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DISEO DE UNA ZAPATA AISLADA

las cargas PD = 180 tn y PL = 100 tn . La capacidad portante admisible del suelo es qa = 2.5 kg/cm2
; ademas fy = 4200kg/cm2 , fy = 280 kg/cm2 en la columna y fc = 210 kg/cm2 en la zapata
DATOS:
Zapata Otros Suelo
f ' c = 210 kg/cm S/C = 250 kg/m Df = 1.5 m
Columna PD = 18 Tn 2 = 1700 kg/m
f ' c = 210 kg/cm PL = 15 Tn qa = 2.40 kg/cm
b = 30 cm db = 1.27 cm
t = 30 cm Acero Lv = 62.5 cm
f y = 4200 kg/cm
MD,ML
1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA PD, PL
Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )
Ld = 29.45 cm
ht
Tomar Ld = 29.45 cm Df Lv
(Del problema se emplean varillas de 1/2") b ( 1/2") = 1.3 cm
r.e. = 7.50 cm (recubrimiento) hc
hc = 38.22 cm
Tomar hc = 30.00 cm hc = Ld + r.e + b T
ht = Df - hc
ht = 120.00 cm
Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )
B
qm = 2.10 kg/cm
T
Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )
Azap = cm Donde:
T = cm P = Carga de servicio
B = cm Lv = Volados iguales sin
excentricidad
2.- DETERMINACIN DE LA REACCIN AMPLIFICADA ( qmu )
Donde:
kg/cm2 Pu = Carga Ultima
3.- VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( =0.85 )
Por Flexin:
Lv = cm
r.e = 7.50 cm
b ( 1/2") = 1.3 cm (Suponiendo varillas 1/2")
d = cm ( d = hc - b - r.e. )
Vdu = kg
= 0.85 (Coef. De reduccion por corte)
Vc = kg
Vc = kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
Por Punzonamiento :
20,381.94
3.24
17,324.65
21.23
10,655.11
47.50
Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 30 x 30 lleva 10 fierros de 1" y transmite
15,714.29
125.00
125.00
b

t
Reemplazo los valores que tenemos:
=
1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000
350 x 370
=
Ld=
0.08. .
f'c
b y dF
Azap
P
qm
T= Az
t1-t2
2
S Az
t1-t2
2
=
+
=
( )
( )
qm qa ht chc-s/c =
Wnu
Pu
Azap
=
Lv
T t
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(Lv-d)
Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
=

>
Vc=0.27 2+
4
f cb d
Dmayor
Dmenor
2 Vc=1.06 f c b d
Vu Vc; =0.85
c
o
c c
o
|
| |

(
(
= s
s
'
, '
Vu = kg
= 2m +2n
bo =
Vc = 0.27 * 2 + 4 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d = 1.06 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d
| c
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
| c = lado mayor columna ( t ) 1
lado menor columna ( b )

m = t + d m =
n = t + b n =
bo = 2*m + 2*n
Vu = vc OK ! Vu =
vc =
4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO LONGITUDINAL
Direccin Mayor:
Lv = cm ree =
Mu = kg-cm b ( 1/2") = 1.27
B =
d =
a = 3.89 (Valor Asumido)
As = Ab ( 1/2" ) =
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d a = 1.18 5
As > As mn OK !! Espaciam =
As = 5 1/2" @
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Ab ( 1/2" ) =
Ab 5
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b Espaciam =
n -1 As mn = 5 1/2" @
As > As mn ASUMIR As mn !!
Direccin Menor:
As tranv = As * T
B T = 125 ree =
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d B = 125 b ( 1/2") = 1.27
As > As mn OK !! d =
a = 5.01 (Valor Asumido)
Ab Ab ( 1/2" )
# Varilla ( n ) = As 5
Ab Espaciam =
As transv = 5 1/2" @
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1 Ab ( 1/2" ) =
21
Espaciam =
Asmin = 21 1/2" @
As transv > As mnASUMIR As mn !!
Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )
ld = b * fy * o - | - - < Lv1
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e
La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:
(perimetro de los
planos de falla)
66,826.68
56,802.67
bo = 2 x ( t + d ) + 2 x ( b + d )
66,826.68
Vu = 1.1 x f'c x bo x d
42,183.98
# Varilla ( n ) =
27
# Varilla ( n ) =
# Varilla ( n ) =
125.00
457,567.50
21.23
204.92
102,131.33
86,811.63
51.23
27.18
27.18
27.18
27.18
5.44
1.29
5.44
27.18
27.18
1.29
7.50
1.29
6.75
# Varilla ( n ) =
7.50
1.29
51.23
56,802.68
21.23
6.28
47.50
5.86
5.86
d/2
d/2
m = t+d
n

