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Clive Anderson Stolt Offshore
Agenda: •Why Inspect •Regulations •The IMR Cycle •What is a pipeline •Inspection Methods •Data Acquisition •Data Processing •Reporting •The Future •Conclusions •Questions
The agenda for today’s presentation.
Why Inspect ?
•This is the famous pipeline inspection expert Sherlock Holmes checking a marble pillar for signs of corrosion! •Notice his dress, this is what passed for PPE in Victorian times!
Insurance & Road Tax. £10K’s •You want to keep it in condition •Retains value & operates well •Maintenance = servicing •Inspection = MOT •MOTè Fit for purpose •MOTè Road Tax & Insurance If not maintained it’s: •Unreliable •Not fit for purpose •Fails the MOT •Worth nothing •Costs you money •SORN & £1000 fine •Delays you: walk or bus. 4 . •Society (Government) recognises that cars must be fit for purpose & drivers have duty of care to the public •Hence there are Acts & Statutory Instruments to ensure this happens. •For cars this means: MOT.Why Inspect? •Car = Major asset.
daily –X £???M’s Law suits. the FPA 5 .statutory instruments .Why Inspect?: •Major Asset worth £10 .for pipelines. •The MOT is actually the “Fitness for Purpose Assessment”. –Maintain pipeline in efficient condition. •So they have lawful regulations .£100M’s •Owners have a vested interest to.. Litigation •Pipeline operator has a vested interest in keeping the line in good condition. less depreciation •Sold on to next field owner / operator •Just like you & your car Huge downside if not in good condition: •Contents may stop flowing or leak out! –Environmental clean up –Business Interruption –X £1M’s DTI / HSE Fines –X £10M’s lost production . –Duty of care: environment & marine users •It will retain it’s value. •If the don’t the contents may stop flowing or even leek out! •Just as the government has lawful MOT regulations for cars..
–“ Fit for Purpose Assessment” = MOT –The pipeline is then insurable –Just like your car •The Ten Commandments. •The rules governing inspection are the Pipeline Safety Regulations.Regulations To ensure pipelines are maintained: •Pipelines Safety Regulations. =Statutory Instrument 1996/825 –Obligatory to keep lines in good condition. •Compulsory to keep pipelines in good condition. •That is you Inspect. like your car. 1996. Maintain & Repair them. •The MOT for pipelines is the Fitness for Purpose Assessment. an early example of regulations. Maintain & R epair. •You must service them. 6 . –Must Inspect.
” • PSR facilitated: – Risk Based Inspection – Cost savings & efficiency – Innovative systems •Up to 1996 there were various regulations including SI 1513. and to innovate.Pipelines Safety Regulations Up to 1996: • • • • • • Various regulations E.SI 1996/825 •Written so that it was aligned with the Health & Safety at Work Act 1974. in efficient working order and in good repair.e. •They were very prescriptive.a “one-liner”. 7 . 21 words. •This brought with it a shift from prescriptive to goal setting legislation.g. open to interpretation and not working well. •The crux of the PSR legislation is Clause 13 . •Owners have responsibility to put systems in place to achieve that. SI 1513 Complex Ambiguous Prescriptive Open to interpretation Post 1996: • Pipeline Safety Regulations • • • • • = SI 1996 / 825 Aligned with HSWA Simple Goal setting: Clause 13 “The operator shall insure that a pipeline is maintained in an efficient state. •The new regulations enabled a move to Risk Based Inspection. •Regulations were revised and consolidated resulting in PSR . prove the pipeline is in good condition. •Freed inspection contractors to provide solutions. technology. systems. •The legislation sets goals: I.
ABCDEFGH?JKL?NOPQ?STUVWXYZ The IMR Cycle • • • RBI IMR (Repair) IMR (Routine) 8 .
techniques and systems. •The move to RBI. trend analysis & experience • • • • • • •This is one definition of a Risk Based Inspection . cost effective & efficient. Allocate inspection effort where it is most effective & required. was liberating. Based on risk assessment. •Importantly:. facilitated by the Pipeline Safety Regulations 1996. good.•RBI: Risk Based Inspection • An inspection regime such that you are confident the asset will be in the same condition at the next inspection interval. •It allowed the Operators. Integrity Managers and the survey / inspection contractors to develop suitable.quite succinct. Permits flexibility & efficiency. cost effective solutions. Explore alternative survey methods / strategies Permits new technology & innovation Customised IMR for each asset.a Customised Inspection & Maintenance Routine means you don’t have to inspect every component of the asset infrastructure every time. 9 .
•To create the IMR each component of the asset is risk assessed. •Life cycle: new . •The IMR is designed.predicted deterioration of components -Experience & Common sense.old (dead or even re-incarnated!) •Change of use Cover asset infrastructure: Wellheads Platforms Risers SSIV’s Pipelines Umbilicals Cables Landfalls Links & nodes Surface & subsea •IMR = document.mature . They can be revised: •Through trend analysis.each asset component = planned inspection schedule.IMR: Inspection & Maintenance Routine. •Maximum conditions are set above which they are anomalous.logical to use different inspection techniques. Customised for each “asset” • • • Sets out for each asset: •Risks & probability •Pipeline anomaly criteria •Types of inspection (Controls) + Recommended: •Interval . customised for each particular asset. based on: -RBI philosophy -Engineering .logical sets of structures . 10 .each inspection type •Interval . •Describes all the infrastructure of an asset •Notice .
