This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.

com

UNIT - I LESSON – 1: HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
CONTENTS: 1.0 Aims and Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Sources of Water 1.3. Hydrologic Cycle 1.3.1. Evaporation 1.3.2. Precipitation 1.3.3. Infiltration 1.3.4. Runoff 1.3.5 Subsurface Flow 1.4 Let Us Sum Up 1.5 Lesson – End Activities 1.6 Points for Discussion 1.7 Check your Progress – Model Answers 1.8 References 1.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The overall aim of this lesson is to get familiarize and understanding the sources of water, hydrology and its components. The following are the objectives of the lesson: 1) 2) 3) To know the principles behind the sources of water, To study about hydrologic cycle in general aspect, and To further understand the hydrological components like evaporation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff and subsurface flow.

1.1 INTRODUCTION Most of the earth’s water sources get their water supplies from precipitation, which may fall in various forms, such as, rain, snow, hail, dew etc. Rains no doubt, form the principal and the major part of the resultant supplies. When rain starts falling, it is first of all intercepted by buildings and other objects. When the rainfall rate exceeds the interception rate, water starts reaching the ground and infiltration starts. This is the source of groundwater storage. 1.2 SOURCES OF WATER The primary sources of water include: rainwater, surface water (stored in lakes, streams, and ponds), and groundwater. The distribution of water, however, is quite varied; many locations have plenty of it while others have very little. Water exists on earth in three forms solid (ice), liquid or gas (water vapour). Oceans, rivers, clouds, and rain, all of which contain water, are in a frequent state of change (surface water evaporates, cloud water precipitates,

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

1 rainfall infiltrates the ground, etc.). However, the total amount of the earth's water does not change. Owing to glaciers, rivers and groundwater flow. Water is essential to life. Without it, the biosphere that exists on the surface of the earth would not be possible. The earth is called as the ‘water’ p l a n e t , water's molecular arrangement of water is very simple, two hydrogen atoms to each oxygen atom. One special characteristic of water is its ability to change state very easily under earth conditions. It can be found readily on the planet in all of its three forms, solid, liquid, and gas. The average annual rainfall in the country is 1170 mm, which corresponds to annual precipitation, including snowfall of 4000 Billion Cubic Metres (BCM). Out of this volume of precipitation, only 1869 BCM appears as average annual potential flow in rivers. Due to various constraints, only 1123 BCM is assessed as the average annual utilisable water – 690 BCM from surface water and 433 BCM from groundwater. The present total water use is 634 BCM of which 83% is for irrigation. This is projected to grow to 813 BCM by 2010, 1093 BCM by 2025 and 1447 BCM by 2050, against utilizable quantum of 1123 BCM. Thus the demand will outstrip availability in another 35 to 40 years. The Central Ground Water Board has estimated the present annual groundwater draft as 231 BCM. Self-check Exercise – 1 What are the major sources of water? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements; instead use words or phrases. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.3. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE The movement of water on the earth's surface and through the atmosphere is known as the hydrologic cycle. Water is taken up by the atmosphere from the earth's surface in vapour form through evaporation. It may then be moved from place to place by the wind until it is condensed back to its liquid phase to form clouds. Water then returns to the surface of the earth in the form of either liquid (rain) or solid (snow, sleet, etc.) precipitation. Water transport can also take place on or below the earth's surface by flow. The hydrologic cycle is used to model the storage and movement of water between the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere. Water is stored in the following reservoirs: atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, soils, snowfields, and groundwater. It moves from one reservoir to another by processes like: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, and groundwater flow.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

2 Water is stored in the atmosphere in all three states of matter. Water vapour in the atmosphere is commonly referred to as humidity. If liquid and solid forms of water can overcome atmospheric updrafts they can fall to the Earth's surface as precipitation. The formation of ice crystals and water droplets occurs when the atmosphere is cooled to a temperature that causes condensation or deposition. Four processes that can cause atmospheric cooling are: orographic uplift; convectional uplift; air mass convergence; and radiative energy loss. Precipitation can be defined as any aqueous deposit, in liquid or solid form, that develops in a saturated atmospheric environment and generally falls from clouds. A number of different precipitation types have been classified by meteorologists including rain, freezing rain, snow, ice pellets, snow pellets, and hail. Fog represents the saturation of air near the ground surface. Classification of fog types is accomplished by the identification of the mechanism that caused the air to become saturated. The distribution of precipitation on the Earth's surface is generally controlled by the absence or presence of mechanisms that lift air masses to cause saturation. It is also controlled by the amount of water vapour held in the air, which is a function of air temperature. In certain locations on the Earth, acid pollutants from the atmosphere are being deposited in dry and wet forms to the Earth’s surface. Scientists generally call this process acid deposition. If the deposit is wet it can also be called acid precipitation. Normally, rain is slightly acidic. Acid precipitation, however, can have a pH as low as 2.3. Evaporation and transpiration are the two processes that move water from the Earth’s surface to its atmosphere. Evaporation is movement of free water to the atmosphere as a gas. It requires large amounts of energy. Transpiration is the movement of water through a plant to the atmosphere. Scientists use the term evapotranspiration to describe both processes. In general, the following four factors control the amount of water entering the atmosphere via these two processes: energy availability; the humidity gradient away from the evaporating surface; the wind speed immediately above the surface; and water availability. Agricultural scientists sometimes refer to two types of evapotranspiration: Actual Evapotranspiration and Potential Evapotranspiration. The growth of crops is a function of water supply. If crops experience drought, yields are reduced. Irrigation can supply crops with supplemental water. By determining both actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration a farmer can calculate the irrigation water needs of their crops. The distribution of precipitation falling on the ground surface can be modified by the presence of vegetation. Vegetation in general, changes this distribution because of the fact that it intercepts some the falling rain. How much is intercepted is a function of the branching structure and leaf density of the vegetation. Some of the water that is intercepted never makes it to the ground surface. Instead, it evaporates from the vegetation surface directly back to the atmosphere. A portion of the intercepted water can travel from the leaves to the branches and then flow down to the ground via the plant’s stem. This phenomenon is called stem flow.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

3 Another portion of the precipitation may flow along the edge of the plant canopy to cause canopy drip. Both of the processes described above can increase the concentration of the water added to the soil at the base of the stem and around the edge of the plant’s canopy. Rain that falls through the vegetation, without being intercepted, is called through fall. Infiltration is the movement of water from precipitation into the soil layer. Infiltration varies both spatially and temporally due to a number of environmental factors. After a rain, infiltration can create a condition where the soil is completely full of water. This condition is, however, only short- lived as a portion of this water quickly drains (gravitational water) via the force exerted on the water by gravity. The portion that remains is called the field capacity. In the soil, field capacity represents a film of water coating all individual soil particles to a thickness of 0.06 mm. The soil water from 0.0002 to 0.06 mm (known as capillary water) can be removed from the soil through the processes of evaporation and transpiration. Both of these processes operate at the surface. Capillary action moves water from one area in the soil to replace losses in another area (biggest losses tend to be at the surface because of plant consumption and evaporation). This movement of water by capillary action generally creates a homogeneous concentration of water throughout the soil profile. Losses of water stop when the film of water around soil particles reaches 0.0002 mm. Water held from the surface of the soil particles to 0.0002 mm is essentially immobile and can only be completely removed with high temperatures (greater than 100 degrees Celsius). Within the soil system, several different forces influence the storage of water. Runoff is the surface flow of water to areas of lower elevation. On the microscale, runoff can be seen as a series of related events. At the global scale runoff flows from the landmasses to the oceans. The Earth’s continents experience runoff because of the imbalance between precipitation and evaporation. Through flow is the horizontal subsurface movement of water on continents. Rates of through flow vary with soil type, slope gradient, and the concentration of water in the soil. Groundwater is the zone in the ground that is permanently saturated with water. The top of groundwater is known as the water table. Groundwater also flows because of gravity to surface basins of water (oceans) located at lower elevations. The flow of water through a stream channel is commonly called stream flow or stream discharge. On many streams humans gauge stream flow because of the hazards that can result from too little or too much flow. Mechanical gauging devices record this information on a graph known as a hydrograph. In the online notes there is a representation of a hydrograph showing some of its typical features. Oceans cover most of the Earth's surface. On average, the depth of the world's oceans is about 3.9 kilometers. However, maximum depths can be greater than 11 kilometers. The distribution of land and ocean surfaces on the Earth is not homogeneous. In the Southern Hemisphere there is 4 times more ocean than land. Ratio between land and ocean is almost equal in the Northern Hemisphere.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

4 The water found in the ocean is primarily a by product of the lithospheric solidification of rock that occurred early in the Earth's history. A second source of water is volcanic eruptions. The dissolved constituents found in the ocean come from the transport of terrestrial salts in weathered sediments by leaching and stream runoff. Seawater is a mixture of water and various salts. Chlorine, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sulfur account for 99 % of the salts in seawater. The presence of salt in seawater allows ice to float on top of it. Seawater also contains small quantities of dissolved gases including: carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. These gases enter the ocean from the atmosphere and from a variety of organic processes. Seawater changes its density with variations in temperature, salinity, and ocean depth. Seawater is least dense when it is frozen at the ocean surface and contains no salts. Highest seawater densities occur at the ocean floor. Atmospheric circulation drives the movement of ocean currents. Within each of the ocean, the patterns of these currents are very similar. In each basin, the ocean currents form several closed circulation patterns known as gyres. A large gyre develops at the subtropics centered at about 30 degrees of latitude in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, several smaller gyres develop with a center of rotation at 50 degrees. Similar patterns do not develop in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. In this area, ocean currents are not bound by continental masses. Ocean currents differ from each other by direction of flow, by speed of flow, and by relative temperature.

Fig 1.1: Hydrological Cycle The planetary water supply is dominated by the oceans (Table 1.1). Approximately 97 % of all the water on the Earth is in the oceans. The other 3 % is held as freshwater in glaciers and icecaps, groundwater, lakes, soil, the atmosphere, and within life.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

5 Water is continually cycled between its various reservoirs. This cycling occurs through the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, melting, and groundwater flow. Table 1.2 describes the typical residence times of water in the major reservoirs.

land.013 0. lakes. continuously. etc. solid. Evaporation – It occurs when radiant energy from the sun heats water.clicktoconvert.technically known as the hydrologic cycle . as discussed earlier.0001 0. evaporates.3. returning moisture to the atmosphere.). Surface water (e. The hydrologic cycle refers to the continuous exchange of water between atmosphere. Precipitation falls to the surface and infiltrates the soil or flows to the ocean as runoff. infiltration.005 0. In addition to storage in various compartments (the ocean is one such compartment)..1. infiltration.68 0.0006 Percent of Total 97.065 0.000 years 50 to 100 years 2 to 6 months Table 1. precipitation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and evapotranspiration.25 2. The water cycle . runoff.000) 1370 29 9.05 0. is the study of the movement and distribution of water throughout the Earth.000. and gas phases. while plants return water to the atmosphere by transpiration. Many processes work together to keep Earth's water moving in a cycle. which result in precipitation when the conditions are suitable. and thus addresses both the hydrologic cycle and water resources.00004 Table 1. and organisms. There are five processes at work in the hydrologic cycle: condensation.com 6 Reservoir Oceans Ice Caps and Glaciers Groundwater Lakes Soil Moisture Atmosphere Streams and Rivers Biosphere Volume (Cubic km x 1. the multiple cycles that make up the earth's water cycle involve five main physical actions: evaporation. oceans.http://www. except for precipitation. streams. precipitation. Water vapour condenses to form clouds.is the circulation of water within the earth's hydrosphere.125 0. This transfer entails .g. and subsurface flow 1.1: Water at the Earth's surface Reservoir Average Residence Time Glaciers 20 to 100 years Seasonal Snow Cover 2 to 6 months Soil Moisture 1 to 2 months Groundwater: Shallow 100 to 200 years Groundwater: Deep Lakes Rivers 10. It is the transfer of water from bodies of surface water into the atmosphere.01 0. involving changes in the physical state of water between liquid.001 0.0017 0. These occur simultaneously and.5 0.2: Typical residence times of water found in various reservoirs Hydrology. runoff. causing the water molecules to become so active that some of them rise into the atmosphere as vapour. surface and subsurface waters.

a process that can clean water by removing contaminants and pollution. forming larger crystals we call snowflakes. The drops freeze to the ice crystals. When the snowflakes become heavy.2.2: Evaporation Process Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the components of evapotranspiration? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. When the snowflakes meet warmer air on the way down.http://www. Precipitation In cold air way up in the sky. cloud droplets combine together around dust or sea salt particles. forming water droplets around tiny bits of dust in the air. Fig 1. Evapotranspiration is also the way water vapour re-enters the atmosphere (Figure 1. they fall. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. In tropical climates.3. rain clouds will often form. Along with evaporation can be counted transpiration from plants. they melt into raindrops. instead use words or phrases. this transfer is sometimes referred to as evapotranspiration. . About 90% of atmospheric water comes from evaporation.3). Transpiration occurs when plants take in water through the roots and release it through the leaves. They bang together and grow in size until they're heavy enough to fall (Figure 1.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . while the remaining 10% is from transpiration. Rising warm air carries water vapor high into the sky where it cools. Evapotranspiration is water evaporating from the ground and transpiration by plants.2). Some vapor freezes into tiny ice crystals which attract cooled water drops.com 7 a change in the physical nature of water from liquid to gaseous phases. Thus.

Infiltration Under some circumstances precipitation actually evaporates before it reaches the surface. Ice can also build up on tree branches and power lines. Also it includes the variety of ways by which land surface water moves down slope to the oceans.com 8 Fig 1.e.. precipitation reaches the Earth's surface. joints). pores. It bounces when it hits the ground.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3. Water that doesn't infiltrate the soil flows on the surface as runoff. the amount and type of vegetation. Water returns to the land surface at lower elevation than where it infiltrated. Infiltrated water may reach another compartment known as groundwater (i. soil type and rock type.clicktoconvert. Snowflakes partially melt in the layer of warmer air.3. an aquifer). More often.3: Precipitation Look at the figure above. If snowflakes completely melt in the warmer air.3. and a significant freezing rain is called an ice storm. There is another kind of precipitation that comes from thunderstorms called hail. and whether the soil is already saturated by water.http://www. but then freeze again in the cold air near the ground. This is called freezing rain. the more infiltration occurs. 1. Ice storms are extremely dangerous because the layer of ice on the streets can cause traffic accidents. Precipitation that reaches the surface of the Earth but does not infiltrate the soil is called runoff. adding to the surface water in streams and lakes. Runoff The amount of water that infiltrates the soil varies with the degree of land slope. 1.4. or 32° F . Infiltration into the ground is the transition from surface water to groundwater. so the water may return as surface water after storage within an aquifer for a period of time that can amount to thousands of years in some cases. This kind of precipitation is called sleet. rain may freeze on contact with the ground or the streets. The more openings in the surface (cracks. The infiltration rate will depend upon soil or rock permeability as well as other factors. Sometimes there is a layer of air in the clouds that is above freezing. or infiltrating the A portion of the precipitation that reaches the Earth's surface seeps into the ground through the process called infiltration. under the force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. Water flowing in streams and . Groundwater tend to move slowly. though. Runoff can also come from melted snow and ice. causing them to break and our lights to go out. but temperatures are below freezing near the ground. Then closer to the ground the air temperature is once again below freezing.

the water vapour condenses around and clings on to fine particles in the air. When the air currents reach the cooler layers of the atmosphere. As the air gets more and more moist. rivers. 2. sleet or hail depending on other atmospheric conditions such as temperature.clicktoconvert. liquid or gas.http://www. subsurface water may return to the surface or eventually seep into the ocean. oceans. Self-check Exercise – 3 What are the components of hydrological cycle? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. surface water and groundwater. clouds. and heat causes water to evaporate from oceans. instead use words or phrases. pollen or pollutants. Once in the ground. Visit the lentic and lotic water bodies in and around your area and take an account of it. Water also exists on earth as a solid. rivers. are in a frequent state of change. Some of the precipitation will be absorbed into the ground.com 9 rivers may be delayed for a time in lakes. either within the recharge zone or aquifers. When enough vapours attach itself to tiny pieces of dust. The distribution of water varies as per its locations. The sun is the energy that powers this remarkable process. 1. Hydrologic Cycle recycles the earth's valuable water supply. Precipitation can be in the form of rain. it forms a cloud. all of which contain water. This is one of the world's largest storehouses of water. This step is called condensation. Warm air currents rising from the earth's surface lift this water vapour up into the atmosphere. the water can join the earth's groundwater supply. and rain. Its energy in the form of light. The water could also be absorbed from the ground by the roots of plants.5 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. much of it evaporates before reaching the ocean or reaching an aquifer. Eventually they will get so big that the swirling atmospheric winds can no longer hold them up. the droplets that form the clouds grow larger and larger.3. 1. . The droplets then fall from the sky as precipitation. Take a survey about the primary sources of water in your area. snow. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . After infiltrating.5 Subsurface Flow Surface flow incorporates movement of water within the earth. This is called infiltration. lakes and even puddles. Not all precipitated water returns to the sea as runoff.4 LET US SUM UP The main sources of water include rainwater.

K. This will give you a picture about the groundwater table in your area.html . Mc Graw Hill Publishing company.wxdude. What are the components of hydrological cycle? Diagrammatic representation of hydrological cycle should be given.. Justify the five main physical actions of the multiple cycles that make up the earth's water cycle. 2007 Hydrology.clicktoconvert.. Evaluate the significance of Hydrologic Cycle. (1988). Meerut. Patnaik Division of Water Fact Sheet Kumaraswamy.8 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses. 45. A and Alice Emerenshiya. C Raghunath..S. precipitation.6 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Alagappa Moses and M. M Dhruva Narayana. runoff. 1. New Delhi. 1998 Environmental Chemistry.atmos. 1. p138 – 142.rxml http://www.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/evap. 2. Fact sheet 93 – 18. and U. Environmental Chemistry.. Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University. Substantiate the major sources of water. In addition. 2000 –http://www.http://www. 1. The distribution of water must be focused.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1.net/fundamentals/8a. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Tiruchirappalli. If you are having bore well in your house.physicalgeography. Publication No. GEMS. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.com/page3. Major sources of water: Primary sources of water (both surface and ground should be discussed. 3. 2. Mohindar Singh Sejwal for Wiley Eastern Limited. 1999 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering. infiltration.V. India. Tiruchirappalli. ask about in which feet you got the water. V. G. H. New Delhi. Web site Web site Web site Advances in Environmental Sciences. Vasanthy Stanly Manahan Gilbert M. Watershed Management The Hydrologic Cycle. the multiple cycles that makes up the earth's water cycle (viz) five main physical actions: evaporation. Sastry.com 10 3.html http://ww2010. Masters Sharma.uiuc. B. A. 2004. and subsurface flow should also be discussed. K.

4. Chemical Properties of Water 2. how old it is. and To study the water hardness and water softening processes.2.4 Temporary Hardness 2.clicktoconvert. 2.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Water Softening 2.5.4. Water Softening Process 2. Physical Properties of Water 2.5. The following objectives are · · · 2.http://www.3. or set of analyses. Physico Chemical Properties of Water 2.0 Aim and Objectives 2.7 Let Us Sum Up 2. More than 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with the water molecule.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this lesson is to study the general properties of the water. Water Hardness 2.10 Check your Progress – Model Answers 2.5.com 11 LESSON – 2: PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER CONTENTS 2. To study the physico-chemical properties of the water.2.1.9 Points for Discussion 2. Causes of Hard Water 2. Conventional Water Softening 2.36 billion cubic kilometres of this substance mostly in the form of a liquid (water) which mostly occupies topographic depressions on the Earth.6.5. PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER Every water analysis. Scientists estimate that the hydrosphere contains about 1. . If the entire planet's ice is melted.8 Lesson – end Activities 2. what are the biologic interactions.2.11 References 2.1.6.3.1.1.2.1 Sea Water 2. The second most common form of the water on our planet is ice.5 Permanent Hardness 2.2 Composition of Rain and Snow 2. To study the components and composition of the water. These processes give clue to know various physicochemical properties of water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .5. Identifying Hard Water 2.5.6. then the sea.4. what rocks have dissolved or precipitated. Composition of Water 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER We live on a planet that is dominated by water.level would rise by about 70 metres. Types of Water Hardness 2. tells us a story: where the water comes from. and what has been the human impact.3 Composition of Rivers and Lakes 2.

1: Shows the atomic structure of a water (di.1). Now you may be able to appreciate why ice floats on water. Expansion of the water molecule at freezing allows ice to float on top of liquid water.2). Most animals and plants contain more than 60% water by volume. The molecular arrangement taken by ice (the solid form of the water molecule) leads to an increase in volume and a decrease in density. This molecular polarity causes water to be a powerful solvent and is responsible for its strong surface tension Fig 2. as observed in the previous lesson.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1).http://www. Water is the major constituent of almost all life forms. . The unique way in which the hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom causes one side of the molecule to have a negative charge and the area in the opposite direction to have a positive charge. When the water molecule makes a physical phase change.clicktoconvert. its molecules arrange themselves in distinctly different patterns (Figure 2. This structure consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom (Figure 2.hydrogen monoxide) molecule consists of two hydrogen (H) atoms joined to one oxygen (O) atom. The resulting polarity of charge causes molecules of water to be attracted to each other forming the strong molecular bonds. The nature of the atomic structure of water causes its molecules to have unique electrochemical properties. The hydrogen side of the water molecule has a slight positive charge (Figure 2.com 12 Water. On the other side of the molecule a negative charge exists. Water has a very simple atomic structure. Without water life would probably never have developed on our planet. is essential for life.

1: Key Physical Properties of Water .clicktoconvert. Water molecules in the form of a gas are highly charged with energy.2: The diagrams illustrate the distinct arrangement patterns of water molecules as they change their physical state from ice to water to gas. water molecules arrange themselves into small groups of joined particles. The fact that these arrangements are small and allow liquid water to move and flow.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Table 2.com 13 Fig 2.http://www. This high energy state causes the molecules to be always moving and reducing the possibility of bonds between individual molecules from forming. In the liquid phase. It shows a slice through a mass of ice that is one molecule wide. Frozen water molecules arrange themselves in a particular highly organised rigid geometric pattern that causes the mass of water to expand and to decrease in density.

