PART B – SUBSTATION REQUIREMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART B – SUBSTATIONE REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................1 S1. POWER TRANSFORMERS ..............................................................................................2
DESIGN ...................................................................................................................................... 2
S1.1.1 S1.1.2 General.............................................................................................................................................. 2 Harmonic Suppression ...................................................................................................................... 2 Magnetic Core ................................................................................................................................... 3 Windings............................................................................................................................................ 3 Internal Earthing ................................................................................................................................ 4 Transformer Tanks ............................................................................................................................ 4 Conservator Tank .............................................................................................................................. 5 Oil Valves and Location ..................................................................................................................... 5 Oil and Gas Sampling Devices .......................................................................................................... 6 Oil Filtration and Vacuum Processing ............................................................................................... 6 Lifting Lugs, Jacking Pads and Hauling Eyes .................................................................................... 6 Joints and Gaskets ............................................................................................................................ 7 Earthing Terminals ............................................................................................................................ 7 Surface Treatment ............................................................................................................................. 7 Buchholz Relay ................................................................................................................................. 7 OLTC Protective Relay ...................................................................................................................... 8 Pressure Relief Devices .................................................................................................................... 8 Temperature Indicating, Control and Alarm Devices ......................................................................... 8 General.............................................................................................................................................. 9 Drive Mechanism ............................................................................................................................... 9 Tap Changer Mechanism Box ......................................................................................................... 10 OLTC Control Panel ........................................................................................................................ 11 General............................................................................................................................................ 11 Radiators ......................................................................................................................................... 12 Fans ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Fan Control...................................................................................................................................... 12 Fan Control Cabinet ........................................................................................................................ 13 Bushings.......................................................................................................................................... 13

S1.1

S1.2

MAGNETIC CORE AND WINDINGS ......................................................................................... 3
S1.2.1 S1.2.2 S1.2.3

S1.3

TANKS AND ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT.................................................................................... 4
S1.3.1 S1.3.2 S1.3.3 S1.3.4 S1.3.5 S1.3.6 S1.3.7 S1.3.8 S1.3.9

S1.4

PROTECTION AND INDICATION EQUIPMENT ....................................................................... 7
S1.4.1 S1.4.2 S1.4.3 S1.4.4

S1.5

ON LOAD TAP CHANGER (OLTC) ........................................................................................... 9
S1.5.1 S1.5.2 S1.5.3 S1.5.4

S1.6

COOLING EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................... 11
S1.6.1 S1.6.2 S1.6.3 S1.6.4 S1.6.5

S1.7 S1.8

TERMINALS AND CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT .............................................................. 13
S1.7.1

HIGH VOLTAGE NEUTRAL POINT ......................................................................................... 14
S1.8.1 S1.8.2 S1.8.3 Cable Boxes 33 kV and 11 kV ......................................................................................................... 14 Disconnecting Arrangement ............................................................................................................ 14 Terminal Marking ............................................................................................................................. 14

S1.9 S1.10 S1.11 S1.12 S1.13

LABELS AND RATING PLATES .............................................................................................. 15 TRANSFORMER OIL ............................................................................................................... 15 DRYING OUT, TRANSPORT AND FILLING............................................................................ 15 NOISE LEVEL .......................................................................................................................... 16 TESTS ...................................................................................................................................... 16
Inspection and Tests ....................................................................................................................... 16 Type Tests....................................................................................................................................... 17 Factory Tests................................................................................................................................... 17 Tests at Site .................................................................................................................................... 17

S1.13.1 S1.13.2 S1.13.3 S1.13.4

S1.14

GUARANTEES ......................................................................................................................... 18

S1.14.1 Rated Output ................................................................................................................................... 18 S1.14.2 Losses ............................................................................................................................................. 18

S2.

SHUNT REACTORS .......................................................................................................19
GENERAL ................................................................................................................................. 19 STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................ 19 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................. 20
S2.3.1 S2.3.2 S2.3.3 S2.3.4 S2.3.5 Temperature Rise ............................................................................................................................ 20 Temperature Difference................................................................................................................... 20 Losses ............................................................................................................................................. 21 Core DESIGN .................................................................................................................................. 21 Windings.......................................................................................................................................... 21 Instruments and Controls ................................................................................................................ 22 Reactor Control Cabinet and Cabling .............................................................................................. 23 Protection and Alarms ..................................................................................................................... 23 General............................................................................................................................................ 23 Current Transformers ...................................................................................................................... 23 High Voltage Terminals ................................................................................................................... 24 Neutral Terminal .............................................................................................................................. 24 Tank ............................................................................................................................................... 24 Gaskets and Joints .......................................................................................................................... 25 Conservator ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Fittings ............................................................................................................................................. 25 Breathing System ............................................................................................................................ 26 Lifting and Handling Devices ........................................................................................................... 26 Painting and Coating Systems ........................................................................................................ 26

S2.1 S2.2 S2.3

S2.4

REACTOR AUXILIARIES ......................................................................................................... 22
S2.4.1 S2.4.2 S2.4.3

S2.5

BUSHINGS, CURRENT TRANSFORMERS AND TERMINALS.............................................. 23
S2.5.1 S2.5.2 S2.5.3 S2.5.4

S2.6

TANK, CONSERVATOR AND FITTINGS ................................................................................ 24
S2.6.1 S2.6.2 S2.6.3 S2.6.4 S2.6.5 S2.6.6 S2.6.7

S2.7 S2.8

COOLING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................. 27 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS .......................................................................................... 27
S2.8.1 S2.8.2 S2.8.3 Instruments and Devices ................................................................................................................. 27 Shunt Reactor Control Cabinet........................................................................................................ 28 Cabling ............................................................................................................................................ 29 Electrical Protection and Alarms ...................................................................................................... 29 Fire Protection ................................................................................................................................. 29 Surge Protection.............................................................................................................................. 29

S2.9

PROTECTION AND ALARMS .................................................................................................. 29
S2.9.1 S2.9.2 S2.9.3

S2.10 S2.11

OIL ............................................................................................................................................ 29 HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND SHIPPING METHOD ............................................................. 30

S2.11.1 Shipping Method ............................................................................................................................. 30 S2.11.2 Handling Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 30

1 – POWER TRANSFORMERS .S.

Transformers shall be designed to operate continuously under all the service conditions prevailing at the site. Subject to transport constraints. Power transformers terminations shall be bushings for 132 kV and 220 kV windings and shall be air insulated cable boxes for 33 kV windings. The Contractor shall provide 220/132 kV power transformers with proven experience of operation in service conditions as obtaining in Uganda or other designs and material that can demonstrate a similar proven in-service duty for the specified lifetime of equipment under the same service conditions as specified for this Project. Approval of the designs by the Project Manager shall not alleviate the Contractor from its full contractual responsibility for the design of the transformer and its accessories for full functionality. All necessary modifications in details for the Project to conform to these Employer’s Requirements shall be carried out by the Contractor at no additional cost to the Employer. Design and detailing documentation shall be subject to approval by the Project Manager. S1 P a g e | 2 .1 POWER TRANSFORMERS DESIGN S1.2 220/132/33 kV transformers shall be YNad11 with the delta winding used for substation auxiliary power supply. 220/132 kV transformers shall be provided with a stabilising tertiary delta winding to reduce the zero sequence impedance. and 132/33/11 kV transformers shall be YNynd11 with the delta winding used for substation auxiliary power supply HARMONIC SUPPRESSION Transformers shall be designed with particular attention to the suppression of harmonic voltages. oil-immersed.S1. The vector group of power transformers shall be:    S1. The temperature-rise limits set out in IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60354 shall be reduced to allow for the high ambient temperatures at the site. installation and commissioning of the 220/132kV power transformers.3. fifth and seventh harmonics and to minimise the associated harmful effects. 220/33/11kV transformers shall be YNynd11 with the delta winding used for substation auxiliary power supply. details. with onload tap-changer. fabrications and tests shall be in compliance with details on the drawings. especially the third. transporting. designs.1. manufacturing. All materials. testing. with the requirements described hereafter and with the minimum design data specified in Section 161. the Contractor shall be wholly responsible for the trueness of the designs.1. However. All Transformers supplied shall be brand new and shall be outdoor. transformers shall be three-phase. S1.1 GENERAL This section of the Employer’s Requirements covers the design.

