Copyright © 2004

AutoCAD 3D Training Manual
®

Written by Kristen S. Kurland

® AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Chapter 1 Controlling Views

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Viewports Viewports 1.1

Viewports

Screen divided into three tiled viewports

-Vports Command
1. Type -VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -vports Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] <3>: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter Regenerating model. 2. 3. Click Type once in each vport to make it active. a ZOOM option in each viewport. NOTE: AutoCAD plots only the current vport.

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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OK. Choose Click Click View. 2.2 1.Kristen Kurland 7 .Viewports 3D Viewports 1. New Viewports tab of the Viewports dialog Viewports 6 Copyright © 2004 . Viewports. 3. New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

3.Kristen Kurland 9 .Preset Views Preset Views 1.3 1. Click Click the Set Current button the OK button 8 Copyright © 2004 . 2. Choose Click Click View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . One of the following view options: Top Bottom Front Back Left Right Southwest Isometric Southeast Isometric Northeast Isometric Northwest Isometric Preset Views 4. Named Views Orthographic & Isometric Views tab of the View dialog. 5.

Vpoint or 2.500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter) Regenerating drawing.614.-0. 3D Views.-0.500>: (enter) 3. The compass represents a two dimensional globe.Kristen Kurland 11 . Type VPOINT at the command prompt.5 Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt. 1. Resultant viewport with new 3D view 10 Copyright © 2004 . Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0.614.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command (Tripod) 1.614. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.0.614. 3D Views. Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. Choose View. Vpoint or 2.4 Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation. Choose View.0. Tripod Point in the center of the compass is the north pole Vpoint Command Middle ring of the compass is the equator Entire outer ring is the south pole Vpoint Command (Rotate) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 1.

Pick a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane 5. or 4. Viewpoint Preset or 2.6 1. Type DDVPOINT at the command prompt. Click OK.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Vpoint Command Vpoint Command DDVpoint Command 1. Resultant viewport with new 3D view Angle from the X Axis Angle in the XY Plane 12 Copyright © 2004 . Set a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 13 . Command: ddvpoint 3. 3D Views.

2.Kristen Kurland 15 . Vpoint or 2.690. Choose View. and one of the following viewpoint options: Top. Bottom. Choose View. Right.Vpoint Presets Vpoint Command (Vector Option) 1. 3D Views.-1.-1. 1.1 Regenerating drawing.-1.995>: -1. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-1. Front.1 Other Preset Viewpoints 1. Vpoint Presets Resultant viewport with entered coordinates -1. 3D Views.8 1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .981. Left.7 Enters coordinates at the viewpoint prompt. Back SW Isometric SE Isometric NW Isometric NE Isometric 14 Copyright © 2004 .

Plan View
Plan View 1.9
1. Choose View, 3D Views, Plan View the one of the following: Current UCS, World UCS, Named UCS or 2. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: plan Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: Regenerating model.

Plan View

Current ucs Ucs

Goes to the plan view of the current UCS. At the command line type in a name of a previously named Coordinate System. Goes to the plan view of the World Coordinate System.

World

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Thickness
Thickness Command 2.1
Sets the current 3D solid thickness.

Thickness

1.

Type

THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: thickness Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 2.00

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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..Kristen Kurland 23 . Thickness 1. Choose Modify. Command: ddmodify or ddchprop or 3. Choose from the Standard Toolbar 22 Copyright © 2004 .2 Changing the current properties of an object changes its thickness. Type DDMODIFY or DDCHPROP at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Thickness Changing the Current Thickness 2. Properties. or Changes the current thickness of an object 2.

Elevation and Elev Shortcur Elevation Command 2.0000>: 2. Command: elevation Enter new value for ELEVATION <0.3 Stores the current elevation relative to the current UCS for the current space.Kristen Kurland 25 . Elevation and Elev Shortcut 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type ELEVATION at the command prompt.00 24 Copyright © 2004 .

Type ELEV at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 27 .0000>: Specify new default thickness: <3.0000>: 26 Copyright © 2004 .4 1.Shortcut to Elevation & Thickness Commands 2. Command: elev Specify new default elevation: <2.

Kristen Kurland 29 .Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model 28 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

1 Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines suppressed. Type HIDE at the command prompt. Objects Before Hidden Line Removal Hide 1.Kristen Kurland 31 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Hide Hide Command 3. Objects After Hidden Line Removal 30 Copyright © 2004 . OR 2. Command: hide Regenerating Model. Hide. Choose View.

Type SHADE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 33 .Shade Shade Command 3. Choose View. OR 2. The following are various shade options: Flat Shaded Gourand Shaded (edges on) 3D Wireframe Gourand Shaded (Smoother) 32 Copyright © 2004 . Command: shade Regenerating Drawing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Shade.2 Gourand Shaded (edges on) Shade Displays a flat-shaded image of the drawing in the current viewport while performing a hidden line removal. Flat Shaded (edges on) 1.

edges in object color Faces in object color.4 Sets the ratio of diffuse reflective light to ambient light (in percentage of diffuse reflective light). edges in background color Shadif Variable 3. Command: shadedif Enter new value for SHADEDIF <70>:20 34 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: shadedge Enter new value for SHADEDGE <3>: (enter) 0 1 2 3 Faces shaded.2 . edges drawn in background color Faces not filled. Type SHADEDIF at the command prompt. edges not highlighted Faces shaded. Type SHADEDGE at the command prompt. 1.3 Shaded Object Shade Controls shading of edges in rendering.Shade Shadedge Variable 3. 1.Kristen Kurland 35 3.

Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal and Shade for Plots 3. Choose the check box beside the option to remove hidden lines.5 If your drawing contains 3D faces.Kristen Kurland 37 . sur faces. extruded objects.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Hidden Lines in Plots 1. Hides Lines for Plots 36 Copyright © 2004 . meshes. Type PLOT at the command prompt. or solids. you can direct AutoCAD to remove hidden lines or shade from specific viewports when you plot the paper space view. Command: plot 2.

Kristen Kurland 39 .he effect of this command until you plot the drawing.Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal in Mviews (Paper Space) 3. Type MVIEW at the command prompt.6 1. Hidden Lines in Plots Mview with Hidden Line Removal 38 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Select objects: enter NOTE: You do not see t. Command: mview Specify corner of viewport or [ON/OFF/Fit/Shadeplot/Lock/Object/Polygonal/Restore/2/ 3/4] <Fit>: s Shade plot? [As displayed/Wireframe/Hidden/Rendered] <As displayed>: h Select objects: pick mview in paperspace.