•And they keep everyone on their ……….Inspection Maintenance & Repair Operators: •Accountable •PSR Clause 13 •Manage Budget •£££’s & ITT Ma int en an ce ir pa Re PSR RBI FPA Inspection Integrity Management Consultants: •Analysis & Assessment •Recommendations •Fit for Purpose? Survey & Inspection Contractors: •Gather data •Report •Solution providers Visual representation of how regulations & parties involved in IMR interact. •IMC’s assess the results & advise on pipeline condition.Toes. •Their experts will visit & audit IMC’s & operators and audit FPA’s. •If they find things are not in order.. we need someone to police the whole system and that is…… •The Health & Safety Executive inspectors = Traffic Warden. •Seen here slapping an improvement notice on an Oil Exec’s car. they will issue an Improvement Notice. •Survey & Inspection Contractors survey & report pipeline conditions. •They issue the “Fitness for Purpose Assessment” •Operators are accountable for pipeline integrity per Clause 13 of PSR 1996. •They set budgets for Inspection and invite bids to conduct Maintenance & Repair work as it is needed. •Operators manage the cycle in the light of the recommendations. •Finally. •Reporting according to condition & anomaly limits: anomalies. •This is a closed loop .epitomises much of what happens in IMR. •It is commonly called the IMR cycle 11 .
gather data. •Survey & Inspect . •Assess data onboard the vessel. acquire data.14 days) •IMC’s then assess the data & make recommendations •= Closed cycle 12 . •Determine anomalies (damage & conditions which threaten integrity) •Report from the vessel (7 . •Determine anomalies & monitor items •Monitor items = anomalies that are no longer anomalous but need monitored •Report from the vessel (7 .14 days) •IMC’s then assess the data & make recommendations •= Closed cycle •Information from year 1 is carried into Year 2 •IMR Schedule plus year 1 findings determine Year 2 workscope.THE IMR CYCLE Maintenance & Repair Year 1 Anomalies Maintenance & Repair Start IMR Schedule Review Schedule Assess Assess Report GI Year 1 Workscope Report GI Year 2 Workscope Anomalies Inspection Anomalies & Monitor Items Data Inspection Data Year on Year: GI Survey 2 Year Inspection Cycle . •Reviewed & adjusted by IMC’s / Operators. conduct inspection.GI •Consult the IMR •Develop workscope.
GI & GVI. •Survey & Inspect . •Subsequent inspections: planned based on IMR schedule & historic data 13 . •Reviewed & adjusted by IMC’s / Operators.14 days) •IMC’s then assess the data & make recommendations •= Closed cycle •Build up database of pipeline conditions that are assessed.THE IMR CYCLE Maintenance & Repair Year 1 GI Anomalies Maintenance & Repair Start IMR Schedule Review Schedule Assess Assess Report GI Year 1 Workscope Report GVI Year 1 Workscope Anomalies Inspection Anomalies & Monitor Items Data Inspection Data 1 Year Cycle: GI then GVI Survey 1 Year Inspection Cycle .2 Surveys. •Written by inspection contractor.gather data. •Consult the IMR for GVI inspection requirements •IMR Schedule plus year 1 GI findings determine year 1 GVI workscope. •Assess data onboard the vessel. •Determine anomalies & monitor items •Report from the vessel (7 .
14 . Which looks like this. there is the daily cycle.Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 Day 11 Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15 Day 16 Day 17 Day 18 Day 19 Day 20 Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Day 24 Day 25 Day 26 Day 27 Day 28 Day 29 Day 30 Day 31 Day 32 Day 33 Day 34 Day 35 There are various cycles & feedback loops in the IMR cycle: •Yearly –By Inspection type –Between inspection types. When you are out inspecting.
inspection being inspection. there is always something that comes along that is interesting.. •Inspection can be a little bit repetitive………. If he sees a shadow that means another 2 weeks of survey………………. 15 . •But.On Groundhog Day the people of Seaway Petrel consult Punxsutawney. •= Groundhog day.
•Other interesting thingss: –Usually find 1 or 2 of towed sidescan & pinger fish each year.assumed a burial at sea.if it isn’t . an unexploded object. •When we find one of these we: –DO NOT touch it….! –Photograph it. –A coffin . –Plenty of marine life: lobsters. •A 3000 pound air dropped mine. –Make it stable . big monkfish etc.UXO •This certainly broke the daily cycle! •This is a “UXO” anomaly. 16 . •There are some more UXO slides later. –Stay on site until Navy or a guard boat comes out.. •Dropped sometime in the 1960’s. –Call the Royal Navy bomb squad. –If we’re lucky we see the explosion.we sand bagged this one.
•An SSIV is a subsea isolation valve. an automatic stop valve.hydraulic umbilcals – fibre optic cables (optical nerve) •The oilfield is not dissimilar to the human body •It’s lifeblood is the flow of oil and / or gas through pipelines. •Burst or clogged arteries are unhealthy as are burst or clogged pipelines. 17 . 6/7/88. •167 people lost their lives then. •Safety is paramount. •There is no better reason than that to inspect. maintain & repair.What is a Pipeline? In its simplest form a pipeline comprises: • Risers • Spoolpiece • Sealines • Landfall There are analogies to human anatomy: • Pumping oil = heart • SSIV = valves • Pipeline = arteries • Umbilicals = nerves – electro . •They were made compulsory after Piper Alpha.
