• Concentrated on the practical aspects of administration . • Also a means to ensure the well-being of men in general • Two fold aims – Palana: administration and protection of the state – Labha: conquest and acquisition of territory • Hence it is a science dealing with internal as well as external spheres.Arthshastra • Concerned with the acquisition and protection of means of livelihood.

Origin of the state • Might is right Anarchy • Matsyanyaya: Law of the fish • Hence they chose Manu as the king • Gave him taxes in return for protection • No explicit theory of social contract in the book .

Monarchy • Attaches an element of divinity to the king • Monarchy seems to have been the accepted norm • Other forms: – Dvairajya: joint rule of the kingdom by the males of the same family – Vairajya: rule by a foreign ruler • Disapproves of Vairajya .

. economics and political science (dandaniti) • Difference between Kautilya’s king and Plato’s philosopher king – Kautilya doesn’t mean that the king should lead the life of a saint or an ascetic.Qualities of the ruler • • • • Should be a native of the territory Follow the teachings of the shastra Strong and of noble birth etc Trained in philosophy.

prosperity and happiness. anti-social elements and of varna system .Duties of the king • Rakshana/Palana: Protection of the subjects and their property • Ensure their yogaksema: a broad idea implying welfare. • Take active part in war and the administraiton of justice • Dharmaniyama: lay down broad lines of policy and codes of regulation • <take care of the subjects like a father: paternalistic rule> • Protection of social order founded on varnas/ preservation of the vedic order • So protection has three components: from natural calamities. well-being.

• The threat of revolt by the subjects expected to serve as a check on the wanton use of coercive power .Kautilya’s state • Mid way between a welfare and an authoritarian state • Neither a police state nor a tax gathering state • Danda: (army) is symbol of ruler’s authority and is necessary to prevent anarchy and protect the weak against the strong • Use ‘danda’ with restraint.

Restraint on the king • • • • No direct checks. mantri parishad. only indirect ones Through raj purohit. subjects Hereditary monarchy The king’s welfare lies not in his own pleasure but in that of the subjects .

The symbol of defensive and offensive capacity of the state. • Svamin – ruler • Amatya – minister • Janapada – territory with people settled on it • Durga – fortified capital. Parvat. – Types: Audik. Hence certain other elements called prakritis are needed.Doctrine of 7 prakritis • The king cannot run the state on his own alone. Dhanvan. Van • • • • Kosh – treasury Danda – army Mitra – ally These seven are interrelated .

• Mantris and Mantri parishad is not analogous to the modern day cabinet – The king was not mandated to consult them – He could consult some or none • Qualities of the officers of the state – Sattva (energy) – Prajna (intelligence) – Vakyashakti (power of expression) • Recommends few tests to test them • 18 tirthas (officers) .

Revenue Administraiton • Kosa is one of the 7 prakritas • Three principal means of livelihood – Agriculture – Cattle tending – Trade • Samahartrs were revenue officers • Total control by the state of the ecomic activities of the state to earn maximum possible revenue • Trade routes should be under strict control of the state • Guidelines on prices administration .

Recruitment – Prescribes qualifications for each post – All important appointments made by the king – Tests such as Dharmopadha. – Talked about pension as well Promotion – No definite rules – Who increase revenue may be promoted – Transfer to prevent misapproriation of funds • Tenure and removal – On the will of the king . Bhayopadha and Kamopadha • • • Training – Extended discussion on the training of the prince but little on the training of the personnel Pay: prescribes the salaries – Salaries given on a fairly liberal scale to prevent discontent and ensure efficiency.Personnel Administration • • Personnels who man the organisation are as important as the organisation itself. Arthopadha.

Pub Ad Principles in Arthshastra • Unity of command – King as the sole source of authority • • • • • • • Public accountability – Makes the king partly responsible to the public – King has a duty to protect the subjects Rule of business – Departmentalisation Coordination – Because there was division of labour Job Classification – Speical tests prescribed for holding special types of jobs Hierarcy – Because job classification exists Planning and Budgeting Dencentralisation – Janapada was also further divided .

• Though one man rule. the aged and those in distress • Guidelines on crisis administration • A newly settled village was initially given some concessions . yet it was a benevolent monarchy. Seeds of the idea of welfare state.Elements of welfare state in Arth. • King’s mission: Yogakshema • Paternalistic rule • Duty of the king to maintain the minors.

Appraisal • Arthshastra shifted attention from political philosophy to political science – Plato and Aristotle gave political philosophy – Kautilya had a very practical approach in the sense he wanted to give guidelines to show how a state ought to be ruled. – Speaks in terms of a highly materialistic world keeping the moral values aside .

promotion by seniority. – Hence. Was normative and perscriptive in his treatment – Normativism was not prominent in Weber’s model • Both were keen on the efficiency and rationality aspects of administration • Weberian bureaucratic model is based on ‘authority’ while Kautilya’s analysis focuses on the concept of control. Kautilya and Weber differ on the basis of legitimacy of authority. • We can also see characters like hierarchy. written orders etc . selection by merit. competence.Kautilya vs Weber • Spatial and temporal differences between the two significant – India was ‘traditional’ while Germany had acquired some aspects of ‘legal rational’ authority • Kautilya never made a serious attempt at theory building.

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