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Harmonic Response Analysis

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Harmonic Response Analysis Introduction

In a structural system, any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic or harmonic response. Harmonic analysis results are used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state, forced vibrations of a structure. The transient vibrations, which occur at the beginning of the excitation, are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis. In this analysis all loads as well as the structure’s response vary sinusoidally at the same frequency. A typical harmonic analysis will calculate the response of the structure to cyclic loads over a frequency range (a sine sweep) and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. “Peak” responses are then identified from graphs of response vs. frequency and stresses are then reviewed at those peak frequencies. Back To Top
Points to Remember

Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. Some nonlinearities, such as plasticity will be ignored, even if they are defined. All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known frequency (although not necessarily in phase). Back To Top
Preparing the Analysis

Attach Geometry Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for a harmonic response analysis. Define Part Behavior Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: Both Young’s modulus (or stiffness in some form) and density (or mass in some form) must be defined. Material properties must be linear but can be isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperaturedependent. Nonlinear properties, if any, are ignored. Define Connections Basic general information about this topic ... for this analysis type: Any nonlinear contact such as Frictional contact retains the initial status throughout the harmonic response analysis. The stiffness contribution from the contact is based on the initial status and never changes.



for this analysis type: For a harmonic response analysis the basic controls are: Options . 14/08/2008 ...Here you specify the frequency range and the number of solution points at which the harmonic analysis will be carried out as well as the solution method to use and the relevant controls. Define Analysis Type Basic general information about this topic . The default method of equally spaced frequency points can result in missing the peak values. Without Cluster Option: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. more accurate tracing of the response curve. The stiffness as well as damping of springs is taken into account in a Full method of harmonic response analysis.. This results in a smoother. Mode Superposition method: In this method a modal analysis is first performed to compute the natural frequencies and mode shapes. the damping from springs is ignored.. This is the default method. The Mode Superposition method cannot be used if you need to apply imposed (nonzero) displacements. Establish Analysis Settings Basic general information about this topic . Two solution methods are available to perform harmonic response analysis: the Mode Superposition method and the Direct Integration (full) method. and generally provides results faster than the Full method. for this analysis type: Choose Harmonic Response as the New Analysis type.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 2 of 15 Joints are not allowed in a harmonic response analysis... Then the mode superposition solution is carried out where these mode shapes are combined to arrive at a solution. This method also allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies.. Apply Mesh Controls/Preview Mesh Basic general information about this topic . In a Mode Superposition harmonic response analysis. for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for harmonic response analysis..

It does not allow clustered results. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. this value is a constant damping ratio. data at an even closer frequency may be obtained with a new solution as needed. Full method: Calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass. Forethought on these choices can significantly reduce the need to re-solve an analysis.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 3 of 15 With Cluster Option: A Store Results At All Frequencies option is also available to request that only minimal data be retained to supply just the harmonic results requested at the time of solution. Note that the values of frequency and type of contour results (displacement. Note With this option set to No. 14/08/2008 . stress or strain) at the moment of the solve determine the contents of the result file and the subsequent availability of data. What happens if I apply base motion? Is this using large mass method? Will I get good results? Damping Controls allow you to specify damping for the structure in the harmonic response analysis.. Alpha and Beta damping as well as constant damping ratio are available for a harmonic response analysis. However. the addition of new frequency or phase responses to a solved environment will require a new solution. The addition of new contour results does not share this requirement. data from the closest available frequency will be displayed (the reported frequency is noted on each result).. Its chief disadvantages are: It is more “expensive” in CPU time than the Mode Superposition method. Constant Damping Ratio: The simplest way of specifying damping in the structure. but rather requires the results to be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range. In addition material dependent damping can also be applied using the Engineering Data module.