•It shows the 3 main sections of a pipeline.Riser: Connects platform to sealine via a spoolpiece Sealine (purple): The export pipeline connects riser / spoolpiece to processing facilities ashore Landfall: The part of the export pipeline in the inshore zone •Here is a diagram of a very simple pipeline system. •“Pipeline” is a misnomer. we inspect linear & point features of infrastructure. •In reality oil & gas infrastructure is much more complex. 18 . •There are many different types of point and linear features.
•Subjected to alternative wet & dry cycles at different intervals. maintain and lift heavy objects •Usually to be found swinging from platforms or vertical cliff faces.RATS Splash Zone . •Above the splash zone it is impacted by salty air.RATS / divers Subsea . –Quicker.RISERS Risers can degrade rapidly due to • • • • • • Instability Current Wave Action Corrosion . •They inspect.DP Vessel & ROV’s Subsea .offshore scaffold operations are very dangerous.electrical & chemical Wave Action / Movement Impact Inspection options: • • • • Above sea level . 19 . •And also subjected to sunlight & temperature cycles & wind action.Platform based ROV’s •The pipeline is at its most vulnerable in the splash zone. more efficient –They can get into places scaffolding can’t –Cost effective solution. •It must be great when your job is your hobby! •RAT inspection & intervention teams are an innovation: –Safer than scaffolding . We also see the Rope Access Technicians at work. •Tidal cycle (12 hour . repair.diurnal) and wave cycle (seconds). •Which are the enemies of paint and the allies of corrosion. clean. •Riser is very susceptible to impact by supply vessel.
. Dynamic Positioning. still operating due to over-engineering & good IMR.electrical & fibre optic . •These are the main risks to which they are exposed.SEALINES North Sea: • 20. I. 20 . usually “DP” – Plus ROV’s – Eyeball & Workclass Main Types of Inspection : • GI = Acoustic sensors • GVI = Visual sensors At risk from: • Anchors & Trawl gear • Instability • Current & Wave Action • Corrosion .electrical & chemical • Upheaval Buckling (expansion) • Munitions •There are thousands of km’s of pipeline in the north sea. hydraulic.000+km “pipeline” • = Linear features . •This permits “follow-sub” mode: I. including water . •You have to go out & look at them somehow.Pipelines: gas & oil & water . •Knowing vessel & ROV position & attitude lets you position the sensors. •Some 30+ years old.Multifunction pipeline bundles Survey Platforms: – Vessel. •Unlike a car.e. •Sensor data is then “added” to give you positioned pipeline condition data.e. •Carry varying products. •Sensors are mounted on the ROV which substitute for your eyes and ears.Cables .Umbilicals . beyond original lifecycle. •It also facilitates a means of positioning the ROV. •Usually the vessel will have “DP” capability. •You need survey & sensor platforms: vessels & remotely operated vehicles. chemical elements. “station-keeping” on the moving ROV. you can’t wheel pipelines into a garage for inspection / MOT. efficiently & safely. •Some are still operating.electric.injected for enhanced recovery.
Mini ROV • CP (Trailing wire / snake) •This is a professional landfall survey team.Divining rods • RTK. SVS. •In some places a large vessel can get within 10’s of metres of the shoreline. 21 . •PPE = work boots & sun-block! •A pleasant way to spend a month in summer. working very hard. SBP.LANDFALLS • • • = TOB to @ 3km offshore.chemical & electrical Survey Platform: – Shank’s Pony – Inshore survey vessel Sensors: • RTK back pack • Radio-detection tools • Innovation:. •Given that you are going to do an inshore survey with a suitable inshore vessel then why risk the large offshore vessel to unnecessary risk. Through the inter-tidal zone. Buried. hence 3km. Protected At Risk From • Anchors & Trawl gear • Munitions • Very Strong Currents • Wave Action . •The 3km offshore is not a hard and fast rule.to seabed • Erosion / Deposition • Beach activities • Corrosion . SSS • Divers. rock-dumped or in conduit. •In the southern north sea it’s the sort of safe distance that you can comfortably bring a large vessel into the beach. •Landfall is often defined as from top of beach to @ 3km offshore.
–What impact will coastal defence policies have on east coast landfalls? 22 . seasonal . •Currents: example here of Bacton.winter storms. •It is not unusual to see 2 metres of seabed erosion between yearly surveys. •They can be a lot stronger than that. •Various cycles: diurnal tides.2ms = 2. the effects of tidal forces are amplified by shallow water effects.•Inshore.g Shetland . high energy zone. •Strong currents. •Shallow water means waves impact on seabed: churning it up. •What would you find if you: –Monitored daily? –Or before & after a storm. yearly. long shore drift.7 knots in places.3 knots. •Surveyed once a year. erosion & deposition. e. this shows 1.
•A few examples of pipeline landfalls. •LHS: landfall somewhere sunny. •Top & Middle RHS: Landfall Shetland. •Acoustic methods can’t get through the kelp. •You would not get away with this in the north sea = safety is paramount! 23 . a perfect survey / inspection location. •We use divers at these locations due to local seabed topography & kelp. •Bottom RHS: Landfall somewhere with no Working at Height policy.
•In the next few slides we’ll look at the main inspection modes: GI & GVI. in line.e. •Based on tacheometry. PPE. •The tripod. it is a fast method for conducting detailed survey. • GI = General Imaging = side scan sonar. •The present day equivalent would be the Total Station or RTK backpack. •Today that would be an intergalactic. •The instrument on the left is an astroblade. •Maybe on the railroads in the wild west of America. table & telescope on the right is what was called a “Plane Table”. good for them.Survey / Inspection Methods •This was probably taken in the 19th century sometime. acoustic inspection •GVI = General Visual Imaging = cameras = visual inspection •Plus the types of sensors utilised for each type of survey 24 . roller skates or a rocket powered skateboard. I. •The clothes may look daft to us but it is obvious that they are wearing work clothes fit for their activity. somewhere.