and end plates of the assembly and clamp structure shall be of a nonmagnetic type. The cores shall be clamped and braced to withstand. as far as possible. and high-permeability grain oriented steel sheets.2. The magnetic circuit shall be insulated from all structural parts. and to prevent the shifting of the core laminations. hot oil and heat resistant baked enamel varnish or other chemical treatment. Tapings shall be arranged at such positions on the windings as will preserve.S1.2 WINDINGS The windings shall be of high conductivity electrolytic copper. low-loss. The tertiary windings of the star/star connected transformers are stabilising windings for control of zero sequence current and for harmonic suppression. Adequate metallic bridges shall be provided between the core lamination packets in order to keep all portions of the core assembly at the same potential. Particular care shall be given to the design and construction of the corner joints between columns and yokes to avoid concentration of mechanical and magnetic stresses whilst allowing an easy dismantling of the joint for maintenance at site.2. the forces caused by short-circuit stresses. electro-magnetic balance at all voltage ratios. nuts.0 kV rms for 1 minute. The windings shall be designed to reduce to a minimum the out-of-balance forces inherent in the transformers.9 Tesla. The maximum flux density in any magnetic component under any condition of voltage and frequency specified under all the operating conditions shall not exceed 1. non-ageing. with full voltage maintained on all other windings intended for connection to external sources of supply and allowing for any feedback through windings connected to rotating machines. and shall be capable of withstanding a test voltage to the core bolts and to the frame of 2. and shall be effectively insulated and locked so that they ensure an even pressure on the whole core assembly and are not loosened by vibrations. particularly the forces due to a short circuit between terminals or between any terminal and earth.2 S1. handling or seismic effects. preventing any relative movement due to transport. The bolts. Suitable axial cooling ducts shall be provided to ensure free circulation of oil and efficient cooling of the core. vibrations or other circumstances that may occur in service. The supporting framework of the cores shall be designed to avoid the presence of pockets which could prevent complete draining of the tank or cause the trapping of air when filling during service. The coils. without damage or deformation. The stabilising winding S1 P a g e | 3 . Both sides of each steel sheet shall be insulated with durable. S1. windings and leads shall be sufficiently braced and fastened to form rigid assemblies.1 MAGNETIC CORE AND WINDINGS MAGNETIC CORE The core shall be built up of high-grade. transportation. The winding shall be capable of withstanding the forces to which it is subjected under all conditions.

The tank shall comprise two oil-tight compartments.shall be brought out by two bushings at one corner of the delta. These pockets shall be located in the position of maximum oil temperature and it must be possible to remove any bulb without lowering the oil level in the tank.3 INTERNAL EARTHING All metal parts of the transformer with the exception of the individual core laminations. All insulating barriers within the magnetic core shall be bridged by means of aluminium or tinned copper strips so inserted as to maintain electrical continuity. Disconnecting this link will enable the insulation between the core and clamping arrangement to be tested at voltages up to 2. internal connections of bushings. It shall be possible to remove any bushing without removing the tank cover. The transformer may be lifted by mobile crane into position on site or it may be skidded into position on rollers.3. S1. S1. these shall be connected and grounded in service. A design which requires that slide rails be placed in a particular position shall not be used. The tank construction shall be such that both these methods are possible and the complete transformer unit can be moved in any direction without damage. The tank cover shall be fitted with thermometer pockets for oil and winding temperature indicators. core bolts and associated individual clamping plates shall be maintained at earth potential. Tank stiffeners and mounting brackets shall be continuously welded to the tank. winding connections and earth links. The removable link shall have adequate cross section to carry the earth fault current. Each opening shall be correctly located and must be of ample size for the purpose for which it is intended. and another for installation of the OLTC diverter. The magnetic core shall be earthed to the clamping structure at one point only through a removable link placed in an accessible position just beneath an inspection opening in the tank cover. The tank shall also be capable of withstanding a vacuum of 50 mm of mercury absolute when emptied of oil. greased plates or rails. The link shall have no detachable components and the connection to the link shall be on the same side of the core as the main earth connection. fabricated from carbon steel plate such that the transformer can be lifted and transported without permanent deformation or oil leakage.0 kV. The transformer shall be designed with a flat or skid base with provision of vibration dampers.3 S1. Captive screwed caps shall be provided to prevent the ingress of water to the thermometer pockets when they are not in use. one for the transformer winding and other associated equipment. S1 P a g e | 4 . All inspection covers shall be provided with lifting handles. Inspection doors and openings shall be provided on the tank to give access to the coils. The transformer tank shall be capable of withstanding an internal positive pressure of not less than 70 kPa without any permanent deflection of any parts.1 TANKS AND ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT TRANSFORMER TANKS The transformer tank shall be of welded construction with bolted cover.2.

drain and filter valves. S1. Each conservator oil compartment shall be equipped with its own oil level indicator. S1.3. The normal level at an oil temperature of 20°C shall be indicated and the minimum and maximum levels shall also be correlated with oil temperature markings.500 litres of oil in the transformer and cooler. The weight of the dehydrating agent shall be not less than 0. S1 P a g e | 5 .3.S1.2 CONSERVATOR TANK The conservator tank shall have two separate oil containing compartments– one for the main transformer tank and another for the OLTC tank. All the valves shall be made of brass and have provision for padlocking. Provision shall be made to monitor the integrity of the airbag and to give an electrical alarm if it is damaged. An oil level gauge shall be mounted on the each compartment and positioned to be easily read from ground level.1 MAIN TANK • One 50 mm nominal bore gate valve for oil treatment (oil inlet) near to the top of the tank. • One 50 mm nominal bore gate valve for oil treatment (oil outlet) near to the bottom of the tank. S1. The space inside the airbag shall be connected to ambient air through an oil seal type silica gel breather.2 CONSERVATOR – MAIN TANK • One gate valve between the conservator and Buchholz relay and Buchholz relay and main tank. This valve shall also be provided with an approved oil-sampling device. The temperature markings shall be integral with the level-indicating device. • One drain gate valve for the oil conservator so arranged that the tank can be completely drained of oil. • One outlet valve with closure cap to drain the conservator.5kg per 1.3.3. removable end plates for inspection and maintenance and lifting lugs. Facilities shall be provided for inspection of the colour and condition of the silica gel. • One gate valve on the by-pass pipe of the Buchholz relay.3.3. There shall be an arrow marking in the handhold to indicate the OPEN/CLOSE position.3 OIL VALVES AND LOCATION Each transformer shall be fitted with the following valves as a minimum requirement. which isolates the transformer oil space from the ambient air. air ventilation. • One residual oil drain gate valve on the bottom of tank.400 mm above ground. with such arrangements as may be necessary inside the tank to ensure that the tank can be drained of oil as far as practicable. • One pressure equalising gate valve between main tank conservator and the OLTC conservator. breather. designed for humid environmental conditions and mounted approximately 1. located diagonally opposite to the oil inlet valve. The conservator of the main tank shall be equipped with an airbag filled with dry air.

The tank shall be provided with minimum of four jacking pads conveniently located to allow the raising or lowering of the completely mounted and oil filled transformer.3. 5. including core and windings. Valves shall be provided on the tank at each point of connection to the detachable radiator. The following valves shall be provided: 1.3.4 OLTC CHAMBER • One outlet valve with closure cap to drain the compartments. One outlet valve with closure cap for gas from the OLTC gas actuated protective relay.3. • One outlet valve with closure cap to drain the conservator. JACKING PADS AND HAULING EYES Lifting lugs shall be provided.3 OLTC CONSERVATOR – OLTC COMPARTMENT • One gate valve between the OLTC conservator and protection relay and between the protection relay and OLTC compartment. S1. Lifting lugs shall be provided on all parts.3. and with the tank filled with oil.3.5 One outlet valve with closure cap for oil from the middle of the tank. • One 50 mm nominal bore gate valve for oil treatment (oil outlet) near to the bottom of the compartments.4 OIL AND GAS SAMPLING DEVICES Oil sampling devices shall be fitted for taking oil samples from the top and bottom of the main tank and from the OLTC oil compartment.S1. maintenance.5 RADIATORS Each radiator shall be connected to the main tank through flanged butterfly valves (on the top and bottom of radiator). 3. The load S1 P a g e | 6 .6 LIFTING LUGS. Sampling points shall be accessible to a person standing at ground level (approximately 1. Vent screws shall be fitted at the top of each radiator for air release and at the bottom for draining.3. One outlet valve with closure cap for gas from the Buchholz relay.3. • One drain gate valve for the OLTC conservator so arranged that the tank can be completely drained of oil. suitable for the weight of the transformer. Blank flanges. One outlet valve with closure cap for oil from the bottom of the tank. S1. inspection or repair. fittings. S1. 2. which require lifting for erection.400 mm above ground). The tank shall be provided with at least four lifting lugs.3. • One 50 mm nominal bore gate valve for oil treatment (oil inlet) near the top of the compartments. OIL FILTRATION AND VACUUM PROCESSING The transformer shall be fitted with gate oil valves and suitable removable flange adapters for the connection of oil filter and vacuum equipment. 4. One outlet valve with closure cap for oil from the top of the OLTC compartments (tank). S1. S1.3. plates or captive screw caps shall be fitted to all valves and pipe ends not normally connected in service.

