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Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses

Structural Guide |

Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses

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Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The term structural (or structure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings, but also naval, aeronautical, and mechanical structures such as ship hulls, aircraft bodies, and machine housings, as well as mechanical components such as pistons, machine parts, and tools. The following structural analysis topics are available: Types of Structural Analysis Elements Used in Structural Analyses Material Model Interface Solution Methods

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1.1. Types of Structural Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses |

1.1. Types of Structural Analysis

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The seven types of structural analyses available in the ANSYS family of products are explained below. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) calculated in a structural analysis are displacements. Other quantities, such as strains, stresses, and reaction forces, are then derived from the nodal displacements. Structural analyses are available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional programs only. You can perform the following types of structural analyses. Each of these analysis types are discussed in detail in this manual. Static Analysis--Used to determine displacements, stresses, etc. under static loading conditions. Both linear and nonlinear static analyses. Nonlinearities can include plasticity, stress stiffening, large deflection, large strain, hyperelasticity, contact surfaces, and creep. Modal Analysis--Used to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. Different mode extraction methods are available. Harmonic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to harmonically time-varying loads. Transient Dynamic Analysis--Used to determine the response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads. All nonlinearities mentioned under Static Analysis above are allowed. Spectrum Analysis--An extension of the modal analysis, used to calculate stresses and strains due to a response spectrum or a PSD input (random vibrations). Buckling Analysis--Used to calculate the buckling loads and determine the buckling mode shape. Both linear (eigenvalue) buckling and nonlinear buckling analyses are possible. Explicit Dynamic Analysis--This type of structural analysis is only available in the ANSYS LS-DYNA program. ANSYS LS-DYNA provides an interface to the LS-DYNA explicit finite element program. Explicit dynamic analysis is used to calculate fast solutions for large deformation dynamics and complex contact problems. Explicit dynamic analysis is described in the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide. In addition to the above analysis types, several special-purpose features are available: Fracture mechanics Composites

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1.1. Types of Structural Analysis

Fatigue p-Method Beam Analyses

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1.2. Elements Used in Structural Analyses

Structural Guide | Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses |

1.2. Elements Used in Structural Analyses

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Most ANSYS element types are structural elements, ranging from simple spars and beams to more complex layered shells and large strain solids. Most types of structural analyses can use any of these elements.

Note

Explicit dynamics analysis can use only the explicit dynamic elements (LINK160, BEAM161, PLANE162, SHELL163, SOLID164, COMBI165, MASS166, LINK167, and SOLID168). Table 1.1 Structural Element Types

Category Spars Beams Pipes 2-D Solids 3-D Solids Shells Solid-Shell Interface Contact Coupled-Field Specialty Explicit Dynamics LINK1, LINK8, LINK10, LINK180 BEAM3, BEAM4, BEAM23, BEAM24, BEAM44, BEAM54, BEAM188, BEAM189 PIPE16, PIPE17, PIPE18, PIPE20, PIPE59, PIPE60 PLANE25, PLANE42, PLANE82, PLANE83, VISCO88, VISCO106, VISCO108, PLANE145, PLANE146, PLANE182, PLANE183 SOLID45, SOLID46, SOLID65, VISCO89, SOLID92, SOLID95, VISCO107, SOLID147, SOLID148, SOLID185, SOLID186, SOLID187, SOLID191, SHELL281 SHELL28, SHELL41, SHELL43, SHELL61, SHELL63, SHELL91, SHELL93, SHELL99, SHELL150, SHELL181, SHELL208. SOLSH190 INTER192, INTER193, INTER194, INTER195 CONTAC12, CONTAC52, TARGE169, TARGE170, CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175, CONTA176, CONTA177, CONTA178 SOLID5, PLANE13, FLUID29, FLUID30, FLUID38, SOLID62, FLUID79, FLUID80, FLUID81, SOLID98, FLUID129, INFIN110, INFIN111, FLUID116, FLUID130 COMBIN7, LINK11, COMBIN14, MASS21, MATRIX27, COMBIN37, COMBIN39, COMBIN40, MATRIX50, SURF153, SURF154 LINK160, BEAM161, PLANE162, SHELL163, SOLID164, COMBI165, MASS166, LINK167, SOLID168 Element Name(s)

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1.3. Material Model Interface

Structural Guide | Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses |

1.3. Material Model Interface

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For analyses described in this guide, if you are using the GUI, you must specify the material you will be simulating using an intuitive material model interface. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories, which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. See Material Model Interface in the Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface.

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1.4. Solution Methods

Structural Guide | Chapter 1. Overview of Structural Analyses |

1.4. Solution Methods

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Two solution methods are available for solving structural problems in the ANSYS family of products: the hmethod and the p-method. The h-method can be used for any type of analysis, but the p-method can be used only for linear structural static analyses. Depending on the problem to be solved, the h-method usually requires a finer mesh than the p-method. The p-method provides an excellent way to solve a problem to a desired level of accuracy while using a coarse mesh. In general, the discussions in this manual focus on the procedures required for the h-method of solution. "p-Method Structural Static Analysis" discusses procedures specific to the pmethod.

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Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis

Structural Guide |

Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis

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A static analysis calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure, while ignoring inertia and damping effects, such as those caused by time-varying loads. A static analysis can, however, include steady inertia loads (such as gravity and rotational velocity), and time-varying loads that can be approximated as static equivalent loads (such as the static equivalent wind and seismic loads commonly defined in many building codes). Static analysis determines the displacements, stresses, strains, and forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant inertia and damping effects. Steady loading and response conditions are assumed; that is, the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with respect to time. The types of loading that can be applied in a static analysis include: Externally applied forces and pressures Steady-state inertial forces (such as gravity or rotational velocity) Imposed (nonzero) displacements Temperatures (for thermal strain) Fluences (for nuclear swelling) More information about the loads that you can apply in a static analysis appears in Apply the Loads. The following topics are available for structural static analysis: Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses Performing a Static Analysis A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method) A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method) Where to Find Other Examples

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2.1. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses

Structural Guide | Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis |

2.1. Linear vs. Nonlinear Static Analyses

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A static analysis can be either linear or nonlinear. All types of nonlinearities are allowed - large deformations, plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, contact (gap) elements, hyperelastic elements, and so on. This chapter focuses on linear static analyses, with brief references to nonlinearities. Details of how to handle nonlinearities are described in "Nonlinear Structural Analysis".

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2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis |

2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

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The procedure for a static analysis consists of these tasks: 1. Build the Model 2. Set Solution Controls 3. Set Additional Solution Options 4. Apply the Loads 5. Solve the Analysis 6. Review the Results

2.2.1. Build the Model

See Building the Model in the Basic Analysis Guide. For further details, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.

2.2.1.1. Points to Remember

Keep the following points in mind when doing a static analysis: You can use both linear and nonlinear structural elements. Material properties can be linear or nonlinear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperaturedependent. You must define stiffness in some form (for example, Young's modulus (EX), hyperelastic coefficients, and so on). For inertia loads (such as gravity), you must define the data required for mass calculations, such as density (DENS). For thermal loads (temperatures), you must define the coefficient of thermal expansion (ALPX). Note the following information about mesh density: Regions where stresses or strains vary rapidly (usually areas of interest) require a relatively finer mesh than regions where stresses or strains are nearly constant (within an element).

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2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

While considering the influence of nonlinearities, remember that the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. For example, plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients.

2.2.2. Set Solution Controls

Setting solution controls involves defining the analysis type and common analysis options for an analysis, as well as specifying load step options for it. When you are doing a structural static analysis, you can take advantage of a streamlined solution interface (called the Solution Controls dialog box) for setting these options. The Solution Controls dialog box provides default settings that will work well for many structural static analyses, which means that you may need to set only a few, if any, of the options. Because the streamlined solution interface is the recommended tool for setting solution controls in a structural static analysis, it is the method that is presented in this chapter. If you prefer not to use the Solution Controls dialog box (Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls ), you can set solution controls for your analysis using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands and the standard corresponding menu paths (Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> o p t i o n ). For a general overview of the Solution Controls dialog box, see Using Special Solution Controls for Certain Types of Structural Analyses in the Basic Analysis Guide.

2.2.2.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box

To access the Solution Controls dialog box, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Controls . The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog box. For details about how to set these options, select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program), and then click the Help button. "Nonlinear Structural Analysis" also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter.

2.2.2.2. Using the Basic Tab

The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab, you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box, the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2.1: "Basic Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Basic tab, and click the Help button. Table 2.1 Basic Tab Options

Option Specify analysis type [ANTYPE, NLGEOM] For more information on this option, see: Defining the Analysis Type and Analysis Options in the Basic Analysis Guide

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"Nonlinear Structural Analysis" in the Structural Analysis Guide Restarting an Analysis in the Basic Analysis Guide Control time settings, including: time at end of load step [TIME], automatic time stepping [AUTOTS ], and number of substeps to be taken in a load step [NSUBST or DELTIM] Specify solution data to write to database [OUTRES ]

The Role of Time in Tracking in the Basic Analysis Guide General Options in the Basic Analysis Guide

Output Controls in the Basic Analysis Guide

Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM , choose Small Displacement Static if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection, large rotation, and large strain. Choose Large Displacement Static if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long, slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metal-forming problem). Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis, if you have previously completed a static analysis and you want to specify additional loads, or if you wish to use the J o b n a m e . R S Xinformation from a previous VT Accelerator run. Note that in a VT Accelerator run, you cannot restart a job in the middle; you can only rerun the job from the beginning with changes in the input parameters. When setting TIME, remember that this load step option specifies time at the end of the load step. The default value is 1.0 for the first load step. For subsequent load steps, the default is 1.0 plus the time specified for the previous load step. Although time has no physical meaning in a static analysis (except in the case of creep, viscoplasticity, or other rate-dependent material behavior), it is used as a convenient way of referring to load steps and substeps (see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide). When setting OUTRES, keep this caution in mind:

Caution

By default, only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ). If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification), the program will terminate with an error. Use the command /CONFIG,NRES to increase the limit (see "Memory Management and Configuration" in the Basic Analysis Guide).

2.2.2.3. The Transient Tab

The Transient tab contains transient analysis controls; it is available only if you choose a transient analysis and remains grayed out when you choose a static analysis. For these reasons, it is not described here.

2.2.2.4. Using the Sol'n Options Tab

You can use the Sol'n Options tab to set the options listed in Table 2.2: "Sol'n Options Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Sol'n Options tab, and click the Help button. Table 2.2 Sol'n Options Tab Options

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2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

Option Specify equation solver [EQSLV]

For more information about this option, see the following section(s) in the Basic Analysis Guide: Selecting a Solver through The Automatic Iterative (Fast) Solver Option

Specify parameters for multiframe restart [RESCONTROL]

Multiframe Restart

Special considerations for setting these options in a static analysis include: When setting EQSLV, specify one of these solvers: Program chosen solver (ANSYS selects a solver for you, based on the physics of the problem) Sparse direct solver (default for linear and nonlinear, static and full transient analyses) Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver (recommended for large models/high wavefronts, bulky structures) Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solver (applicable in the same situations as the PCG solver, but provides parallel processing; for faster turnaround times when used in a multiprocessor environment) Iterative solver (auto-select; for linear static/full transient structural or steady-state thermal analyses only; recommended) Frontal direct solver

Note

The AMG solver is part of ANSYS Mechanical HPC, which is a separately-licensed product. See "Using Shared-Memory ANSYS" in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide for more information about using the AMG solver.

2.2.2.5. Using the Nonlinear Tab

You can use the Nonlinear tab to set the options listed in Table 2.3: "Nonlinear Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Nonlinear tab, and click the Help button. Table 2.3 Nonlinear Tab Options

Option Activate line search [LNSRCH] For more information about this option, see the following section(s) in the Structural Analysis Guide: Line Search Option Line Search

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2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

Activate a predictor on the DOF solution [PRED] Activate an advanced predictor (STAOPT)

Predictor-Corrector Option

VT Accelerator

Specify the maximum number of iterations allowed per substep [NEQIT] Specify whether you want to include creep calculation [RATE]

Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations

Creep Creep Criteria

Set convergence criteria [CNVTOL]

Convergence Criteria

Control bisections [CUTCONTROL]

Cutback Criteria

2.2.2.6. Using the Advanced NL Tab

You can use the Advanced NL tab to set the options listed in Table 2.4: "Advanced NL Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Advanced NL tab, and click the Help button. Table 2.4 Advanced NL Tab Options

Option Specify analysis termination criteria [NCNV] Control activation and termination of the arc-length method [ARCLEN, ARCTRM] For more information about this option, see the following section(s) in the Structural Analysis Guide: Maximum Number of Equilibrium Iterations

Using the Arc-Length Method "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide

2.2.3. Set Additional Solution Options

This section discusses additional options that you can set for the solution. These options do not appear on the Solution Controls dialog box because they are used very infrequently, and their default settings rarely need to be changed. ANSYS menu paths are provided in this section to help you access these options for those cases in which you choose to override the ANSYS-assigned defaults. Many of the options that appear in this section are nonlinear options, and are described further in "Nonlinear Structural Analysis".

2.2.3.1. Stress Stiffening Effects

Some elements, including those in the 18x family of elements, include stress stiffening effects regardless of the

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2.2. Performing a Static Analysis

SSTIF command setting. To determine whether an element includes stress stiffening, refer to the appropriate element description in the Elements Reference. By default, stress stiffening effects are ON when NLGEOM is ON. Specific situations in which you can turn OFF stress stiffening effects include: Stress stiffening is relevant only in nonlinear analyses. If you are performing a linear analysis [NLGEOM ,OFF], you can turn stress stiffening OFF. Prior to the analysis, you know that the structure is not likely to fail because of buckling (bifurcation, snap through). Including stress stiffness terms, in general, accelerates nonlinear convergence characteristics. Keeping in mind the points listed above, you may choose to turn stress stiffening OFF for specific problems in which convergence difficulties are seen; for example, local failures.

Command(s): SSTIF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options

2.2.3.2. Newton-Raphson Option

Use this analysis option only in a nonlinear analysis. This option specifies how often the tangent matrix is updated during solution. You can specify one of these values: Program-chosen (default) Full Modified Initial stiffness Full with unsymmetric matrix

Command(s): NROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options

2.2.3.3. Prestress Effects Calculation

Use this analysis option to perform a prestressed analysis on the same model, such as a prestressed modal analysis. The default is OFF.

Note

The stress stiffening effects and the prestress effect calculation both control the generation of the stress stiffness matrix, and therefore should not be used together in an analysis. If both are specified, the last option specified will override the previous setting.

Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options

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2.2.3.4. Mass Matrix Formulation

Use this analysis option if you plan to apply inertial loads on the structure (such as gravity and spinning loads). You can specify one of these values: Default (depends on element type) Lumped mass approximation

Note

For a static analysis, the mass matrix formulation you use does not significantly affect the solution accuracy (assuming that the mesh is fine enough). However, if you want to do a prestressed dynamic analysis on the same model, the choice of mass matrix formulation may be important; see the appropriate dynamic analysis section for recommendations.

Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Options

2.2.3.5. Reference Temperature

This load step option is used for thermal strain calculations. Reference temperature can be made materialdependent with the MP,REFT command.

Command(s): TREF GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Reference Temp

2.2.3.6. Mode Number

**This load step option is used for axisymmetric harmonic elements.
**

Command(s): MODE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> For Harmonic Ele

2.2.3.7. Creep Criteria

**This nonlinear load step option specifies the creep criterion for automatic time stepping.
**

Command(s): CRPLIM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Creep Criterion

2.2.3.8. Printed Output

**Use this load step option to include any results data on the output file (J o b n a m e . O U T ).
**

Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis |

2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

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**In this sample analysis, you will run a static analysis of an Allen wrench.
**

2.3.1. Problem Description

An Allen wrench (10 mm across the flats) is torqued by means of a 100 N force at its end. Later, a 20 N downward force is applied at the same end, at the same time retaining the original 100 N torquing force. The objective is to determine the stress intensity in the wrench under these two loading conditions.

2.3.2. Problem Specifications

The following dimensions are used for this problem: Width across flats = 10 mm Configuration = hexagonal Length of shank = 7.5 cm Length of handle = 20 cm Bend radius = 1 cm Modulus of elasticity = 2.07 x 1011 Pa Applied torquing force = 100 N Applied downward force = 20 N

2.3.3. Problem Sketch

Figure 2.1 Diagram of Allen Wrench

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

2.3.3.1. Set the Analysis Title

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title . 2. Type the text "Static Analysis of an Allen Wrench" and click on OK.

2.3.3.2. Set the System of Units

1. Click once in the Input Window to make it active for text entry. 2. Type the command /UNITS,SI and press ENTER. Notice that the command is stored in the history buffer, which can be accessed by clicking on the down arrow at the right of the input window. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Angular Units . The Angular Units for Parametric Functions dialog box appears. 4. In the drop down menu for Units for angular parametric functions, select "Degrees DEG." 5. Click on OK.

2.3.3.3. Define Parameters

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters . The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Type the following parameters and their values in the Selection field. Click on Accept after you define each parameter. For example, first type “exx = 2.07e11” in the Selection field and then click on Accept. Continue entering the remaining parameters and values in the same way.

Parameter EXX W_HEX W_FLAT L_SHANK L_HANDLE BENDRAD L_ELEM NO_D_HEX 2.07E11 .01 W_HEX* TAN(30) .075 .2 .01 .0075 2 Value Description Young's modulus is 2.07E11 Pa Width of hex across flats = .01 m Width of flat = .0058 m Length of shank (short end) .075 m Length of handle (long end) .2 m Bend radius .01 m Element length .0075 m Number of divisions along hex flat = 2

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

TOL Note

25E-6

Tolerance for selecting node = 25E-6 m

You can type the labels in upper- or lowercase; ANSYS always displays the labels in uppercase. 3. Click on Close. 4. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.4. Define the Element Types

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete . 2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 3. In the scroll box on the left, click once on "Structural Solid." 4. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Brick 8node 45." 5. Click on Apply to define it as element type 1. 6. Scroll up the list on the right to "Quad 4node 42." Click once to select it. 7. Click on OK to define Quad 4node42 as element type 2. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. 8. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.

2.3.3.5. Define Material Properties

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models . The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 2. In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic. A dialog box appears. 3. Type the text EXX in the EX field (for Young's modulus), and .3 for PRXY. Click on OK. This sets Young's modulus to the parameter specified above. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 4. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.

2.3.3.6. Create Hexagonal Area as Cross-Section

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Polygon> By Side Length. The Polygon by Side Length dialog box appears. 2. Enter 6 for number of sides.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

**3. Enter W_FLAT for length of each side. 4. Click on OK. A hexagon appears in the ANSYS Graphics window.
**

2.3.3.7. Create Keypoints Along a Path

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. 2. Enter 7 for keypoint number. Type a 0 in each of the X, Y, Z location fields. 3. Click on Apply. 4. Enter 8 for keypoint number. 5. Enter 0,0,-L_SHANK for the X, Y, Z location, and click on Apply. 6. Enter 9 for keypoint number. 7. Enter 0,L_HANDLE,-L_SHANK for the X, Y, Z location, and click on OK.

2.3.3.8. Create Lines Along a Path

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Controls> Window Options . The Window Options dialog box appears. 2. In the Location of triad drop down menu, select "At top left." 3. Click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate . The Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears. 5. Click on "Iso" to generate an isometric view and click on Close. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 7. Enter 90 for angle in degrees. 8. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu, select "Global Cartes X." 9. Click on OK. 10. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 11. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to turn keypoint numbering on. 12. Click the Line numbers radio button to turn line numbering on.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

13. Click on OK. 14. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Straight Line . The Create Straight Line picking menu appears. 15. Click once on keypoints 4 and 1 to create a line between keypoints 1 and 4. (If you have trouble reading the keypoint numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window, use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate ) to zoom in.) 16. Click once on keypoints 7 and 8 to create a line between keypoints 7 and 8. 17. Click once on keypoints 8 and 9 to create a line between keypoints 8 and 9. 18. Click on OK.

2.3.3.9. Create Line from Shank to Handle

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Line Fillet. The Line Fillet picking menu appears. 2. Click once on lines 8 and 9. 3. Click on OK in the picking menu. The Line Fillet dialog box appears. 4. Enter BENDRAD for Fillet radius and click on OK. 5. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.10. Cut Hex Section

In this step, you cut the hex section into two quadrilaterals. This step is required to satisfy mapped meshing. 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 2. Click the Keypoint numbers radio button to Off. 3. Click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Areas . 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Divide> With Options> Area by Line . The Divide Area by Line picking menu appears. 6. Click once on the shaded area, and click on OK. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines . 8. Click once on line 7. (If you have trouble reading the line numbers in the ANSYS Graphics window, use the controls on the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box (Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan/Zoom/Rotate ) to

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

zoom in.) 9. Click on OK. The Divide Area by Line with Options dialog box appears. In the Subtracted lines will be drop down menu, select Kept. Click OK. 10. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. The Create Component dialog box appears. 11. Enter BOTAREA for component name. 12. In the Component is made of drop down menu, select "Areas." 13. Click on OK.

2.3.3.11. Set Meshing Density

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines . The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. 2. Enter 1,2,6 in the picker, then press ENTER. 3. Click on OK in the picking menu. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 4. Enter NO_D_HEX for number of element divisions and click on OK.

2.3.3.12. Set Element Type for Area Mesh

In this step, set the element type to PLANE42, all quadrilaterals for the area mesh. 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes . The Element Attributes dialog box appears. 2. In the Element type number drop down menu, select “2 PLANE42” and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesher Opts . The Mesher Options dialog box appears. 4. In the Mesher Type field, click on the Mapped radio button and then click on OK. The Set Element Shape dialog box appears. 5. Click on OK to accept the default of Quad for 2-D shape key. 6. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.13. Generate Area Mesh

In this step, generate the area mesh you will later drag. 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. The Mesh Areas picking box appears.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

**2. Click on Pick All. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements .
**

2.3.3.14. Drag the 2-D Mesh to Produce 3-D Elements

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes . The Element Attributes dialog box appears. 2. In the Element type number drop down menu, select “1 SOLID45” and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size . The Global Element Sizes dialog box appears. 4. Enter L_ELEM for element edge length and click on OK. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. 6. Click the Line numbers radio button to on if it is not already selected. 7. Click on OK. 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Lines . 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> Along Lines . The Sweep Areas along Lines picking box appears. 10. Click on Pick All. A second picking box appears. 11. Click once on lines 8, 10, and 9 (in that order). 12. Click on OK. The 3-D model appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements . 14. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.15. Select BOTAREA Component and Delete 2-D Elements

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. 2. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Clear> Areas . The Clear Areas picking menu appears. 4. Click on Pick All. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

**6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements .
**

2.3.3.16. Apply Displacement Boundary Condition at End of Wrench

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. The Select Component or Assembly dialog appears. 2. Click on OK to accept the default of select BOTAREA component. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities . The Select Entities dialog box appears. 4. In the top drop down menu, select "Lines." 5. In the second drop down menu, select "Exterior." 6. Click on Apply. 7. In the top drop down menu, select "Nodes." 8. In the second drop down menu, select "Attached to." 9. Click on the "Lines, all" radio button to select it. 10. Click on OK. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes . The Apply U,ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. 12. Click on Pick All. The Apply U,ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 13. In the scroll list for DOFs to be constrained, click on "ALL DOF." 14. Click on OK. 15. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities . 16. In the top drop down menu, select "Lines." 17. Click on the "Sele All" button, then click on Cancel.

2.3.3.17. Display Boundary Conditions

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols . The Symbols dialog box appears. 2. Click on the "All Applied BCs" radio button for Boundary condition symbol. 3. In the Surface Load Symbols drop down menu, select "Pressures." 4. In the “Show pres and convect as” drop down menu, select "Arrows."

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

5. Click on OK.

2.3.3.18. Apply Pressure on Handle

In this step, apply pressure on the handle to represent 100 N finger force. 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities . The Select Entities dialog appears. 2. In the top drop down menu, select "Areas." 3. In the second drop down menu, select "By Location." 4. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 5. Enter BENDRAD,L_HANDLE for Min, Max, and click on Apply. 6. Click on "X coordinates" to select it. 7. Click on Reselect. 8. Enter W_FLAT/2,W_FLAT for Min, Max, and click on Apply. 9. In the top drop down menu, select "Nodes." 10. In the second drop down menu, select "Attached to." 11. Click on the "Areas, all" radio button to select it. 12. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. 13. Click on Apply. 14. In the second drop down menu, select "By Location." 15. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 16. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. 17. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL,L_HANDLE-(3.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min, Max. 18. Click on OK. 19. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data. The Get Scalar Data dialog box appears. 20. In the scroll box on the left, scroll to "Model Data" and select it. 21. In the scroll box on the right, scroll to "For selected set" and select it. 22. Click on OK. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

23. Enter "minyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 24. In the scroll box on the left, click once on "Current node set" to select it. 25. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Min Y coordinate" to select it. 26. Click on Apply. 27. Click on OK again to select the default settings. The Get Data for Selected Entity Set dialog box appears. 28. Enter "maxyval" for the name of the parameter to be defined. 29. In the scroll box on the left, click once on "Current node set" to select it. 30. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Max Y coordinate" to select it. 31. Click on OK. 32. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters . The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 33. Type the text PTORQ=100/(W_HEX*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. 34. Click on Close. 35. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes . The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. 36. Click on Pick All. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. 37. Enter PTORQ for Load PRES value and click on OK. 38. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 39. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes . 40. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.19. Write the First Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File . The Write Load Step File dialog appears. 2. Enter 1 for load step file number n. 3. Click on OK.