=

b
+
d

t
b

T
B

|c =
cm
kg
kg
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
cm
cm2
cm2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm
Vu=Pu-Wnu x mn
Vc=0.27 2+
4
f cb d
Dmayor
Dmenor
2 Vc=1.06 f c b d
Vu Vc; =0.85
c
o
c c
o
|
| |

(
(
= s
s
'
, '
Mu=
(Wnu x B)Lv
2

As=
Mu
Fy(d-
a
2
a
As.Fy
0.85f'cb
2
)
=
Asc = 2 * Astrv
( | + 1 ) | = 1.00 b (1/2") = 1.27 C =
= 0.80 r.e.e = 7.50 ktr = 0
| = Lado mayor Zapata = 1.00 fy = 4200
Lado menor Zapata o = 1.00 f'c = 210 2.5 q = ( C+kt r )/ b
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Longitud de desarrollo en traccin q= 9.77
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b Lv1 = 55.00 q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
n -1 Ld = 33.27
Ld < Lv1
Espaciamiento del Refuerzo
Asc = 5.86
45 cm
27.18 OK !!
3 x h 360 cm
5.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN COLUMNA - ZAPATA ( =0.70 )
Para la seccin A colum = 30x30( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1 Pu = # Varilla ( n ) = 3
A colum = b *t A1 =
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1) * 0.85 * f 'c * A1 =
Ab
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab As mn =
As col. > As mn OK !! Ab ( 1/2 ) =
USAR : As1 =
As col > As min
Para la seccin A zapata = 1,3 x1,30= 129500 cm ( ZAPATA )
Pu =
A1 = A2/A1 = 2
A2 =
x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 =
OK !!
8.50
OK !! Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1
50700
900
112455
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!
4.50
1.29
4.50
OK !!
50700
15625
900
224910 OK !!
Pu < x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
>
kg
kg
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2
kg
kg
cm2
cm2
DISEO DE UNA ZAPATA AISLADA
las cargas PD = 180 tn y PL = 100 tn . La capacidad portante admisible del suelo es qa = 2.5 kg/cm2
; ademas fy = 4200kg/cm2 , fy = 280 kg/cm2 en la columna y fc = 210 kg/cm2 en la zapata
DATOS:
Zapata Otros Suelo
f ' c = 210 kg/cm S/C = 250 kg/m Df = 1.4 m
Columna PD = 66 Tn 2 = 1700 kg/m
f ' c = 280 kg/cm PL = 44 Tn qa = 1.90 kg/cm
b = 40 cm db = 1.59 cm
t = 40 cm Acero Lv = 60 cm
f y = 4200 kg/cm
MD,ML
1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA PD, PL
Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )
Ld = 36.87 cm
ht
Tomar Ld = 36.87 cm Df Lv
(Del problema se emplean varillas de 1/2") b ( 5/8") = 1.59 cm
r.e. = 7.50 cm (recubrimiento) hc
hc = 45.96 cm
Tomar hc = 40.00 cm hc = Ld + r.e + b T
ht = Df - hc
ht = 100.00 cm
Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )
B
qm = 1.61 kg/cm
T
Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )
Azap = cm Donde:
T = cm P = Carga de servicio
B = cm Lv = Volados iguales sin
excentricidad
2.- DETERMINACIN DE LA REACCIN AMPLIFICADA ( qmu )
Donde:
kg/cm2 Pu = Carga Ultima
3.- VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( =0.85 )
Por Flexin:
Lv = cm
Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 70 x 50 lleva 10 fierros de 1" y transmite
68,322.98
261.00
261.00
2.45
110.50
b

t
Reemplazo los valores que tenemos:
=
1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000
350 x 370
=
Ld=
0.08. .
f'c
b y dF
Azap
P
qm
T= Az
t1-t2
2
S Az
t1-t2
2
=
+
=
( )
( )
qm qa ht chc-s/c =
Lv
T t
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(Lv-d)
Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
=