Pure water is neither acidic nor basic. Specific heat is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of a substance. T h i s characteristic features causes large bodies of liquid water like lakes and oceans to have essentially a uniform vertical temperature profile. It is able to dissolve a large number of different chemical compounds. · Water in a pure state has a neutral pH.clicktoconvert. Self-check Exercise – 1 What are the important physical properties of water? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. allows plants to move water (and dissolved nutrients) from their roots to their leaves. This range allows water molecules to exist as a liquid in most places on our planet. groundwater flow. · Water conducts heat more easily than any liquid except mercury. approximately 75 pe r c e n t of this process is accomplished by the evaporation and condensation of water. and also in living organisms.6 because it contains natural derived carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. · Water molecules are the only substance on Earth that exists in all three physical states of matter: solid. Water is the only substance on this planet where the maximum density of its mass does not occur when it becomes solidified. Fresh water has a maximum density at around 4° Celsius. This feature also enables water to carry solvent nutrients in runoff. Water changes its pH when substances are dissolved in it. liquid. Water's high specific heat allows for the moderation of the Earth's climate and helps organisms regulate their body temperature more effectively. Water's high surface tension allows for the formation of water droplets and waves. · Water has a high surface tension. Incorporated in the changes of state are massive amounts of heat exchange. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER · .3. and tends to aggregate in drops rather than spread out over a surface as a thin film. In terms of heat being transferred into the atmosphere. This feature plays an important role in the redistribution of heat energy in the Earth's atmosphere. Rain has a naturally acidic pH of about 5. Water is adhesive and elastic. instead use words or phrases.http://www. When water freezes it expands rapidly adding about 9% by volume. Since water has a high specific heat. · Water molecules exist in liquid form over an important range of temperature from 0 . and the movement of blood through tiny vessels in the bodies of some animals. It also means that water releases heat energy slowly when situations cause it to cool. This phenomenon also causes water to stick to the sides of vertical structures despite gravity's downward pull. it can absorb large amounts of heat energy before it begins to get hot. · The freezing of water molecules causes their mass to occupy a larger volume. and gas. · Water is a universal solvent.100° Celsius. infiltration.com 14 Water has a high specific heat.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.

minerals. Even if it does not form a perfect sphere on Earth. with higher total solutes found in colder polar waters. Sea Water The oceans account for 97. it takes along valuable chemicals. if it was not for some of Earth's forces.http://www. where the oxygen atom is. and with large changes in non-conservative elements with depth due to biological processes. in fact. a drop of water would be ball shaped .13% of the world's water. This is why water drops are. and nutrients. The hydrogen atoms are 'attached' to one side of the oxygen atom. 2. either through the ground or through our bodies.4.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2: Composition of Sea Water 2. All these water molecules attracting each other mean they tend to clump together. water molecules tend to attract each other.2. COMPOSITION OF WATER 2.1. we should be happy that water is sticky. making water kind of 'sticky. This means that wherever water goes.4.clicktoconvert.com 15 Water is composed of one atom of oxygen with two atoms of hydrogen. Composition of Rain and Snow . Water is called the 'universal solvent' because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. Table 2.4. Since opposite electrical charges attract. and can be generalized as a 1.1 molar solution of solutes with the average composition of: · The composition of seawater varies with location and depth.a perfect sphere. resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side. drops.' One side with the hydrogen atoms (positive charge) attracts the oxygen side (negative charge) of a different water molecule. such as gravity.

with concentrations generally (but not always) increasing down stream. so the composition of the river is really a reflection of the aquifer.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and local interactions with mineral components in the soil or stream bed. In some areas. while for a losing stream the reverse holds .com 16 The chemistry of rain and snow is highly variable. the water in a gaining river is derived from groundwater. biologic processes. and the secondary mobilisation of aluminum in receiving waters. Composition of Rivers and Lakes The composition of a river. atmospheric contamination by acid gases results in extremely low pH rain water.3 2. and reflect multiple inputs from the atmosphere. such as the New England and Norway. and rain or snow should never be assumed to be simply distilled water.WATER HARDNESS . are resulting in Al toxicity in fish.4. nitrate. instead use words or phrases. Table 2. significant input of sulphate. and chloride. Determining the composition of rain and snow is a fundamental step in evaluating the reaction path certain water has taken.5. and eventually a lake. but pH generally increasing. atmospheric input is the only source for sulphate and chloride. Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the important chemical properties of water? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. For some waters. The composition of a river is a dynamic thing.http://www.the composition of the shallow groundwater reflects the river.3. for example an alluvial aquifer. At baseflow. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. is a reflection of four inputs: atmospheric input of gases and solutes.clicktoconvert. discharge of groundwater.

laboratories usually measure hardness minerals in milligrams per liter (mg/l). .5. water hardness is not a safety issue.com 17 Hard water occurs when excess minerals in the water create certain problems. Film left on the body resulting in dry skin and dull. While these water problems can be frustrating. decreased efficiency of water heaters. Sometimes hardness is measured in parts per million (ppm). Soap scum on bathtubs. Hard water results when an excessive amount of calcium and magnesium are present. · · · · Increased buildup of scale on plumbing fixtures and cooking utensils. cooking. shower tiles.5. Identifying Hard Water · Decreased cleaning capabilities of soaps and detergents. and naturally.2. tubs. 2. Causes of Hard Water Approximately 22 percent of the earth’s fresh water is groundwater. limp hair. and more frequent replacement of hot water heating elements.4 2.http://www. increased difficulty in cleaning and laundering tasks. resulting in dingy laundry and reduced life of fabrics. Parts per million (ppm) measures the unit(s) of a substance for every one million units of water. and pots and pans. Hard water can cause several problems for consumers including decreased life of household plumbing and water-using appliances.1. Total hardness is measured in milligrams per litre (mg/l). Table 2. it picks up minerals. sinks. as it flows through soil and rock. Increased water heating costs due to scale buildup and mineral deposits. and white/chalky deposits on items such as plumbing.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and basins. and other household uses.clicktoconvert. Hard water is safe for drinking. When conducting chemical analysis. Milligrams per litre (mg/l) and parts per million (ppm) are roughly equal in water analysis.

which are released into the water. This . positively-charged zeolites bind negatively-charged chloride ions (Cl– ). As the zeolites become converted to their Ca2+ and HCO3– forms they gradually lose their effectiveness and should be regenerated. and are said to be 'permanently' hard. Boiling the water promotes the reaction 2 HCO3– › CO32– + CO2 by driving off the carbon dioxide gas.5. Such waters have usually percolated though limestone formations and contain bicarbonate HCO3 – along with small amounts of carbonate CO3 2– as the principal negative ions.clicktoconvert. Permanent Hardness Waters that contain other anions such as chloride or sulphate cannot be remediated by boiling. The only practical treatment is to remove all the ions. CONVENTIONAL WATER SOFTENING Most conventional water-softening devices depend on a process known as ion-exchange in which 'hardness' ions trade places with sodium and chloride ions that are loosely bound to an ion-exchange resin or a zeolite Fig 2. instead use words or phrases.com 18 · Clogged pipes or appliances resulting in reduced water flow and increased repairs. the amounts available to form soap scum are greatly reduced.6. to form insoluble calcium and magnesium carbonates which precipitate out. Calcium or magnesium ions in the water displace sodium ions.3 : The above diagram depicts a negatively-charged zeolite to which [positive] sodium ions are attached.3. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. The CO3 2– reacts with Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. In a similar way. which get displaced by bicarbonate ions in the water. By tying up the metal ions in this way. Self-check Exercise – 3 How do you identify the water hardness? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 2. Types of Water Hardness Temporary Hardness This refers to hardness whose effects can be removed by boiling the water in an open container. normally by the method described below.

also called an ion exchange unit. The brine is reverse flushed through the system taking with it the calcium and magnesium ions that had been adsorbed on the resin. How does ion exchange work? The physical and chemical process filters the water through an exchange media known as resin or zeolite. Because water softening devices have long been available in the water treatment industry.http://www.1. Others have a manual operating system. The water flowing out of the device is now considered soft. Regeneration. causing the above reaction to be reversed.com 19 is accomplished by passing a concentrated brine solution though them. It is one of the drawbacks of this process: most of the salt employed in the regeneration process gets flushed out of the system and is usually released into the soil or drainage system something that can have damaging consequences to the environment. 2. will effectively accomplish the latter option. Water Softening Process A water softener. many jurisdications prohibit such release. As the calcium and magnesium dissolves into positively charged ions. During this cycle. The following figure shows both cycles of the water softening process—ion exchange and regeneration. the water softener will need to be run on an alternate cycle called regeneration. the softener can be returned to use.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Ion Exchange. especially in arid regions. the technology is highly developed and in most cases works well to reduce the hardness level. System. The water flows through the unit while the resin releases its sodium ions and readily trades them for the calcium and magnesium ions. the resin is spent and will no longer soften water.6. resin is backwashed with a salt solution. When all the sodium exchange sites are replaced with hardness minerals. At this point.like material coated with positively charged sodium ions. Some water softeners will automatically switch to the operation cycle. For this reason. an ion exchange environment is created. and require users to dispose of the spent brine at an appropriate approved site or to use a private company. the resin is a synthetic or natural. . Once backwashing is complete. sand. The resin is not an inexhaustible exchange site.

Maintenance. For example. all essentially perform the same with minor differences in extra features. if the raw water supply is turbid it may clog the resin with mud and clay. Sometimes.http://www. Likewise.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Again. normal backwashing with water will solve this problem. Although colourless.4: Water Softening Process Kinds of Softeners. Demand-control models. Such models are convenient if have a fluctuating water use schedule. Iron fouling is another common maintenance problem for water softeners. If the resin has already been fouled. usually regenerate after so many litres of water have been softened. etc. commercial cleaners are available. Timed models have programmable time clocks that will regenerate on a predetermined schedule and then return to service. Disinfecting the water prior to softening or periodically cleaning the softener with chlorine bleach will eliminate these nuisances. Periodic clogging of the resin also requires special attention. However. Filtration prior to softening insures that oxidized iron is not processed in the softener.com 20 Fig 2. bacteria and fungi also form mats in the resin that reduce its effectiveness. all water softeners need to be properly maintained. slowly stir the resin during the backwash cycle to help break up the material. If not. These work well for households that are on regular water-using cycles but will waste more water and salt because they regenerate whether the resin needs it or not. read the manufacturer’s instructions before adding any chemicals to the unit. it is advisable to check the manufacturer’s instructions for special precautions. flow rates. reduced iron will be removed by the unit. with either electrical or mechanical sensors. .clicktoconvert. Nearly all softeners fall into one of two categories. No matter which model you choose. The brine solution must be mixed and stored in the brine tank. red-oxidized iron (iron that has been exposed to air or chlorine) will clog the resin. Although many models of ion exchange units exist on the market.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. Disadvantages. scales can also buildup on hot water heaters and decrease their useful life. cleansing or conditioning process. However. It is a well developed technology that has been used in homes for several years.com 21 In some instances. Water softening costs depend on factors such as installation. The major disadvantage to water softening is the potential health risks for people on low sodium diets. The simple technology of softening makes it easy to bypass toilets and outdoor faucets. Soft water not only eliminates these nuisances but also protects appliances and saves cleaning time.2. soap films on skin.not necessity. The tradeoff will be cost for convenience and we have no long-term guarantee that the special feature will not fail. and disadvantages that make this decision a significant one. resins can not be washed of contaminants and will need to be replaced (This should not be the case if the resin is periodically regenerated and maintained. Costs. Advantages and Disadvantages of Water Softening The water treatment industry is gaining importance and momentum in India. The reality is that water softening simply removes hardness minerals and eliminates problems that are a nuisance and not a threat to human health.) Consult your water softener dealer for information on resin replacement. You can also expect that with more convenience features. Soap film and detergent curds in bathtubs and appliances indicate that you are not getting the maximum cleaning action from these products. This is due largely to exaggerated advertising and. the price of the unit will increase. the concept of water softening has often been misconstrued as a purifying. in part. Self-check Exercise – 4 What are all the elements of water softening processes? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements.clicktoconvert. instead use words or phrases. The decision 'to soften or not to soften' is a matter of personal preference . and size of the unit. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . maintenance fees. water softening does have advantages. to consumer misconceptions about water treatment. 2. we have to filter turbid water or disinfect bacteria-laden water—all before it even reaches the softening unit. we have to pay for each additional feature. Most consumers would agree that hard water leaves scales on pots. as well. Advantages. Softening systems are adaptable for mixing softened and unsoftened water to produce a lower hardness level. especially in Tamil Nadu. When purchase models with special features that do everything but add the salt. Maintenance is another consideration.6. More importantly. Depending on the water source. There are other advantages to water softening. and detergent curds in the washing machine.

These processes give clue to know various physico-chemical properties of water. 3. You can see the settling of salts after sometime. This proves that water is a universal solvent. You should also discuss about the physical phase change of water. If you are using hard water in your house.http://www. The composition of water includes the sea water. What are the major components of water? For this you have to write about the components of sea water. Water has a very simple atomic structure. This structure consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. staining of tiles and the flooring. Dissolve different substrates in both the beakers. Write the methods to identify the hardness of water Should point out the points discussed in 2. You can find that water dissolves more substances than ethanol. State the elements of water softening process. 2.2 4. river and lakes and rain and snow compositions. 2.5. and what has been the human impact. 5. What are the important physical properties of water? In answering to the first question you should write about the atomic structure of water. Collect water samples from various sources like ground water and surface water and do the water analysis and understand the physicochemical parameters of water. Justify the physical properties of water 2. The nature of the atomic structure of water causes its molecules to have unique electrochemical properties. 2. Take a beaker with water and take another beaker with some other solvent other than water like ethanol.7 LET US SUM UP Every water analysis tells a story: where the water comes from. You could also add the advantages and disadvantages of water softening process. Do your regular activities with hard water another day. Furtherly.clicktoconvert. what rocks have dissolved or precipitated.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. 2. 3. You should focus your answer in ion exchange. what are the biologic interactions. You can easily witness the difference between them. scale formation in the vessels. 4. This is a simple process to remove the temporary hardness of water. 2. different types of water softening methods and the advantages and disadvantages.com 22 2. If you boil the hard water in a vessel. Critically examine the major elements of water softening process. Finding the total hardness of the water and its types. Evaluate the chemical properties of water 3. Substantiate the problems of hardness of water 4. rain and snow and rivers and lakes.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . you can see the corrosion of pipe through which the water flows. Wash your clothes or take bath with soft water (water supplied by corporation) lone day. how old it is. regeneration. kinds of softeners and their maintenance.10 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. arrangement pattern of water molecules and key properties of water. .8 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1.

html http://resources. Vasanthy Metcalf and Eddy Stanly Manahan Gilbert M. A.clicktoconvert. M Dhruva Narayana. Masters Sharma.wxdude.edu/WaterResources/pdfs/WaterSof tening.edu/pubs/housing/356-490/356-490.vt. K. K. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. 1999 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering.. Tiruchirappalli. Patnaik Division of Water Fact Sheet Kumaraswamy.physicalgeography. New Delhi. 2000 www.V. GEMS. Publication No. and U. New Delhi.ext.who. 2003.com 23 2.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/ –http://www. V. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. A and Alice Emerenshiya. Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site - Advances in Environmental Sciences. Tiruchirappalli.net/fundamentals/8a. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. G.html/ http://ww2010.pdf http://www. p138 – 142. Meerut. 1997 Hydrology. Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University.com/page3.http://www.cas.pdf . (1988).. 2004. 45.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/evap. New Delhi. Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 2007 Environmental Chemistry. Environmental Chemistry. India. Fact sheet 93 – 18. 1998 Environmental Chemistry. Watershed Management The Hydrologic Cycle..psu. Sastry. C Anil Kumar De Raghunath.. B.rx ml http://www.atmos. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Mc Graw Hill Publishing company.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .uiuc. H. Alagappa Moses and M. Mohindar Singh Sejwal for Wiley Eastern Limited.S.11 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses.

9.10. chemical or biological characteristics of water.8.0. each use will have its own demands and influences on water quality.2.http://www. Treated Water Classifications 3.7. chemical and microbial aspects and the objectives are · · · To study the physical. Microbiological Quality 3.16 References 3.0.10. Water Quality Standards 3.2. Specific Conductance 3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . .10.1.10. INTRODUCTION Water quality is a term used here to express the suitability of water to sustain various uses or processes.6.clicktoconvert.1.11. agricultural and industrial purposes.10.1. Consequently.15 Check your Progress – Model Answers 3. and To learn different water quality standards and guidelines for drinking. To learn the different types of procedures to analyze the parameters of water qualities. Suspended Sediment 3. Physical Quality 3. Dissolved Oxygen 3. or restrictions on temperature and pH ranges for water supporting animals. Aims and Objectives 3. Standards for Potable and Safe water 3. Water Quality 3. Raw Water Classifications 3.11.3. for example limits on the concentrations of toxic substances for drinking water use. chemical and microbial qualities of the water. Chemical Quality 3.4.10. Hardness 3. Water Temperature 3. water quality can be defined by a range of variables which limit the water.10 Potable Water Quality 3.5.4. Although many uses have some common requirements for certain variables.14 Points for Discussion 3.6. 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this lesson is to discuss the different types of water qualities like – physical.3. Impurities in Water 3.12 Let Us Sum Up 3. Any particular use will have certain requirements for the physical. Introduction 3. Turbidity 3.5.13 Lesson – End Activities 3.com 24 LESSON – 3: WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS CONTENTS 3.1. pH 3.

Thus. such as the discharge of domestic. therefore. Although the natural ecosystem is in harmony with natural water quality. high salinity is a frequent problem in arid and coastal areas. and the activities of one user may restrict the activities of another. chemical and other information. for example. If the financial and technical resources are available. meteorological. Faecal pollution may occur because there are no community facilities for waste disposal.http://www. hydrological and climatic. for example. weather conditions and water levels.WATER QUALITY The composition of surface and under groundwater is dependent on natural factors (geological. Large natural variations in water quality may. topographical. industrial. . although water may be available in adequate quantities. providing a useful addition to physical. draining of diversion of waste waters.2. Efforts to improve or maintain a certain water quality often compromise between the quality and quantity demands of different users. The most important of the natural influences are geological. More obvious are the polluting activities. its impacts on water quality and the necessary remedial or preventive measures are varied.clicktoconvert. because collection and treatment facilities are inadequate or improperly operated.com 25 Quantity and quality demands of different users will not always be compatible. or because on-site sanitation facilities (such as latrines) drain directly into aquifers. seawater or saline groundwater can be desalinated but in many circumstances this is not economically feasible. This is both for their intrinsic value and because they are sensitive indicators of changes or deterioration in overall water quality. hydrological and biological) in the drainage basin and varies with seasonal differences in runoff volumes. either by demanding water of a specific quality outside the range required by the other user or by lowering quality during use of the water. Pollution of water by human activities. be observed even where only a single watercourse is involved.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . any significant changes to water quality will usually be disruptive to the ecosystem. The effects of human activities on water quality are both widespread and varied in the degree to which they disrupt the ecosystem and/or restrict water use. but the reasons for this type of pollution. its unsuitable quality limits the uses that can be made of it. Water quality is affected by a wide range of natural and human influences. Some of these effects are the result of hydrological changes. such as building of dams. 3. urban and other wastewaters into the watercourse (whether intentional or accidental) and the spreading of chemicals on agricultural land in the drainage basin. Human intervention also has significant effects on water quality. Their influence is generally higher when available water quantities are low and maximum use is to be made of the limited resource. is attributable to only one source. There is an increasing recognition that natural ecosystems have a legitimate place in the consideration of options for water quality management. since these affect the quantity and the quality of water available.

" like the Richter scale. such as agricultural runoff.14. on-site measurements. whereas water that has more free hydroxyl ions is basic.clicktoconvert. while organic load and eutrophication may be of greater concern in developed countries (in the rivers into which the sewage or effluent is discharged and in the sea into which the rivers flow or sewage sludge is dumped). such as faecal pollution from unsewered settlements. Pollution from diffuse sources. and they generally release warmer water back to the environment. therefore. with 7 being neutral. pH is an important indicator of water that is changing chemically.com 26 The effects of faecal pollution vary appreciably in space and time. therefore. A single influence may. The main elements of water quality monitoring are. The range goes from 0 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . In developing countries intestinal disease is the main problem.3. which measures earthquakes. is particularly difficult to control. but also from diffuse sources such as run-off from livestock feedlots or agricultural land fertilized with organic and inorganic fertilisers. pH The pH is a measure of how acidic/basic a water sample is. such as wastewater discharges with high nutrient loads (principally nitrogen and phosphorus). A lot of water is used for cooling purposes in power plants that generate electricity. 3. together with certain physical characteristics of the water. . The temperature of the released water can affect downstream habitats. It is determined by in situ measurements and by examination of water samples on site or in the laboratory. whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. The pH of less than 7 indicates acidity.4. The results of analyses performed on a single water sample are only valid for the particular location and time at which that sample was taken. the study and evaluation of the analytical results. Each number represents a 10-fold change in the acidity/basicness of the water. just as a problem may have a number of contributing influences. The pH is reported in "logarithmic units. They need cool water to start with. The quality of water may be described in terms of the concentration and state (dissolved or particulate) of some or all of the organic and inorganic material present in the water. WATER TEMPERATURE Water temperature is not only important to fisherman and industries.http://www. to gather sufficient data (by means of regular or intensive sampling and analysis) to assess spatial and/or temporal variations in water quality. and the reporting of the findings. Water that has more free hydrogen ions is acidic. but also to the growth of fish and algae. or from numerous small inputs over a wide area. 3. The pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water. give rise to a number of water quality problems. Temperature also can affect the ability of water to hold oxygen as well as the ability of organisms to resist certain pollutants. Water with a pH of 5 is ten times more acidic than water having a pH of six. the collection and analysis of water samples. Since pH can be affected by chemicals in the water. Eutrophication results not only from point sources. therefore. One purpose of a monitoring programme is.

3. and 500 NTUs. A handheld turbidity meter measures turbidity of a water sample. A small amount of oxygen. Also.6. this oxygen is not what is needed by aquatic organisms living in natural waters. The picture with the three glass vials shows turbidity standards of 5.7. and sea water will have a high specific conductance. During a rainstorm. Rainwater often dissolves airborne gasses and airborne dust while it is in the air. 50. 3. usually less than 10 NTU. Material that causes water to be turbid include: clay silt finely divided organic and inorganic matter soluble coloured organic compounds plankton microscopic organisms Turbidity makes the water cloudy or opaque. 3. TURBIDITY Turbidity is the amount of particulate matter that is suspended in water. For instance. the turbidity of a water sample can be taken.com 27 Pollution can change a water's pH. which in turn can harm animals and plants living in the water. water velocities are faster and water volumes are higher. By using the logarithm scale. during high flows. upto about ten .http://www. such as distilled water. and thus often has a higher specific conductance than distilled water. the higher the turbidity. and turbidities are low. Specific conductance is an important water-quality measurement because it gives a good idea of the amount of dissolved material in the water. this mine-drainage water would be several hundred times more acidic than neutral water so stay out of abandoned mines.5. causing higher turbidities. It is highly dependent on the amount of dissolved solids (such as salt) in the water. DISSOLVED OXYGEN Although water molecules contain oxygen atom. Pure water. Turbidity measures the scattering effect that suspended solids have on light: the higher the intensity of scattered light. which is very acidic and would definitely affect any fish and other micro organisms. many rivers are a clear green colour.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . indicating water that has higher turbidity values. During periods of low flow (base flow). which can more easily stir up and suspend material from the stream bed. water coming out of an abandoned coal mine can have a pH of 2.clicktoconvert. Once the meter is calibrated to correctly read these standards. will have a very low specific conductance. · · · · · · Turbidity can be measured in the laboratory and also on-site in the river. Turbidity is measured by shining a light through the water and is reported in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electrical current. The meter is calibrated using standard samples from the meter manufacturer. particles from the surrounding land are washed into the river making the water a muddy brown colour.

flowing water can pick up and suspend more soil than calm water.clicktoconvert.’ If some one live in an area where the water is ‘soft. HARDNESS The amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water determines its ‘hardness. These bunds and fences are supposed to trap sediment during a rainstorm and keep it from washing into a stream. Bacteria in water can consume oxygen as organic matter decays. especially in summer. industries in these area might have to spend money to soften their water. It is highly dependent on the speed of the water flow. as fast. Reservoirs can ‘silt in’ if too much sediment enters them. organic material in it. 3. But. may notice that it is difficult to get lather up when washing your hands or clothes. Thus. If land is disturbed along a stream and protection measures are not taken.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . while stagnant water contains little. And. resulting in less area for water storage for agriculture as well as reducing the power-generation capability of the power plant in the dam. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. The volume of the reservoir is reduced. if one live. The amount that washes into a stream depends on the type of land in the river's watershed and the vegetation surrounding the river.’ then you may never have even heard of water hardness. lakes. 3. lakes and rivers can cause an oxygen-deficient situation to occur. then excess sediment can harm the water quality of a stream. instead use words or phrases.com 28 molecules of oxygen per million of water. as excess sediment can harm the creeks.10 POTABLE WATER QUALITY . as hard water can damage equipment. Sediment coming into a reservoir is always a concern. SUSPENDED SEDIMENT Suspended sediment is the amount of soil moving along in a stream. Aquatic life can have a hard time in stagnant water that has a lot of rotting. Self-check Exercise – 1 What factors affect the surface and groundwater quality of an area? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. and reservoirs. where the water is relatively hard. This dissolved oxygen is breathed by fish and zooplankton and is needed by them to survive. once it enters it cannot get out most of it will settle to the bottom.9. excess organic material in the tanks. rivers. when dissolved-oxygen levels are at a seasonal low. is actually dissolved in water. such as in a mountain stream or large river.8. During storms.http://www. soil is washed from the stream banks into the stream. Hard water can even shorten the life of fabrics and clothes. Rapidly moving water. tends to contain a lot of dissolved oxygen.

