plain Tricot.

stripped. SIMPLEX KNIT: These fabrics are of fine gauge knits. Upholstery Tricot is often a two bar jersey made of relatively heavy filament yarn. They often have interesting colors and surface effects. Outerwear tricot is made with textured yarns of three and four bar constructions. It can be identified by the fine rib on the face and a diagonal pattern on the back. Napped or brushed tricot is a plain tricot given a napped finish. and split and tear resistance. if desired. sportswear. 8. Milanese fabrics are superior to tricot in smoothness. including three and four bar constructions with interesting surface and color effects. Fabric is finer. and velour knits. Simplex fabrics are made of fine yarn but are relatively dense and thick. but are more flexible and have better drape.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 2. It is a variation of the tricot knit that produces a coarse gauge of 14 to 20 needles per inch. 4. They usually can be laundered and cold tumble dried. They are used for gloves. though accomplished by a different technique. PILE KNITTING: They are constructed as fleece. RASCHEL KNIT: The raschel fabrics can usually be distinguished from tricot fabrics in that raschel constructions are made with heavy yarns and usually have an intricate. and plush toys. These fabrics are lightweight and easy to care for. fleece fabrics are not truly of a pile construction. 6. active sportswear. and the fabric may be flat or ribbed. 208 . as well as moisture wicking and absorption. This construction is used in a wide variety of fabrics ranging from nets and laces to bedspreads and carpets. The back of the fabric can be varied. pleasant hand. Produces a fabric very similar in appearance to tricot. JACQUARD KNITTING: Both weft and warp knitting can incorporate the jacquard mechanism to produce multicolored designs. LAHORE two or three yarns. and fashion apparel fabrics. They are used for fur fabrics. has a better hand. handbags. Jacquard knits are made on flat bed and circular machines. The fabrics are multicolored. 7. lacelike pattern. superior elasticity and cover. The fabrics are similar in appearance to their original counterparts. they will have a short to medium nap that has a soft. pique (bird’s eye). The stitches appear on both sides of the cloth which looks like a double faced tricot. as with a novel effect. whereas tricot constructions are made with fine yarns and are either flat or have a simple geometric pattern. CROCHET: This basic stitch is used in hand crochet work employing a pillar chain. It is usually knitted from filament yarn into fine lightweight fabrics. There are many variations. Fleece fabrics are knitted so that. b) HIGH PILE KNIT: Both weft and warp knitting machines are used to produce imitation fur fabrics and rugs. a) FLEECE KNIT: Technically. terry. 3. high pile. will provide warmth and body. They are used for liners. and slipcovers. or solid back. The jacquard punched card technique used in weaving can also be adapted to knitting. Clipped dot tricot is a variation of the two bar tricot jersey. outerwear. KETTEN RASCHEL KNIT: This knit is also called the chain raschel. rugs. MILANESE KNIT: The Milanese stitch. regularity of structure. elasticity. 5. It can be produced in raised pattern effects in one or more colors by a shell stitch construction. Milanese is knitted on a flat bed or a circular machine. The facings are generally of fine gauge and are light to medium weight. when finished. blister.

360 kilo X 2. and more absorbent than woven terry cloth but not as durable. Terry knits are more flexible.64 ÷ 60 X 36=7. we can weigh the sample garment and order the knitted fabric of 115% of the garment weight. softer. If the garments consist of only 4 panels. 3. the computer can tell us the %age of the wastage. and then we will be more accurate. we can convert yardage to weight by following formulas: If we have the fabric of 360 grams per yards or 36” X 60 ” = 360 grams In order to convert fabric of 360 grams per yard into pounds 0. Gauge means the number of stitches per inch across the fabric.58 ounces per square yard In order to convert from weight per yard to weight per square meter 360 X 39. knitted velour is softer and has better drapability. 360 gram is a heavy fabric. They are soft. d) VELOUR KNIT: Knitted velour fabrics are constructed in the same manner as knitted terry. If we want fabric to be of light weight we should use heavy gauge and heavy yarn to make heavy knitted fabric. So. we may not know how many kilos of fabrics we need.5 yard per kilo 209 .64 ounces per yard In order to find weight per square yard 12. chances are the wastage will be normal which means 10% to 15%. 160 grams per square meter is a light weight fabric. we judge the weight by the ounce per square yard.2046=0. In order to know how many yards are there in 1 kilo 1000 grams (1 kilo) ÷ 360 grams = 2. In Knitted fabric we go by grams per square meter.79 pounds per yard In order to convert fabric of 360 grams per yard into ounces (0. and that we know the consumption of fabric by yard.2046) X 16 =12.78 yards per kilo If weight of the fabric is 400 grams per yard. LAHORE c) TERRY KNIT: They are made of a variation of the jersey knit construction.3 ” X 36 ” X 36 ”=360 grams per yard of 60” width. However. FABRIC WEIGHT AND YARN SIZE: In knitted fabrics.3 ” X 39. Knitted terry is produced in weights ranging in suitability for robes and beachwear to fashion apparel. They do not hold their shape as well and they tend to snag. 3. As garment manufacturers or merchandisers.360 kilo X 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. If the garment we intend to make consists of quite a few cut pieces and sewn together.42 ÷ 39. It is used for such fashion apparel as men’s shirts and women’s dresses.3” ÷ 36 ” ÷ 60”=257. and we will not be off too much. In knitted fabrics. the mills always make their sales by weight (kilo or pound) because knitted fabrics are difficult to measure by length due to their stretchbility. we control the weight of the fabric by “gauge” and size of yarn. we know yards of fabrics we need. 14 ounce is a heavy fabric for jackets or pants. how many yards are there in 1 kilo 1000 gram (1 kilo) ÷ 400 gram = 2. We know 4 ounce per square yard is a light weight shirting fabric. it is not safe to generalize.42 grams per square meter In order to convert weight per square meter to weight per yard of 60” width 257. but according to marker. for production of an order. If we have a CAD/CAM System for marker making. We should make up a marker to look at to determine what %age is the wastage.1 WEIGHT SYSTEM OF KNITTED FABRICS: In woven fabrics. causing the loop yarn to pull and trail and if cut could cause a run. If we already have the marker drawn.3” ÷ 39. suede like surface that is somewhat like that of velvet.

End Out . sports wear. and many other garments. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into machine.Caused by colored yarn out of place on frame – Major. light fabric comes in a variety of pretty shades. Runner .Occurs in warp knit.Major. Broken Color pattern . It must be used with great care because it is very flammable. but the seams must stretch with the fabric so 210 . made from polyester. which means cutting in one direction only. – Major or minor depending on severity. or by lint getting onto yarn feeds.Caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches usually a vertical line – Major or minor. (Most machines have a stopping device to stop machine when a needle breaks. Mixed Yarn .Occurs in Circular knit. Drop Stitches .Results when all or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function and fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed. JERSEY: This is a name for any fabric that is knitted rather than woven. It can be made from almost any fiber or mixture of fibers. Caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays and is knit irregularly into another area. – Usually major.Occurs in Warp knit.Caused by broken needle will appear as a vertical line. Many knitting needles are broken and have to be replaced when bad pressoff occurs. – Major.Major.Caused by unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. –Major Missing Yarn . this thick. Straying End . Results from knitting machine continuing to run with missing end. LAHORE 4. cotton and other fibers. – Major. 5. . Slub . BRUSHED NYLON: Like brushed cotton. KNITTING DEFECTS: Some of most common defects in knitting fabric are: Barre . Birdseye . The fabric is usually acrylic fiber on a jersey backing and normally has a nap finish. side by side. Bad press-offs usually start a new roll of fabric. Fabric could appear as thick end or different color if fibers have different affinity for dye.Occurs circular knit.Major.Usually caused by a thick or heavy place in yarn. – Major. Press-Off . Results from wrong fiber yarn (or wrong size yarn) placed on warp. It is suitable for trousers. TYPES OF KNITTED FABRICS BRUSHED ACRILAN: Ideal for baby’s sleeping bags and for dressing gowns. STRETCH JERSEY: This is a two-way stretch fabric available in many weights and types.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Will appear as holes or missing stitches.) . Needle Line . . – Major. Caused by one end of yarn missing from feed and machine continuing to run. Fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks. – Major or minor. It washes well and requires no ironing. the right side of this fabric has a brushed finish for warmth. Hole .Caused by broken needle. Usually two small distorted stitches.Warp knit.Results from malfunctioning needle or jack.

Making up must be done with a small zigzag or stretch stitch.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. there are differences between the two types of fabrics in terms of their compositions. put wool fibers in his sandals to make them more comfortable during his long walking trips. they are also used for decorative fabrics and are precursors to the more elaborate lace fabrics and embroidery decorations. which will give with the fabric. While braiding and netting have always had practical applications. moisture. lace. Ball point or perfect stitch needles can also help in handling. methods of production. Yet. The decorative constructions are braiding. KNITTING DEFECTS. VELOUR JERSEY: This is usually made from acrylic fiber with a velvet pile running in one direction on the right side. Barrè Thick End Thin End Unraveled Yarn Needle-break Hole Dropped Stitch Tuck FELTED AND NONWOVEN FABRICS: Felts and non-woven fabrics are similar in that they are formed directly. Cut in the same way as velvet. and with a stretch quality that allows you to make garments without zips or openings to get themon. DECORATIVE FABRIC CONSTRUCTION: The construction of decorative fabrics began as a handicraft of inter-wining yarns in whatever directions suited the makers’ purpose. St. from the fiber. but very attractive in glowing colors. France. LAHORE the right thread must be used. It should be sewn on a machine with a small zigzag or stretch stitch facility. and characteristics. Feutre of Caen. and embroidery 211 . The art of producing fabrics directly from fibers matted together began before spinning and weaving were invented. the pressure. Not often hard wearing. netting. and heat from his feet caused fibers to interlock into matted layer.

Yarn Dyeing. a pattern or design is generally imprinted on fabric in one or more colors by using dyes in paste form or some related means. as well as from mineral and animal resources. salt water. LAHORE TEXTILE DYEING When yarn is made into fabric.1 NATURAL DYES: Primitive people obtained dyes from flowers. Vegetable Dyes – fustic. Different dyes for different colors have different degrees of fastness to various conditions like perspiration. In dyeing process. after the yarn has been constructed into fabric. Various finishing processes suggest additional means of enhancing appearance of newly formed fabric. sumac. Animal Dyes – cochineal. or air pollutants. or manmade fibers. SELECTION OF DYES: To select proper dye for a fiber. madder. swimming pool additives. lac. atmospheric gases. Top Dyeing. but are still in oriental countries to a certain extent for rug dyeing and for native handicrafts. animal.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.         Basic or Cationic Dyes Acid or Anionic Dyes Acid Pre-Metalized Dyes Mordant or Chrome Dyes Developed Dyes Disperse Dyes Vat Dyes Pigment Dyes • • • • • • • • Oxidation Bases Acid-Milling Dyes Neutral Pre-Metalized Dyes Substantive Direct Dyes Azoic Dyes Sulphur Dyes Reactive Dyes Optical Brighteners 2. One of these is degree of color fastness. Dyeing and printing differ in method by which color is applied to fabric. in the combed wool fiber form. after the fiber has been spun into yarn. henna. dry cleaning. Piece Dyeing. bleach.2 SYNTHETIC DYES: Synthetic dyes may be categorized into sixteen classes. saffron. 1. Mineral Dyes – Prussian blue. They are no longer used in quantity by dyeing industry. 1. and iron buff. it is necessary to know which dyes have an affinity for vegetable. in the fiber stage. berries and other forms of vegetable and plant life. Dyes may sometimes bleed too. It remains for dyeing and printing processes to provide lasting beauty and delight to beholder by adding color to fabrics. Solution Pigmenting or Dope dyeing. chrome yellow. SELECTION OF DYEING METHODS: Textiles may be dyed at any stage of their development from fiber into fabric or certain garments by Stock Dyeing. These sources have provided such natural dyes throughout civilization. squid sepia. In printing. logwood indigo and alizarin. nuts. and they are classified into two basic categories. catechu. before a manmade fiber is extruded through the spinneret Garment Dyeing after certain kinds of apparel are knitted 212 . There are different types of dyes. All dyes have their own limitations. Fastness of color refers to its ability to remain unchanged. The Natural Dyes and Synthetic Dyes 1. yarn or fabric is impregnated with dyestuff. interesting and intricate constructions begin to add beauty of appearance and serviceability. fiber. and tyrian purple are obtained from pieces of fish and small insects.

This method also gives a greater degree of color fastness.1 STOCK DYEING: Stock dyeing refers to dyeing a staple fiber before it is spun. Other method is called Chip Dyeing.6 GARMENT DYEING: Certain kinds of non-tailored apparel. pantyhose and sweaters can be dyed as completed garments because they are each made of single component will not be readily distorted.SKEWED OR BIAS . LAHORE 2. 2. Major or minor.3 YARN DYEING: When dyeing is done after the fiber has been spun into yarn. Very even dyeing is possible with this method. a great deal of time and money can be saved if the dye is added to solution before it is extruded through spinnerets into filaments. it is described as yarn dyeing. Top is wool that has been combed to take out the short fibers. DYEING AND FINISHING DEFECTS OF FABRICS: 1. depending on severity. is that of splitting the bale covering on all six sides. 2. They are Skein or Hank Dyeing.2 TOP DYEING: One step nearer to the finished yarn than stock dyeing is what is called top dyeing in the worsted industry. The top is wound on perforated spools and the dye liquor is circulated through it. There are several methods of yarn dyeing. 2. 213 .Condition where filling yarns are not square with wrap yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 SOLUTION PIGMENTING OR DOPE DYEING: During the production of manmade fibers. such as hosiery. The newer method. This method gives manufacturers maximum flexibility for their inventories to meet large or small demands for a given color as fashion requirements. placing the entire bale covering on all six side. There are two methods. then delivered from the combs in a ropelike from 1 ¼ inches (30mm) thick. These methods are:       Union Dyeing Beck Dyeing Pad Dyeing Beam Dyeing Vacuum Impregnation Solvent Dyeing • • • • • • Cross Dyeing Jig Dyeing Cold Pad-batch Dyeing Jet Dyeing Foam Dyeing Tumble Dyeing 2. which is applicable to wool and all types of manmade fibers.4 PIECE DYEING: Great bulk of dyed fabric in the market is dyed in piece. Space Dyeing 2. The older and widely practiced procedure is that of removing the packed fiber from the bales and then packing the stock in large vats and circulating dye liquid through the mass of fiber at elevated temperatures. placing the entire bale in a specially designed machine and then forcing the dye liquor through the bale of the fiber. bale dyeing. Garment dyeing is an economical method and is used when practical. Package Dyeing. It also reduces the risk of building and inventory that could be affected by changes in color fashion 3. Warp-beam Dyeing.

– Major. – Major or minor. in knits the course lines lie in an arch across width of goods. Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on cutting table. Major or minor. Major.MOTTLED . color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Establish standards of acceptance. – Major or minor.COLOR SMEAR.Dye smudged along width of fabric as a result of stop the printing machine stopping.Usually caused by finishing. – Major 5. 13-PUCKERED SELVAGE . 16-SELVAGE TORN .Color running low in reservoir on printing machine. Results from creased fabric passing through squeeze rollers in dyeing process – Major or minor depending on product. 11-PRINTER MACHINE STOP . 9.color being smeared during printing-Major or Minor 6. 14-SANFORIZE PUCKER . 15–SCRIMP . results in various colors not printed in proper position. On napped fabric final pressing may not be able to restore fabric.The result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through print machine.DYE STEAK IN PRINTING . There will be areas not printed.Holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through Stenter frame. Woven filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width. an impression will result on a printed fabric – Major 3. Crease mark appears where creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process.CREASE MARK .Print rollers not synchronized properly. A long streak until operator notices the problem.CREASE STREAK . usually major for fashion outerwear. usually caused by defective spray heads.BACK FABRIC SEAM IMPRESSION . 214 . if pin holes extend into body of fabric far enough to be visible in the finished product. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric.Usually caused by excessive tension while processing through tenter frames. Difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension. – Major. 12-PRINT OUT OF REGISTER .Occurs in Tubular knits.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.Usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying.Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process.Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. 8. but not on. 4.COLOR OUT . – Major.Color applied unevenly during printing. Often discoloration is a problem.Results from uneven wetting out on Sanforize. Minor for underwear. . solid color fabrics. – Major 7. and patterns. LAHORE 2.Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for entire roll.Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. Critical on stripes.BOWING .Major or Minor 10-PIN HOLES . 17-WATER SPOTS . Major.

Sometimes base color is removed and another color is printed in its place.2 DISCHARGE PRINTING: Another approach for applying a color pattern is discharge printing. 1. Silk – acid colors. The blocks are made of potatoes. Other finishes add other decorations to the fabric.2 VEGETABLE PRINTS: These prints are made with not wooden or metal blocks but with vegetable blocks. 3. METHODS OF PRINTING: There are three approaches to printing a color on a fabric: Direct printing. This vegetable prints can be achieved at home. Manmade fibers disperse and cationic dyes) 2. The choice depends on the purpose for which the goods will be used. Fabric can be further enhanced by printing color designs on finished cloth.1 BLOCK PRINTING: The oldest method of printing designs on the fabric is block printing by hand.1 DIRECT PRINTING: Most common approach for applying a color pattern is direct printing. 2. 2. Bleached goods are printed with a resist paste – a resinous substance that cannot be penetrated when the fabric is subsequently immersed in a dye. The block is pressed down firmly by hand on selected portions of the surface of the fabric. After fabric has passed through dyeing process. with various vegetables. leaving a pattern on dark ground. TYPES OF PRINTING: 3. reactive. it may be given lustrous appearance.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This process is too slow and printed fabric cannot be produced inexpensively in large enough quantities by hand-blocked method. but its use has been declining. LAHORE TEXTILE PRINTING One form of applying color decoration to a fabric after it has otherwise been finished is called printing. pigment and naphthol dyes. It may be done on a white fabric. Any kind of vegetable can be used but one should keep in mind that soft vegetables should not be selected. To make block prints. Wool – acid and chrome dyes.3 RESIST PRINTING: A third approach to obtain color pattern is resist printing. (Cotton printing – vat. the design must be carved on a wooden or metal block. Discharge Printing. it is called over printing. In the formation of the fabric. resist paste is removed. with various creative designs. The fabric is dyed in the piece and then printed with a chemical that destroy color in certain areas. fiber or fibers involved (blends) and what potential customer would be willing to pay. Dye is imprinted on fabric in paste form. Resist Printing. The will affect only the parts not covered by the resist paste. 3. The yarns produced in the spinning process create some form of decoration in the fabric. decoration is also obtained by the pattern of construction. Dyeing makes an important contribution to fabric decoration by many beautiful colors it produces and color harmonies obtained by combinations of various dyeing methods. DYES USED FOR PRINTING: Most classes of dyes are adaptable to one or more of the various types of printing. The dyestuff is applied in paste form to the design on the face of the block. but usually a white area is desirable to brighten overall design. When fabric passes through finishing operations. 215 . ladiesfinger. carrot and lots of other vegetables to the taste of the designers and the block printers. 2.

This is because during washing the starch is washed away and the printing which was attached only to the starch went with it. but the inside is not penetrated if the knots are tightly tied. Also after printing must get fabric through "baking process" for sufficient time / temp. the printed design may look acceptable without giving us a clue that there is a hidden problem. When the printing is done. From the adjusted process.3 ROLLER PRINTING: Roller printing resembles block printing but the difference lies in the blocks used for printing. before printing we must desize the fabric very thoroughly and the pigment dye must contain sufficient "binder" to make the dye stay. 216 . Roller printing is the method of printing designs on the cloth by engraved rollers.4 SCREEN-PRINTING: Originally this technique was referred to as silkscreen printing because the screens were made of fine. Then melted wax mixed with the resin is traced on the areas not to be dyed with a tainting. The process is repeated as many times as desired by making knew knots in other parts of the fabric in additional dye baths. it is on the starch mixed with indigo or Sulphur dye but not on the cotton fiber. straight reed handle to which is attached a small. which is a small instrument made of a short. which is subsequently immersed in a dye to absorb color on un-waxed portions. funnel-shaped copper cup with one or more spouts. They would like 30% or 40% of the printing to go away after washing with 60% or 70% of the color to stay. whereby designs are made with wax on the fabric. 70% of the printing to stay. 40% of the printing to stay. known as batik dyeing . 100% of the printing to stay. to stay bright and fresh like new. PRINTING ON DENIM: Denim is made from "Beam dye" with the warp threads heavily covered by starch mixed with indigo or Sulphur dye. of the printing color to stay on the fabric after wash. 4. When we order printed denim we must tell the printing mill how much we want the printing to stay on the fabric after wash. If we want to print on it. strong silk threads. After each application of the wax the fabric is dipped into the dye solution to obtain the particular color. 3. 3. However. they are made of nylon. The outside of the knotted portion is dyed. the printing disappears leaving only faint marks where the printing used to be. but use less amount. then the dye in paste form is poured on the screen and forced through its unblocked areas onto the fabric with rubber edged squeegee. 3. e. Also we will still get printed denim through baking process but at lower temperature and shorter time. to make it clearer. polyester. and metal. However.6 TIE-DYEING: It is also a method of resist dyeing. The screen is made and the frame is placed on the fabric. LAHORE 3. The dye is resisted by knots that are tied in the cloth before it is immersed in the dye bath. With this the printing will be colorfast and remain bright and fresh after washing.g. the only method we can use is to use pigment print to cover the dark color of denim. vinyon. The application of the wax must be done on both sides of the fabric. we still desize the denim thoroughly before printing and we still use "binder" in our pigment dye. The chosen motif is drawn on the fabric. or 5o% of the printing to stay. Today.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. when we do that the pigment dye applied is on the surface of the fabric. If we want 100%. In such case. when garments are made from this fabric and washed.5 BATIK DYEING: resist-dyeing process. to achieve the slightly faded look desired. a certain amount of the dye will be washed away when the garment goes through the washing process. Usually garment buyers would not like the printing on denim to be colorfast. The use of engraved copper cylinders or rollers takes place of the hand-carved blocks.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. they may contain warp sizing solution. 217 .1 SINGEING OR GASSING: To give the fabric a smooth finish. LAHORE TEXTILE FINISHING Newly constructed fabric as it comes from the mill is called as greige goods or gray goods. Singeing burns off lint. When cloth has been bleached for other finishes. they are called bleached goods. The goods must pass through various finishing processes to make it suitable for its intended purposes. its hand (feel). This does not imply that the fabric is gray in color. A temporary finish will be removed or subsequently reduced when the fabric is laundered or dry cleaned. to its intended purpose. washed. PREPARATORY PROCESSES: The gray goods from the looms have to be cleaned before they are given other advanced finishes. it simply denotes any unfinished fabric. oils and other stains during the weaving process. for it must be adapted to the kind of fiber and yarn used in the fabric and. they are singeing or gassing and bleaching 2. its serviceability. they are mercerizing and shrinking 3. Major types of finishing process are given below. There are two kinds of preparatory processes. due to the heat either they burn or melt. Other hair fibers and thermoplastic fabrics are not singed. STABILIZING PROCESS: Under stabilizing Processes there are two important processes. 3. Finishing may take many forms. Singed goods are put through a rapid de-size streamer. 2. the gray goods are passed over gas flames usually two burners to a side.2 BLEACHING: To give fabrics white color bleaching is done. The fiber becomes more lustrous than the original fiber. Spun rayon is often singed. This finish can give cotton broaden cloth a silk-like appearance and cause cotton damask to be mistaken for linen. Designers and merchandisers classify finishes as aesthetic that affects the appearance and / or hand of the fabric and functional that improves the performance for specific purpose. 2. They are also referred to as Chemical and Mechanical finishes. except those are to be napped are singed. 1. respectively. Practically all cotton fabrics. at a speed of 100 to 250 yards per minute. It is also used for linen fabrics. impregnated with a wild 3% solution of caustic soda and pulled up into top of a huge J-shaped container that is equipped to maintain a temperature of 100 C. A permanent finish generally involves a chemical process that changes the fiber structure that will not subsequently alter throughout the life of the fabric. A durable finish may last throughout the life of the fabric but its effectiveness diminishes. leaving an even surface. The gray goods don’t have a white color. Bleaching is nothing but the removal of natural color from gray fabric.1 MERCERIZING: This is an important stabilizing process for cotton fabrics. Finishes are also classified according to their degree of permanence. threads as well as all fuzz and fiber ends. Finishing may change the appearance of the fabric. some are renewable. A semi durable finish will last through several laundering or dry cleaning. Manmade fibers as a class require less preparation to whiten. KINDS OF FINISHING PROCESSES: Finishing processes are categorized as Wet and Dry finishes. and its durability. and its strength increases by as much as 20%. most important of all.

It has many advantages over mercerizing. 3. Chemical Treatment. It is a mechanical process that may be applied to woven or knitted goods. Their physical condition is changed. Usually. weighting. DECATING: It preshrinks as well as improves the appearance. smoothness. the fabric must be given a preshrinking operation in which no tension is exerted while the fabric is in damp condition. Chlorination Process. and strength by immersing in a solution of starch. and buckram. There are several types of shrinking processes. thereby improving abrasion resistance. To realize maximum preshrinkage in finishing. soap. LAHORE 3.2 AMMONIATING: This process is for cotton yarn and fabrics. TEMPORARY STIFFENING: Cotton and Linen can be given stiffness. heat.1 STIFFENING: There are two types of stiffening Temporary Stiffening and Permanent Stiffening. luster.3 SHRINKING: Fibers spun into yarn are under constant tension during the weaving process. and condensed by a combination of moisture. All have the property of making the fabric smoother. TENTERING: This process is applied at various stages of finishing. 218 . The fabric is then put into cold water. dimensional stability. results in fewer imperfections. The fibers are cleaned. voile. as well as for yarn and fabrics of rayon. has little or no polluting consequences. London Shrinkage. and affinity for dyes. after which it is pressed. ad control exercised over the process. PERMANENT STIFFENING: chemical processes that change the cellular structure of the fiber can achieve permanent stiffening effects. but not permanently fixed: fibers revert to their natural state. and it soils less easily because dirt tends to slide off rather than cling. TEXTURAL PROCESS: Textural process as the name suggests gives texture to the fabrics. in the chemicals used. The most important textural processes are stiffening. a stretching process called crabbing passes the cloth over rollers into hot water or steam. Sometimes chemicals are added to increase the adhesion of the fibers. This process is starching. as the fabric is stretched or loosened where necessary and finally set at the width at which the warp and filling yarns are in proper relation to each other. Ammoniating increases luster. they are Compressive Shrinkage. FULLING: This process operates as a preshrinking process for wool. sheer and medium weight cotton fabrics are given stiffness. scoured. the fabric is wet when it is run into a tenter. and knit ability. drying and evening of the fabric width are the primary purposes of tentering CRABBING: In finishing wool fabrics. This process is similar to tentering. and crinkled effects 4. and Resin Treatment. and pressure. These processes are known as specific trademarks. which sometimes lasts throughout the life of the fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. fabric structure. and in degree of permanency of the final finish. lawn.e. 4. produces greater strength of 40% to 50% over untreated cotton as compared to the 20% increase by mercerization. By this method. The extent of modification depends upon the fiber. Cotton fabrics that are starched are organdy. Cylinder Method. There are two Decating i. and increases yarn smoothness. They need less laundering and last longer. Dry Decating and Wet Decating. weight. causing shrinkage. They vary in method. crepe. The process is less expensive. and hand of the fabric without loss in succeeding finishing operations.

4.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. they wrinkle and crush easily. Salts permeate yarns and become part of the fabric but cannot be detected by handling. 4. mucilage. 4. The method varies according to the type of finish desired. This hammering closes weaves and gives cloth a form.4 GLAZING: A stiff polished or glazed surface can be obtained by the application of starch. 4.9 SANDING: In order to obtain suede like surface. but the degree of depth depends upon the technique used. 4. the yarn intended for the construction of cloth are given only a slack twist in spinning process. Yarns are flattened by the impact of wooden mallets. Fabric is then washed.13 BURNT-OUT EFFECTS: A fabric constructed of two different yarns. flattened. The process makes a fabric resistant to dust and spots and minimizes shrinkage. Shearing levels all surface irregularities caused by the plucking action in the napping process.3 CALENDERING: It is essentially an ironing process that adds sheen to the fabric. glue. fabrics may be given a sanding by passing them through a series of emery covered rollers. 4. The process produces a soft. can be printed with a chemical that will dissolve one fiber but not affect the other. Another type of calendar that is used to produce glazed finishes is the friction calender. One finishing method imprints a crinkled effect by means of engraved rollers. FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS: In addition to certain of the finishes.2 WEIGHTING: Silk may be treated with tin salts to increase weight of the fabric and improve its hand and drape. Weight and body of the fabric are increased by immersing it in a solution containing metallic salts. However it is subject to pilling. 4. This finish is permanent when applied to fabrics made of thermoplastic or manmade fibers.12 CREPE AND CRINKLED EFFECTS: Permanent crepe effects are obtained by using hard-twisted yarns in the weaving process. chamois like nap. Degree of permanency varies with each finishing process. SHAPE RETENTIVE FINISHES: Fabrics of cellulose fibers lack the ability to retain their shape. LAHORE 4. There are two methods that result in crepes and crinkled effects.11 SHEARING: Pile weave fabrics and fabrics that have been napped are usually sheared to give an attractive smooth surface to the cloth. When the fabric is to be napped.8 NAPPING: It is chiefly used to obtain a relatively deep hairy surface. or shellac followed by friction Calendering.5 EMBOSSING: The process of producing raised figures or designs in relief on surfaces of fabrics by passing the cloth between heated engraved rollers. To make them competitive with 219 . 5. certain functional finishes are given to the fabric. but the results are not always satisfactory. 4. caustic soda is impressed on cotton fabric in the form of figures and stripes.7 RAISING: A fabric may be given a fuzzy or hairy surface by any one of several methods that abrades the cloth and pulls fibers ends to the surface. 4.6 BEETING: It is common finishing process for linen. The process can be applied to fabrics made of all types of fibers except wool. In the other finishing method. It is not permanent when applied to untreated fabrics made of natural or manmade fibers. lustrous appearance. 4. Crepe surfaces can also be produced by certain finishing processes. each of a different kind of fiber.

A type of non-durable finish is usually based on paraffin wax.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Garments made of fabrics with wash and wear finishes will dry smooth and need little or no ironing after washing. Eventually. semi durable finish is based on wax and / or salt solutions and durable finishes are based on pyridinium compound is applied to cotton. This type of finish permeates the fibers and becomes part of it. Sometimes it is desired that they be more absorbent. PERMANENT PRESS: This is also referred to as durable press. LAHORE other fibers in a market that demands easy care for apparel. depending upon the quality of the finish and the construction. water will penetrate even a water repellent fabric. and the finish used to discourage water from soaking through the yarns and pores of the fabric. which are applied to a wide variety of fabrics for clothing. Modern waterproofing materials include the vinyl resins. pressing creases into trousers. linen. depending upon the length of exposure and the force of the water. The familiar rubber coated garb of fire fighters is a good example. the compactness of the construction of the fabric. The third approach is the development of special 220 . The second approach is the creation of flame retardant fibers by the addition of certain chemicals to existing fiber spinning solutions. linen and viscose rayon fabrics. Purpose of this finish is to prevent deformation of the fabric by undesirable and unintentionally introduced folds and rumples. Among the most effective and widely used was tris 2-3 dibromopropyl phosphate. chemical finishes were added to cotton fabrics for what became known as wash and wear cotton. are effective against water and oil borne stains. The finish gives the fabric a built in “memory” which interfered with the shaping garments to conform to body contours. WATER REPELLENCY: A water repellent fabric is one that will resist absorption and penetration of water for a given period of time. This was followed by similar treatment for cotton and linen. it must be completely sealed with a substance that is insoluble in water. Penetration of water through a fabric is dependent upon the kind of fiber in the fabric. WASH AND WEAR FINISH: They are also referred to as drip-dry finishes. These finishes are based on resins or reactants that combine chemically with fibers through a process of cross-linking. With further development. and rayon have good absorbency. and putting pleats in skirts. however. the tightness of the yarn twist.aluminum acetate emulsion. These finishes. The initial process was for the purpose of making spun rayon fabrics wrinkle resistant. Appropriate application of ammonium compounds modifies cellulose to become more absorbent. SOILREPELLENCY: A group of fluorochemical finishes which act as water repellents are also soil or stain repellents. A further extension of this is the development of permanent press. They are of the same type as the wrinkle resistant finish. WATERPROOFING: For a fabric to truly waterproof. ABSORBENCY FINISHES: The cellulose fibers of cotton. a variety of shape retentive finishes has been developed. which is used on cotton and cotton blend fabrics as well as wool and wool blends. The purpose is to keep fabric flat and smooth as compared to creases or pleats deliberately placed in a fabric. SOIL RELEASE: Finishes have been developed that will facilitate the removal of dirt or stains from fabrics treated with a permanent press finish. WRINKLE RESISTANT FINISHES: These finishes are referred to as crease resistant finishes. FLAME RETARDANT FINISH: A wide variety of flame retardant chemical finishes has been developed for application to fibers and fabrics.

In the garment sector worldwide. It can be applied to a wide variety of fabrics of different fibers. then stretching and drying under tension. Dry cleaning does not impair the finish. constructions. shirts. which are popular. The appearance and feel of the fabric are unchanged. malodorous. For cold conditions. and no chemical odor remains. and fabric construction. One type is the ether urethane foam commonly found in furniture upholstery. known as slipping. a properly treated fabric with a metallic substance faced toward the body will reflect its radiated heat back to the body rather than permit it to escape. FOAM LAMINATING: The heat insulative properties of dead or trapped air spaces have been formerly laminated to the nature of the fiber. ANTIBACTERIAL FINISHES: Chemical antiseptic finishes impart a selfsterilizing quality to a fabric. only few textures can be obtained. which adds less than an ounce to the weight of the lining and does not interfere with the porosity or pliability of the fabric. SLIP RESISTANCE: In fabrics that have a low thread count. have been discussed below. and cause very minor but discomforting shock to the user. With weaving. and eventually deteriorated by the fungus if allowed to remain in a moist condition for a period of time. etc. A fabric to be used as a lining can be coated with a resinated metal usually aluminum spray. 6.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Permanent firmness can be given by immersing them in synthetic resins. skirts and kid wear. 221 . which are produced in specific eneric classes. satin weave. even spark. MOTHPROOFING: Wool fabrics are sometimes mothproofed as one of the finishing operations to the cloth by impregnating the yarns with a chemical. cling and climb. yarn. Unusual wear or strain on some part of a fabric may cause the same action. FABRIC TO FABRIC BONDING: This technique uses specially developed adhesives that affect a permanent bond between two fabrics. acrylic. MILDEWPROOFING: Cellulose fibers are particularly susceptible to mildew. Initially denim fabrics were very thick strong and blue colored. in response to changing fashion demands various methods have been developed for getting new effects and new finishes fabrics and garments. jackets. HEAT REFLECTANT FINISHES: It may be desirable to conserve the heat of the body if conditions are cold or to protect it from the heat if conditions are hot. and textures. As a result. Few methods. the fabrics attract dirt particles. ANTISTATIC FINISHES: Wool and such manmade fibers as nylon. With demands for change in fashion. silk and wool are also susceptible. crackle. the warp yarns sometimes slip along the filling yarns. over the years. the same treated material with the face outward will reflect the outside heat away from the body. denim garments are dominant which mainly companies jeans. and polyester develop static electricity from the friction caused by wearing and general use. Such untreated fabrics will become stained. Garments washes are making continuous efforts to give new looks to denim garments by chemical and mechanical means. but to a lesser extent. LAHORE flame retardant fibers. For hot conditions. new the denims are available in light ounce. heavy ounce.