2.3.3.20. Define Downward Pressure

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

In this step, you define the downward pressure on top of the handle, representing 20N (4.5 lb) of force. 1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters . The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. 2. Type the text PDOWN=20/(W_FLAT*(MAXYVAL-MINYVAL)) in the Selection text box and click on Accept. 3. Click on Close. 4. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities . The Select Entities dialog appears. 5. In the top drop down menu, select "Areas." 6. In the second drop down menu, select "By Location." 7. Click on the "Z coordinates" radio button to select it. 8. Click on the "From Full" radio button to select it. 9. Enter -(L_SHANK+(W_HEX/2)) for Min, Max. 10. Click on Apply. 11. In the top drop down menu, select "Nodes." 12. In the second drop down menu, select "Attached to." 13. Click on the Areas, all radio button to select it, and click on Apply. 14. In the second drop down menu, select "By Location." 15. Click on the "Y coordinates" radio button to select it. 16. Click on the "Reselect" radio button. 17. Enter L_HANDLE+TOL,L_HANDLE-(3.0*L_ELEM)-TOL for Min, Max. 18. Click on OK. 19. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes . The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. 20. Click on Pick All. The Apply PRES on Nodes dialog box appears. 21. Enter PDOWN for Load PRES value and click on OK. 22. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. 23. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes .

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

2.3.3.21. Write Second Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File . The Write Load Step File dialog box appears. 2. Enter 2 for Load step file number n, and click on OK. 3. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

2.3.3.22. Solve from Load Step Files

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files . The Solve Load Step Files dialog box appears. 2. Enter 1 for Starting LS file number. 3. Enter 2 for Ending LS file number, and click on OK. 4. Click on the Close button after the Solution is done! window appears.

2.3.3.23. Read First Load Step and Review Results

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. 3. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items. 4. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols . The Symbols dialog box appears. 6. Click on the "None" radio button for Boundary condition symbol, and click on OK. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Edge Options . The Edge Options dialog box appears. 8. In the Element outlines for non-contour/contour plots drop down menu, select "Edge Only/All." 9. Click on OK. 10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape . The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. 11. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button and click on OK. 12. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls . The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears.

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

13. Type "pldisp.gsa" in the Selection box, and click on OK. 14. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Settings> Angle of Rotation. The Angle of Rotation dialog box appears. 15. Enter 120 for Angle in degrees. 16. In the Relative/absolute drop down menu, select "Relative angle." 17. In the Axis of rotation drop down menu, select "Global Cartes Y." 18. Click on OK. 19. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. 20. In the scroll box on the left, click on "Stress." In the scroll box on the right, click on "Intensity SINT." 21. Click on OK. 22. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot Ctrls . The Save Plot Controls dialog box appears. 23. Type "plnsol.gsa" in the Selection box, and click on OK.

2.3.3.24. Read the Next Load Step and Review Results

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> Next Set. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu. The List Reaction Solution dialog box appears. 3. Click on OK to accept the default of All Items. 4. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls . 6. Type "pldisp.gsa" in the Selection box, and click on OK. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape . The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. 8. Click on the "Def + undeformed" radio button if it is not already selected and click on OK. 9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot Ctrls . 10. Type "plnsol.gsa" in the Selection box, and click on OK. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The

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2.3. A Sample Static Analysis (GUI Method)

Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. 12. In the scroll box on the left, click on "Stress." In the scroll box on the right, scroll to "Intensity SINT" and select it. 13. Click on OK.

2.3.3.25. Zoom in on Cross-Section

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by Increments . The Offset WP tool box appears. 2. Enter 0,0,-0.067 for X, Y, Z Offsets and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden Line Options . The Hidden-Line Options dialog box appears. 4. In the drop down menu for Type of Plot, select "Capped hidden." 5. In the drop down menu for Cutting plane is, select "Working plane." 6. Click on OK. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-Rotate . The Pan-Zoom-Rotate tool box appears. 8. Click on "WP." 9. Drag the Rate slider bar to 10. 10. On the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box, click on the

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2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis |

2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

You can perform the example static analysis of an Allen wrench using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments. / F I L N A M E , p m 0 2 ! J o b n a m et ou s ef o ra l ls u b s e q u e n tf i l e s / T I T L E , S t a t i ca n a l y s i so fa nA l l e nw r e n c h / U N I T S , S I !R e m i n d e rt h a tt h eS Is y s t e mo fu n i t si su s e d / S H O W !S p e c i f yg r a p h i c sd r i v e rf o ri n t e r a c t i v er u n ;f o rb a t c h !r u np l o t sa r ew r i t t e nt op m 0 2 . g r p h !D e f i n ep a r a m e t e r sf o rf u t u r eu s e E X X = 2 . 0 7 E 1 1 !Y o u n g ' sm o d u l u s( 2 . 0 7 E 1 1P a=3 0 E 6p s i ) W _ H E X = . 0 1 !W i d t ho fh e xa c r o s sf l a t s( . 0 1 m = . 3 9 i n ) * A F U N , D E G !U n i t sf o ra n g u l a rp a r a m e t r i cf u n c t i o n s W _ F L A T = W _ H E X * T A N ( 3 0 ) !W i d t ho ff l a t L _ S H A N K = . 0 7 5 !L e n g t ho fs h a n k( s h o r te n d )( . 0 7 5 m = 3 . 0 i n ) L _ H A N D L E = . 2 !L e n g t ho fh a n d l e( l o n ge n d )( . 2 m = 7 . 9i n ) B E N D R A D = . 0 1 !B e n dr a d i u so fA l l e nw r e n c h( . 0 1 m = . 3 9i n ) L _ E L E M = . 0 0 7 5 !E l e m e n tl e n g t h( . 0 0 7 5m=. 3 0i n ) N O _ D _ H E X = 2 !N u m b e ro fd i v i s i o n so nh e xf l a t T O L = 2 5 E 6 !T o l e r a n c ef o rs e l e c t i n gn o d e s( 2 5 e 6m=. 0 0 1i n ) / P R E P 7 E T , 1 , S O L I D 4 5 !E i g h t n o d eb r i c ke l e m e n t E T , 2 , P L A N E 4 2 !F o u r n o d eq u a d r i l a t e r a l( f o ra r e am e s h ) M P , E X , 1 , E X X !Y o u n g ' sm o d u l u sf o rm a t e r i a l1 M P , P R X Y , 1 , 0 . 3 !P o i s s o n ' sr a t i of o rm a t e r i a l1 R P O L Y , 6 , W _ F L A T !H e x a g o n a la r e a K , 7 !K e y p o i n ta t( 0 , 0 , 0 ) K , 8 , , , L _ S H A N K !K e y p o i n ta ts h a n k h a n d l ei n t e r s e c t i o n K , 9 , , L _ H A N D L E , L _ S H A N K !K e y p o i n ta te n do fh a n d l e L , 4 , 1 !L i n et h r o u g hm i d d l eo fh e xs h a p e L , 7 , 8 !L i n ea l o n gm i d d l eo fs h a n k L , 8 , 9 !L i n ea l o n gh a n d l e L F I L L T , 8 , 9 , B E N D R A D !L i n ea l o n gb e n dr a d i u sb e t w e e ns h a n ka n dh a n d l e / V I E W , , 1 , 1 , 1 !I s o m e t r i cv i e wi nw i n d o w1 / A N G L E , , 9 0 , X M !R o t a t e sm o d e l9 0d e g r e e sa b o u tX / P N U M , L I N E , 1 !L i n en u m b e r st u r n e do n L P L O T / P N U M , L I N E , 0 !L i n en u m b e r so f f L , 1 , 4 !H e xs e c t i o ni sc u ti n t ot w oq u a d r i l a t e r a l s A S B L , 1 , 7 , , , K E E P ! t os a t i s f ym a p p e dm e s h i n gr e q u i r e m e n t sf o rb r i c k s C M , B O T A R E A , A R E A !C o m p o n e n tn a m eB O T A R E Af o rt h et w oa r e a s !G e n e r a t ea r e am e s hf o rl a t e rd r a g L E S I Z E , 1 , , , N O _ D _ H E X !N u m b e ro fd i v i s i o n sa l o n gl i n e1 L E S I Z E , 2 , , , N O _ D _ H E X L E S I Z E , 6 , , , N O _ D _ H E X T Y P E , 2 !P L A N E 4 2e l e m e n t st ob em e s h e df i r s t M S H A P E , 0 , 2 D !M a p p e dq u a dm e s h M S H K E Y , 1 S A V E !S a v ed a t a b a s eb e f o r em e s h i n g A M E S H , A L L / T I T L E , M e s h e dh e xw r e n c he n dt ob eu s e di nv d r a g E P L O T

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2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

**!N o wd r a gt h e2 Dm e s ht op r o d u c e3 De l e m e n t s T Y P E , 1 !T y p ep o i n t e rs e tt oS O L I D 4 5 E S I Z E , L _ E L E M !E l e m e n ts i z e V D R A G , 2 , 3 , , , , , 8 , 1 0 , 9 !D r a go p e r a t i o nt oc r e a t e3 Dm e s h / T Y P E , , H I D P !P r e c i s eh i d d e nl i n ed i s p l a y / T I T L E , M e s h e dh e xw r e n c h E P L O T C M S E L , , B O T A R E A !S e l e c tB O T A R E Ac o m p o n e n ta n d A C L E A R , A L L ! d e l e t et h e2 De l e m e n t s A S E L , A L L F I N I S H !A p p l yl o a d sa n do b t a i nt h es o l u t i o n / S O L U A N T Y P E , S T A T I C !S t a t i ca n a l y s i s( d e f a u l t ) / T I T L E , A l l e nw r e n c h-L o a ds t e p1 !F i r s tf i xa l ln o d e sa r o u n db o t t o mo fs h a n k C M S E L , , B O T A R E A !B o t t o ma r e a so fs h a n k L S E L , , E X T !E x t e r i o rl i n e so ft h o s ea r e a s N S L L , , 1 !N o d e so nt h o s el i n e s D , A L L , A L L !D i s p l a c e m e n tc o n s t r a i n t s L S E L , A L L / P B C , U , , 1 !D i s p l a c e m e n ts y m b o l st u r n e do n / T I T L E , B o u n d a r yc o n d i t i o n so ne n do fw r e n c h N P L O T ! N o wa p p l yp r e s s u r eo nh a n d l et or e p r e s e n t1 0 0 N( 2 2 . 5 l b )f i n g e rf o r c e A S E L , , L O C , Y , B E N D R A D , L _ H A N D L E !A r e a so nh a n d l e A S E L , R , L O C , X , W _ F L A T / 2 , W _ F L A T !T w oa r e a so no n es i d eo fh a n d l e . . . N S L A , , 1 ! . . . a n da l lc o r r e s p o n d i n gn o d e s N S E L , R , L O C , Y , L _ H A N D L E + T O L , L _ H A N D L E ( 3 . 0 * L _ E L E M ) T O L !R e s e l e c t sn o d e sa t !b a c ke n do fh a n d l e( 3e l e m e n tl e n g t h s ) * G E T , M I N Y V A L , N O D E , , M N L O C , Y !G e tm i n i m u mYv a l u eo fs e l e c t e dn o d e s * G E T , M A X Y V A L , N O D E , , M X L O C , Y !G e tm a x i m u mYv a l u eo fs e l e c t e dn o d e s P T O R Q = 1 0 0 / ( W _ H E X * ( M A X Y V A L M I N Y V A L ) ) !P r e s s u r ee q u i v a l e n tt o1 0 0N S F , A L L , P R E S , P T O R Q !P T O R Qp r e s s u r eo na l ls e l e c t e dn o d e s A L L S E L !R e s t o r e sf u l ls e to fa l le n t i t i e s / P S F , P R E S , , 2 !P r e s s u r es y m b o l st u r n e do n / T I T L E , B o u n d a r yc o n d i t i o n so nw r e n c hf o rl o a ds t e p1 N P L O T L S W R I T E !W r i t e sf i r s tl o a ds t e p / T I T L E ,A l l e nw r e n c h-l o a ds t e p2 !D o w n w a r dp r e s s u r eo nt o po fh a n d l e ,r e p r e s e n t i n g2 0 N( 4 . 5l b )f o r c e P D O W N = 2 0 / ( W _ F L A T * ( M A X Y V A L M I N Y V A L ) ) A S E L , , L O C , Z , ( L _ S H A N K + ( W _ H E X / 2 ) ) !A r e ao nt o pf l a to fh a n d l e . . . N S L A , , 1 ! . . . a n da l lc o r r e s p o n d i n gn o d e s N S E L , R , L O C , Y , L _ H A N D L E + T O L , L _ H A N D L E ( 3 . 0 * L _ E L E M ) T O L !R e s e l e c t sn o d e sa t !b a c ke n do fh a n d l e( 3e l e m e n tl e n g t h s ) S F , A L L , P R E S , P D O W N !P D O W Np r e s s u r ea ta l ls e l e c t e dn o d e s A L L S E L / T I T L E , B o u n d a r yc o n d i t i o n so nw r e n c hf o rl o a ds t e p2 N P L O T L S W R I T E !W r i t e ss e c o n dl o a ds t e p S A V E !S a v ed a t a b a s eb e f o r es o l u t i o n L S S O L V E , 1 , 2 !I n i t i a t e ss o l u t i o nf o rl o a ds t e pf i l e s1a n d2 F I N I S H ! R e v i e wt h er e s u l t s
**

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2.4. A Sample Static Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

/ P O S T 1 S E T , 1 !R e a d sl o a ds t e p1r e s u l t s P R R S O L !R e a c t i o ns o l u t i o nl i s t i n g / P B C , D E F A !N oB Cs y m b o l s / P S F , D E F A !N os u r f a c el o a ds y m b o l s / E D G E , , 1 !E d g e so n l y ,n oi n t e r i o re l e m e n to u t l i n e s / T I T L E , D e f o r m e da l l e nw r e n c hc a u s e db yt o r q u e P L D I S P , 2 !D e f o r m e ds h a p eo v e r l a i dw i t hu n d e f o r m e de d g ep l o t / G S A V E , p l d i s p , g s a v !S a v e sg r a p h i c ss p e c i f i c a t i o n so np l d i s p . g s a v / P L O P T S , I N F O , O N !T u r n so ne n t i r el e g e n dc o l u m n / P L O P T S , L E G 1 , O F F !T u r n so f fl e g e n dh e a d e r / A N G L E , , 1 2 0 , Y M , 1 !A d d i t i o n a lr o t a t i o na b o u tm o d e lY( t os e eh i g hs t r e s sa r e a s ) / T I T L E , S t r e s si n t e n s i t yc o n t o u r sc a u s e db yt o r q u e P L N S O L , S , I N T !S t r e s si n t e n s i t yc o n t o u r s / G S A V E , p l n s o l , g s a v !S a v e sg r a p h i c ss p e c i f i c a t i o n st op l n s o l . g s a v S E T , 2 !R e a d sl o a ds t e p2r e s u l t s P R R S O L !R e a c t i o ns o l u t i o nl i s t i n g / G R E S U M E , p l d i s p , g s a v !R e s u m e sg r a p h i c ss p e c i f i c a t i o n sf r o mp l d i s p . g s a v / T I T L E , D e f o r m e da l l e nw r e n c hc a u s e db yt o r q u ea n df o r c e P L D I S P , 2 / G R E S U M E , p l n s o l , g s a v !R e s u m e sg r a p h i c ss p e c i f i c a t i o n sf r o mp l n s o l . g s a v / T I T L E , S t r e s si n t e n s i t yc o n t o u r sc a u s e db yt o r q u ea n df o r c e P L N S O L , S , I N T W P O F , , , 0 . 0 6 7 !O f f s e tt h ew o r k i n gp l a n ef o rc r o s s s e c t i o nv i e w / T Y P E , 1 , 5 !C a p p e dh i d d e nd i s p l a y / C P L A N E , 1 !C u t t i n gp l a n ed e f i n e dt ou s et h eW P / V I E W ,1, W P !V i e ww i l lb en o r m a lt ot h eW P / D I S T , 1 , . 0 1 !Z o o mi no nt h ec r o s ss e c t i o n / T I T L E , C r o s ss e c t i o no ft h ea l l e nw r e n c hu n d e rt o r q u ea n df o r c el o a d i n g P L N S O L , S , I N T F I N I S H / E X I T , A L L

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2.5. Where to Find Other Examples

Structural Guide | Chapter 2. Structural Static Analysis |

2.5. Where to Find Other Examples

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Several ANSYS publications, particularly the Verification Manual and the ANSYS Tutorials, describe additional structural static analyses. The Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems, the Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However, most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. The Verification Manual includes the following structural static analysis test cases:

VM1 - Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis VM2 - Beam Stresses and Deflections VM4 - Deflection of a Hinged Support VM11 - Residual Stress Problem VM12 - Combined Bending and Torsion VM13 - Cylindrical Shell Under Pressure VM16 - Bending of a Solid Beam VM18 - Out-of-plane Bending of a Curved Bar VM20 - Cylindrical Membrane Under Pressure VM25 - Stresses in a Long Cylinder VM29 - Friction on a Support Block VM31 - Cable Supporting Hanging Loads VM36 - Limit Moment Analysis VM39 - Bending of a Circular Plate with a Center Hole VM41 - Small Deflection of a Rigid Beam VM44 - Bending of an Axisymmetric Thin Pipe Under Gravity Loading VM53 - Vibration of a String Under Tension VM59 - Lateral Vibration of an Axially Loaded Bar VM63 - Static Hertz Contact Problem VM78 - Transverse Shear Stresses in a Cantilever Beam VM82 - Simply Supported Laminated Plate Under Pressure VM127 - Buckling of a Bar with Hinged Ends VM135 - Bending of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation VM141 - Diametric Compression of a Disk VM148 - Bending of a Parabolic Beam

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2.5. Where to Find Other Examples

VM183 - Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System VM199 - Viscoplastic Analysis of a Body Undergoing Shear Deformation VM201 - Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM206 - Stranded Coil with Voltage Excitation VM211 - Rubber Cylinder Pressed Between Two Plates VM216 - Lateral Buckling of a Right-Angle Frame

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Chapter 3. Modal Analysis

Structural Guide |

Chapter 3. Modal Analysis

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Use modal analysis to determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine component while it is being designed. It can also serve as a starting point for another, more detailed, dynamic analysis, such as a transient dynamic analysis, a harmonic response analysis, or a spectrum analysis. The following modal analysis topics are available: Uses for Modal Analysis Process Involved in a Modal Analysis Building the Model for a Modal Analysis Applying Loads and Obtain the Solution Expanding the Modes Reviewing the Results A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method) A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method) Where to Find Other Examples Prestressed Modal Analysis Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution Prestressed Modal in a Brake Squeal Analysis Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods Matrix Reduction Residual Vector Method

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3.1. Uses for Modal Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.1. Uses for Modal Analysis

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You use modal analysis to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are important parameters in the design of a structure for dynamic loading conditions. They are also required if you want to do a spectrum analysis or a mode superposition harmonic or transient analysis. You can do modal analysis on a prestressed structure, such as a spinning turbine blade. Another useful feature is modal cyclic symmetry, which allows you to review the mode shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by modeling just a sector of it. Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of products is a linear analysis. Any nonlinearities, such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements, are ignored even if they are defined. You can choose from several mode-extraction methods: Block Lanczos, subspace, PCG Lanczos, reduced, unsymmetric, damped, and QR damped. The damped and QR damped methods allow you to include damping in the structure. The QR Damped method also allows for unsymmetrical damping and stiffness matrices. Details about mode-extraction methods are covered later in this section.

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3.2. Process Involved in a Modal Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.2. Process Involved in a Modal Analysis

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The general process for a modal analysis consists of these primary steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Apply loads and obtain the solution. 3. Expand the modes. 4. Review the results.

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3.3. Building the Model for a Modal Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.3. Building the Model for a Modal Analysis

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When building your model with the intention of performing a modal analysis, the following conditions apply: Only linear behavior is valid in a modal analysis. If you specify nonlinear elements, ANSYS treats them as linear. For example, if you include contact elements, their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and never change. Material properties can be linear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperature-dependent. Define both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form). ANSYS ignores nonlinear properties. If applying element damping, define the required real constants for the specific element type (COMBIN7, COMBIN14, COMBIN37, and so on).

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3.4. Applying Loads and Obtain the Solution

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.4. Applying Loads and Obtain the Solution

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In this step you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and begin the finite element solution for the natural frequencies.

3.4.1. Enter the Solution Processor

**1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor.
**

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

3.4.2. Define Analysis Type and Options

After you have entered the solution processor, you define the analysis type and analysis options. ANSYS offers the options listed in Table 3.1: "Analysis Types and Options" for a modal analysis. Each of the options is explained in detail below. Table 3.1 Analysis Types and Options

Option New Analysis Analysis Type: Modal (see Note below) mode-extraction Method Number of Modes to Extract Mass Matrix Formulation Prestress Effects Calculation Note Command ANTYPE ANTYPE MODOPT MODOPT LUMPM PSTRES GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Modal Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

No. of Modes to Expand (see Note below) MXPAND

When you specify a modal analysis, a Solution menu that is appropriate for modal analyses appears. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged,” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for modal analyses. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is, solution options that are valid for you to use, but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis), select the Unabridged Menu option. For details, see Using Abridged Solution Menus in the Basic Analysis Guide.

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Note

In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT,SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis, based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis use MXPAND,-1.

3.4.2.1. Option: New Analysis (ANTYPE)

**Choose New Analysis.
**

Note

Restarts are not valid in a modal analysis. If you need to apply different sets of boundary conditions, do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure described in "Solution" in the Basic Analysis Guide).

3.4.2.2. Option: Analysis Type: Modal (ANTYPE)

**Use this option to specify a modal analysis.
**

3.4.2.3. Option: Mode-Extraction Method (MODOPT)

Choose one of the extraction methods listed below. (For more detailed information, see Comparing ModeExtraction Methods.) Block Lanczos method The Block Lanczos method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. You can use this method for the same types of problems for which you use the subspace method, but you achieve a faster convergence rate. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver, overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. PCG Lanczos method The PCG Lanczos method is used for very large symmetric eigenvalue problems (500,000+ DOFs), and is especially useful to obtain a solution for the lowest modes to learn how the model will behave. The PCG Lanczos method uses the PCG iterative solver and therefore has the same limitations (e.g., does not support superelements, Lagrange multiplier option on contact elements, mixed u-P formulation elements, etc.) The PCG Lanczos method works with the various L e v _ D i f fvalues on the PCGOPT command. This method also works with MSAVE to reduce memory usage. By default, the PCG Lanczos method does not perform a Sturm sequence check. However, internal heuristics have been developed to guard against missing modes. If a Sturm sequence check is absolutely necessary, it can be turned on using the PCGOPT command. The PCG Lanczos method is the only eigenvalue solver that is optimized to run in a distributed manner in Distributed ANSYS.

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Subspace method The subspace method is used for large symmetric eigenvalue problems. Several solution controls are available to control the subspace iteration process. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations, use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver, or use the Block Lanczos or PCG Lanczos mode-extraction method. Reduced (Householder) method The reduced method is faster than the subspace method because it uses reduced (condensed) system matrices to calculate the solution. However, it is less accurate because the reduced mass matrix is approximate. (See Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods.) Unsymmetric method The unsymmetric method is used for problems with unsymmetric matrices, such as fluid-structure interaction problems. Damped method The damped method is used for problems where damping cannot be ignored, such as bearing problems. QR Damped method The QR damped method is faster and achieves better calculation efficiency than the damped method. It uses the reduced modal damped matrix to calculate complex damped frequencies in modal coordinates. For most applications, you will use the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, subspace, or reduced method. The unsymmetric, damped, and QR damped methods are meant for special applications. When you specify a mode-extraction method, ANSYS automatically chooses the appropriate equation solver.

Note

**The damped, unsymmetric, and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program.
**

3.4.2.4. Option: Number of Modes to Extract (MODOPT)

This option is required for all mode-extraction methods except the reduced method. For the unsymmetric and damped methods, requesting a larger number of modes than necessary reduces the possibility of missed modes, but results in more solution time.

3.4.2.5. Option: Number of Modes to Expand (MXPAND)

This option is required for the reduced, unsymmetric, and damped methods only. However, if you want element results, you need to turn on the "Calculate elem results" option, regardless of the mode-extraction method. In the

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single point response spectrum (SPOPT,SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis, based on the significance factor S I G N I Fon the MXPAND command. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis use MXPAND,-1. If you want the mode shapes normalized to unity for the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, or subspace methods, you will need to expand the modes as well. In Distributed ANSYS, you must use the MXPAND command at the same time that the mode and mode shapes are computed if you want to expand the modes. In a Distributed ANSYS run, MXPAND is not supported during an expansion pass (EXPASS).

3.4.2.6. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation (LUMPM)

Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element-dependent) or lumped mass approximation. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. However, for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells, the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. Also, the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements.

3.4.2.7. Option: Prestress Effects Calculation (PSTRES)

Use this option to calculate the modes of a prestressed structure. By default, no prestress effects are included; that is, the structure is assumed to be stress-free. To include prestress effects, element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis must be available; see Prestressed Modal Analysis. If prestress effects are turned on, the lumped mass setting [LUMPM ] in this and subsequent solutions must be the same as it was in the prestress static analysis.

Note

You can use only axisymmetric loads for prestressing harmonic elements such as PLANE25 and SHELL61.

3.4.2.8. Additional Modal Analysis Options

After you complete the fields on the Modal Analysis Options dialog box, click OK. A dialog box specific to the selected extraction method appears. You see some combination of the following fields: F R E Q B ,F R E Q E , P R M O D E ,N r m k e y ,R I G I D ,S U B O P T . Refer to the MODOPT and RIGID command descriptions for the meaning of these fields.

3.4.3. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

In a modal analysis, you also need to define master degrees of freedom. These are required only for the reduced mode-extraction method. Master degrees of freedom (MDOF) are significant degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. You should choose at least twice as many MDOF as the number of modes of interest. We recommend that you define as many MDOF as you can based on your knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the structure [M ,MGEN], and also let the program choose a few additional masters based on stiffness-tomass ratios [TOTAL]. You can list the defined MDOF [MLIST], and delete extraneous MDOF [MDELE]. For more details about master degrees of freedom, see Matrix Reduction.