edge.. These are defined as material properties in Engineering Data module. Element Damping: You can also apply damping through spring-damper elements. Material Dependent Damping and Constant Material Damping Coefficient are available for use with harmonic analyses. You can specify a phase shift using the Phase Angle mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. The damping from these elements is used only in a Full method harmonic analysis. for this analysis type: Initial condition is not applicable for Harmonic Response analyses. for this analysis type: The following loads are allowed in a harmonic response analysis: Acceleration Pressure Force (applied to a face. Material Damping: Two types of material based damping. Beta Damping is the option for Direct Input or Damping versus Frequency.. enter a Beta Damping value. You can use these controls to keep all files created during solution or to create and save an ANSYS database (db file).. you can enter both a Frequency value and a Beta Damping value. Analysis Data Management settings enable you to save solution files from the harmonic response analysis... For Direct Input. All loads must have the same frequency. 14/08/2008 . The default behavior is to only keep the files required for postprocessing. Apply Loads and Supports Basic general information about this topic . Note If multiple damping specifications are made the effect is cumulative.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 4 of 15 Beta Damping: Defines a stiffness matrix multiplier for damping. or vertex) Bearing Load Moment Given (Specified) Displacement Remote Force Remote Displacement Line Pressure In a harmonic response analysis the loads have the following restrictions: All loads must be sinusoidally time-varying. Loads can be out of phase with each other.. Define Initial Condition Basic general information about this topic . For Damping versus Frequency.

Therefore the use of Bearing Loads is not recommended.. The Bearing Load. Pressure loads (including Line Pressure loads ) and Force loads can be applied. Moment. but the applied load simply reverses sign (goes in tension). Thermal Condition is not supported.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 5 of 15 Details View entry for each load. acts on one side of the cylinder. The Compression Only support is nonlinear but will behave linearly in harmonic response analyses similar to a Frictionless Support. so it should not be utilized in order to avoid confusion. you may expect that the other side of the cylinder is loaded in reverse. In harmonic response analyses. Any type of linear Support can be used in harmonic response analyses. You can specify the preferred unit for phase angle (in fact all angular inputs) to be degrees or radians using the Units toolbar. with magnitude and phase angle input.. Remote Force. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. although these loads are assumed to act at a phase angle of zero. as shown below. and Acceleration loads may be defined. 14/08/2008 .

. or acceleration (frequency only) plotted as a graph. Contour plots include stress. or edge) and can be viewed as a value graphed along a specified frequency range. face. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. deformation. there is only one graph shown and there are no display options for them. elastic strain. These include the frequency or phase results for stress.. The following demo is presented as an animated GIF. elastic strain. for this analysis type: Two type of results can be requested for harmonic response analyses: Contour plots of results at a particular frequency and phase angle or graphs. For these results. Review Results Basic general information about this topic .. you must specify a frequency and phase angle. and deformation. for this analysis type: Solution Information continuously updates any listing output from the solver and provides valuable information on the behavior of the structure during the analysis. For phase response results.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 6 of 15 Solve Basic general information about this topic . 14/08/2008 . The following figure shows a reduced version of the Bode plot.. Results displayed on a graph can be scoped to specific geometric entity (vertex. Graphs can be either Frequency Response graphs that display how the response varies with frequency or Phase Response plots that show how much a response lags behind the applied loads. the default plot (Bode) shows the amplitude.. Interface names and other components shown in the demo may differ from those in the released product. When you generate frequency response results. The plot will include all the frequency points at which a solution was obtained. Please view online if you are reading the PDF version of the help.. and are basically the same as those for other analyses.

Strain. you would look at Frequency Response plots at critical regions to ascertain what the frequency of interest may be. you can first do a convergence study on a modal analysis and reuse the mesh from that analysis. Note You cannot use Simulation convergence capabilities for any results item under a harmonic response analysis. For edges.. This is also available for frequency and phase response results scoped on a single vertex. or Deformation contour plots to evaluate the response of the entire structure at that frequency and phase of interest. and phase angle. you can plot the following results values for graphs: real. faces. You can select any of these from a drop-down list in the Details View for the results.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 7 of 15 Optionally.. The Use Average setting calculates the average by calculating the real and imaginary components separately. imaginary. the phase of interest is also determined. The Reported Frequency in the Information category is the frequency at which contour results were found and plotted. and multiple vertex selections (which contain multiple nodes). General approach to harmonic analysis postprocessing Generally speaking. The Use Minimum and Use Maximum settings are based on the amplitude and thus are reported from the location with either the largest or smallest amplitude. 14/08/2008 . you can request Stress. shells. Presented below is an example of a Frequency Response plot: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. Instead. the results can be scoped as minimum. This frequency can be potentially different from the frequency you requested. maximum. amplitude. In conjunction with Phase Response plots. or average. Then.