3. The radiator external surfaces shall be hot-dip galvanised with a zinc deposit on average not less than 400 g/m2 and painted the same colour as the tank. Bolts and nuts associated with galvanised parts shall be hot-dip galvanised.8 EARTHING TERMINALS Earthing terminals shall be provided on the transformer.9 SURFACE TREATMENT The interior surfaces of transformers shall be sandblasted and finished with two coats of anti-corrosive and oil-resistant priming paint. The lower float shall operate contacts on occurrence of a sudden oil flow caused by an explosive development of gases.3. which could give rise to oil leakage. A small bore pipe shall be connected to the gas release cock on the Buchholz relay to allow gas to S1 P a g e | 7 .4. one final coat of weather and oil resistant paint of 0. All joint faces shall be arranged to prevent the ingress of water or leakage of oil with a minimum of gasket surface exposed to the action of oil or air. Each Buchholz relay shall be equipped with a gas-sampling valve with outlet approximately 3 mm diameter for a flexible pipe connection to check the operation of the relay.3.4 S1. The relay shall be provided in the pipe connection between the main tank and associated conservator with two isolating valves and a by-pass pipe with valve The upper float of the Buchholz relay shall operate contacts on accumulation of gases caused by a gradual fault.7 JOINTS AND GASKETS Gaskets shall be of approved material impervious to and having no deleterious effect on transformer oil. will take place in service. Gaskets made from nitrile rubber and utilising compression control stops are preferred.carrying capacity of each jacking pad shall not be less than 50% of the total weight of the transformer. S1. Oil resistant synthetic rubber gaskets will not be accepted except where the synthetic rubber is used as a bonding medium for cork or similar material or where metal inserts are provided to limit compression.1 mm. All interior and exterior surfaces subject to corrosion. and all such joints shall withstand without leakage the maximum vacuum which may be applied to the assembled transformer during commissioning or subsequent maintenance. S1. All joints shall be made oil-tight and shall be so designed that no deterioration of the gaskets. Hauling eyes with suitable lugs shall be provided on all sides of the transformer for haulage in any direction. close to each of the four corners and bottom of the tank to connect the transformer to the earthing system.1 PROTECTION AND INDICATION EQUIPMENT BUCHHOLZ RELAY Each transformer shall be fitted with a double float Buchholz type relay with alarm contacts and tripping contacts. S1. Earthing terminals shall be suitable for an M12 bolt. S1. Exterior surfaces shall be sand-blasted and have two rust inhibiting priming coats and one intermediate coat with paint on zinc chromate or urethane alkyd basis or equivalent. that cannot readily be painted shall be hot-dip galvanised with an average thickness not less than 0. The Contractor shall submit the material proposed for gaskets and the method of application for approval.20 mm minimum total thickness.

4. with a manually resettable pointer to register the highest temperature reached. The cabinet shall be so positioned as to allow easy access to and readability of the gauges.2 OLTC PROTECTIVE RELAY A Buchholz relay. S1. The indicator shall be provided in one phase only. Pressure relief devices shall not be electrically operated.4 TEMPERATURE INDICATING. The indicator shall have a load-temperature characteristic approximately the same as the hottest part of the windings. Each transformer shall be provided with one winding temperature indicator of the "thermal image" type compensated for changes in ambient temperature for each winding type high voltage. Each relay shall be fitted with a calibrated glass window to indicate gas volume. The indicators shall be mounted on the transformer in a suitable weatherproof steel cabinet with a lockable door. one connected to give a high temperature stage 1 alarm and one to give a high temperature stage 2 trip. Information shall be included in the maintenance instructions in the form of either a graph or table showing the relationship between current injected into the heater coil and the corresponding temperature reading. The pipe shall be run to a point approximately 1. The high voltage winding indicator shall have two additional contacts for control of the cooling fans. S1. a testing mechanical push button with protective cover. The relief devices are to be mounted on the tank covers. Where possible the oil discharge shall be directed away from the transformer top cover and clear of any manual operating position to minimise the overall effect.4. S1. The indicator shall be fitted with two sets of adjustable contacts. The primary current transformer for operating the indicator shall be built into the main transformer tank on the bushings. where it shall be terminated by an isolating valve and gas sampling valve with captive screwed cap. cable glands etc. one connected to give a high temperature stage 1 alarm and one to give a high temperature stage 2 trip. CONTROL AND ALARM DEVICES Temperature indicators shall be of the dial-type graded in ºC.3 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES Approved pressure relief devices shall be provided for the main oil tank and tap changer oil compartment (chamber). Each indicator shall be fitted with two sets of adjustable contacts. oil drain valve at the bottom with blanking plug. Temperature indicator dials shall be approximately 150 mm diameter and shall have linear gradations to clearly read at least every 2°C. They shall be of sufficient size for the rapid release of over pressure that may be generated in the tank and designed to operate at a static pressure lower than the design hydraulic test pressure. This shall have provision for locking to prevent unauthorised operation.4. Each transformer shall be provided with a dial type thermometer connected by a capillary to a temperature-sensing element suitably located in a pocket in top oil. The pipe work shall be so arranged that all gas arising from the transformer will pass into the gas and oil-actuated relay. low voltage and tertiary as appropriate.be collected at ground level. and shall be provided with two sets of signalling contacts. S1 P a g e | 8 . similar to the main tank relay.400 mm above ground level. The relay shall be actuated by an oil flow caused by a tap-changer fault. shall be mounted in the connection pipe from the OLTC compartment head to the associated oil conservator with two isolating valves.

is completed whether or not the control switch or push button is operated continuously during the operation. A contact which has closed shall re-open when the temperature has fallen by approximately 10°C. The mechanism shall incorporate a stored energy device to ensure that once a change of tap begins it is completed and the mechanism cannot fail in an intermediate position on loss of the supply voltage to the motor or any other contingency.5 S1. S1 P a g e | 9 . mechanical stops shall be fitted to prevent over-travel of the mechanism under any conditions. In addition. Phase failure relays shall be provided at the transformer to monitor the tap changer motor power supply. A permanently legible lubrication chart shall be provided and fitted inside the OLTC control and drive mechanism box. To facilitate inspection and maintenance of the OLTC switch. These shall be directly connected in the operating motor circuit. The OLTC manufacturer shall be an internationally recognised manufacturer with at least 5 years proven successful experience in manufacturing OLTC equipment. The tap-changer shall be in accordance with IEC 60214. S1. These stops shall withstand the full torque of the driving mechanism without damage to the tap change equipment. Tap positions shall be numbered consecutively ranging from one upwards.5. It shall be possible to remove the indicator bulbs without draining oil from the tank.1 ON LOAD TAP CHANGER (OLTC) GENERAL The transformer shall be provided with an on load tap changer mounted in the high-voltage winding. it shall be possible to drain the oil from around one without lowering the level of the oil in the transformer below the top of the windings. The motor drive control shall ensure that a tap change operation. Thermal devices or other approved means shall be provided to protect the motor and control circuit. Another operation shall only be possible when the control switch or pushbutton has been released and the tap change sequence has been completed.2 DRIVE MECHANISM The tap changer shall be driven by a motor operated mechanism. once initiated. The transformer winding temperature current transformers shall be equipped with test windings. Limit switches shall be provided to prevent over-travel of the tap changing mechanism. All terminals shall be clearly and permanently marked with numbers corresponding to the cables connected thereto.The instrument and set points shall have an accuracy of ±1% of full scale deflection and the indicated winding temperature must reflect the hot spot temperature to within ±3°C under all operating conditions. Checking the output and testing of the current transformer and thermal image characteristics shall be via terminals in terminal box. preferably with belt-type (oil-free) transmission gear. Adequate access for personnel shall be provided for inspection and maintenance.5. shall operate based on the Jensen principles and shall feature low-maintenance characteristics. S1. The colours of the pointer and dial plate shall be non-fading in intense sunlight conditions. The tap changer diverter switch shall be in its own oil-tight compartment supplied from a separate compartment in the conservator tank.