500 ppm. snow. As it enters the earth through seepage and infiltration. Brackish water is high in minerals and has a TDS concentration between 1. and sodium). As groundwater it may contain disease organisms as well as harmful chemicals. Standards exist to measure the physical. Fresh water has a TDS concentration of less that 1.1. and radiologic quality of water and to test for the presence of chemical agents. The garbage. Water quality standards give a basis for selecting or rejecting water intended for human use.com 29 Potable water must be free of anything that would degrade human performance. These impurities must be reduced to levels acceptable for human consumption. pesticides etc. Potable Water Quality Standards Quality standards for treated water reflect the values of substances allowed in potable water. Further.4. Impurities in raw water are either suspended or dissolved. chemicals. 3.10. turbidity. However. 3. Physical Quality The principal physical characteristics of water are colour. 3. it should not damage the materials used in its transportation and storage. Potable water must be suitable for maintaining human health (personal hygiene and medical treatment). These standards provide minimum accepted values for safeguarding human health.000 ppm. pH and nitrogen). or salt water (seawater) based on the concentration of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). hydrogen sulphide.2. provided reasonable care is exercised in the selection of the well site.clicktoconvert. hail. sewage. Harmful micro organisms are usually reduced to tolerable levels by passage through the soil.10. iron. The rain water picks up silt.3. turbidity. many are contributed by an industrialized society. bacteria.10. 3. Raw Water Classifications Water is classified as fresh. it gathers many impurities. and gases fill the air and can contaminate rain. Impurities in Water As water goes through the hydrologic cycle. . microbiologic. (calcium. chemical. odour and taste. and gases (oxygen.http://www.. It is significantly free from colour. groundwater (subsurface) has less chemical or biological contaminants than surface water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . industrial waste. In addition to the impurities in water resulting from infiltration. They must be removed or destroyed before the water is consumed. Salt water has a TDS concentration greater than 15. manganese. Suspended impurities include diseases organisms. and sleet. smoke. It should also be cool and aerated.10.000 ppm. Treated Water Classifications Palatable Water Palatable water is water that is pleasing in appearance and taste. taste. and disease organisms. silt. Dust. Generally. These characteristics and their related quality standards are described below. are all possible contaminants of raw water. magnesium. other minerals and chemicals are dissolved and carried along. and algae. and odour. carbon dioxide. some of the suspended impurities may be filtered out. brackish. and temperature. Dissolved impurities include salts.500 ppm and 16.

Turbidity . decomposed organic matter. Otherwise.Warm water tastes flat. These substances include TDS. Chloride Chloride exists in most natural waters. organic and inorganic matter. and corrosiveness. Ingestion of low concentrations of arsenic can cause nausea. Temperature also effects the chlorination and purification of water. chloride can produce an objectionable taste in water. . It ranges from 0 to 14 and pH of 7 is neutral.http://www. and agricultural runoff. sulphates and other ions. chlorides. The pH standard was established to ensure effective purification and disinfection. vomiting. The colour standard is designed to make drinking water more palatable. or nerve damage. Water with a pH below 7 is regarded as acidic while that with a pH above 7 is regarded as alkaline. Even in low concentrations. dissolved gases. such as vegetable matter.There is no set standards for odour and taste as there are no specific tests for these. dissolved from roots and leaves. and plankton and other microorganisms. 3. and the ability of an analyst to detect contaminants. Disinfection takes longer when water is colder. Chloride comes from natural salt deposits. Potential Hydrogen . abdominal pain.5. Temperature .Turbidity refers to a muddy or unclear condition of water caused by suspended clay. Arsenic Arsenic can be present in natural water sources in a wide range of concentrations. the amount of chemicals needed for proper disinfection. It is technically defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.clicktoconvert. It can come from either natural or industrial sources. silt. or industrial waste. and purification capacity is reduced with reverse osmosis treatment equipment.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .10. the appropriate command level will make that decision based on medical recommendations. or from inorganic compounds such as iron and manganese salts. It is the main anion found in seawater. Cooling water suppresses odours and tastes and makes it more palatable.The pH is a measure of the acidic or alkaline nature of water. Water having physical characteristics exceeding the limits or making it less palatable should not be used for drinking. The chloride standard ensures that potable water is also palatable. The chemical quality of water involves its hardness.com 30 Colour . domestic and industrial waste. The pH influences the corrosiveness of the water. Odour and Taste . Chemical Quality The chemical quality of water depends on the chemical substances it contains. reduced consumption and increased risk of dehydration may result.Colour in water is derived from coloured substances. from humus. When water of low physical quality has not been used. acidity. Chemical substances having an adverse health effect have established standards that will not be exceeded without medical approval. The turbidity standard was established to improve the efficiency of disinfection by reducing particles to which micro organisms could attach. Odour and taste found in water are most commonly caused by algae. alkalinity.

http://www. at higher concentrations.e. Ba. etc. the Ca levels varying from tens to hundreds of mg/l and the Mg concentrations varying from units to tens of mg/l. from dissolution of limestone. the Ca to Mg ratio reaching up to 10. multiple definitions have been available and multiple units have been used to express it (German.com 31 Calcium.4. Mn. as happens with deacidification of underground waters by means of calcium hydroxide or filtration through different compounds counteracting acidity such as CaCO3. Calcium and magnesium presence in waters Water calcium and magnesium result from decomposition of calcium and magnesium aluminosilicates and. which is in practice the sum of concentrations of all polyvalent cations present in water (Ca.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . is an important parameter is to be taken into account: water hardness. water hardness was understood to be a measure of the capacity of water to precipitate soap. both extreme degrees (i. This approach was applied in many studies focused on health effects of this ‘water factor’. a common Ca to Mg ratio is about 4. magnesite. Fe. From the technical point of view. Self-check Exercise – 2 . very soft – soft – medium hard – hard – very hard). Magnesium and Hardness Calcium and magnesium in drinking water. Since the definition of water hardness is approached either analytically or technologically. Initially. equivalent CaCO3 or CaO in mg/l).and medium.clicktoconvert. which is easy to understand since magnesium is found in the Earth’s crust in much lower amounts as compared with calcium. Anthropogenenic contamination of drinking water sources with calcium and magnesium is not common but drinking water may be intentionally supplemented with these elements while treated.mineralized underground and surface waters (as drinking waters are). but the optimum Ca and Mg water levels are not easy to determine since the health requirements may not coincide with the technical ones. magnesium limestone. and possibly also with stabilization of low.). nevertheless. since the other ions (apart from Ca and Mg) play a minor role in this regard.g. French. it was not and still has not been defined in a unified manner. later it has been generally accepted that hardness is defined as the sum of the Ca and Mg concentrations. Magnesium is usually less abundant in waters than calcium. Al. very soft and very hard) are considered as undesirable concordantly from the technical and health points of view. even if this term is incorrect and obsolete from a strictly chemical point of view. and English degrees. In low. calcium and magnesium are mainly present as simple ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ . but just non-specifically in summary as hardness. Expectedly. gypsum and other minerals. Sr. which corresponds to a substance ratio of 2. MgCO3 and MgO. multiple different scales of water hardness were suggested (e. and as with other parameters.mineralized waters by addition of CaO and CO2. In common underground and surface waters the weight concentration of Ca is usually several times higher compared to that of Mg. That is to say that both of these elements largely have not been analysed individually in drinking water in the past. Nevertheless. Mg.

have no significant negative physical effect. and domestic waste water. pulp paper mills.com 32 What is the role of Calcium in defining water hardness? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. or higher organisms. They also can produce a bad taste in water. instead use words or phrases. coli. While the detection of many disease-causing microbes is difficult. The proportion of each constituent is the result of weathering of rocks found in the drainage basin and of any industrial contributions. the test to detect a surrogate organism. protozoa. 3. and the test used to find them is difficult. its ingestion in water has the same effects. The bacterial organisms used as an indicator of possible contamination are total coliform. Therefore. Microbiological Quality The microbiological quality of potable water shows its potential for transmitting waterborne diseases. tanneries.6.The TDS of water is composed of mineral salts and small amounts of other inorganic and organic substances. When ingested. These diseases may be caused by viruses. sulphates have a laxative effect. The sulphate standard was established to prevent chemically induced diarrhea. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sulphates . but may restrict the use of the water. The effect of a particular chemical substance determines if a limit is established for that substance. and other ions. the membrane filter technique has gained wide acceptance as the preferred technique for the presumptive determination of the presence of coliform . is simple and effective for field use. sulfate. A microbiological test will reveal the quality of the raw water source and aid in determining any treatment required. Because of its relative simplicity and field adaptability. For these reasons. textile mills. Since TDS is composed of chloride.10. Some substances.clicktoconvert. Significant concentrations also result from industry sources. indicator organisms are used to detect the presence of contamination.Sulphates occur naturally in water as the result of dissolution of sulfurbearing minerals. The number of these organisms is usually very low. These organisms occur in large quantities in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.http://www. bacteria. even in a badly polluted water supply.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Total Dissolved Solids . magnesium. such as for the laundering of clothes. the TDS standard was established to prevent chemically induced diarrhea. Chemical water quality standards are based on the effect the water will have on the health of living organisms. The presence of any coliform organism in treated potable water is an indication of either inadequate treatment or the introduction of undesirable materials to the water after treatment. such as iron and manganese. such as coal mine drainage. E. The test is necessary to maintain the quality of the water. The testing for microorganisms in water is extremely difficult. Chemical substances having a negative physical effect will have a mandatory limit that should not be exceeded.

The establishment of minimum standards of quality for public water supply is of fundamental importance in achieving this ideal. Standards for Potable and Safe water National Drinking Water Mission is an institution which is the in-charge to define the standards for potable water with respects to their locations. turbidity.organisms. 3. potable and free from undesirable taste and odour. Figures in excess of those mentioned under acceptable render the water non-acceptable but still may be tolerated in the absence of alternative and better source but upto the limits indicated under column cause for rejection above which the supply will have to be rejected. The physical and chemical quality of water should not excess the limits shown in the table below: Sl.2 1500 600 1000 1000 1. poisonous substances. excessive amounts of minerals and organic matter which would produce undesirable physiological effects. of moderate temperature and aerated. Standards of quality from the yardstick with which the quality control of any public water supply has to be assessed.0 to 8. either corrosive nor scale forming and free from minerals which could produce undesirable physiological effect. 3. It is defined as the water that is free from pathogenic micro. certain minimum standards have already been prescribed and given here. mg/l) Magnesium (as Mg.0 0.0 Unobjectionable 7.11. 4.com 33 organisms in potable water. mg/l) * Acceptable 2. In India. mg/l) Manganese (as Mn. The microbiological standard was established to ensure infectious microorganisms would not cause diseases. ** 2. mg/l) Nitrates (as NO3. It should be free from colour.5 Table 3. 2.5 5. mg/l) Fluorides (as F. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Characteristics Turbidity (Units on JTU scale) Colour (units on platinum-cobalt scale) Taste and odour pH Total dissolved solids Total hardness (mg/l as CaCO3) Chlorides (mg/l as Cl) Sulphates (as SO4.http://www. WATER QUALITY STANDARDS The idea of water quality management is to ensure that water supplied is free from pathogenic organisms.5 500 200 200 200 1.clicktoconvert. of reasonable temperature.1.05 ** Cause for Rejection 10 25 Unobjectionable 6.No.1 0.11. mg/l) Calcium (as Ca. (Source : From Document of National Drinking Water Mission) . 1. taste and odour.0 45 75 30 0. mg/l) Iron (as Fe.5 100 200 150 1. clear. 3.5 to 9.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The figure indicated under the column acceptable are the limits upto which the water is generally acceptable to the customers.1: Physical and Chemical Standards Notes * 1.

additional factors are also important. In applying the Guidelines in specific circumstances.4 50 3 5 2000 10 20 Table 3. Switzerland. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Guideline Values for chemicals that are health significance in drinking. the Health Organization. Chemicals Arsenic Fluoride Manganese Nitrate Nitrite Chlorine Copper Lead Nickel Guideline Values (mg/litre) 0. Self-check Exercise – 3 What is the role of microbial aspects in defining potable water quality? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .Coliform organisms should not be detectable in 100 ml of any two consecutive samples or more than 50% of the samples collected for the year The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health.Coli count in 100 ml of any sample should be zero .clicktoconvert. b) Water in the distribution system shall satisfy all the three criteria indicated below: .E. the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor.5 0. instead use words or phrases.http://www. Established on 7 April 1948. A sample of water entering the distribution system that does not conform to this standard calls an immediate investigation into both efficacy of the purification and the method of sampling.com 34 Bacteriological Standards a) Coliform count in any sample of 100 ml should be zero.Coliform organisms not more that 10 per 100 ml shall be present in any sample. . which had been an agency of the League of Nations.01 1.water supply through piped distribution and through community supplies are described. Their application to drinking. and headquartered in Geneva.2: WHO guidelines (values for health related organic contaminants) These Guidelines provide a generally applicable approach to drinking-water safety.water.

is an important parameter is to be taken into account. chemical and microbial quality and three parameter will be checked as per the guidelines as per the region. hardness and suspended sediments. The composition of surface and undergroundwater is dependent on natural factors (geological. specific conductance.com 35 3.6. gypsum and other minerals.14 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. turbidity. 3.clicktoconvert. 3. You can get a number of reports due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts in water. Water quality can be discussed in terms of physical.Mention the role of microbial aspects in defining potable water quality. at higher concentrations. Discuss in detail about the section 3.Justify the major fact6ors affecting the quality of surface and ground water. . Collect water samples from different sources. Go to a nearby water body and you can analyze some characters of water in the field itself like pH. magnesium limestone.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .12 LET US SUM UP Water quality is a term used to express to suitability of water to sustain various uses of processes. weather conditions and water levels.What factors affect the surface and ground water quality? You should discuss some of the important parameters of water like the water temperature. temperature. Dissolved Oxygen.Write the role of calcium in defining hardness of water. 2.Substantiate the role of microbes in defining water quality. Examine them under an electron microscope. turbidity and DO. hydrological and biological) in the drainage basin and varies with seasonal differences in runoff volumes. Also add a note on bacterial standards for potable and safe water. meteorological. Go to an area like Ariyalur and visit a primary health care centre. 3. pH. 2. topographical. 3. The microbiological quality of potable water shows its potential for transmitting waterborne diseases. You can see different types of microbes in it.http://www. Potable water is an important parameter for human beings. Water calcium and magnesium result from decomposition of calcium and magnesium aluminosilicates and. from dissolution of limestone. Also give details regarding the presence of Calcium in water.15 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.13 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Water temperature. dissolved oxygen and suspended sediments are important parameters if we discuss about water quality. because it is useful for maintaining human health. turbidity. pH.Evaluate the significance of calcium in defining water hardness. 3. magnesite. chemical and biological characteristics of water. 4. If you visit a water body after a heavy rain or flood you can very well witness the turbidity of water due to the presence of sediments. Further water quality can be separated into three types as physical. 2. Calcium and magnesium in drinking water. Ask them about the cases of kidney stones. specific conductance.10. 3.

vt. GEMS.psu. New Delhi.physicalgeography. 2004. (1988). Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. New Delhi.P Sharma.P Kumaraswamy. 1998 Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University. p138 – 142. H.net/fundamentals/8a. Meerut.pdf http://www.who. Publication No. India. K.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/eva p. Tiruchirappalli. Meerut. 2000 Environmental Chemistry.com/page3. M Mahajan.edu/WaterResources/pdfs/Water Softening. Mohindar Singh Sejwal for Wiley Eastern Limited. A. 1997 The Hydrologic Cycle. Vasanthy Metcalf and Eddy Raghunath.who.htm l http://resources.http://www. Fact sheet 93 – 18. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company.rxml http://www. Stanly Manahan Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site - - Advances in Environmental Sciences.. Hydrology. 45.cas.com 36 3.. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition.uiuc. 1998 Water Pollution. 2003.edu/dept/DFWI/dfwiwq/water_quality_p arameters.ext.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesqu ality/wqmchap2. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. New Delhi. Pragati Prakashan..pdf .edu/pubs/housing/356-490/356490.html http://ww2010. Masters Kudesia. Alagappa Moses and M. 1985 Environmental Chemistry. K. V. 2007 Environmental Chemistry.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/e n/ –http://www.wxdude. Mc Graw Hill Publishing company.atmos. Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering. Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. A and Alice Emerenshiya.html www.16 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses. B.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Tiruchirappalli.pdf http://www. 1999 http://www. New Delhi. Pollution Control in Process Industries. C Anil Kumar De Division of Water Fact Sheet Gilbert M.clicktoconvert.rpi. S.

Introduction 4.2. Total Suspended Solids 4.17 References 4.16 Check your Progress – Model Answers 4. Agricultural Pollution 4. Pollution Parameters 4.http://www.7. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways. Coliforms 4.2. Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. 4.3. In excess levels. agricultural and industrial. pH 4.1.1. INTRODUCTION Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water.3.12.clicktoconvert. COD and Coliforms.15 Points for Discussion 4. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The important aim of this lesson is to discuss the different types of pollution parameters and their impact over human society. Chloride 4.2.4.com 37 LESSON – 4 POLLUTION PARAMETERS CONTENTS: 4. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 4. The following objectives are · · · To study the different pollution parameters like domestic.8.2.1.6.0. Conductivity 4. POLLUTION PARAMETERS .10.2. nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae.9 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 4.13 Let Us Sum Up 4. Total Dissolved Solids 4. Aims and Objectives 4.11.14 Lesson – End Activities 4. water is considered polluted. and block light to deeper waters.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . point source and non-point source. Domestic pollution 4. Hardness 4. To know the limits of major cations and anions as in above said parameters and To understand the types and effects of BOD. 4. Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water.5. use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose.0. Industrial Pollution 4. Two types of water pollutants exist.2. When it is unfit for its intended use. Sulphate 4.

farm workers and their families as well as consumers of crops produced in such a way. where there are no fields for defecation. The proper management of excreta acts as the primary barrier to prevent the spread of pathogens in the environment. which pollutes well and rivers. and cyanides which causes excessive acidity in water. Since a primary cause of contamination of water is inadequate or improper disposal of human and animal excreta. They consist primarily of intestinal bacteria. At least 2500 million people in developing countries lack an adequate system for disposing of their faeces. industrial and agricultural pollution.clicktoconvert. because an adequate water supply makes it possible or at least more feasible for people to adopt safe hygiene behaviors. It can be classified into three types as domestic pollution. Domestic pollution Important source of water pollution is domestic sewage system.com 38 The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern. Deteriorating water quality is a particular threat in developing countries. electroplating plant. Water is essential for life. which contains harmful heavy metals. where hundreds of millions of people lack access to clean drinking water and the vast majority of sewage are discharged into surface waters without wastewater treatment. The potable water contaminated with faeces is the chief cause of some important diseases o f human beings.2. better water quality only improves health when sanitation is improved as well and when the quantity of water is sufficient. The chemicals discharged by the factories are more harmful than the sewerage that flows into the river. which is harmful for aquatic life. but it can and does transmit diseases in countries in all continents – from the poorest to the wealthiest. Industrial Pollution Sewage is not the only the cause of water pollution. Other sources of water pollution are distillery potassic fertilizers. They deem that latrines are meant for city dwellers. Faeces are the most common pollutant of potable water. which are important source of drinking water. When untreated or inadequately treated wastewater or excreta (faecal sludge) is applied to soil and crops. For the poor in many developing countries. industrial waste is also a significant polluter – giving rise to contamination with heavy metals. non-biodegradable materials and toxic chemicals hazardous to health and hygiene. It directly influences disease transmission through person to person contact.http://www. tanks and reservoirs may be contaminated by poorly designed or maintained sewage disposal systems. An increase in the quantity of water has a greater health impact than improved water quality. Intensive use of . disease transmission can occur. The persons at risk are the farmers.2. Islamic and Christian texts.2. 4.1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . About 98% of the people of rural areas use open field for defecation. The effluent discharged by the factories contains detergents. domestic animals or insects. Domestic neighbourhood or district water supplies such as wells. water and the food chain. 4. faeces deposited near their homes constantly threaten household hygiene. The problem of excreta disposal is clearly as old as mankind itself and the need for careful disposal is highlighted in a number of religious books including Hindu. by direct contact with people or by being inadvertently carried into homes and kitchens by children.

which in turn can harm animals and plants living in the water.so stay out of abandoned mines. Fig 4. vegetables fats and brewery. When substances dissolve in water they produce charged molecules called ions. ‘It is of relatively recent recognition that salinisation of water resources is a major and widespread phenomenon of possibly even greater concern to the sustainability of irrigation than is that of the salinisation of soils. Moderate pollution was noted from dairy and canning establishments. desertification.. this mine-drainage water would be 100.com 39 pesticides and fertilisers has increased the level of nitrates in water.000 times more acidic than neutral water . including organic and inorganic. erosion.3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This can lead to brain damage and even death among children. Indeed. that affect irrigated areas. only in the past few years has it become apparent that trace toxic constituents. Mo and As in agricultural drainage waters may cause pollution problems that threaten the continuation of irrigation in some projects 4.4. By using the logarithm scale. that are suspended in the water. pH pH is a measurement of how acidic or how basic (alkaline) a solution is. Because aquatic plants also receive less light. agrochemicals and toxic leachates is a serious environmental problem.1: pH Scale 4. For instance. Agricultural Pollution In addition to problems of waterlogging. etc. less light and less oxygen makes it impossible for some forms of life to exist. such as Se. water coming out of an abandoned coal mine can have a pH of 2. jute. Acidic water contains extra hydrogen ions (H+) and basic water contains extra hydroxyl (OH-) ions. Pollution can change pH in water.3. High concentrations of suspended solids can lower water quality by absorbing light. photosynthesis decreases and less oxygen is produced. salinization. 4. the problem of downstream degradation of water quality by salts.http://www. leather.2. Waters then become warmer and lessen the ability of the water to hold oxygen necessary for aquatic life. The combination of warmer water. which is very acidic and would definitely affect any fish crazy enough to try to live in it. plankton and industrial wastes. Water pollution ranged from moderate to very high in case of textiles. . TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS The TSS is solid materials.clicktoconvert. These would include silt.