But now a days light ounce denim fabrics are making a special identity and finding versatile use. Denim fabric is made from 100% cotton yarns. Denim is the only fabric in which warps are sized after dyeing. 6. The final effect is extra ordinary. It gives a look of a dark colored random design on light background. Few ready made discharge printing pastes are available in markets. With tinting. brushing or chemical means. This paste is printed on denim garments with nylon screen. We can destroy indigo dye with either oxidative or reductive chemicals. To get the brightness after topping is very important. Garments are first treated with pigment dyes. LAHORE 6. 3% Potassium Permanganates. The specialty of the denims is that only warp yarns are dyed and weft yarns are white. The denim fabric is constructed with warp faced 2/1 or 3/1 twill weave. we get faded / lighter areas at particular place on garment. The print pasts is allowed to dry on garments. The fading is normally done by sand blasting. This paste is not stable for a long time after its preparation. Those pastes can also be sprayed on garments. enzyme washed and bleached. different shades can be produced. The garment is placed on a table inside a chamber. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. the desired area is bombarded with tiny hard particles with pressure. the dye gets stripped from the fabric making that area lighter hard particles can be hard sand. It is very popular among all the age groups. aluminum silicate etc. The tying is compact and tight. In oxidative method.3 DISCHARGE PRINTING: Discharge printing is a method to destroy the dye on fabric from a particular area.5 ENZYMATIC DECOLOURISATION OF DENIMS: Denim is the most popular fabric worldwide. sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate is used. Sulphur or reactive dyes. and 88% Water. White discharge can be obtained in this way and then the garments can be tinted with different colors to get new looks.2 TINTING / OVER DYEING: Now days. It is also possible to print denim garment with protective chemical. The garments are then processed with enzymes and bleach. It is then neutralized with sodium bisulphite or acidified hydrogen peroxide. Compressor is used for air pressure.4 RESIST BLEACHING: This technique is similar to tie and dye. Direct dyes have poor wash fastness Sulphur dyeing is a lengthy process. it is a hot fashion to have denim garments faded and then tinted or topped with different dyes. the garments are processed in normal way.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This can be achieved with thorough soaping with anionic detergent. denim garments are tied at particular places with nylon thread. The print paste is freshly prepared and used. One way to get bright topping is to use pigments. With sand blasting. Due to this construction the fabric seems to be dyed uniformly with the color in which warp yarns are dyed. the garments are them desized. Earlier thick variety of denim was very popular and it was considered as very tough fabric suitable for rough use. 6. In this. Those garments can also be light tinted with different dye to get new look. The sand can be collected and reused. The faded denim garments after desizing and enzyme washing are tinted with pigments. 6. Print paste can be prepared by 9% sodium Alginate. the over dyeing is normally done with direct. The tied area remains dark colored whereas other area becomes light. 222 . 6. Garments are soaped and softened. After-treatment with binder is not given. Because of the abrasion. after tying. which forms a resistant film on printed area. After blasting. A mixture of compressed air and hard particles is shooted through a gun on defined area of fabric.1 SAND BLASTING: indigo has poor wash fastness properties indigo dyeing is present just below the outer surface of fibers. In sand blasting process.

A trend of Eco-friendly processing is becoming more and more popular. then migrated to America in 1847. As denims are dyed with blue indigo dye and processed almost in similar manner. Sodium hypochlorite is the commonly used oxidizing agent for the purpose. which was succeeded in working out its structure in 1883. Even though the jeans are very popular. The blue jeans are mainly dyed with indigo alone or indigo and Sulphur dyes. As being biodegradable enzymes are Eco-friendly. desizing. who played role of young rebellious revolutionary. The processing includes wetting. which is very popular. Laccase has oxidative action. their manufacturing and processing is more tricky and lengthy. As most of the denims are blue colored. Indigo is one of the toughest dyes to bleach without the use of hypochlorite or other harsh chemicals. it has become possible to decolorize indigo with an enzyme. The original shade of garment is changed by various methods of wet processing and lots of different shades are created. the processors can play only with the shade of the color to create a range of blues and with the grain structure on the fabric. In these circumstances. bio-fading. It has certain advantages of being cheap and the reaction takes place at room temperature. various celluloses (acid and neutral) are used. bleaching (optional) and softening. It was the appearance of a young. The film star not only made an impact on films but also on economic history at the same time. BASF produced the first charge of fully synthetic indigo and won the race with Hoechst. processors are looking for Eco-friendly alternative chemicals for processing. The history of denim starts with the story of Levi Strauss who was born in 1829 in Franconian Buttenheim. Indigo. sometimes medium. the enzyme gets oxidized and attacks the mediator to convert it into free radicals. In denim garment processing. The general aim of processing the denim garments is to remove size from the fabric and also to remove indigo dye. The contrast and grain structure depends on the ability of an enzyme to cut the cellulose and the control of re-deposition of dye. PROBLEM OF DENIM YELLOWING: Indigo denims have become the most popular words in the world of garments. hence mediator is used. Although the fastness properties and stability against oxidation and reduction of indigo are poor. Sodium hypochlorite bleaching is not an Eco-friendly process. known as hard wash. laccase and a mediator. the possibilities to create new looks are limited. In presence of an aqueous medium. For creating different shades of blues. The laccase alone is not capable of breaking the indigo. This is not desirable in light ounce denim. In 1897. The free radicals generated then attacks the indigo and convert it into oxidized products. since then Jeans became the symbol of youth there on. Being a strong oxidizing agent. The purpose of the bleaching is to decolorize the indigo dye to certain level for getting the desired shade. enzymes are used for desizing and abrasion look. Sometimes the shades are very dark. Now days. This gives a used look to denims. which is very complex. 7. world famous Film Star James Dean. people have become more environmental conscious. LAHORE The processing of denim fabrics has become more or less simple and routine.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Now. Until Second World War. known as mid stone and sometimes 223 . it also attacks cotton and reduces the strength. these properties have made it more valuable for blue denims. But also it is harsh chemical and gives yellowness to the fabrics if not neutralized properly. wore jeans. The trade name of the product is "Zylite”. For obtaining good grain structure. Zytex has developed a formulation based on laccase system capable of degrading indigo in a very specific way. The product contains an enzyme. jeans were considered as working trousers. Government agencies are putting more restrictions for control on effluent quality. bleaching of denim fabrics is carried out. the royal blue dye had been laboriously extracted from plants for centuries.

The polluting gases present in air can destroy indigo. LAHORE light. known as heavy stone. is very powerful oxidizing agent. Washing may take up to 6 hours. 45/60 minutes. Many of the times. SANDWASHED: This is a more refined stone washed technique for which the jeans are washed together with smaller and completely round pumice stones. The jeans are supposed to look worn. hypochlorite solution. the goods are washed until they are as soft and light as desired. As jeans does not come pre-shrunk it should be bought one size larger than needed. Ozone. Destruction of the dye occurs predominantly at the edges of jeans exposed to air when lying around during storage. STONE WASHED: This technique represents the classical washing type used for Denim. The air. The effect: higher abrasion. Result: a full and soft handle. especially of large cities. PRE WASHED: Also for this technique the Denim is pre-washed in huge washing machines. in presence of sunlight. ABC ’S OF WASHING TECHNIQUES FOR DENIM: UNWASHED: The authentic look of the jeans. ONE WASH: The jeans are once washed without any chemical additives in plain water and therefore mostly keep its dark blue color. The Denim is neither washed nor chemically post-treated. The reasons for this problem are: Contribution of Damaging Gases: .e. However. when comes in contact with indigo generates free radicals. seams and edges may look torn. The color is also referred to as bleached jeans blue. A major problem of denim industry is the yellowing and fading of indigo dyed jeans material on storage. is polluted with ozone and nitrogen oxides. Off course. The free radicals decompose Indigo into an oxidized product called as Isatin.: any adhesives or the like left over from processing are eliminated from the fabric). It causes a loss to shop owners and increases the Blood Pressure of manufacturers. The grain structure is controlled by using either neutral or acid celluloses. For this. Air Circulation in the Fabric: .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. It is best to wrap the goods in air impermeable bag. the jeans shrink to the pre-calculated size. Typical: the Retro Jeans in the look of the 50s. O . The washing time is approx. but only desized (i. BLEACHED: During pre-washing a precisely computed amount of bleach is added to the lye which extracts part of the Denim's Indigo color thereby causing the trousers to be uniformly colored light blue. This means the ventilation of the storage room also should be low. It is yellowish in color and hence imparts yellowness to the fabric. Ozone.Air circulation should be as low as possible. the terminology differs from market to market. the finished product is washed in special machines together with natural pumice. The result is a dark blue indigo-Denim. The stones are almost completely dissolved by the friction forces during the washing process thereby creating this typical aged look.e. DOUBLE STONE WASHED: Here. Stone washed jeans are characterized by the abrasions at the seams. the shades are achieved by using bleach i. MILL WASHED: The Denim yard good has already been pre-washed in open width washing machines by the manufacturer. The trousers are washed on their right side for 80 minutes so that this effect is 224 . During washing. belt loops and pocket entries. softer handle. 8. the jeans are simply longer washed than during normal stone-washing and more pumice is used.

the trousers get its yellow cast. warp is dyed using Indigo then it is sized SIZING: The warps are smoothed by means of starch. His chemical brother was always cheaper and still provided for the same features of application as natural Indigo. Indian Indigo dyed much more beautifully and intensively and was. EDWIN post-treats the trousers correspondingly. the Denim is bleached without adding chlorine. where the warp is subject to high friction forces and tension.g. LAHORE achieved. seat. This beautiful rich shade of blue which is typical for Blue Jeans is achieved by dying the Denim with indigo. Here. At that time. the wedge yarn is steeped a dye bath. SKY BLUE STONE BLEACHED: A bleaching substance. 9. At that time. BOMBER WASHED: Jeans already having been stone washed are strongly cleared at heavily worn parts (thigh. chlorine. Dyed yarn can be further processed. the solution is neutralized. e. it was not until 1897 that after massive investments into the companies' own chemical research chemically won Indigo was marketed. a blue dyeing herbaceous plant was used.) applying a special procedure. OLDBLUE WASHED: Also this washing type bases on the stone-washed principle. 300 yarns are drawn through Indigo blue. Indigo was cultivated and traded despite its use as a poison and "magical substance". Indigo still is the most popular dye of the world. Nevertheless. EDWIN uses the environmentally friendly glucose technology. Neither has it been used for the typical blue dyeing of jeans.e. The more often the yarn hanks have been steeped into the dye bath the more intensive in blue color the Denim gets. The "stoned" jeans are extremely light in color. For bleaching the Denim. more durable and wearable. is added to the stone washing process.C. above all. THE COLOR BLUE: The weft remains white and the warp is dyed blue. bleached. the inner of the yarn remains white which explains the white abrasion marks of heavily worn jeans. 225 . with an annual production of more than nine thousand tons. Indigo is the world's ancient known organic dye.i. It was used in China and Egypt already in 2500 B. A typical characteristic of this technique is that the color does not interpenetrate the yarn but coats the fiber. entire hanks of ca. To achieve a uniform and improved color. this technique is also called coat dyeing. Here. By adding environmentally friendly substances. Nevertheless. the yarn's inner came free from its blue coating. adhesives or similar substances as this increases their strength during weaving as it is particularly here.e. Therefore. Adolph von Bayer was the first to artificially produce indigo-Blue. From 1900 natural Indigo was no longer imported by Germany and up to now natural Indigo has never regained its former importance. FINISHING: Before Blue Denim is woven. Indigo was even publicly condemned as the Devil's color.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. dyeing things blue was also popular in Germany where Wade. This makes the yarn turn blue. After each steeping yarns are taken out so that color can react with oxygen. our ancestors began to import Indigo from India (which was then the world's most important exporter of Indigo). Afterwards. until the age of chemical dye stuff. Remaining non-oxidized dye is washed out of cotton yarns. Consequently. The two large chemical producers BASF and Hoechst immediately bought the patent on this new technology. i. In 1878. well. FINISHING TECHNIQUES OF BLUE DENIM JEANS: Even before weaving. The intensive bright blue of the Indian Indigo was much appreciated and widely used for some centuries .

By this it gets smoother. The finishing techniques described are applied one after the other and after weaving. EMERY: For this technique fine wire lamellas or emery paper covered rollers are led over the fabric. ANTI-TWIST: Due to the weave construction tensions arise within the fabric. CALENDERING: The goods are provided with paraffin or washing emulsion and fed through rotating hot rollers. i. If moisture is applied later.8 %. SHRINKING: The "shrinking" technique is also called "Sanfor-finish". the material shrinks to its original length. The typical look of traditional jeans with its visible natural colored weft is not found with Color-Denim.e. BLEACHING: This applies to fabrics which are supposed to be dyed after weaving. They move in all directions so that a uniform and dense nap is created. more flexible and glossier. FINISHING: The finish modifies the handle of the goods.000 meters of goods are sewed together to one run. To "anti-gauze" finish the fabrics they are deliberately unilaterally twisted by approximately 7 % .Denim is that the entire fabric is dyed. as the material is subject to high tensile loads during the entire manufacturing process (from the spinning and weaving up to the finishing). They are released during the washing of the Blue Jeans resulting in turn in the so-called "gauzes". which can be more than 20 meters long. For this. a smooth surface is achieved. up to 20. Specific problem of the so-called Color. In order to ensure its washability it has to be treated with special synthetic resins. their handle is still firm after washing but they are nevertheless convenient to wear. This consequently results in a width and length shrinking. damp heat is applied to the fabrics. It is slightly napped resulting in a sort of "peachy skin". High-quality Denims dispose of a wash-proof finish. By means of a special machine through which the goods are fed. NAPPING: For this process the right types of wire brushes are to be used. DYEING: Fabrics woven of natural colored yarn can now be dyed. Napping is applied to both the right and wrong side of the goods. The coat dyeing may only be achieved using indigo. By this. This step is necessary. After this step the Denim's weft does no longer run in a 90° to the warp but diagonal. BONDING: Bonding means the later joining of to fabrics by means of adhesives or the so-called foam laminating (sandwich lamination). however. Flats may be further finished using following techniques: MERCERIZING: Making fabric smooth. both warp and weft are dyed. This technique is only applied to the right side of the goods. By this the Denim is artificially pre-shrunk. closer. glossy and sliding by means of caustic soda lye. In modern textile mills the goods are fed through the right finishing lines. One of the disadvantages of this finishing technique is the pilings "fostered" by the velvet surface. DESIZING: Sizing reduces the receptivity for dyes (especially with Color Denim). it is necessary for weaving. This fabric is called Chinz. LAHORE SINGEING: Fibers protruding from the fabric's surface after weaving are burnt off. 226 . PRINTING: The material is printed using simple techniques: the fabric is dyed and then a pattern is printed on it either uni or bilaterally. After weaving the fabric is therefore desized by quasi washing it in a special solvent.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Now. high free amine content. glucose. which is the main culprit for yellowing. BLEACHING FREE FROM CHLORINE: Until recently it seemed to be sheer utopic to combine fashion with ecological commitment. In a scientific study. CONTROL IN WET PROCESSING OF DENIMS: . 227 . Normally silicones used in exhaust process are amino silicones. The precautions during the storing are also very important. In August 1992. bleach solution is largely used to prepare various shades.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. these types of garments would undergo washings processes that render them with such properties. Denims have toughness that can be lowered by using silicone softeners along with cationic softeners. These compounds also impart yellowness to the denim garments. Hence most of them are not using silicones in denim finishing. 11. a proper rinse and antichlor treatment with sodium bisulfite or peroxide up to satisfactory level is a must. After bleaching operation. including nonfunctional PDMS polymers and blocked amine structures. polyethylene emulsions as well as mainly non-ionic and cationic fatty acid derivatives are now in use. which are being used during finishing of denims. But when only silicone oil was applied through solvent medium on denim fabric. However. by this. This technique is not only environmentally favorite but also results in significantly well-tolerable Denim which is an additional benefit for the customer. Thanks to comprehensive research and numerous test washings EDWIN developed a bleaching technique which allows for achieving the popular "bleached look" without having to add environmentally damaging additives. It was observed that all the silicones were bad. yellowing can be avoided to a great extent.e. EDWIN presented the first jeans bleached without chlorine at the event of Inter-Jeans to the expert dealers. this new type of bleaching also provides for another benefit: the desired bleached color becomes more effective and is.1 DIFFERENT WORKING TECHNIQUES: Fashion Trends now a day demand that the majority of casual wear should give a soft and comfortable feel and are laced look. For safety precautions. known from the food industry. People in washing believe that silicone containing products accelerate the degradation of indigo by harmful gases. In further tests. This "sugar bleaching" produces no residues which could deposit in the jeans. viscosity.As discussed earlier. various silicone softeners with varying amine number. it was observed that silicone oil no way was responsible for fading. their nature should be checked. cheap cationic softeners available in the market do have high acid value i. anti ozone softeners are available in market. Instead of these. etc. While selecting the softeners. GARMENTS WET PROCESSING: Number of washing techniques is commonly used to make a suitable finish of a garment in which garments are passed through water holding combination of temperature. Those softeners during drying impart yellowness to garments. The washing technique has in fact developed and expanded to become a finishing process of its own. It is very essential that the bleach liquor should get neutralized properly. 11. LAHORE 10. Most of the times. were applied on denim fabric and tested for yellowing and fading. The traces of bleach present in finished fabric can cause yellowing or patchy fading of denim garments. and dyes. is used for bleaching and this without adding any chlorine. The softeners. As result. They can be used but only after testing their efficiency by ozone exposure test. it was revealed that it is the emulsifier system. If the processor takes proper precautions in processing denim garments and selecting the finishing agents. chemicals. stones. less fading. also play an important role in yellowing.

When it is evenly mixed in the water. we should simply use no softener to wash to see if problem is still there. we may find that after washing is done. color staining. The softener is to make the fiber soft. If too much of it is used. we have hot water (of about 40 degree centigrade) ready in the tumble washer and then infuse a chemical called "color fixing agent" (available in solution or powder form) of about 1 % into it. It began with denim jeans for the following reasons: 1. As garment merchandisers. Hot water. 3. 2. However. there is a method we can try: First. and tumble drying will make the fabric fluffier. Softener can make the fiber soft. Before garment pre washing was done on jeans.. we should add some sodium to wash. and Crocking (rubbing). we can be convinced that the fabric used in the garment is of poor color quality. not just a little bit. we should adjust the water temperature. we should know how to solve the following problems if they emerge during the process of washing: If the garments are of solid piece dye shell fabric and white color cotton pocketing and lining such as a twill pant. the color from the shell has come on to the lining.3 NORMAL WASH: Wash in hot water added with detergent and softener. we still see the problem or the improvement achieved is very small. enough to look offensive. too long and too big to wear. 11. Or. If we see a clue like that we should try to wash the garment with less softener and see if the staining problem is solved or alleviated. the amount of detergent or sodium and the length of time to wash. LAHORE 11. the consumers do not have to worry about the fit after they wash them as pre washing has taken away almost all the shrinkage and made the jeans stable. it will not pass the lab test of the prevailing standards on possibly the aspects of color change.2 GARMENT WASH: Since 1978. After pre washing the denim color looks livelier particularly with the pronounced washed look left on the double-needled seams. it flourished into many fashions to achieve different results. the fabric will feel a little waxy. This phenomenon may have been caused by the too much softener used in washing and the fabric is of inferior color quality. If we wish to have a more pronounced "washed look” on the garment. consumers had to wash them at home before wearing them because before washing they were too stiff. detergent or sodium will dissolve the starch which is what holds the fibers in the yarn together to make the fabric stiff. (The garment manufacturers used to make them bigger and longer to allow for shrinkage). but it also breaks the dye loose to stain. However. not only the garment has a staining problem on the pocketing and lining. although we may not have to know the exact formulas used on each kind of wash. not wet) into the tumble washer and let them soak in the solution for 5 minutes 228 . In view of the above merits. After pre washing. we should know enough about each wash in order to better control the quality and avoid problems which may emerge when the garment is washed. Depending on what kind of fabric the garment is made of and how much of a washed look we need. or a jacket. If this is the case. In order to salvage this merchandise of such low quality dye. garment pre washing once started received great acceptance in the market. Not only became popular. Rinse in plain water and dry in tumble dryer until it is 100% dry. we should not see the problem of staining any more. if by using less softener.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. garment pre washing has become more and more popular. we put the garment (dry.

5 BLEACH WASH: Bleach wash is simple.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. It is important that we only rotate the tumble washer a couple of cycles and stop. The color quality has been basically improved. In 46 tones. big stones may damage the garment if made of light weight fabric or fabric of weak construction. such as denim. Size of the stones used. To achieve good results. Sometimes.4 PIGMENT WASH: "Pigment Wash" is actually same as Normal Garment Wash but the washing mill may charge a little more because of the following: When the garment is made of solid color pigment dye. the above process does not have to be done in a tumble washer. so that the color would fade more evenly. Big stones will give more abrasion. above. When the garments are dried. timing is very important because any garment over bleached cannot be corrected or reversed back to a "less bleached condition".6 STONE WASH WITH OR WITHOUT BLEACH: The idea of washing with porous volcanic stones is to give the garment a strong and rough wash to achieve the pronounced washed effect through abrasion on exposed areas. LAHORE and then lift them up for drying. we just have to add bleach to the water in the tumble for washing. 2. In order to achieve the result as described. the color quality should be substantially improved. the color from the shell fabric should not stain. we normally would want the solid color (or colors if the garment is a combination of 2 or 3 colors) to fade evenly in washing. and mild abrasion. we add bleach to the wash to make the color fade more seriously. they can be washed in the normal way to give it the washed look we need. the color of the garment fades evenly. 229 . 11. it is important that the washing mill observes following: 1. small stones.5 to 3:1. As a result. it is all we need to do. The bleach works in washing as an Indigo reducer. When the garments are cured as above. Try to move the garments inside the tumble washer as little as possible. 3. 2. This time. we should make the washing mill check the following: 1. bleaching is used 3 to 6 litters and in 48 tones 7 to 15 litters. As long as we can arrange to soak the dry garment in the hot water mixed with color fixing agent as described above. from navy to light blue. Stone ratio: (Weight of stones relative to the weight of garment) Wash with more stones will create the more apparent blue/white contrast on the fabric surface. leaving a prominent washed effect on the garment. If temperature is given up to 50 c then its strength will be loosened. Actually. the dye will come off the fabric to stain. 11. After bleaching. Try to load the tumble with 60% or 70% of its capacity so that the garments inside the tumble can turn "comfortably". naturalize the bleach with sodium Meta Bisulphate. However. Temperature in stretch fabric is given 50 c and in Non stretch fabric temperature is 55 to 70 c. Do not stuff the tumble with too much. If we cannot get the effect we need. If we rotate the tumble washer too much. 11. garment may turn out to be streaky after wash due to hard rubbing on the same spot inside tumble for lack of random movement. The ratio of stone to fabric weight varies from 0. To use hot water to wash (normal wash needs about 40 degree centigrade to wash) pigment wash needs 50 to 60 degree centigrade to wash. it may pass the lab test on the above mentioned standards. If we load the tumble full. a lot of experience and skills are needed. Bleaching process only used in 46 tones for medium stone wash and 48 tones for light wash and in some tint wash orders. just let them soak and absorb the chemical. However.

Other effects if neutralization is not done include paleness of shade. The machine extracts the moisture from the garment leaving it in a semi-wet condition. is harmful to human skin and causes irritation when the garment is worn. Softening: Process is applied to get a soft hand feel on the garment. Sometimes. The temperature in the dryer varies according to the strength and composition of the fabric. Since there is variation in shade within rolls. Therefore instead of using more bleach. Enzymes are applied during the stoning process which speed up the operation and provide surface contrast since the enzymes attack the yarn making it more vulnerable. Only those stones that float on water are used. If the quantity exceeds the requirement. Amount of bleach: If we use more bleach. Size of the stone varies according to fabric strength with diameters ranging from 2-5 cm. if left on the garment. the process can not be reverted. Due to electricity fluctuations. 7.k. The wearing of the pumice stone mixed with water causes mud to deposit in the pockets of the garment. Neutralizing: After getting required shade form bleaching. The stone used in the process is known as pumice which is the solidified form of lava from volcanoes however. Bleach. After the sizing agent has been removed (using the appropriate desizer). the garments are taken out of the machine and put into the hydro machine. The application of stones during this process helps give the grainy effect to the garment. this is what the washing mill may want to do. 3. garment has to be neutralized to remove bleach smell and to lessen its strength. we can shorten the washing time. Type and quantity applied varies according to requirements of customer. loss in fabric strength and uneven resulting dye. 230 .a. Stoning: Stoning is done to give the salt and pepper effect to the garment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The quantity of bleach to be applied varies according to the extent of fading required. Tumble Drying: The final process in the chain is the complete drying of the garment in drying machines. 2. bleach) is applied during this process to fade the color of the garment in order to get the desired effect. Desizing: This process is applied to get the sizing off the yarn (sizing is applied to the yarns during the weaving process. LAHORE 3. Soaping helps remove mud from the garment. the machine may stop. Hydro Spinning: After the washing process is complete. Soaping: The garment is rinsed with soap to remove any stains which might have stuck to the garment during the production process. However. the fabric is left with a softer feel since the stiffness caused by the sizing agent has been removed. 6. if we do that we will lose the desired blue/white contrast on the surface. The procedure of Stone wash is divided into 8 parts as briefly explained below: 1. Excessive bleaching is usually caused by operator negligence and seldom by machine fault. leaving garments inside exposed to the bleach for a long time causing them to fade more. 5. they are manufactured as well. 8. Bleaching: Sodium hypo chloride (a. the garments are washed in batches with the same base shade. 4. we shou1d use the normal amount of stone and lengthen the washing time. The garment will look “flat”. Washing time 4.

After these processes are complete. On the other hand. Enzyme and stone 3. 2. and its shade fades away more than the requirement. 3. 3. Now we put them in another tumble washer with the potassium permanganate treated stones. Brightening (if required) 8. Softening 7. Neutralizing 5. Softening 5. we have chemically treated stones ready for use. Bleaching 4. 9. Then we dry stones (by air and in the sun). it is important that we do not infuse any water into the tumble washer. the stones will hit the garment due to the rotation of the machine. If the garment is washed excessively with stones. Enzyme and stone 3. 7. the stones in machine have to be removed manually by operator. De sizing 2. the garments should be taken out of the tumble and transferred to another tumble filled with water for washing and rinsing. 12. Soaping 6. After the above process. The stones had carried the chemical to bleach the exposed parts of the 231 . the garment will become BII. but rotate the washer to "wash" the garment without water. 5. However. the prominent add wash effect will emerge. Now. and let the stones which are porous volcanic stones like a sponge. COMMON TYPES OF STONE WASH INCLUDE: Dark Stone Wash (44 tons) 1. 6. LAHORE 12. 8.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. First. When rinsing is done thoroughly. pick up the chemical until they are saturated. The only way is to include the garment in an order (with the same specifications) that required a lighter shade. 2. Market. 7. Hydro drying 6. The stones will hit the parts of the garments where they are exposed the most. Anyway the following is a simple description of the process for our understanding. Tumble drying 1. we prepare the denim garments ready for acid wash by first destarching them in water and then get them out from the tumble washer for spin drying. we soak the stones in potassium permanganate solution. 4.1 ACID WASH: Acid wash is a kind of stone wash.S. De sizing 2. are still untouched by stones. 6. After about 30 minutes all the exposed parts of the garments will have been abraded by the stones soaked with chemical. Soaping 4. but it consists of two steps. there is no process of getting it back. Medium Stone Wash (46 tons) De sizing Enzyme and stone Bleaching Neutralizing Soaping Softening Brightening (if required) Hydro drying Tumble drying Stone Wash for black denim Stoning (use enzyme if require Draining Rinse with water Soaping Softening Hydro drying Tumble drying Tumble drying Light Stone/Bleach Wash (48 tons) 1. inside the tumble. Otherwise. 9. Hydro drying 1. 4. the hidden areas such as underneath the pocket flaps and inside of the zipper fly. (This process of washing has been patented) Those who do not have the written consent from the company who owns the patent right should not use this process on garments for export to the U. the first step is to "wash" without water and the second step with water. 5.

During this process.4 WHITENING: Unless the garment we wash is all colored namely no white color at all in the fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. should look at the reverse side of the fabric to 232 . The way to do it is. we just do the opposite of the above. about 30% of the printing will be washed away together with the foreign materials-leaving about 70% of the printing on the fabric making the design . In order to have caustic wash effect. fine particles of cotton seeds and all foreign particles are cleaned up leaving only the pure cotton fiber in the fabric for printing. However. "Of course. When printing is done on this well cleaned fabric. Or. we may . we do not clean the raw fabric with caustic treatment. For caustic wash. before printing. the over-dyed color may transfer. we can use direct dye or reactive dye same as dyeing fabrics or yarn. However. first we wash the denim garments with stone so that the double needle seams. it will look yellowish grey on the surface which is not the desired color shade. Then we should put dye into the tumble to dye the garments into the color we want. the printing will stay clearly and securely on the fabric.g.2 ENZYME WASH: Enzyme is a kind of live cell. when we do the above process. a coat of new color will come on to the garment particularly where it has been washed down to a light shade . When we wash denim. the lining or pocketing will pick up the color too. This is especially important for denim where we have colored warp threads. 12. when garments are made of this fabric and ready for wash.when it is washed together with some other garments of different colors by consumers. we will wash them with caustic and hot water. we.of the printing done on the surface may eventually go away. leaving the unexposed parts or less exposed parts of the garment pretty much untouched. it is still a better choice to use reactive dye. when we want to do caustic wash on garments. sanded or "peached" effect. if we choose to use direct dye for cost saving. Normally.to create a different look. pocket flaps and those areas exposed the most get washed dawn to light blue color or white. At this time. there is still some risk . 12.add some "whitening agent". We just apply the printing on the raw fabric so that about 30%. with better and nicer blue and white contrast on the surface. Finally. we should use whitening powder in the rinsing process to make the white part whiter. in the water to make the white color in the blue garment whiter to emphasize the acid wash effect. the printing must be pigment print with binder and baking treatment to an extent that color stay on the fabric only fairly securely to coincide with caustic wash. We use it to wash because we want it to break some of the fibers on the surface in order to give the fabric a soft. 12. If we. before we do printing on cotton fabrics. to give the denim a stone wash look. it is acceptable because the whole garment is of one color and staining within the garment is not a problem. "stone wash and bleach" we must use whitening powder in the final rinsing to make the white threads in the fabric whiter to create a stronger contrast between blue and white on the surface of the fabric. However. In this process. if the garment is made of indigo denim. all the dirt. In over-dyeing.3 GARMENT WASH AND OVER-DYE: This is being done mostly on denim garments to give them another look. or strong cleaning power especially for grease. and white weft threads. enzyme is rather expensive and therefore enzyme wash is more expensive than stone wash. enzyme can replace stone. grease. we must treat the raw fabrics in boiling water with "Caustic" which is a chemical with corrosive nature. otherwise. we must use "color fixing agent" after dyeing to make the color more stable.or stripe nice and soft. Therefore. during rinsing. In such case. This is the look we call "caustic wash". Normal1y. LAHORE garment to almost white. we must start from printing of fabrics. use e.

2. If moustaches have to be sprayed. then the dye and de sizing agent would have been removed already and the blasting would cause damage to the fabric yarn rather than fading its color. SPRAY SAND BLASTING: Methods used for this process are: 13. Sand blasting is usually the first procedure in the washing stage (even before de sizing). The advantage of this method is that plastic tooth wired brush does not damage the stitching of the garments. 13. The garment is placed on a balloon and sprayed from a distance with KMnO4. is done after sand blasting. The daily production of KMnO4 spraying varies from 300-350 garments. Any other operation to be performed. when we wash a garment which has some white portions in the fabric.1 METHODS OF SAND BLASTING 1. Laser light is applied on the desired please. In fact. We can apply this running brush on required places. SAND BRUSHING: It is done with the help of plastic wired brush which run through power brush motor. so only few units use this technology. we used sand with a pressure for this purpose and get used look effect in different styles according to the customer requirements. Masks have to be worn by the operators who spray the garments since inhaling of KMnO4 is injurious to health. This results in the fading of dye at the points of impact and is used to give garments a used look. SAND BLASTING: In this process we give used look to the garments. LASER SAND BLASTING: It is a latest technology which is mainly used to produce whiskers on the garment. The garment are put on the marble table and a person holding the pressure gun which suck the sand from the sand bag applied on the required area of the garment to get the used look effect. the production drops down to 100-150 garments per day since these have to be done with hand and the overall process is lengthy. The process is usually applied to the garment after it has been washed. After that garments are cured on heat belt machine for the fixation of the colors applied. 13. full length use look. The production quantity ranges from 2000-3000 garments per day.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. after wash as a final touch. the garment is placed on an inflated balloon and sprayed with KMnO4. 13. we must use whitening powder to rinse to make the white parts or white threads in the fabric whiter to achieve the fresh look needed. during washing. If sand blasting is done after washing. Different styles of sand blasting include whiskers / mustaches effect. 233 . This technique is used on after wash garments. 3. Sand blasting is a high risk procedure in which sand is sprayed onto the garment under great pressure. and apple style use look effect etc. Sand brushing is applied on before wash garments. The original color of KMnO4 is pink/violet but it gives a mixed effect depending on the original color of the garment. LAHORE determine if enough whitening powder has been added to the rinse. 4. Special care has to be taken during the process since the garment can easily be damaged under the high pressure of the blasting machine. The laser machine is very expensive.3 COLOUR SPRAY TECHNIQUE: Pigment colors are sprayed on the desire areas of the garments with the help of paint spray gun machine. SAND BLASTING WITH GUN: In this method special type of sand is forcedly sprayed on the garment with the help of compressor gun. this method can be applied in both before and after wash.2 SPRAYING: During this process. The pattern of spraying is according to customer requirements.

indigo spots. bleaching spots. glycolated or methylated DMDHEU. Even today. However. Through the reaction (>NCH2=>NH+HCHO) free formaldehyde is released. dull mustaches effect. In this method it is difficult to get sand blast effect on stitching areas. medium and heavy harsh. 13. used look out position than original standard. "Wrinkle-Resistant".7 FACTORS WHICH EFFECT WASHING PROCESS: During the washing process the faults that can affect the quality of garments are shade variation problem. Unlike dyeing. and yet another to fix a quaternary group through an epoxidation reaction to the cellulose 234 . use of urea in the pad-bath or application through a spray. A number of approaches have been developed to limit the amount of formaldehyde released.4 INDIGO REDUCER TECHNIQUE: Indigo reducer is a chemical. silicon spots. tinting and sand blasting. In this process we use KMNO 4 (Chemical) solution and sprayed it on garments for used look effects in different styles. "Wash and Wear". the more the cost would be of the garment with that particular operation. add more value to the garment than simple dyeing. dye sports & un-even spots. Inadequate curing also leads to the liberation of formaldehyde at high temperature. the addition of formaldehyde scavengers like carbohydrazide to the bath. With magnesium chloride as the acid catalyst to initiate a reaction. and spray out position than sample. such as after washing of cured fabrics. modification of DMDHEU to etherized. The more the value added after an operation.6 RISK FACTORS VS. Sand papers are available in different surface light. 13. The structure and reaction of DMDHEU is shown in the figure 1. although high risk procedures.) is obtained by cross-linking cotton. spraying and tinting can not be stripped off the garment hence extreme care has to be taken while performing these operations. BTCA is expensive to use and citric acid causes yellowing. these give cotton some elastic and resiliency properties. typically BTCA (1.5% KMNO 4 solution to get light effect and 3% solution for heavy effect. Alternatives to DMDHEU are also being researched. This process of sand blasting is applied on before wash. tinting and sand blasting are high risk operations since once done. it forms cross links in the amorphous regions of the fiber.VALUE ADDITION IN EACH PROCESS: Spraying. 4 butane tetra carboxylic acid) or citric acid. WRINKLE FREE FINISH ON GARMENTS: The wrinkle free finish (also known as "Easy Care". which can be used according to the fabric thickness and a required level of sand blasting. We use 1. LAHORE 13. Permanent press finishes function by forming cross-links between adjacent cellulose polymer chains. cracks. blast staining. 2. This is why garments with these processes have a higher price than garments with uniform dyeing. 3. Another approach has been to use polymers of maleic acid to form ester cross-links. Normally this is applied on after wash garments. Excessive sand blasting can wear the dye off the garment to an extent from where it can not be retrieved. damaging during washing / sand blast. 14. "No-Iron" etc.5 MANUAL SAND BLASTING WITH SAND PAPER: Small wood block like “D” shape is covered with the sand paper and a person holding this block rub it on the required position.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Such cross-linked cotton can recover from deformation stresses and thus wrinkles will not form. Kmno4 spots. Spraying. Also there is danger of damaging the garment since the sand is blasted under pressure and long exposure can cause holes in the garment. they cannot be reserved. The force during rubbing is applied according to the standard given by the customer for sand blast depth level. Main alternatives are polycarboxlicacids. light & uneven & heavy kmno4 or sand blast effect. washing line streaks. DMDHEU is the main cross-linking agent. 13. “Durable Press".