>
r.e = 7.50 cm
b ( 5/8") = 1.59 cm (Suponiendo varillas 5/8")
d = cm ( d = hc - b - r.e. )
Vdu = kg
= 0.85 (Coef. De reduccion por corte)
Vc = kg
Vc = kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
Por Punzonamiento :
Vu = kg
= 2m +2n
bo =
Vc = 0.27 * 2 + 4 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d = 1.06 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d
| c
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
| c = lado mayor columna ( t ) 1
lado menor columna ( b )

m = t + d m =
n = t + b n =
bo = 2*m + 2*n
Vu = vc OK ! Vu =
vc =
4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO LONGITUDINAL ( =0.90 )
Direccin Mayor:
Lv = cm ree =
Mu = kg-cm b ( 5/8") = 1.59
B =
d =
a = 3.89 (Valor Asumido)
As = Ab ( 5/8" ) =
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d a = 3.22 18
As > As mn OK !! Espaciam =
As = 18 5/8" @
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Ab ( 5/8" ) =
Ab 9
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b Espaciam =
n -1 As mn = 9 5/8" @
As > As mn OK !!
Direccin Menor:
As tranv = As * T
B T = 261 ree =
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d B = 261 b ( 5/8") = 1.59
As > As mn OK !! d =
a = 5.01 (Valor Asumido)
Ab Ab ( 5/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) = As 18
Ab Espaciam =
As transv = 18 5/8" @
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1 Ab ( 5/8" ) =
23
Espaciam =
Asmin = 23 5/8" @
50,986.39
30.91
(perimetro de los
planos de falla)
134,673.45
174,948.44 114,472.43
61,961.94
52,667.65
154,858.44
bo = 2 x ( t + d ) + 2 x ( b + d )
283.64
205,821.69
# Varilla ( n ) =
14.38
70.91
30.91
70.91
Vu = 1.1 x f'c x bo x d
134,673.45
114,472.43
110.50 7.50
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
7.50
30.91
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
14.38
35.31 14.38
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
30.55
18.79 30.55
35.72
35.31 14.38
3,911,022.61
261.00
2.00
11.11
46.98 11.11
d/2
d/2
m = t+d
n

=

b
+
d

t
b

T
B

|c =
c
kg
kg
cm
cm2
cm
cm2
cm
cm2
cm2
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
cm
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm
Lv
T t
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(Lv-d)
Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
=

>
Vu=Pu-Wnu x mn
Vc=0.27 2+
4
f cb d
Dmayor
Dmenor
2 Vc=1.06 f c b d
Vu Vc; =0.85
c
o
c c
o
|
| |