The following controls shall be provided in the mechanism box: • Facilities for manual mechanical operation of the tap changer • Facilities for electrical “RAISE” and “LOWER” operation by control switch or push buttons. The Contractor shall state the maximum internal temperature at which the mechanism box is designed to operate under site conditions. control shall be possible from drive mechanism control box only. When this switch is turned to the "LOCAL" position. A humidistat and/or thermostat shall automatically control the heater in the AUTO position.3 TAP CHANGER MECHANISM BOX The transformer shall be provided with an outdoor tap-changer mechanism box fitted with all equipment necessary for manual and electrical . The mechanism box shall include a voltage relay which shall prevent a RAISE operation if the transformer voltage exceeds a set value. transformer losses at full power and any heat released in operation of equipment in the box. It shall also contain a tap position transmitter with a 4-20 mA analogue and a digital (BCD) output. A REMOTE/LOCAL selector switch shall be provided at the mechanism box to select either remote or local operation. • • A humidistat with an adjustable operating range. The OLTC drive mechanism control box installed at the transformer shall contain all the electrical and mechanical parts for the Local Control. The inside of the mechanism box shall be treated with anti-condensation or thermal barrier type paint to a light or white finish.5. A cut-out thermostat with an adjustable operating range.S1. The Contractor shall provide evidence that all the equipment in the mechanism box is designed to operate continuously at this temperature. The degree of protection of the mechanism box shall be IP43. which shall be controlled as follows: • A manual switch with OFF/AUTO positions.local and remote operation of the OLTC. The mechanism box shall be ventilated and designed to minimise condensation. This temperature shall take into account the effects of solar heat gain. The motor and control circuits shall be protected by miniature circuit breakers at the tap changer mechanism box. 50 Hz. The mechanism box shall be fitted with an anticondensation space heater. The door shall have padlock facilities. Interlocking shall be provided to interrupt the electrical supply to the drive motor when the manual operation device is engaged. The mechanism box shall have a hinged door and shall be mounted on the transformer tank using anti-vibration mountings. An internal lamp controlled by a door switch shall be provided. • Test circuits with test push-button and associated lamp. The lamp shall indicate "HEATER IS WORKING" when the test push button is pressed. to prevent overheating. The heater control circuits shall operate at 230 V. S1 P a g e | 10 . The mechanism box shall include a mechanical tap position indicator and an operation counter.

. Two or more transformers operating in parallel may be selected for PARALLEL OLTC control. Operation with a tap difference greater than one shall be prevented and an ”out-of-step” alarm signal shall be given if the tap difference is one for an excessive time. It shall include control selections INDEPENDENT/PARALLEL and MASTER/FOLLOWER.S1. The voltage control relay of the transformer selected as MASTER shall control all transformers in the group from a set point within its voltage control relay. reset and change settings from a local or remote personal computer. The relays shall also have integral serial communication facilities through which it shall be possible to read. tap changing shall be staggered to ensure that only one transformer is changing tap at any time. LOCAL/REMOTE point of control selector switch and RAISE/LOWER pushbuttions. over-current and circulating current supervision. During a master/follower tap change operation. S1. under-voltage and over-voltage detectors. “Tap change in progress” indication.5. “Motor or control supply failed” alarm. reverse reactance or circulating current tap position indication.4 OLTC CONTROL PANEL Each OLTC shall have an associated OLTC control panel located in the control building. tap changer raise and lower control shall be from the RAISE/LOWER pushbuttons if LOCAL control is selected or through the substation control or SCADA system if REMOTE control is selected. in which case one of them shall be selected as MASTER and the others as FOLLOWER.6. The transformer shall be capable of operating under the ONAN condition up to its ONAN S1 P a g e | 11 . The panel shall provide for remote manual and automatic control of the tap changer when the control selector switch in the tap changer mechanism box is selected to “REMOTE”.6 S1. the OLTC shall be controlled from a set point within the voltage control relay. When control is selected to “AUTO”. If INDEPENDENT control is selected. tap changer raise and lower control shall be automatic through a voltage control relay. • • • • • Tap position. The voltage control relay shall include inverse or definite time operating characteristic. The voltage control relay shall be responsive to variation in the measured voltage and cause the necessary tap change to be made to restore the voltage to the desired level within pre-determined limits. line drop compensation. Relay setting shall also be possible through a keypad on the relay. The OLTC control panel shall include a MANUAL/AUTO selector switch. “Parallel operation – out of step” alarm.1 COOLING EQUIPMENT GENERAL A combination of two methods of cooling ONAN/ONAF shall be applied to the transformer. blocked tap change operation. a When control is selected to “MANUAL”. All transformers operating in parallel shall be on the same tap and the maximum difference between transformers when tap changing shall be one tap. “Tap changing incomplete” alarm. load shedding/boosting capabilities. The voltage control relay shall include facilities for proportionate load sharing for transformers operating in PARALLEL control.

Blower casings shall be made of galvanised steel of thickness not less than 2. depending on transformer load (one or two groups together).2 RADIATORS The transformers shall be equipped with detachable flanged radiators.0 mm or aluminium alloy and shall be suitably stiffened by angles or tees. The direction of rotation shall be indicated. The contactors and their associated apparatus shall be capable of switching the stalled current. Each radiator group shall be equipped with drain valve and air release plug. It shall be possible to remove the fan complete with motor without disturbing or dismantling the cooler structure framework Fan blades shall be of galvanised steel or cast aluminium alloy unless otherwise approved.6. S1. To reduce noise to the practical minimum. Guards shall also be provided over all moving parts. and motor enclosures shall have class IP54 protection.6. Dismantling of one of the radiators shall be possible without causing the temperature to rise above the permissible values.3 FANS The forced air-cooling shall be provided by electric motor driven fans.rating. Guards shall be designed to provide a protection of IP2X to the fan blades. Suitable valves. The valves shall be readily accessible and easy to operate.6.4 FAN CONTROL Fan operation shall be selectable TEST/NORMAL. S1 P a g e | 12 . S1. In TEST operation fans (or fan groups) shall be started and stopped using local pushbuttons. Fans shall be separated in two groups and controlled by contacts of the winding temperature indicator. The transformer ONAN and ONAF ratings shall be guaranteed by the Contractor. Fans shall be of low noise type and approved make and design and be suitable for continuous operation outdoors. a drain cock and an air release vent shall be provided on each radiator. The design shall also avoid pockets in which water can collect and shall be capable of withstanding the pressure test as defined in this specification. Inlet and outlet valve "OPEN" and "CLOSED" positions shall be clearly marked. with spare blanking plates shall be provided at the inlet and outlet of each radiator so that it may be removed without draining oil from the tank. Galvanised wire guards with mesh not exceeding 12. S1. after which the cooling equipment shall come into operation and the transformer shall operate as an ONAF unit. motors shall be mounted independently from the coolers or alternatively over fixing springs. In NORMAL operation the fans shall be automatically switched ON when the transformer winding temperature exceeds pre-set values and shall be switched OFF when the winding temperature falls below these values. Motor contactors shall comply with IEC 60158 or equivalent International standard class of intermittent duty 0 3 with type IP52 enclosure protection and utilisation category AC4.5 mm shall be provided to prevent accidental contact with the blades. Fan motors shall be suitable for direct-on-line starting. Lifting facilities. The thickness of galvanising shall be at least 55 μm. designed in such a manner that all painted surfaces can be easily cleaned and re-painted. Failure of any one fan in each group shall not reduce the continuous maximum ONAF rating of the transformer.