A post-cure process gives an option to produce a garment with smooth drying and wrinkle resistant properties along with sharp creases that are durable for the life of the garment. extracted to about 65% wet pick-up and then tumble dried to 8-10% moisture content. desired wet pick-up. swelling of the fiber to a circular cross section. dried and cured in flat open-width form.1 TECHNOLOGY FOR ACHIEVING "WRINKLE FREE" FINISH: The major application methods currently used are based on the following processes: precure. They can also reduce free formaldehyde release by replacing part of the resin. A typical formula for a pre-cure or post-cure finish is as follows: DMDHEU (45%). A high density polyethylene restores some of the lost tear strength and abrasion resistance by providing lubrication. garment-dip. and siltouch RS by Yorkshire Chemicals. The other three options are for finishing the fabric once it has been constructed into a garment. smoothing of the surface. In pre-cure. spray (metered) application. garment constructed and creases pressed into the garment. garment manufacturers and retailers. In this process the resin is padded onto the fabric and dried at low temperature (as in the Koretron process). A high temperature cure in this configuration is given to cross-link the resin. the resin is applied by spraying it onto the garment during tumbling in an enclosed rotational device. and the need for a direct interface between mills. it is the modified DMDHEU (glycolated or methylated) that is most used today. Such fabrics find application in womenswear market for some skirts. styles and fabric weight. The fabric is then cut. In an improvement to this process. This process.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and Vapor phase. In the spray method. Citric acid or aluminum chloride can also be blended to increase catalysis when curing times are short. good dimensional stability (smooth drying properties) and excellent soft handle with good sewability. Several types are available today: Pretavyl VP 1601A by Boehme Filatex Inc. a company in Japan gave a post-cure finish to fabric that was mercerized in liquid ammonia. improved absorbency. the fabric is treated with resin. However. 2-20% of weight of DMDHEU but not less than 1% owb. It also has a synergetic effect with silicone or fatty-based softeners to produce a very pleasing hand. wetting agent. so cross linking can take place throughout the fiber cross-section. it will not be possible to introduce sharp durable creases as the cross-linked fabric will resist any attempt to press in creases. reactive polysiloxanies with silanol functional end-groups ( Fig 2 ) act as elastomeric finishes imparting higher crease resistance. LAHORE chain to form cross-links. strength and luster. Research on all these alternatives continues. In the garment-dip method. 0. spray rate 235 . post-cure. then impregnated with a resin formula similar to that used in postcure process. 2-8% owb. has not been too successful with garment manufacturers owing to obvious limitations of colors. and a very soft touch. Among the silicone softeners. This fabric can be used to produce garments that resist wrinkling during wearing and have a smooth appearance after washing and tumble drying. Magnesium based catalysts are the most popular in use today. The wetting agent allows the fiber to be internally penetrated. Liquid ammonia mercerization is a treatment given at ultra-low temperatures and it causes deconvolution of cotton..1% owb. Commercially. The product is pre-buffered to prevent premature curing and also pre-blended with a catalyst. a critical factor that is determined using a moisture meter. though giving excellent results. casual trousers and shirting where smoothness is the main criterion. garments are constructed from nonresinated fabric. and softeners. 14. giving exceptional easy care properties together with the soft handle of non-cross-linked cotton. A microprocessor is used to meter the exact amount of chemicals and to control the rotation time.

precautions taken in fabric selection: (a) The base fabric must have sufficient strength to withstand 40-60% loss in tensile and tear strength and still maintain sufficient strength to provide a garment of acceptable wear life and durability. LAHORE and process time. are strictly avoided. potentially resulting in uneven treatments and higher strength losses. The process is being used today by manufacturers of shirts and other light weight garments. The process is increasingly used for both menswear and womenswear with the market moving towards washed-down looks and softer handles.0 with an alkalinity of less than 0. garments rejects due to low strength may prove to be more expensive than fabric rejects. In the vapor phase process. it is reportedly difficult to control.2 CHOOSING FABRIC FOR "WRINKLE FREE" FINISH: The garment finisher usually does not manufacture his own fabric and he may be faced with unacceptable losses in tensile strength. Gaseous formaldehyde is then applied together with an acid catalyst in a special chamber oven. Surface adhering resins do not serve any useful purpose and are inefficient and wasteful. (d) Residual extractable on the fabric (like starch from size) can react with resin and lower its effectiveness. (b) It must also have excellent absorbency to allow resin to penetrate into the very interior of the fibers and form cross links. However. the fabric is dyed and finished at the mill. a high degree of size removal is thus essential. (e) Fabric pH should be in between 6. The formaldehyde itself forms the cross-links (conventional resin will always have unreacted N-methylol groups that can hydrolyze to release formaldehyde).5 to 7. tear strength and abrasion resistance in the fabric when cross-linking. Because of the added value. The garments are later steamed to induce cross-linking. The garments are then pressed and cured as in the case of the postcure process. which are known to generate acid upon storage. Excess moisture is then exhausted.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. For producing an acceptable wrinkle-free garment. (c) If the fabric is dyed the dye must be fast to acid catalysis and high temperatures. cut sewn and pressed into garment form before cross linking.05% 236 . Sulphur dyes. 14.

237 . and utility) must be present in order to win consumer approval for a sale will.1 DEFINITION OF A PATTERN: A Representation of the shapes and sizes of all the component parts to be cut from material necessary to make a garment or other made-up product. The pattern cutter should always be aware of the nature of what is worn and how. For example. The designer may create by making a sketch which is forwarded to the draper or patternmaker for execution. including seam and hem allowances. Sloped shoulders. Drafting the pattern on a paper with either direct measurements for the pattern or developing the pattern draft with the aid of a sloper. is practically infinite. a fact which often influences their selection of measurements. Draping the garment on a form or model with muslin or the fabric used to make the garments. of course vary with the product. Originally.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. if at all. plastic etc) or (2) which are produced largely with sewing machines. LAHORE PATTERN DRAFTING 1. 3. this encompassed any industry producing products. The production pattern is traced from the muslin or fabric cuts. The pattern cutter has to be aware of this fact and continually be changing the basic blocks from which he or she works. Pattern may be constructed from card or other sheet material. 2. Apparel patterns are made with one of two basic methods. 1. from the shapeless. The fundamentals of Apparel Production: Apparel and allied products are commonly referred to in many circles as the “Soft-goods” industries or “NeedleTrade” industries.2 DESIGNING PATTERNS: As fashions change the ideal body size and shape also changes. These individual components are referred to as “Pattern Pieces”. the style or emotional appeal may be evaluated as zero because the range of styles that would satisfy the individual. 1. flat chested “flapper” of the twenties to the small waisted. The designer creates specific products in accordance with the trend. in many types of work clothes. The stylist set a trend. DESIGNER. that one are more of these values have very minute values which may be evaluated as zero for practical purpose. although one may function in all three capacities. The pattern maker drafts the pattern necessary to produce the creation. such as leather. and are used primarily as means of controlling the cutting of fabric. Different clothing firms aim at particular markets. STYLIST. The degree to which each of three factors of apparel (quality. We have only to look back a few decades to see a variety of fashionable silhouettes. The British Standards Institute continually releases tables of measurements in order to reflect the size and proportion of the women of the day. does it affect the outline of the body to be fitted. 1. durability. Some designers drape or draft the final production pattern directly without making a sketch. nipped in waistlines. raised or lowered hemlines and definite color combinations are examples of style trends. shapely new look of the late forties. style. It is true in some cases. when the required durability and utility factors are present. AND PATTERN MAKER: These three terms are not synonymous. or may be held as digital information in a computer database. (1) Which are made from fabric (or similar raw materials.

within limits. Sketchy lines have no place in pattern cutting. The distance on a garment from the crutch to the centre back of the waistline. Group of closely sewn stitches (back and forth from side to side a zigzag) that is used to tack a belt loop or similar item in place. The opening follows a line passing over the shoulder joint. Arm bent at 90° and the clenched fist placed on the hip. it involves couple of extra stitches back and forth. LAHORE 1. for instance a flared panel in a skirt would have the grain line marked through its centre as in a sleeve. i. blind stitching is used. Armscye is a tailor’s term for armhole. front. many use a satin stitch (tight zigzag) by hand. Strap across back of a garment at waist usually fitted with a buckle. to the wearer’s requirements. A method of joining facings and/or linings to the outer fabric of a garment by sewing them together face to face in the form of a bag and then turning the garment out to the Right side. the distance from the shoulder joint along the outside of the arm over the elbow to the greatest prominence on the outside of the wrist.and back-break points and armpit area. Reverse sewing at the beginning and end of a seam for reinforcement. Sharpened with a pencil sharpener. clear lines are essential. Marks placed on seams. and used to adjust fit of garment. When measuring curves use the tape measure on its edge. IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES IN PATTERN DRAFTING AND SEWING ALLOWANCE ANKLE GIRTH: APPLIQUÉ The extra dimensions allowed over body measurements. Circumference of the leg over the greatest prominence of ankle. the distance from back break point to back break point. The armhole is not necessarily the same shape or location as the armscye. Calico is available in varying weights and qualities. The hollow under the junction of the arm and the shoulder. Used at beginning and end of a machine sewn seam to anchor the seam in place. The two sides of a dart must always be identical in length. corduroy. retaining balance and helping the machinist match the pieces in construction. The opening in a garment for attachment of a fitted sleeve. Sewing a piece of fabric atop another after folding under a small bit of fabric to create a clean edge.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.3 Points to Note When Pattern Drafting 1. so whenever possible use the type most similar to fabric chosen for your garment to test your pattern 7. In body measurements. 2. and these can only be achieved with the use of hard pencils. Grain lines are marked parallel to the CF or CB except in a few cases. 3. the back-break point and to the starting point.e. Notches are always marked at 90o to seam line on which they are placed 4. The body measurement with the arm hanging down. or other method of adjustable fastening. Accurate. Area of a garment through which the arm passes or into which a sleeve is fitted. mark grain line in normal position but have the “arrows” facing in one direction – usually upwards. When done by machine. 6. Also called ‘Cross back width’. ARM LENGTH: ARMHOLE: ARMPIT: ARMSCYE CIRCUMFERENCE: ARMSCYE: BACK RISE BACK STITCH BACK STRAP BACK TACKING BACK WIDTH: BAGGING OUT BALANCE NOTCHES BAR TACK 238 . the distance from the shoulder joint through front-break point. This is not a tasting stitch and should be repeated several times on the machine to make a very short run of satin stitching. If the pattern is to be used on a fabric with a nap. 5. the armpit.

LAHORE BELT LOOP BIAS BIGHT BINDING POINT BLIND HEM BLIND STITCH BLOCK PATTERN BOBBIN BODICE BODY DIMENSIONS: BOTTOM ASSEMBLY BOUND SEAM-FINISH BOX PLEATS BRIDLE BUCKRAM BUNDLE BUNDLE STITCH BUST BUST GIRTH: BUST POINT TO BUST POINT: BUTT SEAM BUTTON A loop of fabric or thread which is sewn into the waist of the garment. occasionally. waistbands and bookbinding. A special form of thread interlacing used. In body measurements. Series of parallel stitches on a fabric and tied together at centre. to join the layers of compound cloths (see Double cloth) or to consolidate single structures (see Hopsack). seam allowances may be placed together and treated as one. In buttons. Usually each seam allowance is encased individually. 1. in which another fabric encloses the raw edges of one or more seam allowances. This is the stretches part on the fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A hemming method in which the stitches are placed between the hem allowance and the outside of the garment. A shaped form (male or female) on which clothes are worked on. A seam. disc or similar object which when forced through a narrow opening or buttonhole. In sewing machine. The distance from the edge of a fabric or fabrics that the needle-thread penetrates in an Overedge seam construction. 2. A bound seam-finish is made by (1) encasing the raw seam allowance edge(s) in double-fold bias tape. is 239 . (2) machine stitching through all thick-nesses close to the edge of the binding or the raw edge of the fabric. If tape or binding are used. Used for linings. The size of the bundle is limited by weight and the number of pieces required for each garment. The degree of fit is adjustable by means of a belt drawn through the loop or loops. ‘Full-bust girth’. Buttons may be attached a garment also as a means of ornamentation. In zippers. after attaching to the substrate. Also called Bite. which determine whether the slide fastener will be non-separable or separable. Alternatively fabric consisting of two stiffened fabrics bonded together. generally linen or cotton. made by impregnating a plain-weave open-set fabric with fillers and stiffeners. Also called ‘’Bust’. the circumference of the body over the fullest part of the breasts and parallel to the floor. that portion which will be exposed.g. millinery. which does not go right through the fabric. e. seam binding or light weight fabric such as tricot or net. which is sewn with the two fabric edges abutting. A number of similar garment parts temporarily kept together for convenience of handling. A form of enclosed pleat achieved by double folding the fabric alternately in opposite directions. fastens one part of a garment or other flexible substrate to another. on to which is wound the under-thread of a lockstitch machine. such as in necklines. upon which design details can be superimposed. A small tube. In body measurements. the distance across the front from the apex of one breast to the apex of the other. the wider side of the tape or binding is underneath. the fabrics being not necessarily of identical construction. A stiff fabric. A collection of sufficient pieces of cut fabric to make up several garments. The spool is held in the spool case underneath the throat plate. A knob. Runs diagonally to the straight grain of the fabric. inspected or displayed. A narrow strip of fabric which is attached to the interlining along the roll of the lapel to hold and control it. the components of the lowermost part of the slide fastener. Section of a woman’s garment covering body from neck to waist A body measurement which can be used to build a sizing system or to select an appropriately sized garment. Also called Stitch. A finish for the raw edges of a plain seam. A stitch (either by hand or machine). with or without flanges. A template of the basic pattern shape.

and (2) stitching close to the folded edge. A finish for the raw edges of the seam allowances of a plain seam. which completes the upper part of a garment around the neck. CLEAN-FINISH SEAMFINISH CMT COLLAR COVERING STITCHES CREASE 240 . the distance from the cervical to the shoulder joints. lace or other material. the main performance characteristics which are tested on buttons are: Resistance to washing liquor. A label that gives directions for refurbishing a product Cross-stitch made backwards. to place a row of stitching 3 to 6 mm from the raw edge to serve as a guide for turning. Also called Turned and stitched seam-finish. the vertical distance from the neck baseline at the centre front to the waist level. Generally. Abbreviation of ‘cut. the distance from the cervical around the base of the neck and down to the bust point. Resistance to dry-cleaning solvents.e. dress. Resistance to ironing. The vertical distance along the spine from the cervical to waist. Resistance to chlorine water. A fold added deliberately to a fabric by pressing. Impact test Distance from finished edge of garment to centre of the button A Hole through which a button is passed to hold garment in position. Usually the main performance characteristic which is tested on plastic sew-through buttons is its impact resistance. In body measurements. along the outside of the arm. In body measurements. used if cloth is too bulky to turned down twice. under the arms and across the upper chest.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A clean-finish seam-finish is made by (1) turning under the raw edge of a plain seam allowance approximately 3 to 6 mm. Band of lining. the circumference of the body over the shoulder blades. shirt. In body measurements. In body measurements. the measurement from front to back of the chain Also called ‘High-bust girth’. in which the raw seam allowance is folded under and edge stitched. parallel to the floor. used for covering seams. In zippers. A series of directions describing which care practices should refurbish a product without adverse effects and warnings for those care practices expected to have a harmful effect. upright or turned over on a coat. the resistance to fracture under sudden application of external force The performance specification requirements for buttons are usually guided by the internationally approved ‘standard performance specifications’. Resistance to sea water. Term used to describe the stages whereby a computer is employed to assist in the designing of a product. Acronym for ‘Computer aided design’. etc. LAHORE BUTTON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS BUTTON STAND BUTTONHOLE BUTTONHOLE STAND CAD / CAM / CIM CALF GIRTH: CARE INSTRUCTIONS CARE LABELS CATCH-STITCH CENTRE BACK WAIST LENGTH: CENTRE FRONT WAIST LENGTH: CERVICAL TO BUST POINT: CERVICAL TO WRIST: CHAIN STITCH CHAIN THICKNESS CHEST GIRTH: called ‘face’. It may be helpful on curved areas or some fabrics. In garment industry. the practice of a contractor being supplied with materials and designs in order to produce garments for a principal Neck band. In body measurements. See Single thread chain stitch and Two-thread chain stitch. with the arm bent. i. Stitches formed by interloping one or more threads. Resistance to water. Types of chain stitch produced on twin or multi-needle machines. the maximum circumference around the leg between the knee and ankle. There are basically two types of buttons: Sew-through flange button: These buttons have two or more holes in its flange for passage of a needle and thread so that the button can be attached to a garment or other flexible substrate. The distance from the finished edge of the garment to the eye of the buttonhole. to give desirable appearance features such as fashion rightness. usefulness and minimum care. make and trim’. over the elbow to the greater prominence on the outside of the wrist.

Fabric sewn on the raw edge of a garment piece that is turned under and serves as a finish for the edge as well. LAHORE CREASE MARK CROSS POCKET CROSS STITCH CROSS-CHEST WIDTH: CROTCH: CUFF CUP SEAMING DART EASE EASE ALLOWANCE EDGE STITCH ELBOW GIRTH: FACING FINISH EDGE FLAT FELLED SEAM GARMENT GARMENT TWIST GATHERING GRAIN Also called Wrinkle mark. Fabric defect. A visible deformation left in a fabric after a crease has been incompletely removed during fabric processing. Sweaters. Blouses. intended to cover portions of the human body. It will appear to taper at both ends. the taping or otherwise stabilizing of certain garment seams is necessary to prevent movement or stretching. Sport coats Sport shirts. For reinforcing seams on pajamas or to reduce bulk in a seam. or mark in a fabric generally caused by a sharp fold. Joining two pieces of knitted fabric on a selvedge-to-selvedge basis by means of a chain stitch produced on a sewing machine in which the fabrics are moved forward between revolving feed cups. Hosiery. which at the wrist usually has a plain turned in edge? If turned up it may be described as Gauntlet cuff. Conversely. A hand stitch. the distance from front break point to the back-point. Pajamas. On napped fabric the final pressing may not be able to restore the fabric to original condition. the circumference of the elbow. The body measurement with the arm straight.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Deliberate off grain cutting is sometimes essential particularly in woven fabrics in order to obtain necessary fabric ‘movement’ for shaping or styling. Warp and weft interlace at 90° so that in a correctly made and finished woven fabric grain and structure are square with each other. the lower part of the sleeve. 241 . Machine gathering or Gauging is achieved by use of a special presser foot or attachment Grain of the fabric is the relationship of its structural elements to vertical and horizontal lines. Always gave to longer length on the tip of the shorter one Extra required for body movement over actual body measurement A stitch done a scant 1/8” from the folded or seamed edge. A pocket. etc. Sleepwear. line. the body area adjacent to the vertex of the included angle between the legs. Underwear. Foundations. Garments may be grouped as: Active wear. Work wear. Dress shirts. In trousers. The edge of a fabric. Uniforms. Bridal. the formation of which begins on the left and consists in passing the needle alternately on and off the edge slightly through the material and in advance of the last stitch. In garment. To distribute evenly fullness from a longer length of fabric to a shorter length without allowing it to gather or puck. Robes. Defect evidenced by a break. which lies horizontally or at an oblique angle from the horizontal. Outerwear. Swimwear. In anatomy. Tops. Shortening of fabric length by drawing together and holding a succession of small folds of material by stitching. minor for underwear. The crease mark is where creases can be caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Tailored clothing. the pocket mouth can run from the waistband on the front to a point on the side seam. Dresses. usually major for fashion outerwear. between different panels of a garment resulting from the release of latent stresses during laundering of the woven or knitted fabric forming the garment. A fold in the fabric which is stitched to give shape depending where it is positioned. A rotation. Grain is easily appreciated and illustrated by the example of a woven fabric where in ideal conditions warp direction represents the vertical line and weft direction represents the horizontal. Skirts. usually lateral. Suits. Used as a substitute for felling or for ornamentation of raw edges. See Linking. This is often necessary where perhaps a woven fabric has been ‘cut on the bias’ to obtain movement or shape in one part but another part may need to be kept fairly rigid. Bottoms. Twist may also be referred to as Torque or Spirally. Often discoloration in the area is a problem. or in a straight seam in a knitted fabric where the natural movement of the fabric is too great for the necessary rigidity of the garment. A shaped article of textile fabric. which is processed by a sewing machine. In body measurements.

and provide decorative effect. Raised woven-in surface on velvets and fabrics Narrow sewn rows of fabric that give a decorative raised look to a garment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Corduroy and velvet are good examples of fabric which has a nap or a pile. An overcast stitch to prevent raveling of fabric. the maximum circumference of the body at the level of maximum prominence of the buttocks. See also Block pattern. The circumference of the upper leg between the hip and the knee. the vertical distance from the crotch to the soles of the feet. the circumference of the body at a point approximately 7. The line along which a hem is marked and folded. Linings should be washable if the garment is washable and linings should be pre washed. height is measured while they are lying down. to hide the seam construction. Indicating pattern details on fabric showing seam allowance for cutting. In body measurements. A “V” cut in seam allowance to eliminate bulk in outer curving seams Fabrics where the surface interest runs in the same direction. the distance from the side waist to the soles of the feet. The amount of fabric turned under at the hemline. The notch is shown on a pattern with a dark diamond. care should be taken to keep fabric pieces going in same direction nap-wise unless one is intentionally mixing naps and piles to produce a different look. Seam inside the leg of pants that runs from the crotch to the hem. with the leg straight. the circumference of the knee over the kneecap and parallel to the floor. Fabric between facing and garment to support and edge and hold a shape i. Used to finish the inside of a garment. showing fitting corrections In body measurements. . Also called ‘Crotch height’. A cord covered with fabric. LINING MARKING MID-NECK GIRTH: MID-THIGH GIRTH: NAP OR PILE NOTCH ONE-WAY FABRICS OUTSIDE-LEG LENGTH: OVER LOCK PATTERN PILE PIN TUCK PIPING 242 . It provides a minimal amount of warmth and usually extends the life of a garment. It is the “fuzzy” part of a fabric that is usually directional in nature. Some blouse are made with pin tucking on the bodies for a more tailored look. When cutting out a pattern. A template used for marking out the parts of a garment on material prior to cutting. cuff etc It is done by moving the iron back and forth over fabric ironing is generally not utilized when sewing. often used for decorative edging on garment or projects. this includes prints. In body measurements. There are sewing machines made to do over lock stitching. to allow for ease of putting a garment on or taking it off.e. In body measurements. In body measurements. LAHORE GRIN HEAD GIRTH: HEIGHT: HEM HEM ALLOWANCE HEMLINE HIGH-HIP GIRTH: HIP GIRTH: INSEAM INSIDE-LEG LENGTH: INTERFACING IRONING KNEE GIRTH: KNEE: In sewn seams. the joint between the lower and upper leg. For persons unable to stand. the vertical distance from the crown of standing subject to the soles of the feet. In anatomy. If smoothed with the hand in one direction. circumference of the neck approximately 25 mm above the neck base. A replica of garment in flat card or paper. to stress a sewn seam so that the individual stitches can be seen The maximum circumference of the head above the ears. A folded edge produced by turning in the edge of a garment and securing it.5 cm be-low the waist and parallel to the floor. following the curve of the body. nap is typically shiny in one direction and not shiny in the other. A lining is cut of the same pattern pieces as the garment and often is made of “slippery” fabrics. nap or pile as well as warp-knitted fabrics In body measurements. They are commonly cut outward and should be matched on seams when joining for sewing. In body measurements. collar.

243 . This extra amount allows for movement of garment over a figure. A seam formed by a single joining line. through s folded edge from the outside to match perfectly plaids stripes for stitching A small cut made either at right angles or at a slant to the raw edge of a seam all Vance to enable it to spread and follow a stitched curve Line of stitches made by hand or machined to prevent stretching Continuous row of machine stitches to hold two or more layers of fabric together. An amount added to body measurements when constructing a pattern or block. a method of designating garment sizes. for practical or decorative use. See ‘Acromion’. A blind or filling stitch is used. A button with space left between the button and fabric. jetting or welts. The distance from the cervical to a point level with the armpit. In body measurements. encases the seam with thread. Then lower the presser foot and start sewing. Result when two pieces of fabric are sewn together along a line. multiple layers of fabric may be treated as a single layer. and cuts off excess fabric at the same time. Pockets may have flaps. The placket may incorporate fastenings. The part of a pocket on the interior of a garment. Raw edges of the seam allowance in a plain seam may or may not have a finish applied. Pleats may be either pressed to give sharp creases or left unpressed to give soft folds Fastening decorative buttons by inserting a plug through the eyes of the shanks on the inside of the garment A bag inserted into or attached to a garment. Other buttons can be “shanked” by wrapping thread under the button to create a shank. The outer end of the collarbone or clavicle pivots against the Acromion which in turn pivots against the hummers or upper arm bone in the arm. LAHORE PIVOT PLACKET PLAIN EDGE PLAIN SEAM PLEAT PLUGGING POCKET POCKET BAG POLO COLLAR RAW (EDGE) SCYE DEPTH: SEAM SEAM ALLOWANCE SERGER SHANK BUTTON SHOULDER JOINT: SHOULDER LENGTH: SHOULDER SLOPE: SIZING SYSTEM: SLASH SLIP-TACK SNIP STAY STITCHES TACKING TAILORS TACKS THIGH GIRTH: TOLERANCE To leave the needle in fabric. A variation of the round neck collar on a jumper that extends well up the neck and is turned over or doubled on the outside. the back fold may be replaced by a seam. Distance between a cut edge and stitching line is called a Seam Allowance. These bones form the shoulder girdle. The edge of fabric that is not stitched or finished. It will be added when cutting fabrics. A shank button is one made with a shank. the distance from the side neck base to the armscye line at the shoulder joint. raise the presser foot and turn the fabric at a 45degree angle. Material folds introduced to allow for expansion or to provide style features. Tacking is stitches made with a double thread where every second stitch forms a loop used to mark pattern detail through layers of fabric The maximum circumferences of the upper leg close to the crotch. Finished edge of a garment that shows no stitching on the surface. Used to sew a square seams. In garment construction. or an extra piece of fabric applied to that opening for reinforcement or as a style feature. In anatomy. the angle formed when the slant of the shoulder line deviates from the horizontal line that originates at the side neck base.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Opening provided in a garment to facilitate removal. or to finish seams of any fabric. A type of sewing machine that stitches the seam. the juncture of the collarbone and the shoulder blade. as it may cause puckering of your seam later on. These are used for construction of garment with knit fabrics mostly. In body measurements. above. The cut along a given line to open a dart or fold To tack a seam. Three layers of fabric involving two folds or reversals of direction. A plain seam joins two or more layers of fabric.

Hip / seat 3. Lay garment flat with front of garment facing you. the distance from the armpit to the midpoint on the inside of the wrist in line with the greatest prominence. In anatomy. 10. the part of the body at the location between the lowest rib and hip identified by bending the body to the side. At this point measure across the leg from point to point. In body measurements. 6. with the arm bent. Double the measurement.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. measure down as specified on the size specification sheet. Double the measurement. In body measurements. In body measurements. Measure from the top of the garment to the bottom of leg following the contour of the side seam. Measure straight across the bottom opening from fold to fold. 11. the maximum circumference of the arm usually midway between the elbow and the shoulder joint. In anatomy. Double the measurement. In body measurements. Measure up the specified amount on the size specification sheet. At this point. the distance from the waist level at centre front through the crotch to the waist level at centre back. For extended measurements. Lay garment flat with the front facing you measure from the high point of shoulder down the front rise to the fold at the crotch. HOW TO MEASURE 1. down the back through the crotch and over the projection of the right breast to the starting point. the body measurement with the arm down. Garment is flat with back facing you. In body measurements. measure from side to side alone the waist seam. locate the knee. On garments with a waistband. In body measurements. measure from side to side alone the center of the waistband. Measure side to side following contour of waist seam. Measure from top of waistband down centre back to bottom of garment. Measure from crotch seam up the centre back seam the top edge of the garment (including waistband) Lay one entire leg flat with inseam fading you. Back Rise 8. With leg flat. Knee 5. Double the measurement. measure as above with elastic or knit fully extended. the distance from the right shoulder line midway between the neck base and the shoulder joint. Measure up the specified amount on the size specification sheet from crotch point. Measure from crotch seam up the center front seam to the top edge of the garment (including waistband. Double measurement. Lay one entire leg flat. 9. At the crotch. the circumference of the waist immediately below the lowest rib.) Lay garment flat with back of garment facing you. Lay the bottom of the pant leg flat. Bottom Opening / Leg Opening (Relaxed / Extended) Front Rise 7. Lay one entire leg flat. the distance from the shoulder joint along the outside of the arm to the prominence of the elbow. the circumference over the prominence of the inner and outer forearm bones. measure across the leg parallel to waist from fold to fold. LAHORE TOP STITCHING TOTAL CROTCH LENGTH: TOTAL VERTICAL TRUNK LENGTH: UNDERARM LENGTH: UPPER ARM GIRTH: UPPER ARM LENGTH: WAIST GIRTH: WAIST: WRIST GIRTH: WRIST: A line of machine stitching made on the outside of a garment parallel to an edge or seam In body measurements. Measure from where the crotch seam joins the inseam down to the bottom of the garment. Lay garment flat with front of the garment facing you. Thigh 4. Double the measurement. the joint which articulates between the end of the lower arm and the hand. Inseam Out Seam Center Back Length (Skirts) Trunk Length / Torso Length 244 . 2. Waist (Relaxed / Extended) On garments with a waist seam.

Placket and zipper openings must be included in extended measurement. Open collar and lay flat. Measure from the high point of shoulder or from the fold of natural shoulder to the bottom of garment. Measure from the joining seam at the neck opening (Collar) t the bottom edge of the garment. For extended measurement. 23. Double the measurement. Armhole Circumference 19. Upper arm 20. Lay garment flat with the front facing you. 16. Lay garment flat with the front facing you. Measure from side to side. measure as above with elastic or knit fully extended. Across Shoulder 17. following the contour of the joining seam. aligning front and back armhole seams and position so that armhole seam has no wrinkles. Double the measurement. where the shoulder seams meet the top of the armhole when there is no shoulder seam. the inside width of the neck at the fold. Measure from bottom to top of armhole following seam contour. Neck Drop – Front / Back Neck Width Collar Point 28. 15. measure along the collar joining seam from end to end. measure where the natural fold of the shoulder meets the top of the armhole. Lay garment flat.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Measure along the collar point edge from the collar joining seam to the outer end of the collar. Lay garment flat. At this. Lay garment flat with back of garment facing you. 22. With the collar open and lying flat. Measure down to center of armhole. 245 . making sure that any pleats are fully extended. Measure straight across garment from side to side 1 ” from the bottom of armholes. Locate the shoulder points. Double the measure. following the contour of the center fold of the sleeve to the bottom. 29. measure straight across form underarm to center fold. Close neckline and lay flat from center back to center front. 24. Sleeve Length (From Center Neck) Back 21. Half of amount is center back neck. Across Back 18. 14. Rib Knit. measure as above with elastic or knit fully extended. Front Length (High Point of Shoulder) Back Length (Center Back Neck) Chest – Bust Sweep 13. Garment with center back seam: Starting where the center back seam meets neck seam. 26. Measure along neck seam opening. Measure along the outside fold of the sleeve from the armhole seam at shoulder to the bottom of the sleeve. Measure straight across from shoulder point to shoulder point. 25. Measure straight across the bottom of the sleeve fold to fold. Measure from joining seam to outer edge of band or ribbing. measure along the back neck seam from shoulder seam to shoulder seam. For extended measurements. To determine center back neck of garment without center back seam. measure across the back to the point where the shoulder seam joins the armhole. Measure along the center of the collar stand from the outside end of buttonhole to the center of the button. Lay garment flat. Lay the sleeve flat (sleeve closed on button styles). 27. LAHORE 12. measure straight across from armhole to armhole seam. Lay sleeve flat. With tape measure at a right angle to center fold of the sleeve. Double the measurement. Lay garment flat with the back of the garment facing you. Measure down from the imaginary line (point to point) to the neck/collar seam at the center front. Or Elastic Band Height Collar Length (Button to Button) Collar Length (On Seam) Neck Circumference (Relaxed / Extended) Lay garment flat with front facing you. keeping taps measure parallel to center front Lay garment flat with the back of the garment facing you. Measure at bottom of garment following the contour of hem. Sleeve Length (From Shoulder) Cuff Opening (Relaxed / Extended) Cuff. Double the measurement.

4 26 23 A SIZE CHART FOR SHIRTS (Mature and Athletic Figures) A G-I G-H E-N G-M Neck (collar size) Chest Scye depth Natural waist length Half back Sleeve length for shirts Shirt length Cuff size for shirts 37 88 22 43.4 112 118 102 104 21.4 92 96 78 81 19 43.4 40 65.8 112 114 95 98 21.2 80 79 27.5 28.4 18 108 114 98 100 21 45 26 42 66 83.2 45 22.6 42 66 83.5 82 29.6 19.2 18.8 26 43 66 84 83 29.2 246 .8 38 64.6 100 102 83 86 20 44.5 44 116 26.6 79 78 26.5 31.4 25.4 82 81 28 17.5 45 25.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 39 96 23. CASUAL WEAR A B C D E-F G-H G-I J K-L E-M N-Q P-Q Chest Seat Natural Waist Trouser Waist (4 cm below natural waist) Half Back Natural Waist Length Scye Depth Neck Size Sleeve Length.8 44 66 84.2 45 20.8 81 80 27.6 24.5 44. TROUSERS.5 45 25.4 108 110 91 94 21 45.5 87 82 23. TROUSERS.6 104 108 90 93 20.8 22.8 22.4 22 37 63.4 40 65.2 45 66 85 82 30 19.4 18. CASUAL WEAR A B C D EF GH G-I J KL EM NQ PQ R Chest Seat Natural Waist Trouser Waist (4 cm below natural waist) Half Back Natural Waist Length Scye Depth Neck Size Sleeve Length.6 Close Wrist Measurement Extra measurements Garments length Cuff size.5 87 82 24 STANDARD BODY MEASUREMENTS (Athletic Figure) Height 170 cm .5 30 25 22 31 25.5 ft 10 in) A SIZE CHART FOR OVERGARMENTS.6 44.2 16.5 85 80 22. two-piece sleeve Trousers bottom measurement Jeans bottom measurement Varies with type of garment and with fashion 27 23.6 39 64.2 41 66 83 82 28.5 28 24 21 29 24.5 45 27.2 26 23 32.8 16.2 80 79 27.5 40 100 24. (one piece sleeve) Sleeve Length (two piece sleeve) Inside Leg Body Rise 88 90 71 74 18.5 43.8 18.2 100 104 86 89 20 44.5 22.2 96 98 79 82 19.8 45 22 87 82 24 45 120 27.5 82 28.2 19.8 43.2 41 66 83 82 28.5 44.5 21.5 20.6 26 23 32. (one piece sleeve) Sleeve Length (two piece sleeve) Inside Leg Body Rise 88 92 74 77 18.4 44.6 20 85 81 23 41 104 25.5 85 81 23 42 108 26 45 21 87 82 23.6 24.2 120 126 110 112 22.4 82 81 28 104 106 87 90 20.8 81 80 27. LAHORE STANDARD BODY MEASUREMENTS Mature Figure (Regular Men’s Sizing) Height 170 cm – 178 cm (5 ft 7 in – 5 ft 10 in) A SIZE CHART FOR OVERGARMENTS.8 38 64.8 96 100 82 85 19.4 43 66 84 82 29.4 45 21.8 92 94 75 78 19 43.178 cm (5 ft 7 in .6 39 64.8 116 122 106 108 22 45 26.5 84 76 22 38 92 22.8 19 84 78 22.8 26 23 33.6 79 78 26.5 45 26.2 23.5 45.6 17.2 23.4 22 37 63.5 82.5 43 112 26.5 43.

5 22 22.1 cm .2. Manufacturers targeting the mature man will usually offer sizing that fits man of average height.5 cm + 4 cm + 4 cm + 4 cm Natural waist length Scye depth Sleeve length Garment length Inside leg Body rise Standard Body Measurements Chart Continental Size Chart (FEMALE FIGURE) SIZE SYMBOL BUST WAIST HIPS BACK WIDTH 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 80 58 85 32.4 HORIZONTAL MEASUREMENTS 92 97 102 107 112 70 75 80 85 90 97 102 107 112 117 35.2 117 95 122 41.5 18.4 122 100 127 42.8 24.5 24 24. SIZES FOR TALL / SHORT MEN HAVE EACH VERTICAL MEASUREMENT ADJUSTED SHORT 162cm – 170 cm (5 ft 4 in – 5 ft 7 in) .8 17. Intervals of 8 cm between size labels give good divisions being used by many manufacturers.4 XLARGE 112-116 116 118 99 102 22 46.6 18 18.5 132 110 137 45 247 . Medium.5 23 23 BODY MEASUREMENT CHART FOR SMALL-MEDIUM-LARGE-XLARGE CHEST SIZES BETWEEN A B C D E-F G-H G-I J K-L E-M N-Q P-Q R Chest Seat Natural Waist Trouser Waist (4 cm below natural waist) Half Back Natural Waist Length Scye Depth Neck Size Sleeve Length. two-piece sleeve Trousers bottom measurement Jeans bottom measurement 16.6 LARGE 104-108 108 110 91 94 21 45.2 17.8 45 67 86 85 30.8 Varies with type of garment and with fashion 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 23.5 cm .4 16.8 MEDIUM 96-100 100 102 83 86 20 44.4 36. X Large etc depend on breadth and type of market that is targeted.2 Varies with type of garment and with fashion 24 25 26 27 21 22 23 24 SMALL-MEDIUM-LARGE-X LARGE SIZES: Actual measurements applied under the labels Small. (one piece sleeve) Sleeve Length (two piece sleeve) Inside Leg Body Rise Close Wrist Measurement Extra measurements Garments length Trousers bottom measurement Jeans bottom measurement SMALL 88-92 92 94 75 78 19 44 23 39 64 80 79 27.4 18.8 39 40.6 127 105 132 43.6 37.4 27.2 43 66 84 83 29.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 25 25.5 16.6 41 65 82 81 28.2 cm .5 19.4 88 66 93 34.6 26. Large.5 17.5 26 26 20. LAHORE R Close Wrist Measurement Extra measurements Garments length Cuff size.4 84 62 89 33.4 cm -4 cm no change TALL 178 cm – 186 cm (5 ft 10 in – 6 ft 1 in) +2 cm +1 cm +2.5 21 21.