Elevated dissolved solids can cause ‘mineral tastes’ in drinking water. industrial wastes. Conductivity is a measurement used to determine a number of applications related to water quality. Corrosion or encrustation of metallic surfaces by waters high in dissolved solids causes problems with . 2) Noting variation or changes in natural water and wastewaters quickly. For example.5. In water it breaks apart into an aqueous solution of sodium and chloride ions. The material that settles also fills the spaces between rocks and makes these microhabitats unsuitable for various aquatic insects. and prevent egg and larval development. sodium chloride (table salt) consists of sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-) held together in a crystal.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . river bank erosion. Total dissolved solids information is used to determine the overall ionic effect in a water source. such as mayfly nymphs. stonefly nymphs and caddisfly larva. Conductivity is then expressed in reciprocal ohms. This solution will conduct an electrical current. A more convenient unit of measurement in the chemical analysis of water is micromhos. 2) mobility of the ion. which is an electrical measurement expressed in ohms. The specific conductance or conductivity measurement is related to ionic strength and does not indicate what specific ions are present.(ion) There are several factors that determine the degree to which water will carry an electrical current. 3) Estimating the sample size necessary for other chemical analyses. 3) oxidation state (valence) and. 4) Determining amounts of chemical reagents or treatment chemicals to be added to water sample. decrease resistance to disease.com 40 Suspended solids affect life in other ways.http://www. is the opposite of conductivity. They can clog fish gills. algae growth or wastewater discharges. 4) temperature of the water. Particles that settle out can smother fish eggs and those of aquatic insects. Suspended solids can result from erosion from urban runoff and agricultural land. An ion is an atom of an element that has gained or lost an electron which will create a negative or positive state. These include: 1) the concentration or number of ions. Resistance. These are as follows: 1) Determining mineralization: This is commonly called total dissolved solids.( in a water solution) = Na+ (ion) + Cl .(ionic crystal) Na+Cl . reduce growth rates. 4. CONDUCTIVITY Conductivity is a measurement of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electrical current. Unit (mho/cm or mg/L) an equation which shows this is: Na (atom) + Cl (atom) Na+ Cl . bottom feeders (such as carp). as well as suffocate newly-hatched larvae. Certain physiological effects on plants and animals are often affected by the number of available ions in the water.

Hardness must also be removed before certain industries can use the water. sodium.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .300 Hard 300 and up Very hard Table 4. Large amounts of hardness are undesirable mostly for economic or aesthetic reasons. Generally. the lower the toxicity of other metals to aquatic life. EDTA. Agricultural uses of water for livestock watering are limited by excessive dissolved solids and high dissolved solids can be a problem in water used for irrigation. The TDS in drinking-water originate from natural sources. the harder the water. Concentration mg/L CaCO3 Description 0 . cadmium.75 Soft 75 . Concentrations of TDS in water vary considerably in different geological regions owing to differences in the solubilities of minerals. In fresh water the primary ions are calcium and magnesium. hardness can present problems in the water treatment process. . potassium. A reference substance.1: Classification of Water by Hardness Content (Hardness Unit: mg/L) The most important impact of hardness on fish and other aquatic life appears to be the affect the presence of these ions has on the other more toxic metals such as lead. toilet flushing mechanisms and washing machines. Hardness is based on the ability of these ions to react with soap to form a precipitate or soap scum.com 41 industrial equipment and boilers as well as domestic plumbing.clicktoconvert. bicarbonates.6. Hardness is expressed in mg/L of CaCO3 (even though all the hardness may not be due to CaCO3).http://www. For this reason. 4. HARDNESS Hardness is due to the presence of multivalent metal ions which come from minerals dissolved in the water. chromium and zinc. If a stream or river is a drinking water source. Indirect effects of excess dissolved solids are primarily the elimination of desirable food plants and habitat. The technique for analysis uses potentiometric titration on the computer aided titrimeter (CAT) with a copper ion-specific electrode.7.forming plant species. magnesium. is used as a titrant. urban runoff and industrial wastewater. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS The TDS comprise inorganic salts (principally calcium. chlorides and sulphates) and small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. In hard water some of the metal ions form insoluble precipitates and drop out of solution and are not available to be taken in by the organism. hot water heaters. however iron and manganese may also contribute. the hardness test is one of the most frequent analyses done by industrial units that use water. sewage. 4. This is an electrochemical procedure.150 Moderately hard 150 . Carbonate hardness is equal to alkalinity but a non-carbonate fraction may include nitrates and chlorides.

3-5 Fair: Moderately Clean 6-9 Poor: Somewhat Polluted Usually indicates organic matter is present and bacteria are decomposing this waste. The remaining vial is than sealed and placed in darkness and tested five days later. Generally. The range of possible readings can vary considerably: water from an exceptionally clear lake might show a BOD of less than 2 ml/L of water. Table 4. Raw sewage may give readings in the hundreds and food processing wastes may be in the thousands.http://www.8. BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organics in one litre of water were oxidised by bacteria and protozoa.2: BOD and Water Quality 4. an oxygen meter is used to determine the concentration of oxygen within one of the vials. but the amount will vary from waste to waste. The COD test also is used to measure the strength of wastes that are too toxic for the BOD test. and no health-based guideline value is proposed. However.com 42 Reliable data on possible health effects associated with the ingestion of TDS in drinkingwater are not available.clicktoconvert. BOD (in ppm) 1-2 Water Quality Very Good There will not be much organic waste present in the water supply. After this. there is a decline in DO (Disolved Oxygen) levels. The COD test should be considered an independent measurement and not a quick substitute for the BOD test. The first step in measureing BOD is to obtain equal volumes of water from the area to be tested and dilute each specimen with a known volume of distilled water which has been thoroughly shaken to insure oxygen saturation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . BOD is then determined by subtracting the second meter reading from the first. If there is no organic waste present in the water. The COD is usually higher than the BOD. 100 or greater Very Poor: Highly Polluted Contains organic waste. This is because the demand for oxygen by the bacteria is high and they are taking that oxygen from the oxygen dissolved in the water. The COD test should be .9 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) The COD test will give a good estimate of the first stage oxygen demand for most wastewaters. when BOD levels are high. the presence of high levels of TDS in drinking-water may be objectionable to consumers. 4. An advantage of the COD test over the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test is 2 to 3 hours versus 5 days. there would not be as many bacteria present to decompose it and thus the BOD will tend to be lower and the dissolve oxygen level will tend to be higher.

sulphates.. Self-check Exercise – 1 What is Chemical Oxygen Demand? Note: Please proceed after answering the question . Many organic compounds which are dichromate oxidizable are not biochemically oxidizable. which is misleading when estimating the organic content of the wastewater. Older references may express the units as parts per million (ppm). such as sulphides. There are three fairly reliable ‘rules of thumb’ correlations between COD/BOD.g. the result of the COD calculation is given in mg/L.http://www. If milliliters are used consistently for volume measurements. making COD a useful measure of water quality. Expressed as O2 .5 to 2 are usually found in potable water or exceptionally clean surface or groundwater. Chemical Oxygen Demand measures the ability of hot chromic acid solution to oxidize organic matter. some effluents which are high in sugars. or soda bottling. 3. The BOD to COD ratio is nothing more than the BOD concentration divided by the COD concentration for the same sample (e. Ratios for COD to BOD of 0. and n is the normality of FAS. lakes and rivers). each specific treatment system may be checked for its own particular ratios. or 0. thiosulphates.g. In some industrial effluents (pretreatment program).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Ratios of COD to BOD of 2 to 4 are usually seen in routine domestic/municipal sewage wastes. If this is true. Calculations The following formula is used to calculate COD: where b is the volume of FAS (Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate) used in the blank sample.com 43 considered an independent measurement of organic matter in a sample rather than a substitute for the BOD test. It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/ L). Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e. s is the volume of FAS in the original sample. creating an inorganic COD. as can be found in the bakery industry. Of course. the ratio is 60/100. nitrites and ferrous iron are oxidized by dichromate. which indicates the mass of oxygen consumed per liter of solution. 2. Some industrial effluents will have higher demand because of the higher quantities of chemicals that demand oxygen. Ratios of COD to BOD of 4 to 6 are usually indicative of industrial type wastes. This analyzes both biodegradable and non-biodegradable (refractory) organic matter. and COD is 100 mg/L for a sample. BODs can be higher than CODs (for example. if BOD is 60 mg/L. a BOD value for a glucose/glutamic acid standard should be 60-70% of the COD value for the same sample. The results of the COD (chemical oxygen demand) tests are usually higher that the corresponding BOD test for several reasons. Certain inorganic substances.clicktoconvert. 1.60).

however. instead use words or phrases.water originates from natural sources.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .11. principally in the chemical industry. and are found in their wastes. drinking-water may constitute the principal source of intake.clicktoconvert. and the intake from this source is usually greatly in excess of that from drinking-water. Total coliforms include bacteria that are found in the soil. Of the five general groups of bacteria that comprise the total coliforms.water. Fecal coliforms are the group of the total coliforms that are considered to be present specifically in the gut and feces of warm blooded animals.icing salt and saline intrusion. In general. They are also found in plant and soil material. coli The most basic test for bacterial contamination of a water supply is the test for total coliform bacteria.com 44 Do not write full sentences or statements. Consequently. E. 4. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. and in human or animal waste. including humans.12. in water that has been influenced by surface water. CHLORIDE Chloride in drinking. Because the origins of fecal coliforms are more specific than the origins of the more general total coliform group of bacteria. The main source of human exposure to chloride is the addition of salt to food. However.10. sewage and industrial effluents. in areas with drinking-water supplies containing high levels of sulphate. No health-based guideline value is proposed for chloride in drinking. food being the major source. urban runoff containing de. 4. and E. the highest levels usually occur in groundwater and are from natural sources.http://www. depending on the alkalinity of the water. However. coli cannot be found growing and reproducing in the environment. They are discharged into water in industrial wastes and through atmospheric deposition. Total coliforms. The major species in the fecal coliform group is Escherichia coli (E. Faecal coliforms. only E. SULPHATE Sulphates occur naturally in numerous minerals and are used commercially. Excessive chloride concentrations increase rates of corrosion of metals in the distribution system. This can lead to increased concentrations of metals in the supply. coli is considered to be the . chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/litre can give rise to detectable taste in water. fecal coliforms are considered a better indication of animal or human waste than the total coliforms. Total coliform counts give a general indication of the sanitary condition of a water supply. COLIFORMS Coliforms are bacteria that are always present in the digestive tracts of animals. the average daily intake of sulphate from drinking-water. coli). air and food is approximately 500 mg.

E. Most bacteria grow best in dark. swine. Harmfulness of Coliform Bacteria Coliform bacteria may harm us by causing diseases and food spoilage. within 100ml of water there should be no more than 500 total coliforms. O f environmental concern are the many types of coliform bacteria. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Self-check Exercise – 3 What are the types of Coliforms? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . instead use words or phrases. moist environments with food. Most coliform bacteria do not cause disease. we can determine approximately how many bacteria were originally present. and sheep. Bacteria reproduce rapidly if conditions are right for growth. They aid in the digestion of food. particularly the strain 0l57:H7. Cases of E.000 total coliforms per 100ml of water or 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The Standards · With these bacteria in mind the first standard is a mandatory one that must not be exceeded. These organisms may be separated from the total coliform group by their ability to grow at elevated temperatures and are associated only with the fecal material of warm-blooded animals. Some bacteria form colonies as they multiply which may grow large enough to be seen. Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the pollution parameters? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. coli 0157:H7 has been isolated from cattle.clicktoconvert.000 faecal coliforms per 100ml of water. · The second standard is a guideline that should be achieved where possible. coli . warm.http://www. some rare strains of E. livestock and wildlife. there should be no more than 10. Fecal coliform bacteria are a group of bacteria that are passed through the fecal excrement of humans. 100 faecal coliforms and 100 faecal streptococci. coli 0157:H7 caused by contaminated drinking water supplies are extremely rare. A specific subgroup of this collection is the fecal coliform bacteria. are pathogenic and can cause serious illness. Recent outbreaks of disease caused by E. However. instead use words or phrases. chickens.com 45 species of coliform bacteria that is the best indicator of fecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogens. the most common member being Eschericia coli. Most of the reported cases have been attributed to the consumption of partially cooked hamburger. By growing and counting colonies of fecal coliform bacteria from a sample of stream water. coli 0157:H7 have generated much public concern about this organism.

agricultural field and the residential area and asses the types of wastes and quantum of wastes generated per day. but can also be found in the aquatic environment. industrial and agricultural pollution. These pollution parameters like major cations and anions can be analysed with the help guideline values. 4. In most instances.13 LET US SUM UP The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern. Substantiate the different types pollution parameters 2. Evaluate the analysis of pollution parameters like major cations and anions with the help guideline values. Coliform bacteria are a commonly-used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. Water is essential for life. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organics in one litre of water were oxidised by bacteria and protozoa.com 46 4.16 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. you can confirm the mixing of faecal contents with water. 4. 3. Critically analyze the difference between BOD and COD.http://www. 1. industrial and agricultural pollution. in soil and on vegetation. but it can and does transmit diseases in countries in all continents – from the poorest to the wealthiest. 4. If you have them above the permissible limit. Also add note on the principle and calculation of COD 2. Justify the role of coliforms in determining the sanitary quality of foods and water. but they are easy to culture and their presence is used to indicate that other pathogenic organisms of fecal origin may be present.14 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES Visit a nearby industry. Chemical Oxygen Demand The COD test will give a good estimate of the first stage oxygen demand for most wastewaters. Pollution Parameters For this question you have to discuss about domestic.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It can be classified into three types as domestic pollution.clicktoconvert. They are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative organisms which ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35 °C. Coliforms are abundant in the feces of warm-blooded animals. coliforms themselves are not the cause of sickness. Chemical Oxygen Demand measures the ability of hot chromic acid solution to oxidize organic matter. This analyzes both biodegradable and non-biodegradable (refractory) organic matter.15 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. 4. You can collect water samples from different places and perform coliform test. An advantage of the COD test over the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test is 2 to 3 hours versus 5 days. .

rpi.switzerland. Vasanthy Metcalf and Eddy Mahajan. Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. B.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Mc Graw Hill Publishing company. Masters Kudesia.pdf http://www. 4.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/evap . A and Alice Emerenshiya.edu/files/publications/publication/N R_WQ_2005-19. S.http://www.k12.P Kumaraswamy. K. Stanly Manahan Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Pollution Control Legislation - Advances in Environmental Sciences.in.usu. Tiruchirappalli. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.us/watershed/fecal.wikipedia. 2000 Environmental Chemistry. p138 – 142. and E. Meerut. Pragati Prakashan. 2007 Environmental Chemistry. 1998 Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University.atmos.edu/pubs/housing/356-490/356490.cas.org/wiki/Chemical_oxygen_demand http://www. 1997 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company.edu/WaterResources/pdfs/Water Softening..html (Vol I – II) – Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board . Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. Publication No.rxml http://resources.17 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses. coli. Faecal coliforms. C Anil Kumar De Gilbert M.psu. 2004.pdf http://www. and are found in their wastes.pdf http://en.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/e n/ http://ww2010.ext.who. 1998 Water Pollution.vt.htm#agri cultural%20impacts%20on%20water%20quality http://extension.uiuc. New Delhi. Meerut.ht m http://www.. Types of coliforms Coliforms are bacteria that are always present in the digestive tracts of animals. 45. Pollution Control in Process Industries.org/docrep/W2598E/w2598e04.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesqu ality/wqmchap2. A. V. New Delhi.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.who. GEMS.clicktoconvert.umich. 1985 Environmental Chemistry. K. harmfulness of coliforms and the standards for them. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. They are also found in plant and soil material. New Delhi. 2003.P Sharma.html www. Tiruchirappalli. Alagappa Moses and M.edu/dept/DFWI/dfwiwq/water_quality_p arameters.fao.com 47 3. Write about Total coliforms.pdf http://www. 1999 http://www. including humans.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .7. Typhoid 5.5. Human health issues 5. but only about four days without water. transporting nutrients.3. Hepatitis 5. Malaria 5. Leptospirosis 5.1. Diarrhoea 5. Health Effects Of Water Pollution 5. Eutrophication 5.htmlAquatic diseases and deformities 5. weeks or months without food. 5.5.1 Introduction 5.4. The body uses water for digestion.0.net/teach/pollution/water/graphics/fishtumor.4. Effects of Water Pollution on Aquatic System 5.4.1. building tissues. Point Source Pollution 5. Scabies 5.4.7.11 Points for Discussion 5. The following objectives are · · · · To study the causes of water-borne diseases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this lesson is to discuss about water-borne diseases like. . Let Us Sum Up 5.1.2.4.greatlakes. Dimension of the Problem 5.http://www.4.4.8.2. Cholera 5.1. Dengue 5.2. Consequences of Health 5. carrying away waste and maintaining body temperature.10 Lesson – End Activities 5. Water Borne Diseases 5. and To know the effects of water-pollution on aquatic system. Aims and Objectives 5.1 INTRODUCTION People can survive days. Effects of Water Pollution 5. Non-Point Source Pollution 5. http://www.4.3. To study the different types water-borne diseases To know the effects of water-borne diseases.8.4. Fluorosis 5. absorption.7.0.com 48 LESSON – 5: WATER BORNE DISEASES AND EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION CONTENTS 5.6. Transmission 5.clicktoconvert.9. circulation.12 Check your Progress – Model Answers 5.5.5.9.13 References 5.6.2.7.3.4.4.

it may be hard to pinpoint the relative importance of aquatic components of the local ecosystems. which contain pathogenic microorganisms. 5.2. Spatio-temporal data are available for some water-. Our bodies make water as a by-product in the breakdown of fats.half from surface water in rivers.clicktoconvert. carbonated or still.http://www.1 billion people still lacking access to improved drinking water sources and some 2. lakes and reservoirs. natural or modified.1 billion people do not have access to safe water. DIMENSION OF THE PROBLEM In developing countries four-fifths of all the illnesses are caused by water-borne diseases. A large segment of these people live in 49 developing countries. Water can be hard or soft. how it is processed and handled. These countries are experiencing increasing cases of water-related diseases such as cholera. CONSEQUENCES OF HEALTH Poor sanitation and contaminated drinking water are two of the most common environmental hazards in many countries of the world.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . sugars and proteins to energy. A number of research activities and a series of conferences on water and international communities’ efforts to improve the overall situation of water in these countries are going on. Inadequate water. Lack of clean water and sanitation is the second most important risk factor in terms of the global burden of disease. Even where water plays an essential role in the ecology of diseases. Today we have strong evidence that water-. The global picture of water and health has a strong local dimension with some 1. almost 2. sanitation and hygiene- . 5. sanitation and hygiene account for a large part of the burden of illness and death in developing countries. diarrhoea and dysentery. after malnutrition.3. with the emergence of new water-related infection diseases and the reemergence of ones already known. Water-borne diseases are any illness caused by drinking water contaminated by human or animal faeces. Beyond that. food supplies some water. About one-half of our water comes from underground water tables (groundwater) and one. Growing water crisis in the countries has adverse effects on their long-term development.4 billion to adequate sanitation. the picture of water-related human health issues has become increasingly comprehensive. Some 1. bottled or tap. but water scarcity and lack of access to water and sanitation still continue.5 billion lack basic sanitation. Although most of this liquid should come from beverages. Over the past decades. sanitation.and hygiene-related diseases The burden of several disease groups can only partly be attributed to water determinants.com 49 The average adult consumes and excretes about 10 cups of water daily. Adults should drink six to eight cups of liquids per day. its composition depends on where it comes from. Water is always two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen. with diarrhoea being the leading cause of childhood death. The full picture of water-associated diseases is complex for a number of reasons.

7 million people worldwide are infected by schistomiasis. washing and bathing . WHO estimates indicate that worldwide over 2 billion people are infected with schistosomes and soil transmitted helminthes and 300 million of these suffer serious illness as a result. residential or industrial developments can also sometimes contaminate surface water. This is likely to occur where public and private drinking water systems get their water from surface waters (rain. 5. water runoff from landfills. Malaria and Dengue fever. Transmission Water borne diseases spread by contamination of drinking water systems with the urine and faeces of infected animal or people. Hepatitis A. This has been the cause of many dramatic outbreaks of faecal-oral diseases such as cholera and typhoid. Typhoid Fever.com 50 related diseases account for some 2. constituting 10 % of Africa’s overall disease burden. Cholera. rivers. lakes etc. and sewer pipes. Leptospirosis. In general. Malaria causes at least 396. In 2001 the estimated global burden of malaria amounted to 42. An estimated 246. sewer pipes. linked to flood waters like Shigellosis.clicktoconvert. for instance on the hands or on contaminated food. An estimated 80% of transmission takes place in Africa south of the Sahara. which will ultimately threaten their health and shorten their life expectancy. Diarrhoea occurs worldwide and causes 4% of all deaths and 5% of the health loss to disability. Runoff from landfills. However.3. septic fields.2 million deaths annually and an annual loss of 82.1. Pregnant women are the main adult risk group. After the Tsunami attack in Asia on 26th of December 2004 people faced the threat of water borne diseases.). In Bangladesh alone. septic fields.3 million DALYs. This contamination may occur due to floodwaters. and a large percentage of them are under five as well. and of these 20 million suffer severe consequences of the infection.2 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs).8 million cases of acute illness each year. contaminated food is the single most common way in which people become infected. some 35 million people are exposed. which can be contaminated by infected animals or people.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3 % each year over the past 30 years. to elevated levels of arsenic in their drinking water.http://www. mainly in Africa South of the Sahara. on a daily basis. The only way to break the continued transmission is to improve the people’s hygienic behaviour and to provide them with certain basic needs: drinking water. while 120 million suffer milder symptoms. As one of the major public health problems in tropical countries. it has been claimed that malaria has reduced economic growth in African countries by 1. The germs in the faeces can cause the diseases by even slight contact and transfer. there are many other ways in which faecal material can reach the mouth. Malaria kills over a million people every year.

Infants and young children may have a feverish illness with rash. vomiting and leg cramps. The clinical features vary according to the age of the patient. muscle and joint pains and rash.000 cases resulting in approximately 5000 deaths were officially notified at WHO. or sleep in houses that have no protection against invading mosquitoes. pain in the joints. and severe headache. In these people rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shoal. following an incubation period of five to eight days.1. Cholera cases and deaths were officially reported by WHO. severe headache. from 27 countries in Africa. instead use words or phrases. A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. tropical black flies. 2 countries in Europe. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water. Cholera Cholera is an acute. 9 countries in Latin America.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Approximately 1 in 20 infected people has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhoea. 5. Older children and adults may have either a mild feverish illness. also known as break bone fever and bone-crusher disease. Africa accounted for 87% of these cases. Malaria mosquitoes. flu. sweating.com 51 facilities and sanitation.4. are fever. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. young children and adults but rarely causes death. and bilharzias snails can all be controlled with efficient drainage because they all depend on water to complete their life cycles. in the year 2000. and prostration. Without treatment death can occur within hours.2. chills. Self-check Exercise – 1 How human health is affected due to polluted water? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements.4. diarrhoeal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.4. and 4 countries in Oceania. The symptoms. Malaria transmission is facilitated when large numbers of people sleep outdoors during hot weather. or the classical incapacitating disease with abrupt onset and high fever.http://www. In the same year some 140. pain behind the eyes. The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters.clicktoconvert.like illness that affects infants. . Dengue Dengue is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus and transmitted by the bite of the Aedes mosquito. 13 countries in Asia. Dengue fever is a severe. WATER BORNE DISEASES 5.