Kristen Kurland 41 .Chapter 4 Z Coordinates 40 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.2. Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1.2.1.0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1. 3D Polyline 1.1.1 3D Polyline Drawn with 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 43 .1.0 42 Copyright © 2004 . In addition to specifying X and Y values.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2.Y).3D Coordinates Entering 3D Coordinates 4.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2.Y.0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1.Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X. you specify a Z value.

Command: move Select objects: (pick object) 1 found Select objects: hit enter Specify base point or displacement: 0.0.Kristen Kurland 45 .0 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0.1 Circle Moved -2 Units in the Z Direction 44 Copyright © 2004 .Moving in the Z Direction Moving in the Z Direction 4.0.2 Original Circle Draw at Elevation Zero Moving in the Z Direction Move Command To move an object in the Z direction. Type MOVE at the command prompt. 1. use the move command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . you can use point filters. Command: point Point: . 3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 1. Before issuing the point filter command. use DDPTYPE and choose a visible point style.3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 4. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 47 .xy of end P1 of (need Z): 2 46 Copyright © 2004 .3 To place a point 1 inch above the back left corner of the rectangle.

Chapter 5 User Coordinate System 48 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 49 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin] <ON>: UCS icon turned OFF ON OFF All Noorigin ORigin Displays the UCS icon. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the UCS XY plane. Mspace UCSICON Pspace UCSICON 1. UCS Icon. Type UCSICON at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 51 . 50 Copyright © 2004 . On/Off. Turns off the display of the UCSICON. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner.0 origin of the current UCS. Choose View. Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports.0.Ucsicon UCS icon turned ON Ucsicon UCSICON 5.1 The UCS icon represents the orientation of the UCS axes and the location of the current UCS origin. Display. Shows the UCS at the 0.

or viewport entity). Removes a saved UCS definition. leaving the direction of the X. Z Axis. Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: 2. Allows you to define a new origin. Names and saves a UCS.Y.UCS Dialog Box & World UCS UCS Overview 5. Y. View X.2 Manages user coordinate systems. parallel to your screen). Face. 1. Z Origin Defines a new UCS by shifting the origin of the current UCS. Rotates the ucs around a specified axis Previous Restore Save Delete World ? Move . leaving the orientation of its XY plane un changed. planes of operation.e. Lists the defined UCSs in the current drawing. Specifies one of the six orthographic UCSs provided with AutoCAD. Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpen dicular to your viewing direction (i. polygon mesh. UCS Toolbar OrthoGraphic ZAxis 3 Point Object UCSII Toolbar Face View X/Y/Z 52 Copyright © 2004 . The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry. Lets you define a new coordinate s ystem by pointing at an entity (except a 3D polyline. Restores the World Coordinate System. Choose One of the following UCS options: New Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin. These UCS settings are typically used when viewing & editing 3D models [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right] Restores the previously saved UCS. and Z axes unchanged. Restores a saved UCS.Kristen Kurland 53 . 3 Point. Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS. and viewing. Specifies a UCS by its origin and a point on the positive X and Y axes.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Redefines a UCS by shifting the origin or changing the Z-depth of the current UCS. Object.

3 1.Kristen Kurland 55 .0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the WCS. NOTE: This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks. Entering @2. 54 Copyright © 2004 .0.UCS Dialog Box & World UCS World UCS 5. Entering @*2. most coordinates are entered relative to the UCS rather than the WCS. It is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World> (press enter) World Returns the UCS back to the original World UCS.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the UCS. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Tip: To enter coordinates relative to the WCS • Precede coordinate values with an asterisk (*).Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0. Type UCS at the command prompt. In practice.

Kristen Kurland 57 . Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0.00>: Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2.0.7.0. Type UCS at the command prompt.73.53.8.4 1.0.73.53.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .00>: Setting the UCS with the 3 Point Method UCS UCS modified 56 Copyright © 2004 .UCS 3 Point UCS 5.0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.0.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UCS parallel to the View Instead of the Object 58 Copyright © 2004 .0. parallel to your screen).5 1.Plan View of Current UCS Plan View and UCS 5.6 1. Command: plan UCS View 5.Kristen Kurland 59 .e.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>:V View Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0. Type UCS at the command prompt.

0. The new UCS has the same extrusion direction (positive Z axis) as that of the selected object.Kristen Kurland 61 .UCS Object 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.7 1. Type UCS at the command prompt.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>:OB Object Defines a new coordinate system based on a selected 3D object. 60 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

AutoCAD Help Topics for New UCS Other New UCS Options 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>: 62 Copyright © 2004 .8 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 63 . Type UCS at the command prompt.0.

Type UCS at the command prompt. Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .10 UCS 1.UCS Saving the UCS 5.9 Restoring the UCS 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Re store/Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: r Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]: 1 64 Copyright © 2004 . Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: s Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: 1.Kristen Kurland 65 .

Kristen Kurland 67 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dducs 66 Copyright © 2004 . Type DDUCS at the command prompt.11 UCS Dialog Box (DDUCS) 1.UCS Dialog Box 5.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands 68 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 69 .

Pan & Zoom Outside the Arcball . Command: 3dorbit OR 2.Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 71 . Click on one of the 3D Orbit arcball locations. 3D Orbit. Inside one of the small circles to the left/right . The 3D Orbit Arcball appears.Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center.1 Controls Interactive 3D Viewing D Orbit Command.Rotates around the “X” axis through the center. Inside the Arcball . Choose View. Pan & Zoom Introduction to 3D Orbit Command 6. 3. 70 Copyright © 2004 .Allows movement in any direction Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom .3D Orbit Command. Type 3DORBIT at the command prompt.

D Orbit Command. 2.2 1.3D Orbit Command. Click Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Kristen Kurland 73 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . PAN or ZOOM from the pop-up menu. Pan & Zoom Pan and Zoom in 3D Orbit 6. Pan & Zoom 72 Copyright © 2004 .