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Command(s): M GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define

3.4.4. Apply Loads

After defining master degrees of freedom, apply loads on the model. The only "loads" valid in a typical modal analysis are zero-value displacement constraints. (If you input a nonzero displacement constraint, the program assigns a zero-value constraint to that DOF instead.) Other loads can be specified, but are ignored (see Note below). For directions in which no constraints are specified, the program calculates rigid-body (zero-frequency) as well as higher (nonzero frequency) free body modes. Table 3.2: "Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis" shows the commands to apply displacement constraints. Notice that you can apply them either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads, see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

Note

Other loads - forces, pressures, temperatures, accelerations, and so on - can be specified in a modal analysis, but they are ignored for the mode-extraction. However, the program will calculate a load vector and write it to the mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ) so that it can be used in a subsequent mode-superposition harmonic or transient analysis. Table 3.2 Loads Applicable in a Modal Analysis

Load Type Category Cmd Family D GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement

Displacement (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, Constraints ROTY, ROTZ)

**In an analysis, loads can be applied, removed, operated on, or listed.
**

3.4.4.1. Applying Loads Using Commands

Table 3.3: "Load Commands for a Modal Analysis" lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a modal analysis. Table 3.3 Load Commands for a Modal Analysis

Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Solid Model Solid Model Solid Model Finite Elem Entity Keypoints Lines Areas Nodes Apply DK DL DA D Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE Apply Settings DSYM, DCUM

3.4.4.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI

All loading operations (except List; see Listing Loads) are accessed through a series of cascading menus. From the Solution menu, you select the operation (apply, delete, and so on), then the load type (displacement, force, and so on), and then the object to which you are applying the load (keypoint, line, node, and so on).

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3.4. Applying Loads and Obtain the Solution

**For example, to apply a displacement load to a line, follow this GUI path:
**

GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On lines

3.4.4.3. Listing Loads

**To list existing loads, follow this GUI path:
**

GUI: Utility Menu> List>Loads> l o a dt y p e

3.4.5. Specify Load Step Options

The only load step options available for a modal analysis are damping options. Table 3.4 Load Step Options

Option Damping (Dynamics) Options Alpha (mass) Damping Beta (stiffness) Damping Material-Dependent Damping Ratio Element Damping (applied via element real constant) Constant Material Damping Coefficient ALPHAD BETAD MP,DAMP R MP,DMPR Command

Damping is valid only for the damped and QR damped mode-extraction methods. Damping is ignored for the other mode-extraction methods; see the Note below. If you include damping and specify the damped mode-extraction method, the calculated eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. If you include damping and specify the QR damped mode-extraction method, the eigenvalues are complex. However, the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis. See Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods for details. Also see the section Damping in "Transient Dynamic Analysis" for more information on damping. Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode superposition harmonic analysis. The QR damped eigen analysis itself, however, does not include the effect of the constant material damping coefficient. The corresponding modal damping matrix is formulated during modal harmonic analysis.

Note

Damping can be specified in a non-damped modal analysis if a single-point response spectrum analysis is to follow the modal analysis. Although the damping does not affect the eigenvalue solution, it is used to calculate an effective damping ratio for each mode, which is then used to calculate the response to the spectrum. Spectrum analyses are discussed in "Spectrum Analysis".

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3.4.6. Participation Factor Table Output

The participation factor table lists participation factors, mode coefficients, and mass distribution percentages for each mode extracted. The participation factors and mode coefficients are calculated based on an assumed unit displacement spectrum in each of the global Cartesian directions and rotation about each of these axes. The reduced mass distribution is also listed. Rotational participation factors will be calculated when a real eigensolver mode-extraction method (such as Block Lanczos, subspace, or QRDAMP) is used.

Note

You can retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient by issuing a *GET command. The factor or coefficient is valid for the excitation (assumed unit displacement spectrum) directed along the last of the applicable coordinates (rotation about the Z axis for a 3-D analysis). To retrieve a participation factor or mode coefficient for another direction, perform a spectrum analysis with the excitation set (SED) to the desired direction, then issue another *GET command.

3.4.7. Solve

Before you solve, you should save (SAVE) a back-up copy of the database to a named file. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME. Now start the solution calculations.

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

3.4.7.1. Output

The output from the solution consists mainly of the natural frequencies, which are printed as part of the printed output (J o b n a m e . O U T ) and also written to the mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ). The printed output may include reduced mode shapes and the participation factor table, depending on your analysis options and output controls. No mode shapes are written to the database or to the results file, so you cannot postprocess the results yet. To do this, you need to expand the modes (explained next).

3.4.7.1.1. Output From Subspace Mode-Extraction Method

If you use the subspace mode-extraction method, you might see the following warning in the solution printout: "STURM number = n should be m," where n and m are integer numbers. This indicates that a mode has been missed, or that the mth and nth mode gave the same frequencies and only m modes were requested. There are two methods that you can use to investigate the missed mode: use more iteration vectors, or change the shift point used in the eigenvalue extraction. Both methods are briefly described below. (See the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for more information.) To use more iteration vectors, you can issue the SUBOPT,,N P A Dcommand. If you prefer to use the GUI to adjust the number of iteration vectors, follow these steps:

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1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options . The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 2. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract; then click OK. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 3. Change the value of the NPAD field and click OK. To change the shift point that was used in the eigenvalue extraction, you can issue the MODOPT,,,F R E Q B command. If you prefer to use the GUI to change the shift point, follow these steps: 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options . The Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 2. Choose “Subspace” as the mode-extraction method and specify the number of modes to extract; then click OK. The Subspace Modal Analysis dialog box appears. 3. Change the value of the FREQB field and click OK. If you use the damped mode-extraction method, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are complex. The imaginary part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency, and the real part is a measure of the stability of the system. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method, the eigenvalues are complex. However, the real eigenvectors are used for the mode superposition analysis.

3.4.8. Exit the Solution Processor

**You must now exit the solution processor.
**

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Main Menu> Finish

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3.5. Expanding the Modes

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.5. Expanding the Modes

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In its strictest sense, the term "expansion" means expanding the reduced solution to the full DOF set . The "reduced solution" is usually in terms of master DOF. In a modal analysis, however, the term "expansion" means writing mode shapes to the results file. That is, "expanding the modes" applies not just to reduced mode shapes from the reduced mode-extraction method, but to full mode shapes from the other mode-extraction methods as well. Thus, if you want to review mode shapes in the postprocessor, you must expand them (that is, write them to the results file).

Note

The full extraction methods also write the mode shapes to the results file by default during the modal analysis irrespective of the MXPAND command. To not write the mode shapes with MODOPT,LANB only, use MXPAND,-1. Expanded modes are also required for subsequent spectrum analyses. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT,SPRS) and dynamic design analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis, based on the significance factor S I G N I Fon the MXPAND command. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis use MXPAND,-1. No expansion is necessary for subsequent mode superposition analyses.

3.5.1. File and Database Requirements

The mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ), and the J o b n a m e . E M A T ,J o b n a m e . E S A V , and J o b n a m e . T R I(if reduced method) files must be available. The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was calculated.

3.5.2. Expanding the Modes

**1. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor.
**

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Note Main Menu> Solution

You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. 2. Activate the expansion pass and its options. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass:

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3.5. Expanding the Modes

**Table 3.5 Expansion Pass Options
**

Option Expansion Pass On/Off No. of Modes to Expand Command EXPASS MXPAND GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Expand Modes

Freq. Range for Expansion MXPAND Stress Calc. On/Off MXPAND

**Each of these options is explained in detail below.
**

Expansion Pass On/Off [EXPASS] Choose ON. EXPASS is not valid in a Distributed ANSYS analysis. Number of Modes to Expand [MXPAND, N M O D E ] Specify the number. Remember that only expanded modes can be reviewed in the postprocessor. Default is no modes expanded. Frequency Range for Expansion [MXPAND,, F R E Q B ,F R E Q E ] This is another way to control the number of modes expanded. If you specify a frequency range, only modes within that range are expanded. Stress Calculations On/Off [MXPAND,,,, E l c a l c ] Choose ON only if you plan to do a subsequent spectrum analysis and are interested in stresses or forces to do the spectrum. "Stresses" from a modal analysis do not represent actual stresses in the structure, but give you an idea of the relative stress distributions for each mode. Default is no stresses calculated.

In a Distributed ANSYS analysis, you must use the MXPAND command at the same time that the mode and mode shapes are computed if you want to expand the modes. In a Distributed ANSYS run, MXPAND is not supported during an expansion pass (EXPASS). 3. Specify load step options. The only options valid in a modal expansion pass are output controls: Printed output Use this option to include any results data (expanded mode shapes, stresses, and forces) on the printed output file (J o b n a m e . O U T ).

Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

Database and results file output Use this option to control the data on the results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ). The F R E Qfield on

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3.5. Expanding the Modes

OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE; that is, the data are written for all modes or no modes. For example, you cannot write information for every other mode.

Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

4. Start expansion pass calculations. The output consists of expanded mode shapes and, if requested, relative stress distributions for each mode.

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 for additional modes to be expanded (in different frequency ranges, for example). Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file.

Caution

Spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. In the single point response spectrum (SPOPT,SPRS) and Dynamic Design analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the modal expansion can be performed after the spectrum analysis, based on the significance factor SIGNIF on the MXPAND command. If you want to perform modal expansion after the spectrum analysis use MXPAND,-1.. 6. Leave SOLUTION. You can now review results in the postprocessor.

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Note Close the Solution menu.

The expansion pass has been presented here as a separate step. However, if you include the MXPAND command in the modal solution step, the program not only extracts the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, but also expands the specified mode shapes.

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3.6. Reviewing the Results

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.6. Reviewing the Results

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Results from a modal analysis (that is, the modal expansion pass) are written to the structural results file, J o b n a m e . R S T . Results consist of: Natural frequencies Expanded mode shapes Relative stress and force distributions (if requested). You can review these results in POST1 [/POST1], the general postprocessor. Some typical postprocessing operations for a modal analysis are described below. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see "An Overview of Postprocessing" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

3.6.1. Points to Remember

If you want to review results in POST1, the database must contain the same model for which the solution was calculated. The results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ) must be available.

3.6.2. Reviewing Results Data

1. Read in results data from the appropriate substep. Each mode is stored on the results file as a separate substep. If you expand six modes, for instance, your results file will have one load step consisting of six substeps.

Command(s): SET,SBSTEP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> s u b s t e p

**2. Perform any desired POST1 operations. Typical modal analysis POST1 operations are explained below:
**

3.6.3. Option: Listing All Frequencies

You may want to list the frequencies of all modes expanded. A sample output from this command is shown below. * * * * * I N D E XO FD A T AS E T SO NR E S U L T SF I L E * * * * * S E T T I M E / F R E Q L O A DS T E P S U B S T E P C U M U L A T I V E 1 2 2 . 9 7 3 1 1 1

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3.6. Reviewing the Results

2 4 0 . 4 7 6 3 7 8 . 0 8 2 4 1 8 8 . 3 4

Command(s): SET,LIST GUI:

1 1 1

2 3 4

2 3 4

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results

**3.6.4. Option: Display Deformed Shape
**

Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape

**Use the K U N Dfield on PLDISP to overlay the nondeformed shape on the display.
**

3.6.5. Option: List Master DOF

Command(s): MLIST,ALL GUI: Note Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All

To display the master DOFs graphically, plot the nodes (Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes or command NLIST).

3.6.6. Option: Line Element Results

Command(s): ETABLE GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table

For line elements, such as beams, spars, and pipes, use the ETABLE command to access derived data (stresses, strains, and so on). Results data are identified by a combination of a label and a sequence number or component name on the ETABLE command. See the ETABLE discussion in The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide for details.

3.6.7. Option: Contour Displays

Command(s): GUI: PLNSOL or PLESOL Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu

Use these options to contour almost any result item, such as stresses (SX, SY, SZ...), strains (EPELX, EPELY, EPELZ...), and displacements (UX, UY, UZ...). The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the nondeformed shape on the display. You can also contour element table data and line element data:

Command(s): GUI: PLETAB, PLLS Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Element Table Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Line Elem Res

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3.6. Reviewing the Results

Caution

Derived data, such as stresses and strains, are averaged at the nodes by the PLNSOL command. This averaging results in "smeared" values at nodes where elements of different materials, different shell thicknesses, or other discontinuities meet. To avoid the smearing effect, use selecting (described in "Selecting and Components" in the Basic Analysis Guide) to select elements of the same material, same shell thickness, and so on before issuing PLNSOL.

3.6.8. Option: Tabular Listings

PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) Command(s): PRRSOL (reaction data), and so on NSORT, ESORT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> s o l u t i o no p t i o n Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems

**Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them.
**

3.6.9. Other Capabilities

Many other postprocessing functions - mapping results onto a path, load case combinations, and so on - are available in POST1. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Analysis Guide for details. See the Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M , TOTAL, EXPASS, MXPAND, SET, and PLDISP commands.

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3.7. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.7. A Sample Modal Analysis (GUI Method)

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

In this example, you perform a modal analysis on the wing of a model plane to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom.

3.7.1. Problem Description

This is a modal analysis of a wing of a model plane. The wing is of uniform configuration along its length, and its cross-sectional area is defined to be a straight line and a spline, as shown. It is held fixed to the body on one end and hangs freely at the other. The objective of the problem is to demonstrate the wing's modal degrees of freedom.

3.7.2. Problem Specifications

The dimensions of the wing are shown in the problem sketch. The wing is made of low density polyethylene with the following values:

Young's modulus = 38x103 psi Poisson's ratio = .3 Density = 8.3e-5 lb-sec2 /in 4

3.7.3. Problem Sketch

Figure 3.1 Diagram of a Model Airplane Wing

The detailed step-by-step procedure for this example, Modal Analysis of a Model Airplane Wing, is included in the Modal Tutorial.

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3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

You can perform the example modal analysis of a model airplane wing using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments. You may receive warning messages when you run this problem. The version of the problem that appears in the Modal Tutorial contains an explanation of the warnings. / F I L N A M , M O D A L / T I T L E , M o d a lA n a l y s i so faM o d e lA i r p l a n eW i n g / P R E P 7 E T , 1 , P L A N E 4 2 !D e f i n eP L A N E 4 2a se l e m e n tt y p e1 E T , 2 , S O L I D 4 5 !D e f i n eS O L I D 4 5a se l e m e n tt y p e2 M P , E X , 1 , 3 8 0 0 0 M P , D E N S , 1 , 8 . 3 E 5 M P , N U X Y , 1 , . 3 K , 1 !D e f i n ek e y p o i n t1a t0 , 0 , 0 K , 2 , 2 !D e f i n ek e y p o i n t2a t2 , 0 , 0 K , 3 , 2 . 3 , . 2 !D e f i n ek e y p o i n t3a t2 . 3 , . 2 , 0 K , 4 , 1 . 9 , . 4 5 !D e f i n ek e y p o i n t4a t1 . 9 , . 4 5 , 0 K , 5 , 1 , . 2 5 !D e f i n ek e y p o i n t5a t1 , . 2 5 , 0 L S T R , 1 , 2 !C r e a t eas t r a i g h tl i n eb e t w e e nk e y p o i n t s1a n d2 L S T R , 5 , 1 !C r e a t eas t r a i g h tl i n eb e t w e e nk e y p o i n t s5a n d1 B S P L I N , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , , , 1 , , , 1 , . 2 5 !C r e a t eaB s p l i n e A L , 1 , 3 , 2 E S I Z E , . 2 5 A M E S H , 1 E S I Z E , , 1 0 T Y P E , 2 V E X T , A L L , , , , , 1 0 / V I E W , , 1 , 1 , 1 / A N G , 1 / R E P E P L O T F I N I S H / S O L U A N T Y P E , M O D A L M O D O P T , S U B S P , 5 E S E L , U , T Y P E , , 1 N S E L , S , L O C , Z , 0 D , A L L , A L L N S E L , A L L M X P A N D , 5 S O L V E F I N I S H / P O S T 1 S E T , L I S T , 2

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!C h o o s em o d a la n a l y s i st y p e !C h o o s et h es u b s p a c em o d e e x t r a c t i o nm e t h o d , !e x t r a c t i n g5m o d e s !U n s e l e c te l e m e n tt y p e1

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3.8. A Sample Modal Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

S E T , F I R S T P L D I S P , 0 A N M O D E , 1 0 , . 5 E 1 S E T , N E X T P L D I S P , 0 A N M O D E , 1 0 , . 5 E 1 S E T , N E X T P L D I S P , 0 A N M O D E , 1 0 , . 5 E 1 S E T , N E X T P L D I S P , 0 A N M O D E , 1 0 , . 5 E 1 S E T , N E X T P L D I S P , 0 A N M O D E , 1 0 , . 5 E 1 F I N I S H / E X I T

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3.9. Where to Find Other Examples

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.9. Where to Find Other Examples

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

Several ANSYS publications, particularly the Verification Manual, describe additional modal analyses. The Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems, the Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However, most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. The Verification Manual includes variety of modal analysis test cases:

VM45 - Natural Frequency of a Spring-mass System VM47 - Torsional Frequency of a Suspended Disk VM48 - Natural Frequency of a Motor-generator VM50 - Fundamental Frequency of a Simply Supported Beam VM52 - Automobile Suspension System Vibrations VM53 - Vibration of a String Under Tension VM54 - Vibration of a Rotating Cantilever Blade VM55 - Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane VM57 - Torsional Frequencies of a Drill Pipe VM59 - Lateral Vibration of an Axially-loaded Bar VM60 - Natural Frequency of a Cross-ply Laminated Spherical Shell VM61 - Longitudinal Vibration of a Free-free Rod VM62 - Vibration of a Wedge VM66 - Vibration of a Flat Plate VM67 - Radial Vibrations of a Circular Ring from an Axisymmetric Model VM68 - PSD Response of a Two DOF Spring-mass System VM69 - Seismic Response VM70 - Seismic Response of a Beam Structure VM76 - Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM89 - Natural Frequencies of a Two-mass-spring System VM151 - Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Circular Plate VM152 - Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Harmonic Els) VM153 - Nonaxisymmetric Vibration of a Stretched Circular Membrane (Modal) VM154 - Vibration of a Fluid Coupling VM175 - Natural Frequency of a Piezoelectric Transducer VM181 - Natural Frequency of a Flat Circular Plate with a Clamped Edge

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3.9. Where to Find Other Examples

VM182 - Transient Response of a Spring-mass System VM183 - Harmonic Response of a Spring-mass System VM202 - Transverse Vibrations of a Shear Beam VM203 - Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-supported Thick Square Plate VM212 - Modal Analysis of a Rectangular Cavity

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3.10. Prestressed Modal Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.10. Prestressed Modal Analysis

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

Use a prestressed modal analysis to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a prestressed structure, such as a spinning turbine blade. The procedure to do a prestressed modal analysis is essentially the same as a regular modal analysis, except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on [PSTRES,ON]. The same lumped mass setting [LUMPM ] used here must also be used in the later prestress modal analysis. "Structural Static Analysis" describes the procedure to obtain a static solution. Use EMATWRITE, YES if you want to look at strain energies from the modal analysis. 2. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the modal solution, also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES,ON). Files J o b n a m e . E M A T(if ANSYS creates it) and J o b n a m e . E S A Vfrom the static analysis must be available. Hence, if another analysis is performed between the static and prestressed modal analyses, the static analysis will need to be rerun. If the model is spinning, include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's K S P I Noption) if necessary. 3. Expand the modes and review them in the postprocessor. Step 1 above can also be a transient analysis. In such a case, save the E M A Tand E S A Vfiles at the desired time point. If the deformed shape from the static solution differs significantly from its nondeformed shape, you can perform a prestressed modal analysis of a large-deflection solution instead.

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3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

You can also perform a prestressed modal analysis following a large deflection (NLGEOM ,ON) static analysis in order to calculate the frequencies and mode shapes of a highly deformed structure. Use the prestressed modal analysis procedure, but use the PSOLVE command (rather than the SOLVE command) to obtain the modal solution, as shown in the sample input listing below. Along with the PSOLVE command, you must issue the UPCOORD command to update the coordinates necessary for obtaining the correct stresses. This procedure uses the element matrices and element load vectors (for example, from pressures, temperature or acceleration loads) from a previous static analysis. These loads will be passed through to a subsequent mode superposition analysis if specified (LVSCALE command). Prestress must be applied (PSTRES,ON) during the static portion of the analysis. However, in cases where stress-stiffening helps convergence: Stress-stiffening (SSTIF,ON) must be applied instead. (This requirement applies to elements outside of the 18xfamily of elements only.) The EMATWRITE,YES command is also necessary to write the element matrices to F i l e . E M A T . Issuing either a PSTRES,OFF or SSTIF,OFF command prevents all previously specified prestressing from being applied. If the model is spinning, include spin-softening effects (via the OMEGA command's K S P I Noption) in the modal solution if necessary. !I n i t i a l ,l a r g ed e f l e c t i o ns t a t i ca n a l y s i s ! / P R E P 7 . . . F I N I S H / S O L U A N T Y P E , S T A T I C !S t a t i ca n a l y s i s N L G E O M , O N !L a r g ed e f l e c t i o na n a l y s i s P S T R E S , O N !F l a gt oc a l c u l a t et h ep r e s t r e s sm a t r i x . . . S O L V E F I N I S H ! !P r e s t r e s s e dm o d a la n a l y s i s ! / S O L U A N T Y P E , M O D A L !M o d a la n a l y s i s U P C O O R D , 1 . 0 , O N !D i s p l a ym o d es h a p e sr e l a t i v et od e f o r m e dg e o m e t r y ! i nt h ep o s t p r o c e s s o r . P S T R E S , O N !P r e s t r e s se f f e c t sO N

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3.11. Prestressed Modal Analysis of a Large-Deflection Solution

M O D O P T , . . . M X P A N D , . . . P S O L V E , E I G x x x x F I N I S H / S O L U E X P A S S , O N P S O L V E , E I G E X P F I N I S H

Note

!S e l e c te i g e n s o l v e r !S p e c i f yt h en u m b e ro fm o d e st oe x p a n d ,i fd e s i r e d . !C a l c u l a t et h ee i g e n v a l u e sa n de i g e n v e c t o r s . ! U s eE I G L A N Bo rE I G F U L Lt om a t c hM O D O P Tc o m m a n d . ! A d d i t i o n a ls o l u t i o ns t e pf o re x p a n s i o n . !E x p a n dt h ee i g e n v e c t o rs o l u t i o n .( R e q u i r e di fy o u ! w a n tt or e v i e wm o d es h a p e si nt h ep o s t p r o c e s s o r . )

You may also use one of the other eigensolvers (PSOLVE,EIGSYM, PSOLVE,EIGUNSYM, PSOLVE,EIGDAMP or PSOLVE,EIGREDUC). See the PSOLVE documentation for details on when a PSOLVE,TRIANG command must precede some PSOLVE,EIGx x xcommands.

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3.12. Prestressed Modal in a Brake Squeal Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.12. Prestressed Modal in a Brake Squeal Analysis

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

Automobile disc brakes can generate several kinds of noises. Among them is a squeal, a noise in the 1-12kHz range. It is commonly accepted that brake squeal is initiated by instability due to the friction forces leading to self-excited vibrations. The instability is often referred to as a geometrically-induced or kinematic constraint. To predict the onset of instability, perform a modal analysis of the prestressed structure. A non-symmetric stiffness matrix is a result of the friction coupling and may lead to complex eigenfrequencies. If the real part of the complex frequency is positive, then the system is unstable as the vibrations grow exponentially over time. Use the finite element analysis method illustrated by the following example: / p r e p 7 ! !C r e a t et h eb r a k em o d e la n da p p l yf o r c en o r m a lt oc o n t a c ts u r f a c et o !s i m u l a t ec o n t a c tp r e s s u r eb e t w e e nb r a k ep a da n dd i s c ! … … ! f i n i ! / s o l u ! !N o n l i n e a rp r e s t r e s ss t a t i ca n a l y s i s ! a n t y p e , s t a t i c p s t r e s , o n n l g e o m , o n n r o p t , u n s y m e m a t w r i t e , y e s s o l v e ! !P s e u d or o t a t i o no fd i s ca n dc o n t a c te l e m e n t s !( t h i ss t e pg e n e r a t e st h en o n s y m m e t r i c[ K ]i nc o n t a c te l e m e n t s ) ! !C r e a t ea ne l e m e n tc o m p o n e n t( f o re x a m p l e ,B r a k e C M )c o n s i s t i n go fb r a k e !p a da n dc o n t a c te l e m e n t … … ! c m r o t ,B r a k e C M ,R O T A T X ,R O T A T Y ,R O T A T Z n s u b ,1 s o l v e f i n i ! / s o l u

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3.12. Prestressed Modal in a Brake Squeal Analysis

/ s o l u a n t y p e , m o d a l ! !U s eQ Rd a m pe i g e n s o l v e r ! m o d o p t , q r d a m p p s t r e s , o n p s o l v e , e i g q r d a s o l v e f i n i For further information, see "Surface-to-Surface Contact" in the Contact Technology Guide.

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3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

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The basic equation solved in a typical undamped modal analysis is the classical eigenvalue problem:

where:

[K] = stiffness matrix {Φ i} = mode shape vector (eigenvector) of mode i Ωi = natural circular frequency of mode i ( [M] = mass matrix is the eigenvalue)

Many numerical methods are available to solve the above equation. ANSYS offers these methods: Block Lanczos method PCG Lanczos method Subspace method Reduced (Householder) method Unsymmetric method Damped method (The damped method solves a different equation; see the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for more information.) QR damped method (The QR damped method solves a different equation; see the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for more information.)