5. dengue is found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.5% and 7. and cholera. the bone structure may change and ligaments may calcify. Iran. Algeria. Sudan and Kenya.5 mg/l of water) is quite common. where Aedes mosquitoes are prevalent. Long-term ingestion of large amounts can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems (skeletal fluorosis). Acute high. 5. Today. Severe diarrhoea may be life threatening due to fluid loss in watery diarrhoea. Fluorosis Fluorosis is an abnormal condition caused by excessive intake of fluorine. with resulting impairment of muscles and pain. or several weeks. It is believed that fluorosis affects millions of people around the world. India.4.clicktoconvert. It is a rare occurrence for most people who live in developed countries where sanitation is widely available.5. Diarrhoea is a concomitant of many infectious diseases. as from fluoridated drinking water. Diarrhoea due to infection is widespread throughout the developing world.com 52 Dengue hemorrhagic is a potentially lethal complication and is today a leading cause of childhood death in several Asian countries. bacillary or amoebic dysentery. Moderate level chronic exposure (above 1. and another that stretches from Turkey through Iraq. access to safe water is wide and personal and domestic hygiene is relatively good.level exposure to fluoride causes immediate effects of abdominal pain. Known fluoride belt on land include: one that stretches from Syria through Jordan. Persistent diarrhoea may result in severe dehydration and shock.2 million people.3. and in the most severe cases circulatory failure. Diarrhoea is a symptom of infection by a host of bacterial. most of whom where under 5 years old. predominately in urban and per urban areas. Globally there are an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever each year. Egypt. characterized chiefly by mottling of the teeth. northern Thailand and China. nausea and vomiting. It is therefore necessary to replace the fluid lost by the body. Hepatitis . as in persistent diarrhoea. Diarrhoea Diarrhoea is frequent discharge of watery faeces from the intestines. In severe case. sometimes containing blood and mucus. Diarrhoea due to infection may last a few days. viral and parasitic organisms most of which can be spread by contaminated water. excessive saliva.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The early symptoms of skeletal fluorosis include stiffness and pain in the joints. 5. especially typhoid fever. but as regards dental fluorosis the very mild forms are the most frequent. It is characterized by high fever. Afghanistan.http://www. In 1998 it was estimated to have killed 2. often enlargement of the liver.4. Seizures and muscle spasm may also occur.7% of all deaths respectively. Libya. haemorrhage.4. particularly in infants and young children. In Southeast Asia and Africa it is responsible for 8.4. Waters with high levels of fluoride content are mostly found at the foot of high mountains and in areas where the sea has made geological deposits. the malnourished and people with impaired immunity.

and some infected people may have no symptoms at all.6. and respiratory distress. body weakness. muscle aches. the spleen and the liver become enlarged. Hepatitis A is particularly frequent in countries with poor sanitary and hygienic conditions (in Africa. The disease may range from mild (lasting 1-2 weeks) to severe disabling disease (lasting several months). Today.4.000 may be infected. liver failure. and vomiting. and dogs. or a rash. caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira and characterized by jaundice and fever. It is transmissible to humans through direct contact with the urine of infected animals or by contact with a urine-contaminated environment.4. and may include jaundice. anaemia. The number of human cases worldwide is not well documented. severe headache. followed by jaundice within a few days. Both hepatitis A and E are found worldwide. in both rural and urban areas and in temperate and tropical climates. If the disease is not treated. loss of appetite. meningitis.clicktoconvert. Complications include renal failure. In humans it causes a wide range of symptoms. 5. malaria occurs mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. nausea and abdominal discomfort. General debility. Its symptoms are at the onset of malaria. particularly in Africa south of the Sahara. and jaundice appears. anaemia develops.000 per year in temperate climates to 10 or more per 100. diarrhoea. Leptospirosis occurs worldwide. In rare cases death occurs. red eyes. Countries with economies in transition and some regions of industrialized countries where sanitary conditions are sub-standard are also high affected (southern and eastern Europe and some parts of the Middle East). Two of the viruses that cause hepatitis (hepatitis A and E) can be transmitted through water. Symptoms of leptospirosis include high fever. soil and plants. abdominal pain. Hygiene is therefore important in their control. Asia.com 53 In medicine hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. South-East Asia and the forest fringe zones in South America. 5. It probably ranges from 0.7. . The illness starts with an abrupt onset of fever. or clogging of the vessels of cerebral tissues by affected red blood cells can be followed by death.1 to 1 per 100. and Central and South America). bouts of chills (ague) and fever lasting several hours and occurring every three or four days. Because of the wide range of symptoms the infection is often wrongly diagnosed. swine. such as surface water. especially cattle. For several reasons leptospirosis is overlooked and consequently underreported in many areas of the world. Malaria Malaria is the world’s most important parasitic disease transmitted from one person to another through the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. food and from person to person. This leads to a lower registered number of cases than there really are.http://www. Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of domestic animals.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . which breed in fresh or occasionally brackish water. chills.

the health of the organisms living in and around the waterway. the penis. especially at night. especially the webbing between the fingers. Once the bacteria enter the person’s body they multiply and spread from the intestines. elbow or knee. the skin folds of the wrist. diarrhoea or constipation. There are about 300 million cases of scabies in the world each year. affecting practically every body system. People become infected after eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected or by drinking water that has been contaminated by sewage containing the bacteria. principally owing to they problem of unsafe drinking water. the health of humans.http://www. Typhoid Typhoid and paratyphoid enteric fever are acute.like rash that is most commonly found on hands. The annual incidence of typhoid is estimated to be about 17 million cases worldwide. eventually. and. The principal sign of the disease is a pimple. Scabies Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic skin disease caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei).5. It is acquired through close contact with an infested individual or contaminated clothing and is most prevalent among those living in crowded and unhygienic conditions. Complications account for the mortality rate of 7% to 14%. Infestation often causes intense itching all over the body. Their germs are passed in the faeces and urine of infected people.clicktoconvert. Scabies mites are found worldwide. 5. and can even include perforation of the intestine with haemorrhage. especially in urban communities.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . poor water supply.9. EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION ON AQUATIC SYSTEM Water pollution affects the health of the waterway. generalized infections caused by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphoid is respectively.com 54 5. In untreated patients complications may be numerous. inadequate sewage disposal and flooding. Epidemics have been linked to poverty. Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are common in less-industrialized countries. Personal hygiene is an important preventive measure and access to adequate water supply is important in control. the breast or the shoulder.8.4. The main sources of infection are contaminated water or milk and. rose-colored spots on the abdomen and chest. and enlargement of the spleen and liver.4. into the bloodstream. The symptoms of typhoid appear 10 to 14 days after infection. 5. The effects of water pollution can range from aquatic deformities to contaminated fish to ‘dead’ lakes. affecting all socioeconomic classes and in all climates. and overcrowding. food handlers who are carriers. sanitation. they can be mild or severe and include high fever. .

resulting in either death or extreme deformities. These lakes support high levels of animal life and receive proper amounts of nutrients. Heavy metals such as mercury and lead. nutrient loading (more nutrients than the waterbody can handle) stimulates excessive plant growth. who are at the end of the food chain. studies have suggested that toxic chemicals can lead to reproductive problems. such as dioxin.net/teach/pollution/water/graphics/fishtumor. While scientists are still studying the effects of high chemical levels in humans. PCBs and DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane). mainly phosphorous and nitrogen.made organic chemicals such as pesticides.htmlAquatic diseases and deformities As virtual ‘canaries in a gold mine. EUTROPHICATION Before the introduction of chemical fertilizers the water contained little plant nutrients and were clear due to their size and depth. the ecological balance of the lake is significantly altered. including children. and human. Under eutrophic conditions.great. Urbanisation and agricultural revolution and industrialization changed all of that. leading to increased biological growth.5. . cancer and neurological disorders. mainly due to increased urbanization and agriculture.2. and even humans.lakes.6. therefore. which in turn decreases the amount of oxygen in the water and eventually kills off certain species of animal life.legged frogs. Studies have found cormorants suffering from cross-billed syndrome at rates 42 percent times the natural occurence. are chemical substances that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate through the food web. Human health issues Persistant Organic Pollutants.com 55 5. People who regularly consume a lot of fish will have larger levels of toxic chemicals in their bodies than those who only eat fish occasionally.’ the deteriorating health of fish and wildlife speaks volumes about the need to clean up the Great Lakes. while terns exhibit birth defects from dioxin. Toxic pollutants can also alter the genetic makeup of an organism. PCBs (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and furan exposure at 31 times the normal levels. from natural sources. Other pollution-tolerant species. Other examples of deformities include large fish tumors and three. 5. such as lake trout. or POPs. People who are most at risk of health problems due to contaminated fish consumption are those with weakened immune systems. 5.1 http://www. herring gulls. resulting in tumors and death for predatory animals. POPs can also cause sickness and disease in humans. biomagnify as they move up the food chain. such as decomposing plant matter.http://www. such as worms and carp.clicktoconvert. grow more rapidly. thus. caused by bacterial contamination. or eutrophication.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . pregnant women and the elderly. Other human health issues related to water pollution include drinking water contamination and skin infection.5. The amount of nutrients entering the water bodies has intensified greatly.

and air pollution. industries and individuals often used rivers and lakes as garbage cans. and the number of sewage treatment facilities has doubled. it has been the easiest source of pollution to control and regulate. such as a drainpipe draining directly into a river. Industrial water discharges and sewage treatment plants are the main sources of this type of pollution. but the main three entryways of pollutants are point source. without much thought of contamination and downstream neighbors. runoff from agriculture and urbanization. the more the rivers and lakes became polluted.clicktoconvert. therefore. However. This practice started changing in the recent decades as people became aware of the importance of clean water to health. raw sewage and animal carcasses would often be dumped into waterways. many experts believe that NPS pollution is the top hazard facing the major water bodies today. as more industries and people moved into the urban centres. Ways that humans have affected the quality of the water over the centuries include sewage disposal. 5. Non-Point Source Pollution In contrast to point source pollution. Today. Point Source Pollution When pollutants enter the river though it is a specific entry point. physical and biological health of water due to human activity. therefore. .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . instead use words or phrases. HEALTH EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is defined as a change in the chemical.com 56 Self-check Exercise – 2 What is Eutrophication? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. Industrial effluent.7.1. toxic contamination through heavy metals and pesticides. Under the belief that water could dilute any substance. it's called point source pollution. 5.7. Now most of the industrial units use control measures to reduce their toxic discharge. over development of the water's edge. Point source pollutants can include many different organic and inorganic substances.http://www. nonpoint source (or NPS) pollution comes from many different diffuse sources and is extremely difficult to regulate and control.7. Point source pollution can be traced to a specific discharge point and owner. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. nonpoint source and atmospheric pollution. including human waste and toxic metals.2. pollutants enter the water bodies in many different ways.

eventually. Scabies. tanks and lakes. oil. the health of the organisms living in and around the water bodies. including children. picking up pollutants along the way and eventually dumping the pollutants into rivers. while terns exhibit birth defects from dioxin. sediment from construction sites and eroding shorelines. Malaria. studies have suggested that toxic chemicals can lead to reproductive problems. Diarrhoea. · Effects of pollution on aquatic systems and its impacts. People who regularly consume a lot of fish will have larger levels of toxic chemicals in their bodies than those who only eat fish occasionally. PCBs and furan exposure at 31 times the normal levels. Studies have found cormorants suffering from cross-billed syndrome at rates 42 percent times the natural occurrence. the health of humans. People who are most at risk of health problems due to contaminated fish consumption are those with weakened immune systems. Other examples of deformities include large fish tumors and three-legged frogs. . Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. are chemical substances that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate through the food web. cancer and neurological disorders. Hepatatis. EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION Water pollution affects the health of the waterway.com 57 NPS pollution is mainly caused by runoff. when rain water and snow melt move over the land. POPs can also cause sickness and disease in humans. in that Cholera. or POPs. Dengue. Typoid and Fluorosis. Toxic pollutants can also alter the genetic makeup of an organism.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . which contain pathogenic microorganisms. pregnant women and the elderly. eutropication and health effects of pollution are discussed. instead use words or phrases. therefore. Some common NPS pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural lands and homeowners. 5.9. such as dioxin.clicktoconvert. Self-check Exercise – 3 List the common water borne diseases. LET US SUM UP · Water-borne diseases are any illness caused by drinking water contaminated by human or animal faeces. and animal and human waste. who are at the end of the food chain. Persistent Organic Pollutants. grease and salt from highways. Leptospirosis.8. PCBs and DDT. a nd. resulting in either death or extreme deformities. · There are many types of water-borne diseases. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. The effects of water pollution can range from aquatic deformities to contaminated fish to ‘dead’ lakes. While scientists are still studying the effects of high chemical levels in humans.

http://www. types and effects of water borne diseases.lakes. Eutrophication The amount of nutrients entering the water bodies has intensified greatly. Visit a nearby school and examine the teeth of the children studying from 3rd to 10th .13 REFERENCES http://www. and run-off from agricultural fields. Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering – G.10 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Under eutrophic conditions. while developing countries face problems of agricultural run-off in water sources.1.annualreviews.18.pdf http://www.htm 1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Industrial growth. Polluted water like chemicals in drinking water causes problem to health and leads to water-borne diseases which can be prevented by taking measures can be taken even at the household level. 3.pdf http://www.org/doi/full/10. The main source of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste.S.colostate. Birdie. 2. It is a generally accepted fact that the developed countries suffer from problems of chemical discharge into the water sources mainly groundwater. nutrient loading (more nutrients than the water body can handle) stimulates excessive plant growth. 2. leading to increased biological growth.html http://www.2 and 5.arjournals.edugreen. Fluorosis is a dental problem which often attacks the childhood period. 2.great. Evaluate the causes. 3.net/teach/pollution/water/water3.teri.S.edu/pubs/foodnut/09307. How human health is affected due to polluted water? For the first question you should carefully go through section 5.ext. Substantiate the need to have safe drinking water 5. dumping of industrial effluent. 5. You can very well witness the growth of mosquitoes and other organism which spread water borne diseases.who.in/explore/water/health.clicktoconvert. You can very well see the brownish tinch on their teeth. Birdies and J.3 and write your answer.publhealth. .int/about/brochure_en. Justify how water acts a vector in transmitting diseases.res. · · 5. which in turn decreases the amount of oxygen in the water and eventually kills off certain species of animal life. 3.11 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1.4 5.12 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Have an interview with the people who doesn’t have safe water to drink and note down the types of diseases often attack them.com 58 · Freshwater resources all over the world are threatened not only by over exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. urbanization and the increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on freshwater bodies. mainly due to increased urbanization and agriculture. Visit the water logged places in your area.211?cook ieSet=1 – http://www. Common water borne diseases Refer section 5. or eutrophication.1146/annurev. You can really see most of the mm are water borne diseases.

p138 – 142. Stanly Manahan Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Web site Pollution Control Legislation - Advances in Environmental Sciences.us/watershed/fecal.http://www. Pragati Prakashan.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .net/teach/pollution/water/water3.edugreen. 1985 Environmental Chemistry. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company.ext.html www. S.18. 2004. Masters Kudesia.arjournals.pdf http://extension.org/wiki/Chemical_oxygen_demand http://www.publhealth. Publication No..res.edu/files/publications/publication/N R_WQ_2005-19.html http://www. Tiruchirappalli.P Kumaraswamy. Vasanthy Mahajan. K. Meerut.who..com 59 2.usu.edu/pubs/foodnut/09307.clicktoconvert. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. Introduction Masters.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10. 1998 Water Pollution. Meerut.211?cookieSet=1 – http://www. 2000 Environmental Chemistry.pdf http://www. A and Alice Emerenshiya. K. Tiruchirappalli.k12. B. New Delhi.who. A. V. 1999 http://www.pdf http://www.int/about/brochure_en. GEMS. New Delhi.htm http://www. Pollution Control in Process Industries. 45. 1998 Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University. 2007 Environmental Chemistry.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/e n/ http://www. Mc Graw Hill Publishing company.114 6/annurev.in/explore/water/health. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.teri.great lakes.pdf http://en.rpi.colostate. Alagappa Moses and M.1.in.int/water_sanitation_health/resourcesqu ality/wqmchap2.switzerland. 1997 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering.edu/dept/DFWI/dfwiwq/water_quality_p arameters.P Sharma.html (Vol I – II) – Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board . to Environmental Engineering and science – Gilbert M Alagappa Moses. C Anil Kumar De Gilbert M.wikipedia.

2 Coagulation on the Household Level with Materials of Plant and Mineral Origin 6.clicktoconvert.2.4.4 Construction 6.2.3.5.2.3.5.2.4.1 Mechanisms of Filtration 6.4.2.6 Modifications 6.5.4.5.2.2 Range of Application 6.2.2.2.5. Ceramics filter g.http://www. Slow Sand Filtration 6.2 Simple Settling Basins 6. Multiple layer filter f.6 Disinfection .2.4 Application 6.2 Aerators 6.2.2.4.1. Household Size Rapid Filter e.1 Areas of Application 6.1 Range of Application 6.5.3 Design of a Slow Sand Filter 6.4.2.4 Effect of Temperature and Salt Content of the Raw Water and Wind Conditions 6. Coarse Filters d.3 Coagulants of Plant Origin 6.1 Chemicals 6. Rapid Filtration 6.4.1 Procedure for Alum and Iron Salts 6.4 Other Natural Coagulants 6.2.1 Introduction 6. 0 Aims and Objectives 6.1 Mechanisms of Coagulation 6. Filtration 6.4 Coagulation and Flocculation 6.3.2 Aeration 6.4.1 Small Aerators for Removal of Iron and Manganese 6.5 Operation and Maintenance 6.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2.com 60 UNIT – II LESSON – 6: TREATMENT OF WATER FOR POTABLE PURPOSE CONTENTS 6.1.5.4. Cartridge microfilter 6.2 Types of Rapid Filters a.5. Conventional (Downflow) Filters b. In Upflow Filter c.2 Coagulants 6.5.4.5.3 Design of a Rectangular Settling Tank with Horizontal Flow 6.3 Jar Test for Assessment of Proper Dosage of Coagulants 6.5.2 Materials of Soil Origin 6.3 Sedimentation 6.4.1 Principle Mechanisms 6.1.3.4.

This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of wastewater causing an unbearable strain on water’s natural ability to cleanse itself of pollutants.2 Iodine 6.6.10 Check your Progress: Model Answers 6.1. Water demand of our country is kept constantly on the rise by population explosion.6.http://www.4 Potassium Permanganate 6.6. Any physical.6. the most serious water pollutants for human health are pathogenic organisms . Worldwide.6.3 Determination of Chlorine Dose 6.1 INTRODUCTION Water is an important and unique renewable resource of the earth which makes the existence of life possible only in the planet. or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses can be considered pollution.1.6. urbanization.2 Chemicals 6.7 Ultra-violate Radiation 6.8 Lesson – End Activities 6. unequal distribution.6.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Water storage and transfer projects are a response to flooding and water shortages.7 Let us sum up 6. industrialization.5 Disinfection by Silver 6. and loss of recreation and wildlife habitat.6.6. Water shortages in many parts of the world result from rising demand.clicktoconvert.4 Practical Application 6. biological. you should be able to · · · · · · Identify the various treatment techniques for potable water Determine the process of aeration Define the process of sedimentation Distinguish coagulation and flocculation List out the types of filtration Identify the techniques of disinfection by various means 6. Among the problems they pose are evaporation and infiltration losses. siltation of reservoirs.1.3 Ozonation 6. After reading this lesson. technological advancements and increased consumerism. Giant dams and diversion projects can have environmental and social costs far above the benefits they provide.11 References 6.6 Boiling 6.1 The Action of Chloride and its Range of Application 6.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we will discuss about the various treatment process for potable water. earth.6.1 Chlorination 6.1. and increased contamination.com 61 6.9 Points for Discussion 6. Many conservationists prefer watershed management and small dams as means of flood control and water storage.6.

2. as well as rehabilitation.coagulation and flocculation. When treating surface water aeration is useful in adding oxygen to the raw water. . The extent of this problem is probably not yet fully appreciated. it must be examined whether alternative methods exist that yield a measure of quality improvement: protection of the water source from contamination.Addition of oxygen.clicktoconvert. The following effects can be obtained: . The treatment processes introduced and outlined in this chapter were selected according to their suitability and appropriateness for application in less developed regions. upgrading and systematic monitoring of already existing works. We have traditionally taken advantage of the capacity of ecosystems to destroy these organisms. heavy metals. 6. phosphates.filtration. Since treatment generally presents the most demanding component of a water supply system. The combination of treatment components is determined by the desired result of the treatment. .2 AERATION The basic purpose of aeration is the reduction of the content of substances which cause unpleasant tastes and odors as well as discoloration.) end up in water resources in increasing amounts causing water pollution. etc. Aeration always precedes some other treatment process. and their removal may be altogether impossible as sophisticated technologies are required.aeration. Aeration contributes positively to subsequent biological treatment (e.disinfection. Agricultural and industrial chemicals have been released or spilled into surface waters and are seeping into groundwater supplies. 6.1 Range of Application Aeration equipment is used to intensively mix air and water so as to facilitate the transfer of gases into or out of the water.g. but as population density has grown. Potential industrial and agricultural contaminants (chemicals such as oil.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . These contaminants must be removed if the water is to be made potable. this may be necessary for surface water where the natural oxygen content was depleted due to the presence of large amounts of organic substances. Aeration is frequently used for treatment of groundwater where it also has additional positive side effects (precipitation of iron and manganese). and construction of efficient sanitation facilities. They can be classified as: . toxic chemical wastes have become an increasing problem. . It must be pointed out that it generally requires more advanced analytic methods to spot these substances in the water. sulphates. slow sand filtration). In industrialized nations. these systems have become overloaded and ineffective.com 62 from human and animal wastes. .sedimentation.