Projection. Choose Choose Parallel Displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. 2. one of the shade options. 2. 74 Copyright © 2004 . and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Click Projections.Kristen Kurland 75 . 3. 1. 3. Parallel or Perspective. Shading. Objects appear to recede into the distance. The shapes are some what distorted when the object is very close. The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer. Perspective Displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point.4 with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Shading & Visual Aids Shading 6.3 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Projections. This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees. Shading & Visual Aids Projection Mode 6.

Kristen Kurland 77 . Swivel Camera. 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Adjusting Camera 76 Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Adjusting Camera Camer Swivel and Distancea 6. Changes the target of the view.5 Simulates the effect of turning the camera. 2. More. a location in the view to change the camera. 3. 4.

Shading & Visual Aids 1.Kristen Kurland 79 . Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.6 3D Grid Option Projections. UCS Icon 78 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.Projections. one of the visual aids options. 3. Compass Option TIP: Use GRIDUNIT to change the spacing of the grid units. Visual Aids. Shading & Visual Aids Visual Aids 6.

Clipping Planes Clipping Planes 6. they will remain ON.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .7 1. Clipping Plane Options Clipping Planes NOTE: If you have clipping planes ON when you exit the 3D Orbit command. 3.Kristen Kurland 81 . More. one of the clipping planes options. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Adjusting Clipping Planes in the Clipping Plane Window 80 Copyright © 2004 . 2.

Continuous Orbit Continuous Orbit 6. Continuous Orbit. This movement controls the direction and speed of the orbit. Continuous Orbit Continuous Motion (Rt Click to change options) 82 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .8 1. 4. 3.Kristen Kurland 83 . 2. More. Click Choose Choose Click with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. and drag to start the continuous 3D Motion.

Kristen Kurland 85 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 7 Dynamic View .Perspective 84 Copyright © 2004 .

Dynamic View and Perspective DView Camera Option 7. 3D Orbit or 2.Kristen Kurland 87 . Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: ca Specify camera location.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Dynamic View and Perspective Setting a Camera Location 86 Copyright © 2004 . or [Toggle (angle in)] <90. or [Toggle (angle from)] <90. or enter angle from XY plane. Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Note: You can also twist and pick a camera location.0000>: 30 Specify camera location.1 1.00000>: 45 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model. or enter angle in XY plane from X axis.

Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK> pick objects: Select objects: enter Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: TA Specify camera location.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or [Toggle (angle in)] <35. 3D Orbit or 2. or enter angle from XY plane.Kristen Kurland 89 .2 1. Setting a Target Location Dynamic View and Perspective 88 Copyright © 2004 . Note: You can also type a target location. Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective DView Target Option 7.2644>: pick a target loca tion Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: enter Regenerating model. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. zooming is not allowed. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.3 Setting Camera Target with POints Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. 1.Setting Camera Target with POints Setting Camera Target with Points 7. Once a perspective view is set.Kristen Kurland 91 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/ TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: PO 90 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Dynamic View. Choose View. or 2.

Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: OFF 92 Copyright © 2004 .7321>: pick Resultant Perspective View Turning Perspective Off 7.5 1. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. 3D Dynamic View. or 2. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Dynamic View. Once a perspective view is set. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: D New camera/target distance <1.Dynamic View and Perspective Setting Perspective Distance 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View.4 Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Choose View. zooming is not allowed.Kristen Kurland 93 . or 2. Zoom to a Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective 1.

Choose View.6 1.Kristen Kurland 95 . or 2.7 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View.Dynamic View and Perspective Zooming in Dview 7.666mm>: pick Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Zoomed and Panned Panning in Dview 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>:PA Displacement base point: pick Second point: pick 94 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. 3D Dynamic View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: Z Adjust lens length <9.

9 1. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: CL Back/Front/<Off>: F Eye/<Distance from target> <4. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Dynamic View.4721>: pick Twisting Objects 7. Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective Clipping Objects 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: TW New view twist <0. or 2.Kristen Kurland 97 .00>: pick 96 Copyright © 2004 .8 Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Clipped Objects 1.

3D Dynamic View. Choose View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: H 98 Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Dynamic View and Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective Hidden Line Removal 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .10 1.Kristen Kurland 99 . or 2.

Kristen Kurland 101 .Chapter 8 3D Model Objects 100 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

102 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 103 . lines. this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming. such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines. it consists only of points.1 A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space. There are no surfaces in a wireframe model.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . and curves that describe the edges of the object. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects.Wire Frames Wire Frames Wireframes 8. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned.

Because the faces of the mesh are planar.2 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object. Choose Draw. With Mechanical Desktop. 104 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 105 . meshes. you can create true curved surfaces. Surfaces 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Surfaces Surfaces 8. To differentiate these two types of surfaces. The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. Surfaces. but also its surfaces. AutoCAD calls faceted surfaces. the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces.

spheres. You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (overlapping) volume. it is recommended that you not mix modeling methods. 106 Copyright © 2004 . You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis. cylinders.Kristen Kurland 107 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use.Solids Solids 8. wedges. With the AutoCAD solid modeler. and tori (donuts). cones. Solids NOTE: Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types. 1. Choose Draw. you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes. Solids.

Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces 108 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 109 .

or 2.2 1. Choose Choose Choose Draw. Solid.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. 2D Solid.. Type SOLID at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 111 . Solids. 3. Command: solid First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter 2D Hatch 9. 110 Copyright © 2004 .2D Solid and Hatch 2D Solid 9. Choose Draw. the Other Predefined tab.. NOTE: 2D Solids and Hatches cannot be rendered or shaded.1 2D Solid and Hatch 1. Hatch.

3D Faces 3D Face 9. allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes. 3DFACE differs from SOLID. Command: 3dface First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter 112 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. you control which edges of a 3D face are visible. or 2.Kristen Kurland 113 . which creates a threeor four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible.3 3DFACE creates a three. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. Choose Draw. 3D Faces With 3DFACE. 3D Face. 1.or four-sided surface anywhere in 3D space. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face.

Type EDGE at the command prompt. Edge. Choose Draw.Edges Edge 9.4 1. Surfaces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Command: edge Display/<Select edge>: pick a 3D edge Edges 114 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 115 .