Note

The damped, unsymmetric, and QR damped methods are not available in the ANSYS Professional program. The first four methods (Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, subspace, and reduced) are the most commonly used. Table 3.6: "Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices" compares these four mode-extraction methods. Following the table is a brief description of each mode-extraction method.

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3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

**Table 3.6 Symmetric System Eigensolver Choices
**

Eigensolver Block Lanczos Application To find many modes (about 40+) of large models. Recommended when the model consists of poorly shaped solid and shell elements. This solver performs well when the model consists of shells or a combination of shells and solids. Works faster but requires about 50% more memory than subspace. To find few modes (up to about 100) of very large models (500,000+ DOFs). This solver performs well when the lowest modes are sought for models that are dominated by well-shaped 3-D solid elements (i.e., models that would typically be good candidates for the PCG iterative solver for a similar static or full transient analysis). To find few modes (up to about 40) of large models. Recommended when the model consists of well-shaped solid and shell elements. Works well if memory availability is limited. To find all modes of small to medium models (less than 10K DOF). Can be used to find few modes (up to about 40) of large models with proper selection of master DOF, but accuracy of frequencies depends on the master DOF selected. Memory Required Medium Disk Required Low

PCG Lanczos

Medium

Low

Subspace

Low

High

Reduced

Low

Low

3.13.1. Block Lanczos Method

The Block Lanczos eigenvalue solver uses the Lanczos algorithm where the Lanczos recursion is performed with a block of vectors. This method is as accurate as the subspace method, but faster. The Block Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver, overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV command. The Block Lanczos method is especially powerful when searching for eigenfrequencies in a given part of the eigenvalue spectrum of a given system. The convergence rate of the eigenfrequencies will be about the same when extracting modes in the midrange and higher end of the spectrum as when extracting the lowest modes. Therefore, when you use a shift frequency (F R E Q B ) to extract n modes beyond the starting value of F R E Q B , the algorithm extracts the n modes beyond F R E Q Bat about the same speed as it extracts the lowest n modes.

3.13.2. PCG Lanczos Method

The PCG Lanczos method internally uses the Lanczos algorithm, combined with the PCG iterative solver. This method will be significantly faster than either the subspace or the Block Lanczos methods for the following cases: Large models that are dominated by 3-D solid elements and do not have ill-conditioned matrices due, for example, to poorly shaped elements Only a few of the lowest modes are requested Having ill-conditioned matrices or asking for many modes (e.g., more than 100 modes) can lead to an inefficient solution time with this method. The PCG Lanczos method finds only the lowest eigenvalues. If a range of eigenfrequencies is requested on the MODOPT command, the PCG Lanczos method will find all of the eigenfrequencies below the lower value of the eigenfrequency range as well as the number of requested eigenfrequencies in the given eigenfrequency range.

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3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

Thus the PCG Lanczos method is not recommended for problems when the lower value of the input eigenfrequency range is far from zero. The PCG Lanczos method is the only eigenvalue solver that is optimized to run in a distributed manner in Distributed ANSYS.

3.13.3. Subspace Method

The subspace method uses the subspace iteration technique, which internally uses the generalized Jacobi iteration algorithm. It is highly accurate because it uses the full [K] and [M] matrices. For the same reason, however, the subspace method is slower than the reduced method. This method is typically used in cases where high accuracy is required or where selecting master DOF is not practical. When doing a modal analysis with a large number of constraint equations, use the subspace method with the frontal solver instead of the JCG solver, or use the Block Lanczos mode-extraction method. Using the JCG solver when your analysis has many constraint equations could result in an internal element stiffness assembly that requires large amounts of memory.

3.13.4. Reduced Method

The reduced method uses the HBI algorithm (Householder-Bisection-Inverse iteration) to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. It is relatively fast because it works with a small subset of degrees of freedom called master DOF. Using master DOF leads to an exact [K] matrix but an approximate [M] matrix (usually with some loss in mass). The accuracy of the results, therefore, depends on how well [M] is approximated, which in turn depends on the number and location of masters. Matrix Reduction presents guidelines to select master DOFs.

3.13.5. Unsymmetric Method

The unsymmetric method, which also uses the full [K] and [M] matrices, is meant for problems where the stiffness and mass matrices are unsymmetric (for example, acoustic fluid-structure interaction problems). It uses the Lanczos algorithm which calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors if the system is non-conservative (for example, a shaft mounted on bearings). The real part of the eigenvalue represents the natural frequency and the imaginary part is a measure of the stability of the system - a negative value means the system is stable, whereas a positive value means the system is unstable. Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method. Therefore, missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted.

3.13.6. Damped Method

The damped method (MODOPT,DAMP) is meant for problems where damping cannot be ignored, such as rotor dynamics applications. It uses full matrices ([K], [M], and the damping matrix [C]). It uses the Lanczos algorithm and calculates complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors (as described below). Sturm sequence checking is not available for this method. Therefore, missed modes are a possibility at the higher end of the frequencies extracted.

3.13.6.1. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvalue

The imaginary part of the eigenvalue, Ω, represents the steady-state circular frequency of the system. The real

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3.13. Comparing Mode-Extraction Methods

part of the eigenvalue, σ, represents the stability of the system. If σ is less than zero, then the displacement amplitude will decay exponentially, in accordance with EXP(σ). If σ is greater than zero, then the amplitude will increase exponentially. (Or, in other words, negative σ gives an exponentially decreasing, or stable, response; and positive σ gives an exponentially increasing, or unstable, response.) If there is no damping, the real component of the eigenvalue will be zero.

Note

The eigenvalue results reported by ANSYS are actually divided by 2* π. This gives the frequency in Hz (cycles/second). In other words:

Imaginary part of eigenvalue, as reported = Ω/(2* π) Real part of eigenvalue, as reported = σ/(2* π)

3.13.6.2. Damped Method-Real and Imaginary Parts of the Eigenvector

In a damped system, the response at different nodes can be out of phase. At any given node, the amplitude will be the vector sum of the real and imaginary components of the eigenvector.

3.13.7. QR Damped Method

The QR damped method (MODOPT,QRDAMP) combines the advantages of the Block Lanczos method with the complex Hessenberg method. The key concept is to approximately represent the first few complex damped eigenvalues by modal transformation using a small number of eigenvectors of the undamped system. After the undamped mode shapes are evaluated by using the real eigensolution (Block Lanczos method), the equations of motion are transformed to these modal coordinates. Using the QR algorithm, a smaller eigenvalue problem is then solved in the modal subspace. This approach gives good results for lightly damped systems and can also apply to any arbitrary damping type (proportional or nonproportional symmetric damping or nonsymmetrical gyroscopic damping matrix). This approach also supports nonsymmetrical stiffness if present in the model. The QR Damp eigensolver applies to models having an unsymmetrical global stiffness matrix where only a few elements contribute nonsymmetrical element stiffness matrices (for example, a brake-friction problem wherein the local part of a model with friction contacts is creating a nonsymmetrical stiffness matrix in contact elements. The QR Damp eigensolver works best when there is a larger “modal subspace” to converge and is therefore the best option for larger models. Because the accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of modes used in the calculations, a sufficient number of fundamental modes should be present (especially for highly damped systems) to provide good results. The QR damped method is not recommended for critically damped or overdamped systems. This method outputs both the real and imaginary eigenvalues (frequencies), but outputs only the real eigenvectors (mode shapes). When requested however, complex mode shapes of damped systems are computed. In general, ANSYS recommends using the Damp eigensolver for small models. It produces more accurate eigensolutions than the QR Damp eigensolver for damped systems.

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3.14. Matrix Reduction

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.14. Matrix Reduction

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Matrix reduction is a way to reduce the size of the matrices of a model and perform a quicker and cheaper analysis. It is mainly used in dynamic analyses such as modal, harmonic, and transient analyses. Matrix reduction is also used in substructure analyses to generate a superelement. Matrix reduction allows you to build a detailed model, as you would for a static stress analysis, and use only a "dynamic" portion of it for a dynamic analysis. You choose the "dynamic" portion by identifying key degrees of freedom, called master degrees of freedom, that characterize the dynamic behavior of the model. The ANSYS program then calculates reduced matrices and the reduced DOF solution in terms of the master DOF. You can then expand the solution to the full DOF set by performing an expansion pass. The main advantage of this procedure is the savings in CPU time to obtain the reduced solution, especially for dynamic analyses of large problems.

3.14.1. Theoretical Basis of Matrix Reduction

The ANSYS program uses the Guyan Reduction procedure to calculate the reduced matrices. The key assumption in this procedure is that for the lower frequencies, inertia forces on the slave DOF (those DOF being reduced out) are negligible compared to elastic forces transmitted by the master DOF. Therefore, the total mass of the structure is apportioned among only the master DOF. The net result is that the reduced stiffness matrix is exact, whereas the reduced mass and damping matrices are approximate. For details about how the reduced matrices are calculated, refer to the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench.

3.14.1.1. Guidelines for Selecting Master DOF

Choosing master DOF is an important step in a reduced analysis. The accuracy of the reduced mass matrix (and hence the accuracy of the solution) depends on the number and location of masters. For a given problem, you can choose many different sets of master DOF and will probably obtain acceptable results in all cases. You can choose masters using M and MGEN commands, or you can have the program choose masters during solution using the TOTAL command. We recommend that you do both: choose a few masters yourself, and also have the ANSYS program choose masters. This way, the program can pick up any modes that you may have missed. The following list summarizes the guidelines for selecting master DOF: The total number of master DOF should be at least twice the number of modes of interest. Choose master DOF in directions in which you expect the structure or component to vibrate. For a flat plate, for example, you should choose at least a few masters in the out-of-plane direction (see Figure 3.2: "Choose Master DOF" (a)). In cases where motion in one direction induces a significant motion in another

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3.14. Matrix Reduction

direction, choose master DOF in both directions (see Figure 3.2: "Choose Master DOF" (b)). Figure 3.2 Choose Master DOF

(a) Possible out-of-plane masters for a flat plate(b) Motion in X induces motion in Y Choose masters at locations having relatively large mass or rotary inertia and relatively low stiffness (see Figure 3.3: "Choosing Master DOFs"). Examples of such locations are overhangs and "loosely" connected structures. Conversely, do not choose masters at locations with relatively small mass, or at locations with high stiffness (such as DOF close to constraints). Figure 3.3 Choosing Master DOFs

Choose masters at locations with (a) large rotary inertia, (b) large mass If your primary interest is in bending modes, you can neglect rotational and "stretching" DOF. If the degree of freedom to be chosen belongs to a coupled set, choose only the first (primary) DOF of the coupled set. Choose master DOF at locations where forces or nonzero displacements are to be applied. For axisymmetric shell models (SHELL61 or SHELL208), choose as masters the global UX degree of freedom at all nodes on those sections of the model that are parallel to or nearly parallel to the center line, so oscillatory motions between master DOF can be avoided (see Figure 3.4: "Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model"). This recommendation can be relaxed if the motion is primarily parallel to the centerline. For axisymmetric harmonic elements with MODE = 2 or greater, choose as masters both UX and UZ degrees of freedom. Figure 3.4 Choosing Masters in an Axisymmetric Shell Model

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3.14. Matrix Reduction

The best way to check the validity of the master DOF set is to rerun the analysis with twice (or half) the number of masters and to compare the results. Another way is to review the reduced mass distribution printed during a modal solution. The reduced mass should be, at least in the dominant direction of motion, within 10-15 percent of the total mass of the structure.

3.14.1.2. A Note About Program-Selected Masters

If you let the ANSYS program select masters [TOTAL], the distribution of masters selected will depend on the order in which elements are processed during the solution. For example, different master DOF sets may be selected depending on whether the elements are processed from left to right or from right to left. However, this difference usually yields insignificant differences in the results. For meshes with uniform element sizes and properties (for example, a flat plate), the distribution of masters will, in general, not be uniform. In such cases, you should specify some master DOF of your own [M , MGEN]. The same recommendation applies to structures with an irregular mass distribution, where the program-selected master DOF may be concentrated in the higher-mass regions.

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3.15. Residual Vector Method

Structural Guide | Chapter 3. Modal Analysis |

3.15. Residual Vector Method

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The residual vector method improves the accuracy of a mode-superposition transient or mode-superposition harmonic analysis. A mode-superposition solution tends to be less accurate when the applied dynamic loads excite the higher resonant frequency modes of a structure. Many modes are often necessary to render an accurate modesuperposition solution. The residual vector method can help in such cases. The method's improved convergence properties require fewer natural frequencies and modes from the eigensolution.

3.15.1. Understanding the Residual Vector Method

To use the residual vector method, you must first calculate residual vectors in the modal analysis. You can use either of these modal analysis mode-extraction methods: Block Lanczos (MODOPT,LANB) PCG Lanczos (MODOPT,LANPCG) ANSYS stores the calculated residual vectors in the . r m o d efile (a permanent, binary file) and uses them in the subsequent mode-superposition or mode-superposition harmonic analysis.

3.15.2. Using the Residual Vector Method

Following is the general process for calculating residual vectors: 1. Build the model. 2. Specify the mode-extraction method (MODOPT,LANB or MODOPT,LANPCG). 3. Activate residual vector calculation (RESVEC,ON). 4. Specify pseudo-constraints (D,,,SUPPORT) if rigid body motion is present. 5. Specify the load vectors (F, BF, SF, etc.). 6. Solve the modal analysis. (ANSYS generates an . r m o d efile containing the residual vectors.) 7. Issue a FINISH command.

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3.15. Residual Vector Method

8. Set up a mode-superposition transient or harmonic analysis, and include the previously calculated residual vectors (RESVEC,ON).

Note

A load vector is also generated in Step 6 above. Be sure that you do not duplicate any loading. 9. Solve the mode-superposition transient or harmonic analysis. ANSYS includes the residual vectors in those calculations. Specifying Pseudo-Constraints If rigid body motion exists, specify only the minimum number of displacement constraints necessary to prevent rigid body motion: three constraints (or fewer, depending on the element type) for 2-D models and six (or fewer) for 3-D models.

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Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide |

Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis

www.kxcad.net Home > CAE Index > ANSYS Index > Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response) in a structural system. Harmonic response analysis gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of your structures, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of forced vibrations. The following harmonic response analysis topics are available: Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis Three Solution Methods Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) Where to Find Other Examples Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis Additional Harmonic Response Analysis Details

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4.1. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.1. Uses for Harmonic Response Analysis

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Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steady-state response of a linear structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time. The idea is to calculate the structure's response at several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements) versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak frequencies. This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state, forced vibrations of a structure. The transient vibrations, which occur at the beginning of the excitation, are not accounted for in a harmonic response analysis (see Figure 4.1: "Harmonic Response Systems"). Figure 4.1 Harmonic Response Systems

Typical harmonic response system. Fo and Ω are known. uo and Φ are unknown (a). Transient and steady-state dynamic response of a structural system (b). Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. Some nonlinearities, such as plasticity will be ignored, even if they are defined. You can, however, have unsymmetric system matrices such as those encountered in a fluid-structure interaction problem (see "Acoustics" in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide). Harmonic analysis can also be performed on a prestressed structure, such as a violin string (assuming the harmonic stresses are much smaller than the pretension stress). See Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis for more information on prestressed harmonic analyses.

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4.2. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.2. Commands Used in a Harmonic Response Analysis

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You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a harmonic response analysis that you use to do any other type of finite element analysis. Likewise, you choose similar options from the graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method) and Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method) show a sample harmonic response analysis done via the GUI and via commands, respectively. For detailed, alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands, see the Commands Reference.

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4.3. Three Solution Methods

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.3. Three Solution Methods

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Three harmonic response analysis methods are available: full, reduced, and mode superposition. (A fourth, relatively expensive method is to do a transient dynamic analysis with the harmonic loads specified as timehistory loading functions; see "Transient Dynamic Analysis" for details.) The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode superposition method. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods, let's explore the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

4.3.1. The Full Method

The full method is the easiest of the three methods. It uses the full system matrices to calculate the harmonic response (no matrix reduction). The matrices may be symmetric or unsymmetric. The advantages of the full method are: It is easy to use, because you don't have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. It uses full matrices, so no mass matrix approximation is involved. It allows unsymmetric matrices, which are typical of such applications as acoustics and bearing problems. It calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces, imposed (nonzero) displacements, and element loads (pressures and temperatures). It allows effective use of solid-model loads. A disadvantage is that this method usually is more expensive than either of the other methods when you use the frontal solver. However, when you use the JCG solver or the ICCG solver, the full method can be very efficient.

4.3.2. The Reduced Method

The reduced method enables you to condense the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated, the solution can be expanded to the original full DOF set. (See Matrix Reduction, for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure.) The advantages of this method are: It is faster and less expensive compared to the full method when you are using the frontal solver.

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4.3. Three Solution Methods

Prestressing effects can be included. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. A second step, known as the expansion pass, is required for a complete displacement, stress, and force solution. (However, the expansion pass might be optional for some applications.) Element loads (pressures, temperatures, etc.) cannot be applied. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. (This limits the use of solid-model loads.)

4.3.3. The Mode Superposition Method

The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate the structure's response. Its advantages are: It is faster and less expensive than either the reduced or the full method for many problems. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the harmonic response analysis via the LVSCALE command. It allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies. This results in a smoother, more accurate tracing of the response curve. Prestressing effects can be included. It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of frequency). Disadvantages of the mode superposition method are: Imposed (nonzero) displacements cannot be applied.

4.3.4. Restrictions Common to All Three Methods

All three methods are subject to certain common restrictions: All loads must be sinusoidally time-varying. All loads must have the same frequency. No nonlinearities are permitted. Transient effects are not calculated. You can overcome any of these restrictions by performing a transient dynamic analysis, with harmonic loads expressed as time-history loading functions. "Transient Dynamic Analysis" describes the procedure for a transient dynamic analysis.

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4.3. Three Solution Methods

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

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We will first describe how to do a harmonic response analysis using the full method, and then list the steps that are different for the reduced and mode superposition methods.

4.4.1. Full Harmonic Response Analysis

The procedure for a full harmonic response analysis consists of three main steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Apply loads and obtain the solution. 3. Review the results.

4.4.2. Build the Model

See Building the Model in the Basic Analysis Guide. For further details, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.

4.4.2.1. Points to Remember

Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. Material properties may be linear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperaturedependent. Nonlinear material properties, if any, are ignored. Only linear behavior is valid in a harmonic response analysis. Nonlinear elements, if any, will be treated as linear elements. If you include contact elements, for example, their stiffnesses are calculated based on their initial status and are never changed. For a full harmonic response analysis, you can define frequency-dependent elastic material properties by using TB,ELASTIC and TBFIELD; use TB,SDAMP and TBFIELD to define your structural damping coefficients. SDAMP specifies damping in terms of the loss factor, which is equal to 2 times the damping ratio.

4.4.3. Apply Loads and Obtain the Solution

In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and initiate the finite element solution. Details of how to do these tasks are explained below.

Note

**Peak harmonic response occurs at forcing frequencies that match the natural frequencies of your
**

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

structure. Before obtaining the harmonic solution, you should first determine the natural frequencies of your structure by obtaining a modal solution (as explained in "Modal Analysis").

4.4.3.1. Enter the ANSYS Solution Processor

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

4.4.3.2. Define the Analysis Type and Options

**ANSYS offers these options for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.1 Analysis Types and Options
**

Option New Analysis Analysis Type: Harmonic Response Solution Method Solution Listing Format Mass Matrix Formulation Equation Solver Command ANTYPE ANTYPE HROPT HROUT LUMPM EQSLV GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

Each of these options is explained in detail below. Option: New Analysis (ANTYPE) Choose New Analysis. Restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis; if you need to apply additional harmonic loads, do a new analysis each time. Option: Analysis Type: Harmonic Response (ANTYPE) Choose Harmonic Response as the analysis type. Option: Solution Method (HROPT) Choose one of the following solution methods: Full method Reduced method Mode superposition method Option: Solution Listing Format (HROUT) This option determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (J o b n a m e . O U T ). You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default), and amplitudes and

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

phase angles. Option: Mass Matrix Formulation (LUMPM ) Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element dependent) or lumped mass approximation. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. However, for some problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells, the lumped mass approximation often yields better results. Also, the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. After you complete the fields on the Harmonic Analysis Options dialog box, click on OK to reach a second Harmonic Analysis dialog box, where you choose an equation solver. Option: Equation Solver (EQSLV) You can choose the frontal solver, the sparse direct solver (SPARSE), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. See the EQSLV command description or Selecting a Solver in the Basic Analysis Guide for details on selecting a solver.

4.4.3.3. Apply Loads on the Model

A harmonic analysis, by definition, assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. To completely specify a harmonic load, three pieces of information are usually required: the amplitude, the phase angle, and the forcing frequency range (see Figure 4.2: "Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle"). Figure 4.2 Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle

The amplitude is the maximum value of the load, which you specify using the commands shown in Table 4.2: " Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis". The phase angle is a measure of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. On the complex plane (see Figure 4.2: "Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle"), it is the angle measured from the real axis. The phase angle is required only if you have multiple loads that are out of phase with each other. For example, the unbalanced rotating antenna shown in Figure 4.3: "An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna" will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points. The phase angle cannot be

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

specified directly; instead, you specify the real and imaginary components of the out-of-phase loads using the V A L U Eand V A L U E 2fields of the appropriate displacement and force commands. Pressures and other surface and body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of 0 (no imaginary component) with the following exceptions: nonzero imaginary components of pressures can be applied using the SURF153 and SURF154 elements in a full harmonic response analysis, or using a mode superposition harmonic response analysis if the mode-extraction method is Block Lanczos or PCG Lanczos (see the SF and SFE commands). Figure 4.2: "Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle" shows how to calculate the real and imaginary components. The forcing frequency range is the frequency range of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). It is specified later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command. Figure 4.3 An Unbalanced Rotating Antenna

An unbalanced rotating antenna will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four support points.

Note

A harmonic analysis cannot calculate the response to multiple forcing functions acting simultaneously with different frequencies (for example, two machines with different rotating speeds running at the same time). However, POST1 can superimpose multiple load cases to obtain the total response. Table 4.2: " Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis" summarizes the loads applicable to a to a harmonic response analysis. Except for inertia loads, you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite element loads, see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide. Table 4.2 Applicable Loads in a Harmonic Response Analysis

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

Load Type

Category

Cmd Family D F SF BF -

GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Temperature Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Other

Displacement (UX, UY, Constraints UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ) Force, Moment (FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY, MZ) Pressure (PRES) Temperature (TEMP), Fluence (FLUE) Gravity, Spinning, etc. Forces Surface Loads Body Loads Inertia Loads

**In an analysis, loads can be applied, removed, operated on, or listed.
**

4.4.3.3.1. Applying Loads Using Commands

Table 4.3: "Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis" lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a harmonic response analysis. Table 4.3 Load Commands for a Harmonic Response Analysis

Load Type Displacement Solid Model or FE Entity Apply DK DL DA D FK F SFL SFA SF SFE Delete DKDELE DLDELE DADELE DDELE FKDELE FDELE SFLDELE SFADELE SFDELE SFEDELE List DKLIST DLLIST DALIST DLIST FKLIST FLIST SFLLIST SFALIST SFLIST SFELIST Operate DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE FTRAN FSCALE SFTRAN SFTRAN SFSCALE SFSCALE FCUM SFGRAD SFGRAD SFGRAD, SFCUM SFGRAD, SFBEAM, SFFUN, SFCUM BFCUM , BFUNIF , TBUNIF BFCUM 5/11

Apply Settings DSYM, DCUM -

Solid Model Keypoints Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Finite Elem Nodes Nodes

Force Pressure

Solid Model Keypoints Finite Elem Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Finite Elem Finite Elem Nodes Elements

Temperature, Fluence

Solid Model Keypoints Solid Model Lines Solid Model Areas Solid Model Volumes Finite Elem Nodes

BFK BFL BFA BFV BF

BFKDELE BFLDELE BFADELE BFVDELE BFDELE

BFKLIST BFLLIST BFALIST BFVLIST BFLIST

BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN BFSCALE

Finite Elem Inertia -

Elements -

BFE ACEL, OMEGA,

BFEDELE -

BFELIST -

BFSCALE -

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

DOMEGA, CGLOC, CGOMGA, DCGOMG

4.4.3.3.2. Applying Loads and Listing Loads Using the GUI

These steps for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most other analyses. See Applying Loads Using the GUI and Listing Loads for more information.

4.4.3.4. Specify Load Step Options

**The following options are available for a harmonic response analysis: Table 4.4 Load Step Options
**

Option General Options Number of Harmonic Solutions Stepped or Ramped Loads Dynamics Options Forcing Frequency Range Damping HARFRQ ALPHAD, BETAD, DMPRAT MP,DAMP, MP,DMPR Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/ Results File Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping NSUBST KBC Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step or Freq and Substeps Command GUI Path

Database and Results File Output OUTRES Extrapolation of Results ERESX

4.4.3.4.1. General Options

General options include the following: Number of Harmonic Solutions (NSUBST) You can request any number of harmonic solutions to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range (HARFRQ). For example, if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC) The loads may be stepped or ramped. By default, they are ramped, that is, the load amplitude is gradually increased with each substep. By stepping the loads (KBC,1), the same load amplitude will be maintained for all substeps in the frequency range.

Note

Surface and body loads do not ramp from their previous load step values, except for those applied to SOLID45, SOLID92, and SOLID95 element types. The remaining element types always ramp from zero or from the value specified via BFUNIF.

4.4.3.4.2. Dynamics Options

Dynamics options include the following: Forcing Frequency Range (HARFRQ) The forcing frequency range must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis. Within this range, you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. Damping Damping in some form should be specified; otherwise, the response will be infinity at the resonant frequencies. ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio, whereas DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. Damping can also be specified for individual materials using MP,DAMP and MP,DMPR. See Damping for further details.