Baffles obstructing the flow of the water increase the effect. Total height of the cascade may be between 1 and 6 meters. Open aeration is possible by means of spraying the water or running it over surfaces multiple tray aerators or trickling aerators consisting of a series of vertical trays with wire mesh bottoms over which water is distributed and made to fall into a collection basin at the base.Reduction of H2S. or if the purpose of aeration is the addition of oxygen. such as gravel.2. the water spilling over from one basin to the next lower one. A simple cascade consists of a lateral sequence of basins (masonry. They can be removed in a settling tank or by means of a coarse filter. A third method of aeration which is the most efficient of all -and the most expensive and complicated .com 63 . it is sufficient to install a small weir just above the downstream clarifying tank so as to feed the water into that tank through a perforated pipe.Removal of excess carbon dioxide (CO2) to prevent corrosion of metal and concrete surfaces. The water is dispersed in fine droplets of spray which efficiently take in oxygen from the atmosphere. .is based on the principle of diffusion. . If the trays are filled with coarse material.Temperature reduction. A cascade aerator is another possible aeration device.clicktoconvert. iron and manganese are oxidized and form nearly insoluble hydroxide sludges. The large water surface thus created allows simple and fast aeration.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2 Aerators Aeration can be done in various ways. concrete or timber) at various levels. Aeration Filter Cascade aeration Fig 6. the efficiency can be increased. . CH4 and other volatile compounds which produce objectionable taste and-odor.http://www.1: Aeration Filter and Cascade aeration 6.Removal of dissolved iron and manganese. If there are only small amounts of iron and manganese to be removed. Water is forced into the air through fixed .

the water must be lifted once more. Large contact surfaces for gas transfer are commonly set up above a settling tank or a filter.1 Small Aerators for Removal of Iron and Manganese The fig 6.com 64 nozzles. A handpump lifts the raw water..This watermark does not appear in the registered version .e.2: Manual device for removal of iron and manganese. capacity 200 l/h. i. The latter is to be exchanged once or twice a month. 200 l) which are protected against corrosion. The water then trickles through layers of stones and trays. It consists of four vertically stacked round concrete pipes (diem. Exceptions may be possible in cases of gravity flow with significant differences in altitude (hills). Particles precipitated from the water due to aeration accumulate on the lower sand layer.mesh or grates. forcing it through nozzles on to the gravel. some 1400 l/h m². . The device is mounted on a low pedestal made of masonry or concrete. 6. A low ph value lime (CaO) is added to the gravel in the upper segments. Fig 6. Aeration louvres are placed around the device.It can be easily modified in size in accordance with the actual needs. Aeration of water usually requires an interruption of the gravity flow of water through -a treatment plant.2. An aerator of this size is capable of treating some 200 l/h. The third from the top is filled with sand. The two top segments are filled with gravel.http://www. 45 cm) or metal drums (vol.2 exhibits a simple device for domestic use. The bottom consists of wire.2.clicktoconvert. This means that downstream from the aeration. It is collected in the bottom segment and canbe drawn off by means of a faucet.

http://www. Before designing a settling tank. infectious agents of Bilharzia. The efficiency of a settling basin depends on the nature (shape. It aids the natural purification of lakes and rivers. and answer it in the space given below. This constitutes a simple means of reducing the contents of suspended matter and partially of bacteria. Tanks should also be covered to protect them from birds and small animals. Storage in excess of one month can reduce the viral count. disinfection is required for high bacteria contents. sand and silt. Storage induced contamination (mosquito breeding due to algal growth) must be avoided by covering tanks. and succeeding it with slow sand filtration. size.90%) by means of biological processes. when brought in contact with coagulants. which pollute surface waters heavily and settle easily. Following these procedures. usually cannot survive more than two days of protected storage.3. Two to four weeks storage.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . .clicktoconvert. density) of the particles that are accountable for the turbidity. Pathogenic Organisms Simple sedimentation by means of passing water through a settling tank does not achieve a significant removal of pathogens. gravity. Storage tank inlets should be screened to prevent contamination by gross suspended matter. Colloidal matter which contributes much to turbidity is held in suspension mainly by electrostatic forces and because of its low density. Colloidal particles. Use is made of this physical process in the treatment of water by passing it through settling basins or storage tanks at low and uniform velocities. The degree of purification depends on the severity of pollution and on the presence of other pollutants.1 Areas of Application Turbidity Under the influence of gravity. Schistosoma larvae. laboratory experiments should be carried out to determine the contents of settleable and nonsettleable matter. form flocculent material that can be settled or filtered out. though.com 65 Self – check Exercise 1 What is the purpose of aeration? Also add a note on different types of aerators Note: Please don’t proceed unless you attempt the question. 6. especially during the rainy season. 6.3 SEDIMENTATION Sedimentation is a phenomenon which occurs in nature perpetually. can reduce bacteria populations considerably (50. provided suitable hosts (snails) are not present. It can be combined by preceeding it with coagulation and flocculation. Sedimentation is usually just one of several sequential treatment processes. suspended matter in rain water settles out if it has a density greater than that of the water itself.

Settling zone: Portion of the tank where sedimentation occurs. depending on water availability. Triangular shapes are possible. .com 66 Color Removal of color without the use of chemical procedures can only be achieved by very long storage times. The rain water is slowly and uniformly passed through the tank either horizontally or vertically. 3.clicktoconvert. Rectangular tanks have horizontal flow patterns. it is more economical to operate a settling tank continuously. The most common geometric form of sedimentation tanks are circular. This sludge layer at the bottom of the tank is to be removed from time to time. 2. which have to be sealed to prevent seepage. each of which acts characteristically different (Fig 6. When used. the entering water is spread out uniformly and at low turbulence over the entire cross-section of the tank (Fig 6. clay vessels or other locally available jars can be used. Tanks can be constructed simply by raising earth embankments.4). On the household level. The clarified liquid is then drawn off in a trough either at the rim or in the center. Water inlet and outlet are to be positioned such that shortcircuiting is prevented. Continuous Mode For larger amounts of water. The water can be introduced either in the center or around the periphery. the water is drawn off the top.http://www. and the detention time of the water is long enough to allow complete settling of particles.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Outlet zone: Slow uniform draw-off of the clarified water from the settling zone. Inlet and outlet troughs are provided at the head and tail ends of the tank. Horizontal flow tanks generally achieve higher rates of removal for high solids concentrations. A cover not only protects. The through flow velocity must be kept smaller than the settling velocity of the suspended matter. The outward progression of the flow shall not disturb the settling prozess. It is important to protect receptacles from contamination: the water must not be taken out with soiled jars. an outlet spout should be provided.3). down to a depth which just covers the layer of deposits. Instead. Layout and design of settling and storage tanks are determined by the desired retention time and the water demand of the consumers. the tank may be divided into four distinct zones. demand and desired level of purification. The choice of method may depend on whether water is readily available and/or must be supplied continuously. Inlet Zone: In this zone. This can be done manually after the tank has been emptied. which is retained for between two days and several months. A settling tank is filled with water. A tank floor sloping towards the drain greatly simplifies sludge extraction. square or rectangular. Batch Mode Batch operation is mainly used if only small amounts of water are to be treated and stored. Circular tanks have radial flow patterns. Ideally. Simple methods are available for either mode. 1. 6.3.2 Simple Settling Basins Settling basins can be operated either continuously or in batch mode.

Sludge zone: Collection of the deposits. i. the lower the horizontal flow velocity of the water must be.3) Settling tanks are designed such that the reduced flow velocity of the water allows suspended particles to settle out within the settling zone.clicktoconvert. the smaller the particles. If the sludge is to slide down by itself. the floor of the tank should be sloped 45º. Generally. s = 0. 2. also called surface loading rate. The draw off occurs at a sludge drain. for particles with diameter ° = 0. determine the settling velocity s. Decide on the hourly throughput Q (m³ /h). s = H/T s and T are both dependent on the nature of the particles to be removed. s normally ranges between 0. earth basins may be used with vertical or inwardly sloping watertight walls.e. The tanks may be built above ground with sealed masonry. the aggregated particles settle at a velocity s between 1 and 3 m/in.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1 and I m/h. The detention time T may range between 4 to 12 hours.6 m/in. In a laboratory test. or reinforced concrete. . The settling velocity is obtained by measuring the time T (detention time) it takes a particle to drop from the surface to the bottom of the tank at depth H.01 mm. The necessary design parameters are determined as follows: 1.3. the smaller their settling velocity(s). concrete.3: Sketch of a rectangular settling basin with horizontal flow 6. of the suspended matter in the raw water.. If flocculation preceded settling.http://www. Settlement basin impounded by earth embankments Fig 6.3 Design of a Rectangular Settling Tank with Horizontal Flow (Fig 6. Alternatively. the settling velocity is approx.com 67 4.

Q/R (m³ /m x h). An increase in the width of the weir reduces the effluent velocity. to avoid scouring from the bottom of the basin. The required geometry of the tank can now be calculated. of the water ranges between 3 and 36 m/in. 6. The efficiency or flow capacity of the basin is therefore determined by the ratio of flow rate and surface area of the basin. .. v0. 7.4 Effect of Temperature and Salt Content of the Raw Water and Wind Conditions Unfortunately. higher velocities may be appropriate.e. wind conditions should be examined.B. however. Fig 6. and the detention time: V=H.com 68 3. settling -tanks seldom perform in accordance with the theory. since surface currents induced by wind blowing over the basin affect the basin performance. For suspensions with low densities. The volume V of the tank is then determined by the hourly throughput Q.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . i.4: Inlet zone of a settling basin (example). The entering water first hits a baffle. v0 = Q/B . Ideally. When flocculation precedes sedimentation. Horizontal velocities should be kept low enough. It should be chosen in the range between 3 and 10 m²/h. The horizontal flow velocity. When designing an open basin. the size and slope of the settling zone and the frequency of sludge removal can be determined.T This gives S = Q/B + L. where B L is the surface area of the basin. lower velocities should be chosen. in turn.clicktoconvert.3. the flow capacity is independent of the depth of the basin.http://www. The weir loading rate is given by the flow rate Q per unit width of the weir. efficiency of the tank.L=Q. It is then passed through a perforated partition wall. The volume of sludge produced in m³ per m² of tank area and per unit of time depends on the characteristics of the raw water and the design. Even small temperature differences (1º C) or changes in the salt content (1 g/l and hour) of the entering raw water will create density currents which reduce the efficiency of the plant. The following ranges should not be exceeded: Depth of the tank 1:5 m £ H £ 2.5 m ratio H/L 1:5 £ H/L £ 1:10 ratio B/H 1:4 £ B/H £ 1:8 5. A nonuniform density distribution across the depth of the tank may disturb the settling process. From this. H 6. 4.

Their diameter may range between 10-4 to 10-6 mm. coagulation by means of natural coagulants of plant and soil origin and simple devices has been practiced traditionally by many peoples in developing countries. Subsequent gentle and prolonged (several minutes) mixing cements the still microscopic coagulated particles into larger flocs.4. . the particles settle to the bottom.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The resulting destabilized particles stick sufficiently together when contact is made. Due to their low specific gravity. Turbidity (for example) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. and may be removed from suspension by filtration. they don't settle out. It must be noted that this treatment unit process.clicktoconvert. A coagulant (generally positively charged) causes compression of the double layer and thus the neutralization of the electrostatic surface potential of the particles.com 69 Self – check Exercise 2 Define sedimentation and give its areas of application. These flocs are large enough to settle rapidly under the influence of gravity. Briefly describe the settling basins. At the same time. These flocs then are able to aggregate with suspended polluting matter.4 COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION Finely dispersed suspended and colloidal particles producing turbidity and color of the water cannot be removed sufficiently by the ordinary sedimentation process. Adding a coagulant and mixing and stirring the water causes the formation of settleable particles.1 Mechanisms of Coagulation Colloidal particles generally carry a negative electrical charge. When increased sufficiently in size and weight. requires more complex technical equipment and experienced operating personnel. c) Please don’t proceed till you complete your answer. The choice and dose rates of coagulants will depend on the characteristics of the water to be treated and must be determined from laboratory experiments. Rapid mixing (a few seconds) is important at this stage to obtain uniform dispersion of the chemical and to increase the opportunity for particle-to-particle contact. They remain finely divided and don't agglomerate. They are surrounded by an electrical double layer (due to attachment of positively charged ions from the ambient solution) and thus inhibit the close approach of each other.http://www. although routinely applied in modern water treatment. Instead use words or phrases. The chemicals must be readily available and their application must be closely monitored. Note: a) Please write your answer in the space given below b) Please don’t write full statements/sentences. 6. on the household level.

organic substances and cellulose derived materials are also used. Yet diatoms (kieselgur). Both salts hydrolyze when added to water.5 to 8).4 and 6. A dose of 10 mg/l of bentonite. 6.4.7 to 8. In rural households in developing countries.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . clarifying rock material from desert regions. montmorillonite. Their main constituents are quartz. . various naturally occuring materials are traditionally used as coagulants: e. yield significantly better results than a higher dose of aluminum sulphate alone. later on normal. flocculation aids may be used.4 to 6.no effect on bacteria count (more conclusive research is not available). fluvial clays from rivers and wadis (in Sudanese Arabic called "rauwaq". This makes it difficult to specify optimal application procedures and conditions. The processes and reactions which occur upon the addition of these various mineral coagulants to waters of different quality are not yet sufficiently known. their coagulating mechanisms differ greatly from those of metal salts.. activated carbon in powder form. calcite and feldspar. kaolinite.2 Coagulants 6.4. To improve the coagulation and flocculation process and to reduce the dose of coagulants. clarifier).g. which are almost always present in water (alkalinity and hard-ness of the water). Whereas turbidity is best removed within a ph range of 5. At higher ph values. If those carbonates are not present in sufficient concentration (soft water) hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 or sodium carbonate Na2 CO3 may be added also. The most commonly used material is activated silica. In the case of aluminium sulphate.2.0. for instance.reduction of turbidity. earth from termite hills. Case by case examinations are required. these reactions can be represented as follows: Al2 (SO4 )3 + 3 Ca(HCO3 )2 = 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 CaSO4 + 6 CO2 Al2 (SO4 )3 + 3 Ca(OH)2 = 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 CaSO4 Al2 (SO4 )3 + 3 Na2 CO3 + 3 H2O = 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 Na2 SO4 + 3 CO2 The formation of the insoluble hydroxides depends on the ph: it has been shown that aluminium sulphate coagulates best in a ph range between 4. . . Irons salts have the advantage of being effective over a wide range of ph values (except for values between 7 and 8.an initial mineral taste. color removal is generally obtained at acid ph's of about 4. bentonite and certain other types of adsorbtive clays.com 70 6.0. Application of-clay as a coagulant yields the following results: . however. They form insoluble material -aluminium and ferric hydroxides -when reacting with calcium and mangenese hydrogen carbonates.2 Materials of Soil Origin It was mentioned that mineral substances are used as flocculation aids in modern water treatment. higher rates of soluble aluminate ions form.1 Chemicals It is common practice to use aluminium and iron salts. together with 10 mg/l of aluminium sulphate.2.no effect on pH value.http://www. Sodium aluminate is generally used at medium ph values (6. .4.5).clicktoconvert.

seeds from the Indian Nirmali tree (strychnos potatorum).2.Algae-derived substances. . 6.viruses survive in the settled sludge. acting faster than any known coagulant from plant materials (produced from the shells of shrimp and lobster). To obtain the optimal dose for various substances and raw water qualities.potato starch. color. High intakes of these metals may have toxic effects.4. alkalinity.pleasant taste. Kenya. Usually the plants are not cultivated.seeds of the trees of the family of the Moringaceae: Moringa Olifeira.unchanged pH value. Sudan (Behenus tree) and Moringa Stenopetala. 6.significant reduction of turbidity. Neither is it known whether there are toxic side effects from frequent use.antibiotic effect on various bacteria and fungi. .3 Jar Test for Assessment of Proper Dosage of Coagulants Coagulation and flocculation processes are dependent on a multitude of variable interrelated factors: temperature! turbidity.Clays contain traces of heavy metals (mostly chromium and manganese). reduced the overall cost considerably. occurring in India. fruit extracts and plant ashes. pieces of bark.4 Other Natural Coagulants . .initial reduction of the bacteria count.clicktoconvert.2. . Rather. 6. according to passed on experience. . it is not known which particular substance actually triggers the coagulation. seeds.sap from the stem of the tuna cactus (opuntia ficus indica) occurring in Peru and Chile: two commercially available extracts are Tunaflex A and B. reaching or even surpassing the initial concentration. . The optimal dose of the .4. .3 Coagulants of Plant Origin Such substances are widely used in developing countries to purify water. generally this dose is smaller than that of aluminum sulphate.4.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .dough from millet bread (Sudan) or curds (thin layers). the following effects can be obtained. coagulation experiments must be carried out. . Senegal. For most of these plant materials. For coagulation with Moringa Olifeira seeds. pH-value.Chitosan. Some examples of traditionally used coagulants and coagulant aids are: .http://www. . followed by a secondary rise after only 24 hours. .the bark of the south American tree Schinopsis Quebracho-Colorado which contains tannin: it is known commercially as "Floccatan . prepared and added to the water that is to be purified." . . certain substances are gathered. It was shown that substantial savings in primary coagulants could be achieved which. roots. leaves. nature of coagulant and intensity and duration of stirring during mixing and flocculation. Nirmali seeds and Tunaflex as natural coagulants and aid substances combined with alum salts have been successfully used in municipal water treatment. in turn.com 71 Potential health hazards: .

20. In fact.4. Principally. The coagulant solution is prepared. weirs or hydraulic jumps are used to create turbulence. rapid mixing and dispersion must be provided for between I and 5 minutes. Also.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 3. Measurement of color. 4. mechanical parts are susceptible to wear. 30.clicktoconvert. 10. 6. there are two practical methods: .com 72 coagulant cannot be found by analyzing the raw water.5. pH-value and alkalinity of raw water. This requires a reliable supply of electricity and maintenance. Measurement of color and turbidity of the clarified water. the optimal pH.5 to 8. different amounts of calcium hydroxide or sodium carbonate are added together with the optimal dose of the coagulant as found in the first test. 2.mechanical mixing: electrically driven mixers create a uniform dispersion.4.1 Procedure for Alum and Iron Salts 1.g. turbidity.value is determined from the samples. the destabilization of the colloids takes very little time. Addition of the coagulant in solid form is also possible. 50. hydrolysis and polymerisation occurs almost instantly. The resulting range of pH values should extend from 4. Addition of the coagulant in different dosages to six samples of 1000 ml each (e. Also. Immediate rapid mixing: Upon the addition of the coagulant.6). A simple example is exhibited in the Figure above.5: Dosing device for continuous feeding of coagulant solution. After stirring. A dosing apparatus should be used (such as those for chlorine dosing) which delivers a constant yet adjustable dose rate.hydraulic mixing: channels. The pH. 4. 5. In a test the required dose of the coagulant is determined. Identify samples showing optimal result as regards dosage of coagulant. 60 mg/1 of a 1% aluminum sulphate solution). 3. Fig 6. Rather. .4. Usually the coagulant is introduced in a solution or suspension of known concentration (3-7%). it must be determined by an experiment on laboratory scale (approximation of real conditions).value is adjusted. Constant dosing of the coagulant by means of an adequate closer. The same procedure is followed as before. A second test can be carried out for the optimal ph-value for flocculation. flocculation and sedimentation. 40. Jars made of resistant material are to be used. At appropriate points the coagulant is introduced (Fig 6.http://www. 2. Such a test ought to follow this procedure: 1. This time however. . This is why the former method is preferable. High speed stirring initially for 2 minutes and low speed stirring for some 20 minutes using a laboratory mixer. Allow the water to settle (up to 1 hour).4 Application 6.

Fig 6.the addition of the coagulant may be made at the point of the inlet weir to the sedimentation basin. the flocculation and mixing chamber must be hydraulically designed. In the sedimentation tank. the particles are allowed to settle. This stirring system consists of screws. .http://www.g. is more suited to the design of larger scale plants. alternatively.hydraulic mixing: this can be done by routing water through a vertically or horizontally baffled flocculation basin. Or. . 6. they are removed by filtration. a number of design considerations must be followed: after finding the required dose of coagulant through experimentation. The resulting turbulence has a mixing effect (see Fig 6.7).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . c) hydraulic jump.mechanical mixing: flocculation takes place in tanks equipped with an electrically driven stirring system. .clicktoconvert. e. b) overflow weir. paddles or blades mounted on vertically or horizontally rotating shafts. In order to obtain optimal coagulation and flocculation performances. hydraulic profile and detention time of the particles in the tank must be determined. Flocculation: slow and even mixing allows the particles to collide and contact so as to form flocs (30-60 minutes). however. Smaller plants usually operate without these more sophisticated engineering solutions. flow velocity.6: Hydraulic mixing in water flow.: .com 73 5. a) channel with baffles. This procedure. It must be noted that this method does not allow any adjustment or control in case of changing characteristics of the water quality. . Approximate speed and duration of mixing.the introduction of the coagulant may be made in the feeder pipe preceding a rapid filter. The efficiency of floc formations is contingent on the frequency of particle-to-particle contact.

. The suspension is added to the turbid water. e. 2. The doses for the coagulant are best determined by experiments.7: Hydraulic mixing in flocculation tank.com 74 Fig 6. After the floes are settled.4. b) horizontal flow. For a 40 l capacity jar.4. so as to avoid renewed contamination due to temperatureinduced growth of bacteria. To avoid secondary pollution by unhygienic contact with a jug. Locally used jars. 6. clay vessels. is to boil the water prior to consumption or to disinfect it by some other method. this translates into 140 g (1 teaspoon of the pulverized clay corresponds to 2. Jar is covered and the water left to settle. Very slow stirring of the water for about 5 min. 4. The settled mud on the bottom of tile jar is to be collected carefully. the water could be scopped out with a ladle or syphoned off into a nearby vessel. a) vertical.5 -3 g). the supernatant water is to be transferred carefully into a clean jar. Coagulation with seeds of Moringa Olifeira .2 Coagulation on the Household Level with Materials of Plant and Mineral Origin The following are standard recipes for coagulation with locally available materials which may be modified according to the specific conditions. Even better. 1. 3. It should be exposed to the sun for some time (several days) to assure that potentially existing pathogens be destroyed completely. wooden twirling sticks would be appropriate.http://www. Dried clay is pounded to powder and added to water (possibly clarified) in a small bowl. Coagulation with fluvial clay Dose of coagulant: 3. may be used for the purification process For mixing.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The purified water should be consumed within a few hours.g.5 g/l.clicktoconvert.