3D Face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: 3dface First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen. Invisible Faces 116 Copyright © 2004 . Type 3DFACE at the command prompt.5 1. or 2. Solids.Kristen Kurland 117 . Choose Draw.Invisible Faces 3D Invisible Edge 9.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 3. vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2.Kristen Kurland 119 . vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 Face 2. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 Face 1. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 2. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 Face 3. Type PFACE at the command prompt. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 Face 1. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 Face 2. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 Face 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 Face 3. vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: Pface 118 Copyright © 2004 . vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 Face 2.7 1. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4. Command: pface Specify location for vertex 1-8: P1 -P8 Face 1.Pface Pface 9. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 1.

Chapter 10 3D Surfaces

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3DBox
3DBox 10.1
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the box from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_BOX at the command prompt. Command: ai_box Initializing... 3D Objects loaded. Corner of box: pick Specify length of box: 4 Specify width of box or [Cube]: 2 Specify height of box: 2 Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Refer ence]: 0

3DBox

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Pyramid Pyramid 10.2
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the pyramid from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_PYRAMID at the command prompt. Command: ai_pyramid Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: pick Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: <Ortho on> 4 Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: 4 Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: 4 Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]: .xy of pick (need Z): 4

Pyramid

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1.. or 3. 2. Command: ai_wedge Specify corner point of wedge: pick Specify length of wedge: 4 Specify width of wedge: 2 Specify height of wedge: 1 Specify rotation angle of wedge about the Z axis: 0 Wedge 126 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces.Wedge Wedge 10. the wedge from the dialog menu.. 3D Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 127 . Type AI_WEDGE at the command prompt.

Choose Pick Draw. the dome from the dialog menu. Type AI_DOME at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 129 .4 1. Surfaces. or 3. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Dome Dome 10. Command: ai_dome Specify center point of dome: pick Specify radius of dome or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dome <8>: 10 Dome 128 Copyright © 2004 .. 3D Surfaces..

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 1. Type AI_SPHERE at the command prompt. or 3. Surfaces. Command: ai_sphere Specify center point of sphere: pick Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Sphere 130 Copyright © 2004 .. Choose Pick Draw.Sphere Sphere 10. 3D Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 131 . the sphere from the dialog menu.. 2.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ... 2. or 3. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland 133 . Type AI_CONE at the command prompt. the cone from the dialog menu.6 1. Command: ai_cone Specify center point for base of cone: pick Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: 5 Specify height of cone: 3 Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: enter Cone 132 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Surfaces.Cone Cone 10. Surfaces.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 135 . the torus from the dialog menu.Torus Torus 10. 2. Choose Pick Draw. Command: ai_torus Specify center point of torus: pick Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 1 Enter number of segments around tube circumference <16>: enter Enter number of segments around torus circumference <16>: enter Torus 134 Copyright © 2004 . Type AI_TORUS at the command prompt.7 1.. 3D Surfaces. or 3..

Dish Dish 10.8 1. 2. or 3. the dish from the dialog menu. Command: ai_dish Specify center point of dish: pick Specify radius of dish or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dish <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dish <8>: 15 Dish 136 Copyright © 2004 ... 3D Surfaces. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland 137 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. Type AI_DISH at the command prompt.

1 Specify second corner point of mesh: 4.1 Enter mesh size in the M direction: 20 Enter mesh size in the N direction: 10 138 Copyright © 2004 .. Mesh 1.9 Creates a planar mesh whose M and N sizes determine the number of lines drawn in each direction along the mesh.1.1 Specify third corner point of mesh: 4. Type ai_mesh at the command prompt. Specify first corner point of mesh: 1.Kristen Kurland 139 . 3D Objects loaded.1.2 Specify fourth corner point of mesh: 1.Mesh Mesh 10.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ai_mesh Initializing..4.4.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 141 .Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces 140 Copyright © 2004 .

-=cw) <360> enter 142 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 143 . Revolved Surface.1 Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis. Type Revsurf at the command prompt.Revolved Surfaces Revolved Surface 11. or 2.. Surfaces..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surftab1 and Surftab2 Variables 1. Choose Draw. Command: revsurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw.

1. Type Surftab2 at the command prompt. Command: surftab1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 2. Command: surftab2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 144 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF.Suftab1 and Surftab2 11. Type Surftab1 at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 145 . Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 Creates a tabulated surface from a path curve and a direction vector. Type TABSURF at the command prompt. Command: tabsurf Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector: Path for Curve 146 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 147 .Tabulated Surfaces Tabulated Surfaces 11. Surfaces. Direction Vector Tabulated Surfaces 1. Choose Draw. Tabulated Surfaces or 2.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RULESURF at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 149 .4 Creates a ruled surface between two curves. Ruled Surface or 2.Ruled Surface Ruled Surface 11. Surfaces. Ruled Surface 1. Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2 148 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.

Ruled Surface More Ruled Surface Examples 11.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 151 .4 Ruled Surface 150 Copyright © 2004 .

Edge Surface Edge Surface 11. Type EDGESURF at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 153 . Surfaces.5 Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh Edge Surface 1. Edge Surface or 2. Choose Draw. Command: edgesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4 152 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 155 .Chapter 12 Solids 154 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 157 . Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 4 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: enter 156 Copyright © 2004 . You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE. Lines with a Thickness of 2” Extrude Command Lines Extruded 2” 1. Choose Draw. Extrude. or 2. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.1 Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects.Extrude Command Extrude 12.

Kristen Kurland 159 . Choose Draw.2 1. or 2. Extrude. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 158 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Solids.Extrude with Taper 12.

Extrude. Solids.3 1.Kristen Kurland 161 . Choose Draw. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick curved pline Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 0 160 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Extrude Curves 12.

1.Extrude Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 12. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: P1 Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: p Select extrusion path: P2 Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle Circle Extruded Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 162 Copyright © 2004 . Extrude. Choose Draw. or 2. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 163 . Solids.4 EXTRUDE also creates solids by extruding two-dimensional objects (profiles) along a specified path.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Revolve Command 1.Kristen Kurland 165 . Type REVOLVE at the command prompt.5 Creates a composite region or solid by addition. Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter 164 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Revolve or 2. Solids. Choose Draw.Revolve Command Revolve 12.

Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 167 . Box.0>: pick corner Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick opposite corner Specify height: 2 166 Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Box Solid Box Lines with a Thickness 1.0. Type BOX at the command prompt Command: box Specify corner of box or [CEnter] <0. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Box Box Solid 12.6 Creates a three-dimensional solid box.