5 22 41. shoulder seams and waist seams.25 46. Possibly hem allowance Usually impracticable 248 Heavy Weight or Bulky Fabric Impracticable Collars.1 20 56 21 31.4 39 39 38.5 42.5 41 41.9 9.5 23 44.5 62 24.8 15 26.5 45.8 25.2 12 7 6.5 cm Side seams.4 27 27.4 13.3 23 60.75 55.3 11.5 33.2 51 43 44.2 8. Hem on flared coats or skirts.4 24.5 31.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.75 6. a pre-determined amount of material between the edge of the component parts of the garment and the seam line.5 59 21.5 21 58 21. The distance from the edge of a fabric to the parallel stitch line furthest from that edge.5 48.5 48 VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS 40 40.8 9.5 22. EASE AND ALLOWANCES FOR PATTERN DRAFTING: While drafting a pattern following allowances shall be considered to make a perfect pattern.5 23.6 28. Many commercial patterns specify seam allowances which may vary usually between 10 mm to 30 mm depending upon the pattern.5 45 46.5 29 29.5 105 105.4 10 42 43.5 57 21. facings or enclosed seam.2 21.75 40.5 39.4 14.4 54 44 45.8 11.6 14.9 12.e. facings or enclosed seam.5 62 23. 1.8 7.5 30 106 30.2 30 30.4 33.5 20 31.5 39.25 41.75 56.2 52.5 31 107 32.8 20.5 103 27 29 30.8 31.1 39.5 38.5 32 108 34 25. Side seams.2 41 20.4 29.5 101 25.4 8.5 104 104.5 60 60.4 39.25 7 40.75 5.25 7.8 12. neck lines.5 63 23.5 43.6 28.5 34 12. sleeveless arm holes.75 7. waist seams and any seam possibly requiring alteration.6 38 19.5 43 23.6 32. SEAM ALLOWANCE GUIDE Seam Light Weight or Allowance Medium Weight Fabric 0.1 8.8 14.1 25 62.6 9.7 24 61. waist seams and any seam possibly requiring alteration. Seam allowances may be trimmed during or after seam construction.5 27.5 106.5 57.2 15.5 17 17. Possibly hem allowance on coats 5 cm 6 – 8 cm .20 34 2.6 13.9 22 59.25 SLEEVE MEASUREMENTS 58 58.8 37.6 8. shoulder seams and waist seams Side seams. sleeveless arm holes. 2 cm 2.5 27 102 26.5 38.5 59 59. or the cutting allowance around each piece i.5 61 61.5 16.8 36.5 107.2 30 35 18.6 11.4 27.5 43.5 32 33.5 61 22.5 19 30.8 26.6 12.4 29.5 7.7 8.5 60 22.5 35.5 cm Side seams.2 13. LAHORE CHEST SHOULDER NECK WIDTH DART ARMHOLE NAPE TO WAIST SHOULDER TO WAIST ARMHOLE DEPTH SKIRT TO KNEE WAIST TO HIP LENGTH TO WRIST TOP ARM WRIST BODY RISE SIDE SEAM FINAL KNEE WIDTH FINAL HEM WIDTH 29. neck lines.25 32.8 37. 2.6 16 27.3 9.1 SEAM ALLOWANCE: Also called Seam margin.5 42 40.5 18 MEASUREMENTS FOR PANTS 28 28.5 – 1 cm Collars.6 22. Hem Allowance on flared skirts and seams possibly requiring alteration.4 41.8 26.7 43 14 9 106 49.

except for much curved hems. you don't necessarily need to think about ease. as these have to fit closely. When you purchase a ready-made paper pattern. you can buy the pattern and not worry about ease. and comfort of any garment. Some garments have little or no wearing ease at all. LAHORE 2. Finding out what suits you will come when we get into solving fitting problems and adjusting our patterns. These are standard amounts to follow when adding ease but these are not strict amounts and will vary according to personal taste and comfort. so if you like the fit and style. Garments like coats. 2. Every Pattern must take into consideration the need for comfort and movement by including “ease”. for example. Deeper hems are better done with a hand stitch. Any additional ease (called style ease) contributes to a garment's overall silhouette and design.4 DESIGN EASE: It is the extra fullness in garments that a designer or pattern maker will use to create various effects and silhouettes. Wide Topstitched Hem technique can be used on all fabrics and styles. Garments made from stretch or knit fabrics will also have less ease as the fabric will itself will allow for movement and comfort. The fuller the bottom edge. Suggested widths for hems in jackets and coats are 1 1/2 to 2 inches for lightweight and 2 to 3 inches for heavyweight fabrics. you can either leave the pattern at the store or alter it in some way.2 EASE ALLOWANCE: Ease. If you don't like the fit and style. The amounts we add in ease will vary according to body type and personal level of comfort. Hem depth depends on the style of garment. For the most attractive proportions hem allowance should be 1-1/4" to 249 . With pattern-drafting software. Garments like strapless bodices or halter-neck garments. while narrow hems look good with a machine stitching line. you are the designer. the narrower the hem should be.5 HEM ALLOWANCE: Hem is the folded edge produced by turning in the edge of a garment for the purpose of securing and or decorating. so you need to make some decisions about ease right from the start. Ease is already factored into the pattern's style.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A properly finished hem in a tailored garment helps to achieve a professional look and adds the final touch. directly affects the look. The amount of fabric turned under at the hemline is called Hem Allowance. An inconspicuous hem is a mark of quality construction. Most garments need a slight amount of ease (called wearing ease) to fit around body and permit movement. they need a negative amount of ease to stretch around the body. straight tailored skirts and dresses really need a 1 ½" hem to hang correctly. hips and bust. dresses and jackets are those that use this extra fullness to allow for comfort especially when being worn over the top of other garments. the waist. form-fitting knit garments are the exception.3 WEARING EASE: It is the additional inches or centimeters we add to patterns at certain points. On the other hand. or ifference between actual body measurements and the finished measurements of a garment. There are two main types of ease: EASE CHART Garment Type Units of Measure Fitted Standard Loose Dresses & Blouses In 2 2¾ 3 1 /8 Cm 5 7 8 Pants In 3 Skirts In ¾ 1½ 3 1 /8 to 4 ¾ Cm 2 4 16 to 24 Jackets In 3 1/8 4 4 3/8 Cm 8 10 11 In 4 3/8 5 1/8 Coats Cm 11 13 13 to 17 Cm 1 2 8 /8 ¾ 3 1/8 5 1/8 to 6 1/8 2. 2. fit. style.

Because of this we include a shrinkage allowance when we produce our patterns. A single-pointed dart is wide at one end and pointed at the other. 3.7 DART ALLOWANCE: A dart is used to shape a flat piece of fabric to fit bust. Gathering allows for making a long piece of fabric to fit with a shorter piece of fabric and also is a method of easing a seam to allow insertion of sleeves and other rounded pattern pieces.8 PLEAT ALLOWANCE: Pleat is a fold in fabric that is either inverted or folded outward is not sewn accepts on top edge (as in a skirts waistband). It works especially well on flared hems. 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 250 .8cm-5cm) wide. PATTERN SYMBOLS: Picking up a pattern piece can be like trying to read a foreign language.5 times its finished length but making it twice as long gives a much better effect. Pleats may be pressed down the entire length of the garment. 2. A shaped dart has points at both ends. Besides providing a closer fit. They may vary slightly from company to company but most are universal. to prevent costly errors. Pleating is folding and pressing fabric at regular intervals to control large amounts of fabric. This should be found either on pattern tissue or on the direction sheet. hip or elbow curves.5cm) hem allowance. there is a key to the symbols that are on your pattern pieces. a swatch of the selected fabric is prewashed to determine its shrinkage ratio and on its basis shrinkage allowance is determined or otherwise whole of the fabric is pre-shrieked. 2. There are two types of darts. such as cheerleading skirts. There are many basic rules of thumb on pattern symbols. and there are several kinds of pleating common to costume shops. Before drafting a Pattern. The permanent stitch is placed right on top of the inside gathering stitch. Narrow Machine Hem is particularly attractive on sheers. All pleats are made by folding the fabric over on itself or by attaching a separate piece of the underside of the pleat. Refer to it when ever you are in doubt. such as when sewing in sleeves. 3. not puckered at the ends. This is done by simply not pressing the pleat into the fabric except in the seam allowance. Note: To do this hem. or they may be released just inside the seam allowance. your garment must have at least 5/8" (1. 2. Always refer to the manufacturer’s pattern directions.1 SYMBOL KEY: On almost every commercial pattern. such as with curtains. A frill before it is gathered needs to be at least 1. provides decorative or functional fullness. Pleats control a minimum of double the amount of needed fabric and some times as much as four to five times the amount. or can be much fuller.6 GATHERING ALLOWANCE: Gathering is used to add frills. such as for a puffy sleeve or a skirt. darts are also used to create special designer touches and unique styles. The second method is used to accommodate small pieces of fabric or when the inside of the pleat is a different fabric. do a quick refresher every time you open a pattern. Gathering is done to ease in fabric along curves. This symbol key will vary by company and may change over time. and for adding fullness. All pleats have four parts. Perfect darts are straight and smooth. waist. with the points extending to the bust and hips.9 SHRINKAGE ALLOWANCE: Natural fibers are likely to shrink slightly over the first few washes. LAHORE 2-1/4" (3. lightweight silk and synthetic fabrics and for hemming ruffles. The gathering can be very subtle (just enough to ease in the sleeve) and not show along the seam. It is usually used at the waistline.

from single to quadruple. Notches are symbolized in various sizes. Some pattern companies do not include a seam allowance on the edge of your pattern pieces. Notches can be cut into the seam allowance. If you are teaching someone to sew. indicating the areas that will be stitched together. Always refer to the pattern directions to alter in these locations. LAHORE 3.2 PATTERN ADJUSTMENT LINES: These are lines included on the pattern piece for lengthening and shortening the pattern piece. Larger notches always refer to the back side of the garment.4 PLACE ON FOLD LINE: This line indicates that the edge of the pattern piece must be placed on a fold of fabric.3 GRAIN LINES: These are lines included on the pattern piece to make sure you cut the fabric out on the proper grain line for the way the garment is intended to hang. 3. A 1/4" difference from one end of the line to the other. it is wise to trace the pattern piece and save the original. The edge of the pattern piece is usually indicated as a broken line. When measuring from the salvage edge measure more then one area of the line.5 CUTTING LINES: These are usually a solid black line on the outer edge of the pattern piece. 3. magnifies it self in the finished garment. there is no seam allowance and trying to join these will change the way the pattern fits. 3.7 STITCHING LINES: Not all pattern pieces include stitching lines. however when working with beginners it is advisable to have them cut the notch outside of the seam allowance as demonstrated by the red lines in the diagram. Be sure to check the directions to make sure it is included. as well as how other pieces will join to this piece. When they are included they are a broken line. 3.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. it is a good idea to extend this line and allow them to measure the difference from the salvage edge. If you cut this edge.6 NOTCHES: Notches are used to line up two or more pieces of fabric that you will be joining together. On multi sized patterns there will be more then one cutting line in many areas of the piece. which help keep fronts and backs straight in your mind and prevent mistakes. These are a guide so you can see where a line of 251 . to remind you not to cut on that edge. 3. If you are going to use the pattern again for a different size.

This would result in excess handling of your fabric. They indicate starting and stopping points for stitching. There are two stages is pattern drafting (The making of a set of five basic patterns known as “block patterns” or “block”) and (The adaptation of the blocks to the style required).g.8 DOTS: Dots are made in various sizes by the pattern companies. These must be marked onto your fabric. young men. The block is constructed to a set of standard measurements for a particular size. as well as points to match up markings for things like darts. 3. must be related since they are all developed from the same basic shape and will thus fit the same figure. and Back Skirt. and it is worth spending time on making up your set blocks in calico to check the fit. The blocks provide a permanents record of the correct fit while dart movements. additional seams. etc. Back Bodice. fullness. tall men and size charts of these groups are based on the relationship of different measurements (e.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. A block can be drafted to fit an individual figure using personal measurements.1 BLOCK PATTERNS: A block is a foundation pattern constructed to fit a specific figure. The five blocks are Front Bodice. 2. regular sized men. no pattern cut from them will fit well. no matter how different they may appear. It therefore follows that unless the fit of the blocks is perfect. When you are working with multi sized patterns. The design shape may change dramatically but the basic fit of the pattern will conform to the size of the basic block. It is a method of obtaining patterns by working from the measurements of the figure according to a set of instructions and drawing a shape on paper or card. 4. It is not recommended that you mark every stitching line on to your garment. The alternative is to work directly on a dress stand. The advantage of cutting from blocks is that: 1. either using a cheap fabric such as calico or muslin which is then used as a pattern to cut the fabric.. BASIC BLOCKS 4. Front Skirt. This system is known as modeling and although it is the only suitable method for draped styles (as it enables the exact position and amount of fullness to be controlled) it would be very expensive and timeconsuming to make every pattern by modeling. be sure you transfer the marking for size you are working with. The method of using the same set of blocks to adapt to any style shows that all styles. It is used as a basis for interpreting a design and producing a finished pattern.g. Sleeves. LAHORE stitching intersects and where you will not be stitching.2 BLOCKS: The type of pattern cutting which is used here is known as “Flat Pattern Cutting or “Flat Pattern Drafting”. Any adjustments needed must first be made in the fabric and 252 . are planned on them. or using the fabric itself. Cutting form blocks has added advantage of being quicker than any system. chest to seat) of an average man in a particular group. In the clothing industry the blocks are constructed to the standard (average) measurements for specific group of men e. 4. 3.

Having checked the fit of the blocks. i. for cutting out fabric. the wider the dart needs to be. the cutter may have complete confidence in adapting the revised blocks to any styles. without being adapted and are not suitable for use without adaptation for several reasons.5cm -5. For instance. most of the suppression needs to be at the front. front and back width lines. It also clearly shows that the greater the difference. Two smaller darts give a much better fit when a tightly fitted bodice is required. because the dart is formed of the difference between the bust and waist measurements. the fullness will be concentrated at the waist and will fall under the bust point. LAHORE the transferred to the blocks. but it would not be practical to make a dress with such a large dart as it would badly distort the grain of the fabric. and then smoothed along the Under Arm Seam. If it is first pinned along the C/F and over the shoulder area. It is therefore essential that the construction line (bust line. It will be found that the fabric cannot be fitted over the front of stand without fullness appearing somewhere around the edge of the fabric. with fullness concentrated beneath the shoulder blades. which is very important. it is advisable to make a set of blocks in card board as they may then be outlined quickly and will be better able to stand up to frequent use. but this is the minimum recommended hem width since a skirt which is completely straight at the sides will appears to taper inwards. The construction lines. This is position in which it is shown on the block. 253 . Blocks are always made without seam allowances as they are then very mush easier to adapt and the seam allowances may be added to the final pattern. hence large dart in front bodice block. the front dart on the bodice block extends to the bust point (to ensure that a dart drawn in any position will always point towards the bust point)but the bust dart on pattern must always be shortened 1 ” – 2” (2. This difference is known as the waist suppression. The block instructions which follow are simple to draft due to the logical sequence of work. However it is obvious that. hip line etc. Blocks are not intended to be used as pattern i. All the patterns shown in the diagrams are without seam allowances for the sake of simplicity. which are drawn first. or a shoulder and a waist dart. Pinning a piece of fabric over the back of stand will produce similar results. for the female figure. thus the back block has a dart in that position.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. The reason underlying the shape of the bodice blocks can further be demonstrated by making a plain bodice by modeling fabric directly on a dress stand. The front bodice block has only one dart. The sleeve block is completely straight at the side and this shape was chosen because it is much easier to adapt than a block which tapers at the side. at the waist.0cm).e. Many blocks have a shoulder dart instead. The back bodice block has two darts one at the waist and one at the shoulder (to provide room for the shoulder blades). From then on. The waist suppression must be distributed around the figure to avoid creasing caused by over-shaping in one area and a loose fit in another area.) are transferred when the block is outlined to make a pattern. The Skirt Blocks are vary slightly flared at the side.e. if required. help to show the relation between the block and the figure. Plastic coated card is preferable as it does not wear at the edges. Also the dart in the front bodice block is very wide since it contains most of the waist suppression. below the shoulder blades. The side seam can only take a small amount of suppression before it begins to crease but a further amount may be taken at the back. knowing that any pattern developed from the blocks will have the same good fit. This shows results produced by an accurate system of pattern drafting are identical to those produced by modeling. but the single waist dart most clearly illustrates the reason why a dart is needed in the front bodice.

Size specifications which we usually call "size spec" are normally given by the buyer who may copy them from another buyer or he may have a pattern maker that creates them. on the bodice blocks. The complete set of blocks therefore fits the right hand side of the figure.3 DRAFTING THE BLOCKS: All bust. After you have studied the size spec and listened to the pattern maker's explanation. For instance. waist and hip measurements referred to are ‘net’ i. the knowledge to analyze them and to detect mistakes or something important being missing is of great importance. and that even if it is wrong. After you have taken care of them. we should look it over carefully to judge if something important is missing. However. which is so important in good pattern cutting.4 PAPER PATTERNS & SIZE SPECIFICATION: As Garment Merchandisers. The only reason is that the majority of blocks are set out in this way and it is therefore easier to understand other blocks and to compare them. When we first receive a size spec. When there is a mistake in the product. All horizontal construction lines must be parallel to each other and at right angles too all vertical lines. Only inexperienced or irresponsible pattern makers will blindly follow it without thinking. first at the waist to check the curve of the waist line. we must study what he says. place the shoulder seams together to check the curves of neckline and A/H. 254 . it is his responsibility. it will somehow come back to hurt us. All the curves which are drawn during the drafting on the blocks should be regarded as provisional and must be corrected after the blocks have been completed by placing corresponding edges together and checking that the curves are smooth and continuous across the seams. Usually a good pattern maker knows what is right and what is wrong. never abrupt. all lines which join to the E/F or C/B must join at right angles to ensure that the line is continuous when the complete section is opened out. All commercial patterns are arranged in this way. practice drafting them in stock sizes so that the Shape and proportions may be compared. if you agree there is something wrong with the spec. we do not necessarily need to know how to make patterns or to create size specifications. you should give the spec to the factory for making samples. place the side seams together to check the curves of A/H and waist. Bodies and skirt blocks are always drafted with the C/B on the left hand side and the C/F on the Right hand Side. Before drafting blocks to yours own measurements. When we receive a size spec from a buyer. If we find things like that we should bring them to the buyer’s attention with your suggestions. to work out some improvements on the size spec. Place the sleeve seams together to check the curve of S/H and waist. you should make your point again to the buyer. This provides a valuable lesson in the appreciation of line and proportion. without case.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 4. then at the hem to check the hem line curve. Sine the block represent only half of the front or back. On the skirt blocks place side seam together. When we give it to the factory to make samples. changes of direction. we should not take the attitude that it is perfect and complete. and similarly the sleeve is drafted with the back on the left hand side of the center line and the front on the right hand side. We should consider ourselves a partner of the buyer in the business.e. Following are some common errors or oversights which may lead to bad mistakes in final product. not ours. Patterns may be drafted using tailor’s chalk instead of pencil and many people find it easier to draw a good line with the edge of a piece of chalk. The buyer should appreciate your carefulness and constructive suggestions to improve his merchandise. Also practice drawing smoothly curved lines as it is vital that the curved lines on pattern are drawn smoothly with gradual. If you hear this. or if we find something there which will cause trouble. and that curves are joined very smoothly into straight lines. we sometimes may still hear from the factory's pattern maker that something is still wrong about the spec. 4.

The way to work out the pocket position for a men's basic shirt is as follows: You draw a straight line from armpit to armpit and place the pocket 1 1/4 above this line for all sizes and then measure the distance from the shoulder high point to the top of the pocket. As a good merchandiser. You will see that the distance varies on the different size shirts. (Some with the waist 3" smaller than the chest). some may make the waist 45" thinking the waist being 3" smaller than the chest is normal. the above thinking is not wrong. The various distances are the sizes to be added to the spec. If you do not block the loopholes. If you say by common sense it is too high he may say to please translate the common sense into measurements to be specific. adjust it to 1". he. and (Some with the waist same size as the chest). If you pass such spec to the maker for production. can rightfully argue with you pointing it out to you that on your size spec there is no mention of the chest pocket position. You will not go wrong when you use this rule of thumb.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. by using the same size spec you may get the following different products and you cannot complain (Some with the waist 4" smaller than the chest). you may end up with the pocket positioned too high or too low on the finished product and you cannot blame the maker or hold him responsible. when the pocket is longer than normal. If you do. The buyer may just give you the chest and sweep measurements. normal person. Do not give the spec like that to the factory for sample making or for production. Please understand your position as follows: If the chest pocket position is obviously too high the buyer has the right to say it is a mistake and may complain or even reject the goods. The buyers may not always give you specific complete details which are needed in the garment production. some pattern maker may make the waist 48” same as the chest and sweep. As a merchandiser. you may have to adjust the 11/4" above the armpit line to 1 1/2 or the pocket is a short one. The pocket position so worked out will make sense as the chest pocket position has a direct relationship with the armpit. Now. (For your information.) However. You are supposed to go by common sense and now the pocket is so high (or so low) that it does not make sense. it is not uncommon that the size spec you receive does not have the waist measurement. you may get hurt due to the ambiguity. if you want to hold him responsible or reject the goods. the following may happen: Some makers may make the waist 44" thinking for a. However. In a case like the above. (2) MISSING THE CHEST POCKET POSITION: On a size spec of a shirt or a blouse it is not uncommon that the size spec you receive does not have the chest pocket position. Therefore he has the right to reject the goods if he wants to. 255 . you should contact the buyer with your suggestion for his approval. Therefore in the end. LAHORE (1) MISSING THE WAIST MEASUREMENT: On the size spec of a shirt or a blouse. as far as the maker is concerned. You obviously can not win the argument. and work out with buyer to complete it to avoid possible confusion. The fact that he did not mention the pocket position in the size spec does not allow you to put the pocket anywhere you want. When there is no mention of the pocket position you cannot say the pocket is too high or too low. you may not even know what waist measurements you have on the shirts or blouses until the buyer complains to you because you or your merchandise inspectors may not even measure the waist during the inspection since measurement is not on the size spec. the waist measurement should be 4" smaller than the chest. you should notice that the waist measurement is missing when you receive the spec.

if you make the back neck 6". In a case like this. not 15 1/2. you should consider increasing the thigh or perhaps the leg opening also. (C). cases the buyer may give you 3 measurements to control the size and shape of the collar o. (Collar length. the sweep and the shoulder which are related to the chest. The back neck and the neck drop sizes are to control the shape of the collar. This choice is wrong too because collar shape will also look ugly. Unfortunately. you may draw up a sketch and measure the back neck and neck drop to complete the size spec as follows: Example: Draw up a sketch in full scale to measure. Keep the 5" neck drop and the 15 ½” collar length but disregard the 6" back neck. they do not form the circumference of the neck as specified. 256 . measurements given are: Collar length: Back neck width: Neck drop: 15 1/2” 6” 5” But. this choice is very wrong because collar length is the most important measurement of the 3 which yon must keep. Keep the 6” back neck and the 15 ½” collar length but disregard the 5” neck drop. Collar lengths required: S M L XL = = = = 14 ½” 15 ½” 16 ½” 17 ½” (4) When the buyer tells you to increase the chest measurement on a shirt he may forget to tell you to increase the waist. As you can easily understand that the most important measurement is the collar length which is for the circumference of the person's neck. and Neck drop). If you increase the chest by 2" you should consider increasing the other related measurements as follows to keep the shape of the garment: Shoulder +1 ” Chest +2 ” Waist +2 ” Sweep +2 ” (5) When you change the armhole of a shirt you should consider changing the "muscle" also. (D). (B). However. Keep the 6" back neck and the 5" neck drop. Back neck width. in many cases when the buyer gives you the back neck and the neck drop measurements. Keep the 15 ½” collar length but disregard both the back neck and the neck drop and make the shape yourself into a normal shape. If you wish to be specific. You may tell your buyer what you are doing. (6) When the buyer wants to increase the knee on a pant.e. Obviously the buyer wants to control the shape of the collar but he may have overlooked the fact that the back neck width and neck drop must conform to the circumference specified.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This is the right choice. This choice is also wrong as the shape of the collar will look ugly. you have 4 choices and 3 of them are wrong: (A). neck drop 5" your collar length is 17 3/4.g. e. Disregard the 15 1/2" collar length. LAHORE (3) SHIRT / BLOUSE COLLAR: In many.

S Waist band height Across front Front JACKET PANALS Back 257 . LAHORE JACKET PATTERN MEASUREMENTS a c e g i k m o q Sleeve Length with cuff / Inc / cuff Flap height Yoke forward Flap height from side Yoke length from back Back centre panel width Bottom Cuff height Chest 1 ” Below b d f h j l n p Flap width Collar Spread Arm hole diagonal / Straight Sleeve length with out cuff Back centre panel length Garment length from H.P.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 2 Pocket Bag Facing Ticket Pocket Back Pocket Front Panel Loops Double Fly Single Fly Waist Belt 258 Yoke Back Pannal . LAHORE JACKET PATTERN MEASUREMENTS Pant No. h PANT NO. 1 a c e g j k a c e g I Waist Thigh Bottom In seam from J stitch Back rise In seam Back Pocket length from centre Yoke length from side Ticket pocket from waist band Yoke height from centre Back pocket side length b d f h j Seat line hip Knee Side length Front rise Hip point height Pant No. 1 PANT NO. 2 b Back Pocket width from up d scoop pocket opening from side f Ticket pocket from side length Back Pocket width from bottom.

259 . one unit of conformation of thread resulting from repeatedly passes a strand or strands and / or a loop or loops of thread into or through a material at uniformly spaced intervals to form a series of stitches. performance. In the future more garments may be assembled with seam alternatives. Once it has been achieved. within fabric. is the construction of seams that combines the required standards of appearance and performance with an appropriate level of economy in production. With the wide varieties of fabric types and fabric constructions available. a seam is a joint consisting of a sequence of stitches uniting two or more pieces of material(s) and used for assembling parts in production of sewn items. and pieces cut to shape and sewn. Stitch properties such as size. it must be maintained throughout the design life time of the garment. good seam appearance during manufacturing demands varying techniques. spot welding. Sewing garment pieces together with thread formed into stitches and seams is the most used method at this time. Stitch quality needs to be good enough to satisfy the consumer’s desire for performance and esthetics. apparel manufacturers to classify stitches. SEWING: As per Federal Standard 751a. LAHORE INDUSTRIAL SEWING Garments are shaped and formed in three ways: materials molded to a form. or on fabric. the US government developed a guide that defines stitches and seams in current use. The United States Federal Stitch and Seam Specifications (Federal Standard 751a) were adopted in 1965 and revised in 1983. The British Standard BS 3870: schedule of stitches. such as adhesives. thread and stitches are the primary means of garment assembly. Good appearance in a seam normally means smooth fabric joins with no missed or un-even stitches and no damage to the material being sewn. For the purpose of standardization of stitch and seam formations. washing and dry cleaning processes. A stitch. 1. In other cases. A STITCH: As per Federal Standard 751a. The first two methods are used to a limited degree. balance. which is the elementary basis of sewing. They are used by sewing machine manufacturers.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Alternatively it may mean regular gathering to create a style feature or a varying but controlled amount of ease to ensure a good fit to the body. seams and stitching made by sewing machines. SEAMS PROPERTIES: Objectives of sewing. but for the present time. fusing. fabric pieces cut to shape and assembled by bonding. A SEAM: As per Federal Standard 751a. STITCHES: Stitch classification is based on structure of the stitch and method of formation. despite the additional problems that arise during wearing. can be formed without fabric. fabric may be stretched deliberately to achieve an effect but the amount should still be pre-determined and controlled. These specifications have been recognized but not adopted worldwide. seams and stitching was also developed about the same time and defined stitches and seams in a manner similar to the US Standard. and appropriateness for end use. The main difference is that BS 3870 identifies two additional classes of seams that are included in the US Standard as lapped seams. or molding. sewing consists of a sequence of stitches for finishing an edge or for ornamental purposes or both in preparing parts for assembling. and consistency determine stitch quality.

and monitoring quality standards. A seam heading is the distance from the folded edge of the top ply to the first line of stitches. and selection of seam type. Seam depth is affected by fabric weight. the seam heading would be the distance between the stitches and the folded edge of the pocket. must be constructed with sewing threads that will not propagate a flame along the seam. 2. and handling procedures. The width of the stitches relative to the seam varies with stitch type. the seam heading of a lapped or top stitched seam. Width of seam allowance is often a factor in judging garment quality. They may also need to be serged before seaming to prevent raveling. seam type.1 Seam Length is the total distance covered by a continuous series of stitches. This is also referred to a gauge. calculating thread usage. and high level “action” stretch for swimwear and dancewear where 100% or more is normal. A fabric used for a child’s night dress. Seams must be as strong as the fabric. Long seams are often sewn of chain stitch and Overedge machines that have high RPMS. and the width of a line of stitches relative to the seam. the stronger the seam is. both of which are major factors in appearance and comfort of a garment. Wider seam allowances may increase costs because of the fabric they require. e.g. SEAM DIMENSIONS: 2. and so on.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.3 Stitch depth is the thickness or compressibility (flatness) of seam. Seam width is the distance between the outer most lines of stitches as determined by the space between the needles on the needle bar. Stretch fabrics are increasingly being used in garments. A seam allowance is measured from the cut edge of fabric to the main line of stitches. writing specifications. durability. Finally. Machines can be ordered with different gauges. or flame proofing. 2. Such level of stretching places very heavy demands on seaming. LAHORE Performance of seams means the achievement of strength. Seams must also be durable to the kind of abrasion experienced in wearing and washing as well as security against fraying apart or the unraveling of stitches. both low level “comfort” stretch as used in stretch corduroy or denim where the amount of stretch may be up to about 30%. Garments with long seams require frequent repositioning of fabric plies by the operator to keep seam allowances even.2 Seam Width considerations are width of a seam allowance. and providing fabric for alterations. or the number of needles used. security and comfort. the more holding power and strength the stitches have. reducing yarn slippage. elasticity. Seam length can be a factor in determining stitch type. 3/16. but quality and performance standards for each product will ultimately determine the stitch type to be used. and the maintenance of any specialized fabric properties such as waterproofing. seams of overlapping layers may be thicker and bulkier but more durable than pressed open seams. fabrication. A header reduces the strain on the cut edge of fabric and makes the seam stronger. A seam in a close fitting or underwear garment must not present an uncomfortable ridge or roughness to the skin. 2. but it is not an adjustment that can be made. such as a side seam or shoulder seam. On a patch pocket. They must also stretch and recover with the fabric. This is the amount of fabric that extends beyond the actual seam line. 260 . The wider the line of stitches. lateral movement of the needle bar and spreader. which must by law conform to specified flammability requirements . Exact measurements of seam length are used to costing. It is determined by garment design and size. seam performance as well as seam appearance can be spoilt by the fact that damage may occur to the fabric along the stitch line. in directions both parallel to and at right angles to the seam. Gauge for a two needle cover stitch may be ¼.

1 SUPERIMPOSED SEAMS (SS) CLASS-1: This is formed by joining two or more pieces of fabric. This alters the traditional concept of a seam as a joint between fabrics. These seams can be sewn with a lock stitch. comfort in wear. but it remains a single piece of fabric. The fabric may be folded in a variety of ways so the stitching may be through more than one thickness. 3. which may be busted (pressed open and flat) and the safety stitch seams (516). The decorative stitching may be used on jean pockets. It is stitching that encompasses the cut edge or provides a finish for a single ply of fabric with a folded edge configuration. Stitches from any of the classes may be used depending on the type of fold and placement of the stitching. It may be used on a single ply for decorative purpose. BS 3870: Part 2: 1991. side seams of quality dress shirts. Overedge stitch. side seams or inseams of jeans. It can be done anywhere on the garment except the edge. skirts.3 BOUND SEAMS (BS) CLASS-3: This requires separate pieces of fabrics that encompass the edge of one or more pieces of the garment. edges of short sleeves on some styles of t-shirts. Either of these could be used for side seams of dress slacks.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This class is probably the most widely used although not the largest with 57 different seam types. SEAM TYPE: The choice of seam type is determined by aesthetic standards. strength. 261 . usually with seam allowance edges even and one piece superimposed over the second. which cannot be busted. The British Stranded divides stitched seams into eight classes according to the minimum number of parts that make up the seam. and cost. and pin tucks. and so on. These seams are used to finish plain necklines.4 FLAT SEAMS (FS) CLASS-4: This class is the smallest class with only six different types.5 ORNAMENTAL SEAMS (OS) CLASS-5: The stitching is formed on a single piece of fabric. They are commonly used for seams of sweatshirts. These seams are used for attaching front bands to shirts. LAHORE 3. 3. There are only eighteen seam types in this class. lingerie. and so on. including some where only one piece of fabric is involved. 3. but not overlapping them. Bound seams may be sewn with a lock stitch. or safety stitch. with a great deal of variety as to where a seam is lapped and how it is lapped. braid or elastic. durability.6 EDGE FINISHING (EF) CLASS-6: The stitching is formed on a single piece of fabric. blouses. or cover stitch.2 LAPPED SEAMS (LS) CLASS-2: Two or more pieces of fabric joined by overlapping at the needle. chain stitch. Flat seams are constructed to remain flat through care and wear. setting pockets. but it remains a single piece of fabric. chain stitch. 3. convenience in assembly in relation to the machinery availability. 3. Lapped seams may be sewn with a lock stitch or chain stitch but not on Overedge stitch. They would never be sewn with an Overedge stitch as the knife would cut off the binding. holding both pieces together and covering the seam on one or both sides. embroidered logos. 3. The fabric may be folded in a variety of ways so the stitching may be through more than one thickness. This is the largest seam class including 101 different seam types. These parts can be the main fabrics of the garment or some additional item such as lace. The stitches extend across the seam. allows for eight different classes to seam. Examples are the hem of a garment folded up on it and a raw edge has been neatened by means of stitches. The formation of this seam occurs with the butting together of two pieces of fabric. and long underwear. and so on. Superimposed seams include the plain “booked ” seam.

dress slacks. Width.7 SEAM CLASS-7: Seams in this class relate to the addition of separate items to the edge of a garment part. 3. STITCH PROPERTIES: Properties of stitches that relate to aesthetics and performance are size. cording between two plies of material Pin tucks on front of blouse. NOTATION SS SSa SSb SSc SSd SSe LS LSa LSb LSc LSd LSe BS BSa BSb BSc BSd BSe FS FSa FSb FSc FSd FSe EF EFa EFb EFc EFd EFe OS OSa OSb OSc OSd OSe SEAM TYPE AND COMMON USES Superimposed Seams Side seams of skirts. serging Ornamental edge finish Ornamental Stitch Seams Decorative Stitching on jean Pockets Decorative stitching with cording insert Raised stitching without cording insert for backs of gloves Raised stitching. LAHORE 3. sewing on labels Attaching yokes Bound Seams Edges bound with ribbon or braid T-Shirt necklines or sleeve edges with knot trim Neckline or front edges bound with bias-woven material Seaming and binding Seaming and binding Flat Seams Raglan seams of sweatshirts Sweatshirts and underwear Seams of support garments Sweatshirts and underwear Sweatshirts and underwear Edge Finishing seams Single fold hem Double fold hem T-Shirt hem Edge finish. The commonest seam type in this class is the belt loop as used on jeans. They are similar to the lapped seam except that the added component has a definite edge on both sides. raincoats. Stitch Size has three dimensions: Length. Example would be a band of lace attached to the lower edge of a slip or inserted elastic on the leg of a swimsuit. Each may affect the aesthetic appearance. and consistency. inseams of jeans Finishing belt ends.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.8 SEAM CLASS-8: In this class only one piece of material need be involved in constructing the seam. seamed and top stitched Lapped Seams Vinyl and leathers Attaching curtain to waistband of men’s dress slacks Side seams of dress shirts and jeans Attaching patch pockets and overlay yokes. but not widely used Collars or cuffs. tension. 4. attaching elastic to waistline Ends of waistbands on jeans Seaming. and Depth. Stitch Length is specified as the number of stitches per inch (SPI) 262 . etc. durability and cost of garment.

needle. not enough thread is allowed to form the stitch and the thread will restrict and compress the fabric that it surrounds. zigzag. Attributes must be weighted in determining the stitch length best suited to the materials and product. the depth of a blind stitch determines the amount of penetration by a curved needle. Each stitch should be exactly like the previous stitch regardless of curves. 4.5 STITCH CONSISTENCY: It is the uniformity with which each stitch is formed in a row of stitches. and each machine type has a different capacity for speed or revolutions per minute. the more time and thread required to sew a seam: thus. Stitch width refers to the horizontal span (bight) covered in the formation of one stitch or single line of stitching. 4. too much tension causes seam pucker. and damaged fabric. Stitches that have width dimensions require multiple needles or lateral movement of the thread carriers such as the needle bars. but it is usually better to use the least amount of tension possible. If the fabric resists the needle or the machine timing is off. Each thread used in forming the stitch must have some tension in order for the stitch to form properly. the greater the holding power and seam strength. loopers.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 4. stitch and seam type. Tension is controlled by adjusting a screw that holds the pressure disks. Stitch depth should be sufficient to catch all fabric plies. less obvious lines of stitches that are often more visually appealing.3 STITCH DEPTH: Stitch depth is the distance between the upper and lower surface of the stitch. Stitch length is determined by the amount of fabric that is involved under the needle between penetrations. If too much tension is placed on the thread. costs of production are increased. yet not deep enough to show through on face of fabric. Each stitch requires one revolution of the stitch-forming mechanism of a sewing machine. e.2 STITCH WIDTH: Stitch width and depth need to be specified for certain classes of stitches. Shorter stitches produce more subtle. Tread tension involves the balance of force on the threads that form the stitch and the degree of compression on the fabric created by the threads as a stitch is formed. uneven stitches.1 STITCH LENGTH: It is also related to the speed of sewing. 4. The more SPI required. or varying thickness of the fabric. weakened thread. thread. Overedge. Men’s dress shirts with 22 SPI are considered higher quality than a similar shirt made with 8 SPI.g. High SPI means short stitches: low SPI means long stitches. Thus. which causes an unbalanced stitch. Proper machine maintenance is also a major factor in achieving consistency. or spreaders. There must be a compatibility of fabric. Generally. corners.4 THREAD TENSION: It affects stitch formation in two ways. and cover stitches are examples of stitches that have width dimensions. A tight thread will also draw a looser thread over the edge of a seam allowance. Long stitches are usually durable and may be considered lower quality because they are more subject to abrasion and likely to snag. 263 . Tension ensures a uniform supply of thread and determines how well stitches conform to the standard formation. unbalanced stitches. the greater the SPI. A high stitch count also has potential to increase seam pucker or weaken the fabric. stitches will not form correctly making stitches appear uneven or irregular. 4. Stitches formed with too little tension will not hold fabric together under stress. LAHORE and can be an indicator of quality. and machine settings. A seam sewn with 8 SPI could be sewn nearly three times as fast as one requiring 22 SPI if maximum speed was maintained. Too little tension may allow too much thread to be pulled off and cause excessive looping or loose and skipped stitches.