5 – 5 m Landfall GI Inshore survey vessel Structural GVI Pipeline GI Survey vessel ROTV Towed SSS Accoustic DP follow sub Visual – cameras CP Pipeline GVI DP survey vessel WROV This table summarises the common types of survey we have conducted historically. tides Seastate @ 1m Fishing gear Weather Sea state @ 2m Current. –CP inspection tool is basically a current meter.cameras NDT techniques Component Riser Riser Diver Platform or DP vessel based Visual . Current Weather. loss of electrodes = sacrificial anode.Inspection Methods Inspection RATS Survey Platform Platform based Type / Method Visual . Visibility Seafloor structures only Cannot stop Current restrictions Seastate @ 2m Current restrictions Visibility Seastate @ 4. Sea state HSE Inshore only Pipelines Weather. •GI = General Imaging inspection = side scan sonar •GVI = General Visual imaging = cameras •NDT = Non Destructive Testing •FMD = Flooded Member Detection •CP = Cathodic Protection: –A zinc anode is attached to the structure. –Structure protected by small electric current. –Proximity & contact tools determine milli-volts –Determines the status of the CP system: is it working Certain methods require a vessel with Dynamic Positioning capability: •To keep station next to structures or relatively over a moving vehicle •To position the subsea survey platform (ROV / Diver) & sensors 25 .cameras NDT techniques Pipeline Point structures Landfalls Hull mounted Accoustic CP snake Oil platform or DP survey vessel 3 X Eyeball ROV’s Visual – cameras NDT techniques FMD Legs Structural members Risers Pipelines Structures Riser Pipeline Structures Notes / Restrictions Down to splash zone Weather Depth. –It corrodes = oxidation.
•GVI: ROV sensor platform positioned by HiPAP / transponder system. along with custom built ROV survey vessels led to the fast ROV GI survey: speeds up to 8 km/hour.5m •Can stop & conduct GVI on detected damage •Can intervene if necessary •Multi-tasked cruises with GI & GVI capability Lighting Scanning Profilers Swathe Bathy / Profiling CP Contact CP Continuous CTD Manipulators ü r r ü ü ü ü ü ROV mounted 2-multi function ü ü N/A 1-limited •GI: towed SSS survey. •The advent of fast ROV’s. Solo I & Solo II. DP not necessary. you can conduct both inspection types on the same cruise. –Looking for spans.results used to plan GVI workscope. bare metal –Conducted at start of year .e. the ROV / DP vessel combination lets you slow down & stop.general inspection X sidescan •GVI . –Surveys have started to merge into combination GI / GVI inspections. 26 . –Visual camera inspection plus accoustic sensors. –As long as you carry the correct sensors. movement. –Importantly. –Conducted in summer using information from the GI.single mode GI or GVI inspection cruises: •GI . –Looking for detailed damage to pipelines & structures. –I. fish or ROTV. –No detail on localised anomalies: cracks.Summer . –Fast method of amassing general information about pipeline condition.Spring . large anomalies / damage.Inspection Methods INSPECTION TYPE GI Survey Vessel: DP DGPS Seapath Gyrocompass MRU Sensor Platforms: GVI Combined SENSOR PLATFORMS Platform: Sensors: Responder Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass MRU SSS OAS Bathy Altimeter Cameras ROTV Accoustic only Poor tracking OBS ROV Visual WROV Visual & Accoustic ü r ü ü ü plus XP ü ü ü WROV OBS ROV ü üü ü plus XP ü ü ü WROV OBS ROV ü r ü r r ü ü r r r r ü r ROTV ü r r/ü r/ü r r r r r r Overside r ü r/ü 1 maybe 2 ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü 3+ Historically . –Though still generally planned as GI & GVI.detailed inspection X camera Fast ROV “GI”: •Facilitated by WROV & DP vessel combination •Increased SSS target accuracy < +/. exposures. low tech.
SURVEY PLATFORMS Seaway Petrel . built 2003.landfalls •Hull mounted sensors RRS Ernest Shackleton: •Antarctic Research Vessel •Ice breaker •2005 GI / GVI cruise platform Old Survey Vessel: •Converted fishing vessel. •Dual Independent HiPAP 500 DP •Fast RO: GI at @ 8kmh. •ROTV survey vessel •Superceded by FAST ROV solution 27 .5m+ MV Humber Surveyor: •Originally Firth of Forth Passenger Ferry •Catamaran .Hi-Tech Humber Surveyor RRS Ernest Shackleton Old Survey Vessel “Survey Platform” = what you deploy your Sensor Platform from = vessel Seaway Petrel: •State of the art ROVSV. •Solo II survey WROV •Internal ROV hangar •Custom built Hydrolift launch facility •Also carries Eyeball ROV •Operations in sea state of 4.operated by ABP •Humber Estuary Survey vessel •Utilised for inshore survey .