Sphere Sphere with Hidden Lines Sphere 1. Command: sphere Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of sphere <0.0. Sphere.0>: pick point Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 2 168 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 169 . Type SPHERE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Solids.7 Creates a three-dimensional solid sphere.Sphere Sphere 12. or 2.

Command: ISOLINES Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 15 sphere with 15 isolines 170 Copyright © 2004 .Isolines and Facetres Isolines 12.8 Specifies the number of isolines per surface on objects.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 171 . sphere with 4 isolines Isolines and Facetres 1. Valid integer values are from 0 to 2047. Type ISOLINES at the command prompt.

Type FACETRES at the command prompt.0.1000>: 5 sphere with facetres 5 172 Copyright © 2004 . Valid values are from 0.1 Isolines and Facetres 1. Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <.01 to 10.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Isolines and Facetres Facetres 12.9 Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed.Kristen Kurland 173 . sphere with facetres 0.

0. Cone Cone with Hidden Lines Cone 1. Cone.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Cone Cone 12.Kristen Kurland 175 .10 Creates a three-dimensional solid cone. Solids.0>: pick point Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify height of cone or [Apex]: 4 174 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Command: cone Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center point for base of cone or [Elliptical] <0. Type CONE at the command prompt.

0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Wedge12. Choose Draw. Command: _wedge Specify first corner of wedge or [CEnter] <0. 1.11 Creates a three-dimensional solid wedge. Solids.0>: pick Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick Specify height: 2 176 Copyright © 2004 . Wedge. or 2.Kristen Kurland 177 . Type WEDGEat the command prompt.

0. Command: torus Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of torus <0.Torus Torus 12.Kristen Kurland 179 .0>: pick point Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 2 178 Copyright © 2004 . Torus. Solids. Torus Torus with Hidden Lines Torus 1.12 Creates a donut-shaped solid. Choose Draw. Type TORUS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

Kristen Kurland 181 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 13 3D Edits 180 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland 183 .0. Type ROTATE3D at the command prompt. Command: rotate3D Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick Select objects: enter Specify first point on axis or define axis by [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: x Specify a point on the X axis <0. 3D Operation. Rotate3D.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: pick Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 Object Rotated 90 degrees around x-axis 182 Copyright © 2004 . Object Before Rotation 3D Rotate 1.3D Rotate Rotate 3D 13.1 Rotates objects about a three-dimensional axis.

Kristen Kurland 185 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Align Align 13. Type ALIGN at the command prompt. Align. Choose Modify.2 1. or 2. 3D Operation. Command: align Select objects: pick the wedge Select objects: enter Specify first source point: P1 Specify first destination point: P2 Specify second source point: P3 Specify second destination point: P4 Specify third source point or <continue>: enter Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No] <N>: enter Wedge Aligned to the Box ( Not Scaled) Objects before align Align 184 Copyright © 2004 .

3 Circle Mirrored around 3 Points Mirror 3D 1. Mirror 3D.Kristen Kurland 187 . Choose Modify. Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter 186 Copyright © 2004 .Mirror 3D Mirror 3D 13. or 2. 3D Operation.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt.

. 3D Operation..) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (. Choose Modify. 3D Array.4 Arrayed Objects in Plan View 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Front View 1..3D Array 3D Array (Rectangular) 13.): 8 Arrayed Objects in 3D Isometric Arrayed Objects in 3D Viewpoint 188 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 189 . Command: 3darray Select objects: pick the cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: enter Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (.

-=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick 190 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 191 . 3D Operation. or 2. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. 3D Array. Choose Modify.3D Array 3D Array (Polar) 13. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw.5 Arrayed Objects Around a Line 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Plan View 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Subtract
Subtract 14.1
Creates a composite region or solid by subtraction.

Subtract

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or

2.

Type

SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: subtract SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the cylinder Select objects: enter
Objects Subtracted from Box

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Union
Union 14.2
Creates a composite region or solid by addition.

Union

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or

2.

Type

UNION at the command prompt. Command: union Select objects: pick cylinder & box Select objects: enter

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

197

Command: intersect Select objects: pick cylinder and box Select objects: enter Intersection of Cylinder and Box 198 Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Intersect 1.3 Creates a solid based on the intersection of two existing solids. Intersect or 2.Kristen Kurland 199 . Type INTERSECT at the command prompt.Intersect Intersect 14. Choose Modify.

Kristen Kurland 201 .Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects 200 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

5. Moving & Rotating Select Face 2. If you choose more than one face. Extruding Faces. Extrude face NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Moving & Rotating Extruding Faces 15. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . height of extrusion or [Path]: . Choose Modify.25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45 Extruded Face 202 Copyright © 2004 . ENTER.1 1. Choose Press Specify Specify a face to extrude. Solids Editing. 4.Kristen Kurland 203 .Extruding Faces.

6. ENTER. Choose Choose Press Specify Specify Specify Modify.Kristen Kurland 205 .Tapering Faces Tapered Faces 15. Taper face a face(s) to taper. 4. After Taper 204 Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3. the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 Solid validation started. If you choose more than one face. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 5. Solid validation completed.2 Before Taper Tapering Faces 1. 2.

ENTER. Choose Choose Press Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland 207 . hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Delete face a face to delete. the face to delete. 3. Solids Editing. If you choose more than one face.Delete Delete Faces 15.3 1. 4. Delete 206 Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Choose Press Pick Pick Modify. 5.Kristen Kurland 209 . Copy Faces 208 Copyright © 2004 . 2. the solid face to copy. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.4 1. Solids Editing. ENTER.Copy Faces Copy Faces 15.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3. 4. a new location. If you choose more than one face. Copy face a face to copy .

Color
Color Face 15.5
1. 2. Choose Choose faces. 3. 4. Press Choose ENTER. a color to change the face to. Modify, Solids Editing, Color face a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted

Color

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

211

Imprint
Imprint 15.6
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. Extrude objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. Change the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Choose Select Select Delete Modify, Solids Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: y

Imprint

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

213

Extrude Imprint to Create Openings 15.7
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Modify, Solids Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted.

Deselect any unwanted faces. Type -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height)

214

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

215

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . After Clean 216 Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing.Clean Clean 15. Choose Select Modify.8 Before Clean Clean 1. Clean. a 3D solid: pick imprinted circle. 2.Kristen Kurland 217 .

AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting.Shell 15. AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. Select a 3D solid: pick Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter Enter the shell offset distance: .9 You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object.Kristen Kurland 219 . Solids Editing. Shell. 1.5 218 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process 212 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 213 .

Draw. Make it the current layer.Creating Sections Creating Sections 16.0>:quad of bottle.Kristen Kurland 215 .DWG a layer called Section. 3. Select objects: Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/ Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] : ZX Specify a point on the ZX-plane <0. 5. Solids. Creating Sections 214 Copyright © 2004 . all 3 solids making up the bottle.0. 2. Section.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4.1 1. 3DRotate the section to a flat plane. Open Create Choose Choose the drawing called 3DBottle.

Type SLICE at the command prompt.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Slice 16. Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Slice. Choose Modify.0>: quad of bottle Both sides/<Point on desired side of the plane>: pick the side of the bottle you want to keep.2 Slices a set of solids with a plane. Command: slice Slice plane by Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/ <3points>: ZX Point on ZX plane <0. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing 1.Kristen Kurland 217 . 216 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.0.

New.. This create a new drawing with a border and one floating Model Space. Choose Choose Double Click File. PAPER from the Status Bar to toggle back to Model Space. Double Click Double Click MODEL from the Status Bar.Kristen Kurland 219 .dwt as the template file to start from..3 1. Use a Template from the startup dialog. Ansi_c. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Drawing with a Model Space View 218 Copyright © 2004 . 5. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. Note the change to Paper Space. 3.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Create a SOLVIEW Viewport 16.

Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Insert a Drawing 1. ZOOM.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Block. PAPER at the Status Bar to return to Model Space. MODEL at the Status Bar and resize the Model Space view port in Paper Space.. 4.. 6. 3. the drawing called 3DBOTTLE. 5. Choose Choose Insert Double Click Double Click Type Insert. 2. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Model Space View Resized Model Space View Scaled 1XP 220 Copyright © 2004 . 1XP at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 221 . the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0.DWG to insert.

or 2.Kristen Kurland 223 . Choose Draw.Solview & Soldraw Create an Orthogonal View 1. View. Type SOLVIEW at the command prompt. Solids. Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: P1 View center: P2 Clip first corner: P3 Clip other corner: P4 View name: front Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: Solview & Soldraw 222 Copyright © 2004 . Setup.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Solview & Soldraw 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 225 . Setup. SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW.Solview & Soldraw Create a 2D Section with Soldraw 16. or 2. Drawing. Resultant Section and Solid Section in a Model View 224 Copyright © 2004 .4 Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW. you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid. Type Command: soldraw Select viewports to draw: P1 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. NOTE: If your object was an inserted block. Solids. Choose Draw.

.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ucs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: view This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen. We now need to save this ucs. Draw. 6. Command: ucscs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: save ?/Desired UCS name: 3dview 5. 4. View. SW Isometric. View Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: u Named/World/?/<Current>: n Name of UCS to restore: 3dview Enter view scale<1.0000>: enter View center: pick View center: pick Creating a 3D View 3D Model View 226 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Viewport. UCS at the command prompt.Creating a 3D View Create a 3D View Using UCS 16. Type UCS at the command prompt. Click Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle.5 1.Kristen Kurland 227 . Setup. Click Choose PSPACE at the command prompt.. 2. Solids. 3.

or 3.6 1. 2. Draw.Kristen Kurland 229 . Type SOLPROF at the command prompt. Create Hidden Line Removals Resultant 3D Model 228 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Profile. Solids. Command: solprof Select objects: pick solids Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected.Create Hidden Line Removals Create a Hidden Line View 16. Double Click Choose MODEL to return to Model Space. Setup.

Chapter 17 Rendering 230 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 231 .

MSPACE to go to the model space view. 2. Cropped Window Render Command 17.Kristen Kurland 233 . Open Type Choose the AutoCAD drawing called 3DBOTTLE. Selection.. Cropped Window 1. Command: render 5. Click the Render button. Render. Render.DWG. or 4.Render Command. 3. View. Rendered Viewport 232 Copyright © 2004 .. Type RENDER at the command prompt.1 Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model. Selection. Render Command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

2 1. Cropped Window Render a Selection 17. Render. 5. Render Command. the objects to render. Choose View. Selection.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. 4. Cropped Window Rendered Selection 234 Copyright © 2004 . Render. or 2. Render.Render Command. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland 235 .. Selection. Click Click Choose Query for Selection. Type RENDER at the command prompt.

Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Cropped Window Render a Cropped Window 17. 4. Render. Command: render 3. Click Click Choose Crop Window.. Render Command. 5.. Render.Kristen Kurland 237 . Selection. Cropped Window Cropped Rendered Window 236 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.3 1. Choose View. Selection. a window to render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Render Command.

Render. 4. Choose View. Command: render 3. Click Click Skip Render Dialog.Render without Dialog Box 17. 238 Copyright © 2004 .5 1. or 2.. Type RPREF at the command line..Kristen Kurland 239 . Click Skip Render Dialog. Render. Render. Turn Render Dialog Box On with RPREF 17. Command: rpref 3. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4 1.

4. Render. File as the destination options.Kristen Kurland 241 . or 2.Render Destinations Render to File 17..6 1. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3.. Render Destinations Render to a File Options 240 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.

4.7 1. Render Window 242 Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. Type RENDER at the command prompt..Render to Render Window 17. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 243 . or 2. Render Window as the destination option..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. Render.

Print Screen 17.Kristen Kurland 245 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Render..8 1. Command: render 3. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render. or 2. Press PRINT SCREEN on the keyboard to copy your rendered image to the Window’s clipboard.. 244 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Angles less than 45 degrees are smoothed.. DIRECT. The value is the current scale factor (in drawing units) of rendering blocks in the drawing. The scale factor affects the following blocks: OVERHEAD.Light Scale Icon and Smoothing Angle 17. Render.9 1. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Angles greater than 45 degrees are considered edges. and SH_SPOT. Enter a real number to rescale the blocks. Command: render 3. Render. 246 Copyright © 2004 .. reduce the smoothing angle. Light Icon Scale Controls the size of the light blocks in the drawing. The default is 45 degrees. To define an edge as less than 45 degrees. Click Light Scale Icon and Smoothing to change the values.Kristen Kurland 247 . Choose View. Smoothing Angle Sets the angle at which AutoCAD interprets an edge.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 249 .Chapter 18 Materials 248 Copyright © 2004 .