Each motor or group of motors shall be provided with control gear for starting and stopping by hand and automatically from the winding temperature indicator.and shall have a continuous current rating of at least 50% greater than the full load current of the motors they control. The rated current of bushing leads shall be 120% of the continuous rated capacity of the transformer. Where small motors are connected in groups. S1 P a g e | 13 . Insulators shall be made in one piece. suitable for connecting cables or auxiliary disconnecting flat copper conductors. with mounting flange manufactured of corrosionresistant alloy. Dismantling or replacing of bushings shall not require opening of the transformer tank cover. S1. The operating currents of overload trips fitted to motor contactors shall be substantially independent of ambient temperature conditions.7 S1. Bushing insulators shall be of the condenser type made of high quality electrical porcelain and copper of high conductivity. the group protection shall be arranged so that it will operate satisfactorily in the event of a fault occurring on a single motor. Overload and single phase protection shall be provided. Each bushing shall be fitted with bolted brass clamps with internal thread. weatherproof and vermin-proof fan control cabinet preferably mounted on the transformer tank using anti-vibration mountings. The control and protection equipment shall be accommodated in the control cabinet or marshalling kiosk. including the effect of direct sunlight on the enclosure in which the contactors are installed.7. A vent screw shall be provided. protective devices and switches for the forced-cooling plant shall be assembled in a dust-proof. A fan control box shall include a general purpose single-phase 13 A socket outlet.1 TERMINALS AND CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT BUSHINGS Power transformers shall be equipped with bushings for the 132 kV and 220 kV connections. filled by transformer oil and mounted on the transformer cover (inside the cable boxes). Other technical characteristics of bushings shall be in accordance with the relevant IEC and DIN Standards. motor contactors.5 FAN CONTROL CABINET All the necessary automatic control. The design of the bushings shall be such that stresses and strains due to the differing thermal characteristics of the components shall not exceed the safe limit and shall not produce a cumulative reduction in mechanical and electrical strength.6. Fan control shall include staggered start to prevent the starting of motors totalling more than 15 kW simultaneously. S1.

The cable box and the disconnecting arrangement shall be capable of withstanding the test voltages for a period of 15 minutes. with bolted connections descending to the earth grid. The boxes shall be arranged for vertical entry of the cables from the bottom. The disconnecting arrangement can consist of links in the cable boxes.8.8 HIGH VOLTAGE NEUTRAL POINT Where required. The cable boxes shall be of adequate size to accommodate the 33 kV cables and allow for crossing of the cores. A special inspection cover shall be provided so that test leads can be introduced into the boxes.S1. The rated current of this bushing shall be at least 350 A. the neutral point of 220 kV or 132 kV side of all transformers shall be bought out by an outdoor air bushing mounted on the cover of the tank. An earthing busbar made of 120 mm2 copper of shall be provided in cable box. The inside of the air insulated cable boxes shall be treated with anti-condensation or thermal barrier type paint to a light or white finish.3 TERMINAL MARKING The phase labels of terminals shall be in accordance with the relevant IEC standards. S1.8. A removable link shall be provided for this purpose. Terminal markings shall be cast-in or moulded-in lettering on the plates which shall be non– ferrous material and permanently fixed. S1 P a g e | 14 . Suitable brass cable glands and ring clamps shall be provided in cable box for introducing and fastening cables. Bare conductors shall be shielded to prevent contact by personnel. with inspection and maintenance covers. S1. Where tertiary stabilising winding connections are brought out. they shall be via outdoor bushings and grounded to the tank via a removable link (or links).2 DISCONNECTING ARRANGEMENT The transformers shall be provided with disconnecting arrangement (links) at 220 kV.8. The cable boxes shall be designed to facilitate tests on the transformer in the factory with the box in position and dielectric tests on the cable at the site. 132 kV and 33 kV terminations to facilitate testing of cables and/or transformers independently. Suitably rated flat copper conductors shall be used as disconnect links in the 33 kV cable boxes. The neutral earthing connection shall be by copper conductors of adequate section but of at least 185 mm2 secured by insulators to pads on the tank wall. The degree of protection of the cable box shall be at least IP43.1 CABLE BOXES 33 KV AND 11 KV Power transformers shall be equipped with cable boxes for 33 kV connections. S1. Cable boxes shall be air insulated. made of metal sheet plates.

Labels shall be attached to HV and control cable boxes and to all gas release. pipes. or an approved combined plate. • A plate showing the location and function of all valves. TRANSPORT AND FILLING The transformers shall be dried out by an approved method at the manufacturer's factory and so arranged that they can be put into service without further drying out at the site. The Contractor shall submit a detailed specification of the insulating oil for approval. strutting of tap changer barriers or tank cover) S1 P a g e | 15 . If there are any adverse indications. Oil shall be compatible with the oil used in the manufacturer's works and with oil which is readily available commercially. Before transport. oil sample devices and air vent or plugs. Clear instructions shall be included in the Operating and Maintenance Manuals regarding any special precautionary measures (e. other than those of viscosity at low temperature. S1. The oil tank shall be drained and filled with dried nitrogen or air. transformers shall be fitted with a shock indicator (impactograph). This plate shall also incorporate a warning to operators to refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manuals before applying vacuum. S1.10 TRANSFORMER OIL The transformers shall be supplied complete with the first filling of ester oil. humidity indicator and gas pressure gauge with an adequate gas cylinder to maintain internal pressure above atmospheric. The complete quantity of insulating oil shall be supplied in 210 litre drums suitable for long term storage in facilities which shall be provided by the Contractor on the site for this purpose. in the presence of the Project Manager.9 LABELS AND RATING PLATES The following plates.500 mm above the ground level: • A rating and diagram plate in accordance with the relevant IEC standard shall be provided. capable of withstanding the rigorous. The Contractor. Labels shall be attached to all valves and devices accordingly to the general technical requirements. conservator. wheels. continuous outdoor service at site.g. Rating Plates are to be of stainless steel with clear and indelible markings in the English language. tests and remedial treatment to ensure that the transformer will satisfy the technical requirements. radiators and protective devices. valves and fans shall be clearly labelled or marked. The direction of rotation of operating handles. Transformers shall be transported without bushings. This shall include this specification number and full details of all CTs. At each substation an additional quantity of transformer oil comprising 10% of the total quantity for all transformers in that substation shall be provided. cable boxes. gas sampling and Buchholz test points stating the name of the associated compartment. The oil properties shall be not less than the best values for those for mineral insulating oil to IEC60296 to be used on this class of power transformer. shall be fixed to the transformer tank at an average height of 1.S1. the Contractor shall undertake further investigations. shall check all these indicators and gauges after unloading and before commencement of erection.11 DRYING OUT.

vacuum pumps. The Contractor shall provide at least two weeks notice of the intention to conduct factory tests and their location. The Contractor will meet all costs for three representatives of the Employer to witness the factory tests.s and a water content less than 15 ppm. After preliminary treatment it shall have a breakdown voltage not less than 60 kV r.13. oil filters and heaters to restore the used and in-service insulating oil to its required reconditioned. Similarly any such inspection will not prevent subsequent rejection where any materials or component of a power transformer are subsequently found defective. hoses with appropriate quick coupling lock-fittings.m.s and a water content less than 15 ppm.1 INSPECTION AND TESTS The Employer or Project Manager may inspect the transformer at any stage of manufacture or be present at any tests.13 TESTS S1. No transformer shall be prepared for transportation or dispatched from the manufacturer’s works without the prior approval of the Project Manager.m. S1. Transformer oil shall be treated preliminary to filling transformers. Associated inspection and test plans and procedures shall be submitted for approval not later than the time that the notice is given. circulating pumps. On completion of the installation of the Plant and Equipment. Noise levels measured on site shall not be more than 80dB(A) at any location more than 2 m from a transformer under all loading conditions. Each transformer cell shall be provided with a suitable socket outlet for the oil treatment plant.that must be taken before transformer vacuum treatment and filling can be carried out. Timing of tests shall generally be in accordance with the agreed work programme. Transformers shall be filled under vacuum and the oil shall be circulated and treated until it has a breakdown voltage not less than 60 kV r. The capacity of the oil treatment plant shall be sufficient to fill and treat the oil for a 100 MVA transformer in about 2 days. properties. It shall have hoses on reeling drums. S1 P a g e | 16 . Any special equipment necessary to enable the transformer to withstand the treatment shall be provided with each transformer. The Contractor shall provide a mobile oil treatment plant to be used for transformer filling. During the factory tests transformers shall be tested at no-load and at rated load with all cooling running to confirm that the corrected average weighted sound pressure level is not greater than 70dB(A) when tested in accordance to IEC 60076-10. Such inspection shall not relieve the manufacturer of his responsibility for meeting all requirements of the specification. the mobile oil treatment plant shall be refurbished and handed over to the Employer. S1.12 NOISE LEVEL Noise under all operation conditions shall not exceed 70dB(A). in-service.