These are: Stitch Class No.1 CHAIN STITCHES CLASS 100: the stitch types in this class are formed from one or more needle threads. Stitch Class No. 304 and 308. Stitch Class No. Because of its insecurity. Simplest of all stitch types is 101. and it is used for “basting” operations using a white. It is too insecure to be used for seams involving the joining of fabrics but it is widely used in multi-needle machines. Many stitch types are specific to certain sewing operations and product lines. enabling garment features such as elasticated waists and cuffs to be created. it unravels very easily. All the stitches being used now a days has been dived into six main classes. are based on type of thread formation created by a sewing machine. it is necessary to start and finish at a fabric edge. It can only be used where the marks of needle penetration close up afterwards in pressing. An additional device can be used to lay embroidery threads back and forward on the surface of the fabric under the needle threads in a variety of patterns to create further decoration. Stitch classes are specific to the type of machine that is used and the mechanism for controlling the lower thread. Sewing machines are classified according to their intended use and the means of forming stitches. 300 are called Lock Stitches. it then relaxes and draws the fabric in. or if a stitch is broken. and that edge may need to be a small piece of temporary fabric held to the garment edge by the stitches. A lock stitch machine (300 Class) built with a needle bar that moves laterally can produce the basic lock stitch (301) as well as stitches with a zigzag appearance.e. 5. If classic thread is used in the needles and sewn into the fabric in a stretched state. is a temporary stitch. often does not last the 264 . in positions each as edges. In the construction of a garment. LAHORE 5. 200 are stitches originating as hand stitches. STITCH CLASSES: Stitch classes. i. nor can the stitching be brought to a halt and the needles removed from the fabric in the middle of a garment part. and Stitch Class No. Stitch Class No. This stitch type cannot be chained-off. as described in Federal Standard 751a. The y use the zigzag version and the machines are fast and require no bobbin. One or more loops of thread are passed through the material and secured by intra-looping with a succeeding loop or loops after they are passed through the material. Stitch Class No. Since each loop is in this way dependent on the succeeding one. Another common use of class 100 stitches is in the special sewing process of button sewing. For example. and are characterized by intra-looping.600 are called Covering Chain Stitches. The fabric edges must then be joined securely through the ends of the chain stitching in order to prevent the stitches running back.100 called Chain Stitches. A range of decorative effects can be achieved using some or all of a bank of closely spaced needles. but their use generates a high level of consumer dissatisfaction as the stitching. Machines in each class may have the capability of producing several different types of stitches depending on the machine’s structure and how it is set and threaded. 400 are called Multi Thread Chain Stitches. especially on buttons. There are many different stitch types. button holing and blind hemming or felling. while chain stitch and Overedge machines use loopers and spreaders to form the stitches. collars and so on. formed from a single thread. 500 are called Overedge Chain Stitches. Lock stitch machines require a bobbin and a bobbin case with a rotating hook as part of the stitch forming mechanism. soft cotton thread. sewn without fabric. allowing accurate placement of permanent stitching. which may number as many as sixty five. but only a few are versatile stitches. A basting operation. it can be removed easily. stitches in this class are insecure and if the finishing end of thread is not passed through the last loop or separately through the fabric. This stitch type is particularly useful in this case as any other stitch which could cope with elastic thread would not use as much and would not enable as much stretch to be included.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. flaps.

Lock stitch has enough strength for most purposes. If required. for conventional and comfort stretch fabrics stretching up to 30% or even more. 301. pockets and many similar garment parts. though such rubback only occurs from the finishing end it is not really necessary at the beginning. and of significance in the assembly process of garments.2 HAND STITCHES CLASS 200: The stitch types in this class originated as hand stitches and are characterized by a single thread passed through the material as a single line of thread. and have for a general characteristic the interlacing of the two or more groups. 103 utilizes a curved needle in order to successively penetrate partially into the fabric. In some cases. Thread ends are trimmed close if the stitch is small or sewn in invisibly by hand. Hand stitching is used at the expensive end of garment production because the consumer expects it at that price. A double pointed. The machines are not fast by lock stitch standards. the best example being stitch type 209 which is used around the outer edges of tailored jackets. The blind stitch version. provided that suitable thread is used. The interlacing of thread in stitches of this class makes them very secure and difficult to unravel. Careful machine adjustment is necessary with all these single thread chain stitches if the garments carrying them are to survive normal wear and tear. It has the same appearance on both sides. and enough stretch. In its straight stitch version. LAHORE lifetime of the garment. Machines are available which condense a few stitches at the beginning and end of the seam. the machine can be set to skip stitch that is to pick up the fabric on alternate stitches only. A button sewing version is also available. when correctly balanced. especially in small volume manufacturing of a variety of garment types.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This is also important in top stitching as well as in seam joining of facings. The stitch is 265 . This renders it even less visible. is still the commonest stitch used in the clothing industry. and then into the hem edge. while showing minimally or not at all on the right side of the garment. but this is considerably higher than the rate achieved in hand sewing and a consistently high quality standard is guaranteed. This is referred to as pick stitching. The machine can be set to show a longer stitch on the top than the bottom or vice versa. One group is normally referred to as the needle threads and the other group as bobbin threads. Straight lock stitch. Collars. Occasionally it is the only way to achieve a particular sewn effect though it should be said that if a large enough quantity of a garment style is being made. the skills are available and it may be the only way to a perfect finish. an advantage denied to virtually all other stitch types. with a single needle thread and a single bobbin thread.3 LOCK STITCHES CLASS 300: The stitch type in this class are formed with two or more groups of threads. machines have been developed to simulate hand stitching. especially where top stitching is required. Again. along with a small thread tail left at the end is necessary for maximum security. which both sews the button and wraps the shank. it is frequently possible to engineer the garment so that everything is done by machine. with instant change-over at the break point of a lapel. Loops of one group are passed through the material and are secured by the thread or threads of a second group. Careful machine adjustment. the level of insecurity is often high but can be improved by the use of slightly hairy rather than smooth sewing threads. centre-eyed needle sews short lengths of thread in a near-perfect simulation of the hand-sewn version. achieving a maximum of a few hundred stitches per minute. 5. the stitch is secured by the single line of thread passing in and out of the material. it is also the only stitch type that reliably forms the stitch when it is necessary to sew round a corner by pausing and pivoting on the needle. 5.

The other dis-advantage of lock stitch are its limited stretch for today’s high stretch fabrics. can allow sections of stitching to come undone. additionally. perhaps thousands. These zigzag stitches perform a very useful function on seams of the type given here but would not give a good appearance on a superimposed seam. the loss of stitching on one row because of one bobbin running out would be a major problem. if the back tack lever is deliberately restricted. Thus a wide range of additional stitch types replaces the traditional lock stitch in manufacturing situations which allow it. To a greater or lesser extent. Changing bobbins is time consuming in production. The thread in a lock stitch generally beds well into the fabric. where restitching is possible provided that the hole has not been cut. if caught and broken. other than by a simple rolling of the fabric edge or the use of a zigzag. both of which are un-tidy. On button holing. in the type of simple lapped seam used for joining the fabric panels in sails. and have for a general characteristic the interloping of the two groups. which pick up a reflection from a flat side on the centre of an otherwise round bobbin as the last of the thread begins to run out are being used now on some machines as are automatic counters which stops the machine after a predetermined number of cycles that will leave the bobbin or bobbins almost empty. Stitch type 306 provides a lock stitch blind stitch. In its three step zigzag version. but close study of the stitch construction will show a straight bobbin thread. which improves abrasion resistance. which secures the end of the stitching without the machine actually sewing in reverse. These are primarily situation where large quantities. it is commonly used to provide a secure but stretchy stitch for the edges of stretch bras and other corsetry. Small sections only are sewn by each operator who can then use a sewing machine specially suited to the purpose.4 MULTI-THREAD CHAIN STITCHES CLASS 400: The stitch types in this class are formed with two or more groups of threads. In its single throw. 266 . The main disadvantage of the lock stitch is that it uses a bobbin to provide the lower thread and this bobbin can contain only a limited length of that thread. Where garments are sewn with twin or multi-needle machines. virtually all stitch types other than 301 are in this category. the end of a line of stitching can be secured by reversing or “back tacking”. it is commonly used for attaching trimmings such as lace and elastic where a broad row of stitching but no neatening is needed. This is more secure than the traditional 103. a group of small or condensed stitches is formed. The single and the three step zigzag are also used in two or three parallel rows. and its un-suitability for edge neatening. the machines normally stop without cutting the hole if the bobbin runs out or the needle thread breaks. 5. Optical bobbin run-out detectors. as is the un picking of top stitching when a thread runs out at a point where a join is visually un acceptable. are made of the same style of garment. Alternatively. zigzag version. It also tends to show pucker on fine fabrics. Two is the maximum number of needles commonly in use on lock stitch machines. especially where complicated fabric folding is involved. which. LAHORE secure because the breaking of one stitch in wear will not cause the whole row to unravel. Multi-needle stitching with many closely spaced needles is not actually possible because of the space that the bobbins would require. Loops of one group of threads are passed through the material and are secured by interlacing and interloping with loops of another group. One group is normally referred to as the needle threads and other group as the looper threads. Even a manual count of the number of garments sewn will tell the operator when another complete seam sill not be achieved.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

compared with lock stitch. Its great advantage is that both the threads forming the stitch are run from large packages on top of the machine so there are no problems with bobbins running out. In situations where elastic is attached to garments. the stretch with this stitch is about the same as with lock stitch. and provided the machine is correctly adjusted. and with no threads interlocking within the fabric it is less likely to cause the type of pucker that arises when closely woven fabrics are distorted by the sewing thread. It should be remembered that these are theoretical maxima. the thread tensions can be loosened and a small increase in stretch obtained. but if a small amount of seam grin is acceptable. practical garment making situations rarely allow it. If 401 is sewn along a garment edge that has previously been neatened or hemmed in some way. there should be no problem. an effect similar to a crocheted picot edge can be achieved with a twin needle version of the same stitch. LAHORE The simplest version of this class of stitch is 401. It is used for attaching lace and braid trimmings to garments where the edge of the fabric must be neatened. sewn with the needle moving in opposition. an open work join between two folded edges of fabric can be achieved. Another increasingly used stitch in this class is 406. Acceleration and braking are often more important than top speed. 1 cm of thread chain should be left. It does not back tack well but the stitches can be condensed. and this enables higher machine speeds to be used with less chance of thread breakage. and on relaxation draws the garment part in to the correct measurement. Because of the geometry of the stitch. a decorative effect can be achieved by folding an edge of garment and attaching a plane elastic braid by means of the three step zigzag 411. The straight or zigzag version of 401 can be chained off the edge of the fabric and further decorative effects can be created by this means. the elastic is stretched by a preset amount whilst being sewn to the fabric. Both 406 and the three needle version 407 are used for attaching elastic edging to briefs where. and also for turning up hems where stitching showing on the right side is acceptable. a two thread chain stitch is stronger than a similar lock stitch. the raw edge of the fabric can be contained under the cover stitching. It will unravel from the finishing end if broken. and although the machines will run at these speeds. Lower thread tension are normally used with these machines. Limitations of seam length and the requirements of operator handling often cause machines to be set to run at lower speeds. It is frequently used on long seems in garments such as trousers. sewn with the chain showing on the right side of the garment and a contrast thread in the looper. in order to achieve a comfortable edge to the garment. which uses two needles and has a longer thread. Stitch type 401 is often used in combination with an Overedge stitch for economy of seam joining and neatening in bulk production. and it is sewn with the chain effect to the right side of the garment. covering the fabric between them on the underside. it is by far the most suitable stitch to use. It has the appearance of lock stitch on the top but has a double chain effect formed by a looper thread on the underside. Typical maximum speeds for lock stitch would be 6000 stitches per minute (SPM) whereas with two thread chain stitch 8000 SPM can be achieved. a broad band of stitching is needed. When adjusted normally. such as those used on jeans. The chain generally lies on the under surface of the material. If not sewn across at the end in the course of the garment’s construction. In each case. Stitches in this class are sometimes referred to as “double-locked ” stitches (not to be confused with class 300 lock stitches) because the needle thread is interconnected with two loops of the under thread. 267 . On twin needle folded seams.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. the needle thread being drawn through to balance the stitch. Alternatively. A bobbin run out in that situation would be disastrous. but less easily than 101.

It can be used on the same kind of light weight fabrics as 512 and 514. but its narrow bight (distance from needle to fabric edge). All have high elasticity. The correct term is “over edging”. especially lingerie and shirts.5 OVEREDGE CHAIN STITCHES CLASS 500: The stitch types in this class are formed with one or more groups of threads. gives a securer seam when fabrics are joined. The most frequently use of these stitch types have one or two needle threads and one or two looper threads. often referred to as serging. and a trimming knife on the machine ensures a neat edge prior to sewing. They provide a wider birth than 504 and this. They also provide good stretch and recovery when used on knitted fabrics. This may be a cross seam. formed with one needle thread and only one looper thread. and have as a general characteristic loops from at least one group of threads passing around the edge of the material.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. in knitted fabrics. They are used on light and medium weight woven fabrics. thus altering the dimensions of the garment. combined with the second needle. for joining seams. On suitable fabrics. or a short zigzag of stitching of fixed length. This knife can also allow excessive amounts to be trimmed off. One such is on tee-shirt hems where careful fabric folding ensures a neatened edge as well as a sewn hem with the minimum of stitching showing on the right side. It has excellent stretch and recovery properties when sewn with suitable threads. after the usual trimming. especially in menswear. usually 2 mm. It is particularly suitable for trousers because the two thread construction is less likely to show an impression of the edge after pressing the legs. has been rolled under to the width of the stitch. Also in this class are stitch type 521 and 514. It referred to as safety stitch and provides an economical seam on both woven and low stretched knitted fabrics. This process is often called “over lock welting”. which uses two needles and a total of four threads. is less versatile and is used mainly for edge neatening. These stitches are commonly referred to as “over locking”. A special machine attachment is available which can “latch back” the chain end at the starting end of the seam and recently finishing end attachments have also been developed. a thread chain end must be left and the seam then secured by some means. A contrasting colored thread is often used. does not provide enough strength on fabrics that fray or slip. When joining fabrics with this stitch. and they form a narrow band of stitching along the edge of the fabric with threads intersecting at the edge and preventing the fabric from frying. It is not normally used for conventional joining of two pieces of fabric as the stitch opens up when stressed transversely. Stitch type 503. as well as on heavier fabrics such as denim and cord 268 . according to the nature of the knitted fabric being joined. A combination of 401 and 503 or 504 sewn simultaneously on one machine is very common where a joined and neatened seam is required that does not need to be pressed open. and is used for neatening edges and. typically 3 to 5 mm. although the term derives from a trade mark and is only really correct when used in relation to a particular machine. LAHORE 5. The bight can be adjusted within these limits to provide satisfactory appearance and an acceptable amount of bulk. but there are some situations where this feature can be used to advantage. of a type that spreads out and forms a good cover over the edge. This stitch type can also be used to provide a decorative neatened edge if sewn with a high stitch density and a narrow bight over an edge which. or if the seam ends on the edge of the garment it may be necessary to secure the thread chain and the seam end by means of a short lock stitch tack or a bar tack. the edge can be stretched while sewing to give a soft frill. they do not unravel easily. Stitch type 504 is formed from one needle thread and two looper threads.

and when the faces of the fabric are opened out the seam is wholly inside the garment. Loops of the first group of threads (the needle thread) are passed through loops of the third group already cast on the surface of the material. Careful study of 602 will show that it is actually the same as 406 with the addition of the top cover thread. they join fabric to fabric or fabric to a trim of some kind in a lapped manner. It has the level of stretch of 401 since that is the stitch that actually holds the seam. comfortable joining of elastic. 512 or 514. the dot indicating a combination stitch and the brackets denoting simultaneity sewing. It is written as (401. Two trimming knives ensure that neat fabric edges butt together and four needles and nine threads provide a smooth join with good extensibility. stitch. it is common on youth’s trousers but not on men’s. types in this class are formed with three groups of threads. With the top cover thread in a contrast color it can be used decoratively on other knitted leisurewear. whether 504.503) or (401.6 COVERING CHAIN STITCHES CLASS 600: With the exception of the very first type. Because of its similar appearance on one side to safety stitch. The most complicated stitch type in this class. Most types of stitch join fabrics where the two plies are placed one on top of the other. They are used in similar situations to 406 and 407. stitch type 512 is often referred to a mock safety stitch. The second and third groups are usually referred to as the top cover threads and the bottom cover or looper threads. or a combination stitch. 606. The general characteristic is that two of the groups cover both surfaces of the material. gives a closed seam where the seam allowance must be pressed to one side rather than opened out. The appearance that this gives will not always be acceptable.g. to give a seam with low bulk that can be worn comfortably against the skin. 5. For brevity. Alternatively. which is known as the flat lock can be used to join fabrics which are butted together in what used to be called. flat. 269 . Stitches in this class are the most complex of all and may have up to nine threads in total including four needle threads. making a broad.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Seam joining with any of the Overedge stitches. the US Federal Stitch Type Numbers: often used in the case of these combination stitches and they then becomes 515 and 516 respectively. and then through the material where they are interloped with loops of the second group of threads on the underside of the material. in the old British standard. braid or binding to the edges of garments such as briefs with the scope for a decorative top cover stitch as well as the functional bottom cover over the raw edge of the garment fabric. With this class of stitch. a chain end is left at the end of the seam which must be secured if not crossed by another seam.504). e. a “flat seam”. It is used on knitted fabric especially underwear fabrics. LAHORE for jeans.

LAHORE 270 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LAHORE 271 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LAHORE 272 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LAHORE 273 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 274 .

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 275 .

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 276 .

LAHORE 277 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LAHORE 278 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE Stitch Type Matrix Flyer 279 .

LAHORE 280 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE 281 .

DDL-8700 DDL-5550N ACF-172-1790 LBH-1790. DDL-5550N MH-380.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. MB-373NS Attach sleeve Sew front fly to left front Sew button on front Sew pocket Sew buttonhole on front Sew button to top of front & cuff 282 . LBH-781 LK-1903A. MB-377NS MB-373NS. MO-6916S MO-6716S LH-3120SQ/M315/R031/R006 MB-1800. ACF-164-1903 DDL-9000. LAHORE CLASSIFICATION BY SEWING ARTICLES Counter sleeve stitch DDL-9000. LK-1903A LK-1903A/BR35. DDL-8700 DLU-5490N. MH-481 MO-6116D. MB-1800 LK-1903A/BR35 MB-377NS.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. DLM-5400N DLM-5420N Sew buttonhole to top of front & cuff Sew yoke to back Runstitch cuff Hem ticket pocket Sew eyelet buttonhole Topstitch waist band corner Sew waist band Serge side pocket facing MH-380 MEB-3200JS DLN-9010. MO-6704S 283 . DDL-8700 DDL-5550N. LAHORE MS-1190F Sew side & under sleeve MO-6116D. DLN-5410NJ MH-1410 MO-6904S. LBH-781 DDL-9000. MH-481 DLM-5200N. MO-6916S MO-6716S LBH-1790.

) Make belt loop Sew leather label to waist band LH-3128G. LAHORE Topstitch left front fly Sew inseam Hem bottom Sew side Bar tack front fly Sew belt loop (5pcs. AMS-215D[P] AMS-221D. AMS-221D[P] AVP-875A Decorative stitch to hip pocket Sew hip pocket to back Sew eyelet buttonhole Set sleeve MEB-3200SS DP-2100 284 . MO-6916J LK-1900A-H MOL-254 MFB-2600 DDL-5600NJ DDL-5550NH DDL-8700H AMS-215D. LH-3178G MS-1261. 35800D DLN-6390 MO-6916G.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

LZ-2290A-SR DLM-5200N Sew brand label Cut front edge Sew sham buttonhole Bar tack buttonhole end Blind stitch front bottom Sew button to front MBH-180S. LK-1903A/BR35 APW-298. LZ-2290A-SR 30-230 LT-591 16-460 DLN-9010SS. MB-377NS. APW-297 APW-196N. DDL-8700. ACF-182 LK-1901A 30-210 MB-1800 . DDL-5550N AMS-210D.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. MB-373NS MB-1800 . LZ-2281NB LZ-2290A. DDL-8700 DLU-5490N. DDL-5550N Sew button to sleeve Sew front pocket welt to back Sew bottom of under collar Sew upper collar Blind stitch back bottom Baste bottom Blind stitch sleeve mouth Sew outside of sleeve 285 . APW-195N 16-100H LZ-586. MB-373NS LK-1903A. DDL-9000. MB-377NS. LAHORE Sew flower hole Hand stitch front edge Blind stitch lapel tape Topstitch for welt pocket Pinpoint stitch facing Bar tack inside pocket MEB-3200SS FLS-350NA CB-641 LZ-2290A-SR MP-200N LK-1900A DDL-9000. LZ-2280N.

DDL-8700.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. MO-6914S. DLU-5490N DDL-5550N. MO-6904S. LK-1903A/BR35 MB-1800. LAHORE Sew buttonhole to front fly LBH-1790. MO-6914S. MO-6714S Hem bottom MF-7723. MO-6714S DDL-9000. MB-377NS. DDL-5550N DLD-5430N Sew side & under sleeve Sew pocket Sew sleeve MO-6114D. MF-7823 Make slit DDL-9000. LBH-781 LK-1903A. DDL-8700. DLD-5430N 286 . MO-6704S MO-6914C Sew button to front fly Serge pocket mouth Attach sleeve mouth rib to sleeve MO-6704S-0E6-300/LB-3 MO-6904S-0E6-300/LB-3 Sew under sleeve MO-6714S-BE4-307/LB-4 MO-6914S-BE4-307/LB-4 MO-6114D. MB-373NS MO-6104D.

ASN-695 Sew eyelet buttonhole Sew belt loop to waist band Sew belt loop bottom MEB-3200TS. APW-194N MH-481. MB-377NS. LK-1901A-S LK-1902A-S Sew hip pocket welt to back APW-297. MEB-3200SS. MO-6704S ASN-697. MO-6904S. DDL-5550N Sew side 287 . LAHORE Attach zipper to left fly LH-3128 Make belt loop MFB-2600 Sew button to fly & hip pocket MB-1800. APW-195N. MB-373NS Serge front & back MO-6104D. DDL-9000. MH-486. DDL-8700 DLU-5490N.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine for Extra Heavy-weight Materials Variable Top-feed. Needle-feed. High-speed. 1-needle.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Differential-feed. Lockstitch Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer 1-needle. Lockstitch Machine Direct-drive. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical Edge Trimmer and Automatic Thread Trimmer <Electronic-stop motor type>1-needle. Lockstitch Machine DDL-5550N SERIES DDL-8700 SERIES DDL-9000 DLN-9010 DLN-5410N SERIES DLN-6390 SERIES DLU-5490N SERIES DLD-5430N SERIES DLM-5400N-7 DMN-5420N-7 EC-10B SERIES LH-3100 SERIES MO-6100D SERIES MO-6900S SERIES MO-6700S SERIES MO-6900R SERIES MO-6900C SERIES MO-6900G SERIES MO-6900J SERIES LB-3. Lockstitch. Cylinder-bed. Lockstitch Machine 1-needle. 1-needle. High-speed. LAHORE Join neck rib & attach neck rib to body Attach sleeve Hem sleeve Hem bottom MF-7723-C10 MO-6114D MO-6914S MO-6714S MF-7723-U10 MF-7823-H20 CLASSIFICATION OF SEWING MACHINES LOCKSTITCH MACHINES 1-needle. 1-needle. Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine Super-high-speed. Over lock Machine Bottom-feed. Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine High-speed. Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine for Extra Heavy-weight Materials Over lock Machine with Semi-automatic Back latch Device Variable Top-feed Over lock Machine with Semi-automatic Back latch Device ZIGZAG STITCHING MACHINES Computer-controlled. Lockstitch Machine High-speed. Lockstitch Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer Direct-drive. Lockstitch Machine 1-needle. 1-needle. Lockstitch Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer 2-needle. Needle-feed Lockstitch Machine with Large Hook 1-needle. Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine Super-high-speed. Direct-drive. Zigzag Stitching Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer (quick reverse type) LZ-2290A SERIES LZ-2290A-SR-7 288 . LB-4 OVERLOCK / SAFETY STITCH MACHINES Dry-head. Cylinder-bed. Over lock / Safety Stitch Machine High-speed. Bottom & Variable Top-feed Lockstitch Machine 1-needle. High-speed. Variable Top-feed. High-speed. Needle-feed. High-speed. Lockstitch. Direct-drive. Needle-feed. Zigzag Stitching Machine Computer-controlled.

Unison-feed. Lockstitch. Unison-feed. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical-axis Hook 1-needle. Cylinder-bed. Zigzag Stitching Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer(with standard / 3-step zigzag stitching pattern changeover function) LZ-2280N SERIES LZ-2284C-7 SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINES Computer-controlled. Button Sewing Machine with Knot-tying Mechanism Computer-controlled. Cylinder-bed. Bar tacking Machine Computer-controlled. Chain stitch. 1-needle. Lockstitch. Unison-feed. Long Arm Lockstitch Machine with Large Hook Cylinder-bed. Unison-feed. Zigzag Stitching Machine High-speed. Dry-head. Lockstitch Buttonholing Machine Computer-controlled.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Lockstitch Machine Cylinder-bed. Double Chain stitch Machine High-speed. Lockstitch Machine for Leather and Heavy Materials 1-needle. High-speed. Button Sewing Indexer Computer-controlled. Unison-feed. Button Sewing Machine Single-thread. Cylinder-bed. 2-needle. Lockstitch Machine with Large Hook and Automatic Thread Trimmer Long-arm. Computer-controlled Buttonholing Indexer Automatic Serging Machine Automatic Pocket Welting Machine with Automatic Welting Patch Feeder Automatic Pocket Welting Machine Electronic Hand stitching Machine (for soft-to-the-touch stitch type) Automatic Pocket Setter (for Jeans) Automatic 2-needle Belt-loop Attaching Machine MACHINES FOR LETHER & HEAVY MATERIALS 1-needle. Dry-head. Chain stitch Button Sewing Machine Single-thread. Button Sewing Indexer High-speed. Dry-head. Lockstitch Sleeve Setting Machine with Multi-programming Device High-speed. Lockstitch Machine with Large Hook 1-needle. Unison-feed. Unison-feed. LAHORE High-speed. Lockstitch. Lockstitch Machine with Double-capacity Hook 1-needle. Button Sewing Machine BUTTONHOLING MACHINES Computer-controlled. Computer-controlled. 1-needle. Needle-feed. Flat-bed. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical-axis Large Hook and Automatic Thread Trimmer (needle thread roll-in and short tail type) High-speed. Unison-feed. Single-thread. Double Chain stitch Machine 1-needle. 1-needle. Single-thread Chain stitch. Lockstitch Machine 289 . Unison-feed. High-speed. Flat-bed. Unison-feed. Top and Bottom Cover stitch Machine High-speed. Chain stitch. High-speed. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical-axis Large Hooks 1-needle. High-speed. Shape-tacking Machine BARTACKING MACHINES / SHAPE-TACKING MACHINES LK-1900A SERIES LK-1910 SERIES AMS-210D AMS-215D AMS-221D ACF-164-1800 ACF-164-1903 ACF-172-1790 ASN-697 ASN-695 APW-290 SERIES APW-190N SERIES FLS-350NA FLS350NB AVP-875S AVP875A MOL-254 DDL-5600N SERIES DDL-8700L DNU-1541 SERIES LU-1500N SERIES LU-1520N-7 LU1521N-7 LU-2210N LU2260N SERIES LU-2216N LU2266N SERIES DNU-261H DSC-240 SERIES LS-1340 SERIES PLC-1610 SERIES COMPUTER CONTROLLED CYCLE MACHINES Computer-controlled Cycle Machine with Input Function <sewing area: 60mm(L) x 130mm(W)> Computer-controlled Cycle Machine with Input Function <sewing area: 110mm(L) x 130mm(W)> Computer-controlled Cycle Machine with Input Function <sewing area: 160mm(L) x 250mm(W)> AUTOMATIC MACHINES High-speed. Top and Bottom Cover stitch Machine High-speed. High-speed. Eyelet Buttonholing Machine with Trimmer for Needle and Looper Thread with Gimp Computer-controlled. Post-bed. Lockstitch. Double Chain stitch Machine Pinpoint Saddle Stitching Machine DP-2100 MF-7700 SERIES MF-7800 SERIES MH-380 MH-382 MH-481 SERIES MH-1410 MP-200N MB-1800 MB-373NS SERIES MB-377NS SERIES LK-1903A LK1903A / BR35 LBH-1790 LBH-780 SERIES MEB-3200 SERIES BUTTON SEWING MACHINES Computer-controlled. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical-axis Large Hook 2-needle. 1-needle. Lockstitch Buttonholing Machine 1-needle. Lockstitch Machine with Vertical-axis Large Hook and Automatic Thread Trimmer 1-needle.

5. do the following: 1. Reduce the number of stitches per inch (SPI) so there are fewer yarns displaced in the stitch line to cause seam puckering. 6. Use smallest needle size possible that will not cause excessive sewing problems. Use a needle plate with a small needle hole. 290 . Puckering is usually caused due to yarn displacement (structural jamming). Identification: Carefully clip the thread between adjacent needle penetrations along the seam and observe if the puckering remains in the fabric or goes away.1 YARN DISPLACEMENT OR STRUCTURAL DAMAGE: Seam puckering is more prevalent on very tightly woven fabrics because the yarns are oriented in very tight layers that cannot shift easily to compensate for the thread as it is inserted in the seam. This causes these tight yarns in the fabric to draw up giving a rippled appearance along the seam line. LAHORE 6. Seam puckering is more common on woven fabrics than knits. then yarn displacement is the probable cause. This phenomenon also occurs after the garment is laundered and the sizing materials are removed causing the seam to pucker and the inspector to think that there was too much shrinkage in the thread. cut the garment pieces so they can be sewn on bias or in a direction that allows different yarns in construction of fabric to be displaced. In some cases it may be necessary to go to a different thread type to take advantage of its higher tenacity. Solutions to Puckering Caused by Yarn Displacement: To minimize seam puckering caused by yarn displacement or the structural jamming of the yarn in the fabric being sewn.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. This is usually more of a problem when seams are sewn in the warp direction than in the weft (filling) or bias directions. 3. sometimes the sizing or resins in the fabric will initially maintain a flat seam but later in the day. however. Threads that are ideal for seaming shirts and blouses with minimum seam puckering are very strong for their size and have an excellent lube allowing them to be sewn with minimum machine thread tension. the thread will try to recover or return to its original length.2 TENSION PUCKERING : If a thread is sewn into the seam with heavy machine thread tension so that it has been elongated or stretched as the stitch is being set. the seam will appear puckered. Excessive thread tension during sewing will not only cause puckered seams but also cause other sewing problems including thread breakage and skipped stitches. This can cause the seam to pucker immediately as the seam is coming out from under the presser foot. 6. and a presser foot with a small needle hole. 4. 2. tension puckering (excessive thread tension). SEAM PUCKERING: Seam Puckering refers to the gathering of a seam either just after sewing or after laundering causing an unacceptable seam appearance. or feed puckering (uneven ply puckering) 6. We recommend a needle with a longer needle point so that it will have less resistance as it penetrates the seam. It may be advantageous to use a smaller thread on non-stress seams that are more prone to seam puckering. When possible. and it is prominent on tightly woven fabrics. Use the smallest thread size available that will maintain adequate seam strength and sewing performance. If the puckering is still in the seam after the threads are clipped.

Identification: Carefully clip the thread between adjacent needle penetrations along the seam and observe if the puckering is reduced in the fabric. and the bottom thread tension. set the opener to shift the bobbin case holder so it will allow the thread to pass by the positioning finger with as little resistance as possible. 3. it may be necessary to use an oil free hook which uses at Teflon coated rail. Advancing the looper thread take-up timing will sometimes allow the needle thread to be released sooner so that it can set with lighter machine thread tension. On many chain stitch machines it is best to draw most of the needle thread through the tension discs when the needle is rising. Next adjust the needle thread tension to a minimum level 291 . do following: 1. 4. On lockstitch machines. Begin by setting the bottom thread tension (bobbin or looper) as light as possible but still maintain the proper thread control. Adjust the thread controls to allow the stitch to be set with minimum thread tension. make sure the positioning finger is correctly set to allow the thread to pass through the hook with minimum resistance. then excessive thread tension is the probable cause of the seam puckering. do following: 1. four elements help in setting the stitch in the seam. In extreme cases.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Solutions to Tension Puckering: To minimize seam puckering caused by thread tension. On most sewing machines. If the machine has a mechanical opener. LAHORE Solutions to Puckering Caused by Tension Puckering: To minimize seam puckering caused by tension puckering or excessive thread tension of yarn in fabric being sewn. On some machines the thread control guides and eyelets can be adjusted to control the thread more efficiently so less tension is required. the looper thread must also be as loose as possible. Use very light machine thread tensions. Polish or replace all eyelets and thread guides that may be grooved to make sure they do not affect the frictional properties of the thread. the feed system. 3. If structural jamming does not appear to be a problem. the needle thread tension. On some machines a rotary tension system is available that meters the thread more uniformly that conventional tension disc systems. 2. it is sometimes necessary to refine the gib or rail on the bobbin case holder so the thread can be released by the hook sooner in the stitch cycle. adjust the stitch balance so the needle loops on the bottom side of the seam lay over at least half way to the next needle penetration when the looper thread is unraveled out of the seam. They are the take-up system. Proper feed timing in reference to the take-up system is critical to sewing with light tensions. On 401 Chain stitch machines. 2. Properly set the take-up spring so that the stitch can be set with minimum thread tension. It has been found that machine oil migrates on other surfaces of the hook and can increase the surface friction as the thread passes around the hook. On lockstitch machines. Lock stitch Machines 1. 2. This sometimes allows the thread to be set with lighter tension. increase the needle size or use a needle with a ball eye needle to open up a larger hole in the fabric so the stitch can be set with the lightest tension possible. and a small amount when the needle is descending (75% on upstroke & 25% on the down stroke). Chain stitch Machines 1. If it is.