Note

If no damping is specified in a direct harmonic analysis (full or reduced), the program uses zero damping by default. Alpha (Mass) Damping (ALPHAD) Beta (Stiffness) Damping (BETAD) Constant Damping Ratio (DMPRAT) Material Dependent Damping Multiplier (MP,DAMP) Constant Material Damping Coefficient (MP,DMPR)

4.4.3.4.3. Output Controls

**Output control options include the following: Printed Output (OUTPR)
**

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

Use this option to include any results data on the output file (J o b n a m e . O U T ). Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ). Extrapolation of Results (ERESX) Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default).

4.4.3.5. Save a Backup Copy of the Database to a Named File

**You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME.
**

Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as

**4.4.3.6. Start Solution Calculations
**

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

4.4.3.7. Repeat for Additional Load Steps

Repeat the process for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load steps). If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. Another method for multiple load steps, which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro, is described in the Basic Analysis Guide.

4.4.3.8. Leave SOLUTION

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

4.4.4. Review the Results

The results data for a harmonic analysis are the same as the data for a basic structural analysis with the following additions: If you defined damping in the structure, the response will be out-of-phase with the loads. All results are then complex in nature and are stored in terms of real and imaginary parts. Complex results will also be produced if out-of-phase loads were applied. See Review the Results in "Structural Static Analysis".

4.4.4.1. Postprocessors

You can review these results using either POST26 or POST1. The normal procedure is to first use POST26 to identify critical forcing frequencies - frequencies at which the highest displacements (or stresses) occur at points of interest in the model - and to then use POST1 to postprocess the entire model at these critical forcing frequencies.

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies. POST26 allows you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire frequency range. Some typical postprocessing operations for a harmonic response analysis are explained below. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see "An Overview of Postprocessing" in the Basic Analysis Guide.

4.4.4.2. Points to Remember

The points to remember for a harmonic analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. See Points to Remember in "Structural Static Analysis".

4.4.4.3. Using POST26

POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency, known as variables. Each variable is assigned a reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for frequency. 1. Define the variables using these options:

NSOL, Command(s): ESOL, RFORCE GUI: Note Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables

The NSOL command is for primary data (nodal displacements), the ESOL command for derived data (element solution data, such as stresses), and the RFORCE command for reaction force data. To specify the total force, static component of the total force, damping component, or the inertia component, use the FORCE command. 2. Graph the variables (versus frequency or any other variable). Then use PLCPLX to work with just the amplitude, phase angle, real part, or imaginary part.

Command(s): GUI: PLVAR, PLCPLX Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> Graph

3. Get a listing of the variable. To list just the extreme values, use the EXTREM command. Then use the PRCPLX command to work with amplitude and phase angle or real and imaginary part.

PRVAR, Command(s): EXTREM, PRCPLX GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> List

Many other functions, such as performing math operations among variables (in complex arithmetic), moving variables into array parameters, moving array parameters into variables, etc., are available in POST26; see "The

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)" in the Basic Analysis Guide for details. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the critical frequencies for further POST1 postprocessing.

4.4.4.4. Using POST1

1. Read in results for the desired harmonic solution. You can use the SET command for this purpose, but it will read in either the real component or the imaginary component, not both at the same time. The true magnitude of the results is given by an SRSS (square-root-of-sum-of-squares) combination of the real and imaginary components (see Figure 4.2: "Relationship Between Real/Imaginary Components and Amplitude/Phase Angle") and can be done for specific points in the model in POST26. 2. Display the deformed shape of the structure, contours of stresses, strains, etc., or vector plots of vector items (PLVECT). To obtain tabular listings of data, use PRNSOL, PRESOL, PRRSOL, etc. Option: Display Deformed Shape

Command(s): PLDISP GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape

**Option: Contour Displays
**

Command(s): GUI: PLNSOL or PLESOL Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu or Element Solu

Use these options to contour almost any result item, such as stresses (SX, SY, SZ...), strains (EPELX, EPELY, EPELZ...), and displacements (UX, UY, UZ...). The K U N Dfield on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed shape on the display. Option: Vector Plots

Command(s): PLVECT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined

Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item, such as stresses (SX, SY, SZ...), strains (EPELX, EPELY, EPELZ...), and displacements (UX, UY, UZ...). Option: Tabular Listings

PRNSOL (nodal results) PRESOL (element-by-element results) Command(s): PRRSOL (reaction data) etc. NSORT, ESORT Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution

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4.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis

GUI:

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solution

Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them. Many other functions, such as mapping results on to a path, transforming results to different coordinate systems, load case combinations, etc., are available in POST1; see "Solution" in the Basic Analysis Guide for details. See the Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, HROPT, HROUT, HARFRQ, DMPRAT, NSUBST, KBC, NSOL, ESOL, RFORCE, PLCPLX, PLVAR, PRCPLX, PRVAR, PLDISP, PRRSOL, and PLNSOL commands.

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

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In this sample problem, you will determine the harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system.

4.5.1. Problem Description

Determine the response amplitude (Xi) and phase angle (Φi) for each mass (mi) of the system shown below when excited by a harmonic force (F1sin Ωt) acting on mass m1.

4.5.2. Problem Specifications

Material properties for this problem are: m1 = m2 = 0.5 lb-sec2/in k1 = k2 = kc = 200 lb/in Loading for this problem is: F1 = 200 lb The spring lengths are arbitrarily selected and are used only to define the spring direction. Two master degrees of freedom are selected at the masses in the spring direction. A frequency range from zero to 7.5 Hz with a solution at 7.5/30 = 0.25 Hz intervals is chosen to give an adequate response curve. POST26 is used to get an amplitude versus frequency display.

4.5.3. Problem Diagram

Figure 4.4 Two-Mass-Spring-System

**4.5.3.1. Set the Analysis Title
**

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title . 2. Type the text "Harmonic Response of Two-Mass-Spring System" and click on OK.

4.5.3.2. Define the Element Types

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete . 2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 3. Scroll down the list on the left to "Combination" and select it. 4. Click once on "Spring-damper 14" in the list on the right. 5. Click on Apply. 6. Scroll up the list on the left to "Structural Mass" and select it. 7. Click once on "3D mass 21" in the list on the right. 8. Click on OK. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes. 9. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.

4.5.3.3. Define the Real Constants

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants . 2. Click on Add. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears. 3. Click once on Type 1 to highlight it. 4. Click on OK. The Real Constants for COMBIN14 dialog box appears. 5. Enter 200 for the spring constant (K). Click on OK. 6. Repeat steps 2-4 for Type 2, MASS21. 7. Enter .5 for mass in X direction and click on OK. 8. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box.

4.5.3.4. Create the Nodes

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. 2. Enter 1 for node number. 3. Enter 0, 0, 0 for the X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. 4. Click on Apply. 5. Enter 4 for node number. 6. Enter 1, 0, 0 for the X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively.

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

7. Click on OK. 8. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. 9. Click once on "Node numbers" to turn node numbers on. 10. Click on OK. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds . A picking menu appears. 12. In the ANSYS Graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 4 (on the left and right sides of the screen). A small box appears around each node. 13. Click on OK on the picking menu. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. 14. Click on OK to accept the default of 2 nodes to fill. Nodes 2 and 3 appear in the graphics window.

4.5.3.5. Create the Spring Elements

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes . A picking menu appears. 2. In the graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 2. 3. Click on Apply. A line appears between the selected nodes. 4. Click once on nodes 2 and 3. 5. Click on Apply. A line appears between the selected nodes. 6. Click once on nodes 3 and 4. 7. Click on OK. A line appears between the selected nodes.

4.5.3.6. Create the Mass Elements

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes . 2. Enter 2 for element type number. 3. Enter 2 for real constant set number and click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes . A picking menu appears. 5. In the graphics window, click once on node 2. 6. Click on Apply. 7. Click once on node 3 and click on OK.

4.5.3.7. Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications

**1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis .
**

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

2. Click once on "Harmonic" and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options . 4. Click once on "Full" to select the solution method. 5. Click once on "Amplitud + phase" to select the DOF printout format and click on OK. 6. Click OK in the Full Harmonic Analysis dialog box. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout. 8. Click on "Last substep" to set the print frequency and click on OK. 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps . 10. Enter 0 and 7.5 for the harmonic frequency range. 11. Enter 30 for the number of substeps. 12. Click once on "Stepped" to specify stepped boundary conditions. 13. Click on OK.

4.5.3.8. Define Loads and Boundary Conditions

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes . A picking menu appears. 2. Click on Pick All. The Apply U, ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 3. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained, click once on "UY" to highlight it (make sure no other selections are highlighted). 4. Click on OK. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes . A picking menu appears. 6. In the graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 4. 7. Click on OK. The Apply U, ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 8. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained, click once on "UX" to highlight it and click once on "UY" to deselect it. 9. Click on OK. 10. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/ Moment> On Nodes . A picking menu appears. 11. In the graphics window, click once on node 2. 12. Click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 13. In the scroll box for direction of force/moment, click once on "FX."

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

**14. Enter 200 for the real part of force/moment and click on OK.
**

4.5.3.9. Solve the Model

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 2. Review the information in the status window and click on Close. 3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 4. When the solution is finished, a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Click on Close.

4.5.3.10. Review the Results

For this sample, you will review the time-history results of nodes 2 and 3. 1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables . The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 2. Click on Add. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. 3. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. 4. Enter 2 for reference number of variable. 5. Enter 2 for node number. 6. Enter 2UX for the user-specified label. 7. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. 8. Click on OK. 9. Click on Add in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. 10. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears. 11. Enter 3 for reference number of variable. 12. Enter 3 for node number. 13. Enter 3UX for the user-specified label. 14. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it. 15. Click on OK. 16. Click on Close. 17. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs . The Graph Controls dialog box appears. 18. In the scroll box for type of grid, scroll to "X and Y lines" to select it. 19. Click on OK. 20. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables . The Graph Time-History Variables

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4.5. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (GUI Method)

dialog box appears. Your graph should look like this:

21. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph. 22. Enter 3 for 2nd variable to graph. 23. Click on OK. A graph appears in the graphic window.

4.5.3.11. Exit ANSYS

You are now finished with this sample problem. 1. In the ANSYS Toolbar, click on Quit. 2. Choose the save option you want and click on OK.

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4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.6. Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

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You can perform the example harmonic response analysis of a two-mass-spring system by using the following ANSYS commands instead of the GUI. / P R E P 7 / T I T L E ,H a r m o n i cr e s p o n s eo fat w o m a s s s p r i n gs y s t e m E T , 1 , C O M B I N 1 4 , , , 2 E T , 2 , M A S S 2 1 , , , 4 R , 1 , 2 0 0 !S p r i n gc o n s t a n t=2 0 0 R , 2 , . 5 !M a s s=0 . 5 N , 1 N , 4 , 1 F I L L E , 1 , 2 E , 2 , 3 !S p r i n ge l e m e n t E , 3 , 4 !S p r i n ge l e m e n t T Y P E , 2 R E A L , 2 E , 2 !M a s se l e m e n t E , 3 !M a s se l e m e n t F I N I S H / S O L U A N T Y P E , H A R M I C H R O P T , F U L L H R O U T , O F F O U T P R , B A S I C , 1 N S U B S T , 3 0 H A R F R Q , , 7 . 5 K B C , 1 D , 1 , U Y , , , 4 D , 1 , U X , , , 4 , 3 F , 2 , F X , 2 0 0 S O L V E F I N I S H / P O S T 2 6 N S O L , 2 , 2 , U , X , 2 U X N S O L , 3 , 3 , U , X , 3 U X / G R I D , 1 / A X L A B , Y , D I S P P L V A R , 2 , 3 F I N I S H !H a r m o n i cr e s p o n s ea n a l y s i s !F u l lh a r m o n i cr e s p o n s e !P r i n tr e s u l t sa sa m p l i t u d e sa n dp h a s ea n g l e s !3 0I n t e r v a l sw i t h i nf r e q .r a n g e !F r e q u e n c yr a n g ef r o m0t o7 . 5H Z !S t e pb o u n d a r yc o n d i t i o n !C o n s t r a i na l l4 4D O F !C o n s t r a i nn o d e s1a n d4i nU X

!S t o r eU XD i s p l a c e m e n t s !T u r ng r i do n !Y a x i sl a b e ld i s p !D i s p l a yv a r i a b l e s2a n d3

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4.7. Where to Find Other Examples

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.7. Where to Find Other Examples

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Several ANSYS publications, particularly the Verification Manual, describe additional harmonic analyses. The Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS family of products. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems, the Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However, most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. The Verification Manual includes a variety of harmonic analysis test cases:

VM19 - Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam VM76 - Harmonic Response of a Guitar String VM86 - Harmonic Response of a Dynamic System VM87 - Equivalent Structural Damping VM88 - Response of an Eccentric Weight Exciter VM90 - Harmonic Response of a Two-Mass-Spring System VM176 - Frequency Response of Electrical Input Admittance for a Piezoelectric Transducer VM177 - Natural Frequency of a Submerged Ring VM183 - Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System VM203 - Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

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The reduced method, as its name implies, uses reduced matrices to calculate the harmonic solution. The procedure for a reduced harmonic analysis consists of five main steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Apply the loads and obtain the reduced solution. 3. Review the results of the reduced solution. 4. Expand the solution (expansion pass). 5. Review the results of the expanded solution. Of these, the first step is the same as for the full method. Details of the other steps are explained below.

4.8.1. Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution

By reduced solution, we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are as follows: 1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor.

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

2. Define the analysis type and options. Options for the reduced solution are the same as described for the full method except for the following differences: Choose the reduced solution method. You can include prestress effects (PSTRES). This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis that also included prestress effects. See Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis for details. 3. Define master degrees of freedom. Master DOF are essential or dynamic degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. For a reduced harmonic response dynamic analysis, master DOF are also required at locations where you want to apply forces or nonzero displacements. See Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF. 4. Apply loads on the model. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method, except for the following restrictions: Only displacements and forces are valid. Element loads such as pressures, temperatures, and accelerations are not allowed.

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. 5. Specify load step options. These are the same as described for the full method except that the OUTRES and ERESX commands are not available, and the constant material damping coefficient (MP,DMPR) is not applicable for the reduced method. The OUTPR command controls the printout of the nodal solution at the master DOF (OUTPR,NSOL,ALL (or NONE)). 6. Save a copy of the database.

Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as

**7. Start solution calculations.
**

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

8. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load steps). If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. Another method for multiple load steps, which allows you to store the load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro, is described in the Basic Analysis Guide. 9. Leave SOLUTION.

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

4.8.2. Review the Results of the Reduced Solution

Results from the reduced harmonic solution are written to the reduced harmonic displacement file, J o b n a m e . R F R Q . They consist of displacements at the master DOF, which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. As with the full method, these displacements will be complex in nature if damping was defined or if out-ofphase loads were applied. You can review the master DOF displacements as a function of frequency using POST26. (POST1 cannot be used, because the complete solution at all DOF is not available.) The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method, except for the following differences: Before defining the POST26 variables, use the FILE command to specify that data are to be read from J o b n a m e . R F R Q . For example, if HARMONIC is the jobname, the FILE command would be: FILE,HARMONIC,RFRQ. (By default, POST26 looks for a results file, which is not written by a reduced harmonic solution.) Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing, so you can use only the NSOL command to define variables.

4.8.3. Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass)

The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement, stress, and force solution at all degrees of freedom. These calculations are done only at frequencies and phase angles that you specify. Therefore, before you begin the expansion pass, you should review the results of the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical frequencies and phase angles. An expansion pass is not always required. For instance, if you are interested mainly in displacements at specific points on

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

the structure, then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. However, if you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF, or if you are interested in the stress solution, then you must perform an expansion pass.

4.8.3.1. Points to Remember

The . R F R Q ,. T R I ,. E M A T , and . E S A Vfiles from the reduced solution must be available. The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated.

4.8.3.2. Expanding the Modes

**1. Reenter the ANSYS solution processor.
**

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Note Main Menu> Solution

You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and reenter (/SOLU) before performing the expansion pass. 2. Activate the expansion pass and its options. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass: Table 4.5 Expansion Pass Options

Option Expansion Pass On/Off No. of Solutions to Expand Freq. Range for Expansion Phase Angle for Expansion Stress Calculations On/Off Nodal Solution Listing Format Command EXPASS NUMEXP NUMEXP HREXP NUMEXP, EXPSOL HROUT GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Singe Expand> Range of Solu's Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

Each of these options is explained in detail below. Option: Expansion Pass On/Off (EXPASS) Choose ON. Option: Number of Solutions to Expand (NUMEXP,NUM) Specify the number. This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over a frequency range (specified next). For example, NUMEXP,4,1000,2000 specifies four solutions in the frequency range 1000 to 2000 (that is, expanded solutions at 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000). Option: Frequency Range for Expansion (NUMEXP, BEGRNG, ENDRNG) Specify the frequency range. See the example above. If you do not need to expand multiple solutions, you can use EXPSOL to identify a single solution for expansion (either by its load step and substep numbers or by its frequency value).

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

Option: Phase Angle for Expansion (HREXP) If multiple solutions are to be expanded over a frequency range (NUMEXP), we suggest that you request both the real and imaginary parts to be expanded (HREXP,ALL). This way, you can easily combine the two parts in POST26 to review the peak values of displacements, stresses, and other results. If, on the other hand, a single solution is to be expanded (EXPSOL), you can specify the phase angle at which peak displacements occurred using HREXP,angle. Option: Stress Calculations On/Off (NUMEXP or EXPSOL) You can turn off stress and force calculations if you are not interested in them. Default is to calculate stresses and forces. Option: Nodal Solution Listing Format (HROUT) Determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (J o b n a m e . O U T ). You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default), and amplitudes and phase angles. 3. Specify load step options. The only options valid for a harmonic expansion pass are output controls: Printed Output Use this option to include any results data on the printed output file (J o b n a m e . O U T ).

Command(s): OUTPR GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

Database and Results File Output Use this option to control the data on the results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ).

Command(s): OUTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

Extrapolation of Results Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default).

Note

**The F R E Qfield on OUTPR and OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE.
**

Command(s): ERESX GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt

**4. Start expansion pass calculations.
**

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. Each expansion pass is stored as a separate load step on the results file.

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

Caution

Subsequent spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step. 6. Leave SOLUTION. You can now review results in the postprocessor.

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

4.8.4. Review the Results of the Expanded Solution

This step is the same as the corresponding step in a basic structural analysis with the following additions: You can review the results using POST1. (If you expanded solutions at several frequencies, you can also use POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus frequency, strain versus frequency, etc.) The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method, except for one difference: if you requested expansion at a specific phase angle (HREXP,angle), there is only one solution available for each frequency. Use the SET command to read in the results. See Review the Results in "Structural Static Analysis".

4.8.5. Sample Input

**A sample input listing for a reduced harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! B u i l dt h eM o d e l / F I L N A M , . . . !J o b n a m e / T I T L E , . . . !T i t l e / P R E P 7 !E n t e rP R E P 7 !G e n e r a t em o d e l F I N I S H ! A p p l yL o a d sa n dO b t a i nt h eR e d u c e dS o l u t i o n / S O L U !E n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , H A R M I C !H a r m o n i ca n a l y s i s H R O P T , R E D U !R e d u c e dm e t h o d H R O U T , . . . !H a r m o n i ca n a l y s i so u t p u to p t i o n s M , . . . !M a s t e rD O F T O T A L , . . . D , . . . !C o n s t r a i n t s F , . . . !L o a d s( r e a la n di m a g i n a r yc o m p o n e n t s ) H A R F R Q , . . . !F o r c i n gf r e q u e n c yr a n g e D M P R A T , . . . !D a m p i n gr a t i o N S U B S T , . . . !N u m b e ro fh a r m o n i cs o l u t i o n s K B C , . . . !R a m p e do rs t e p p e dl o a d s S A V E S O L V E !I n i t i a t em u l t i p l el o a ds t e ps o l u t i o n F I N I S H ! R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t so ft h eR e d u c e dS o l u t i o n / P O S T 2 6 F I L E , , R F R Q !P o s t p r o c e s s i n gf i l ei sJ o b n a m e . R F R Q N S O L , . . . !S t o r en o d a lr e s u l ta sav a r i a b l e P L C P L X , . . . !D e f i n eh o wt op l o tc o m p l e xv a r i a b l e s
**

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4.8. Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

P L V A R , . . . P R C P L X , . . . P R V A R , . . . F I N I S H ! E x p a n dt h eS o l u t i o n / S O L U E X P A S S , O N E X P S O L , . . . H R E X P , . . . O U T R E S , . . . S O L V E F I N I S H

!P l o tv a r i a b l e s !D e f i n eh o wt ol i s tc o m p l e xv a r i a b l e s !L i s tv a r i a b l e s

!R e e n t e rS O L U T I O N !E x p a n s i o np a s s !E x p a n das i n g l es o l u t i o n !P h a s ea n g l ef o re x p a n d e ds o l u t i o n

!R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t so ft h eE x p a n d e dS o l u t i o n / P O S T 1 S E T , . . . !R e a dr e s u l t sf o rd e s i r e df r e q u e n c y P L D I S P , . . . !D e f o r m e ds h a p e P R R S O L , . . . !L i s tr e a c t i o n s P L N S O L , . . . !C o n t o u rp l o to fn o d a lr e s u l t s !O t h e rp o s t p r o c e s s i n ga sd e s i r e d F I N I S H See the Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, HROPT, HROUT, M , TOTAL, HARFRQ, DMPRAT, NSUBST, KBC, FILE, NSOL, PLCPLX, PLVAR, PRCPLX, PRVAR, EXPASS, EXPSOL, HREXP, PLDISP, PRRSOL, and PLNSOL commands.

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4.9. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.9. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

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The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to calculate the harmonic response. It is the only method allowed in the ANSYS Professional program. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Obtain the modal solution. 3. Obtain the mode superposition harmonic solution. 4. Expand the mode superposition solution. 5. Review the results. Of these, the first step is the same as described for the full method. The remaining steps are described below.

4.9.1. Obtain the Modal Solution

"Modal Analysis" describes how to obtain a modal solution. Following are some additional hints: The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, subspace, reduced, or QR damped. (The other methods, unsymmetric and damped, do not apply to mode superposition.) If your model has damping and/or an unsymmetric stiffness matrix, use the QR Damp mode-extraction method (MODOPT,QRDAMP). Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the harmonic response. For the reduced mode-extraction method, include those master degrees of freedom at which harmonic loads will be applied. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method, you must specify any damping (ALPHAD, BETAD, MP,DAMP, or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode superposition harmonic analysis.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT), define constant material damping coefficients (MP,DMPR), or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. If you need to apply harmonically varying element loads (pressures, temperatures, accelerations, and so on), specify them in the modal analysis. ANSYS ignores the loads for the modal solution, but calculates a load vector and writes it to the mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ). You can then use the load vector for the harmonic solution. Only forces, accelerations applied via the ACEL command, and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. Use the LVSCALE command to apply both the real and imaginary (if they exist) components of the load vector from the modal solution. The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. (If you want to review mode shapes, however, you must expand the mode shapes.) Do not change the model data (for example, nodal rotations) between the modal and harmonic analyses.

4.9.2. Obtain the Mode Superposition Harmonic Solution

In this step, the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic response. The mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ) must be available, and the database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained. If the modal solution was performed using the subspace or Block Lanczos method using the default mass formulation (not the lumped mass

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4.9. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

approximation), the full file (J o b n a m e . F U L L ) must also be available. The following tasks are involved: 1. Enter SOLUTION.

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

2. Define the analysis type and analysis options. These are the same as described for the full method, except for the following differences: Choose the mode superposition method of solution (HROPT). Specify the modes you want to use for the solution (HROPT). This determines the accuracy of the harmonic solution. Generally, the number of modes specified should cover about 50 percent more than the frequency range of the harmonic loads. To include the contribution of higher frequency modes, add the residual vectors calculated in the modal analysis (RESVEC,ON). Optionally, cluster the solutions about the structure's natural frequencies (HROUT) for a smoother and more accurate tracing of the response curve. Optionally, at each frequency, print a summary table that lists the contributions of each mode to the response (HROUT). Note, OUTPR,NSOL must be specified to print mode contributions at each frequency. 3. Apply loads on the model. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method, except for the following restrictions: Only forces, accelerations, and the load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. Use the LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution. Note that ALL loads from the modal analysis are scaled, including forces and accelerations. To avoid load duplication, delete any loads that were applied in the modal analysis. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used, forces may be applied only at master DOF. 4. Specify load step options. These are the same as described for the reduced method except that you can also specify modal damping (MDAMP). In addition, if the QR damped method is specified, constant material damping coefficients (MP,DMPR) can be defined. The NSUBST command specifies the number of solutions on each side of a natural frequency if the clustering option (HROUT) is chosen. The default is to calculate four solutions, but you can specify any number of solutions from 2 through 20. (Any value over this range defaults to 10 and any value below this range defaults to 4.) 5. If you used the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, or the subspace option for the modal analysis (MODOPT,LANB or LANPCG or SUBSP), you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES,NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file J o b n a m e . R F R Q . The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . R F R Qfile. To use this option, first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES,NSOL,NONE, then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES,NSOL,ALL,component . Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . R F R Qfile. 6. Save a copy of the database.

Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as

**7. Start solution calculations.
**

Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

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4.9. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

8. Repeat steps 3 to 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load steps). If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap from one load step to the next. 9. Leave SOLUTION.

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

The mode superposition harmonic solution is written to the reduced displacement file, J o b n a m e . R F R Q , regardless of whether the subspace, Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, reduced, or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results.

4.9.3. Expand the Mode Superposition Solution

The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method. J o b n a m e . T R Ifrom the modal analysis is needed only if the reduced eigenvalue extraction method was used. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file, J o b n a m e . R S T , containing expanded results. See Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass).

4.9.4. Review the Results

Results consist of harmonically varying displacements, stresses, and reaction forces at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1, as explained for the reduced method.