Lynx: •Observation ROV •1 forward looking camera •Probably another camera on it. Solo 2 WROV: •Stolt Offshore •Custom built GI & GVI fast WROV •Weighs @ 6 tonnes •GI speed to @ 8kmh •Inspection & Intervention capability. 28 .Old Tech.not installed.limited intervention ROTV: •Steerable frame with SSS transducers •Superceded by Fast WROV solution •Using Seaway Petrel & Solo II.. •Obstacle avoidance sonar •Camera booms.SENSOR PLATFORMS Solo II WROV New Tech. •Manipulator . Solo II WROV New Tech. Solo 2 Workclass Survey ROV: •Good view of camera booms •EM3000 mounts •Stills cameras. SeaEye Lynx ROTV . cameras & lights •No manipulators . “Sensor platforms” = vehicle you deploy your sensors on.
heading •MRU .accoustic •GVI Camera Systems . somewhere.Combination GI / GVI Inspection Spread Solo II Sensors: •Responder .cross profiles •CP . 29 .depth below sea level •Altimeter .position via HiPAP •Gyrocompass . at sometime during the survey is going to ask us to undertake GI when we are conducting GVI or vice versa.pitch & roll •Bathy Unit . •So we equip the vessel & ROV to accommodate both modes. •Someone.height over seabed •Pipetracker . whether for GI or GVI.visual •This is now the combination of survey & sensor platforms we conduct inspection with.track pipe & DOB •Profilers / Swathe .Field gradient & potential •GI SSS Systems .
TriTech –Swathe.g. •ROV systems PC’s & monitors –Power management –System status.g. thrust etc. •Video: 2 X 3 VCR banks . inspection engineer seats. EM3000 –Bathy / Altimeter –Coda –Analogue & digital video control –Video encoders . centre. •A busy place when inspecting LHS: Online ROV: •L to R: •Co-pilot. starboard 30 . E. pilot.hot swap •Pipe-tracker control •Obstacle Avoidance Sonar (OAS) •ROV camera monitors RHS: Online survey station: •DGPS: –GPS receivers. Multifix 4 –Decoders / demodulators •NaviPac: positioning •NaviScan: sensor data logging •Helmsmans PC •PC’s & surface control units for: –Profiler.digital video •ROV camera monitors: port. E. power.Petrel Online Survey Petrel Online ROV •This is the online ROV & Survey room on the Seaway Petrel •The ROVERS always get the plushest chairs.
Data Acquisition The future of acquisition & processing? 31 .
onshore = Acquisition = Processing & Interpretation = Reporting First part of a process: • • • • • Acquisition Processing Interpretation Assessment Reporting Acquisition is the first part of a sequence of parallel and sequential processes that form the A-P-I-A-R .Acquisition Process • Log sensor data • Log position & attitude data • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Event & QC data (SSS / Video) Capture anomaly images Smooth position & bathy Smooth & event X-profiles Smooth long profiles Smooth & event pipetracker Apply tides Merge events & position QC events Export PRISM Files QC PRISM Files Assign anomalies Assign monitor items Export Report Data Collate Reports IDC of Reports System = Network – NAS / RAID Unix = NaviPac / NaviScan .Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap – Offline = PRISM – Offline = PRISM – Offline = PRISM – Offline = PRISM . 32 .Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap – Offline = Seamap / PolPred .Doc. This table is a simplified version of the sequence.Offline = Word – Offline = C.Unix Servers = SSS – Coda = Video – Seamap / Visualsoft = Image grabs .
The import points are that: •sensors collect discreet patterns of points / data •These can be positioned. absolutely.sets of data points. reflected & multiple return pulses timed. 33 .Acquisition . Distances to reflectors calculated:. Referenced to sensor electrical centre Sensors referenced on survey platforms via offsets Vessel (DGPS) & ROV (HiPAP) position known Platform attitude: heading & orientation data Geospatial data set referenced by time (GPS 1 PPS signal) Fixed in XYZ framework: geodetic reference system Echo-sounder Side Scan Sonar Sub-Bottom Profiler Scanning Sonars Scanning Profilers Multibeam-swathe bathy Multibeam-profilers Towed SSS Hull mounted Echo-sounder Swathe bathy Towed SBP These are the basics of acoustic inspection detection / positioning in none too technical terms. 2 way travel time & speed of sound in water known. •As long as they are synchronised.Sensors Basics (very): • Transducers = underwater speakers & microphones. • • • • • • + = = • • • • • • • Sound pulses emitted. through positioning of sensors & survey platforms.
Position Determination Platform /System / Sensor Survey Vessel DGPS Systems 1. or miss something the data can be useless. vertical & horizontal angles ROV 3.Acquisition . HiPAP CRP position + Vessel Gyrocompass + MRU5 + HiPAP 500 range. The point is that everything must be linked: •Physically •By time synchronisation •By measurement If this is in place the system becomes automated and massive data sets can be recorded. ROV position (Responder) The common link to position ROV sensors = 4. ROV Sensor positions + ROV Gyrocompass + SSS Altimeter + SSS slant target ranges = ROV bearing = ROV pitch & roll = XYZ separation ROV . ROV responder position + ROV Gyrocompass + ROV MRU5 + ROV Offsets to survey sensors (SSS) 4. HiPAP CRP position Origin for HiPAP XYZ measurement = 3. GPS Antenna Position + Vessel Gyrocompass + MRU5 + Vessel offsets = Measures: XYZ position Determines: = 1. If you don’t achieve this. 34 . SSS target positions = Vessel bearing = Vessel pitch & roll = XYZ separation GPS Ae. GPS antenna position = 2.ROV sensors = = = Bearing to SSS target SSS – seabed height SSS – target slant range This is a more quantitative & qualitative version of the previous slide. – HiPAP CRP = Vessel bearing = Vessel pitch & roll = XYZ separation HiPAP CRP – responder 2. ROV Sensor positions (SSS Port / Starboard) The common link to position SSS targets = 5.