(
(
= s
s
'
, '
Mu=
(Wnu x B)Lv
2

As=
Mu
Fy(d-
a
2
a
As.Fy
0.85f'cb
2
)
=
As transv > As mn ASUMIR As mn !!
Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )
ld = b * fy * o - | - - < Lv1
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e
La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:
Asc = 2 * Astrv
( | + 1 ) | = 1.00 b (3/4") = 1.59 C =
= 0.80 r.e.e = 7.50 ktr = 0
| = Lado mayor Zapata = 1.00 fy = 4200
Lado menor Zapata o = 1.00 f'c = 210 2.5 q = ( C+kt r )/ b
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Longitud de desarrollo en traccin q= 10.09
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b Lv1 = 52.50 q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
n -1 Ld = 41.66
Ld < Lv1
Espaciamiento del Refuerzo
Asc = 35.31
45 cm
14.38 OK !!
3 x h 300 cm
5.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN COLUMNA - ZAPATA ( =0.70 )
Para la seccin A colum = 40x40 = 1600 cm ( COLUMNA )
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1 Pu = # Varilla ( n ) = 3
A colum = b *t A1 =
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1) * 0.85 * f 'c * A1 =
Ab
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab As mn =
As col. > As mn OK !! Ab ( 3/4" ) =
USAR : As1 =
As col > As min
Para la seccin A zapata = 2,6*2,60 ( ZAPATA )
Pu =
A1 = A2/A1 = 2
A2 =
x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 =
1600
68121
399840 OK !!
Pu < x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 167200
8.00
2.85
8.00
OK !!
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1 OK !!
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!
OK !!
167200
1600
266560
8.50
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
>
kg
kg
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2
k
kg
c
c
DISEO DE UNA ZAPATA AISLADA Ejemplo 1.2 pg. 20 Libro Hormigon reforzado de Ro
las cargas PD = 110 tn y PL = 90 tn . La capacidad portante admisible del suelo es qa = 2.3 kg/cm2
; ademas fy = 4200kg/cm2 , fy = 280 kg/cm2 en la columna y fc = 280 kg/cm2 en la zapata
DATOS:
Zapata Otros Suelo
f ' c = 280 kg/cm S/C = 250 kg/m Df = 1.5 m
Columna PD = 45 Tn 2 = 1700 kg/m
f ' c = 280 kg/cm PL = 35 Tn qa = 1.90 kg/cm
b = 30 cm db = 1.59 cm
t = 30 cm Acero Lv = 115 cm
f y = 4200 kg/cm
1.- DIMENSIONAMIENTO DE LA ZAPATA
Clculo del peralte de la zapata (hc )
Ld = 31.93 cm
Tomar Ld = 31.93 cm Df
(Del problema se emplean varillas de 5/8") b ( 5/8") = 1.59 cm
r.e. = 7.50 cm (recubrimiento)
hc = 41.02 cm
Tomar hc = 40.00 cm hc = Ld + r.e + b
ht = Df - hc
ht = 110.00 cm
Clculo de la presin neta del suelo ( qm )
qm = 1.59 kg/cm
Clculo del rea de la zapata ( Az )
Azap = cm
T = cm
B = cm
2.- DETERMINACIN DE LA REACCIN AMPLIFICADA ( qmu )
kg/cm2 2.44
Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 45 x 45 lleva 8 fierros de N 7 y transmite
50,314.47
224.00
224.00
Reemplazo los valores que tenemos:
=
1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000
350 x 370
=
Ld=
0.08. .
f'c
b y
dF
Azap
P
qm
T= Az
t1-t2
2
S Az
t1-t2
2
=
+
=
( )
( )
qm qa ht chc-s/c =
Wnu
Pu
Azap
=
3.- VERIFICACION POR CORTE ( =0.85 )
Por Flexin:
Lv = cm
r.e = 7.50 cm
b ( 5/8") = 1.59 cm
d = cm
Vdu = kg
= 0.85
Vc = kg
Vc = kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
Por Punzonamiento :
Vu = kg
= 2m +2n
bo =
Vc = 0.27 * 2 + 4 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d = 1.06 * f 'c^.5 * bo * d
| c
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc = kg Vc= Kg
Vc > Vdu OK!
| c = lado mayor columna ( t ) 1
lado menor columna ( b )

m = t + d m =
n = t + b n =
bo = 2*m + 2*n
Vu = vc OK ! Vu =
vc =
4.- CALCULO DEL REFUERZO LONGITUDINAL ( =0.90 )
Direccin Mayor:
Lv = cm
Mu = kg-cm
B =
d =
a = 3.89 (Valor Asumido)
As = Ab ( 5/8" ) =
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d a = 1.85
As > As mn OK !!
As = 11
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Ab ( 5/8" ) =
113,442.31
bo = 2 x ( t + d ) + 2 x ( b + d )
133,577.24
97.00
30.91
36,142.97
61,404.74
52,194.03
173,524.40 113,540.66
60.91
60.91
Vu = 1.1 x f'c x bo x d
133,577.24
113,540.65
97.00
243.64 (perimetro de los planos
de falla)
204,146.35
# Varilla ( n ) =
23.50
2,572,773.44
224.00
30.91
22.7
d/2
m = t+d
1.4 x 180000 + 1.7 x 100000
350 x 370
=
|c =
cm
kg
kg
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
cm
Wnu
Pu
Azap
=
Lv
T t
2
Vdu=(WnuxB)(Lv-d)
Vc=0.53 f'cbd
Vc Vdu
=

>
Vu=Pu-Wnu x mn
Vc=0.27 2+
4
f cb d
Dmayor
Dmenor
2 Vc=1.06 f c b d
Vu Vc; =0.85
c
o
c c
o
|
| |