4.9.5. Sample Input

A sample input listing for a mode superposition harmonic response analysis is shown below: ! B u i l dt h eM o d e l / F I L N A M , . . . / T I T L E , . . . / P R E P 7 F I N I S H !J o b n a m e !T i t l e !E n t e rP R E P 7 !G e n e r a t em o d e l

! O b t a i nt h eM o d a lS o l u t i o n / S O L U !E n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , M O D A L !M o d a la n a l y s i s M O D O P T , R E D U !R e d u c e dm e t h o d M , . . . !M a s t e r s T O T A L , . . D , . . . !C o n s t r a i n t s S F , . . . !E l e m e n tl o a d s S A V E S O L V E !I n i t i a t em o d a ls o l u t i o n F I N I S H ! O b t a i nt h eM o d eS u p e r p o s i t i o nH a r m o n i cS o l u t i o n / S O L U !E n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , H A R M I C H R O P T , M S U P , . . . H R O U T , . . . L V S C A L E , . . . F , . . . H A R F R Q , . . . D M P R A T , . . . M D A M P , . . . N S U B S T , . . . !H a r m o n i ca n a l y s i s !M o d es u p e r p o s i t i o nm e t h o d ;n u m b e ro fm o d e st ou s e !H a r m o n i ca n a l y s i so u t p u to p t i o n s ;c l u s t e ro p t i o n !S c a l ef a c t o rf o rl o a d sf r o mm o d a la n a l y s i s !N o d a ll o a d s !F o r c i n gf r e q u e n c yr a n g e !D a m p i n gr a t i o !M o d a ld a m p i n gr a t i o s !N u m b e ro fh a r m o n i cs o l u t i o n s

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4.9. Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

K B C , . . . S A V E S O L V E F I N I S H

!R a m p e do rs t e p p e dl o a d s !I n i t i a t es o l u t i o n

! R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t so ft h eM o d eS u p e r p o s i t i o nS o l u t i o n / P O S T 2 6 F I L E , , R F R Q !P o s t p r o c e s s i n gf i l ei sJ o b n a m e . R F R Q N S O L , . . . !S t o r en o d a lr e s u l ta sav a r i a b l e P L C P L X , . . . !D e f i n eh o wt op l o tc o m p l e xv a r i a b l e s P L V A R , . . . !P l o tv a r i a b l e s F I N I S H ! E x p a n dt h eS o l u t i o n( f o rS t r e s sR e s u l t s ) / S O L U !R e e n t e rS O L U T I O N E X P A S S , O N !E x p a n s i o np a s s E X P S O L , . . . !E x p a n das i n g l es o l u t i o n H R E X P , . . . !P h a s ea n g l ef o re x p a n d e ds o l u t i o n S O L V E F I N I S H !R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t so ft h eE x p a n d e dS o l u t i o n / P O S T 1 S E T , . . . !R e a dr e s u l t sf o rd e s i r e df r e q u e n c y P L D I S P , . . . !D e f o r m e ds h a p e P L N S O L , . . . !C o n t o u rp l o to fn o d a lr e s u l t s F I N I S H See the Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M , TOTAL, HROPT, HROUT, LVSCALE, F, HARFRQ, DMPRAT, MDAMP, NSUBST, KBC, FILE, NSOL, PLCPLX, PLVAR, EXPASS, EXPSOL, HREXP, SET, and PLNSOL commands.

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4.10. Additional Harmonic Response Analysis Details

Structural Guide | Chapter 4. Harmonic Response Analysis |

4.10. Additional Harmonic Response Analysis Details

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4.10.1. Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis

A prestressed harmonic response analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure, such as a violin string. It is assumed that the harmonically varying stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself.

4.10.1.1. Prestressed Full Harmonic Response Analysis

The procedure to do a prestressed full harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other full harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES,ON). The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in "Structural Static Analysis". 2. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the full harmonic solution, also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES,ON). Files J o b n a m e . E M A Tand J o b n a m e . E S A Vfrom the static analysis must be available. Hence, if another analysis is performed between the static and prestressed harmonic response analyses, the static analysis will need to be rerun. If thermal body forces were present during the static prestress analysis, these thermal body forces must not be deleted during the full harmonic analysis or else the thermal prestress will vanish. Hence, any temperature loads used to define the thermal prestress must also be used in the full harmonic response analysis as sinusoidally time-varying temperature loads. You should be aware of this limitation and exercise some judgement about whether or not to include temperature loads in their static prestress analysis.

4.10.1.2. Prestressed Reduced Harmonic Response Analysis

The procedure to do a prestressed reduced harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other reduced harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis: 1. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES,ON). The procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in "Structural Static Analysis". 2. Reenter SOLUTION and obtain the reduced harmonic solution, also with prestress effects turned on (reissue PSTRES,ON). Files J o b n a m e . E M A Tand J o b n a m e . E S A Vfrom the static analysis must be available. Hence, if another analysis is performed between the static and prestressed harmonic response analyses, the static analysis will need to be rerun.

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4.10. Additional Harmonic Response Analysis Details

4.10.1.3. Prestressed Mode Superposition Harmonic Response Analysis

To include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis, you must first perform a prestressed modal analysis. See "Modal Analysis" for details. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available, proceed as for any other mode superposition analysis.

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Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide |

Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis

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Transient dynamic analysis (sometimes called time-history analysis) is a technique used to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time-dependent loads. You can use this type of analysis to determine the time-varying displacements, strains, stresses, and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static, transient, and harmonic loads. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important. If the inertia and damping effects are not important, you might be able to use a static analysis instead (see "Structural Static Analysis"). The basic equation of motion solved by a transient dynamic analysis is (M){ } + (C){ } + (K){u} = {F(t)} where:

(M) = mass matrix (C) = damping matrix (K) = stiffness matrix { } = nodal acceleration vector { } = nodal velocity vector {u} = nodal displacement vector {F(t)} = load vector

At any given time, t , these equations can be thought of as a set of "static" equilibrium equations that also take into account inertia forces ((M){ }) and damping forces ((C){ }). The ANSYS program uses the Newmark time integration method or an improved method called HHT to solve these equations at discrete time points. The time increment between successive time points is called the integration time step. The following topics are available for transient dynamic analysis: Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis Three Solution Methods Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method) Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method) Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis

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Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis

Transient Dynamic Analysis Options Where to Find Other Examples

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5.1. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.1. Preparing for a Transient Dynamic Analysis

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A transient dynamic analysis is more involved than a static analysis because it generally requires more computer resources and more of your resources, in terms of the "engineering" time involved. You can save a significant amount of these resources by doing some preliminary work to understand the physics of the problem. For example, you can: 1. Analyze a simpler model first. A model of beams, masses, and springs can provide good insight into the problem at minimal cost. This simpler model may be all you need to determine the dynamic response of the structure. 2. If you are including nonlinearities, try to understand how they affect the structure's response by doing a static analysis first. In some cases, nonlinearities need not be included in the dynamic analysis. 3. Understand the dynamics of the problem. By doing a modal analysis, which calculates the natural frequencies and mode shapes, you can learn how the structure responds when those modes are excited. The natural frequencies are also useful for calculating the correct integration time step. 4. For a nonlinear problem, consider substructuring the linear portions of the model to reduce analysis costs. Substructuring is described in the Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide.

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5.2. Three Solution Methods

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.2. Three Solution Methods

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Three methods are available to do a transient dynamic analysis: full, mode-superposition , and reduced. The ANSYS Professional program allows only the mode-superposition method. Before we study the details of how to implement each of these methods, we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of each.

5.2.1. Full Method

The full method uses the full system matrices to calculate the transient response (no matrix reduction). It is the most general of the three methods because it allows all types of nonlinearities to be included (plasticity, large deflections, large strain, and so on).

Note

If you do not want to include any nonlinearities, you should consider using one of the other methods because the full method is also the most expensive method of the three. The advantages of the full method are: It is easy to use, because you do not have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or mode shapes. It allows all types of nonlinearities. It uses full matrices, so no mass matrix approximation is involved. All displacements and stresses are calculated in a single pass. It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces, imposed (nonzero) displacements (although not recommended), and element loads (pressures and temperatures) and allows tabular boundary condition specification via TABLE type array parameters. It allows effective use of solid-model loads. The main disadvantage of the full method is that it is more expensive than either of the other methods. For procedural information about using the full method, see Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis.

5.2.2. Mode-Superposition Method

**The mode-superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to calculate
**

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5.2. Three Solution Methods

the structure's response. This is the only method available in the ANSYS Professional program. Its advantages are: It is faster and less expensive than the reduced or the full method for many problems. Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the transient dynamic analysis via the LVSCALE command. It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of mode number). The disadvantages of the mode-superposition method are: The time step must remain constant throughout the transient, so automatic time stepping is not allowed. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). It does not accept imposed (nonzero) displacements. For procedural information about using the mode-superposition method, see Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis.

5.2.3. Reduced Method

The reduced method condenses the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and reduced matrices. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated, ANSYS expands the solution to the original full DOF set. (See Matrix Reduction for a more detailed discussion of the reduction procedure.) The advantage of the reduced method is: It is faster and less expensive than the full method. The disadvantages of the reduced method are: The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. A second step, known as the expansion pass, is required for a complete displacement, stress, and force solution. (However, the expansion pass might not be needed for some applications.) Element loads (pressures, temperatures, and so on) cannot be applied. Accelerations, however, are allowed. All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. (This limits the use of solid-model loads.) The time step must remain constant throughout the transient, so automatic time stepping is not allowed. The only nonlinearity allowed is simple node-to-node contact (gap condition). For procedural information about using the reduced method, see Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis.

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5.2. Three Solution Methods

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5.3. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.3. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

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Note - Before reading this section, you are encouraged to become familiar with the concepts presented in "Structural Static Analysis". We will first describe how to do a transient dynamic analysis using the full method. We will then list the steps that are different for the mode-superposition and reduced methods. The procedure for a full transient dynamic analysis (available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, and ANSYS Structural products) consists of these steps: 1. Build the Model 2. Establish Initial Conditions 3. Set Solution Controls 4. Set Additional Solution Options 5. Apply the Loads 6. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step 7. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step 8. Save a Backup Copy of the Database 9. Start the Transient Solution 10. Exit the Solution Processor 11. Review the Results

5.3.1. Build the Model

See Building the Model in the Basic Analysis Guide. For further details, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.

5.3.1.1. Points to Remember

Keep the following points in mind when building a model for a full transient dynamic analysis: You can use both linear and nonlinear elements. Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must be defined. Material properties may be linear or nonlinear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or temperature-dependent. Some comments on mesh density: The mesh should be fine enough to resolve the highest mode shape of interest. Regions where stresses or strains are of interest require a relatively finer mesh than regions where only displacements are of interest.

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If you want to include nonlinearities, the mesh should be able to capture the effects of the nonlinearities. For example, plasticity requires a reasonable integration point density (and therefore a fine element mesh) in areas with high plastic deformation gradients. If you are interested in wave propagation effects (for example, a bar dropped exactly on its end), the mesh should be fine enough to resolve the wave. A general guideline is to have at least 20 elements per wavelength along the direction of the wave.

5.3.2. Establish Initial Conditions

Before you can perform a full transient dynamic analysis on a model, you need to understand how to establish initial conditions and use load steps. A transient analysis, by definition, involves loads that are functions of time. To specify such loads, you need to divide the load-versustime curve into suitable load steps. Each "corner" on the load-time curve may be one load step, as shown in Figure 5.1: "Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves". Figure 5.1 Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves

The first load step you apply is usually to establish initial conditions. You then specify the loads and load step options for the second and subsequent transient load steps. For each load step, you need to specify both load values and time values, along with other load step options such as whether to step or ramp the loads, use automatic time stepping, and so on. You then write each load step to a file and solve all load steps together. Establishing initial conditions is described below; the remaining tasks are described later in this chapter. The first step in applying transient loads is to establish initial conditions (that is, the condition at Time = 0). A transient dynamic analysis requires two sets of initial conditions (because the equations being solved are of second order): initial displacement (uo ) and initial velocity ( ). If no special action is taken, both uo and are assumed to be zero. Initial accelerations ( ) are always assumed to be zero, but you can specify nonzero initial accelerations by applying appropriate acceleration loads over a small time interval. The following paragraphs describe how to apply different combinations of initial conditions. Zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity - These are the default conditions, that is, if uo = = 0, you do not need to specify anything. You may apply the loads corresponding to the first corner of the load-versus-time curve in the first load step. Nonzero initial displacement and/or nonzero initial velocity - You can set these initial conditions with the IC command.

Command(s): IC GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define Caution

Be careful not to define inconsistent initial conditions. For instance, if you define an initial velocity at a single DOF, the initial velocity at every other DOF will be 0.0, potentially leading to conflicting initial conditions. In most cases, you will want to define initial conditions at every unconstrained DOF in your model. If these conditions are not the same at every DOF, it is usually much easier to define initial conditions explicitly, as documented below (rather than by using the IC command). See the Commands Reference for a discussion of the TIMINT and IC commands. Zero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity - The nonzero velocity is established by applying small displacements over a

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small time interval on the part of the structure where velocity is to be specified. For example if of 0.001 over a time interval of 0.004, as shown below. . . . T I M I N T , O F F D , A L L , U Y , . 0 0 1 T I M E , . 0 0 4 L S W R I T E D D E L , A L L , U Y T I M I N T , O N . . .

= 0.25, you can apply a displacement

!T i m ei n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so f f !S m a l lU Yd i s p l .( a s s u m i n gY d i r e c t i o nv e l o c i t y ) !I n i t i a lv e l o c i t y=0 . 0 0 1 / 0 . 0 0 4=0 . 2 5 !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e( J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ) !R e m o v ei m p o s e dd i s p l a c e m e n t s !T i m ei n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so n

Nonzero initial displacement and nonzero initial velocity - This is similar to the above case, except that the imposed displacements are actual values instead of "small" values. For example, if uo = 1.0 and interval of 0.4: . . . T I M I N T , O F F D , A L L , U Y , 1 . 0 T I M E , . 4 L S W R I T E D D E L E , A L L , U Y T I M I N T , O N . . . = 2.5, you would apply a displacement of 1.0 over a time

!T i m ei n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so f f !I n i t i a ld i s p l a c e m e n t=1 . 0 !I n i t i a lv e l o c i t y=1 . 0 / 0 . 4=2 . 5 !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e( J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ) !R e m o v ei m p o s e dd i s p l a c e m e n t s !T i m ei n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so n

Nonzero initial displacement and zero initial velocity - This requires the use of two substeps (NSUBST,2) with a step change in imposed displacements (KBC,1). Without the step change (or with just one substep), the imposed displacements would vary directly with time, leading to a nonzero initial velocity. The example below shows how to apply uo = 1.0 and = 0.0:

. . . T I M I N T , O F F !T i m ei n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so f ff o rs t a t i cs o l u t i o n D , A L L , U Y , 1 . 0 !I n i t i a ld i s p l a c e m e n t=1 . 0 T I M E , . 0 0 1 !S m a l lt i m ei n t e r v a l N S U B S T , 2 !T w os u b s t e p s K B C , 1 !S t e p p e dl o a d s L S W R I T E !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e( J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ) ! T r a n s i e n ts o l u t i o n T I M I N T , O N !T i m e i n t e g r a t i o ne f f e c t so nf o rt r a n s i e n ts o l u t i o n T I M E , . . . !R e a l i s t i ct i m ei n t e r v a l D D E L E , A L L , U Y !R e m o v ed i s p l a c e m e n tc o n s t r a i n t s K B C , 0 !R a m p e dl o a d s( i fa p p r o p r i a t e ) ! C o n t i n u ew i t hn o r m a lt r a n s i e n ts o l u t i o np r o c e d u r e s . . . Nonzero initial acceleration - This can be approximated by specifying the required acceleration (ACEL) over a small interval of time. For example, the commands to apply an initial acceleration of 9.81 would look like this: . . . A C E L , , 9 . 8 1 !I n i t i a lY d i r e c t i o na c c e l e r a t i o n T I M E , . 0 0 1 !S m a l lt i m ei n t e r v a l N S U B S T , 2 !T w os u b s t e p s K B C , 1 !S t e p p e dl o a d s ! T h es t r u c t u r em u s tb eu n c o n s t r a i n e di nt h ei n i t i a ll o a ds t e p ,o r ! e l s et h ei n i t i a la c c e l e r a t i o ns p e c i f i c a t i o nw i l lh a v en oe f f e c t . D D E L E ,. . . !R e m o v ed i s p l a c e m e n tc o n s t r a i n t s( i fa p p r o p r i a t e ) L S W R I T E !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e( J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ) ! T r a n s i e n ts o l u t i o n T I M E ,. . . !R e a l i s t i ct i m ei n t e r v a l

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N S U B S T ,. . . !U s ea p p r o p r i a t et i m es t e p K B C , 0 !R a m p e dl o a d s( i fa p p r o p r i a t e ) D ,. . . !C o n s t r a i ns t r u c t u r ea sd e s i r e d ! C o n t i n u ew i t hn o r m a lt r a n s i e n ts o l u t i o np r o c e d u r e s L S W R I T E !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e( J o b n a m e . S 0 2 ) . . . See the Commands Reference for discussions of the ACEL, TIME, NSUBST, KBC, LSWRITE, DDELE, and KBC commands.

5.3.3. Set Solution Controls

This step for a transient dynamic analysis is the same as for a basic structural analysis (see Set Solution Controls in "Structural Static Analysis") with the following additions: If you need to establish initial conditions for the full transient dynamic analysis (as described in Establish Initial Conditions), you must do so for the first load step of the analysis. You can then cycle through the Solution Controls dialog box additional times to set individual load step options for the second and subsequent load steps (as described in Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step).

5.3.3.1. Access the Solution Controls Dialog Box

To access the Solution Controls dialog box, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Sol'n Control. The following sections provide brief descriptions of the options that appear on each tab of the dialog box. For details about how to set these options, select the tab that you are interested in (from within the ANSYS program), and then click the Help button. "Nonlinear Structural Analysis" also contains details about the nonlinear options introduced in this chapter.

5.3.3.2. Using the Basic Tab

The Basic tab is active when you access the dialog box. The controls that appear on the Basic tab provide the minimum amount of data that ANSYS needs for the analysis. Once you are satisfied with the settings on the Basic tab, you do not need to progress through the remaining tabs unless you want to adjust the default settings for the more advanced controls. As soon as you click OK on any tab of the dialog box, the settings are applied to the ANSYS database and the dialog box closes. You can use the Basic tab to set the options listed in Table 2.1: "Basic Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Basic tab, and click the Help button. Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: When setting ANTYPE and NLGEOM , choose Small Displacement Transient if you are performing a new analysis and you want to ignore large deformation effects such as large deflection, large rotation, and large strain. Choose Large Displacement Transient if you expect large deflections (as in the case of a long, slender bar under bending) or large strains (as in a metalforming problem). Choose Restart Current Analysis if you want to restart a failed nonlinear analysis, if you have previously completed a static prestress or a full transient dynamic analysis and you want to extend the time-history, or if you wish to use the J o b n a m e . R S Xinformation from a previous VT Accelerator run. Note that in a VT Accelerator run, you cannot restart a job in the middle; you can only rerun the job from the beginning with changes in the input parameters. When setting AUTOTS, remember that this load step option (which is also known as time-step optimization in a transient analysis) increases or decreases the integration time step based on the response of the structure. For most problems, we recommend that you turn on automatic time stepping, with upper and lower limits for the integration time step. These limits, specified using DELTIM or NSUBST, help to limit the range of variation of the time step; see Automatic Time Stepping for more information. The default is ON. NSUBST and DELTIM are load step options that specify the integration time step for a transient analysis. The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration of the equations of motion. You can specify the time increment directly or indirectly (that is, in terms of the number of substeps). The time step size determines the accuracy of the solution: the smaller its value, the higher the accuracy. You should consider several factors in order to calculate a "good" integration time step; see Guidelines for Integration Time Step for details.

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**When setting OUTRES, keep this caution in mind:
**

Caution

By default, only the last substep (time-point) is written to the results file (J o b n a m e . R S T ) in a full transient dynamic analysis. To write all substeps, set the Frequency so that it writes all of the substeps. Also, by default, only 1000 results sets can be written to the results file. If this number is exceeded (based on your OUTRES specification), the program will terminate with an error. Use the command /CONFIG,NRES to increase the limit (see "Memory Management and Configuration" in the Basic Analysis Guide).

5.3.3.3. Using the Transient Tab

You can use the Transient tab to set the options listed in Table 5.1: "Transient Tab Options". For specific information about using the Solution Controls dialog box to set these options, access the dialog box, select the Transient tab, and click the Help button. Table 5.1 Transient Tab Options

Option Specify whether time integration effects are on or off (TIMINT) For more information about this option, see: Performing a Nonlinear Transient Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide

Specify whether to ramp the load change over the load step or to step-apply the load change (KBC)

Stepped Versus Ramped Loads in the Basic Analysis Guide Stepping or Ramping Loads in the Basic Analysis Guide

Specify mass and stiffness damping (ALPHAD, BETAD)

Damping in the Structural Analysis Guide

Choose the time integration method, Newmark or HHT (TRNOPT)

Transient Analysis in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench

Define integration parameters (TINTP)

Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench

Special considerations for setting these options in a full transient analysis include: TIMINT is a dynamic load step option that specifies whether time integration effects are on or off. Time integration effects must be turned on for inertia and damping effects to be included in the analysis (otherwise a static solution is performed), so the default is to include time integration effects. This option is useful when beginning a transient analysis from an initial static solution; that is, the first load steps are solved with the time integration effects off. ALPHAD (alpha, or mass, damping) and BETAD (beta, or stiffness, damping) are dynamic load step options for specifying damping options. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. See Damping Option for other damping options. TRNOPT (T I N T O P T ) specifies the time integration method to be used. The default is Newmark method. TINTP is a dynamic load step option that specifies transient integration parameters. Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark and HHT time integration techniques.

5.3.3.4. Using the Remaining Solution Controls Tabs

The options on the remaining tabs in the Solution Controls dialog box for a full transient analysis are the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. See the following sections of "Structural Static Analysis" for a list of these options: Using the Sol'n Options Tab Using the Nonlinear Tab

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Using the Advanced NL Tab. Exception: You cannot use arc-length options in a full transient analysis.

5.3.4. Set Additional Solution Options

The additional solution options that you can set for a full transient analysis are mostly the same as the ones you can set for a static structural analysis. For a general description of what additional solution options are, along with descriptions of those options that are the same, see the following sections of "Structural Static Analysis": Set Additional Solution Options Stress Stiffening Effects Newton-Raphson Option Creep Criteria Printed Output Extrapolation of Results Additional solution options for a full transient analysis that differ from those for a static analysis, or have different descriptions are presented in the following sections. You may also use the NLHIST command to monitor results of interest in real time during solution. Before starting the solution, you can request nodal data such as displacements or reaction forces at specific nodes. You can also request element nodal data such as stresses and strains at specific elements to be graphed. Pair-based contact data are also available. The result data are written to a file named J o b n a m e . n l h . For example, a reaction force-deflection curve could indicate when possible buckling behavior occurs. Nodal results and contact results are monitored at every converged substep while element nodal data are written as specified via the OUTRES setting. You can also track results during batch runs. To execute, either access the ANSYS Launcher and select File Tracking from the Tools menu, or type n l h i s t 1 1 0at the command line. Use the supplied file browser to navigate to your J o b n a m e . n l hfile, and click on it to invoke the tracking utilty. You can use this utilty to read the file at any time, even after the solution is complete. To use this option, use either of these methods:

Command(s): NLHIST GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Results Tracking

5.3.4.1. Prestress Effects

You may include prestress effects in your analysis. This requires element files from a previous static (or transient) analysis; see Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis for details.

Command(s): PSTRES GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

5.3.4.2. Damping Option

Use this load step option to include damping. Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. In addition to setting ALPHAD and BETAD on the Solution Controls dialog box (as described in Using the Transient Tab), you can specify the following additional forms of damping for a full transient dynamic analysis: Material-dependent beta damping (MP,DAMP) Element damping (COMBIN7, and so on) To use the MP form of damping:

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Command(s): MP,DAMP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping

Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP,DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. See Damping for further details.

5.3.4.3. Mass Matrix Formulation

Use this analysis option to specify a lumped mass matrix formulation. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. However, for some problems involving "skinny" structures, such as slender beams or very thin shells, the lumped mass approximation might provide better results. Also, the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter run time and lower memory requirements. To use this option:

Command(s): LUMPM GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Unabridged Menu> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

5.3.5. Apply the Loads

You are now ready to apply loads for the analysis. The loads shown in Table 2.5: "Loads Applicable in a Static Analysis" are also applicable to a transient dynamic analysis. In addition to these, you can apply acceleration loads in a transient analysis (see DOF Constraints in the Basic Analysis Guide for more information). Except for inertia loads, velocity loads, and acceleration loads, you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). In an analysis, loads can be applied, removed, operated on, or deleted. For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads, see "Loading" in the Basic Analysis Guide. You can also apply time-dependent boundary conditions by defining a one-dimensional table (TABLE type array parameter). See Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters.

5.3.6. Save the Load Configuration for the Current Load Step

As described in Establish Initial Conditions, you need to apply loads and save the load configuration to a load step file for each corner of the load-versus-time curve. You may also want to have an additional load step that extends past the last time point on the curve to capture the response of the structure after the transient loading.