Importing. Importing. 5.. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Click Pick Click Click Click the Materials Library. 4.. or 2. & Attaching Materials 1.button. the Import button.Materials Library. Render.Kristen Kurland 251 .1 Materials Library. Command: rmat 3. 6. 7. the Preview button.. Materials. & Attaching Materials Materials Command 18. Concrete Tile as the material. 250 Copyright © 2004 .. Choose View. OK.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

& Attaching Materials Materials Library 18. Command: matlib 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Importing.Kristen Kurland 253 . Materials Library. the Preview button and preview as a sphere or cube. 4.2 1. Importing. Render. Materials Library. Choose View. Pick Click a material from the material list. or 2. Type MATLIB at the command prompt.Materials Library. & Attaching Materials 252 Copyright © 2004 .

Materials Library. & Attaching Materials 10. 6. 5. Materials Library. & Attaching Materials Applying Materials with Attach 18. Objects to attach materials to. 8. 2. 254 Copyright © 2004 . Glass as the material.3 1. 7. the Preview button. Click Pick Click Click Click Click Pick the Materials Library. Choose View. the materials menu and render the viewport. Choose Choose Render View.button.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Exit NOTE: You need to set the rendering type to Photorealistic Rendering in order to see the materials 1. Importing. Render Photoreal as the render type. or 2. 9. the Attach button. OK. Render.. Type RMAT at the command prompt. the Import button. 3. the viewport. Importing.. Command: rmat 3... Render. Materials.Kristen Kurland 255 . 4.

or 2. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material.4 1. 256 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 257 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. the By Layer button. the materials menu and render the viewport. Render. Command: rmat 3. 4.. Materials.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 6.. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Choose View.Applying Materials by Layer 18. 5.

Choose View. the materials menu and render the viewport.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Applying Materials by Color 18. or 2.5 1. Render. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. the By Layer button.Kristen Kurland 259 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. 6. 4. Materials. Command: rmat 3. 5. 258 Copyright © 2004 ...

Materials..Complex Materials 18.Kristen Kurland 261 . 5. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Ash Wood as the material.. Render. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the materials menu and render the viewport. Command: rmat 3.6 1. Choose View. or 2. 6. Click Click Click Exit Click Med. the Attach button. 260 Copyright © 2004 . the base to attach materials to.

Mapping or 2. Command: setuv 3. Type SETUV at the command prompt. Pick Press Pick Click Adjust Click objects to adjust (base). OK.. 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 5. Render.Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping Adjusting Materials with Material Mapping 18. the Planar coordinates as necessary. enter when finished selecting. Choose View.. Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping 262 Copyright © 2004 . the type of projection to adjust. 4.Kristen Kurland 263 . 6. 8. button.7 1. the Adjust Coordinates.

Type RMAT at the command prompt.New Materials New Materials 18.6 1. Command: rmat 3. Choose Create Apply the New.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . a new material. 5. New Materials 264 Copyright © 2004 . the material to an object.button... Choose View. or 2.Kristen Kurland 265 . 4. Render. Materials...

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 266 Copyright © 2004 . a new material. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View. Command: rmat 3.. 5. 4.Adjusting Material Appearances 18.. Render.. Choose Create Apply the New.. or 2.7 1.Kristen Kurland 267 .button. Materials. the material to an object.

3. 4.. Choose Choose Textures Tools. Check Apply Shade the Enable Textures and Enable Materials options. 268 Copyright © 2004 . Options. 6. Choose 2... the Systems TAB. 5..Textures Advanced Material Options 18. the Properties. the drawing to see the material result.Kristen Kurland 269 . a textured material such as checkers.10 1.button under the Current 3D Graphics Display.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 271 .Chapter 19 Lights 270 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.1 1. Light Location Point Light 10.xy filters) the light menu. or 2. 6. POINT 1 as the new light name. 9. 8. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. ‘ZOOM to zoom if necessary a location (Hint: use . 5. Light.. button. Command: light 3. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.. 7. ZOOM PREVIOUS to zoom to the original view. Modify to place the light. Type 272 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 273 . Render. Choose Click Type Choose Type Pick Exit Point as the light type. the New. Type 11.Point Light Point Light 19. 4.

2 1. the light menus.Kristen Kurland 275 . 6. Light Location Spot Light Light Target 274 Copyright © 2004 . button. 9. The Target and Light Locations (Use Endpoint and Midpoint Object Snaps). Command: light 3. Choose View. 8. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. or 2.. 4. Render. the New. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Light.Spot Light Spot Light 19. Modify. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. 7. Click Click Type Click Pick Exit Type the dropdown box for point light and change it to spot light.. SPOT1 as the new light name.

3 1.. 6. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the box for Shadows On. Command: light 3.Kristen Kurland 277 . 5. Click Click Choose Exit S1 and the Modify. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. or 2. Shadow Options and set the shadow Map Size to 512. 4. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 276 Copyright © 2004 . the light menus..Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Setting the Shadow Options in the Light Command 19. Light.button. Render.

More Options under the Rendering Options dialog. Discard back faces to speed up the rendering processes by having AutoCAD eliminate the calculations for faces it doesn’t need to render. 6. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 278 Copyright © 2004 . the Minimum Bias to .Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Changing Shadow Options in Render Command 19.2 Medium as the Anti-Aliasing type. 5.5 1. Type Choose Change Change Choose Click RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 279 .1 the Maximum Bias to . 4. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.

5. Render Smoothness 280 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Set Render the Display tab.Render Smoothness Preferences 19. Command: options 3..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. the Rendered object smoothness to 5.5 1. the scene. Options.Kristen Kurland 281 . 4. Type OPTIONS at the command prompt. Choose Tools. or 2.

the Geographic Location.. the New. Light. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 8. the Sun Angle Calculator..7 1. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. button. Choose View. or 2.button.Kristen Kurland 283 .. PROVO as the new light name. Type 282 Copyright © 2004 . Command: light 3.. 9. 7. Click Click Type Choose Choose Choose Exit the dropdown box for point light and change it to distant light. 6. 4. the light menus. UTAH as the nearest big city.button.. 5. 10.. Provo.Light Command Light Command Distant Light 19.