Import / Export This is a schematic diagram showing the acquisition of data & information during GI SSS inspection.Acquisition: Position & Sensor Data CODA Waterfall Displays Trigger Starboard Port Trigger Starboard Port ROV SSS ROV Sensors CTD Vessel Sensors Vessel Position VGA SIU4 I/FBox SSS Data Digital SSS Data Ultra 120 Thermal Printer Annotation Depth. 35 . Position & Sensor (ROV / Vessel) Network / Server: Working files: Coda Tag (Event) Files. depth. KP. PRISM Files. altitude. gyro. time. Seamap. pitch & roll Online NaviPac / Naviscan Log CODA Data Log Data NaviPac / NaviScan Original Logged Data: SSS (Coda). There are 2 elements of the system: •Positioning & attitude data •Sensor data All acquired raw data is logged on networked mass data storage (NAS / RAID) and backed up to tape. position. Altitude Heading Pitch & Roll Heading Pitch & Roll HiPAP XYZ Position Easting / Northing Offsets Online CODA Fix.
Data Processing This is what you can end up with if you don’t get data processing right! 36 .
PRISM Files. •Smoothing of ROV position data •Smoothing & eventing of X-profile data (GVI) •Apply tides & smooth depth data (bathy / altimeter) •Merge data sets by time stamp / event: –Events –Position –X-profiles –Bathy •This is done using copies of the raw data. This involves: •Eventing: SSS data & video data. Seamap. •Raw data is regularly backed up to tape or other mass storage medium. 37 . Assign Anomalies CODA (Geophysicists) SSS Image Capture SEAMAP (PolPred) (Senior Data Processor) Export PRISM File PRISM File C/W Anom & MI's Geophysicists Condition Summaries Reports Co-ordinator QC PRISM Files Senior Surveyor Aquisition Summaries Collate Asset Reports PRISM Files MI List Anom Span Span List Anoms List APA Determine MI's Span Analysis PRISM Files. Apply Tides Import Tag Files Import Coda Event File CODA Event Tag Files Seamap Processing Seamap Processing Offline Eventing Offline Event QC Merge CODA Nav & bathy Export Event File QC Event File SEAMAP (Senior Surveyor) Assign MI No's. –Done digitally –Data is replayed and the records are marked with electronic event tags. Import / Export Seamap Processing Smooth Nav. never work on original data.Processing Original Logged Data: SSS (Coda). Position & Sensor (ROV / Vessel) Network / Server: Working files: Coda Tag (Event) Files. Images & Reports Reports Co-ordinator Onshore Asset Reports QC'd PRISM Clean DataSet PRISM Files QC'd Assessments Assessed Anomalies & MI's APA Onshore Customer Comment Asset Reports IDC PRISM Network Once the data is logged it has to be processed.
•This is a SSS survey internal deliverables process list •There are 38 internal deliverable in this list. 38 . •It’s here to indicate why: –Everything must be time-synchronised. –The survey process must have structure.Step Process / Description LF From SSS Data Eventing 1 Completed Tag / event Coda files Log file Geo's 2 QC Coda Tag / event files 1 SGeo 3 Merge QC'd Coda Tag / Events files 2 SGeo 4 Transfer QC'd Coda Tag / Events files 3 SGeo Nav Data Processing 5 Smooth Position Log file SDP 6 Smooth bathy Log file SDP 7 Create tide files Create file SS 8 Apply tides 7 SDP Coda Data Merge / Event QC 9 Import Coda Tag / event files 4 SDP 10 Merge Coda with smoothed Nav. with spans) 16 SS 18 Determine MI's (numbered). & bathy 9 SDP 11 Export Seamap event file 10 SDP 12 QC Seamap event file 11 SS Assign Anomalies & MI's 13 Determine all anomalous events (excluding spans) 12 SS 14 Span list to APA (all spans) 13 SS 15 Anomalous span list from APA 14 APA 16 Assign anomaly No's to events & spans 15 SS 17 Anomaly list to APA & SGeo (numbered. List from APA 17 APA 19 Add MI numbers & details to Seamap Event file 18 SS PRISM Export & QC 20 Export PRISM files 19 SDP 21 QC (1st pass) PRISM files 20 SDP 22 Amend Seamap events & re-export PRISM file 21 SS / SDP 23 QC PRISM File: PRISM & Excel QC 22 RC 24 Amend PRISM file per results of Excel QC 23 RC / SDP Compile 2005 GI PRISM Dataset 25 Capture SSS anomaly images 17 SGeo 26 SSS anomaly images to image directory 25 SGeo 27 Generate PRISM anomaly file (Anom's & MI's) 19 SDP 28 Cross check PRISM files / dataset for completeness 27 RC Collate 2005 GI Asset Reports 29 KP Limits / work completed tables CSA SS / SGeo 30 Asset condition & anomaly summaries. edit & check asset report 29 – 33 RC Asset Report Check & Transmittal 35 1st Pass QC check asset reports 34 WSR 36 Apply report corrections 35 RC 37 Email QC'd asset report to onshore co-ordinator 35 RC 38 Email QC'd PRISM data to onshore co-ordinator 28 RC To SGeo ----SDP ----SDP ------SS ----APA SS --APA & SGeo SS SDP ----RC --RC RC RC RC --RC RC RC RC RC RC RC RC RC Onshore RC Onshore Timescale ASAP ASAP ASAP 12 hours ASAP ASAP ASAP 12 hours 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours 1 hour 24 hours 3 hours 1 hour Instant 2 hours 1 hour 2 hours Ongoing Ongoing 1 hour 2 hours 24 hours 24 hours 24 hours 24 hours 7 days 7 days 12 hours 12 hours Instant Instant •This does not have to be read in detail. CSA SGeo 31 Data acquisition summaries CSA SS 32 Weather Log CSA Sec 33 Results (Anomaly & MI tables) section 4 CSA RC 34 Write. •This is all set out in the procedures. –Everyone involved must be very clear of their deliverables –Everyone must know where & who they are getting data from –Everyone must know where & who they sending their data to.