Command(s): LSWRITE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Write LS File

5.3.7. Repeat Steps 3-6 for Each Load Step

For each load step that you want to define for a full transient dynamic analysis, you need to repeat steps 3-6. That is, for each load step, reset any desired solution controls and options, apply loads, and write the load configuration to a file. For each load step, you can reset any of these load step options: TIMINT, TINTP, ALPHAD, BETAD, MP,DAMP, TIME, KBC, NSUBST, DELTIM , AUTOTS, NEQIT, CNVTOL, PRED, LNSRCH, CRPLIM , NCNV, CUTCONTROL, OUTPR, OUTRES, ERESX, and RESCONTROL. An example load step file is shown below: T I M E ,. . . L o a d s . . . K B C ,. . . L S W R I T E T I M E ,. . . L o a d s . . . K B C ,. . . L S W R I T E T I M E ,. . . L o a d s . . . K B C ,. . . !T i m ea tt h ee n do f1 s tt r a n s i e n tl o a ds t e p !L o a dv a l u e sa ta b o v et i m e !S t e p p e do rr a m p e dl o a d s !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e !T i m ea tt h ee n do f2 n dt r a n s i e n tl o a ds t e p !L o a dv a l u e sa ta b o v et i m e !S t e p p e do rr a m p e dl o a d s !W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e !T i m ea tt h ee n do f3 r dt r a n s i e n tl o a ds t e p !L o a dv a l u e sa ta b o v et i m e !S t e p p e do rr a m p e dl o a d s

7/10

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L S W R I T E E t c .

5.3.8. Save a Backup Copy of the Database

!W r i t el o a dd a t at ol o a ds t e pf i l e

Save a copy of the database to a named file. You can then retrieve your model by reentering the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME.

Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as

5.3.9. Start the Transient Solution

**Use one of these methods to start the transient solution:
**

Command(s): LSSOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files

For additional ways to create and solve multiple load steps (the array parameter method and the multiple SOLVE method), see Solving Multiple Load Steps in the Basic Analysis Guide.

5.3.10. Exit the Solution Processor

**Use one of these methods to exit the solution processor:
**

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Close the Solution menu.

5.3.11. Review the Results

You review results for a full transient analysis in the same way that you review results for most structural analyses. See Review the Results in "Structural Static Analysis".

5.3.11.1. Postprocessors

You can review these results using either POST26, which is the time-history postprocessor, or POST1, which is the general postprocessor. POST26 is used to review results at specific points in the model as functions of time. POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific time points. Some typical postprocessing operations for a transient dynamic analysis are explained below. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see Postprocessors Available in the Basic Analysis Guide.

5.3.11.2. Points to Remember

The points to remember for a full transient analysis are the same as those for most structural analyses. See Points to Remember in "Structural Static Analysis".

5.3.11.3. Using POST26

POST26 works with tables of result item versus time, known as variables. Each variable is assigned a reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for time. 1. Define the variables.

NSOL (primary data, that is, nodal displacements) ESOL (derived data, that is, element solution data, such as stresses) Command(s): RFORCE (reaction force data) FORCE (total force, or static, damping, or inertia component of total force)

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GUI: Note

SOLU (time step size, number of equilibrium iterations, response frequency, and so on) Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables

In the mode-superposition or reduced methods, only static force is available with the FORCE command. 2. Graph or list the variables. By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.

PLVAR (graph variables) Command(s): PRVAR, EXTREM (list variables) GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes

5.3.11.4. Other Capabilities

Many other postprocessing functions, such as performing math operations among variables, moving variables into array parameters, and moving array parameters into variables, are available in POST26. See "The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)" in the Basic Analysis Guide for details.

5.3.11.5. Using POST1

**1. Read in model data from the database file.
**

Command(s): RESUME GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume from

2. Read in the desired set of results. Use the SET command to identify the data set by load step and substep numbers or by time.

Command(s): SET GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> By Time/Freq

3. Perform the necessary POST1 operations. The typical POST1 operations that you perform for a transient dynamic analysis are the same as those that you perform for a static analysis. See Typical Postprocessing Operations for a list of these operations.

Note

If you specify a time for which no results are available, the results that are stored will be a linear interpolation between the two nearest time points.

5.3.12. Sample Input for a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

A sample input listing for a full transient analysis is shown below: ! B u i l dt h eM o d e l / F I L N A M , . . . / T I T L E , . . . / P R E P 7 !G e n e r a t em o d e l F I N I S H !J o b n a m e !T i t l e !E n t e rP R E P 7

! A p p l yL o a d sa n dO b t a i nt h eS o l u t i o n / S O L U !E n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , T R A N S !T r a n s i e n ta n a l y s i s T R N O P T , F U L L !F u l lm e t h o d D , . . . !C o n s t r a i n t s F , . . . !L o a d s

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5.3. Performing a Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

S F , . . . A L P H A D , . . . !M a s sd a m p i n g B E T A D , . . . !S t i f f n e s sd a m p i n g K B C , . . . !R a m p e do rs t e p p e dl o a d s T I M E , . . . !T i m ea te n do fl o a ds t e p A U T O T S , O N !A u t ot i m es t e p p i n g D E L T I M , . . . !T i m es t e ps i z e O U T R E S , . . . !R e s u l t sf i l ed a t ao p t i o n s L S W R I T E !W r i t ef i r s tl o a ds t e p !L o a d s ,t i m e ,e t c .f o r2 n dl o a ds t e p L S W R I T E !W r i t e2 n dl o a ds t e p S A V E L S S O L V E , 1 , 2 !I n i t i a t em u l t i p l el o a ds t e ps o l u t i o n F I N I S H ! ! R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t s / P O S T 2 6 S O L U , . . . !S t o r es o l u t i o ns u m m a r yd a t a N S O L , . . . !S t o r en o d a lr e s u l ta sav a r i a b l e E S O L , , , , !S t o r ee l e m e n tr e s u l ta sav a r i a b l e R F O R C E , . . . !S t o r er e a c t i o na sav a r i a b l e P L V A R , . . . !P l o tv a r i a b l e s P R V A R , . . . !L i s tv a r i a b l e s F I N I S H / P O S T 1 S E T , . . . !R e a dd e s i r e ds e to fr e s u l t si n t od a t a b a s e P L D I S P , . . . !D e f o r m e ds h a p e P R R S O L , . . . !R e a c t i o nl o a d s P L N S O L , . . . !C o n t o u rp l o to fn o d a lr e s u l t s P R E R R !G l o b a lp e r c e n te r r o r( am e a s u r eo fm e s ha d e q u a c y ) !O t h e rp o s t p r o c e s s i n ga sd e s i r e d F I N I S H See the Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE, TRNOPT, ALPHAD, BETAD, KBC, TIME, AUTOTS, DELTIM , OUTRES, LSWRITE, LSSOLVE, SOLU, NSOL, ESOL, RFORCE, PLVAR, PRVAR, PLDISP, PRRSOL, PLNSOL, and PRERR commands.

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

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The mode-superposition method scales the mode shapes obtained from a modal analysis and sums them to calculate the dynamic response. For more detailed information, see Mode Superposition Method in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench. This method is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, ANSYS Structural, and ANSYS Professional products. The procedure to use the method consists of five main steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Obtain the modal solution. 3. Obtain the mode-superposition transient solution. 4. Expand the mode-superposition solution. 5. Review the results.

5.4.1. Build the Model

Building the model for a mode-superposition transient dynamic analysis is the same as that described for the full method. See Build the Model for more information.

5.4.2. Obtain the Modal Solution

"Modal Analysis" describes how to obtain a modal solution. Following are some additional hints: The mode-extraction method should be Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, reduced, subspace, or QR damped. (The other methods, unsymmetric and damped, do not apply to mode-superposition .) If your model has damping and/or an unsymmetric stiffness matrix, use the QR Damp mode-extraction method (MODOPT,QRDAMP). Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the dynamic response. For the reduced mode-extraction method, include those master degrees of freedom at those nodes at which forces and gap conditions are to be defined. If you use the QR damped mode-extraction method, you must specify any damping (ALPHAD, BETAD, MP,DAMP, or element damping including gyroscopic) that you want to include during preprocessing or in the modal analysis. (ANSYS ignores damping specified during the mode-superposition harmonic analysis.) You can set a constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) or define the damping ratio as a function of mode (MDAMP) in a modal superposition harmonic analysis. Note that constant material damping coefficient (MP,DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. Specify displacement constraints, if any. These constraints will be ignored if they are specified in the mode-superposition transient solution instead of in the modal solution.

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

If you need to apply element loads (pressures, temperatures, accelerations, and so on) in the transient dynamic analysis, you must specify them in the modal analysis. The loads are ignored for the modal solution, but a load vector will be calculated and written to the mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ). You can then use this load vector for the transient solution. The modes need not be expanded for the mode-superposition solution. (If you want to review mode shapes from a reduced modal solution, however, you must expand the mode shapes.) The model data (for example, nodal rotations) should not be changed between the modal and transient analyses.

5.4.3. Obtain the Mode-Superposition Transient Solution

In this step, the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the transient response. The following requirements apply: The mode shape file (J o b n a m e . M O D E ) must be available. The full file (J o b n a m e . F U L L ) if linear acceleration (ACEL) is present. The residual vector file (J o b n a m e . R M O D E ) if residual vectors are taken into account (RESVEC). The database must contain the same model for which the modal solution was obtained.

5.4.3.1. Obtaining the Solution

**The procedure to obtain the mode-superposition transient solution is described below: 1. Enter SOLUTION.
**

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

2. Define the analysis type and analysis options. These are the same as the analysis options described for the full method (in Set Solution Controls and Set Additional Solution Options), except for the following differences: You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a modesuperposition transient analysis. Instead, you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Set Solution Controls and Set Additional Solution Options) and the standard corresponding menu paths. Restarts are available (ANTYPE). Choose the mode-superposition method of solution (TRNOPT). When you specify a mode-superposition transient analysis, a Solution menu appropriate for the specified analysis type appears. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged,” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for mode-superposition transient analyses. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is, solution options that are valid for you to use, but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis), select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. For details, see Using Abridged Solution Menus in the Basic Analysis Guide. Specify the number of modes you want to use for the solution (TRNOPT). This determines the accuracy of the transient solution. At a minimum, you should use all modes that you think will contribute to the dynamic response. If you expect higher frequencies to be excited, for example, the number of modes specified should include the

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

higher modes. The default is to use all modes calculated in the modal solution. To include the contribution of higher frequency modes, add the residual vectors calculated in the modal analysis (RESVEC,ON). If you do not want to use rigid body (0 frequency) modes, use M I N M O D Eon the TRNOPT command to skip over them. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM , SSTIF, NROPT) are not available. 3. Define gap conditions, if any. They can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground. When a non-reduced mode-extraction method is used, a master DOF implies an unconstrained, active DOF. If you used the QR damped mode-extraction method, gap conditions are not supported. More details about gap conditions are presented in Gap Conditions.

Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define

4. Apply loads to the model. The following loading restrictions apply in a mode-superposition transient dynamic analysis: Only nodal forces (F) and accelerations applied via the ACEL command are available. A load vector created in the modal analysis can be included via the LVSCALE command (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Load Vector> For Mode Super) to apply the load vector from the modal solution. You can use such a load vector to apply element loads (pressures, temperatures, and so on) on the model. If you use LVSCALE, ensure that all nodal forces (F) defined in the modal analysis solution are removed in the transient analysis. Generally, you should apply nodal forces in the transient part of the analysis. ANSYS ignores imposed nonzero displacements. If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used, forces may be applied only at master DOF. Multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions, and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading, as explained next. 5. Establish initial conditions. In modal superposition transient analyses, a first solution is done at TIME = 0. This establishes the initial condition and time step size for the entire transient analysis. Generally, the only load applicable for the first load step is initializing nodal forces. For this pseudo-static analysis, the mode-superposition method may yield poor results at TIME = 0 if nonzero loads are applied. The following load step options are available for the first load step: Table 5.2 Options for the First Load Step: Mode-Superposition Analysis

Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Parameters Damping TINTP ALPHAD, BETAD, DMPRAT, MP, MDAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping Command GUI Path

General Options Integration Time Step DELTIM Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

Dynamics options include the following: Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme; see your Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for further details. Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. You can specify five forms of damping in a mode-superposition transient dynamic analysis: Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) Constant damping ratio (DMPRAT) Material-dependent beta damping (MP,DAMP) Modal damping (MDAMP) Remember that, as described earlier in Obtain the Modal Solution, any damping that you specify in the mode-superposition transient analysis is ignored if you used the QR damped mode-extraction method. Constant material damping coefficient (MP,DMPR) is not applicable in transient analysis. See Damping for further details. The only valid general option for the first load step is integration time step (DELTIM ), which is assumed to be constant throughout the transient. By default, the integration time step is assumed to be 1/(20f ), where f is the highest frequency chosen for the solution. The DELTIM command is valid only in the first load step and is ignored in subsequent load steps.

Note

If you do issue the TIME command in the first load step, it will be ignored. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0. The output control option for the first load step is printed output (OUTPR). Use this option to control printout of the displacement solution at the master DOF. 6. Specify loads and load step options for the transient loading portion. General options include the following: Time Option (TIME) This option specifies time at the end of the load step. Stepped or Ramped Loads (KBC)

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

This option indicates whether to ramp the load change over the load step (KBC) or to step-apply the load change (KBC,1). The default is ramped. Output control options include the following: Printed Output (OUTPR) Use this option to control printed output. Database and Results File Output (OUTRES) This option controls the data on the reduced displacement file. The only valid label on these commands is NSOL (nodal solution). The default for OUTRES is to write the solution for every fourth time-point to the reduced displacement file (unless there are gap conditions defined, in which case the default is to write every solution). 7. If you used the Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, or subspace options for the modal analysis (MODOPT,LANB or MODOPT,LANPCG or MODOPT,SUBSP), you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES,NSOL command to limit the displacement data written to the reduced displacement file J o b n a m e . R D S P . The expansion pass will only produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements have been written to the . R D S Pfile. To use this option, first suppress all writing by invoking OUTRES,NSOL,NONE, then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking OUTRES,NSOL,F R E Q ,C O M P . Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal components that you want to write to the . R D S Pfile. Only one output frequency is allowed - ANSYS uses the last frequency specified by OUTRES. 8. Save a backup copy of the database to a named file.

Command(s): SAVE GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as

9. Leave SOLUTION.

Command(s): FINISH GUI: Note Close the Solution menu.

As an alternative method of resolution, you can issue the LSWRITE command to write each load step to a load step file (J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ) and then issue LSSOLVE to start the transient solution. The mode-superposition transient solution is written to the reduced displacement file, J o b n a m e . R D S P , regardless of whether the subspace, Block Lanczos, PCG Lanczos, reduced, or QR damped method was used for the modal solution. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results.

5.4.4. Expand the Mode-Superposition Solution

The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method (see Expand the Solution (Expansion Pass)). J o b n a m e . T R Iis needed only if the reduced method was used for the modal solution. The output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file, J o b n a m e . R S T , containing expanded results.

5.4.5. Review the Results

Results consist of displacements, stresses, and reaction forces at each time-point for which the solution was expanded. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1, as explained for the full method (see Review the Results).

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

5.4.6. Sample Input for a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

**A sample input listing for a mode-superposition transient analysis is shown below: ! B u i l dt h eM o d e l / F I L N A M , . . . !J o b n a m e / T I T L E , . . . !T i t l e / P R E P 7 !E n t e rP R E P 7 !G e n e r a t em o d e l F I N I S H ! O b t a i nt h eM o d a lS o l u t i o n / S O L U !E n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , M O D A L !M o d a la n a l y s i s M O D O P T , L A N B !B l o c kL a n c z o s D , . . . !C o n s t r a i n t s S F , . . . !E l e m e n tl o a d s A C E L , . . . S A V E S O L V E F I N I S H ! O b t a i nt h eM o d e S u p e r p o s i t i o nT r a n s i e n tS o l u t i o n / S O L U !R e e n t e rS O L U T I O N A N T Y P E , T R A N S !T r a n s i e n ta n a l y s i s T R N O P T , M S U P , . . . !M o d e s u p e r p o s i t i o nm e t h o d L V S C A L E , . . . !S c a l ef a c t o rf o re l e m e n tl o a d s F , . . . !N o d a lL o a d s M D A M P , . . . !M o d a ld a m p i n gr a t i o s D E L T I M , . . . !I n t e g r a t i o nt i m es t e ps i z e s S O L V E !S o l v e1 s tl o a ds t e p !R e m e m b e r :T h e1 s tl o a ds t e pi s ! s o l v e ds t a t i c a l l ya tt i m e = 0 . !L o a d s ,e t c .f o r2 n dl o a ds t e p T I M E , . . . !T i m ea te n do fs e c o n dl o a ds t e p K B C , . . . !R a m p e do rs t e p p e dl o a d s O U T R E S , . . . !R e s u l t s f i l ed a t ac o n t r o l s S O L V E !S o l v e2 n dl o a ds t e p( f i r s tt r a n s i e n tl o a ds t e p ) F I N I S H ! R e v i e wr e s u l t so ft h em o d e s u p e r p o s i t i o ns o l u t i o n / P O S T 2 6 !E n t e rP O S T 2 6 F I L E , , R D S P !R e s u l t sf i l ei sJ o b n a m e . R D S P S O L U , . . . !S t o r es o l u t i o ns u m m a r yd a t a N S O L , . . . !S t o r en o d a lr e s u l ta sav a r i a b l e P L V A R , . . . !P l o tv a r i a b l e s P R V A R , . . . !L i s tv a r i a b l e s F I N I S H ! E x p a n dt h eS o l u t i o n / S O L U !R e e n t e rS O L U T I O N E X P A S S , O N !E x p a n s i o np a s s N U M E X P , . . . !N o .o fs o l u t i o n st oe x p a n d ;t i m er a n g e
**

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5.4. Performing a Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

O U T R E S , . . . S O L V E F I N I S H

!R e s u l t s f i l ed a t ac o n t r o l s

! R e v i e wt h eR e s u l t so ft h eE x p a n d e dS o l u t i o n / P O S T 1 S E T , . . . !R e a dd e s i r e ds e to fr e s u l t si n t od a t a b a s e P L D I S P , . . . !D e f o r m e ds h a p e P R R S O L , . . . !R e a c t i o nl o a d s P L N S O L , . . . !C o n t o u rp l o to fn o d a lr e s u l t s P R E R R !G l o b a lp e r c e n te r r o r( am e a s u r eo fm e s ha d e q u a c y ) !O t h e rp o s t p r o c e s s i n ga sd e s i r e d F I N I S H See the Commands Reference for discussions of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M , TOTAL, ACEL, TRNOPT, LVSCALE, MDAMP, DELTIM , TIME, KBC, OUTRES, LSSOLVE, FILE, SOLU, NSOL, PLVAR, PRVAR, EXPASS, NUMEXP, OUTRES, PLDISP, PRRSOL, PLNSOL, and PRERR commands.

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5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

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The reduced method, as its name implies, uses reduced matrices to calculate the dynamic response. It is available in the ANSYS Multiphysics, ANSYS Mechanical, and ANSYS Structural products. You should consider using this method if you do not want to include nonlinearities (other than simple node-to-node contact) in the analysis. The procedure for a reduced transient dynamic analysis consists of these main steps: 1. Build the model. 2. Obtain the reduced solution. 3. Review the results of the reduced solution. 4. Expand the solution (expansion pass). 5. Review the results of the expanded solution. Of these, the first step is the same as for the full method, except that no nonlinearities are allowed (other than simple node-to-node contact, which is specified in the form of a gap condition instead of an element type). Details of the other steps are explained below.

5.5.1. Obtain the Reduced Solution

By reduced solution, we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. The tasks required to obtain the reduced solution are explained in the following sections. For the following tasks, you need to first enter the SOLUTION processor.

Command(s): /SOLU GUI: Main Menu> Solution

5.5.1.1. Define the Analysis Type and Options

These are the same as the analysis options that are described for the full method (in Set Solution Controls and Set Additional Solution Options) except for the following differences: You cannot use the Solution Controls dialog box to define analysis type and analysis options for a reduced transient dynamic analysis. Instead, you must set them using the standard set of ANSYS solution commands (which are listed in Set Solution Controls and Set Additional Solution Options) and the

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5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

standard corresponding menu paths. Restarts are not available (ANTYPE). Choose the reduced method of solution (TRNOPT). When you specify a reduced transient analysis, a Solution menu that is appropriate for that specific type of analysis appears. The Solution menu will be either “abridged” or “unabridged,” depending on the actions you took prior to this step in your ANSYS session. The abridged menu contains only those solution options that are valid and/or recommended for reduced transient analyses. If you are on the abridged Solution menu and you want to access other solution options (that is, solution options that are valid for you to use, but their use may not be encouraged for this type of analysis), select the Unabridged Menu option from the Solution menu. For details, see Using Abridged Solution Menus in the Basic Analysis Guide. Nonlinear options (NLGEOM , SSTIF, NROPT) are not available.

5.5.1.2. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

Master DOF are essential degrees of freedom that characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. For a reduced transient dynamic analysis, master DOF are also required at locations where you want to define gap conditions, forces, or nonzero displacements. You can list the defined master DOF or delete master DOF as well. See Matrix Reduction for guidelines to choose master DOF.

M, MGEN, Command(s): TOTAL, MLIST, MDELE Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Copy Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> Program Selected Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> List All Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Delete

GUI:

5.5.1.3. Define Gap Conditions

**Define any gap conditions.
**

Command(s): GP GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Define

**You can also list the defined gaps and delete gaps.
**

Command(s): GUI: GPLIST, GPDELE Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> List All Main Menu> Solution> Dynamic Gap Cond> Delete

5.5.1.3.1. Gap Conditions

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5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

Gap conditions can only be defined between two master degree of freedom (DOF) nodes or between master DOF nodes and ground, as shown in the following figure. Figure 5.2 Examples of Gap Conditions

Gap conditions are similar to gap elements and are specified between surfaces that are expected to contact (impact) each other during the transient. The ANSYS program accounts for the gap force, which develops when the gap closes, by using an equivalent nodal load vector. Some guidelines to define gap conditions are presented below: Use enough gap conditions to obtain a smooth contact stress distribution between the contacting surfaces. Define a reasonable gap stiffness. If the stiffness is too low, the contacting surfaces may overlap too much. If the stiffness is too high, a very small time step will be required during impact. A general recommendation is to specify a gap stiffness that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than the adjacent element stiffness. You can estimate the adjacent element stiffness using AE/L, where A is the contributing area around the gap condition, E is the elastic modulus of the softer material at the interface, and L is the depth of the first layer of elements at the interface. The nonlinear gap damping provided through the D A M Pfield of the GP command runs faster than a full transient analysis using a gap element COMBIN40. Only TRNOPT = MSUP allows the nonlinear gap damping action. Damping conditions are ignored for the reduced transient analysis method.

5.5.1.4. Apply Initial Conditions to the Model

The following loading restrictions apply in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: Only displacements, forces, and translational accelerations (such as gravity) are valid. Acceleration loading is not allowed if the model contains any master DOF at any nodes with rotated nodal coordinate systems. Forces and nonzero displacements must be applied only at master DOF. As mentioned for the full method, multiple load steps are usually required to specify the load history in a transient analysis. The first load step is used to establish initial conditions, and second and subsequent load steps are used for the transient loading, as explained next. Establish initial conditions. The only initial condition that may be explicitly established is the initial

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5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

displacement (uo ); that is, initial velocity and acceleration must be zero ( = 0, = 0). Displacements cannot be deleted in subsequent load steps, therefore they cannot be used to specify an initial velocity. In a reduced transient analysis, a static solution is always performed as the first solution, using the loads given, to determine uo . Specify load step options for the first load step. Valid options appear in Table 5.3: "Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis". Table 5.3 Options for the First Load Step-Reduced Analysis

Option Dynamics Options Transient Integration Parameters Damping TINTP ALPHAD, BETAD, MP,DAMP Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time Integration Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Damping Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material Models> Structural> Damping General Options Integration Time Step Output Control Options Printed Output OUTPR Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout DELTIM Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time- Time Step Command GUI Path

5.5.1.4.1. Dynamics Options

Dynamic options include the following: Transient Integration Parameters (TINTP) Transient integration parameters control the nature of the Newmark time integration technique. The default is to use the constant average acceleration scheme; see the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench for further details. Damping Damping in some form is present in most structures and should be included in your analysis. You can specify four forms of damping in a reduced transient dynamic analysis: Alpha (mass) damping (ALPHAD) Beta (stiffness) damping (BETAD) Material-dependent beta damping (MP,DAMP)

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5.5. Performing a Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

**Element damping (COMBIN7, and so on) See Damping for further details.
**

5.5.1.4.2. General Options

The only valid general option is Integration Time Step (DELTIM ). The integration time step is assumed to be constant throughout the transient.

Note

If you do issue the TIME command for the first load step, it will be ignored. The first solution is always a static solution at TIME = 0.

5.5.1.4.3. Output Control Options

**Use the Printed Output (OUTPR) option to output the displacement solution at the master DOF.
**

5.5.1.5. Write the First Load Step to a Load Step File

Write the first load step to a load step file (J o b n a m e . S 0 1 ).

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

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In this example, you will perform a transient dynamic analysis using the reduced method to determine the transient response to a constant force with a finite rise in time. In this problem, a steel beam supporting a concentrated mass is subjected to a dynamic load.

5.6.1. Problem Description

A steel beam of length and geometric properties shown in Problem Specifications is supporting a concentrated mass, m. The beam is subjected to a dynamic load F(t) with a rise time tr and a maximum value F1. If the weight of the beam is considered to be negligible, determine the time of maximum displacement response tmax and the response ymax. Also determine the maximum bending stress σbend in the beam. The beam is not used in this solution and its area is arbitrarily input as unity. The final time of 0.1 sec allows the mass to reach its largest deflection. One master degree of freedom is selected at the mass in the lateral direction. A static solution is done at the first load step. Symmetry could have been used in this model. The time of maximum response (0.092 sec) is selected for the expansion pass calculation.

5.6.2. Problem Specifications

**The following material properties are used for this problem:
**

E = 30 x 103 ksi m = 0.0259067 kips-sec2 /in

**The following geometric properties are used for this problem:
**

l = 800.6 in 4 h = 18 in = 20 ft = 240 in.