The Contractor shall coordinate with the Project Manager to determine if any routine tests which are identified in the IEC standards as optional are required to be performed.13. Test on protection devices. The Employer may accept type test reports on a transformer of the same design and a similar rating as satisfying this requirement. Calibration of automatic voltage control equipment. If the Contractor has not submitted acceptable type test reports prior to the factory tests.0 kV between core and core clamping structure. S1. Tan delta and capacitance of winding. Test of alarms operation of OLTC Dissolved gas analysis test according to the relevant IEC standard. the site tests shall include but are not limited to: • • • • • • • • • • • Insulation resistance test at 2. it shall be conducted on a transformer equal to but not part of the transformers being provided under the Contract.2 TYPE TESTS Transformers shall be deemed to have satisfied all type test requirements set out in relevant IEC standards. The Contractor shall submit type test reports of tests conducted by a third party testing agency which have been undertaken in the last 5 years and which cover all type tests required in IEC standards. After treatment breakdown voltage tests not less than 60 kV on insulating oil. S1 P a g e | 17 .13. the outstanding type tests shall be included in the factory tests and shall be performed on one transformer of each voltage and output.S1.4 TESTS AT SITE Before commissioning and energising of transformer.13. The dissolved gas analysis test shall be repeated one month after energisation and at the end of the Defects Liability Period. Where a type test might impair the performance or service life of a transformer. HV and LV winding resistance. Tap selector and diverter switch alignment.3 FACTORY TESTS All routine tests included in relevant IEC standards shall be performed on all transformers as part of the factory tests. Proving tests as necessary on control schemes. test and calibration of temperature meter. Check of calibration of oil/winding temperature devices. S1.

S1.520 per kW Where $ represents one United States dollar. S1.14.1 RATED OUTPUT If the rated output is less than the guaranteed output.14 GUARANTEES Transformer ratings and losses shall be guaranteed by the Contractor. the liquidated damages shall be: FOB price for transformer x (guaranteed output – measured output) ÷ (guaranteed output). If a transformer fails to meet the guaranteed values during factory tests.14. These values are based on 25 years period of evaluation and $0.08/kWh. The load factor assumed for no-load losses is 100% and that of load-losses is 50%. S1 P a g e | 18 .040 per kW Load losses $3.2 LOSSES For every one kW exceeding the guaranteed value the liquidated damages shall be: • • No-load losses $7. S1. the Employer may reject the transformer or may apply liquidated damages.

S2. The outdoor bays shall contain a drained. The reactors shall be suitable for automatic switchable operation in response to system conditions but shall be suitable for normal operation while continuously energised when this is desirable. embedment. block outs. S2. holes or recesses.1 SHUNT REACTORS GENERAL The required number of 15MVAr reactors as specified in the schedule of quantizes shall be provided for reactive (inductive) power compensation of capacitive charging from lines on the system. the Contractor shall communicate and collaborate with the Project Manager for the exchange of all necessary information.1999 “Shunt reactors over 500 kVA” S1 P a g e | 19 . The shunt reactor shall be an outdoor.21.2 STANDARDS The shunt reactor shall comply with the following IEC Publications unless otherwise specified herein. three-phase. S2. data and drawings. The reactors shall conform to the bay dimensions shown on the drawings or as approved by the Engineer. oil-immersed. For design and construction of all relevant civil and electromechanical works such as concrete foundations. rock-filled. Shunt reactor water spray fire protection equipment shall be installed in the shunt reactor bays by the Contractor. quenching pit. The shunt reactor shall be delivered to site without oil and under nitrogen gas. anchoring. with ONAN cooling and shall be provided with water spray fire protection.          IEC 60060 IEC 60071 IEC 60076 IEC 60137 IEC 60156 IEC 60168 IEC 60296 IEC 60354 IEC 60551 “High-Voltage Test Techniques” “Insulation Co-ordination” “Power Transformers” “Insulating Bushings for Alternating Voltages above 1kV” “Method for Determination of Electric Strength of Insulating Oils” “Tests on Indoor and Outdoor Post Insulators for Systems with Nominal Voltage Greater than 1 kV “Specification for New Insulating Transformers and Switchgear” Oils for “Loading Guide for Oil Immersed Transformers” “Measurement of Transformer and Reactor Sound Level” The shunt reactor shall also comply with  IEEE C57. spaces or locations and fire protection equipment.

S1 P a g e | 20 . BIL impulse impulse withstand withstand Three phase.3.The shunt reactor shall meet the following requirements:                   Type Number of shunt reactors Installation Rated voltage Rated power Rated frequency Rated current Cooling method Vector group Shunt reactor neutral earthing Highest system voltage Rated switching voltage. the temperature rise limits as specified in that Standard shall be reduced to make allowance for the cooling air temperatures prevailing at site.3 S2. S2. phase to earth (1 hr) Rated lightning impulse voltage of the neutral withstand Average winding temperature rise Hottest-spot winding temperature rise Maximum temperature rise of oil S2. however. BSL Rated lightning voltage.2 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE The Contractor shall nominate in the Schedules the calculated temperature difference between the winding hot spot and the nearest oil. Temperature limits shall not be exceeded when the shunt reactor is operated at 105% of the rated voltage.3.1 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TEMPERATURE RISE The temperature rise of the shunt reactor shall be in accordance with IEC 60076. oil immersed As specified in the Scope of Works Outdoor 33 kV 15 MVAr 50 Hz 180 A ONAN YN0 solidly earthed 36 kV 145 kVm 170 kV 40 kV 11 kV 65 K 80 K 60 K Low frequency overvoltage.

S2.2. cold-rolled.5. maximum short-circuits. low-loss. The Contractor shall describe all features of the proposed designs of the cores in sufficient detail to enable the Engineer to judge the expected performance and reliability of the shunt reactor under all conditions of lifting. grain-orientated silicon sheet steel. The Contractor shall not be eligible for any price benefit if the actual losses are less than the guaranteed losses. If the actual losses (measured during testing) exceed the tolerance according to the standards.1 WINDINGS CONNECTIONS The shunt reactor windings shall be connected in accordance with the vector groupings as nominated in Sub-clause S3. Joints shall be welded or brazed.5 S2. non-ageing. The windings shall also withstand shocks due to rough handling during transport.1. The conductors shall be copper. faulty synchronising and vibration. The tolerance allowed on the guaranteed losses for reactors shall be as per standard (6%). Core earthing shall be provided via a through-tank bushing and an external earthing link to permit disconnection for testing without draining oil from the tank. oil or ageing. details of such proposal shall be provided to the Engineer for approval. Precautions shall be taken to avoid potential differences between insulated packers of the core. S2. operation and maintenance. the Contractor shall be liable to liquidated damages at the agreed rates. with special reference to the prevention of distortion in the sheets. S2.4 CORE DESIGN The core shall be built up of high-grade.S2. burrs and splinters and shall have suitably rounded edges to reduce electrostatic flux concentrations. If the Contractor proposes earthing of the core through current-limiting impedance.3.2 CONSTRUCTION The windings shall be designed to withstand all dielectric. including those produced by lightning surges. The Contractor shall provide details of its adopted practice for annealing of core material. transport. S1 P a g e | 21 .5. The Project Manger may reject the shunt reactor if the actual losses exceed the guaranteed losses by 15% or more. Core insulation shall not be affected by core-heating.3.3.2 above and as shown on the drawings.3 LOSSES The Contractor shall nominate in the Schedules and guarantee the maximum total losses at the rated voltage and frequency for each reactor. high-permeability. free from scale.3. The core shall be equipped with a lifting arrangement of approved design. electro-magnetic and thermal stresses which might occur under operating conditions.3.

5. Each shunt reactor shall. S2.5 SECURING OF CORE AND WINDINGS The Contractor shall provide details of the method proposed for securing the core and windings within the tank. Instruments and devices shall include:     thermometers for winding and top oil temperature thermometer pockets oil level indicator oil-surge and gas-operated relay S1 P a g e | 22 . S2. Each shunt reactor shall be submitted for inspection by the Engineer immediately before the core and windings are inserted in the tank.1. in particular. or in service. S2. limited by the shunt reactor impedance itself. and substantial proof of the efficacy of such construction include. The windings shall be designed for the nominated rated lightning impulse withstand peak voltages and power frequency short time withstand voltages and other tests set out in IEC 60076 and in Sub-clause S14.4 WINDING CAPACITANCES The Contractor shall nominate in the Schedules the capacitances to earth. the Contractor shall carry out any necessary repairs or remedial action. the methods adopted in the design to prevent any movement of windings under maximum short-circuit forces.4.The Contractor shall describe the winding construction proposed and.5. upon delivery to Site. and again immediately prior to placing the tank cover in position.3 INSULATION The high-voltage star connected windings shall have graded insulation and the delta connected windings shall be uniformly insulated. The Contractor shall submit details of the construction adopted to provide satisfactory distribution of impulse voltages throughout the windings.3. including removal of tank cover or un-tanking of core and windings or special dry-out. be examined by the Contractor. transport. records of tests performed on similarly constructed reactors.3 of the STS. If damages occurred during transportation are detected.11. if available.5.3.3.4 S2. S2. The method of locking all nuts and bolts within the tank and the means of maintaining contact pressure on bolted terminal connections (eg by the use of stainless steel Belleville washer) shall be to the approval of the Engineer.1 REACTOR AUXILIARIES INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS The instruments and devices for the reactor shall be as described for the unit transformers in Sub-Clause S2. determined with the core and tank connected to earth. and to correct any slackness due to shrinkage of windings during manufacture.