-charge exchange. The power is then dissolved in a small amount of clarified water and a suspension is prepared. This widely used technique in water treatment is based on several simultaneously occurring phenomena: . 5. a backwash may be conducted simply with water or by use of a water-air mix (upward air .clicktoconvert. Depending on the filtration rate. After removing the seed husks. Finally. The suspension is added to the raw water under short and rapid mixing (coagulating). 2. For a jar of 40 l capacity this translates into 30 seeds. flocculation adsorption of colloidal matter (boundary layer processes).http://www. a filter consists of the following components: . the water is left covered in the jar to allow the floes to settle.com 75 Dose: 150 -200 mg/l. 1.1. by reversing the flow direction.5 FILTRATION Filtration is the deliberate passage of polluted water through a porous medium. Note: a) Please don’t proceed until you attempt the above question b) The space given below is for your answer c) Please stick on to the space provided ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. The particles in the water pass into the filter bed and lodge in the voids between grains of the medium. Humidity causes deterioration.influent and effluent pipes. the white kernel material is crushed in a clean mortar or a stone covered with a piece of clean cloth.5. . .). etc. -control and monitoring appurtenances.. . The cleaning of the rapid filter is facilitated by backwashing i.support bed (gravel) and under-drain system. In-between types also exist. Filters may be divided into two principally different types: .1 to 0.e. thus utilizing the principle of natural cleansing of the soil.mechanical straining of undissolved suspended particles (screening effect). The powder must be prepared fresh before every use.5. 6.slow sand (or biological) filtration (v = 0. or chemically activated medium: burnt material). Self – check Exercise 3 Write the mechanism of coagulation and the coagulants used. Generally.bacteriological-biological processes within the filter. Gentle and slow stirring follows (for flocculation. medium (inert medium: quartz sand.1 Rapid Filtration 6.filter.3 m/h). 10 to 15 min).rapid filtration (v = 4 to 15 m/h). gravel. Several of them are discussed in the subsequent sections. different mechanisms are operative within the filter. 3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1 Principle Mechanisms Rapid filtration is mainly based on the principle of mechanical straining of suspended matter due to the screening effect of the filter bed (sand. -wash and drain lines. Resulting from this is a variety of possible applications of the various types of filters. . 4. It is because of this phenomenon that rapid filters are sometimes called space filters.

rapid filtration Bacteria of fecal origin.1.filtration rate (v). flocs are retained by the filter. depth of the filter bed.filter medium characteristics which control the removal of the particles and their release upon backwashing. distribution. However. Also operative to some degree in rapid filters are boundary layer and biological mechanisms . backwashing is difficult. and quality of the raw water.reduced filtration rates. it should only be used in larger plants and at well equipped sites.clicktoconvert. The performance of a rapid filter regarding the removal of suspended matter is determined by the following filtration process variables and parameters: . Iron and manganese contents up to 25 Precipitated compounds are removed upon mg/l aeration. This is due to the need for frequent filter washing which requires elaborate backwashing systems. Conventional (Down flow) Filters Rapid filtration is a rather complex process. operation and maintenance of these filtration plants require well-trained personnel. Colloids Difficult to remove. it is true that the treatment effect can be improved by: . Combined with coagulation. The impurities are thus dislodged and removed from the filter bed. eggs of Removal of some 50 % at low filtration rate parasites and fine material. respectively. flocculation and sedimentation.smaller granulation size of the filter medium. Monitoring. sand or Removal by rapid filtration. For smaller plants in rural areas. . particle size. .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Additional complexities associated with the generation of pressure arise for pressure filters. sedimentation is recommended.. A number of filter types operating at filtration rates lower than those for .5. 100 NTU Direct rapid filtration. subsequent disinfection is required.decreasing concentration of particles to be retained. etc.increasing depth of the filter bed. . High turbidity due to gravel. .http://www.high concentration Preceding coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in separate tank.. . rapid filtration is a very efficient treatment process for the removal of impurities. Generally. simple rapid filters -without backwashing capabilities are recommended.com 76 scour).low concentration Addition of coagulant to inflowing water prior to sedimentation.increasing size of the floes. .2 Types of Rapid Filters a. .1: Treatment Effect of Rapid Filters and Possible Combinations with Other Unit Processes 6. .influent characteristics. Table 6.their extent largely depends on the filtration rate' filter medium. using coarse 250 mg/l filter material (backwashing is simple). It is demanding and expensive in design and operation. Water Quality Parameters Purification Effect Coarse particles of organic origin up to Removal at high filtration rates. preceding mud.e. i. Low turbidity up to max.

Support layer and underdrain: gravel covered by perforated metal tray. Instead of sand. pipes.http://www. At low filtration rates and sufficient oxygen content of the raw water. Filter medium: Coarse sand. gravel. . . tap and stopper. Quick removal of drain stopper so that supernatant as well as water in the filter bed drain out together with retained particles.can be constructed from locally available materials. slight reduction of bacteria. in addition. A rather simple type can be built from a 200 a-drum. Cost: for drain.com 77 conventional filers are discussed hereinafter. Or else it may retain precipitated iron compounds.clicktoconvert. and an outlet pipe for the clarified water near the top of the drum (see Fig 6. Cleaning: Shut off of the inlet. . Filtration effect: Reduction of between 50 and 70% of organic and inorganic coarse and fine particles. the filtration rate. In Up flow Filter In up flow filters. the direction of flow of the raw water is upwards through the filter bed.better turbidity removal. send. The effect of the filter depends on the type of the filter medium. the filter may act as a simple screen.quality requirements (uniformity and gradation) and volume of the filter medium are lower.5 to 1. a somewhat larger size drain at the bottom. Filter bed depth: 0.8).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Filtration rate: 0. For coarse organic and inorganic substances.5 m/in. Backwashing is done by abrupt reversal of the flow direction.8: Up flow filter made from a 200 a drum. The advantages of up flow filters as compared with gravity rapid filters are: . coconut and other type fibers can be used. biological activity can be observed. either slow sand filtration and/or disinfection. . b. Fig 6. Generally. grain size between 3 and 4 mm diameter. Up flow filters can be constructed at a variety of degrees of complexity. Filter output: up to 230 a/h.longer filter runs. they serve as pretreatment units to reduce the turbidity of the water. and possible preceding aeration or addition of a coagulant. The removal of pathogens requires.3 m. It can be equipped with a raw water inlet pipe. crushed bricks.

gravel or plant fibres are used as a filter medium. gravel. It must be noted though that higher filtration rates result in higher buoyancy forces on the filter medium.10: Coarse filter with horizontal flow. .. Hence.clicktoconvert.9) Filtration effect: Reduction of turbidity by between 50 and 80% (max. Gravity rapid filter as coarse filter (Fig 6. shredded coconut fibres.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The top layer of the sand may be spewn up. load 250 NTU) Filtration rate: 0. backwashing by means of simply draining the water in a reversed direction may become increasingly impossible. It can be replaced upon cleaning.0 m/h Filterbox: same as slow sand filter Operating head: 1. 0. As bacteria cannot be sufficiently removed. This is a simple means of preventing the filter bed from clogging. The 200 l drum has a capacity to filter up to 230 l/h.com 78 As a rule. cleaning of the filter which takes no more than ten minutes should be done every day. the performance and technical complexity of this simple upflow filter can be increased as much as one likes.0 to 1.9: Coarse filtration followed by slow sand filtration Fig 6. Fig 6. In the latter case' though. Better results may be obtained by using smaller grains and stratified filter beds with decreasing grain size from bottom to top (e. c.http://www. Coarse Filters Rapid filters preceding slow sand filters are frequently used to retain coarse particles and to sufficiently reduce turbidity.g. Conventional backwashing capability may have to be added.7 to 2 mm over a depth of I to 1. Such pre filtration can be done either horizontally or vertically. Coarse sand. subsequent disinfection is indispensible in case of bacterial water contamination. Filter medium: coarse sand. This can be avoided by covering the filter bed with a metal grate or by raising the depth of the filter bed.5 to 1. The filtration rates for a coarse filter are lower than those for a conventional rapid filter.5 m.5 m).

8 to 1. plastic containers or clay vessels and filling them with several layers of sand. depending on the size of the . or if the filter (empty or filled with water) is left unused for some time. porcelain or other fine porosity materials. Charcoal cannot be regenerated. disinfection).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . for whatever reason.http://www. It is for these reasons that the use of filters with charcoal media is not recommended.. Multiple layer filter Using metal drums. Ceramics filter On the household level ceramics filters may be used for the purification of drinking water. Household Size Rapid Filter Household filters can be made from sand or gravel of different grain sizes.clicktoconvert. d. Through additives in the filter material. the water therefore needs to be disinfected. additional effects can be obtained (adsorption. also called candle. the charcoal can become a breeding ground for bacteria.com 79 Two or more layers of different material possible (coarser material up top and finer material below). The result is that the filtered water exhibits a higher bacteria count than the raw water. e. If this is not possible. Fig 6. i. If there are native potters. The filter performance depends on the porosity of the filter medium. through which the water is passed. Drainage system: same as slow sand filter. Charcoal adsorbs organic substances which cause disagreeable color and taste. if the charcoal is frequently renewed. Cleaning: replace medium completely when head loss exceeds certain value. and. The purifying agent is a filter element. Suspended particles are thus mechanically retained.4 m. They basically operate on the principle of mechanical straining of the particles contained in the water. After filtration. simple household filters can be put together. however. They do not perform well at removing pathogens. gravel or charcoal. the filter can be manufactured locally. from ceramics.e.11: Multiple layer filter f. This effect can only be sustained. Otherwise they can be readily obtained from various commercial manufacturers. Monitoring of the filter condition is rendered more difficult by the fact that there is no visual indication given for the point when the charcoal should be replaced. though. Filter bed depth: 0. when too big (approximately once every 3-4 months).

.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . After the cleaning.com 80 pores. This can be increased considerably by forcing the water through the medium. At regular intervals.12). the candle should be boiled. have the advantage that recontamination of purified water due to infestation of the filter material with bacteria laden washing water can be avoided . also pathogens. Ceramics filter elements can be made from various different material compositions (e g. porcelain). The filtered water must be boiled subsequently or otherwise disinfected The impurities held back by the candle deposit on the candle's surface. Ceramics filters should only be used if the water is not too turbid. they have pore sizes of between 0.clicktoconvert. . Fig 6. diatomaceous earth. The filtration rate depends on the filter material. Ceramics filters must be handled with care.http://www.pressure filter.5 µ all pathogens get removed with certainty.13). If the pore size is smaller than or equal to 1. the pore size and the nature of the particles to be retained. Filters operating at atmospheric pressure exhibit a very slow rate of percolation. Post treatment of the water prior to consumption is rendered unnecessary. . . ceramics filters can be operated in the following ways: . Candles made from diatomaceous earth which contain silver.gravity filter (Fig 6.siphon filter (Fig 6.12: Household filter with candle (gravity filter). Filters with larger pores only retain macro organisms such as cysts and worm eggs.3 and 50 µ. as the pores clog rather quickly. From time to time they must be checked for fissures so as to prevent the water from passing through the medium without being filtered.pump filter. . this coating can be brushed off under running water. Depending on their type.

It is responsible for the bacteriological purification effect. 6.http://www. . felt.5. On the surface of the sand bed..2 Slow Sand Filtration Slow sand filtration is accomplished by passing raw water slowly .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . their use is more expensive. paper. a thin biological film develops after some time of ripening (different from the rapid filter).physical mass attraction (Van der Waals force). since the filter material cannot be regenerated. They are inserted into a bell. which is mounted on the top of a water pipe.e. Adsorption: The suspended particles and colloids that come in contact with the surface of the sand grains by following the passage of the water are retained by: . The slow sand filter is therefore also called "surface filler'' or biological filter. Cartridge microfilter Besides ceramics filters. Particles too big to pass through the interstices between the sand grains are retained. 6.1 Mechanisms of Filtration The principle purification processes taking place during slow sand filtration are: Sedimentation: The water body sitting on top of the filter bed acts as a settling reservoir.clicktoconvert. or filter skin.com 81 Fig 6.adhesion to the biological layer (Schmutzdecke).driven by gravity through a medium of fine sand.13: Siphon filter. When the filter material becomes clogged. other microfilters made from fine porosity materials are also available: synthetics. This film consists of active microorganisms and is called "Schmutzdecke". i. Even though these filters are cheaper to purchase than ceramics filters.2.like filter device.like material (pore size between 25 and 50 µ). Mechanical straining: The sand acts as a strainer. used up.5. it must be discarded and replaced new.electrostatic and electrokinetic attractive forces (Coulomb forces). Settleable particles sink to the sand surface. and . Filtration is started by sucking the water by mouth into the siphon system g.

2: Range of Application of Slow Sand Filters According to Raw Water Quality .sufficient oxygen in the raw water (at least 3 mg/l) to induce biological activity. In uncovered filters.killing of E.g. average turbidity of raw water should not be greater than 10 NTU. Organic substances are deposited on the upper layer of sand. When algae growth is strong. their wastes and dead cells and partly assimilated organic materials. approx. detergents. The conditions necessary for those biochemical processes are: . sticky.partial oxidation and breakdown of organic substances forming water.com 82 On account of these forces. There is always a diurnal variation in the oxygen content due to growth and decay of the algae mass. Dead cell material may clog the filter. pesticides.5 m is needed solely for the biochemical process) of specific grain sizes.Only minor degradation degrade biologically possible. Viruses Complete removal. gelatinous film which consists of active bacteria. Coli and of pathogens. Similar processes occur there.3 m/in. . growth of algae is driven by photosynthesis. Organic substances Complete removal. They can improve the formation of the biological layer (filter skin). CO2 and inorganic salts. . Different types of bacteria are normally found at various depths. cysts. Biochemical processes in the biological layer: . 0. . Color Partial removal. Increased consumption of oxygen due to the presence of dead cell material increases the possibility that anaerobic conditions will occur. Coli removed at 99 -99.5. Substances difficult to e. . 6. the algae must be either removed regularly or the filter must be covered. an agglomerate of opposite charged particles forms within the top layer of sand.clicktoconvert. The bacterial activity gradually decreases with depth.uniform and slow flow of water through the filter. helminth-eggs and Schistosoma-larvae removed completely. phenoles. where they serve as a breeding ground and food for bacteria and other types of microorganisms (assimilation and dissimilation)..conversion of soluble iron and manganese compounds into insoluble hydroxides which attach themselves to the grain surfaces. This process needs some time of ripening to fully develop. At higher turbidity.2 Range of Application Water Quality Purification Effect Parameters Bacteria Pathogenic bacteria and E.1 to 0.http://www.a depth of the filter bed of 1 m (0.9 %*. Algae can contribute to the breakdown of organic material and bacteria.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .sufficient ripening of the biological layers. These produce a slimy. Turbidity Significant reduction.2. pretreatment necessary to prevent clogging of filter. The dissimilation products are carried away by the water to greater depth. . Table 6. The presence of large amounts of algae in the supernatant reservoir of a filter generally impedes the functioning of the filter.

5 for 8 hours of daily uninterrupted operation. 5. Aside from shutting down the filter completely (overnight). b = 0. while the inlet valve is closed and the outlet valve is open (mode of decreasing filtration rate 4. the filter should be covered to prevent heat loss. Choice of the filtration rate v (m3/m² + h = m/h). Raw Water Should Subsequently Be Disinfected It is worth noting that microbiological processes and chemical activity are very sensitive to changes in temperature.com 83 * At MPN-Contents Greater than 1000 E. Under prolonged cold conditions.2.7 for 16 hours of daily uninterrupted operation. it is possible to operate it for a few hours a day (factor b). A reduction in filtration rate can compensate for this effect. 6. m3/h. Fig 6. Coli/100 ml. The required area per filter is thus obtained by dividing the total area A by the number of (equal size) filters. and subsequent disinfection should be provided. so as to have a reserve during down time of one (due to cleaning or ripening period). Q (m3/d. 3. Determination of the number of daily operating hours. Determine the number of filters n. b = 0. The filtration rate for each filter for parallel operation is given by 6. The sizing of the subsequent storage capacity and of the distribution system is to be carried out in accordance with the daily water demand. peak flows). Both slow down under conditions of low temperature. 2. Parameters a and b are related to the total filtration area as follows: b = 0 for continuous operation. Determine the daily demand for treated water. The ratio of length to width should be in the range between 1 and 4.3 Design of a Slow Sand Filter 1.5. a.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. There should be at best two filters.14: Flow chart of a slow sand filter . A/n.

Access to pipe work and appurtenances is relatively more difficult.2-0. The deeper the tanks reach into the ground. . Artificial roughening of the inner wall faces greatly reduces the risk of raw water leaking past the sand.12 0.3 0.2 0.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . .05 0.3 Table 6. vermin. etc.Earth tanks with sloped side walls have the advantage of lower initial costs.http://www. that both the risk of leakage (along edges) and initial capital cost per square meter decreases with the size of the unit. . It must be noted that: .3: Construction Characteristics of Various Tank Geometries Table 6.2.5.15-0.08 0. It must be noted. At high groundwater levels.25 ø 1-5 In/above ground All sizes Rectangular Earth basin L and B or square 2-20 Vertical Concrete or Masonry Vertical Ferro-cement Vertical Reinforced concrete Sloped Masonry Sealed earth Concrete Sand/cement mix Vertical Reinforced concrete Rectangular In/above ground AH sizes or square Earth basins Small sizes Vertical Masonry.2-0.Circular shapes are used for small units. .Tanks with vertical walls should extend at least 0. They are therefore well suited for expandable larger systems. . however.4 Construction Filter box The smaller the size of a filter unit. The walls must be watertight.1 0.5 m above ground. wind. concrete 0.3 m into the ground and another 0.clicktoconvert. For filter lengths greater than 20 m.06-0. the more favorable the pressure balance that acts on the walls.3 shows design characteristics for different filter geometries. The edges between base slab and walls must be watertight.Provisions should be made for the tank to receive a cover. Form Tank Location Earth basin Round Size (m) ø 1-10 Slope Walls Material Thickness (m) 0. No particular skills are required for the workers to do the excavation. if necessary.08 0.com 84 6. the simpler its construction. the walls must be absolutely watertight (mainly to prevent the flow of potentially contaminated groundwater). the design becomes more complicated because of the hydrostatic pressure.It is important for the tank to have a rigid base. Rectangular tanks lend themselves to forming batteries of filters. in order to control algal growth and prevent pollutants from entering due to rain.

. a concrete plate may be placed on top of the filter bed (see Fig 6.15-0.0-1.4: Filter Medium -Structure and Materials Support Layer Material: Depth: DRAINAGE SYSTEM Inlet Zone The inlet zone of the tank should be designed such that the entering raw water spreads out evenly over the filter bed. Effective size (E. This can be achieved best by admitting the water just above the filter bed at a velocity of 0. Larger sizes reduce the effectiveness and increase the required depth of the filter bed. To prevent scouring near the inlet.5 m. See Fig 6. Turbulence must also be avoided in order not to stir up the biological layer. Prevents escape of filter medium into drainage system.15. and blocking. asbestos cement. b). up to 1.35 mm.g. 5.layer of gravel or crushed rock. alternatively: . Table 6. cast iron. Coarse sand or gravel: several layers with grain size increasing with depth. 0.): 0.15 m . grain size 25-50 mm. . max.system of perforated pipes.5 m. concrete slabs or porous material.clicktoconvert. 22: lateral drains and main drain sloped toward outlet. rice husks). several layers possible. or other locally available material (e. depth.http://www. 0.7 m.1 m/in.system of bricks. Collection of filtered water towards outlet. better: 1. At least 0. Uniformity coefficient (UC): 2..4 m (in accordance with drainage system). Sand (washed). locally available porous material.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .S. water and pressure-proof materials: PVC.com 85 SUPERNATANT FILTERBED Medium: Depth: Grain Size: Depth: At least 1 m.1-0.

adequate ventilation must be provided for air to enter and for gases to escape.1 m above the level of the filter bed. . It is common that the crest of the weir is placed some 0. the surface of the filter bed drops more each time.15. Sufficient aeration of the entering water can be obtained by means of uniformly spraying or trickling of the water over cascades. to prevent the filter from running dry.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The filtration rate can be controlled by valve F. Outlet Zone The outlet zone is generally arranged so that a weir controls the effluent. The effluent weir also serves the purpose of aerating the filtered water. the inlet of the raw water can also serve as the drain for the supernatant for the purpose of cleaning.com 86 Fig 6.http://www.15: Different design arrangements for their inlet zone of a slow sand filter If no extra provisions are made. The width of the inlet should not be less than Q/20. In case of an enclosed weir chamber. a). It is therefore more practical to have a vertically adjustable sill along the inlet trough to control inflow and head over the filter (see Fig 6.clicktoconvert. among other things. the top layer is scooped off. Since for each cleaning of the filter. The purpose of the weir is.

Consequently.16: Diagram of outlet chamber of a slow sand filter 6. When this period is terminated.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2. the head of the supernatant drops and the filtration rate decreases. raw water should be admitted quickly.5.2 m) above the filter skin (Schmutzdecke). Normal operation 1.clicktoconvert. reduces the required number of personnel and related costs. It is opened gradually as the filter head loss increases so as to maintain a constant rate of filtration. The effluent weir should be fixed at such a height as to prevent the supernatant from dropping below a certain minimum depth (e. 0.. Operation at decreasing through flow: This mode of operation' which is well suited for overnights. .) It is preferable to continue filtration and divert the effluent to waste or other use since a shutdown of the filter causes a deterioration of the quality of the biological agents (filter skin. The raw water inlet is closed. Unskilled personnel can be easily trained. 2.http://www. Initially. Temporary shutdown: Close both inlet and outlet valves.com 87 Fig 6. F is all but closed.g. (The necessary quickclosing valves must be provided. 3. The increase in bed resistance is due to a gradual accumulation of retained impurities in the interstices of the filter bed. etc.5 Operation and Maintenance A major advantage of slow sand filters is that operation and maintenance of a welldesigned and constructed filter is rather simple. and the outlet remains open.). Normal through flow: The filtration rate is controlled jointly by valves E and F.

The filter must then be resanded.g.http://www. were discussed in earlier sections. Further design alternatives. the depth of the filter material drops until the minimum design level is reached. Also. 2. Examples are: .6 Modifications The procedures and characteristics discussed in the preceding sections represent a complete scheme necessary to achieve the best possible purification effects.6 m above the supporting gravel. This is typically about 0. to modify this scheme sufficiently to scale it down to the household level.reduction of the depth of the supernatant reservoir. Refilling the filter box follows the pattern described for initial commissioning. Resanding Since for each cleaning. I. A pure and clean appearance of filtered water is no assurance of sufficient bacteriological quality. Fig 6. . A. the top layer of the filter is removed. new sand may be better used instead. Some selected modified slow sand filters are introduced in the following paragraphs. 6. If readily available.2. Only a day or two will be necessary for reripening (water analysis). There is room.effluent discharge via rising pipe rather than by a weir.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Mounted on the effluent pipe is a stop cock to regulate the filtration rate and to shut off the outflow during cleaning.clicktoconvert. This can be rather difficult (use of washing machine). Alternatively. the foregoing mode of operation for decreasing through flow could be chosen.17: Simple Flow Sand Filter .5. 4. necessary conditions for which are slow inflow and uniform through flow.5 to 2 cm of filter) are stripped off quickly and carefully so as not to pollute or disturb the filter to a greater depth. however. F valves are closed. for the effluent collection and discharge system. it is time to clean the filter bed.substitution of sand by alternative filter material .com 88 Filter Cleaning 1. C opened to allow the supernatant to drain off. e. By opening valves F and particularly D (waste valve) the water within the bed is lowered still further until it is some 0.. The sand is to be washed thoroughly to remove all impurities (especially organic coating). It may give rise to the danger of insufficient biological effectiveness. The filter skin and the surface sand adhering to it (top 1. Too drastic a simplification of the full scale scheme may reduce the filter efficiency. 5. the reuse of the old sand replenished by new material has its economic merits.2 m below the surface.When the filtration rate starts to drop at fully opened regulating valve F. 3.