39 .Reporting These are the reports co-ordinators.
•Every day there is a daily conference call .ship to shore . •We work to a 4 week deliverables schedule for reporting: I. QC’d.7 days Survey report . including: PRISM Files “Complete” Reports “Single Pager” To achieve these goals the reporting process must: • • • • • Automate repetitive tasks Be fully auditable Be systematic . Because of this we provide simple listings as early as we can. for delivering a final. 40 .daily call From asset completion: • • – – – Anomalies .4 weeks.e. •The acquisition. Hence the 7 day anomaly deliverable. processing & interpretation process delivers listings at an early stage in the sequence.no repetition Conduct QA & QC Have a clearly defined structure from the start •Any pipeline condition that may have an immediate threat on asset integrity must be reported immediately.Reporting .24hrs .Deliverables Deadlines: • • Anomalies threatening integrity: immediate Significant features . collated report & QC’d PRISM files.to discuss the last 24 hours summary findings (after safety issues discussed).
•PRISM contains all of the pertinent data from the inspection. •PRISM = Pipeline Reporting Inspection System Multimedia.fish.PRISM . •Linked to the pipeline data are: –Anomaly reports –Inspection datasheets –Profiles: long profiles & individual X profiles –Photographs –FHR’s . •A monitor item is indicated by a negative .blue number. seahorse. •Evented pipeline conditions are indicated by suitable symbols. 41 . •(Looks like some creative eventing here . •It is an interactive computer graphic representation of the pipeline.Pipelines •PRISM files are the main deliverable. toucan) •An anomalous event is indicated by a red number. •The slide shows the PRISM pipeline data sheet. –SSS & Video clipes •PRISM is a database with flexible user defined reporting.First hand reports –Images: side scan data & video images.
PRISM .Anomalies •This is an example of anomaly data available through the pipeline data sheet •RHS: Pictures of the anomaly •LHS: Engineering assessment of the anomaly with recommendations. 42 .
many years –Multiple pipelines –Select individual data: anomaly types / conditions 43 . 1 year –1 pipeline.Self Configurable Reports •PRISM is very flexible in its reporting output.PRISM . •KP limits to narrow the search / report •Can look at: –1 pipeline. •The report control box .RHS is used to configure reports.
Position Comparisons •This is a PRISM pipeline plan position screen. •The graphic shows 3 sequential years pipeline data. 44 .PRISM .
PRISM . pictures etc. reports. •A linked set of drawings at various scales & component levels allows you to drill down into more & more detail. •Linked with the anomaly hot spots are anomaly datasheets. •Structural anomalies are represented on drawings by numbered hot spots. 45 .Structures •This is the PRISM structural data sheet.
•Diagrams plus data boxes at the bottom of the screen.PRISM Structures . 46 . •The red numbers are the hot spots where you drill down further.Drill Down •Example of the 1st level of drill down.
Solo I. Eyeball.Fax Video Control Mouse Video . Camera. Offshore Manager VisualSoft Online Port Camera VisualSoft Online VisualSoft Online Centre Camera Starboard Camera Video .Centre UPS Key Systems Portable USB Storage (X 4) Online Video 1GB Switch KVM Video Control NaviPac Telegram 3 Way Switch Keyboard Client Office . HiPAP. Offline. Solo I. MRU. Gyro. Bathy/Alt. EM3000. Seapath. CP CP to Video Video Overlay In From Workclass ROV Camera's (direct) DV SDLT Tape Drive ROV Monitor Port Digiboard Video overlay in ROV Monitor Centre ROV Monitor S'board Centre Port Video out DVD Writer Port Centre Starboard Starboard Centre Port Microphine Starboard CP to Video DV RAID VisualSoft Offline Review Digital Video 1GB Switch Port Video Eyeball video Online Communications Bridge OffshoreManager Client Office Online Solo I Eyeball Offline Clearcomms Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eyeball ROV PC Internal Phone Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes VSAT Optional Yes Yes Yes (Share) ---Yes UHF Existing ---Yes ------------- Centre Video Starboard Video Quad Camera Monitors : (3 Solo & 1 Eyeball Camera's) Bridge. Profilers. / MSO Printer Single Sheet Scanner CP from Solo I DP / Video Review Printer Mouse COE Server Spare UNIX server Senior Surveyor COE PC COE PC COE PC COE PC Offline (DP / Spare) Offline (Tech Rep.DV SDLT Tape Drive VisualSoft DVR Eyeball ROV Camera VisualSoft Offline Archive Eyeball ROV Gyro. Pipetracker. Offshore Manager (VGA via CAT5) Digiboards Digiboard Solo ROV Gyro.Port COE NAS Box COE PC Client COE PC Sec. processing and reporting. Client Office.) Offline (Insp Eng) Multi-feed Scanner Photocopier Video Control APA PC Online COE PC Online (Surv Tech . Bathy/Alt. Client Office.2 CODA Offline PI No. Online. Offline. CP 3 X DGPS. MRU. Offshore Manager Printer Survey 1GB Switch Keyboard Mouse Main UNIX server NaviPac Telegram UPS Key Systems Survey SDLT Tape Drive CODA Offline PI No.APA / CP) CP Contractor PC Online CP from Eyeball Keyboard Survey 1GB Switch Senior DP CODA 1GB SWITCH Coda Waterfall Displays: Online. •This is the survey spread for the combined 2005 GI / GVI Cruise. •It is a schematic diagram of the systems required for: –Data acquisition –Interpretation & processing –Reporting: •Survey Platform: RRS Ernest Shackleton •Sensor Platforms: WROV = Solo II & Lynx. CTD •We have looked at data acquisition.1 Coda DA Online (Spare) Coda DA Online COE PC Online UPS Key Systems Helmsman Online NaviScan Online NaviPac Online Survey RAID Survey Container Solo I Control Obs ROV Control Wet / Dry Lab's Client Office Offshore Manager Ultra Thermal Printer From ROV SSS Transducers Via Ethernet Bottle Ultra Thermal Printer Helmsmans Displays: Bridge: Fore & Aft. •120 days multi-function operations including: –GI pipeline inspection –GVI pipeline inspection –CP Inspection –Seabed structures spot dives –Platform & riser inspection –Platform 500m zone debris surveys –Pipeline route corridor surveys –Out of straightness survey 47 . 1-PPS. Offline. Client Office.Starboard COE PC (Video Grabb) COE PC Offshore Manager Video .