Kristen Kurland 285 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 20 Scenes 284 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2.1 A scene represents a particular view of all or any portion of the drawing. Choose Click POINT as the scene to render. Render. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View... 1. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Choose View. Render.. Scene. 6.Kristen Kurland 286 287 . Command: scene 3. 4. to create a new scene. or 2..New Scene Scene Command 20. Scene Command . Scene. Copyright © 2004 . OK to exit the Scene dialog box.to change the lights and views in the scene. Render. Render. Modify a Scene 1.. with or without lights.Scene Command . POINT as the scene name. 5. Render. 4.New Scene Render a Scene 1. or 2. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Command: scene 3. Choose View. Choose Modify. Choose Type Choose Click New. Type RENDER at the command prompt. P1 as the light to include in the scene.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.2 1. DDVIEW at the command prompt . 3. Create Type a perspective view with the DVIEW command. 288 Copyright © 2004 .Adding a View to a Scene 20. Command: ddview 2.Kristen Kurland 289 . Set Current OK. Choose Choose Click PERSPECTIVE as the saved view. This will load a dialog box with predefined saved views. 4.

Chapter 21 Backgrounds 290 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 291 .

1 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the viewport. Solid Background 292 Copyright © 2004 . 4.Solid Background Solid Background 21.Kristen Kurland 293 . Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Background or 2. Choose View. Render. Command: background 3. Click Render Solid as the background type.

Command: background 3. the viewport.Gradient Background 21. Render.2 1. the colors as desired. Background or 2. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 295 . Click Adjust Render Gradient as the background type. 294 Copyright © 2004 . Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. 5. Choose View.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Image Background Image Background 21. the viewport. Image Background 296 Copyright © 2004 . Find File under the Image section. Render. Click Choose Choose Click Render the Image radio button. 5. 4. 6.3 1. OK. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. the C:\Program Files\ACAD2004\ TEXTURES\valley_l. Choose View. 7. Command: background 3. Background or 2.tga image file as the background.Kristen Kurland 297 .

4.Kristen Kurland 299 . Background or 2. Choose View. Command: background 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render.Merge Background 21. Click Render the Merge radio button. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. 298 Copyright © 2004 .4 1. the viewport.

Chapter 22 Landscaping 300 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 301 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Render. Landscape New. Edit a Landscape Object 302 Copyright © 2004 . Type LSNEW at the command prompt. 6.1 1. or 2.Edit a Landscape Object Placing a New Landscape Object 22. 5. Render at the command prompt.. Choose View. 4. a new position for the Cactus. Command: lsnew 3. Pick Click Pick Exit Type Choose Cactus as the landscape item.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the Landscape dialog box.. 8. 7. Photo Raytrace as the Rendering Type. the Position button.Kristen Kurland 303 .

Pick Edit the Cactus as the landscape item to edit.. 304 Copyright © 2004 .2 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the height of the Cactus. Render. Landscape Edit..Editing an Existing Landscape Object 22.Kristen Kurland 305 . Choose View. or 2. 4. Command: lsedit 3. Type LSEDIT at the command prompt.

7. Landscape Library & Render Landscapes 2. Click Edit Click Type Render New... Render.Kristen Kurland 307 . 8..3 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the viewport. Command: lslib 4. NOTE: Youwill need to use an external paint program to do this. the other dialog options as desired. Choose 306 Copyright © 2004 .Landscape Library & Render Landscapes Custom Landscape Library 22. Create an image and opacity image for desired object.. LSNEW at the command prompt to place the new image in your drawing. Type LSLIB at the command prompt.to create a new landscape object. OK and save the render library. 5. 6. View. Landscape Library. or 3.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Commands 308 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 309 .Chapter 23 Misc.

multiple specular reflections. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene.. Note that ray tracing. Choose PhotoRaytrace as the render type. Command: render 3. 310 Copyright © 2004 . like scan-line graphics.org/education/ materials/HyperGraph/raytrace/rtrace0. Ray tracing handles shadows. We sample a continuous image in world coordinates by shooting one or more rays through each pixel. then that pixel is shaded the background color.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. The pixel is then set to the color values returned by the ray. Choose View.1 Introduction Ray Tracing is a global illumination based rendering method. we start from the eye or camera and trace the ray through a pixel in the image plane into the scene and determine what it hits. which is manifested in computer graphics by jagged edges or other nasty visual artifacts.htm 1. If the ray misses all objects. Then the rays are tested against all objects in the scene to determine if they intersect any objects. this leads to the potential problem of aliasing. That is. In ray tracing. Render. is a point sampling algorithm.Kristen Kurland 311 . Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt..Raytracing 23.siggraph. Like all point sampling algorithms. www. and texture mapping in a very easy straight-forward manner. a ray of light is traced in a backwards direction.

. Choose View. 5.2 1.Kristen Kurland 313 . OK.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. or 2. the viewport. Command: render 3. 6..Raytracing & Subsampling Options Set Antialiasing 23..under Rendering Options.. Render. High as the Anti-Aliasing method. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 312 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Choose Click Render More Options. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render.

Kristen Kurland 315 ... Command: render 3. 314 Copyright © 2004 .3 1. Choose More Options. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..Adaptive Sampling 23. Render.under Rendering Options.. Choose View. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render.

.Kristen Kurland 317 . Choose View. Command: render 3. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..4 1. Render.. or 2. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Ray Tree Depth 23. Choose More Options. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 316 Copyright © 2004 ..under Rendering Options.

Command: render 3.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Change Subsampling Options 23..Kristen Kurland 319 .5 1. 5. Type RENDER at the command prompt. or 2. 4. Choose Choose Click Render the Sub-sampling dropdown list. Render. Choose View. Render. 3:1 OK. Raytracing & Subsampling Options Rendered Bottle with Sub-Sampling 3:1 318 Copyright © 2004 . the viewport..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 6.

Fog or 2. Fog & Render Preferences 1. Click Edit Enable Fog to turn FOG on. the remaining dialog options as desired. Render. 320 Copyright © 2004 . Command: fog 3. Type FOG at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 321 .Fog & Render Preferences Fog 23.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects. 4. Choose View.

6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects. Type STATS at the command prompt.Render Statistics Render Statistics 23. Choose View. Render.Kristen Kurland 323 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Save the statistics to a file or choose OK to exit. Statistics or 2. Render Statistics 1. 322 Copyright © 2004 . Command: stats 3.

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