For contour results. All types of Stress. Strain. Deformation. You can then see the total response of the structure at a given point in mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 8 of 15 The average. you must specify the frequency and phase angle of interest. unlike Frequency Response plots that show a response amplitude over a frequency range. as noted above. However.. or maximum value can be chosen for selected entities. Stress. Phase Response plots show a response over a range of phase angles. 14/08/2008 . and Acceleration components vary sinusoidally. minimum. so you can determine how much a response lags behind the applied load. Strain.) Similarly. so these are the only result types that can be reviewed in this manner. and Deformation are available. average. or maximum Stress. Phase Response plots show the minimum. or Deformation for selected entities. Strain.. including derived quantities such as Total Deformation or Equivalent (von-Mises) Stress. (Note that items such as Principal Stress or Equivalent Stress do not behave in a sinusoidal manner since these are derived quantities. Presented below is an example of a Phase Response plot.

Back To Top Example: Harmonic Response Analysis The following example illustrates performing a harmonic response analysis in Simulation...\Program Files\ANSYS Inc\v110\AISOL\Samples\Simulation Unix platform: . Create Report (optional) Basic general information about this topic . establish units. Since each node may have different phase angles from one another.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 9 of 15 time. as shown below. 1.. 14/08/2008 . the complex response can also be animated to see the time-dependent motion. Open the model in Simulation.... for this analysis type: There are no specific considerations for a harmonic response analysis. and set up a harmonic response analysis.dsdb from one of the following locations: Windows platform: . Open the file HModel../ansys_inc/v110/aisol/Samples/Simulation mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-..

Customary (in. Highlight the Analysis Settings object in the tree. choose Units> U.S.01. 14/08/2008 . oF. V. Specify analysis settings. Choose New Analysis> Harmonic Response from the toolbar.. which is 1% of critical damping. A). choose Units> Degrees. lbm. s. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. lbf.. From the main menu.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 10 of 15 From the main menu. 2. Set the following in the Details View: Range Minimum = 0 Hz Range Maximum = 500 Hz Solution Method = Mode Superposition Cluster Results = Yes Cluster Number = 10 Constant Damping Ratio = 0.

Harmonic Response Analysis Page 11 of 15 Items to note: Peak responses occur near natural frequencies of a structure. The Cluster Results option automatically clusters solutions about the structure's natural frequencies.. This results in a smoother. set Define By to Components and set Y Component to -250 lbf. A Cluster Number of 10 means that there will be 10 points clustered on either side of each natural frequency of the structure. The default method of equally spaced frequency points can miss peak values. more accurate tracing of the response curve. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. In the Details View of Force. 14/08/2008 . Specify boundary conditions and loads. Apply fixed support by selecting the face shown and choosing Supports> Fixed Support from the toolbar. Specify force on face by selecting the face shown below and choosing Loads> Force from the toolbar. 3..

. 14/08/2008 .Harmonic Response Analysis Page 12 of 15 4. Set the following in the Details View: Spatial Resolution = Use Maximum Orientation = Y Axis mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. Insert a Frequency Response result object to obtain the Y deformation response at the point of load application. choose Frequency Response> Deformation from the toolbar. Select the face shown and with the Solution folder highlighted..

6.Harmonic Response Analysis Page 13 of 15 5. Notice how points are clustered near natural frequencies to give better resolution. note the frequency and phase angle at which the maximum amplitude occurs. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. Review the frequency response for Y deformation on the face to which force is applied. You can also review Real and Imaginary parts of the solution by changing the Display value in Details View. Highlight the Frequency Response object and in the Details View. Solve the analysis.. You can use the zoom tool next to the graphs to zoom in. Choose Solve from the toolbar. 14/08/2008 ..

Harmonic Response Analysis Page 14 of 15 7. Set the following in the Details View: Frequency = 64. 14/08/2008 .563 Hz Phase Angle = 90. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-. Set the following in the Details View: Orientation = Y Axis Frequency = 64..578 degrees. Highlight the Solution folder and choose Stress> Equivalent from the toolbar. Highlight the Solution folder and choose Deformation> Directional from the toolbar.578 degrees.563 Hz Phase Angle = 90. Review the Y deformation plot as well as the equivalent stress plot at the frequency and phase angle where the maximum Y amplitude occurred. Click the right mouse button and choose Evaluate All Results from the context menu..

14/08/2008 ..Harmonic Response Analysis Page 15 of 15 Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\ANSYS%20Inc\v110\CommonFiles\help\en-.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.