(
(
= s
s
'
, '
Mu=
(Wnu x B)Lv
2

As=
Mu
Fy(d-
a
2
a
As.Fy
0.85f'cb
2
)
=
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1 As mn = 6
As > As mn OK !!
Direccin Menor:
As tranv = As * T
B T = 224
As mn = 0.0018 * B * d B = 224
As > As mn OK !! d =
a = 5.01 (Valor Asumido)
Ab Ab ( 5/8" ) =
# Varilla ( n ) = As
Ab
As transv = 11
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e - b
n -1 Ab ( 7/8" ) =
Asmin = 22
As transv > As mn
Longitud de desarrollo en Traccion ( Ld )
ld = b * fy * o - | - - < Lv1
3.54 * f 'c^.5 * C + Kr
b
Lv1 = Lv - r.e.e
La Zapata es rectangular se debe compartir el Refuerzo adecuadamente de la siguiente manera:
Asc = 2 * Astrv
( | + 1 ) | = 1.00 b (3/4") = 2.22
= 0.80 r.e.e = 7.50
| = Lado mayor Zapata = 1.00 fy = 4200
Lado menor Zapata o = 1.00 f'c = 280
Ab
# Varilla ( n ) = As Longitud de desarrollo en traccin
Ab
Espaciam = B - 2*r.e.e - b Lv1 = 107.50
n -1 Ld = 50.37
Ld < Lv1
Espaciamiento del Refuerzo
Asc = 22.70
45 cm
20.74 OK !!
3 x h 330 cm
5.- VERIFICACION DE LA CONEXIN COLUMNA - ZAPATA
Para la seccin A colum = 30*30 = 900cm ( COLUMNA )
30.91
# Varilla ( n ) =
12.1
# Varilla ( n ) =
44.35
OK !!
22.70
# Varilla ( n ) =
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm
cm
cm2
>
kg
* 0.85 * f 'c * As1 Pu = # Varilla ( n ) =
A colum = b *t A1 =
Pu < ( * 0.85 * f 'c * A1) * 0.85 * f 'c * A1 =
Ab
As mn = 0.005 * A1
# Varilla = As1
Ab As mn =
As col. > As mn OK !! Ab ( 5/8" ) =
USAR : As1 =
As col > As min
Para la seccin A zapata = 2,2x2,20= 48400 cm ( ZAPATA )
Pu =
A1 =
A2 =
x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1 =
4.50
OK !!
Pu < * 0.85 * f 'c * A1 OK !!
4.50
2
122500
900
149940
299880 OK !!
Pu < x 0.85 x f 'c x A2/A1 x A1
kg
kg
cm2
cm2
cm2
cm2
kg
Ejemplo 1.2 pg. 20 Libro Hormigon reforzado de Ro
MD,ML
PD, PL
ht
Lv
hc
T
B
T
Donde:
P = Carga de servicio
Lv = Volados iguales sin
excentricidad
Donde:
Pu = Carga Ultima
Disear la zapata mostrada en la fig: Si la Columna de 45 x 45 lleva 8 fierros de N 7 y transmite
b

t
(Suponiendo varillas 5/8")
( d = hc - b - r.e. )
(Coef. De reduccion por corte)
ree =
b ( 7/8") = 1.59
(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 5/8" ) =
11
Espaciam =
5/8" @
Ab ( 5/8" ) =
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
7.50
20.74
20.74
2.00
d/2
d/2
m = t+d
n

=

b
+
d

t
b

T
B

cm
Vc=0.27 2+
4
f cb d
Dmayor
Dmenor
2 Vc=1.06 f c b d
Vu Vc; =0.85
c
o
c c
o
|
| |

(
(
= s
s
'
, '
6
Espaciam =
5/8" @
ree =
b ( 5/8") = 1.59
(Valor Asumido)
Ab ( 5/8" ) =
11
Espaciam =
7/8" @
Ab ( 7/8" ) =
22
Espaciam =
7/8" @
ASUMIR As mn !!
C =
ktr = 0
2.5 q = ( C+kt r )/ b
q= 10.72
q >= 2.5 ,PONER 2.5 !!
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
41.48
41.48
7.50
# Varilla ( n ) =
20.74
9.88
9.88
OK !!
8.50
20.74
2.00
# Varilla ( n ) =
q < 2.5 ,PONER q !!
cm
cm
cm
cm2
cm2
cm
# Varilla ( n ) = 2
A2/A1 = 2
OK !!
900
50176
OK !!
122500 kg
cm2
cm2
19