Use machines equipped with a needle feed or compound feed mechanism where the needle moves with the feed as the fabric is being sewn. As a general rule. The needle plate and presser foot should have relatively small needle holes in relation to the needle size being used. Identification: Make two perpendicular cuts across a sewn seam where the puckered condition is the greatest. "feeding foot". If one is longer than the other then the puckering is being caused by uneven ply feeding. the needle hole should be approximately twice the size of the needle.12 teeth per inch. Remove the thread in the seam and see if the two plies are of equal length. Ply mismatching as shown in: 1. Puckering can sometimes occur if the material is not held down flat as it is being fed through the machine creating a rippled appearance as the plies conform to the feed dog teeth. 6. Check to make sure that the needle plate is not bent down at the needle hole. This causes a gathering effect in over-fed ply. 3. This "pinning" of the plies as they are being fed helps reduce feed puckering.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. the seam should be clamped by the entire bottom surface of the presser foot. etc.3 FEED PUCKERING (UNEVEN PLY FEEDING): Feed puckering occurs when one of the fabric plies is fed into the seam at a different rate than the other ply or plies. do the following: 1. The feed dog should have the optimum teeth per inch and number of rows of teeth for the operation and fabric being sewn. 2. Use a thread with good lubricity characteristics that will allow it to be sewn with minimum thread tension. 2. This can be checked by inserting a piece of paper under the foot from different angles and observing if the foot is clamping the fabric properly. 3. Heavy weight fabrics are usually sewn with feed dogs with 8 . Usually lightweight wrinkle resistant fabrics should be sewn with feed dogs with 20 24 teeth per inch. Use an "anti-puckering" needle plate with a retaining spring that holds back on the bottom ply to match the top ply. When the feed is up and moving the fabric. Make sure the presser foot is clamping the fabric properly both in front and back of the needle. also improves loop formation and sews ability. 292 . LAHORE necessary to maintain a closed seam and a balanced stitch. 4. Use the correct presser foot and needle plate for the material and operation being sewn. Set the feed dogs at their proper height and check for back-feeding. Reducing the thread size will not only help to minimize structural jamming but can usually be sewn with lighter machine thread tension because a smaller thread requires less tension to pull it up into the seam and set the stitch. Medium weight fabrics like men's trousers should be sewn with feed dogs with 14 . Use a low friction presser foot: Teflon coated roller bearing. This reduces the elongation of thread in seam. Solutions to feed puckering: To minimize seam puckering caused by uneven ply feeding. Use the minimum presser foot pressure that will maintain uniform feeding. Use a thread with a low elongation or high initial modulus to minimize stretching during sewing. Usually occurs when the presser foot holds back on the upper ply as the bottom ply is being fed into the seam at a faster rate by the feed dog. 2.18 teeth per inch. Usually occurs when the operator holds back on the bottom ply and pushes the top ply into the machine so the fabric edges will come out evenly.

Generally. 11. When wrapped with a cotton wrapper. LAHORE 5. With these questions answered. while a T-60 Spun Polyester thread will have a breaking strength a little over 5 lbs.30 per jean.1 CORE SPUN THREADS: Core threads are made by spinning a wrapper of cotton or polyester staple around a bundle of continuous filament polyester fibers to form a yarn and then two or more of these yarns are twisted together to form a core spun thread. etc. When we talk about sewing denim. Most jean manufacturers put their products through various wash processes after the garment is assembled and these processes can be very harsh.25 while the wash-process can cost up to $3. do you need?. core spun threads have very good needle heat resistance. are the core spun threads: 7. There is an old saying that Thread only makes up a small percent of the cost of the finished product … but shares 50% of the seam responsibility. What is the after wash color that you desire?. Most major jean manufacturers have experimented with different thread types and sizes and have found that core spun threads give the best overall performance. From a basic 5-Pocket Jean to the most creative pair of High-Fashion Jeans. core spun threads have excellent 293 . The cost of these wash-processes can be from $0. including multi-directional sewing machines. Make sure the pieces are cut properly in the cutting room and the proper seam tolerances have been maintained so pieces are of equal length before seaming. stones.00 per jean. 7. Make sure you are using the correct capacity of folders and guides for the fabric being sewn. The thread must be able to withstand all of these processes and hold the seams together for the life of the garment. When wrapped with a polyester wrapper.7 lbs. set the differential action to slightly stretch the bottom ply to match the top ply so they are fed evenly into the seam. 6. 10. the core makes up approximately 60% of the thread construction contributing to a more uniform and higher tenacity sewing thread as compared to a 100% spun polyester sewing thread. there are five key issues that need to be addressed are (What weight denim is being sewn?. upper belt feed. top driven roller feed. your sewing plant can produce the quality for each. 9. A typical pair of adult size jeans will have from 200 to 250 yards of thread in them depending on the seam construction. boldness of stitch. and for withstanding chemical degradation and abrasion. Use machines equipped with auxiliary top feeding mechanisms such as: walking foot. What wash process will the jeans see?. e.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. position the ply with the greatest amount of stretch are against the feed if possible. If the plies have different stretch characteristics.00 per jean depending on the chemicals.g. 7. The cost of this high-performance thread will be approximately $0. and What degradation issues need to be addressed?. puller. On machines equipped with differential feed systems. we will be able to produce jeans that meet the requirements for today's variety in Jeans-Wear. a T-60 PW Core thread will have a breaking strength of approximately 8. 8. What seam appearance.25 to $0. The total thread in the garment costs $0. enzymes and process time required. The threads of choice used by most quality denim garment manufacturers for sewing on all types of sewing equipment.75 to $3. Observe operator for proper fabric movement to and through the machine. OPTIMIZING SEAM PERFORMANCE FOR DENIM: Selecting the proper thread for denim garments is very important to minimize sewing and seam performance issues. Use automatic machines equipped with material clamping systems that prevent the fabric from moving as it is being sewn.

a user of Cotton-Wrapped Core should look at all wash codes to insure the thread color will be appropriately maintained. 2. This will allow a more controlled shade. Cotton-Wrapped and Polyester Wrapped Core threads offer excellent abrasion resistance to the varied wash codes that a pair of jeans may be exposed to. the more resistant the thread is to being cut by the needle or feed or to failure due to chemical degradation or heat. With this known factor. THREAD SIZE NEEDLE THREAD Tex 120 Tex 105 Tex 80 Tex 60 Tex 40 LOOPER THREAD Tex 80 or 60 Tex 80 or 60 Tex 60 or 40 Tex 40 Tex 40 SERGING T-40 T-40 T-40 T-40 T-40* APPLICATION Extra Bold Appearance Bold Appearance Bold Appearance - Both of these thread types are available in sizes to meet the variety of denim fabric weights. Usually the larger the thread size. you would select a Cotton-Wrapped Core thread.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.1 MAJOR CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS TO THESE PROBLEMS 1. From a Tex 40 to a Tex 120. many manufacturers have found this problem to be significant reaching in excess of 20 to 30% of the products being sewn. While most of the wash codes in the USA are now a combination of chemicals and stone to obtain the desired look. Some basic sizes used in today's denim are listed in the table to the right: 8. Use the correct size to obtain the desired look while maintaining seam integrity. stone is still predominately utilized outside the USA. If color fastness is key. Broken stitches can also occur when there is excessive abrasion or chemical degradation of thread during wash. Degrees of color fastness will vary with particular shades. many jean designers want the thread to maintain its color for the life of the garment and offer a signature look. then select a Polyester-Wrapped Core thread. On the other hand. In fact. you have the option of picking the desired color from a color palette to obtain the look you want after the wash procedures. 294 . Many times this problem occurs when a previously sewn stitch line is crossed during a subsequent operation and needle damages the thread in seam. if this is the case. We still recommend doing preproduction wash testing prior to going into production. which will be maintained after continual washes by the consumer. CUT OR BROKEN STITCHES: Most manufacturers of denim and twill garments that pre-wash garments after assembled have experienced problems with excessive "cut" or "broken" stitches. Many manufacturers have significantly reduced the number of "cut" and "broken" stitches by using high-performance sewing threads. Also with Polyester Wrapped products. The fibrous surface on either thread reduces the shiny look and also contributes to superior frictional characteristics. you can achieve the desired performance throughout the sewing floor and after the varied finishing processes. We also recommend doing pre-production wash testing to assure that the wash-down look will be acceptable. LAHORE chemical resistance and color fastness. 8. Make sure the correct thread type and size are being used in both the needle and bottom (looper) positions. Some designers prefer the thread to wash-down during the wash processes and. Core threads that have a continuous filament polyester core in each singles yarn are more resistant to cutting and degradation than 100% spun polyester threads and other thread constructions.

2 DAMAGE DONE DURING PRE-WASHING: Sometimes partially damaged thread from the sewing operation will fail during stone washing or other processes. LAHORE 3. Check the edges of the needle plate and presser foot needle holes to make sure they do not have any sharp edges or burrs that can damage the thread during sewing. Companies have found best just to replace needle on critical operations once or twice a day. etc. Typical thread sizes used on heavy denim run from T-105 to T-60 depending on desired look. chemical degradation. make sure the correct fiber type. A cotton wrapped core thread may be more resistant than a 100% polyester thread. and size is being used. and temperatures that are being used in both the washing and drying processes. If the needle point is damaged. Most major thread suppliers have developed high-performance lubricants to minimize heat damage on polyester threads. 100% polyester is much more resistant to enzymes and chemicals as compared to cotton threads. 295 . Inspect the needle point at regular intervals and check for sharp or burred points. Make sure the stitch on the seam line is loose and be able to move if it is hit by the needle. many seams are damaged during the wash processes due to excessive abrasion. 8. Changes of cycle times and Changes in temperature during the washing or drying cycles. You should monitor and properly test any changes of rocks and chemicals from one vendor to another. 7. Typical thread sizes used on twills of chinos run from T-40 to T-60. Check for signs of needle heat or excessive heat exposure during laundering that may be melting the thread. cycle times. Work with your laundry to develop standards with regard to the type and amount of chemicals. On the other hand. buff the feed dog teeth with a wire wheel or with a stone if they appear to be sharp. 4. replace the needle. Use proper thread tensions. Make sure the thread has the proper type and amount of lube. On some machines it is sometimes necessary to use a presser spring with fewer coils per inch to give more consistent pressure even when crossing heavy seams. Excessive presser foot pressure can cause the thread to be damaged when it is compressed against a relatively sharp surface. 5. seat seaming. Tight machine thread tensions will not allow proper flexibility in the stitch and will increase "cut-stitch" damage. 9. Be careful not to remove too much of the feed dog teeth that could hinder the feeding or interfere with chaining. the ideal stitch balance is when the needle loop on the underside of the seam lays over half way to the next needle penetration. Inspect the feed dog teeth directly behind the needle holes and make sure they are not sharp. Most of the time this damage is difficult to detect but should be investigated using the suggestions mentioned on the previous pages.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Because of this many manufacturers have increased the thread size on critical operations like waist banding. The proper type and capacity folder should be used to prevent stalling when crossing heavy seams. rocks. Properly remove all burred or sharp surfaces making sure not to oversize the needle holes which can lead to excessive "flagging". Feed stalling will increase the chances of "cut" stitches. For example. and heat degradation. on chain stitch seams. try using a special coated needle or needle coolers to reduce needle heat. thread construction. 8. the thread will have a hard melted surface that can be felt or seen using a magnifying glass. Usually if the thread has been damaged by heat. Use the minimum amount of presser foot pressure to get a uniform stitch length. 6. If you suspect that needle heat is a problem. Generally. If required. To reduce damage to thread in seams. This can be checked by unraveling the looper thread and observing the needle thread on the underside of the seam.

This may include going to a higher performance thread designed to minimize sewing interruptions. using T-40 core spun thread on serging. 4.g. Observe sewing operators for correct material handling techniques. and natural instead of dyed thread on loopers or inside threads. Insure proper machine maintenance and sewing machine adjustments. Caused by the stitch forming device in the sewing machine missing the thread loop during stitch formation causing a defective stitch. Ways of reducing thread cost without sacrificing in performance might include using high performance thread reduces down time and rejects due to seam failure. on Topstitching. using smaller thread sizes. recommendations on the correct needle size and machine setup for obtaining the maximum efficiency for each operation. 3. or where you can see that the threads in the stitch are not properly connected together. However. then the seam does not appear to be 1st quality merchandise. Also. which should include any additional maintenance costs related to thread sewing and seam performance. 9. 4. Use a better quality sewing thread. On looper type stitches. whether it should be insideout or right-side-out.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Insure proper machine maintenance and sewing machine adjustments. Use a better quality sewing thread. this may include using spun polyester or air entangled threads as looper threads or serging threads on the inside of the garment. 2. 3.3 Thread Cost: Core spun threads generally have a higher purchase prices than spun polyester and air entangled threads. possibly appearing as double the normal stitch length. Observe sewing operators for correct material handling techniques. If this occurs 9. 8. Make sure sewing machines are properly maintained and adjusted for the fabric and sewing operation. or cut or broken stitches during a subsequent treatment of the finished product (i. MINIMIZING SKIPPED STITCHES: 1. etc. the fly buttoned or not buttoned. 2. SEAM QUALITY DEFECTS (RE-STITCHED SEAMS / BROKEN STITCHES): Where a "splice" occurs on the stitch line.4 Ways of Reducing Cost: In today's competitive market place. 9. e. If used a less expensive thread construction on a non-critical seam. Care should be taken if the garments are turned right-side-out when they are still wet. this will allow stitch to unravel causing seam failure. everyone must be concerned about costs. the total cost of thread. stone washing). Extra moisture in garments can cause excessive whipping of bottom hem seam causing excessive damage.e.2 SKIPPED STITCHES: Where the stitch length is inconsistent. 8. generally makes core spun thread a real value.1 MINIMIZING THREAD BREAKAGE 1. Your Thread Company should have an excellent Technical Service Team to assist with any questions you may have concerning thread application or thread specifications for any denim fabric you will sew. Caused by thread breaks or thread run-out during sewing. This may include going to a higher performance thread designed to minimize sewing interruptions. Make sure sewing machines are properly maintained and adjusted for the fabric and sewing operation. 296 . LAHORE Evaluate the best way the garment should be processed.

and not enough stitches per inch. 9. improper stitch balance. Check with your fabric manufacturer. caused by the needle. Sew with minimum sewing tension to get a balanced stitch 2. improper seam width or needle spacing for application. check for "Stitch Cracking". 9. a smaller.caused by sewing seams with too large of thread that causes the yarns in the seam to be displaced. inadequate thread strength for seam.6 EXCESSIVE SEAM PUCKERING . MINIMIZING NEEDLE CUTTING ON KNITS: 1. MINIMIZING EXCESSIVE SEAM PUCKERING 1. Feed Puckering .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.FABRIC: Where the yarns in the fabric pull out of the seam from the edge.3 MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES – STITCH 1. 3. Also caused by loosely constructed fabrics. as it is penetrating the seam. MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES . Use the proper size thread for the application 2. Use the correct thread type and size for the fabric. In many cases. 4.where the plies of fabric in the seam are not being aligned properly during sewing. 2. Check for proper operator handling techniques. Tension Puckering . Make sure proper thread and needle size and type are being used for the fabric 2. This often occurs on fabrics constructed of continuous filament yarns that are very smooth and have a slick surface.SEAM FAILURE – FABRIC: Where the stitch line is still intact but the yarns in the fabric have ruptured. LAHORE Where the threads in the seam have ruptured leaving a hole in the stitch line caused by improper stitch for application. 3. and or improper thread selection.4 MINIMIZING SEAM FAILURES . For knit fabrics. 9. giving a puckered appearance. Contact your fabric supplier. Use a better quality sewing thread. 9.SEAM SLIPPAGE 1. OPEN SEAM . Stitch cracking can be caused either by not enough stitches per inch. Increase the seam width or width of bite 3. Make sure fabric is properly stored to prevent drying out and finished properly 3. higher tenacity thread is required to minimize seam puckering but maintain seam strength 297 . damaging the fabric. This may include going to a higher performance thread designed to give greater seam performance. Consider changing the seam construction to a French seam construction 2. Generally. Optimize the stitches per inch 4. The thread then causes the seam to draw back and pucker.5 NEEDLE CUTTING ON KNITS: Where needle holes appear along the stitch line that will eventually turn into a "run".where the thread has been stretched and sewn into the seam. Make sure machines are set up properly for the fabric being sewn 3. Yarn Displacement or structural jamming . Caused by one of the following: 1.WOVENS: Where the seam does not lay flat and smooth along the stitch line.

7 PUCKERED SEAMS . 2. Use a quality thread with consistent frictional characteristics. Use a quality thread with consistent frictional characteristics 2. then the seam has too much "grin through". where the stitch is too loose. 3. To check for Seam Grin.9 IMPROPER STITCH BALANCES . SOLUTIONS: To correct. In the photo. Observe operator for correct handling techniques. SOLUTIONS 1. 9. readjust the sewing machine thread tensions so that the proper stitch balance is achieved. button falls off. excessive thread breakage. set them properly. If sewing machines are equipped with differential feed. 2. apply normal seam stress across the seam and then remove the stress. 298 . 9.11 IMPROPER STITCH BALANCE . Where the seam SOLUTIONS 1. SOLUTIONS 1. so that the minimum thread tension is required to get a balanced stitch. the trimming knives have been set wider than the "stitch tongue" on the needle plate causing the "ropy" appearance. Always start by checking the bobbin thread tension to make sure it is set correctly. Too much tension will cause other problems including seam failures. Use minimum presser foot pressure during sewing. LAHORE 9.12 RAGGED / INCONSISTENT EDGE-OVEREDGE OR SAFETYSTITCH Where the edge of the seam is either extremely "ragged" or "rolls" inside the stitch.504 OVEREDGE STITCH: Where needle loop is not pulled up to underside of seam and "purl" is not on edge of seam. SOLUTIONS 1. Properly balance the stitch so that when the looper thread is unraveled. The knives should be adjusted properly in relationship to the "stitch tongue" on the needle plate to obtain the proper seam width or width bite. Also. This is particularly evident with different colored needle and bobbin threads.10 IMPROPER STITCH BALANCES .8 EXCESSIVE SEAM GRIN: Where the stitch balance is not properly adjusted (stitch too loose) and you can see the seam opening up.13 UNRAVELING BUTTONS: Where a tail of thread is visible on the topside of the button and when pulled. 9. Properly balance the stitch so that when the looper thread is unraveled. 9. SOLUTIONS: Use a quality thread with consistent frictional characteristics and Properly balance the stitch so that the needle and bobbin threads meet in the middle of the seam.KNITS & STRETCH WOVENS: does not lay flat after stitching. Make sure the sewing machine knives are sharpened and changed often.301 LOCKSTITCHES: Where loops are seen either on the bottom side or topside of the seam.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. If the seam remains opened. the needle loop lays over half way to next needle loop on the underside of seam. the needle loop lays over half way to next needle loop on the underside of seam. 9. 9. and skipped stitches. 2. Too much stretching of the fabric by the sewing operator will cause this problem.401 CHAINSTITCH: Where the loops on the bottom side of the seam are inconsistent and do not appear uniform.

CLUTCH OR THUMB SCREW: This is in the center of the flywheel and it engages and disengages the stitching mechanism. which increases or decreases the pressure on the disc. The lever moves down to loosen the top thread while the stitch is being formed. BOBBIN CASE: This moves into position to catch the top thread and form the stitch as the needle is lowered into the bobbin chamber. 5. The tension of the thread is adjusted by a spring and a nut. FACE PLATE: This is a cover which when remove give access to the oiling points on Needle bar and thread take up. 10. Some regulators can be set to stitch in reverse. which can be slid open to remove bobbin case. 15. NEEDLE PLATE OR THROAT PLATE: This is a semicircular plate with a hole to allow the needle to pass through it. The industrial sewing machines are designed for tuff wear and tear purposes. 8. THREAD GUIDES: They hold thread in position from spool to the needle. 10. 2. 7. it works the mechanism of the machine. SPOOL PIN FOR BOBBIN WINDING: Spool of thread is placed on this at the time of winding the bobbin. 12. Specify attaching the buttons with a Lockstitch instead of a single thread Chain stitch Button sewing machine. 14. they are Industrial sewing machines and Domestic sewing machines. and the domestic sewing machines are used for simpler tasks. FLY WHEEL: When the wheel is made to rotate. 3. TAKE UP LEVER: There is a small hole on the top of this lever through which the needle will pass. 11. STITCH REGULATOR: This controls the length of the stitch. Use a quality sewing thread to minimize skipped stitches. which holds needle at one end with the help of a clamp. 13. then pulls up the thread tight to complete the stitch. TENSION DISC: It consists of two discs and the thread passes through these discs. 2. FEED DOG: This consists of a set of teeth fitted below the Needle plate. SPOOL PIN: It holds the spool of thread. It helps to move a cloth forward while sewing. NEEDLE BAR: This is a steel rod. SEWING MACHINES: There are different types of sewing machines. PRESSER FOOT: This is attached to presser bar for raising and lowering the presser foot. 9. or but they can be classified into two major types. 6.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 299 . LAHORE SOLUTIONS 1. SLIDE PLATE: This is a rectangular plate. 4. Most important thing is to know your sewing machines. The parts of a sewing machine and its functions are listed below: 1.

such as cuff of an assembled sleeve during a felling operation. etc. This bed shape is used for sleeve setting. 19. bobbin presser is released and bobbin winder stops automatically. 17. trimming extra threads. COMPUTERIZED LOCKSTITCH MACHINE: This is similar to the SNLS and DNLS machines except that a small device controls all their operations attached to the machine. stitch length. Turn thread tension post clockwise. 300 . REVERSE STITCHING LEVER: Depress lever. There are 4 types of Bed: 1 FLAT BED: The most widely used type of Machine Bed for the flat Sewing. WINDING BOBBIN: Thread bobbin winder as per instructions. If bobbin is not wound up evenly adjust position of thread tension bracket. It controls the speed.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. TAKE UP SPRING: To change the stroke of thread take up spring.1 TYPES OF SEWING BEDS: Sewing Beds are Machines designed to sew a Stitch Chain. The moment bobbin has been wound up. DOUBLE NEEDLE LOCKSTITCH MACHINE (DNLS): This machine is used were double stitches are necessary on garments. LAHORE 16. FEED OF ARM: This machine is used for stitching only the sleeve and side seam of a shirt. To change pressure of thread take-up spring. It saves time instead of sewing twice with a single needle lockstitch machine. This forms a complete flat-fell seam in a single operation with a folder. Join a Seam or Perform a Specific Operation. machine performs reverse stitching while lever is kept down. BUTTONHOLE MACHINE: This stitches buttonholes on fabric in single operation. bar-tack. Tilt bobbin presser to bring bobbin winder wheel into contact with the belt. 10. loosen screw (hidden inside machine) in thread tension post and adjust the pressure of thread take-up spring. 18. With needles changed mostly all kinds of materials can be sewn with this machine. Release lever and lever will rise for forward stitching. 3 POST BED: The shape of this bed allows for a part to be grasped and turned without difficulty. 2 CYLINDER BED: The shape of this bed allows for the easy rotation of tubular parts. and the pressure of the thread take-up spring will increase. MACHINES FOR SPECIAL OPERATION: different special operations. Loosen screw and remove thread tension post. Turn the thread tension post counter clockwise and the pressure will decrease. loosen screw in the thread tension post socket. PRESSER FOOT PRESSURE: Turn pressure spring regulator clockwise to increase or counterclockwise to reduce the presser foot pressure. 4 FEED OFF THE ARM: The shape of this bed is used for lap seaming the outside leg seams of trousers after the inside leg seam has been closed. and turn thread tension post appropriately. they are: Several machines are used for SINGLE NEEDLE LOCKSTITCH MACHINE (SNLS): This machine is used for stitching all the basic operations.

11. S-twist vs. LAHORE BUTTON STITCH MACHINE: Button stitch machine helps in sewing buttons to fabric. Button hole and button attaching machine. This machine helps to secure raveled edges and avoids raveling. Each of these configurations is known as a stitch type and they are classified according to their main characteristics. securing loops to pants. BAR-TACKING MACHINE: This helps in securing corners of pockets. looper and threads which combine to construct the stitch. Without a reverse twist. bar tack machine etc. hair). Twisting together short fibers or continuous filaments produces these yarns. filament and it is enough to baffle even the most knowledgeable "expert". NATURAL FIBERS: Animal (wool. OVER-LOCKING MACHINE: This machine is also called as safety stitch machine. men’s shirts. This process known as “singling twist” is responsible for the strength and flexibility. acetate) MAN-MADE: Mineral (glass. AUTOMATIC BELT-LOOP ATTACHING MACHINE: A Machine for Sewing Belt Loops on the Finished Garment with Capacity of Changing Length and Width. 11. Over-lock machine. jute) REGENERATED: Cellulose (rayon. THREAD: In the world of sewing. Every category of sewing machine produces a specific type of stitch formation depending on the number of needles. silk. BLIND STITCHING MACHINE: Blind stitching machines are types of machines used for fastening hems. The purpose of this booklet is simply to provide the factual information you need to make informed choices. elastic. the thread cannot be controlled during sewing. Chain stitch machine. a “reverse twist” is applied to add balance. Vegetable (cotton. flax. The vast array of fibers alone is enough to be confusing to the average home sewer. polypropylene) 11. and mainly used in sewing denims.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. acrylic.2 HOW IS THREAD MADE? All sewing threads begin as simple yarns. metallic) SYNTHETIC: (polyester. skirts and slacks. When two or more yarns are combined to make the thread.1 COMMON TYPES OF THREAD: The earliest sewing threads were made from either animal or vegetable products and while most of these natural fiber threads are still very popular. which is essential in any good sewing thread. specifically home sewing. nothing is as misunderstood as thread. threads made from man-made or synthetic fiber have become increasingly popular in recent years. AUTOMATIC POCKET SETTER: An automatic machine is used to produce neatly finished pockets on casual shirts and dress shirts. The individual yarns or plies would separate as they pass through the needle and the tensions discs of the sewing machine. it is done in single operation. nylon. facings and cuff finishing or various garments such as blouses. Machine used generally for different types of sewing are known as Lock stitch machine. Z-twist. spun vs. add to that sizing. 301 .

Maxi-Lock®.No further processing to change its physical characteristics. produces all spun threads.In this process cotton thread is treated in a caustic solution under controlled tension. cotton thread was the standard sewing thread both industrially and in the home. This process also produces a higher sheen.3 THREAD FINISHING: After construction. 3. or left twist. The glazed process results in a thread with a hard finish that protects the thread from abrasion and enhances ply security. one with too much twist can cause snarling. LAHORE TWIST: Twist is simply the number of turns per cm or inch put in the thread. 302 . MERCERIZED . therefore. Two-ply threads. is engineered specifically for the sewing machine. Elite Premium Serger Thread®. This causes the fibers to swell. made from polyester fibers cut to the same length as cotton staple. All spun threads are made up from staple fibers that are spun into single yarns and then plied to make a sewing thread. 10. 10. GASSED . A thread with too little twist may fray and break. as we learned earlier. 5. The result is a tough smooth coating that adds significantly to the thread's ability to resist abrasion and greatly enhances ply security. Balance is the key and a good sewing thread has it.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Spun polyester thread.This is a process in which cotton threads are treated with starches and special chemicals under controlled heat and then polished to a high luster. SOFT . Mercerization also increases luster and adds some strength.4 THREAD TYPES SPUN THREADS: Throughout most of the twentieth century. are simply two yarns which have been twisted together. 4. or right twist. but can actually untwist a thread with S-twist. was introduced as a substitute for cotton. it was only natural to attempt to emulate the sewing characteristics of cotton.Treating continuous filament nylon or polyester with a special resin that encapsulates the filaments is called bonding. For this reason the direction in which the thread is twisted becomes important. A thread with a Z-twist. Twisting together yarns made from short fibers. PLY: The number of component yarns that are twisted together to produce a thread is the ply. TWIST DIRECTION: As threads pass through a sewing machine some additional twist may be added. When synthetics were developed. Mettler’s all-purpose polyester. The action of the sewing process tends to increase the twist of a Z-twisted thread. Gutterman® and all cotton threads are examples of spun thread. resulting in a greater affinity for dyeing. It is only dyed and lubricated. BONDED . GLAZED . looping and knotting. 2.Passing cotton thread through a flame at high speed to reduce the fuzz is known as gassing. 1. the thread is finished to enhance its suitability for various sewing uses.

No clear standard has evolved that is universal in the home sewing market. The most common examples are Dual Duty® and Signature®. Woolly Nylon® is the best example of textured thread. As a general rule of thumb. you will be able to relate the thread one manufacturer calls a number 50 to a 40/3 ply from another. The result is a strong. CORE SPUN THREADS: This process seeks to achieve the strength of continuous filament threads with the sewing performance of spun thread. is adopted for home sewing thread. the longer the staple length of the fibers. 10. confusion will exist. This relationship of length to weight is known as linear density.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. strength. Wonder Invisible Thread® and Sulky’s® invisible thread are good examples. (such as cotton count. or some other standard.005 being the most popular for the home sewer. TEXTURED THREADS: This process adds texture to the parallel continuous filaments of synthetic yarns. The textured filaments are then twisted slightly and heat set. LAHORE However the staple lengths of the fibers utilized can have an important effect on the quality. There are many sizing systems used. They are available in a number of sizes. such as Mettler® and Gutterman® are produced from longer staple fibers. consistent sewing thread. which gives them a soft hand and good lubricity characteristics. The highest quality spun polyester. Textured threads are typically used in the loopers of a serger or over locker. Core spun thread features a continuous filament polyester core covered with cotton or polyester fibers. continuous fibers.5 COMMON THREAD SIZING STANDARDS: In the industrial sewing thread market. Until the TEX system. A singling twist is applied to these unbroken. MONOFILAMENT THREAD: This is a single synthetic filament extruded to a specific diameter. and performance of the thread produced. spun polyester to filament silk. or size. or denier) relate to TEX. the better the quality of thread produced. The TEX system will be used as the standard in this booklet. yarn count. However. Our intent here is to give you universal standards by which you can compare thread sizes from one manufacturer to another. Once you understand how the various standards.004 and . They are then brought together and a finishing twist is applied. or even cotton to rayon. we hope the information here will help. the Cotton Count System (NEc) has been the accepted standard utilized in sizing spun threads and the Denier System (Td) has been the accepted standard for filament threads. YLI Quilting threads and Mettler's cotton threads are examples of cotton threads produced with long staple cotton. but they generally fall into two classifications: 303 . Two or more of these composite yarns are then twisted to form the thread. creating softness and bulk. The TEX System is that standard for industrial sewing thread. These threads provide excellent coverage for seams and rolled edges. The most common examples are most rayon and polyester embroidery threads and YLI’s Ultrasheen®. . Spun threads will have a more “fuzzy” surface. CONTINUOUS FILAMENT THREADS: This process begins by extruding individual filaments of synthetic material. THREAD SIZING: There is a great deal of confusion and misinformation regarding the size of sewing thread and how we communicate size to one another. Over the last several years there has been a great deal of support to adopt a universal standard under which all sewing threads can be sized and will be understood world wide regardless of the thread’s construction. SIZING SYSTEMS: All threads can be produced in different thicknesses and the "size" of a particular thread is the relationship of its length to its weight.

and the coarser the thread. If you then twisted two of those single strands together.67 weight. In Fixed Weight Systems.0 .59.0 . particularly in embroidery thread is “Thread Weight”.Weight in grams of 1. 40/3 Cotton. 60/4. the Tex system will be used in this brochure as the standard sizing system. The number assigned is always the smaller bracket number.43 cotton count = 35wt.9] = Tex 27 Tex # [40.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.0 . HIGHER THE NUMBER-THICKER THE YARN.For Spun Threads – This is the number of hanks (840 yds. THE TEX SYSTEM: As we indicated earlier.9] = Tex 12 Tex # [18.0 . EXAMPLE: If you had a single strand of yarn 840 yards long weighing one pound. the larger the number.9] = Tex 10 Tex # [16.9] = Tex 18 Tex # [24.0 . For example.6 THREAD WEIGHT: Another popular size measurement system.Finer the Yarn. LAHORE Fixed Weight: These systems use the length of yarn that makes up a given weight.20.9] = Tex 35 Tex # [50.weight in grams per 9.26.104.49.000 meters) FIXED LENGTH SYSTEMS.9] = Tex 21 Tex # [27. Second.9] = Tex 40 Tex # [61.11.e.0 .9] = Tex 90 Tex # [12.23. in a two ply construction (the second number). 2 ply = 30wt. All three of these threads have the equivalent size of 15.0 . a 40/3 quilting thread is not a 40wt.The same size thread can be constructed using different count yarns by varying the number of plies.17. logical size numbers are assigned. All sizes falling into a particular bracket receive the same Tex number. In order to reduce the sheer volume of sizing numbers that could be assigned. NEc (Cotton Count) . 45/3.9] = Tex 50 Tex # [80.0 . this only works for two-ply threads. 10. the Tex sizes are bracketed. and Tex is a metric system. 40 ÷ 3= 13.39. Higher the Number . A cotton count of “1 ” means 840 yards of yarn weigh 1 pound and a cotton count of “2 ” means 1680 yards (840x2) weigh 1 pound.000 meters.0 . 2 ply = 40wt.33 equivalent the same size in a two-ply thread would be 26. Td (Denier count): Continuous Filament Threads .79.9] = Tex 16 Tex # [21. Tex (TEX) . unfortunately.9] = Tex 60 Tex # [90.15. thread. All the following threads are physically the same size of 30/2.0 . the smaller the size number assigned.0 . Since most embroidery thread is a two-ply construction it is generally believed that “Thread Weight” equals the count number (the first number) as in the Cotton Count System.000 m. because metric designations are used worldwide.9] = Tex 80 304 . so to determine “Thread Weight” the denier size of the thread must be converted to cotton count. simply divide the yarn count by the number of plies. Fixed Length: These systems use the weight of a given length.67 or a 26. since Tex is a direct numbering system. Filament embroidery threads (i. and 30/2 = 30 count. To determine the equivalent size. the size would then be 1/2: One count yarn (the first number). (1 Tex = 1 gram per 1. 40/2 = 40 count. 150 denier two-ply rayon embroidery thread = 35. its count (or size) would be shown as 1/1.0 . It was chosen for two reasons: first.) of yarn it takes to equal 1 pound. Cotton Count = 5315 ÷ denier 120 denier two -ply rayon embroidery thread = 44. This simply means it had a count of one (the first number) and that it was a single strand of yard (the second number). the finer the thread.0 . Equivalent Size .: rayon and polyester) are typically measured in denier. For example a Tex 42 thread would be labeled a Tex 40 thread.89.34.9] = Tex 24 Tex # [35. Tex # [10.29 cotton count = 40wt.