The CTs for earthfault protection shall be ring type installed in the neutral outside of the reactor tank.4.1 BUSHINGS.5. VA ratings and accuracy classes for reactor differential. shall be located outside the terminal enclosures.2. The bushings shall be designed for the insulation levels specified in Sub-clause S3. incl. Each current transformer shall be provided so that the enclosure current does not affect the accuracy or the ratio of the device or the conductor current being measured. The control cabinet shall comply with the GTS and shall be mounted in a suitable location on the reactor. S1 P a g e | 23 .5.1. IEC 60044-6 (1992) or ANSI / IEEE C57. as specified for the unit transformers. 4781/DWG/4516 and shall be supplied in accordance with the following general requirements and the latest revisions of the relevant IEC or ANSI specifications.3 PROTECTION AND ALARMS The Contractor shall provide all necessary relays. current and voltage shunt reactors and connections for the protection and alarms for the reactor. All CT cores on the line side.2 REACTOR CONTROL CABINET AND CABLING A control cabinet shall be provided for the reactor. S2.2 above and shall withstand mechanical and thermal stresses imposed by transformer shortcircuit currents. All current transformer cores required for differential protection shall be located in the neutral side of each phase of reactor winding in oil.5 S2.2 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS The current transformers ratios.  oil flow indicator monitoring of AC supply. All cabling and wiring on the reactor shall be protected with screwed galvanised steel conduit. CTs shall be ring type multi ratio with fully distributed secondary windings with relay accuracy per IEC 60185 (1987). CURRENT TRANSFORMERS AND TERMINALS GENERAL Bushings shall comply with IEC 60137 and shall be tested in accordance with IEC 60233. overcurrent and earthfault protections shall be supplied within the shunt reactor as shown in DWG No.13-1978.4. S2. Current transformer secondaries shall be terminated to shorting terminal blocks within the local control cabinet. S2. S2.

The Contractor shall provide a full description of the connection arrangement proposed. Provision shall be made for adequate venting of all portions of the tank and tank attachments to prevent trapping of air during oil filling. Provision shall be made as required.5.3 HIGH VOLTAGE TERMINALS The 33kV voltage terminals of each shunt reactor shall be brought out through suitable bushings which shall form the shunt reactor. and jointed with gaskets. The tank cover (unless secured by welding) and all inspection covers and hand-holes shall be secured by bolts or studs and nuts. The inside of the tank and cover shall present no obstructions to the passage of gas bubbles to the oil-surge and gas-operated relay.s. S2. The following specified performance shall be provided for all ratios  Continuous-thermal-current rating factor 1.4 NEUTRAL TERMINAL For the reactor the neutral end of the windings shall be brought out through an outdoor oilimmersed bushing.6.m. (1 s)  Short-time mechanical current rating equivalent to short-time thermal current rating. The proposed arrangement of the shunt reactor terminals shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.5.1 TANK.6 S2. The spacing of securing bolts or studs shall ensure satisfactory retention of pressure and vacuum. including the internal arrangement at the shunt reactor tank. A non insulated copper connection of adequate rating shall be provided between the high voltage neutral bushing and the shunt reactor bay earth bus. during oil treatment and during transport.The current transformer ratios. The Contractor shall determine the final ratios and classes of CTs for the approval of the Engineer. S2. S2. VA ratings and accuracy classes shall clearly be shown on the drawings.0  Short-time thermal current rating 60 kA r. If multi ratio CT are provided it shall be possible to select any ratio for each winding without alterations to the primary. The tanks of the shunt reactors shall be fitted with cast bidirectional flanged wheels to allow site installation by winching along in-situ transfer rails. for attachment of fixing for the cables which shall be connected to the transformer control cabinet. The rated voltage of the bushing shall be such as to avoid the need for lowering the oil level and disconnection of the earth connection within the tank for performance of the induced voltage test. S1 P a g e | 24 . Neutral bushings shall have the same current rating as the phase winding. CONSERVATOR AND FITTINGS TANK Tank shall be of welded steel construction and tested as specified. Screwed joints shall not be used where oil tightness is required. The tank shall be designed to withstand all stresses which may occur in service.

 An oil over-pressure relief valve mounted centrally on the shunt reactor cover  An earthing terminal stud of 16 mm stainless steel S1 P a g e | 25 .6. one valve being on each side of the surge and gas operated relay. the top of the tank and the bottom of the tank respectively. All joints shall be made oil-tight. with the valve nearest the shunt reactor being capable of sealing against full vacuum on the shunt reactor side. at which gas may accumulate. eg via nitrogen cushion and expansion bags.6. the slope of the pipe shall be not less than 3 from the horizontal and the pipe shall slope upwards towards the conservator. Contact between oil and external air shall be diminished or prevented.  Two valves in the expansion pipe to the conservator.6. shall be connected to this pipe below the relay. shall be so designed that no deterioration of the gaskets.S2. The valves shall be readily accessible from ground level and shall be connected to the top of the conservator. S2. The conservator shall be supplied with supporting brackets and all fixings. and shall withstand without leakage the maximum vacuum that may be applied to the assembled shunt reactor during erection or subsequent maintenance. Where provision is made in this pipe for the installation of the oil-surge and gas-operated relay.2 GASKETS AND JOINTS Gaskets shall be of approved material impervious to and having no deleterious effect on shunt reactor oil. Each conservator shall be fitted with an oil level indicator showing the normal conservator oil level at temperature intervals of 10C over the range expected. The Contractor shall state the material proposed for gaskets and the method of application. S2. One end of the conservator shall be removable. The ends of the pipe connecting the shunt reactor with the conservator shall be flushed with the inside surface of the tank cover and protrude 25 mm into the conservator. The highest point of every pocket in the tank and attachments. Sampling valves with screwed caps and chains shall be fitted in the flanges of the two drain valves. Blanking flanges shall be fitted to all of the valves. will take place in service. the bottom of the conservator. having regard to prevailing tropical temperatures. Gaskets made from nitrile rubber and utilising compression control stops are preferred.3 CONSERVATOR Each oil filled shunt reactor and reactor shall be provided with an oil preservation system with a separately-mounted conservator to accommodate the thermal expansion of the oil.4 FITTINGS Each shunt reactor shall be equipped with the following fittings:  Four flanged valves for oil filtering to suit the oil treatment plant. which could give rise to oil leakage.

lifting beams and other devices required for de-tanking the core and windings by means of the power station cranes.  A dehydrating breather  A flanged fitting for connection of a vacuum pump  A three dimensional shock recorder for transportation. The shunt reactors shall be wheel mounted to allow installation by winching along in-situ transfer rails. installation and maintenance of the reactor. handling. A valve for checking the pressure of the nitrogen during shipping of the reactor. The wheels shall be dismantled when the shunt reactor would reach final position. such as the Drycol or equivalent type may be offered. The handling equipment and special tools to be provided under Sub-clause S3. clamps. if required. The supply and fitting of nitrogen breather bags is recommended for the reactor. jacking. S1 P a g e | 26 .4 of the GTS. including satisfactory lifting arrangements for de-tanking the core and windings.6. The Contractor shall submit full details of the methods of preparing both external and internal areas and the application of finishes for approval by the Engineer. the internal faces of the shunt reactor shall be prepared and painted with an oil resistant painting system. Standard oil preservation systems. Details of the oil preservation system shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. on the basis of returning the same to the Contractor after the shunt reactor arrives at Site S2.7 PAINTING AND COATING SYSTEMS The shunt reactor tanks and associated piping and hardware shall be prepared for painting and painted in accordance with the requirements of Sub-clause R2. The orientation of the wheels shall be capable of being rotated 90° when the shunt reactor is in a jacked position to allow the winching in different directions along the transfer rails. The Contractor shall provide all means of manoeuvring each shunt reactor from its transporters to its final position. The Contractor shall provide a full description of the proposed technique for de-tanking the core and windings and subsequent vacuum dry out and oil filling after reassembly. If any installation or maintenance procedure imposes loads on the power station floors or structure. S2.15. This valve shall be adequately protected against damage during transport. shall be provided to facilitate lifting. haulage.5 BREATHING SYSTEM An oil preservation system shall be provided such that the oil is sealed from contact with the atmosphere.6 LIFTING AND HANDLING DEVICES Lugs. In addition. the Contractor shall provide information on such loads and their location.2 shall include one set of all necessary slings.6. S2. and lifting and handling equipment. including the identification and provision of all necessary winching points. that any gas entering or leaving the conservator passes through a dehydrating breather and that the system operates at atmospheric pressure. brackets.6.