Some Examples: •Anomalies •Data C/O The Reporters No comment! 48 .
•Fully exposed V buried pipeline 49 .pipeline movement.moving much like a snake.mattresses. •Pipes can move by the action of currents •They also expand & contract .Sonar Image Pipeline Movement •Sonar image . •The ridges are where sediment has built up beside the pipe before it has moved. Note: •displaced & intact stabilisation .
Processed Position Pipeline Movement
•This is the plotted position of the pipeline in the last sonar image. •The top line is the original position of the pipeline “as-laid” •The bottom line is where it has moved to. •This was quite an impressive example of movement & the operator took immediate action to conduct remedial stabilisation work on the line.
A sample digital SSS image. A & D shadows of where pipeline enters the structure - not anomalous. B - pipeline C - some snatch on the record - where there has been some pull on the fish or survey platform.
Sonar Image Upheaval Buckle
•This upheaval buckle was detected during a GI - acoustic SSS survey. •This is classic SSS image of an upheaval buckle - it pokes you in the eye. •It screams “anomaly” - we were ecstatic when we discovered it. •As the GI survey platforms were DP survey Vessel & WROV it was possible to stop and conduct GVI - visual inspection. •The client took immediate remedial action - rock dumping.
GVI of Upheaval Buckle: Top left: ROV on seabed Looking under pipeline. 53 . •These are video grabs of the same upheaval buckle. Estimated height 4 metres. •Based on GI & GVI inspection & first hand reporting the client was able to take immediate action to remedy this anomaly.
E..Port.g.cameras pointing inwards. Where there are spans you would back light with 1 camera to silhouette the bottom of the pipe .you would position cameras to look ahead to see sediment ridge build up . E. centre & starboard & suitable lighting & suitable camera angles.this can be 2 to 3 metres away from the pipe & you may miss it on if cameras are looking inward.g. 54 . Movement .
55 .Cross Profiling Where a pipe is layed in a trench you may have to raise the profilers to see over the spoil heap to the natural seabed.
•CP values: contact & continuous are available in the CP data box on the PRISM pipeline data sheets.CP Inspection Data •This is a sample of CP data. •It’s obvious where the CP (Cathodic Protection) anomalies are though. •It’s a black art. 56 .
dragged 450 metres offline. •Top right: anchor damage .resulted in immediate remedial action.Examples of damage: •Top left: pipeline slipping through weightcoat. •Weightcoat loss around joint / weld . •Bottom left: anchor under 4 inch line .20” pipeline.monitor. 57 .
air dropped mine.•Close up of UXO shown earlier . 58 . •The tether is the silk parachute cord.
•And again. 59 . same UXO.
•Another UXO. •Which ones the bomb & which ones the pipeline? •Answer on last slide plus one! 60 .
61 .10 centimetre divisions.•Close up of the last UXO c/w scale ..
video & SSS? Digital cameras to supercede analogue .when? = Another magnitude of data storage? Laser profilers? Move full reporting process onshore? Get rid of paper report? Greater emphasis on data rather than report.consequences of erosion? Intelligent infrastructure: build in inspection? 62 .(Back to) The Future • • • • • • • • • • • • PRISM on Internet (rolled out 2004) Live data to client PC via internet . Digital cameras & software: new imaging techniques AUV’s for GI survey? Coastal defense policy .
Control of multiple surveys through one contractor produces consistent results Inspection / survey must be fun! • • • • • • 63 . Client (in the office) is getting closer & closer to live raw data. Digital age has almost eclipsed the analogue age. Management of change: adapting to new systems.Conclusions • Pipeline inspection is a mature business but continues to embrace new technology. Days of pure GI / GVI cruises gone: the multi task GI / GVI cruise is here.
? NSPECT ? ON. Maintenance and Repair.” 64 . •= “We are the eyes in Inspection. •Here is the last offering. MA ? NTENANCE & REPA ? R •To continue on the “Catchphrase” / pictorial pun theme.
No difficult ones! Any Questions???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 65 .
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