All you need to know is the cotton count or denier to convert any thread size to Tex. LAHORE THREAD SIZE COMPARISON: In order to make comparisons as understandable as possible. #35 rayon 300 33 27 Elite 60/3 29 27 Maxi-Lock 42/2 28 27 LIGHT WEIGHT THREADS: Thread Type Cotton Denier Tex Count Number Sulky rayon #40 240 26 R&A. all purpose poly 50/3 318 35 35 Coats Dual Duty. To convert denier to TEX multiply denier by .1111 (d x 0. the following chart breaks thread into three major classifications: Heavy weight threads: Tex 40 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. all purpose poly 50/3 35 35 Gutterman.5.Tex 24 The threads used in the following chart are only examples to help you establish a basis of understanding. into 590. To convert cotton count to TEX Divide the cotton count.rayon #40 240 26 Mettler PolySheen 240 26 Woolly Nylon 240 24 Mettler cotton 60/2 19 YLI Heirloom 70/2 16 Madeira cotton 80/2 14 YLI Heirloom 100/2 11 YLI Silk #100 124 12 Tex Size 24 24 24 24 18 16 12 10 12 305 .Tex 90 Medium weight threads: Tex 27 .Tex 35 Light weight threads: Tex 10 . cotton 40/2 31 27 Finishing Touch. poly/cotton 35/2 300 33 27 YLI Silk #50 243 27 27 YLI Select.1111) HEAVY WEIGHT THREADS: Thread Type Cotton Denier Tex Tex Count Number Size YLI Jeans Stitch 18/3 98 90 YLI Silk # 30 567 63 60 YLI Colors 30/3 59 50 YLI Quilting 40/3 44 40 Mettler Quilting 40/3 44 40 Gutterman Quilting 40/3 44 40 Signature Cotton 360 Quilting 40/3 44 40 Sulky #30 rayon 40 40 MEDIUM WEIGHT THREADS: Thread Type Cotton Denier Tex Tex Count Number Size Mettler.

and ply security or ply adhesion. Worn or defective machine parts. Many times a skipped stitch or thread break will occur when crossing another seam.. 7. However. Improper operator handling. many times the skip or break occurs right after the thickness has been crossed and usually the result of flagging. a) The upward motion of the needle b) The clamping action of the thread between the needle blade and the fabric. Ideally. 10. affects quality. The thread characteristics that impact loop formation include elongation or stretchiness of the thread. we will focus on the characteristics in thread that impact thread breakage. Therefore. hook. but later we will also discuss a logical approach used for trouble-shooting thread breakage. 12. Machines out of adjustment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. the stitch forming device can strike the thread causing the thread to break or miss the loop causing a skipped stitch. If the seam is not held in a stationary position when the needle is rising. twist direction & twist level. the thread will not be properly clamped on the scarf side of the needle and poor loop formation will occur. 10. Improper feeding. 6. Needle heat. Improper needle / thread size relationship. Proper Loop Formation: Every sewing machine uses a needle to pass thread through the seam to form a stitch. Excessive machine thread tension. looper. as the needle begins to rise. Defective needle or improper positioning. called flagging. 5. This could apply additional tension to the thread or cause the needle to deflect away from the stitch-forming device.g.8 Characteristics in Thread That Affect Breakage & Skipped Stitches: The key product characteristics in thread that have the greatest impact on thread breakage and skipped stitches includes proper loop formation. Thread breakage and skipped stitches can be caused by many factors including: 1. When the needle thread loop is formed. Initially. Flagging. This problem could occur due to the additional thickness that the needle has to penetrate. and c) Holding of seam in a position play an important role in proper loop formation. is one of the most common causes of skipped stitches and thread breakage. if an improper thread loop is formed. Wrong thread for the application. however. Worn or defective thread guides. absence of yarn imperfections. and reduces the earnings and efficiency of production operators. 8. liveliness of the thread and frictional characteristics needed to set a balanced stitch If the needle size . 3. the stitch forming device will enter the loop and continue to form the stitch.7 MINIMIZING THREAD BREAKAGE: Thread breakage and skipped stitches are common aggravations on any sewing floor because it interrupts production. There are many variables that impact thread breakage and skipped stitches. 4. Improper threading. proper lubrication. spreader) to enter. initial modulus or initial resistance to stretching. Loop Formation refers to the forming of a loop for the stitch-forming device (e. Quality defects in the thread. This happens when the back portion of the presser foot is still on the seam and the front portion of the foot is no longer clamping the fabric securely. This condition. 11. the seam will rise with the needle and not form a proper needle loop. 2. LAHORE 10. the fabric moves up with the needle and a poor needle loop is formed 306 . 9. 13. three things can happen and two of them are bad. Most sewing machines begin their stitch forming cycle when the needle starts to rise from the bottom of its stroke.thread size relationship is improper.

Ideally. On the following graph. yarn diameter. initial modulus . on the other hand. abrasion. A key product characteristic developed in our synthetic threads to enhance loop formation is a high initial modulus or initial resistance to stretching.Consistency of Physical Properties: Many factors affect the uniformity of the thread. strength. the thread will recover to its original un-stretched length as the needle begins to rise. The end result may be a skipped stitch or thread breakage. The more the thread is stretched. color fastness. When the thread is stretched as the needle reaches the bottom of its travel in the stitch formation cycle. resistance to seam degradation (chemicals. Many thread lubricants include an anti stat to minimize the static electrical attraction of the thread to metal surfaces.the thread's initial resistance to stretching.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Polyester thread. Polyester thread has a higher elongation at break that contributes to seam elasticity and seam strength. elongation and modulus. The cotton thread stretches approximately 3 to 4% before it breaks. the later a needle loop will be formed and the smaller the target the stitch forming device has to enter to form a proper stitch. the thread lubricant will give the thread a consistent dynamic tension as it passes through the sewing machine's thread guides and tension devices and also allow the thread to form a balanced stitch with minimum thread tension. LAHORE Thread Elongation and Initial Modulus: The inherent stretchiness or elongation of the thread is generally determined by the fiber type. This is why it is recommended to always adjust the sewing machines thread handling system to sew with minimum thread tension. affecting loop formation. lubrication.). Improper loop formation will result in a higher frequency of sewing interruptions. The physical properties in thread that impact how much the thread is stretched during the sewing process includes elongation properties of the fiber being used. and Cone build or wind. 307 . both nylon and polyester threads have a much higher elongation than 100% cotton threads. Other factors that affect seam integrity and seam appearance includes color. when the needle begins to rise. For example. Therefore. Note: Regardless of the type of thread being used. stretches approximately 17 to 20% before it breaks. the thread will stretch more. and frictional characteristics of the thread needed to set a balanced stitch. we will look at some of the variables that impact the frictional characteristics of sewing thread. Synthetic threads made from polyester and nylon is more susceptible to static than threads made from cotton or rayon. A thread with a higher initial modulus will minimize the amount that the thread stretches as the needle approaches the bottom of its travel. Thread Lubricant: The thread lubricant is another important variable in the loop formation equation. and Loop strength. A recommended procedure for balancing the stitch on any sewing machine is to set the bottom tension (bobbin or looper) to a minimum that still forms a consistent stitch and reduce the needle thread tension until the stitch appears to be loose on the bottom side of the seam then tighten the top tension until a balanced stitch is achieved. etc. This attraction can cause the thread to leave its proper thread path impacting loop formation and thread breakage. Later in this bulletin. as more and more tension is applied to the thread. Uniformity . These are the primary thread properties that have an impact on sew ability. the thread will be relaxed so a proper needle loop will be formed. you can see the relationship between tension and elongation. By uniformity. This will minimize the amount that the thread stretches allowing a proper needle loop to form. UV. we are referring to the consistency in physical properties regarding yarn construction.

Textured. spun threads are less expensive than continuous thread constructions like Core spun and Twisted multifilament thread constructions. Disperse. the thread lubricant comes off on the needle blade surface allowing it to penetrate the fabric with less friction.. textured air entangled. Spun. and Cone type and wind. Dye Types and Cycle times (e. fibrous surface contributes to superior frictional characteristics. A number of factors affect the ply security of the 308 . Payoff the Cone Due to the Build or the Wind: To minimize thread breakage. Thread Construction (e. Uniformity . fibrous or fuzzy surface refracts light so it blends in better with spun fabrics. Acid).. Spun threads are also generally weaker than continuous filament threads of equal size and therefore may break during the spinning and twisting processes requiring knots or air splices. A number of factors impact the amount of heat generated by the sewing process. This includes the use of Air Splices where knots used to be used.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. most breaks appear to have been unraveled. The other primary purpose of a thread lubricant on synthetic threads is to protect the thread against needle heat is generated by the friction between the fabric and the needle blade. Yarn Construction: Continuous filament thread constructions are more consistent in physical properties and diameter and generally have a higher tenacity or strength per size than spun constructions made with staple fibers.g. and spun. Bond. that is why A&E has reengineered many of its processes to eliminate major imperfections. and amount and type of lubricant used on the thread. This is why it is important that the thread-stand eyelet is located directly over the center of the cone. Good Ply Security or Ply Adhesion: If you look at the end of the thread that has broken. Proper Frictional Characteristics: The frictional characteristics of a sewing thread can be affected by Fiber Type (e. Glace). Needle type and size. twisted multi filament. Wax based). Silicone. Generally larger thread sizes have more thread lubricant than finer thread sizes because larger thread sizes are sewn into the heavier fabrics.. Polyester).. Cotton. Thread Lubricant: One purpose of a thread lubricant applied to the surface of the thread is to allow the thread to pass through the sewing machine's thread guides and tension devices with uniform tension and to also allow the stitch to be set with minimum thread tension.g. mono cord. Thread Lubricant (e. However. core spun. and Generally.g. If there was a clean cut or break it could be caused by a weak spot in the thread or a sharp surface in the machine that cuts the thread.9 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THREAD BREAKAGE. Ideally. Thread Finish (Soft. LAHORE 10.g. Machine speed. and Air Entangled). spun threads have the advantages as fibrous or fuzzy surface has a softer "hand". it usually is not a clean break but an unraveled group of fibers. They include Seam density and thickness. The reason why spun constructions are not as consistent as continuous filament thread constructions is that spun threads are made from staple fibers that are spun into a yarn. However. We believe that "no knot is a good knot". These unraveled thread breaks are caused by a breakdown in the ply adhesion of the fibers in the thread. Thousands of staple fibers have to be aligned and twisted together to make the thread.Absence of Yarn Imperfections: Yarn imperfections like knots and slubs will generally cause thread breakage. The ranking of thread constructions regarding consistency of construction are mono filament. it is imperative that the thread feed off the cone with the least amount of resistance.

soft. Usually. the thread should be investigated first. Thread finish (e. b) Does the thread feel weak? c) Does the thread feel dry or pull through the sewing machine with a rough drag? 3. we will outline a trouble-shooting guide from three perspectives i. spun. 309 . Ask your piece goods supplier to check the fabric for proper finishing. 6. 5.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. etc. 4. 10. Is Thread Breakage Occurring on All Operations and on Most Types of Machines? Check the following: 1. Most manufacturers have learned by experience that core spun threads give better sewing performance on automated multi-directional sewing machines than spun constructed threads. Is the thread breakage or skipping occurring primarily on one operation or type of machine?. Is the thread breakage or skipping occurring on all operations and on most machines?. Thread Selection Summary: As you can see from the preceding remarks. neps. textured).. Common sense should tell you that if a sewing problem is occurring on only one or two machines. Ask for technical assistance if available.. etc. and Frictional characteristics of the thread.e.10 Other Causes of Thread Breakage and Skipped Stitches: In the following comments. If the fabric appears to be different. see if fabric from a different shipment causes the same problem. Check the quality of the thread for obvious defects: a) Knots. bonded. the problem is most likely NOT a thread related problem unless a noticeable defect is visible. subs. Try sewing with thread from a different case or shipment. Make sure the correct thread type and size is being used. Check the quality of the piece goods being sewn: a) Has there been a change from one supplier to another? b) From one type to another? c) In the weight or stiffness of the fabric? d) Is thread breakage occurring on all colors and patterns. They include Thread construction (e. Twist level (TPI). Uniformity of construction. there are many causes of thread breakage and skipped stitches so it is important to observe and evaluate the problem to determine what might be the primary cause. Check for signs of needle heat.g. core. improper twist. graced). On the other hand. or on one color or style? Recommendations 1. 3. Fiber cohesion characteristics. Has there been a thread change: a) From one type to another? b) From one size to another? c) From one supplier to another? 2. LAHORE thread.g. Send cones that are breaking to your thread supplier for evaluation. if the problem is occurring on one color and on all sewing operations. and Is the thread breakage or skipping occurring on one or two machines only? The reason for this analysis is to help you differentiate between thread related problems and machine related problems. 2. more than one of the factors listed contributes to excessive thread breakage.

A good quality thread will be easier to work with in a sewing machine. LAHORE Is Thread Breakage or Skipping Occurring Primarily on One Operation or Type of Machine? 1. staple or filament. 310 . The results of the project will also be improved if a quality thread is used instead of a "bargain" thread. Polyester is the most common of these. tend to have greater strength than short staple fibers. 11. Cotton is an example of a staple fiber. Observe the operation to see if the thread is breaking at the same location most of the time. sometimes up to five inches. 11. Are the machines adjusted correctly for the operation? 4. try to find a training program on the equipment. Have the sewing operators made any changes in their method of operation? 5. In most cases. a special thread required. Short staple fibers are often used in inexpensive threads. 11. serger or by hand. Use needle coolers on the machines if needed. Check for signs of needle heat. Make sure the sewing operators are properly trained on the operation and are using the correct material handling techniques. smooth (not fuzzy). Is the proper machine and attachment being used for the operation? 3. Synthetic fibers include: polyester. needle plate and attachments. 4.1 FIBER CONTENT: The thread's fiber content is of two basic types. usually up to two inches in length. 11. If not. 6. and intended use. Natural fiber threads come from a source in nature and include: cotton.2 FIBER LENGTH: The fibers of thread can be staple length fibers or filament fibers. nylon. 5. Thread made from longer fibers. Synthetic fibers are produced as continuous filaments then cut into desired staple lengths. linen. Staple fibers are fairly short. 3. These shorter fibers often loose lint in the sewing process and may cause machine problems. A filament fiber is a continuous fiber and can be very long. Is the correct type and size needle being used? 2. THREAD FACTS: There are many types of threads available on the market today. Depending on fabric and operation. feed. 2. Try reducing the size of the needle or use a special coated needle. Make sure correct needle and thread sizes are being used for the operation. natural and synthetic. and silk. consistent in thickness and resists tangles. A good quality thread is strong. Check with your machine supplier. fiber length.3 FIBER TWIST: Thread is made by aligning and then twisting fibers together. They vary in fiber content. thread size. a synthetic fiber has greater strength than a natural fiber. The machines should be set up correctly for the operation with the correct presser foot. Synthetic filament fibers are cut into staple fibers of desired length. Synthetic fibers are made by a chemical manufacturing process. causing them to be fuzzier and weaker than when longer staple length fibers are used. Has there been a thread change from one type to another. Check to make sure the mechanics are familiar with the particular type of machines being used on this operation. rayon and acrylic. from one size to another and or from one supplier to another? Recommendations: 1.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Silk is one continuous filament fiber.

and sew slowly. Some rayon threads require cold water temperatures. Button and carpet threads are very strong and have a glazed finish to ease the piercing of heavy weight fabrics. 12. It appears fuzzy and tends to produce lint. a mercerized 100 percent cotton. a 1/16" braided mini ribbon. 12. Any may be tried on a serger: Pearl cotton. Long-staple polyester filaments are 4" to 5" in length.4 SILK: Quality silk thread is made from long continuous filament fibers resulting in strong and lustrous thread. Use it as a substitute for silk in decorative work. Buttonhole twist and topstitching threads are intended for the uses their names suggest. While most threads are easy care (machine wash and dry) there are some exceptions. an all purpose thread in the bobbin. It is available on cones. Try it for hems. It is recommended for knits. It may be cotton. and has the ability to stretch and recover. It is important to understand that best thread depends on the project in which it be used. while metallic and nylon threads may 311 . They have little stretch and are best used on natural fiber woven fabrics. Serger thread is specially made for high speed sewing. TYPES OF THREAD: No one thread can be used successfully on every fabric. 12.7 SPECIALTY THREADS: Metallic threads are for decorative use. 12. Bit expensive. and matching plaids. long staple polyester or core-spun polyester. a texturized nylon thread.8 THREAD CARE: Consider the care requirement of your thread choice. They are available in silk or polyester. There are a variety of threads used for serging. Use a large needle with a large eye to keep thread from shredding. smoother and more even. useful for sewing fabrics of different weights.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Short-staple polyester has been cut into 1 1/2" staple lengths. Basting thread is a soft. 12. It is designed for sewing nylon tricot and other lingerie fabrics. and wooly nylon. Thread Fuse TM is a polyester thread coated with a heat activated fusible fiber. though it also sews well on wovens. LAHORE 12. rayon ribbon floss. 12. Fiber content may be 60 percent polyester and 40 percent metallic. It bonds with the touch of a steam iron. 12. Decor 6. positioning zippers. Use it in conventional or serger machines. This makes the thread finer.6 NYLON Monofilament nylon thread is strong and semi-transparent. rayon. They should be used with a larger sized needle.1 COTTON: Thread of 100 percent cotton is less used today then in previous times due to greater durability and versatility offered by other threads. Machine Embroidery thread is designed to fill in smoothly and evenly without building up or breaking. pockets. Cotton thread forms soft stitches and comes in several weights. a 100 % viscose rayon filament thread. Stitch'n Fuse is a similar thread made of 100 percent nylon. but is less durable. Use it in the bobbin of a conventional machine or the lower looper of a serger. It is slightly finer in size.3 POLYESTER: Thread that is 100 percent polyester has good strength. 12. but good for tailoring because it can stretch.2 COTTON COVERED POLYESTER CORE: The most commonly used all purpose thread. king or compact tubes. weak light weight thread made especially for easy removal.5 RAYON: This thread is lustrous like silk. The polyester core provides strength and stretch while the cotton outer layer gives easier sewability. Avoid using a very hot iron on nylon thread. and has a special finish for higher speed sewing. facings appliqu és.

looping and knotting. The thread care requirements should be compatible with the fabric care requirements. slubs. 9. 8. dropped ply. but can cause poor loop formation leading to excessive skipped stitches and thread breakage. If the plies open up during the sewing process they are much more susceptible to breaking.This is the amount a thread stretches before it breaks. Loop Strength . This characteristic can be measured several ways: 6.Imperfections or defects in thread are thick and thin places that can cause sewing problems. Tenacity . Buy your fabric and thread at the same time.10 WHAT MAKES A GOOD THREAD? This may seem like the $64. 5. but in general all good sewing threads have in common good sewability. Lubricity .The amount of force required to break a thread. Thread breaks can be caused by a no of variables including: 312 . Purchase enough thread to complete the project. Obviously the fewer the better. 4. aesthetics. 6.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.the breaking strength of a thread adjusted for thread size. Cotton thread has very little. one with too much can cause snarling. 3. The elongation of a sewing thread is determined by fiber type but can also be controlled by drawing and heat setting of synthetics such as polyester and nylon. 5. silk is harmed by chlorine bleach. The most common type of thread break is caused by a loss of ply security. also measured in pounds. Strength . Several characteristics contribute to these attributes and are regularly measured and monitored by most thread manufacturers.000 question.This is the frictional characteristic of thread as it passes through the sewing machine and into the seam. 7. Threads with high elongation will give greater seam elasticity.when one strand of thread is looped with another strand and then broken. Thread made from continuous filaments is generally stronger and have higher tenacity than threads made from staple fibers. For plaids and multicolored background select thread to match main color. dropped filament and singles kinks. It is best to work with thread no longer than 18" when hand sewing. good seam performance and in the case of decorative threads.This is a thread's ability to stay together during the sewing process. The most common imperfections are: knots. Twist . LAHORE be heat sensitive. neps. For ease in threading a needle. 4. 12. 1. 2. Ply Security . Breaking Strength – force applied to each end of thread until it breaks. 2.9 THREAD TIPS 1. cut thread on a slant with sharp scissors.A thread with too little twist may fray and break. elongation. 3. Elongation . The soft “fuzzy” characteristic of cotton thread and spun polyester actually gives these threads greater lubricity and better sewability than continuous filament threads. Select a thread color to match your fabric or one shade darker. Tenacity is measured in grams/denier. 12. Uniformity . if any.

Now. Always start with a new needle 13. The thread must lay in the front groove without sitting on top or wobbling in the groove. the most common sewing threads used for the manufacturing of apparel or non-apparel items are either polyester or nylon that have been produced using a melt-spinning 313 . While synthetic threads are generally more colorfast than cotton or rayon.000 stitches per minute.000 to 10. LAHORE a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Using the wrong thread for the application Incorrect needle or damaged needle Thread defects Too much elongation Being sewn with too much tension Worn machine parts Machine out of adjustment Operator handling ALL THREAD IS NOT CREATED EQUAL: Hopefully you now understand how thread is made.Spun or Filament Yarn. b) Crock Fastness . how to compare the various sizes to one universal standard.The loss of color due to heat.Rubbing off of color.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Finally.In this test. Tenacity. As important as it is to select the proper needle for the fabric. Also. 13. Crocking is checked wet and dry. d) Cold Water Migration .the ability to resist color change after laundering. Loop Strength. 1. it is equally important to select the proper needle for the thread you are using. skipped stitches or other "thread" problems are the result of damaged or improper needle selection. select the needle size to match the thread. most high-speed industrial sewing machines sew at very high speeds from 4. Type of Finish and Construction COLOR FASTNESS: The ability of a thread to retain its color during normal use is its colorfastness. 13. Certain dyes will change from a solid to gas when exposed to high heat and will redeposit elsewhere. samples are exposed for prolonged periods of time to daylight. and/or Breaking Strength. Color Fastness. a) Wash Fastness . There are several variables that are measured. in order to effectively compare one thread to another you need to ask the manufacturer for the appropriate information like Tex Size. the things to look for in a good quality thread. Very often thread breakage. Select the thread to match the fabric or the project 2. select the needle type best suited for the fabric used 3. and the importance of the needle to sewing performance. Raw Material . e) Light Fastness .2 MINIMIZING NEEDLE HEAT: Today.1 SELECTING THE PROPER MACHINE NEEDLE: Proper needle selection is determined by two key factors: thread to be used and fabric to be sewn or quilted. The eye must be large enough for the thread to pass through with minimal friction. 4. SEWING NEEDLES: You may wonder what a section on needles is doing in a brochure about thread. but the relationship between needle and thread is crucial to successful sewing or quilting. Next. c) Sublimation . keep in mind some thread types may be colorfast to some variables and only moderately colorfast to others.Possibility of staining when light colored fabric is combined with stronger colored thread and left wet for a period of time.

13. This allows the fabric to help dissipate heat and hopefully prevents the thread 314 . A "ball eye" needle is where the diameter across the eye is generally . and other homogeneous fabrics. 9.3 What Causes Needle Heat: The friction between the needle blade and the fabric creates needle heat. Ask you thread supplier if they have products available with heavier lube levels.004 inch larger than the blade diameter. we will discuss what causes needle heat and what can be done to minimize needle heat. Cutting point needles are not recommended for woven or knitted fabrics used for making apparel due to fabric damage. Use cotton wrapped polyester core spun thread like A&E’s D-Core™. American & Efird puts a thread lubricant on the thread to help minimize needle heat and give the thread good frictional characteristics to set a uniform balanced stitch. The result is that the polyester or nylon threads melts and breaks. larger sizes of thread that are sewn into to heavier weight garments have a heavier lube application to protect thread against needle heat.NOT during sewing. Machines should have control switches that conserve the consumption of compressed air and only supplies air on the needle during sewing. the thread will melt. Needle thread breakage due to needle heat can be detected by checking the end of the thread to see if there is a hard nodule where the thread melted and re-solidified.4 Ways of Minimizing Needle Heat: Use a smaller diameter needle whenever possible. Needle Size or diameter 7. Type of needle blade. however. Type of needle finish Needle heat is usually more of a problem when sewing either synthetic threads and / or synthetic fabrics and can cause excessive thread breakage and / or damage to the fabric being sewn.003 or . uses a needle with cutting edges like a diamond. Fabric thickness 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. 13. Usually. Some needle holes that appear to be needle cuts are actually caused by excessively hot needles. The cotton wrapper acts as an insulator protecting the thread from the heat. Whenever the needle reaches a temperature higher than the melt point of the thread. This requires the availability of compressed air and lines carrying this air to the sewing machines. Both polyester and nylon have a melt point of approximately 485° F or 252° C. Use a "ball eye" needle. Needle length 8. Sewing machine speed 5. On leather. Use needle coolers or devices that blow compressed air on the needle during sewing. or wedge point. Generally. The following factors can have an impact on the amount of heat that is generated: 1. therefore. Equip the machine with needle positioners that position the needle down after long high-speed runs. Try needles with special low friction surfaces. minimizing the friction on the needle blade. In this bulletin. The danger of using excessively high lube applications is finish migration in to the seam. Many of the fabrics being sewn are made from synthetic fibers that can be impacted by excessive heat. it opens up a larger hole. These needle point types actually cut through the fabric minimizing the penetration resistance and needle heat. there are other special needle coatings like Teflon or Tungsten that will minimize the friction between the needle and the fabric. vinyl. A smaller diameter needle will definitely minimize needle heat and may be the solution in marginal situations. Many needle manufacturers even have an "oversized ball eye" needle in some classes of needles that are commonly used for sewing heavy fabrics. needle heat will cause thread breakage when the operator stops sewing after a long run and the thread comes to rest in the needle eye…. Needle contact surface 6. Most needles have low friction chrome plating. LAHORE process. triangle. Fabric finish or density 3 Fabric color or density 4.

The higher number relates to the needle's shaft diameter in metric. They come in 60/8 to 120/18. i) Jersey / Ballpoint .One of the main differences between needles is the type of point. There is a tiny hump between the eye and scarf that allows the thread to make a large loop on one side of the needle. When the bobbin shuttle swings into the scarf it hooks into the looped needle thread to form the stitch. Its rounded point slips between the fibers rather than cutting them. j) Stretch . stitch faults may occur. d) Shaft .Designed for densely woven and heavily finished fabrics. which relates to shaft diameter.This needle is designed to be used on knits.This needle has a slightly more rounded point than a universal needle.A general-purpose needle that can be used on woven fabrics as well as knits. If the needle is too fine for the thread being used. From 70/10 to 120/18. It features a very stiff shaft. Important because this is where the stitch is formed. system. h) Jeans / Denim . Sizes range from 70/10 to 110/18. The deep groove of some needles helps protect the thread from friction created when the needle pierces the fabric. g) Universal . e) Scarf . 315 . c) Shank . This loop makes it easy to complete a stitch.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. f) Front Groove . LAHORE from melting.The front groove allows the needle thread to lay close to the needle as it travels down the needle towards the bobbin. The point type is the most important consideration in regards to the fabric. b) Eye .This is the indentation in the back of the needle.S. however.This is the part that is inserted into the machine.5 MACHINE NEEDLES PARTS AND TYPES: Parts of Machine Needles a) Point . They come in sizes 75/11 or 90/14. the lower number to a U. It is a great choice for getting perfectly straight stitches.The body of the needle itself or how thick the needle is. it can cause more needle holes on synthetic fabrics. 13. Slow the sewing machines down to an acceptable level to minimize thread breakage due to needle heat.The eye is the hole through which the thread passes and is therefore extremely important to thread selection. Machine needles range in size from 60/8 (very fine) to 120/19 (heavy duty). sharp point and slender eye.

Embroidery 90/14 Top Stitch 90/14. Embroidery 90/14 NEEDLE SELECTION Embroidery 75/11. sharp point. Embroidery 75/11. THREAD / MACHINE NEEDLE CHART: SPUN THREAD 70/2 ply 60/2 ply 50/3 ply 40/2 ply 40/3 ply 30/2 ply 30/3 ply Jeans Stitch SYNTHETIC Rayon # 40 Poly #40 Rayon/Poly #30 Metallic FILAMENT #100 #50 #30 TEX Tex 16 Tex 18 Tex 35 Tex 27 Tex 40 Tex 35 Tex 50 Tex 90 TEX Tex 24 Tex 24 Tex 40 Tex 24 TEX Tex 12 Tex 27 Tex 60 NEEDLE SELECTION Universal 70/10. l) Microtex . Microtex 70/10 Universal 70/10. Sizes range from 75/11 to 90/14.Designed to work with embroidery threads. Sizes 80/12 or 90/14.90/14 Top Stitch 90/14. delicate wovens and any heirloom sewing. Quilting 75/11 Universal 80/12. Microtex 70/11 Universal 70/10 . The eye is twice as long and the front grove is deeper. these needles are the right choice for lightweight fabrics. Embroidery 90/14 Denim 90/14. They come in sizes 75/11 or 90/14. Quilting 90/14. Embroidery 90/14 NEEDLE SELECTION Microtex 70/11. Jeans 80/12. Jeans 90/14 Top Stitch 90/14. o) Metallica . Sharp 80/12. Sizes range from 60/8 to 100/16. This is good choice when using heavier threads without piercing large holes in fabric.80/12 Embroidery 90/14 Metallica or Metafil 80/12.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. n) Embroidery . and a slim. LAHORE k) Quilting .These needles have a thin. Embroidery 80/12 . m) Topstitch . tapered deep point.This extra sharp needle is less rounded than the universal. Embroidery 75/11. 100/16. the front groove is deep and the scarf is longer.80/12 Embroidery 75/11. Sizes 70/10 to 100/16.With a thin shaft. The eye is double sized and Teflon coated. which is good for sewing multiple layers. has a large eye and special scarf protecting more fragile threads. Quilting 75/11 Universal 70/10 .80/12. Embroidery 90/14 PARTS OF A BASIC FIVE POCKET DENIM JEAN Part Quantity Back length 2 Back yoke 2 Back pocket 2 Front length 2 Coin pocket 1 Front facing 2 Pocket bag 2 Single fly 1 Double fly 1 Waist belt 1 Belt loops 5-7 Total 21-23 316 .80/12. Embroidery 75/11 Universal 80/12. Embroidery 80/12.These needles are designed specifically for metallic and flat decorative threads.

zip prepare. Belt Loop bar tack 32. Attach coin pocket on front facing 11. Attach belt loops 28.a. Front facing over lock 12. Attach single fly to front length and zip to single fly a. Place eyelet 30. LAHORE STITCHING OF BASIC FIVE POCKET DENIM JEAN Operation BACK 1. Coin pocket hemming 9. Tracing of coin pocket on front facing 10. Back pocket bar tack FRONT 8. Single and double fly over lock 19. Attach pocket bag to front length using twill tape 16. Fly bar tack ASSEMBLY 23. Apply reverse stitch on the over locked pocket bag 15. Back pocket hemming 4. Attach front length to the second side of zip and conceal the zip a. Tracing of back pocket on back lengths 5. zip finished. Front length over lock (inseam) ZIP 18. Out seam top Stitch (9” / 6”) 27.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Attach waist belt and fold at ends 29. Back rise stitching 3. Stitch inseam 24.k.k. Attach pocket bag with front facing 13. Attach back pocket on back lengths 7. 22. Pocket bag over lock 14. Attach back yoke to back lengths 2.a. Bottom hemming Machine Feedo Feedo Single/Double Needle Single Needle Single Needle Bar tack Double Needle Single Needle Over lock Flat Lock Over lock Single Needle Double Needle Single Needle Over Lock Over Lock Single Needle Double Needle Single Needle Bar tack Feedo Over lock / Safety Belt Loop Single Needle Single Needle Waist Belt Eyelet Single Needle Bar tack Single Needle 317 . 20. T Stitch 31. J stitch 21. The front rise is also stitched. Attach front facing to front length 17. Stitch out seam 25. Back pocket mock stitch 6. Hang swing. Make belt loops 26.

LAHORE OPERATIONS AND MACHINES Operation Back rise Back yoke attachment Hemming Mock stitch Patching Bar tack Hemming Coin pocket stitch Front facing over lock Pocket cloth with front facing Pocket bag over lock Reverse stitch Hang swing Front facing to front length Over Lock front length Single & Double fly over lock Zip prepare J stitch Zip finished Fly bar tack Inseam Out seam Belt loop Waist belt Eye let T stitch Bar tack Hemming Button Rivet Machine Feedo / over lock Feedo Single / Double Needle Single needle Single Needle Bar tack Single / Double Needle Single Needle Over Lock Flat Lock Over Lock Single needle Double Needle Single Needle Over lock Over lock Single needle Double needle Single needle Bar tack Feedo / Over Lock Feedo / Over Lock Single needle Waist belt Eye let Single needle Bar tack Single Needle Button attach Rivet Attach A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD 318 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

405 1.124 2. 0# 314-529 Pcs) Sr. West Belt Att.20 0.30 0.248 1.30 0.40 0.85 Total Amount 5.588 3.45 0.45 0.00 5621 5621.00 5621 5621.20 1.124 1.40 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.00 5621 5621 5621 16863.30 0.686 2. Flek Labe Inseam Feedo Size Label Side Safety Pass Selai Loopi Kachi Att.259 1. LAHORE Payment for the month of December 2003 (Skirts.00 5621 5621 11242. Total Rate 1.686 1.686 1.6 5621 5621.05 0.40 0.124 4.529 2.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.00 5621 5621.248 1.20 0.20 0.70 0.935 1.00 5621 5621.124 2.00 5621 5621 5621 5621 11.30 0.35 0.124 843 2.967 2.25 0.124 2.00 5621 5621. Belt folding Kanara Selai Loop Make & Attached Belt Label Attached Bottom Hem Bar Teck Stit.00 5621 5621 5621 16863.20 0.124 7.216 1.902 1.75 0.248 2.686 1.00 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 28105. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Operation Front Jati Facing Two Needle Scoope Over Lock Expense Zip Kachi Kanara Slai J-Slai Botton Tek Karoch Latha Pcoket Pocket Panel Sheet Feedo Back Pocket Hem Logo Press Design Back Pocket Yok Mark Back Pocket Att.60 319 .45 0.00 5621 5621.811 4.20 0.811 1.00 5621 5621.778 0 0 0 0 65.15 0.00 5621 5621.203. Pcs.20 0.00 5621 5621.529 1.

00 25.85 1.80 1.35 0.00 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.20 0.45 0.35 0.00 0.20 0.20 0.2 No.20 1.50 0.70 0.25 0.25 0.40 1.00 0.50 0.10 0.80 0.Reverse Yoke O # 310-348) Pcs.60 0.20 1.00 0.20 0.95 TOTLA RATE TOTAL RATE 320 .00 0.50 0.45 0.106 Operation TICKET POCKET LATTA BOOT STITCH FRONT ATTACH JATI FACHING TWIN NEEDLE SCOOP FRONT KINARA STITCHED LATTHA PICKET OVERLOCK FLY KINARA SALAI ZIP KACHI SALAI J-SALAI BUTTON KROOCH OVELOCK BACK YOKE EXPENCES BACK YOKE OVERLOCK BACK YOKE TWO NEEDLE SEAT SAFTY SEAT FEEDO INSIM SAFTY SIDE SAFTY SIZE LABLE PASS SALAI WAIST BELT BELT FOLDING BELT BOTTOM HEIM BARTAKE LOOPI CUT + MAKE BLOWS TOW NEEDLE + SIZE LABEL INSIM TOP FEEDO Rate 0.75 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.40 0. LAHORE ABC Ltd RATE LIST (Tro.30 0.30 0.30 0.00 1.45 0.20 0.20 0.80 0.30 0.20 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 43 ABC Ltd RATE LIST (Tro.20 1.20 6.50 0.30 0.30 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.00 0.35 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.20 1.Side Pintuck O # 280-318) Pcs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 43 Operation TICKET POCKET ATTACHED LATTHA BOOT SALAI FRONT ATTACHED JATI FACING TWO NEEDLE SCOPE LATTHA POCKET OVERLOCK FRONT SIDE KANARA SALAI FRONT SIDE PENNAL KACHA KARNA PANNAL OVERLOCK KARNA FRONT PANNAL KANARA SALAI FRONT BACK SIDE KACHI KARNA FRONT AND BACK OVERLOCK KARNA SIDE KANARA SALAI J-SALAI BUTTONB TAKE SIZE LABLE FLY KACHI KARNA ZIP KACHI KARNA KAROOCH BUTTON TAKE THOKA BELT LABLE BELT LABLE BELT PACKA KARNA OVER LOCK EXPENCES PANNAL SEAT FEEDO BACK POKET HEIM LOGO PRESS DESIGN YOUK MARK BACK POCKET ATTACHED INSIM SAFTY BOTTOM HEIM LOOPI CUT+MAKE BAR TAKE BLOWS TWO BEEDLE + SIZE LABLE FLY THOKA Rate 0.20 0.50 0.50 0.40 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.00 0.35 0.45 0.20 0.50 0. 348 No.00 10.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

248 1. 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 Total 5621.00 5621.20 0.248 2.45 0. Pcs.588 3. Belt folding Kanara Selai Loop Make & Attached Belt Label Attached Bottom Hem Bar Teck Stit.686 1.00 5621.203.529 2.20 0.902 1. West Belt Att.686 1.40 0.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.6 16863.75 0.259 1.20 1.686 2.967 2.124 4.00 Rate 1.124 2.15 0.50 0.00 28105.20 0.935 1.00 321 .00 5621.30 0.124 2. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Operation Front Jati Facing Two Needle Scoope Over Lock Expense Zip Kachi Kanara Slai J-Slai Botton Tek Karoch Latha Pcoket Pocket Panel Sheet Feedo Back Pocket Hem Logo Press Design Back Pocket Yok Mark Back Pocket Att.25 0. LAHORE Payment for the month of December 2003 (Skirts.00 5621.45 0.686 1.00 5621.216 1.20 0. Flek Labe Inseam Feedo Size Label Side Safety Pass Selai Loopi Kachi Att.00 5621.00 5621.30 0.50 0.405 1.60 Total Amount 5.35 0.35 0.85 11.00 16863.811 1.05 0.40 0.00 5621.00 5621.30 0. 0# 314-529 Pcs) Sr.20 0.778 65.00 11242.20 0.124 7.529 1.124 2.30 0.70 0.811 4.40 0.248 1.124 1.124 843 2.45 0.