**Loading for this problem is:
**

F1 = 20 kips tr = 0.075 sec

5.6.3. Problem Sketch

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

Figure 5.3 Model of a Steel Beam Supporting a Concentrated Mass

5.6.3.1. Specify the Title

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title . 2. Enter the text "Transient response to a constant force with a finite rise time." 3. Click on OK.

5.6.3.2. Define Element Types

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete . The Element Types dialog box appears. 2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. 3. In the left scroll box, click on "Structural Beam." 4. In the right scroll box, click on "2D elastic 3," and click on Apply. 5. In the left scroll box, click on "Structural Mass." 6. In the right scroll box, click on "3D mass 21," and click on OK. 7. In the Element Types dialog box, click once on "Type 2," and click on Options. 8. In the scroll box for Rotary inertia options, scroll to "2D w/o rot iner" and select it. 9. Click on OK and click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.

5.6.3.3. Define Real Constants

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete . The Real Constants dialog box appears. 2. Click on Add. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

3. Click on Type1 BEAM3 then Click on OK. The Real Constants for BEAM3 dialog box appears. 4. Enter 1 for Area, 800.6 for IZZ, and 18 for Height. 5. Click on OK. 6. In the Real Constants dialog box, click on Add. 7. Click on Type 2 MASS21 and click on OK. The Real Constant Set Number 2, for MASS21 dialog box appears. 8. Enter .0259067 in the 2-D mass field and click on OK. 9. Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box.

5.6.3.4. Define Material Properties

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models . The Define Material Model Behavior dialog box appears. 2. In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Structural, Linear, Elastic, Isotropic. A dialog box appears. 3. Enter 30e3 for EX (Young's modulus), enter 0.3 for PRXY, and click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left. 4. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.

5.6.3.5. Define Nodes

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS. The Create Nodes in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. 2. Enter 1 for node number and click on Apply to define node 1 at 0,0,0. 3. Enter 3 for node number. 4. Enter 240,0,0 for X, Y, Z coordinates and click on OK. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds . The Fill between Nds picking menu appears. 6. Click once on nodes 1 and 3 in the ANSYS Graphics window, and click on OK in the picking menu. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears. 7. Click on OK to accept the default settings.

5.6.3.6. Define Elements

**1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered>
**

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

Thru Nodes . The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 2. Click once on nodes 1 and 2, and click on Apply. 3. Click once on nodes 2 and 3, and click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes . The Element Attributes dialog box appears. 5. In the Element type number drop down menu, select “2 MASS21.” 6. In the Real constant set number drop down menu, select 2 and click OK. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes . The Elements from Nodes picking menu appears. 8. Click once on node 2 and click OK. 9. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

5.6.3.7. Define Analysis Type and Analysis Options

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis . 2. Click on "Transient" to select it, and click on OK. The Transient Analysis dialog box appears. 3. Click on "Reduced" and click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options . The Reduced Transient Analysis dialog box appears. 5. In the drop down menu for Damping effects, select "Ignore." 6. Click on OK.

5.6.3.8. Define Master Degrees of Freedom

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User Selected> Define . The Define Master DOFs picking menu appears. 2. Click on node 2 and click on OK. The Define Master DOFs dialog box appears. 3. In the drop down menu for 1st degree of freedom, select "UY." 4. Click on OK.

5.6.3.9. Set Load Step Options

1. Choose the menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears.

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

**2. Enter .004 for Time step size and click on OK.
**

5.6.3.10. Apply Loads for the First Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Nodes . The Apply U,ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. 2. Click on node 1 and click on Apply. The Apply U,ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 3. Click on "UY" to select it and click on Apply. The Apply U,ROT on Nodes picking menu appears. 4. Click on node 3, and click on OK. The Apply U,ROT on Nodes dialog box appears. 5. Click on "UX" to select it. "UY" should remain selected. Click on OK. 6. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes . The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 7. Click on node 2 and click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 8. In the drop down menu for Direction of force/mom, select "FY." Leave the value as blank (zero) for the initial static solution. 9. Click on OK, and click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

5.6.3.11. Specify Output

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File . The Controls for Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears. 2. Click on the "Every substep" radio button and click on OK.

5.6.3.12. Solve the First Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 2. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 4. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.

5.6.3.13. Apply Loads for the Next Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time-Time Step. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. 2. Enter .075 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment>

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

On Nodes . The Apply F/M on Nodes picking menu appears. 4. Click on node 2 and click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears. 5. Enter 20 for Force/moment value and click on OK.

5.6.4. Solve the Next Load Step

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 2. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 4. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears

5.6.4.1. Set the Next Time Step and Solve

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step. The Time and Time Step Options dialog box appears. 2. Enter .1 for Time at end of load step and click on OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. 4. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 5. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 6. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears. 7. Choose menu path Main Menu> Finish.

5.6.4.2. Run the Expansion Pass and Solve

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> ExpansionPass . Set the Expansion pass radio button to On and click on OK. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> ExpansionPass> Single Expand> By Time/Freq. The Expand Single Solution by Time/Frequency dialog box appears. 3. Enter 0.092 for Time-point/Frequency and click on OK. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu >Solution> Solve> Current LS. 5. Review the information in the status window, and click on Close. 6. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution. 7. Click on Close when the Solution is done! window appears.

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

5.6.4.3. Review the Results in POST26

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Settings> File . The File Settings dialog box appears. 2. Click browse and select "file.rdsp" and click on open then OK. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables . The Defined Time-History Variables dialog box appears. 4. Click on Add. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears. 5. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Define Nodal Data picking menu appears. Pick node 2 and click OK. 6. Accept the default of 2 for the reference number of the variable. 7. Make sure that 2 is entered for node number. 8. Enter NSOL for user-specified label. 9. In the right scroll box, click on "Translation UY" to select it. 10. Click on OK, then click on Close in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. 11. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables . 12. Enter 2 for 1st variable to graph and click on OK. The graph appears in the ANSYS Graphics window. 13. Choose menu path Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables . 14. Enter 2 for 1st variable to list and click on OK. 15. Review the information in the status window and click on Close.

5.6.4.4. Review the Results in POST1

1. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First Set. 2. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Deformed Shape . The Plot Deformed Shape dialog box appears. 3. Click on "Def + undeformed" and click on OK.

5.6.4.5. Exit ANSYS

1. Choose QUIT from the ANSYS Toolbar. 2. Click on the save option you want, and click on OK.

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5.6. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (GUI Method)

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5.7. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.7. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

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You can perform the example transient dynamic analysis of a bracket using the ANSYS commands shown below instead of GUI choices. Items prefaced with an exclamation point (!) are comments. / P R E P 7 / T I T L E ,T r a n s i e n tR e s p o n s et oaC o n s t a n tF o r c ew i t haF i n i t eR i s eT i m e E T , 1 , B E A M 3 !2 Db e a m E T , 2 , M A S S 2 1 , , , 4 !2 Dm a s s R , 1 , 1 , 8 0 0 . 6 , 1 8 !B e a ma r e a=1 ,I=8 0 0 . 6 ,h=1 8 R , 2 , . 0 2 5 9 0 6 7 !M a s s M P , E X , 1 , 3 0 e 3 N , 1 N , 3 , 2 4 0 F I L L E , 1 , 2 !B e a me l e m e n t s E G E N , 2 , 1 , 1 T Y P E , 2 R E A L , 2 E , 2 !T y p e2e l e m e n tw i t hr e a lc o n s t a n t2 M , 2 , U Y !M a s t e rD O Fi nYd i r e c t i o na tm i d d l eo fb e a m F I N I S H / S O L U A N T Y P E , T R A N S T R N O P T , R E D U C , , N O D A M P D E L T I M , . 0 0 4 D , 1 , U Y D , 3 , U X , , , , , U Y O U T P R , B A S I C , 1 O U T R E S , A L L , 1 F , 2 , F Y , 0 S O L V E T I M E , . 0 7 5 F , 2 , F Y , 2 0 S O L V E T I M E , . 1 S O L V E F I N I S H !T r a n s i e n td y n a m i ca n a l y s i s !R e d u c e dt r a n s i e n ta n a l y s i s ,i g n o r ed a m p i n g !I n t e g r a t i o nt i m es t e ps i z e

!F o r c e=0a tT i m e=0 !T i m ea te n do fl o a ds t e p !F o r c ei sr a m p e dt o2 0 !C o n s t a n tf o r c eu n t i lt i m e=0 . 1

/ S O L U !T h ef o l l o w i n gi st h ee x p a n s i o np a s su s i n gB E A M 3a n dM A S S 2 1e l e m e n t s E X P A S S , O N !E x p a n s i o np a s so n E X P S O L , , , 0 . 0 9 2 !T i m eo fm a x i m u mr e s p o n s e S O L V E F I N I S H

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5.7. Sample Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis (Command or Batch Method)

/ P O S T 2 6 N U M V A R , 0 F I L E , f i l e , r d s p N S O L , 2 , 2 , U , Y , N S O L P L V A R , 2 P R V A R , 2 F I N I S H / P O S T 1 S E T , F I R S T P L D I S P , 1 F I N I S H

!D e f i n et h ev a r i a b l e s !G r a p ht h ev a r i a b l e s !L i s tt h ev a r i a b l e s

!R e a di nr e s u l t s !D i s p l a yd e f o r m e da n du n d e f o r m e ds h a p e

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5.8. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.8. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis

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A prestressed transient dynamic analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure, such as a heat-treated part with residual thermal stresses. Prestressed-analysis procedures vary, depending on the type of transient dynamic analysis being performed.

5.8.1. Prestressed Full Transient Dynamic Analysis

You can include prestressing effects in a full transient dynamic analysis by applying the prestressing loads in a preliminary static load step. (Do not remove these loads in subsequent load steps.) The procedure consists of two steps: 1. Build your model, enter SOLUTION, and define a transient analysis type (ANTYPE,TRANS). Apply all prestressing loads. Turn time integration effects off (TIMINT,OFF). Turn stress stiffening effects on (SSTIF,ON). Set time equal to some small dummy value (TIME). Write your first load step to J o b n a m e . S 0 1(LSWRITE). If prestressing effects develop because of nonlinear behavior (as in the case of residual thermal stresses in a casting), several load steps might be required to complete the static prestressing phase of your analysis. In the case of geometric nonlinearities (large deformation effects), you can capture the prestressing effect by issuing NLGEOM ,ON. 2. For all subsequent load steps, turn time integration effects on (TIMINT,ON), and proceed using the full transient dynamic analysis procedures described previously. Once all load steps are written to files (LSWRITE), you can initiate the multiple load step solution (LSSOLVE).

Note

If you intend to define initial conditions (IC), perform the static prestress solution as a separate solution. To activate the gyroscopic damping matrix in a prestressed transient analysis, perform a separate static solution with Coriolis effects activated (CORIOLIS,ON,,,ON) in a stationary reference frame. (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define )

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5.8. Performing a Prestressed Transient Dynamic Analysis

**The IC command is valid only in the first load step.
**

5.8.2. Prestressed Mode-Superposition Transient Dynamic Analysis

In order to include prestress effects in a mode-superposition analysis, you must first do a prestressed modal analysis. See "Modal Analysis" for details. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available, proceed as for any other mode-superposition analysis.

5.8.3. Prestressed Reduced Transient Dynamic Analysis

The procedure to do a prestressed reduced transient dynamic analysis requires that you first prestress the structure in a separate static analysis, as explained below. It is assumed that the transient (time-varying) stresses (which are superimposed on the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself. If they are not, you should use the full transient dynamic analysis. 1. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES,ON). The procedure to obtain a static solution is explained in "Structural Static Analysis". 2. Reenter SOLUTION (/SOLU) and obtain the reduced transient solution, also with prestress effects turned on (PSTRES,ON). Files J o b n a m e . D B ,J o b n a m e . E M A T , and J o b n a m e . E S A Vfrom the static analysis must be available. Hence, if another analysis is performed between the static and the prestressed reduced transient dynamic analyses, the static analysis will need to be rerun.

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

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The following sections provide additional details about defining integration time step, automatic time stepping, and damping.

5.9.1. Guidelines for Integration Time Step

The accuracy of the transient dynamic solution depends on the integration time step: the smaller the time step, the higher the accuracy. A time step that is too large introduces an error that affects the response of the higher modes (and hence the overall response). A time step that is too small wastes computer resources. To calculate an optimum time step, adhere to the following guidelines: 1. Resolve the response frequency. The time step should be small enough to resolve the motion (response) of the structure. Since the dynamic response of a structure can be thought of as a combination of modes, the time step should be able to resolve the highest mode that contributes to the response. For the Newmark time integration scheme, it has been found that using approximately twenty points per cycle of the highest frequency of interest results in a reasonably accurate solution. That is, if f is the frequency (in cycles/time), the integration time step (ITS) is given by ITS = 1/(20f ) Smaller ITS values may be required if acceleration results are needed. The following figure shows the effect of ITS on the period elongation of a single-DOF spring-mass system. Notice that 20 or more points per cycle result in a period elongation of less than 1 percent. Figure 5.4 Effect of Integration Time Step on Period Elongation

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

For the HHT time integration method, the same guidelines for time step should be applied. Note that if the same time step and time integration parameters are used, the HHT method will be more accurate compared to the Newmark method. An alternative way to select time step size is to use the midstep residual criterion. When this criterion is used, the response frequency criterion is disabled by default. You have the option to enable the response frequency criterion along with the midstep residual criterion (see item 6 below). 2. Resolve the applied load-versus-time curve(s). The time step should be small enough to "follow" the loading function. The response tends to lag the applied loads, especially for stepped loads, as shown in Figure 5.5: "Transient Input vs. Transient Response". Stepped loads require a small ITS at the time of the step change so that the step change can be closely followed. ITS values as small as 1/180f may be needed to follow stepped loads. Figure 5.5 Transient Input vs. Transient Response

3. Resolve the contact frequency. In problems involving contact (impact), the time step should be small enough to capture the momentum transfer between the two contacting surfaces. Otherwise, an apparent energy loss will occur and the impact will not be perfectly elastic. The integration time step can be determined from the contact frequency (f c) as:

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

where k is the gap stiffness, m is the effective mass acting at the gap, and N is the number of points per cycle. To minimize the energy loss, at least thirty points per cycle of (N = 30) are needed. Larger values of N may be required if acceleration results are needed. For the reduced and mode-superposition methods, N must be at least 7 to ensure stability. You can use fewer than thirty points per cycle during impact if the contact period and contact mass are much less than the overall transient time and system mass, because the effect of any energy loss on the total response would be small. 4. Resolve the wave propagation. If you are interested in wave propagation effects, the time step should be small enough to capture the wave as it travels through the elements. See Build the Model for a discussion of element size. 5. Resolve the nonlinearities. For most nonlinear problems, a time step that satisfies the preceding guidelines is sufficient to resolve the nonlinearities. There are a few exceptions, however: if the structure tends to stiffen under the loading (for example, large deflection problems that change from bending to membrane load-carrying behavior), the higher frequency modes that are excited will have to be resolved. 6. Satisfy the time step accuracy criterion. Satisfaction of the dynamics equations at the end of each time step ensures the equilibrium at these discrete points of time. The equilibrium at the intermediate time is usually not satisfied. If the time step is small enough, it can be expected that the intermediate state should not deviate too much from the equilibrium. On the other hand, if the time step is large, the intermediate state can be far from the equilibrium. The midstep residual norm provides a measure of the accuracy of the equilibrium for each time step. You can use the MIDTOL command to choose this criterion. See the MIDTOL command description for suggested tolerance values. See also Midstep Residual for Structural Dynamic Analysis in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench. After calculating the time step using the appropriate guidelines, use the minimum value for your analysis. By using automatic time stepping, you can let the ANSYS program decide when to increase or decrease the time step during the solution. Automatic time stepping is discussed next.

Caution

Avoid using exceedingly small time steps, especially when establishing initial conditions. Exceedingly small numbers can cause numerical difficulties. Based on a problem time scale of unity, for example, time steps smaller than 10-10 could cause numerical difficulties.

5.9.2. Automatic Time Stepping

Automatic time stepping, also known as time step optimization, attempts to adjust the integration time step during solution based on the response frequency and on the effects of nonlinearities. The main benefit of this feature is that the total number of substeps can be reduced, resulting in computer resource savings. Also, the number of times that you might have to rerun the analysis (adjusting the time step size, nonlinearities, and so on) is greatly reduced. If nonlinearities are present, automatic time stepping gives the added advantage of incrementing the loads appropriately and retreating to the previous converged solution (bisection) if convergence is not obtained. You can activate automatic time stepping with the AUTOTS command. (For more information on automatic time stepping in the context of nonlinearities, see "Nonlinear Structural Analysis".)

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

Although it seems like a good idea to activate automatic time stepping for all analyses, there are some cases where it may not be beneficial (and may even be harmful): Problems that have only localized dynamic behavior (for example, turbine blade and hub assemblies), where the low-frequency energy content of part of the system may dominate the high-frequency areas Problems that are constantly excited (for example, seismic loading), where the time step tends to change continually as different frequencies are excited Kinematics (rigid-body motion) problems, where the rigid-body contribution to the response frequency term may dominate

5.9.3. Damping

Damping is present in most systems and should be specified in a dynamic analysis. The following forms of damping are available in the ANSYS program: Alpha and Beta Damping (Rayleigh Damping) Material-Dependent Damping Constant Material Damping Coefficient Constant Damping Ratio Modal Damping Element Damping Only the constant damping ratio and modal damping are available in the ANSYS Professional program. You can specify more than one form of damping in a model. The program will formulate the damping matrix (C) as the sum of all the specified forms of damping. The constant material damping coefficient is only applicable in full and modal harmonic analyses. Table 5.5: "Damping for Different Analysis Types" shows the types of damping available for different structural analyses. Table 5.5 Damping for Different Analysis Types

Alpha, Beta Damping ALPHAD, BETAD N/A No(5) Yes MaterialDependent Damping MP,DAMP N/A No(5) Yes Element Damping(3) COMBIN7, and so on N/A No Yes Constant Material Damping Coefficient MP,DMPR N/A No No(7)

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Analysis Type Static Modal Undamped Damped Harmonic

Constant Damping Ratio DMPRAT N/A No(5) No

Modal Damping MDAMP N/A No No

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

Full Reduced Mode Sup Transient Full Reduced Mode Sup Spectrum SPRS, MPRS(2) DDAM(2) PSD Buckling Substructure N/A Not applicable

Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes(1) Yes(1) Yes N/A Yes

Yes Yes Yes(4,6) Yes Yes Yes(4,6) Yes Yes Yes(4) N/A Yes

Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No

No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A No

Yes Yes Yes(6) Yes Yes Yes(6) No No No N/A Yes

Yes No Yes(7) No No No No No No N/A No

1. β damping only, no α damping 2. Damping is used only for mode combination and not for computation of mode coefficients 3. Includes superelement damping matrix 4. If converted to modal damping by expansion of modes 5. If specified, an effective damping ratio is calculated for subsequent spectrum analyses 6. The QR damped eigensolver supports damping that may be present in the system (applied via the various damping specification methods available in ANSYS). However, the damping must be applied in the modal analysis portion of the mode-superposition analysis. 7. Only the QR damped method supports the constant material damping coefficient application in a downstream mode-superposition harmonic analysis Alpha damping and Beta damping are used to define Rayleigh damping constants α and β. The damping matrix (C) is calculated by using these constants to multiply the mass matrix (M) and stiffness matrix (K): (C) = α(M) + β(K) The ALPHAD and BETAD commands are used to specify α and β, respectively, as decimal numbers. The values of α and β are not generally known directly, but are calculated from modal damping ratios, ξi. ξi is the ratio of actual damping to critical damping for a particular mode of vibration, i. If ωi is the natural circular frequency of mode i, α and β satisfy the relation ξi = α/2ωi + βωi/2 In many practical structural problems, alpha damping (or mass damping) may be ignored (α = 0). In such cases, you can evaluate β from known values of ξi and ωi, as

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

β = 2 ξi/ωi Only one value of β can be input in a load step, so choose the most dominant frequency active in that load step to calculate β. To specify both α and β for a given damping ratio ξ, it is commonly assumed that the sum of the α and β terms is nearly constant over a range of frequencies (see Figure 5.6: "Rayleigh Damping"). Therefore, given ξ and a frequency range ωi to ωj, two simultaneous equations can be solved for α and β. Figure 5.6 Rayleigh Damping

Alpha damping can lead to undesirable results if an artificially large mass has been introduced into the model. One common example is when an artificially large mass is added to the base of a structure to facilitate acceleration spectrum input. (You can use the large mass to convert an acceleration spectrum to a force spectrum.) The alpha damping coefficient, which is multiplied by the mass matrix, will produce artificially large damping forces in such a system, leading to inaccuracies in the spectrum input, as well as in the system response. Beta damping and material damping can lead to undesirable results in a nonlinear analysis. These damping coefficients are multiplied by the stiffness matrix, which is constantly changing in a nonlinear analysis. The resulting change in damping can sometimes be opposite to the actual change in damping that can occur in physical structures. For example, whereas physical systems that experience softening due to plastic response will usually experience a corresponding increase in damping, an ANSYS model that has beta damping will experience a decrease in damping as plastic softening response develops. Material-dependent damping allows you to specify beta damping (β) as a material property (MP,DAMP). Note, however, that MP,DAMP in a spectrum analysis (ANTYPE,SPECTR) specifies a material-dependent damping ratio ξ, not β. Also note that for multi-material elements such as SOLID46, SOLID65, SHELL91, and SHELL99, β can only be specified for the element as a whole, not for each material in the element. In these cases, β is determined from the material pointer for the element (set with the MAT command), rather than the material pointed to by any real constant MAT for the element. MP,DAMP is not assumed to be temperaturedependent, and is always evaluated at T = 0.0. The constant material damping coefficient is available only for full and modal harmonic analyses. The constant damping ratio is the simplest way of specifying damping in the structure. It represents the ratio of actual damping to critical damping, and is specified as a decimal number with the DMPRAT command. DMPRAT is available only for spectrum, harmonic response, and mode-superposition transient dynamic analyses.

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

Modal damping gives you the ability to specify different damping ratios for different modes of vibration. It is specified with the MDAMP command and is available only for the spectrum and mode-superposition method of solution (transient dynamic and harmonic response analyses). Element damping involves using element types having viscous damping characteristics, such as COMBIN7, COMBIN14, COMBIN37, COMBIN40, and so on. If you are running a mode-superposition analysis and used the QR damping solution method for the modal solution, alpha (ALPHAD), beta (BETAD), material-dependent, and element damping must be defined in the QR damping modal solution for the damping to be available in a subsequent mode-superposition analysis. For more information about damping, see the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench. The explicit mathematical expressions that form the damping matrix in different analysis options are shown in Table 5.6: "Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients". These expressions define how each of the damping options in Table 5.5: "Damping for Different Analysis Types" is handled in a dynamic analysis. Table 5.6 Damping Matrix Formulation with Different Damping Coefficients

Analysis Type Full Harmonic & Transient Analysis ALPHAD α BETAD β α[M] β[K] Modal Analysis LANB(1) Modal Analysis QRDA(1) No α[M] No β[K] MP,DAMP No No No No Mode-Superposition Mode-Superposition Harmonic Transient Analysis(1) Analysis(1) Φ T α[M]Φ = α Φ T α[M]Φ = α Spectrum Analysis(1) (modal damping ratio) No

See (Equation 17–120) in the Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench No

DMPRAT ξ

Harmonic

No

2ξω i

2ξω i

ξ No

MDAMP

No

No

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5.9. Transient Dynamic Analysis Options

No Element Damping No No No No

MP,DMPR

Harmonic

No

No

No

No

Note

1. For modal, mode-superposition , and spectrum analyses the boxes are split where applicable with the top indicating the Lanczos method and the bottom indicating the QR damped method.

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5.10. Where to Find Other Examples

Structural Guide | Chapter 5. Transient Dynamic Analysis |

5.10. Where to Find Other Examples

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Several ANSYS publications, particularly the Verification Manual, describe additional transient dynamic analyses. The Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of the ANSYS program. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis problems, the Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy data input instructions and printouts. However, most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite element model and input data with accompanying comments. The Verification Manual includes a variety of transient dynamic analysis test cases:

VM9 - Large Lateral Deflection of Unequal Stiffness Springs VM40 - Large Deflection and Rotation of a Beam Pinned at One End VM65 - Transient Response of a Ball Impacting a Flexible Surface VM71 - Transient Response of a Spring, Mass, Damping System VM72 - Logarithmic Decrement VM73 - Free Vibration with Coulomb Damping VM74 - Transient Response to an Impulsive Excitation VM75 - Transient Response to a Step Excitation VM77 - Transient Response to a Constant Force with a Finite Rise Time VM79 - Transient Response of a Bilinear Spring Assembly VM80 - Plastic Response to a Suddenly Applied Constant Force VM81 - Transient Response of a Drop Container VM84 - Displacement Propagation along a Bar with Free Ends VM85 - Transient Displacements in a Suddenly Stopped Moving Bar VM91 - Large Rotation of a Swinging Pendulum VM156 - Natural Frequency of Nonlinear Spring-Mass System VM158 - Motion of a Bobbing Buoy VM179 - Dynamic Double Rotation of a Jointed Beam VM182 - Transient Response of a Spring-Mass System

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UsefulNot usefulStructural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The term st ruct ural
(or st ruct ure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and b...

Structural analysis is probably the most common application of the finite element method. The term st ruct ural

(or st ruct ure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings, but also naval,

aeronautical, and mechanical structures such as ship hulls, aircraft bodies, and machine housings, as well as

mechanical components such as pistons, machine parts, and tools.

(or st ruct ure) implies not only civil engineering structures such as bridges and buildings, but also naval,

aeronautical, and mechanical structures such as ship hulls, aircraft bodies, and machine housings, as well as

mechanical components such as pistons, machine parts, and tools.

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