The sensing element for the top oil temperature indicator shall be mounted so that it can be removed from the tank without lowering the oil level. Each radiator shall be fitted with an oil flow indicator and oil differential pressure gauge.7 COOLING SYSTEM Shunt reactor cooling shall be as specified above and as defined in IEC 60076.8. The thermometers shall be housed in a weatherproof enclosure on the shunt reactor separate from the shunt reactor control cabinet. one switch with a small operate-reset differential for Stage 1 alarm. each such that the reactor shall be capable of 100 percent output with any one radiator out of service. one switch for controlling the cooling equipment. Each radiator shall have oil pumps and fans suitable for operation from a threephase. drain cocks. The Contractor shall supply the control equipment for the radiators in accordance with the following requirements. A control cabinet. The radiators shall be suitable for vacuum filling. mounted on the reactor tank.   Each radiator shall be controlled as a complete and independent unit. as well as all necessary pipework.1 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES Instruments and control devices shall comply with the GTS. Each shunt reactor shall be equipped with three. S1 P a g e | 27 .S2. Each thermometer temperature relay shall be provided with ambient temperature compensation and three electrically separate switches. The Contractor shall provide the following instruments and devices for each reactor: Temperature Detectors Liquid-expansion. freestanding. 400V. The Contractor shall propose the method of verification of the oil flow and shall demonstrate that the designed forced directed oil flow is achieved. and one switch with a quick make and break action for Stage 2 alarm and shutdown. The wiring from the dial type thermometers shall be terminated on terminal blocks in the shunt reactor control cabinet. shall contain an isolating switch (or switches). 50 Hz supply. 50 percent rated radiators. fittings. orifices. The isolating switches shall be so arranged that the radiator being isolated can be identified without confusion. S2.8 S2. It shall be possible to readily visually check that the oil pump motors are operating with correct direction of rotation. valves. dial type transmitting thermometers for top oil temperature and for winding temperature (“hot spot” temperature of the low voltage winding). The cooling equipment control switches for the two relays shall be connected in parallel. etc. Samples shall be submitted for approval as specified in the GTS. T he thermometers shall be easily readable from outside the shunt reactor bay and shall be protected from vibration arising from the shunt reactor.

each with one pair of contacts to close for alarming the abnormal condition.8. Oil Flow Indicator An oil flow indicator with the contact for remote signalisation of loss of oil flow shall be provided. The relay shall have a float operated by oil surge or low oil level and another float operated by gas accumulation. Facilities shall be provided to prevent damage to the relay during vacuum treatment. Monitoring of AC Supply Monitoring device of AC power supply for the oil pumps and the fans is required with provisions for remote signalisation. Oil Level Indicator A magnetic dial-type oil-level indicator shall be arranged in an approved position for easy reading from outside the shunt reactor bay and calibrated to show normal conservator oil level for the range of oil temperatures. S1 P a g e | 28 . The design shall be such that the current transformers can be removed without disturbing the main tank cover.5 m above floor level whereby the accumulation of gas in the relay may be sampled or relieved and a graduated sight-glass shall be provided on the gas collecting chamber. S2. Where necessary. and shall be independent of the thermometer enclosure. and one in the oil outlet of each radiator bank. Thermometer Pockets Thermometer pockets shall be provided in the following positions:  one in the top of the shunt reactor tank  one in the bottom of the shunt reactor tank  one in the oil inlet. The control cabinet shall contain terminal blocks for the termination of all secondary wiring from current transformers and devices on and about the shunt reactor.2 SHUNT REACTOR CONTROL CABINET A weatherproof control cabinet (interface marshalling box) shall be provided and mounted on the shunt reactor tank in an approved position. excluding oil pump motor connections. Spare terminals of at least 10% of the number of terminals initially used shall be provided. A test cock shall be provided 1. Gas and Oil Surge Relay An oil-surge and gas-operated relay shall be provided. It shall be fitted with one pair of normally open contacts to close on low oil level for alarm. and the Contractor shall provide the connections from the devices to the control cabinet . The gauge shall be graduated at 10 C intervals and have a total pointer deflection not less than 90 degrees. special provision shall be made at this device for when vacuum treatment of the complete shunt reactor is required.Current transformers to the Contractor’s specification shall be provided by the Contractor as necessary to supply the winding temperature indicator.

The proposed arrangement shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval. and equipment involved in the filling of the reactors.3 SURGE PROTECTION Surge protection facilities for the high voltage winding are provided by the surge arrester installed at the roof terminal of each overhead line. testing and any oil treatment required. plus additional oil in drums equal to 10 per cent oil capacity for a reactor. S1 P a g e | 29 .9.10 OIL Oil shall comply with IEC 60296 and the GTS. The Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the oil used at Site is technically equivalent to the oil used in the tests during manufacture.9.3 CABLING All cabling and wiring on the shunt reactor shall be directly from instruments and devices to the reactor control cabinet and shall be protected with screwed galvanised steel conduit. Control cabinet shall not be used for the termination of wiring to instruments and devices on and about the reactor. S2. If the Contractor requires surge protection direct to the reactor terminals they shall be deemed to be included in the Contract Price and shall be located in the reactor/cable SF6 termination enclosure.1 PROTECTION AND ALARMS ELECTRICAL PROTECTION AND ALARMS The Contractor shall supply all necessary relays.9. overcurrent and earthfault protections and alarms for each reactor. which shall include ageing tests determined in accordance with IEC 61125. “Method for Assessing the Oxidation Stability of Insulating Oils”. current transformers and connections for the differential.S2. a complete specification for the oil. such facilities shall be provided and deemed to be included in the Contract Price. S2. and dielectric loss angle measured at 90C and 1 kV/mm. and that traces of oil used in the tests during manufacture will have no harmful effects on the oil used for filling shunt reactors at Site. The Contractor shall submit for approval by the Engineer. The Contractor shall provide all labour. The Contractor shall nominate in the Schedules the dielectric withstand strength which shall be obtained on a sample of oil drawn from the bottom of the reactors tank immediately prior to commissioning at Site. S2. materials.8.9 S2.2 FIRE PROTECTION Each shunt reactor shall be protected by a separate high velocity water spray fire protection system. The Contractor shall provide the first filling of oil for each of the shunt reactors. Where the Contractor considers that additional protection or alarm facilities are required. S2.

11. on each of the following occasions:      At departure from factory. A set of four skids.15. Where appropriate. specific handling equipment for the shunt reactors shall be provided. etc. conservators. The shunt reactors shall be shipped without oil.2 HANDLING EQUIPMENT Unless the handling equipment specified in Sub-Clause S2.1 SHIPPING METHOD The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to preserve the quality of the shunt reactors insulation between the time of testing at the manufacturer’s work and delivery to the Site. by facsimile. On arrival at Site. A set of devices for de-tanking the reactor core and windings. The Contractor shall observe the gas pressure of each reactor. the equipment provided shall be fully compatible with the power station cranes and the Assembly Bay. S2. The gas pressure shall be automatically maintained above atmospheric pressure and a pressure gauge shall be fitted for this purpose.2 for the unit transformers can be used. The handling equipment shall include the following:        A set of four jacks. under dry nitrogen gas pressure. Before loading on the ship. A set of devices for handling the reactors with the high voltage termination bushings removed and the tank filled with oil. Before and after unloading from ship. Bushing handling slings. S1 P a g e | 30 . and advise the reading to the Engineer.S2. a three-dimension shock recorder shall be fitted to monitor the stresses to which the transformers have been subjected during transport. The handling equipment to be provided shall be compatible with the fittings provided on the reactors.11. In addition.11 HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND SHIPPING METHOD S2. After loading on to ship. The Contractor shall submit a detailed inspection check list if the impact recorded on the shunt reactors exceeds the value nominated in the Schedules. A set of pulling devices. Suitable means shall be provided to monitor the core insulation throughout the shipping processes. A set of slings for radiators.

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