40 0.20 0. 0# 314-529 Pcs) Sr.124 1.45 0.124 843 2.967 2.248 1. 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 5621 Total 5621.124 2.00 5621.00 5621.6 16863.686 1.00 5621.00 322 .124 2.45 0.50 0.248 1.35 0.60 Total Amount 5.00 28105.30 0.25 0.00 5621. LAHORE Payment for the month of December 2003 (Skirts.05 0.15 0.00 5621.00 5621.30 0.529 2.124 4.20 0.75 0.902 1.45 0.00 5621.124 2.778 65.686 2.124 7. West Belt Att.00 5621. Belt folding Kanara Selai Loop Make & Attached Belt Label Attached Bottom Hem Bar Teck Stit.588 3.50 0.00 16863. Flek Labe Inseam Feedo Size Label Side Safety Pass Selai Loopi Kachi Att.405 1.20 0.686 1.30 0.00 Rate 1.248 2.70 0.686 1.85 11.529 1. Pcs.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.30 0.935 1.20 1.216 1.00 5621.40 0.811 1.35 0.40 0.811 4.00 11242.259 1. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Operation Front Jati Facing Two Needle Scoope Over Lock Expense Zip Kachi Kanara Slai J-Slai Botton Tek Karoch Latha Pcoket Pocket Panel Sheet Feedo Back Pocket Hem Logo Press Design Back Pocket Yok Mark Back Pocket Att.20 0.203.20 0.20 0.

Per Pcs Rate Total Payment 323 .75 0.45 0.40 Total Cutting Receiving Total Stitch Payment of Pcs. LAHORE ABC Ltd Rate List of (SKIRTS. O # 314-352) Pcs.90 0.530 S. Loopi Cut + Make Bar Take Pannal Seat Feedo Zip Kachi Karna Total Rate Rate 3.50 0.40 0.15 6956.80 0.00 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Operation Buckal Belt Make Front Kanara Salai Buckal Belt Thoka Round Belt Thoka Fly Kanara Salai J-Salai Button Take Karooch Button Take Make OverLock Expenses Side Safty Size Lable Round Belt Kacha Karna Round Belt Paka Rarna Buttim Heim Belt Lable Belt Thoka 3 No.35 0.20 0.20 13.20 0.20 1.25 0.15 530.20 0. No.00 13.40 0.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.20 1.35 0.30 0.40 0.80 0.00 529.30 0.00 529.

It must fit to the label size It must performance satisfactorily in normal use.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. samples are made in the sampling department for approval by the buyers.). 2. trims. Cutting. fabric type.) 1. loose threads. Zippers. The visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric. which are ready for shipment. RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION: It is the inspection of Fabric.g.1 QUALITY DEFINITION: As per ASQC (American Society for quality)   “Systematic approach to the search for excellence” “Fitness for use” i. LAHORE QUALITY CONTROL IN GARMENT MANUFACTURING 1. and Pressing and Finishing sections of production. Stains. These samples are inspected according to the specific requirements from the buyers for correct size.3 QUALITY CONTROL: Quality Control is the system or process to make sure that quality is maintained. finishing. which meets following requirements:    It must be free from defects e. open seams. and packing. IN-PROCESS INSPECTION: It is done in the Spreading. labels. PRE-PRODUCTION INSPECTION: Before the actual production is planned. Quality Control is not just to find faults but also rectify and prevent such faults from further occurrence 1. combination of the characteristics or properties of product which makes the product useable. Closures and Snap fasteners. Sewing Thread. etc.e. OBJECTIVE OF INSPECTION: The main objective of inspection is to detect defects and non-conformances as early as possible in manufacturing process to avoid the wastage of time and money. misaligned buttons. zippers. 1. etc.2 QUALITY GARMENT: Quality Garment is one. 324 . dry cleaning. 1. STAGES OF INSPECTIONS IN GARMENT INDUSTRY: They are Raw material inspection and In-process inspection. buttons. QUALITY: Quality is the main feature in a product that delights the customer by either meeting or exceeding expectations. partially finished components of a garment and completely finished garments in relation to some standard specifications or requirements.4 INSPECTION: Inspection is the inherent part of Quality Control. Sewing. pressing without color loss or shrinkage. FINAL INSPECTION: Final inspection is nothing but checking the finished garments. (It must be able to withstand normal laundering.

 Knot: Two or more ends of yarns tied together. elastic.  Thin Place: Where place of weft yarn smaller in diameter than normal KNITTED FABRIC INSPECTION  Barre: Noticeable stripes in the direction of the weft wise.  Hole: Any broken yarns to form a hole. zippers. 325 .  Needle Line: Wales are distorted caused by a bent needle.2 ACCESSORIES INSPECTION: As fabrics are inspected for defects similarly trims and accessories are also inspected for defects. either the fabric falls off the needles or the design of the fabric is completely destroyed.  Missing Yarn: A yarn is missing or broken while machine continuing to run.  Thick place: Where place of weft yarn greater in diameter than normal.  Birdseye: Unintentional tucked stitches appear occasionally on knitted.  Run: A vertical line of unformed stitches caused by damaged needle.  Coarse yarn : A yarn having a large diameter than that normal to the fabric  Dropped stitches: Stitch failing to form because of malfunctioning needle. LAHORE 2.  Fine Yarn: A yarn having a smaller diameter than normal to the fabric. etc.  Out Of Register: Color printed not in a proper position during printing. 2. durability.1 RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION: It involves following inspections WOVEN FABRIC INSPECTION  Broken end: Yarn broken in a warp direction in woven fabrics  Broken Pick: Yarn broken in a weft direction in woven fabrics  Burl mark: A slub or knot being removed with a burling tool in fabric. Each trim undergoes different testing process as they differ from each other in their character and type. PRINTED FABRIC INSPECTION  Color out: Some printing pattern not fully printed. 2.  End Out: A missing warp yarn.  Press-off: Condition in which knitted fabric fails to knit as a result. interlining. Some causes are uneven yarn and uneven tension. 2.  Slub: A short abnormal thick place in a yarn  Soiled filling: A weft yarn soiled by dirt or grease.  Coarse end / Pick: A yarn having a large diameter than normal to the fabric  Double End: Two ends wrongly woven as one  Double pick: Two picks wrongly placed in a single shed. labels.3 IN-PROCESS INSPECTION: This means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading the fabric to pressing or finishing. Saves more time. color fastness. etc. The most important accessories inspected in a garment industry are buttons.  Color Smear: The color smeared out during printing.  Scrimp: Printing pattern is broken due to fabric creased during printing.  Loom Bar: A change in shade across the full width of the fabric  Mis-pick: Missing a weft yarn. and Decrease in labor cost due to decrease in repair rates.4 ADVANTAGES OF IN-PROCESS INSPECTION: Reduction in faults.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. They are checked for good strength. sewing threads.

Fuzzy. QUALITY CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST 1. they are the Sewing defects and seaming defects. or other designs planned. uniform distance from edge. During this inspection the packed garments are checked at random before shipping for packing. zippers. Place wax paper in between fabric plies that lubricates cutting blade. B. insecure back stitches. raw edges or notches are visible. and Broken buttons. stripes. Ragged or Serrated edges. skipped stitches. plaids. and design. size or color ratios and cartons. Ends well finished. D. c) Placed at points of strain. Garments not thoroughly dried. LAHORE A. Packing not to specifications or details. SEWING: In-Process inspection in sewing involves the inspection of work from each operator with a quality standard established. C. SPREADING: Factors to be checked are Ply alignment. 4. and thread ends removed. Belts a) b) c) d) Style of belt suitable to garment design. broken stitches. Overall a) Notions compatible in color. Shrinkage due to heat and moisture. Drilling. Check notches. weight. To prevent such defects Check knife speed. b) Even in width and length.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. f) Appropriate in size. There are two types of defects that may occur while sewing. single edge fusion. etc. b) Appropriate in size and design. Keep knives sharp. 3. Sewing defects refer to wrong use of presser footers. wrong type of needle. CUTTING DEFECTS: Frayed edges. seam burst open. checks. d) Appropriate shank provided. g) Appropriate interfacing used. fiber. 2. c) Placement accurate and attractive. Durable and attractive. etc. bad handling by the operators. c) Pressed to give smooth look to finished garment. d) Attractive and accurate in distance from edge & in spacing between. Pockets not smooth. e) Fabric used correctly. e) Cut on grain. basting threads. e) Stitching started and ended under button. uniform width. Seaming defects refer to irregular or incorrect shape of the stitching line. drill marks and patterns. b) Fabric nap correctly used. Appearance. Misplacement of Patterns. Closure appropriate. incorrect type of feed. puckered seams. 2. Water spots or stains. Buttons a) Neatly and securely fastened. Buttonholes a) Flat and securely stitched.5 FINAL INSPECTION: Garments are ready for shipment. 326 . 3. Ply to ply fusion. Wrong notches. Pockets not smooth. Ply tension and Bowing. etc. PRESSING AND FINISHING: Burned or scorched garments. d) Loose ravelings.

smooth. Silhouette lines follow silhouette of body. and waistline) properly located on body. Free from strain and/or excess fullness. length. 6. do not look skimpy or bulky. c) Securely tacked in place at seams. b) Adequately full. 5. e) Curved edges smooth. Cuffs a) Flat. Fitting details (neckline. Facings a) Flat. b) Seams graded. crosswise grain line parallel to floor. d) Shape symmetrical on right and left. points sharp and flat. k) Facing securely and appropriately fastened to the back of the buttonhole. Gathers a) Uniform. c) Appropriate interfacing used. For machine-made buttonholes l) Stitches evenly spaced. smooth. armhole. Stitched so pleats are not formed. and spacing. n) Interfacing an appropriate color. smooth in appearance on front and back. c) Under cuff does not show. 327 . f) Rolls smoothly or lays flat according to design. free from bulk. Darts a) b) c) d) e) Tapered and smooth. Symmetrical in shape.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. and openings. or notched. 10. b) Under stitching holds under collar in place so it does not show. clipped. Darts point to and stop short of the fullest part of the area they fit. Pressed correctly. j) Corners square. and under stitched as needed. free from bulky seams graded and under stitched where applicable. evenly distributed. free from pucker or bubble at point. vertical darts pressed toward center. smooth. d) Facing edges free from ravelings e) Any edge finish flat. Fit a) b) c) d) e) f) Adequate ease for comfort. i) Lips meet exactly at the center of the hole. 8. b) Even in width. LAHORE For fabric (bound) buttonholes h) Lips an attractive size and even in width. Collars a) Free from bulky seams graded. m) Center cut neatly with all loose threads trimmed off. Lengthwise grain line perpendicular to floor. & free from bulk. clipped or notched. darts. 9. 7. Attractive placement. horizontal darts pressed down. d) Appropriately interfaced. Securely fastened at ends.

l) Fused hems securely fused & flat. secure. 15. LAHORE 11. c) Free from bulk & ravelings. attached at seams with French tacks. d) Hem edge smooth. free from pleats. free from excess bulk. hemmed. 17. e) Excess fullness evenly eased. c) Fits smoothly inside garment with seams aligned. d) If attached at hems. b) Facings flat & inconspicuously graded. c) Design symmetrical. b) Inconspicuous unless meant to be decorative. c) Hem fold pressed so hem hangs smoothly at lower edge. j) Topstitching attractive in size & placement. has pleat for ease. Hems a) Flat and inconspicuous. 328 . d) Not visible on inside or outside of garment. c) No bulky knots at thread ends. h) Hem even in width. e) Spacing attractive & accurate. Neckline a) Free from bulk. e) If free hanging. b) On straight grain of fabric when design allows. straight. secure. m) Hem hangs parallel to floor. c) Correct technique used for purpose faced. tucks a) Uniform in width (unless design varies). b) Seams pressed as required and graded to reduce bulk. 14. bound. f) Hemmed shorter than garment. Lining a) Conceals inner construction of garment without adding excess bulk. flat. Pleats. d) Stitching straight. b) Color & care requirements compatible with outer fabric. 13. f) Seams aligned. d) Correct stitch used for purpose. Interfacing a) Enhances body & wear of garment. clipped. & under stitched. k) Hand stitches uniform. unless meant to be decorative. Needlework (hand stitching) a) Uniform stitches. 16. & inconspicuous. n) Length attractive for wearer & appropriate for garment. b) Correct technique used on stitch with single thread. c) Neatly pressed as required. b) Color & care requirements compatible to outer fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. i) Width appropriate for garment style and fabric type. 12. g) Hem edge finish should not create ridge or add bulk. and free from ravelings. inconspicuous. Placket a) Flat. 1/2 inch shorter than sleeves & 1 inch shorter than skirt.

free from bulk. b) Reinforced with interfacing. f) Graded or trimmed & under stitched where appropriate. flat. coordinated in size. 20. i) Construction notches trimmed off after seams are sewn. hooks & eyes. g) Attractive placement. In-seam pockets i) Interfaced. round corners symmetrical. d) Seam pressed toward sleeve cap. b) Seam smooth & even in width around cap. b) Stitching straight. c) Pressed neatly. d) Crossed seams intersect correctly. d) Inconspicuous from right side of garment. 21. free from bulk. lay flat when worn. shape. smooth. d) Seams pressed flat & inconspicuous. c) Fullness eased as required. Kimono or raglan sleeves f) Seams pressed open g) Clipped & reinforced as needed. c) Placed at least 1/8 inch from garment edges. 22. Snaps.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. f) Pleats. b) Free from sheen & scorch. h) If in pairs. b) Stitches appropriate in size & tension. tucks. & fabric design (if applicable). e) Free from raveling. & other fasteners a) Applied with small. j) Free from raveling. Sleeves Set-in sleeves a) Fullness evenly distributed. e) Darts presses to shape garment. e) Garment lays flat when fastened. neat stitches that do not show on right side. no added bulk or tension. j) Inconspicuous unless meant to be decorative 19. LAHORE 18. 329 . h) If finish used. g) Fabric design matched as possible. straight. f) Hem appropriate width & neatly finished. creases pressed as design requires. e) Pressed in correct direction. Seams a) Securely stitched. Pockets a) Flat. c) Underarm section of seam trimmed & double stitched. For Patch pockets d) Upper corners reinforced. Pressing a) Garment smooth & free from wrinkles. c) No ridges from seams or facings. e) Square corners mitered. under stitched.

b) Stitching straight & even. Under stitching a) Even distance from seam & inconspicuous. under collar. under collar. b) Attractive in placement. 26. flat. c) Prevents facing. f) Zipper slides easily. smooth. 28. This method constitutes taking random samples from a lot of 330 . i) Neckline zippers end 1/2 inch from neckline so fastener can be attached above zipper 4. knots. 25. c) Secured by waistline stay to prevent stretching. e) Zipper completely covered. and further classified according to whether they are major or minor. Waistline Seam a) Inconspicuous. AQL . 24. Zipper a) Placket smooth. d) Seams & neckline edges match. b) Free from bulk. Waistband a) Smooth. c) On grain. LAHORE 23. or cuff without wrinkles. It classifies products according to whether they are conforming or non-conforming i.e. Each fault must be counted. The AQL random sampling inspection was derived from the mathematical theory of probability and is based on the sampling scheme defined in Military Standard 105D (MIL-STD-105D). or cuff from rolling to right side of garment. f) Corners square. c) Placket appropriate length & width. 27.INSPECTION PROCEDURES: Acceptable Quality Level (AQL). h) Skirt or pants eased to fit band. the overlap is even w/placket & a 1 inch extension is on the under lap of band. b) Straight. h) Skirt & zippers end at band. d) Loose threads cut off. b) Holds seam against facing. e) Stitching straight. i) Sets exactly at top of zipper. Stitching a) Stitch length & tension appropriate for fabric. & free from puckering. b) Seams & darts match if appropriate. free from tangles. g) Unless band is a design feature. & skipped stitches. d) Interfaced. c) Beginning & ending of stitching locked in appropriate way. g) Inconspicuous unless meant to be a design feature. whether accepted or rejected based on quantity and type of faults found. even width. & flat. Topstitching a) Straight. This specifies the number and level of inspection required for each line. c) Stitch length & tension appropriate for design & fabric.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

the lot size. provides the sampling plans.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. It is 331 .1 ENVIRONMENT TO PROCEDE AN AUDIT: It is important that the audit room in which the audit will take place has proper lighting capacity (min 860 lux). in order to be representative of the entire lot. is selected using random sample techniques so that every piece in the lot has an equal chance of being chosen. It is a standard requirement that the inspection table should be at a height of an auditor’s waist. In the garment industry. double and multiple sampling plans.5 is applied when severe inspection conditions are required on high-class expensive items. The standards and specifications for the product determine the acceptable quality level. whatever the number of inspection personnel. tightened and reduced. with the size of the sample varying according to the level of defects normally produced in that area. this situation will lead to high costs. Tolerance: Some construction standards and specifications include plus-or-minus tolerances. There are three types of sampling plans: single. The AQL 2. Each sampling plan can be performed at three levels: normal. DIN 40080). LAHORE merchandise. in addition to indicating the acceptable quality level (AQL). The lights on top of the inspection table should be at a distance of 3 feet. The temperature of the audit room should be at standard room temperature 250C. Measurements ……. the acceptable quality level. The MIL-STD-105D (also BS6001. generally single and double normal sampling plans are applied. this percentage usually being stipulated by the customer. depending on the quality of the samples inspected. which represents the maximum number of defects per hundred units that for the purpose of the sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as process average. determining whether the entire lot is acceptable or not. required tests and automated inspection. Lots should as homogeneous and as large as possible.5 is applied when textiles of normal/good quality are involved. A tolerance is the difference between the allowance minimum and maximum of a specification or standard. In general cases. ISO 2859. depending on the inspection requirements and the quality of the products. A sampling method is a technique for inspecting partial volume of units with certain attributes as representing the quality level of the entire production. inspecting them and. The inspection table should be an adjustable one in terms of adjusting the height of the table. the sampling plan and the acceptance number. A sample lot will be selected from the order and a percentage of the garments will be inspected. Allowable tolerances establish the limits within which the product can vary yet still be of acceptable quality. and these determine the number of samples to be inspected in lot size. Statistical acceptance sampling techniques are established for each checkpoint. Apparel manufacturers frequently use a statistical quality control process called acceptance sampling. Normally a manufacturer produces a tremendous volume of units of consumers. this could only be achieved if the inspection table is an adjustable one as heights of human beings vary from one another. the customer will determine which sampling plan and what AQL to adopt. 4. The walls of the audit room should be white in color presenting a very bright appearance to the room and making it possible for the auditor to conduct the audit easily. The lot size determines the population from which the sample is selected. If each unit of merchandise is inspected before the delivery. Another important feature is that the audit room should be spacious in-order to make it convenient for the auditor to conduct the audit. The sample. The AQL 1. therefore only examples of these two will be provided. There are four basic elements for carrying out inspection by this method.

a sample of garments is selected for garment inspection. color codes. The customer allows certain tolerances on all parts of the garment that is acceptable from a consumer point of views. LAHORE important to set up a guide for garment tolerances in order to avoid defective goods being passed through. Contents of Packing List: It is important to have a clear understanding of the contents listed in a packing list. Vendor has to remain consistent of keeping the measurements of the garments within allowed tolerance specified in the spec package. complete details of serial numbers of cartons allotted to each carton. It is important for the vendor to understand and comply with all packing details described in a garment package.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. as packaging method can vary from one customer to another. Ensure correct quality/number of ply’s of carton and strapping of cartons. whilst standards that are too rigid may result in acceptable goods being unnecessarily rejected. Tolerances: The word tolerance describes the extent of margin allowed from a specific point. It will indicate both the importance as well as the procedure in which it is conducted. The main purpose of establishing this tolerance concept is that it allows the vendor a range to play as there are production limits and at the same time allows the buyer that the garment is not skipping a size. and carton dimensions as well as deviation chart. 332 . Shipment Audit: The following information laid out indicates the steps that take place during an inspection of a shipment. Auditor requires from its vendors to provide the packing list before the audit is presented showing the expected deviation if any. A sample of cartons is taken to conduct the packing audit in-order to check if the shipment is in accordance with the following:      To ensure that carton markings are correct Ensure correct styling/color/quantity/size ratio/or garments inside carton Ensure correct carton / barcode sticker and information listed on them. This sample taken for audit depends on the number of garments being presented at the time of final inspection. Styling Confirmation: One of the most important parts of the audit is to confirm the styling of the garment against the package details. date of audit. Packing List: Packing list is a document tat specifies the complete details of an order in its final form. net and gross weight of shipment. To ensure that the folding method and fold size of garment is correct. It is important that the packing list is completed to full detail and precisely. In other words it is an index of an order in its packed form that is being presented for inspection. style #. PO#. A packing list serves the purpose of providing a clear picture to all the parties involved in the processing or an order. Sampling Procedure: After completing the packing audit. This step takes place just before the garments are going to be inspected for quality and specs. Packing Inspection: A packing audit is conducted to ensure that the details listed in a packing list are correct and is according to the customers packing needs. Customer ref#. The contents of a packing list includes color-wise and size-wise breakdown of the garments /cartons presented for audit. The auditor checks the whole details against the package to verify that everything is correct. Vendor name.

customer name.2 Conducting of an Audit: After the sample has been taken. A total number of 6 garments are taken/size to conduct measurements of all areas of those garments.5 at normal inspection Level 2. This is to verify that the measurements of the garments are within acceptable range. the faults found are classified into two major categories namely as major and minor faults. the factory and the related Technologist. Faults Detection: information such as:     Types of defects found Sample quantity and status of findings Shipment status Serial numbers of cartons inspected during audit 3. Identity of the Shipment: consists of information related to identity of garment such as:     PO#.3 EXAMPLE OF DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN METHOD      The inspection will be carried out as laid down in BS 6001: 1991 sampling procedures for inspection by Attributes – DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN. Inspection Report: It is important for all parties involved in the processing of an order to have a thorough understanding of the contents listed in an inspection report. Samples are to be selected completely at random. In each section following points generally included. Later on a percentage will be derived out of the garments measured and will be forwarded to the customer for final decision. The customer has the right to either accept or Reject the shipment based on the auditors’ findings. 4. The inspection is to be carried out at AQL 2. All results are to be recorded on inspection report Copies of the report arte to be distributed to the office at source. An identity of shipment. and Conclusion. LAHORE Measurements: After completing the garment audit. Faults Detected. quantity ordered. 1. Conclusion The third portion consists of Comments and findings and Proposals / suggestions. Classification of Faults: At the end of the audit. Style #. If measurements are lying out of tolerance. The fate of the shipment is decided after comparing the number of faults that are allowed on a certain sample size. The inspection report is mainly divided into three portions.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. as it may lead all parties involved into a complex situation if the text underlined in the inspection report is not clearly understood. the garments are checked for overall quality and presentation. 4. more garments will be picked for measurement purposes. merchandiser/auditor Label checklist Second portion of the inspection report consists of 2. 333 . a sample of garment is selected for measurement purpose. which the auditor depicts after comparing it with AQL standards or any other. country of origin. Packing and marking checklist Vendor name.

each size is to be treated as a subbatch and inspected in the same ratio as it exists in the shipment.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.5 Accept 0 1 0 3 1 4 2 6 3 8 5 12 7 18 Reject 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 7 7 9 9 13 11 19 13 13 20 20 32 32 50 50 80 80 125 125 200 200 334 . DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN BS6001: Part 1 1991 Inspection Level 2 – Tightened Consignment Lot Size 91 – 150 151 – 280 281 – 500 501 – 1200 1201 – 3200 3201 – 10000 10001 – 35000 Sample Size Cumulative Sample Size 13 26 20 40 32 64 50 100 80 160 125 250 200 400 AQL 2. LAHORE    Any action required is to be specified by the relevant Technologist.5 Accept 0 1 0 1 0 3 1 4 2 6 3 11 6 15 Reject 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 5 7 7 12 10 16 13 13 20 20 32 32 50 50 80 80 125 125 200 200 DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN BS6001: Part 1 1991 Inspection Level 2 – Tightened Consignment Lot Size 91 – 150 151 – 280 281 – 500 501 – 1200 1201 – 3200 3201 – 10000 10001 – 35000 Sample Size Cumulative Sample Size 13 26 20 40 32 64 50 100 80 160 125 250 200 400 AQL 2. If shipment consists of different colors. If a shipment consists of different sizes. each color to be treated separate batch.

PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE AQL INSPECTION REPORT – PART 1 Customer: Style No: Factory: Order No: Quantity: Description: Major Minor 1 st 2nd 1st 2 nd Fabric Defect Fabric Shading Fabric Pulls/snags Uneven Pile Fabric Holes Fabric Cut Off Grain Needle Damage Non-inclusion Skipped Stitched Broken Stitching Seam Pucker Slippage Roping Grinning Bad Trimming Dyeing/Printing Faults Soiling/Grease Marks Contamination Damaged Components Mismatched Stripe/Check Embroidery/Print Fault Buttonhole Construction Button Attachment Poor Pressing/Glazing Non – Alignment Placket Construction Placket Construction Labeling Packing Decision: ACCEPT / PEND / REJECT Representative: Comments DATE: Factory Representative: 335 .

Used as a rough guide. The main three categories:    CRITICAL: A critical non-conformity is one that is likely to make the product unsafe to use. these guidelines are not definite. but which departs from the established standard agreed at the time of contract. LAHORE AQL INSPECTION REPORT – PART 2 Customer Measurement Order No. or which does not comply with the law. 336 . which may cause the product to fail in any respect. MINOR: A major non-conformity is one that is not likely to reduce the use ability of the product.4 CLASSIFICATION OF NON-COMFORMITIES: All no-conformities may be classified into three broad categories. MAJOR: A major non-conformity is one. reducing the use ability and sale ability prompting customer complaint. However. Style No. Factory Description Comments: Inspection Date: 4. always consult with your customer to agree standards.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. If in doubt. they offer immediate advice on what action to take in each instance.

Insecure button. Staples or Parts Left In Product. Dirty marks/oil stations. Creases. bar. Broken/Cut stitching. Twisted sleeve/linings/legs linings. Fire Warning Missing (where legally required). 337 MINOR Appearance. Incorrect/Number Of Fibers Labeling. Pins. Wadding migrating. Faulty zips. boarding out. Fly Stitch. Functional Hood Cords On Infants and Children’s Garments. impressions. popper. Pressing marks. insecure Motif. Insecure Studs Rivets. Skip Stitching. Slubs. Needles. Dirty marks/oil Stains. packaging. Components. Insufficient Neck Stretch. Holes. not straight. Knitting faults. Insecure linking. Sleeve lining not sewn up. Measurement outside Tolerance but acceptable. bars. Any legal requirements. Stripes not matching where necessary. folding. snags. Measurement outside tolerance and unacceptable. Shaded panels. Twisted Straps. Fabric Faults. Stitching. Wading migrating. Skip stitching. Mis plating (sticks) Sizing. Pocket position. Insecure hem felling. Fly stitch. Pressing marks. Missing button. slubs. Needle damage. impressions. Ladders. Button/hook & bar/eye Position. Shaded Panels. MAJOR Appearance. Pucker Holes in pockets. Not straight. Slight pucker. boarding out. Insufficient Seam bight. Creases. glazing. Stitching. Cuts. Button/hook & bar/eye position. alignment. Fabric saults.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Print fault Strips not matching where Necessary. Untrimmed Thread ends in baby wear 0-3 years. Alignment. Chipped stud/popper. snags. Any Potentially dangerous components. glazing. Pocket Position. barcode. Sizing. Misplacing (socks). Pressing/Packing. Stud. Incorrect size label. Components. Print faults. Thread ends. . LAHORE CLASSIFICATION OF NON CONFORMITIES CRITICAL Insole Tacks (Shoes). Packing. Packing. Insecure button. Drop Stitch. Poppers. hook and bar. Pressing/Packing. swing ticket.

irregular or missmatched: a) Conspicuous (outside) b) Slight (inside) c) Any joins in top stitching Any run-offs of top stitching: a) Conspicuous b) Slight Any excessively loose tensions or stitch counts other than Specified on sealed sample. Cuffs. edges. S6. collars.  S4. LAHORE CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS SEAMS AND STITCHES DEFECTS S1. puckered. Any seams open or broken. spiraled or containing pleats: a) Conspicuous b) Slight Any part of garment caught in seams or unrelated part of Garment. underarms. S11. hems: a) Conspicuous (outside) b) Slight (inside) Any seams not back-tacked secure or covered by another seam (Exceptions only if specified on sealed sample) Any needle damage. MAJOR MINOR    S2. cuffs. shoulders.    S10. S7.   S12 338 . Any ropy hems. edges or openings: a) Conspicuous b) Slight Any weakness in seam joins. Knitted S3. cuffs.   S9.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Any contrast stitching uneven. Any raw or uncovered seams.    S8. Any seams twisted. Any drop stitches or miss stitches. trouser crotch. hoods.    S5.

seams or visible part. Any shading of parts within the garment. dye spots. If it objectionably affects the appearance or performance of the garment a) 1-2 cm or more b) Less than 1cm. misprints.  F3. backs or seams.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. Shade variations within or between garments.  F7. a) Any slubs 1cm or more in length or 2 threads wide in any conspicuous or focal points of garments. on fronts. (Not agreed on sealed sample)    F8. Any holes. obvious weakness or flaw that develops into a hole. plaids. MAJOR MINOR  F2. (Depends upon severity)   CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS MATERIALS (FABRICS) DEFECTS F1.    F4. tears or surface repairs made during production. Any cuts. LAHORE S13. Any bowing of the fabric. checks. smudges or faulty registration of prints that are obviously noticeable and seriously detract from the appearance of the fabric.  F6. Any Barre fabric. Packaging or transit. Any patterns not matched and balanced: a) Conspicuous b) Slight   S14. b) Other hidden or obscure areas any slubs 1cm or below. Any pulled threads or snags between buttons or button holes. 339 . Any stepping of seams. (Not agreed on sealed sample)  F5. Any miss-matching or stripes.

or poppers not accurately spaced and in correct alignment. LAHORE F9.  340 . A5. studs. poppers or insecurely fixed eyelets.  A3. studs. Any sharp or tarnished edges on belts. buckles. F12. Any buttons broken or not stitched securely. Any button holes not stitched tidy and securely or not clearly cut. A6. F11. Any variation in handle or finish. stains or soiling on the surface of the garment MAJOR MINOR  A2. Any button. button holes.  A8. Any pilling or surface fussing of fabrics. (not agreed in sealed (sample) CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS CLEANNESS AND APPEARANCE DEFECTS A1. zips.     F10.    A4. Any loose threads or over lock ends that are not removed from garment: a) Outside (if unsightly) b) Inside Any garment labels not placed central and neatly to neck or other part of garment: a) Outside (if unsightly) b) Inside Any adhesive labels or Kimble tag damage to surface of garment. Any yellowing of fabric trims and shoulder pads due to nitrogen dioxide and packaging. Any monofilament sewing yarns.   A7. Any spots.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

Any un pressed or poorly pressed seams. motifs. collars within a garment.  CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS PRESSING DEFECTS P1. CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR AND MINOR DEFECTS MEASUREMENTS DEFECTS M1. All should be neatly and firmly fixed. Any glazing or pressure marks on the surface: a) Conspicuous b) Slight P3. Any loose belt loops. coat hangers. MAJOR MINOR  M2. LAHORE A9. others: a) Conspicuous b) Slight P4. Any bubbling due to delimitation of fusible linings.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. buttons. Any non-functioning of zips or poorly attached. cuffs. poppers. Any burn or scorch marks. any other trims. Press marks from clips. MAJOR MINOR       P5. sleeves.  A11. Any variation in length or width of legs. Any stepping on hem vents or neck opening   A12. facings or self covered belts  A10. Any absence of pressing when specified: a) Conspicuous b) Slight   341 . P2. collars. Any measurements not to size specification and tolerances Specified.

LAHORE 5. resulting in poor appearance. Classification of Defect Packaging Code Major Defect Explanation # 011 Size of the unit marked on the package differs from the size marked on the unit inside the package 016 Substituted color 017 Substituted size 018 Substituted merchandise 019 Merchandise folded or packaged incorrectly. Note: This quality standard is the complete listing of defects for this product line. Basic Quality Inspection Standards for Apparel A major defect is any defect that is sufficient to render the merchandise second quality or unacceptable because it is conspicuous and/or may affect the sale ability or serviceability and/or is a significant deviation from a Buyer’s specification. use the above definition as a guide to make your decision. Whenever judgment is required to classify a major defect.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. incorrect Label or illegible 081 Not caught completely or not sewn securely 086 Inside breast Suit label pocket label not sewn on all four (4) sides 087 Inside breast Suit label pocket label omitted or incorrect Construction 110 Substituted body fabric 111 Substituted or omitted component part 112 Any thread count The average of three more or less than counts taken at various 342 . A jacket is marked size 14 Brand or Size 080 Missing. and /or not according to contract 101 Sizes vary within A skirt is marked size the set 12.

Snags or pull threads on knits may be repaired if the dye finish is not changed. Folding and packaging may cause the item to look distorted. panels of a garment Sometimes there are or within a set different fibers in pieces of a set and perfect matches are nearly impossible. LAHORE 113 Fabric 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 the specified spots on the garment tolerance in both will not determine the directions actual thread count. Conspicuous Be sure that parts are mismatch in joined by course and shading between Wales on knit fabrics. Holes sewn closed are not allowed. Conspicuous repair Repair of some fabric to body fabric or defects are allowed if component parts the repair is neat. A visual comparison with a confirmation sample may be used when body fabric or component parts are not specified. Conspicuous soil Soil must be conspicuous. Substituted or poor match of color or print pattern when compared to master swatches. A hole in the fabric Do not include needle or material cuts under this code number Body fabric or component part is inverted or opposite of normal arrangement Conspicuous Sloppy sewing identifies irregular or irregular or distorted distorted construction. Carefully construction inspect the garment making sure the problem is permanent. Its location is also important Defective elastic Runner in knitted A runner identifies a 343 .PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE.

The most dominant line in a stripe or plaid must be centered in the button. Horizontal plaid or stripe must be even across the top centre and the packet. Horizontal streaks identify a knitting defect. produced by Graniteville Co. and type are important. size. Fabric bowing that Fabric bowing identifies is more than ¼’ in a finishing defect. It any 6 ’ horizontal does not affect the items 344 . Mae certain that the defects will affect the item’s serviceability or sale ability. A needle streak identifies a knitting defect. Location is also a factor. 135 199 200 202 Sports with napping missing on inside (fleece) Conspicuous fabric There are too many detect technical fabric detects to identify. 133 134 Conspicuous horizontal streaks in knitted fabric Conspicuous needle streaks in knitted fabric knitting defect if defect is from a needle cut list it as code 505 Location.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. LAHORE fabric 122 132 Conspicuous slub in fabric Fabric patterns not balanced and/or symmetrically matched. Conspicuous break The defect must be in print patter. The collar and cuffs must be balanced so that each one has the same pattern as the other side of the shirt. line of the top center. Reference the Manual of Standard Fabric Defects in the Textile industry. This defect must be conspicuous as it will not affect the items serviceability. poor conspicuous print registration or dye streak.

Most often found in tops. more critical in stripes and plaids.PAKISTAN READYMADE GARMENTS TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE. or loosely woven fabric Stitch count more Stitches per inch (SPI) or less than the specified tolerance A broken stitch on A broken stitch on any any functional or functional or decorative decorative seam seam is a major defect. Although a tolerance is given the defect must be conspicuous. unless approved. Substitution of seam type. only the sale ability. Width of Garment Tolerance 10’ to 14' 3/8’ 16’ to 18’ ½’ 20’ to 22’ 5/8’ 24’ to 26’ ¾’ 28’ to 30’ 7/8’ 345 . Bowing is usually found in the finishing of tubular knit fabric. unless knitting defect if defect approved is from a needle cut list it as code 505 Seam grin Caused by loose tension. The stripes and plaids will usually be even at the bottom hem. too. LAHORE measurement or is more than 1’ over tall body width of a fabric 203 299 Sewing 500 501 502 503 504 Skewness in fabric more than 3% (based on piece goods inspection standards of 60’goods with a tolerance of 1 2/4 ’) Miscellaneous dyeing or finishing defects other than those previously listed in this table. The defect is difficult to see in solid color items. A single broken stitch (no more than 2 incidents per seam) if it occurs on a seam that is neither functional nor decorative is a minor serviceability. but curve up in the center of item. Substitution of A runner identifies a stitch class. large stitch size.

Critical stress areas are the armhole and seal where movement causes strain on the fabric. Location is critical. LAHORE 505 Needle cuts on knit fabric that cause a runner of a hole 506 Open seam 507 Conspicuous seam repair 508 Conspicuous waste sewn into the outside of garment of exposed when garment is warn of used 509 510 Conspicuous pleat unintentionally formed by folding fabric into seam Conspicuous Some fabrics can not be puckering of seam sewn without some defect (Example: over lock/ serge / marrow on a pressed open seam). 346 . This defect is usually found on knitted fabric. A runner or a hole