3 barriers. the top sand layer is scraped off.3 m so as to facilitate steady flow conditions Filter medium: sand Filter bed depth: at least 0.2 to 0. pretreating the water is recommended. This technique offers the possibility of uninterrupted operation. 2 Inlet trough to prevent scouring. The point of inflow can then be switched back. 5 outlet trough.com 89 Horizontal sand filter This type of filter (Fig 6. depth between 0. A thorough cleaning and disinfection e. 6 flow direction Fig 6. Filter output: 60 l/h (as compared to up to 230 l/h for the rapid version) Operation: setting of the filtration rate through effluent stop cock Cleaning: necessary whenever filtration rate below certain specified value (at fully open valve) In case of high turbidity. 1 Inlet pipe.5 m diameter Depth of supernatant: 0. watertight lining (e. bottom slope 1: l0 to 1:20 Cleaning: When the filter starts clogging.28).1 to 0. 0. As soon as the water has drained from the clogged inflow trough.6 m.. by means of an up flow rapid filter .75 m Support layer and outlet: Collection of the filtered water in a gravel layer.4m/h Filtration effect: reduction of bacteria count.5 m and 1. The retention time in such filters is between 36 hours and 30 days. Filter casing: 200 a metal drum. length 5 m.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Effluent discharge via riser pipe.g. The filtration rate of the water percolating through the sand body is controlled by the filter resistance and the head differential between inflow and outflow. with plastic sheets). organic content Filter basin: excavation. better 0..clicktoconvert. turbidity. A biological skin develops at the surface of the sand around the inlet point.18) is constructed by excavation of an earth basin which is subsequently filled with sand. the point of inflow is simply switched.18: Horizontal Flow Sand Filter Slow sand filter of household size A household filter can be simply made from a used metal drum (Fig 6. which is partly perforated.http://www.g. Filtration rate: 0.0 m. A drum previously filled with oil or chemicals should not be used. with Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is necessary prior to its use as a filter casing. 4 gravel 50 mm. The effluent pipe mounted with a stop cock rises just above the level of the filter bed so as to prevent the filter from running dry.

19: Slow sand filter in household size.. chlorination in the storage tank) is recommended. Two filters are operated sequentially.com 90 Fig 6. when the supernatant reaches the rim of the tank (every 3 to 4 months). At high concentrations of colloidal particles (turbidity > 300 NTU) the addition of a coagulant is recommended. clay jars or containers made of concrete. capacity 60 l/h. The first one acts as a coarse filter while the second one operates similarly to a slow sand filter. depending mainly on the size of the system.clicktoconvert. surplus iron and manganese is removed. Since pathogen removal is not as high as using a slow sand filter. The turbidity is greatly reduced. The filtrate is free of color. due to certain superficial phenomenon coagulation.8 m. The circumstance that the plant is mostly made from locally available materials and residues keeps the initial capital cost and the operating cost low. depth of supernatant water 1 m above filter bed Cleaning: Replacement of entire medium. Feasible operating capacities range between 1 and 15 m3/h. Depth of filter bed: 0. subsequent disinfection (e. Two-stage coconut fiber/burnt rice husk filter (Fig 6. For filter vessels.6 m to 0.like effects are achieved by the medium. . Coarse filter (dispersible if raw water turbidity is low) Filter medium: shredded fibers of coconut shells (washed) Filtration effect: Reduction of turbidity by 60 to 70%.g. Removal of dissolved particles.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .20) This type of filtration plant was developed and tested in Southeast Asia where it is widely used. disagreeable odor and taste. metal or zinc-plated sheet metal can be used.http://www.

Disinfection is needed at the end.clicktoconvert.5 m/h Filter medium: burnt rice husks (washed. removal of iron and manganese up to 90%.1 m of gravel Drainage: perforated drain pipe Cleaning: Necessary when supernatant reaches rim of tank (approx.6 DISINFECTION It is essential that drinking water be free of pathogenic organisms.6 to 0. sedimentation.http://www. UC between 2. difference between 0. Groundwater abstracted from deep wells is usually free of bacteria. None of these methods can guarantee the complete removal of germs. Slow filter Filtration rate: 1.05 to 0. odor and objectionable taste through adsorptive effect of the activated carbon of the burnt medium Depth of filter bed: 0.5 mm.6 Filtration effect: Removal of residual turbidity up to 95%.20: Two stage filter. a layer of 5-10 cm of the filter medium is removed from the top.6 m. A refill of the medium is called for when the depth of the filter bed has dropped to a minimum of 0.3 and 2.8 m.com 91 Fig 6. After draining of the tank. coagulation. depth of supernatant 1 m Supporting layer: 0.3 and 0. Storage. Surface water and water obtained from shallow wells and open dug wells generally need to be disinfected.25 to 1. Note: a) Go through the lesson properly and answer in the space provided b) Don’t proceed till you answer the above question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Water with low turbidity may even be disinfected without any additional treatment for bacteria removal. flocculation and filtration of water both individually and jointly reduce the contents of bacteria in water to a certain extent. Self – check Exercise 4 Briefly explain the mechanism of filtration and the types of filters used. removal of color.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . reduction of coliform bacteria by 60 -90%. . every 3-4 months).

It is therefore discussed here in detail. straining of macro organisms by means of microscreening . Just as important as the proper choice of the disinfectant.http://www. .other constituents of the water which may impede disinfection or render it impossible.6. .1. application and monitoring. A good chemical disinfectant should have the following abilities: .temperature of the water (higher temperatures speed up chemical reactions). hydrogen peroxide.).metal ions. such as UV.destroy all organisms present in the water within reasonable contact time.accomplish disinfection without rendering the water toxic or carcinogenic. chlorinated lime. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that there are potential hazards for the human organism associated with prolonged ingestion of chemicals. chlorine dioxide) to the water .irradiation. applying the foregoing criteria.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . such as silver (and copper). .clicktoconvert.contact time provided (important for chemical disinfectants. The degree or efficiency of disinfection depends on the method employed and on the following factors influencing the process: . . iodine. They are introduced only briefly. a time of contact is necessary). storage.allow safe and simple handling. ozone. and the fluctuation in composition. 6.1 The Action of Chloride and its Range of Application Chlorination is known as the addition of chlorine gas or some other oxidizing chlorine compound (sodium or calcium hypochlorite. .light. potassium permanganate.chemical treatment.permit simple and quick measurement of strength and concentration in the water. It is effective and economical.6. .persist in residual concentration as a safeguard against recontamination. Its use requires some knowledge about the complex processes that take place during chlorination.1 Chlorination Chlorination is the most widely used method for drinking water disinfection. the range of water temperature encountered. concentration and condition of the water to be treated.kind and concentration of microorganisms in the water. . . Those processes will be briefly summarized in the following paragraphs. since their effect is not instantaneous.ready and dependable availability at reasonable cost. bromine -. is that of the type of device to be used to add the agent to the water in a safe and controllable fashion. 6. The other methods differ significantly from each other in terms of their effect.physical treatment: removal of bacteria through slow sand filtration. Water disinfection can be accomplished by several means: . etc. the application of chlorine and its compounds for the purpose of water disinfection is the best and most tested compromise when evaluated according to the aforementioned criteria. use of oxidants (halogens and halogen compounds -chlorine. . Nevertheless. . . application of heat (boiling).com 92 Water disinfection processes are designed to destroy disease producing organisms by means of disinfectants. the technological level and particularly in their applicability. etc.

A contact time of at least 30 minutes is required. it was found that through chlorination.clicktoconvert.1 and 0. The actual agent is hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which forms when chlorine is added to water: Hypochlorous acid also forms subsequent to dissociation. when chlorinated lime or hypochlorites are added: The following chemical equilibrium depends on pH and temperature.http://www. Hence the disinfecting effect drops off rapidly as the pH level increases.. Through such pretreatment. chloroform and other trihalomethanes). Small amounts of chlorine. at the end of which the residual chlorine concentration in the water must still be between 0. which contributes to the oxidizing effect: HOCl .com 93 to be treated. It is advisable to remove or reduce prior to chlorination. many types of viruses and macro-organisms such as schistosoma larvae can be killed. At pH levels between 3 and 6. helminth eggs (parasitic worms) can be removed which are insensitive to chlorination. those substances by means of sedimentation and/or filtration which would impede disinfection.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . forming monatomic oxygen.5 mg/l (= ppm). Simultaneously with the dissociation. Similarly. synthetic organic compounds may enter the hydrologic cycle in high concentrations. Sufficient chlorine must be added to the water to make sure that there is a residual concentration to prevent recontamination. In recent times. as well as numerous types of organic particles. Chlorination is most effective in that range of pH. . Chlorine also reacts with many other oxidizable water constituents such as iron and manganese compounds. Particularly in industrialized areas. hypochlorous acid dissociates poorly. The presence of these substances reduces the germicidal effect considerably. Amoebic cysts and spores with resistant cell membranes require higher doses and longer contact times. hypochlorite ions predominate or exist almost exclusively. due to its ability to penetrate cells of microorganisms. At pH levels greater than 8.HCl + 0 The fraction that becomes effective as an oxidizing agent when chlorine or some of its compounds is added to raw water is called "free available" or "active" chlorine.g. ammonia. The presence of chlorine enhances the danger of the formation of carcinogenic compounds (e. are sufficient to destroy many different strains of bacteria. certain undesirable side effects may occur. hypochlorous acid partly breaks up. and compounds thereof (forming chloramines).

1 1000 g Chlorinated Lime 30 (25-37) 40 g HTH 70 (60-70) 15 g Table 6. In some form or another they are available virtually anywhere. however. it quickly loses its effectiveness. Exposed to air. It is available in tablet or granular form (commercial names: Stabo-Chlor. . it may be economical. Caporit or Para-Caporit). Name % Active Chlorine 14 (10-15) Amount for Preparation of 1 l of 1% Solution 71 g Sodium Hypochlorite Household Bleach 5 (3-5) 200 g Javelle Water ca. the powder is readily available and inexpensive. toxic). Its commercial strength in terms of active chlorine is between 1 and 15%.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. But it is not economical to store. They should be stored in tightly closed containers and in darkened spaces. A 1% solution is relatively stable.2 Chemicals Chlorine gas and chlorine dioxide are widely used in water treatment on account of their high efficiency and ease of application. When fresh. it contains 35% active chlorine. commonly known as bleach or Javelle water: This is generally available in dissolved form. Prior to use. They are caustic. The solution loses some of its strength during storage. the latter being the most stable solution. These chemicals must be handled with great caution. commercial preparations will maintain their initial strength with little loss.com 94 6. Solutions should have concentrations between 5 and 1% of free chlorine. it is allowed to settle before decanting. Several chlorine compounds which have various active chlorine contents (Table 6. It is usually applied in solution form which is prepared by adding the powder to a small amount of water to form a soft cream. Chlorinated Lime or Bleaching Powder (CaO · 3 CaOCl2 · 3 H2 O) In general.5: Strength of Various Chlorine Preparations Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). thanks to its properties.5) are more easily applicable. The stability of the solution decreases with increasing contents of available chlorine. Handling and transport. The containers therefore should be stored in cool darkened areas. Under normal storage conditions. Even though hypochlorite solutions are less hazardous than chlorine gas. Some 10% of the chlorine remains in the settled sludge. High Test Hypochlorite (HTH) is a stabilized version of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCI)2 ) containing between 60% and 70% available chlorine. It is stored in corrosion resistant cans. Even though HTH is expensive. the active chlorine content should be tested. every precaution should be taken to avoid skin contact and to protect containers against physical damage. are considered too demanding and hazardous for the purposes described in this manual (explosive. When the desired volume of the solution has been prepared.clicktoconvert.1. corrosive and sensitive to light.6. It is stored in dark glass or plastic bottles. Stirring prevents lumping when more water is added. Sunlight and high temperatures accelerate the deterioration of the solution.

etc. Higher levels are recommended if rapid recontamination is likely. Chlorine solution of a known concentration is added and mixed with the water.com 95 accessible only to authorized personnel. It is therefore necessary to monitor the water quality from time to time. The chlorine flow is set such that a chlorine residual level of between 0. the chlorine demand and the strength of the chlorine solution to be used. the chlorine demand may vary due to external influences (e. Chemical agents (DPD or OT method) are used which are oxidized by chlorine to produce a colored complex. In the field.6.3 Determination of Chlorine Dose Chlorine of any type must be added to water in closely controlled concentrations which depend on the characteristics of the water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . required amount of chlorine solution per hour (l/h) = required active chlorine per hour (g/h) divided by active chlorine per liter of solution (g/a) . Chlorine corrodes metal and to a less extent.1.clicktoconvert. solutions are preferred. hence. Various simple test kits are commercially available. eyes and other body tissues must be avoided. at the points of consumption in cases where the chlorine dosage is fixed.1 and 0. the residual chlorine content is measured.http://www. the necessary amount of solution can be calculated as follows: chlorine demand (g/m³) x amount of water to be treated (m³/h) = required amount of active chlorine per hour (g/h). contacts with skin. Reading the colors and matching color standards by means of a comparator and disks. Measurements of the chlorine demand and residual chlorine must be taken to assure that sufficient free chlorine is available to accomplish disinfection. After 30 minutes of contact time. Calculation of the required amount of chlorine: Given the amount or flow of water to be chlorinated. Chlorine demand = chlorine consumption + desired residual Usually 1% chlorine solutions are applied. Water characteristics and. and residual chlorine.. The objective of disinfection via chlorination can only be obtained if the chlorine dosage is adjusted to the changed water characteristics. When handling the material. using permanent glass and containing DPD reagents in liquid or compressed tablet form.3 mg/l is obtained. available. wood and some synthetic materials. Metal parts which come in contact with the chemicals should be resistant. The difference to the amount added then yields the chlorine consumption. As the use of dry chemicals doesn't always permit sufficient accuracy of dosing. This allows the most effective treatment at the lowest level of chlorine application. 6. Chlorine is usually added to the water for disinfection at the end of the treatment process. the intensity of which is proportional to the amount of chlorine present. gives the amount of free.).g. the chlorine demand of water of a given quality can be determined as follows: One lifer samples of the water are taken. Colorimetric tests are employed to determine total chlorine residuals. rainy season.

Once the water has been disinfected. Batch Chlorination Where tanks are used for storage of drinking water. If the water quality of a given source varies. it can be fed continuously to a constant flow of water. the smaller the amount of chlorine necessary for effective disinfection. the percent weight measure for a given solution is lower than the percent volume measure.4 Practical Application Aside from using commercially available chlorine feeder instruments.30). The chlorine solution can either be added to a batch of water (non-continuous or diffusion chlorination) or alternatively. 6.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. This procedure allows uninterrupted supply.clicktoconvert. it is quite possible to make a simple dosing apparatus for a constant feed rate. however.com 96 It must be noted that the manufacturers usually express the available chlorine con. Tanks should be covered. The lower the turbidity. A tap should be used to release the water so as to avoid scooping out the water with unclean jars and the like. Chlorination should never be performed prior to slow sand filtration (residual chlorine destroys biological agents).21: Batch-Chlorination with two tanks . Sedimentation and filtration preceding chlorination enhance the disinfection effect. Reliable operation and regular maintenance must be provided. If the water is not used immediately but left in the house for awhile. the chlorine demand must be reevaluated from time to time. it is often expressed in terms of percent volume (g/100 ml of solution). Sufficient contact time for the chlorine must be ensured. The amount of chlorine required for a given size tank can be calculated according to the foregoing formula. In the field.1. recontamination must be carefully prevented. the other one is refilled and treated with chlorine. Before a tank is used the first time for storing water. Using a 1% hypochlorite solution. tent in terms of percent weight (g/100 g). it must be cleaned carefully and disinfected (application of between 50 and 100 ppm active chlorine). While one tank is in use. the dose is: chlorine demand x tank capacity. only well cleaned and covered jars should be used.6. It is advantageous to alternate between two tanks (see Fig 6. The most difficult part is the setting of the proper rate of delivery. the required amount of chlorine can be added to the tank periodically. Fig 6. Since the density of chlorine solutions is higher than that of water. The water can be used after a minimum of 30 minutes contact time.

e.22: Diffusion Chlorination a) Well. Diffusion Chlorination Open wells are often bacteriologically contaminated because of non hygienic methods for lifting the water. They are available from various firms. Fig 6. or due to careless use of the surroundings of the well.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . b) Cistern . while traveling..g. They are used for periodic chlorination of small batches of water.http://www.com 97 Chlorine Tablets: In certain situations.clicktoconvert. chlorine tablets can be used.

6 mm). daily removal some 10% (0.clicktoconvert.5 kg bleach powder and 3 kg coarse sand (grain size 1. Type II also consists of a clay jar (volume 7 to 10 a).2 and 0.com 98 Fig 6.23: Various devices for diffusion chlorination. which is then lowered into the water.http://www. Range of application: Wells of 9 to 13 m³ volume of water. It has 6 to 8 holes in the bottom.8 mg/a. Type I is a clay jar (12 to 15 l volume).9 to1. The chlorine can thus diffuse through the two holes into the well water. Stones are filled to the rim of the jar. filled nearly half-way with a mix of 1. Effectiveness: 1 week at a residual chlorine content of between 0. These are covered with stones on top of which a layer of gravel is placed. . It has two holes above the sand surface.5 kg bleaching powder and 3 kg of coarse sand. The jar is suspended approximately 1 m below the water surface in the well.3 m³).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The jar is covered with a plastic foil. On top of that is put a mix of 1.4 to 1.

. two jars should be used which are refilled interchangeably. a double jar is recommended which releases less chlorine per time unit.g. For larger wells and higher rates of water use. coagulation/flocculation and settling).24: Diagram of a water supply scheme with continuous chlorination by a drip dosing device. Range of applications: Wells with 4. The inner jar contains a mix of 1 kg bleaching powder and 2 kg coarse sand.http://www.5 m³ volume of water and daily removal of between 360 to 450 l. passing through some sort of pretreatment (e. The above diagram shows a water supply scheme including continuous chlorination.2 and 1. The diffusion openings are provided as shown in Fig 6.0 mg/a. Chlorine is fed to the water in proportion to the flow rate. Effectiveness: Two to three weeks at a residual chlorine content of between 0.. Before entering the reservoir.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . As these devices are not fit for large variations in water use.clicktoconvert. Continuous Chlorination Simple chlorine dosing instruments can be installed in piped water supply systems.com 99 Range of application: same as before Effectiveness: Two weeks at a residual chlorine content of between 0.23. insufficient chlorination may occur at higher rates of water use. the water is passed through a mixing chamber where a dosing apparatus introduces droplets of chlorine into the water.5 mg/l. Type III: For small household wells. A pipeline transmits the water from the source to the reservoir.15 and 0. Fig 6.

Fig 6.25: Mariotte type bottles for dosing of chlorine solutions.26: Drip dosing device made from a 20 a plate canister.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.com 100 Fig 6. .http://www.

6. Iodine preparations are also available in tablet form. and eliminates most of the objectionable taste and odor present in water. thus depends on the consumption. .http://www.6. cercerea and some viruses. -muddy or turbid water substantially affect germicidal action. amoeba cysts.ammonia and organic nitrogenous compounds have little effect on germicidal efficiency because they do not form substitution compounds with iodine.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2 Iodine Iodine is an excellent disinfectant. Its effectiveness does not depend on the pH value. It leaves no chemical . In view of these economic and health implications the use of iodine for disinfection is recommended only for occasional application (e. and lead. The feed rate is proportional to the water flow rate and. They range from manually controlled types to fully automated ones. Allergies were ascertained. 6.iodine is about 20 times as expensive as chlorine per unit of germicidal effectiveness. Aside from that.g. Since operating costs are too high.taste and slight color produced by the iodine affect palatability and aesthetic quality. Installation and setting up should be carried out by professional personnel. except at very low temperatures. . manganese. This principle of ozone production has been used in Europe for a long time. . The applicability is limited due to the following disadvantages: .physiological effect of prolonged use of iodine (especially in children) is suspected.3 Ozonation Ozone (O3) is one of the most effective disinfectants.use and handling is simpler..higher concentrations than chlorine (on a ppm basis) are necessary for effective action. iodine is a highly effective and technically widely applicable disinfectant. WHO recommends the application of 2 droplets per lifer of water of a 2% iodine tincture. .effectiveness against more pathogenic organisms within short times. As a powerful oxidant. it is generated almost invariably at the point of use. Ozone is obtained by passing a current of dried and filtered air (or oxygen) through between two electrodes (plates or tubes) subjected to an alternating current potential difference. . .clicktoconvert. since it has the advantage of being applicable under a wide range of conditions. the use of iodine is not expected to ever become an important widely applied disinfectant. In comparison to chlorination. Since ozone is relatively unstable. .com 101 A variety of types of chlorine dosing instruments are commercially available. It is added to the water mostly in the form of an aqueous solution. A portion of the oxygen is then converted into ozone. it reduces the contents of iron.action depends less on contact time and temperature. The use of these devices is limited to piped water supply systems. Usually a unit consists of a storage tank and a diaphragm pump for feeding the hypochlorite solution. the use of iodine has the following advantages: . effective against bacteria.6. temperature or ammonia content of the water.effectiveness over a wider range of pH values (up to pH 10). in case of catastrophe or while traveling).

Although there is a tendency at present to exchange the metallic containers for plastic ones. 6. The silver ions curb the growth of germs. They are readily soluble in water and can be dosed easily.. but not against other pathogenic germs. Its major advantage is that it provides already treated water w i th long.preventing algal growth. as well as operating costs due to the electrical energy requirements. depending on the level of bacteriological contamination. . though. even simple Indian villagers can still be seen fetching water from the well in brass or copper vessels. water of a very low germ content may be obtained.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .5 Disinfection by Silver Preparations containing silver may be used to reduce the germ count of water. hydrogen sulfide. Disinfection by silver is a simple and very effective method.04 ppm) are notably effective. organic substances and iron. It is sufficiently effective against cholera bacteria. The effect of silver and other metals has been known to many peoples for a long time. The operational requirements therefore exceed the resources available in rural areas of most developing countries. are very high.removing objectionable odor and taste by means of oxidation of organic material.com 102 residuals behind in the treated water. The effectiveness of silver can be explained by the oligo-dynamic properties of silver ions (silver nitrate or salt compounds). The metallic vessels are believed to have antiseptic qualities.03 to 0. The tradition of storing drinking water in silver vessels is still maintained in wealthier Hindu families. 6. Silver preparations are also used in ceramic filters. .4 Potassium Permanganate Potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ). sulphur.http://www. a powerful oxidant. that it creates a purple brown precipitate which coats the walls of the tank. Even minute concentrations (0. operation of ozonizers requires continuous and skilled monitoring.clicktoconvert. either as a liquid or a powder. It must be noted.removing iron and manganese compounds by means of oxidation and subsequent separation by filtration.6. The products are commercially available. no lasting protection against recontamination is provided either. A dose of 1 to 5 ppm KMnO4 is recommended for application. Major disadvantages of silver for the purpose of disinfection are the costs of treatment (about 200 times higher than gaseous chlorine). thus limiting the applicability of the technique. is rarely applied in water treatment for the purpose of disinfection. . On the other hand.6. Capital costs for the instrumentation of ozone production and feeding. If combined with chlorine. inhibit action. etc. potassium permanganate has gained steadily in the application in pretreatment since it has proved effective at: . relatively long contact periods are required. After contact of between 30 minutes and 6 hours.lasting protection against recontamination by germs. Moreover. It cannot be removed easily. Odor and taste of the water are not affected by the application of silver. In recent years.

flavoring plant materials may be added during boiling. In principle.6. To improve the taste of the water. but left in the former one and covered. If it is not possible for any reason to apply a different method. and decant it or filter it through a fine. Boiling. it is recommended to let the water settle before. The presence of turbidity or other impurities has little effect on germicidal effectiveness. especially CO2 .clicktoconvert. since no chemical additives are used. Due to some severe disadvantages of this type of treatment. etc. But through stirring while boiling and by letting the water sit in the partially filled vessel for a few hours afterward. For storing.meshed cloth so as to remove coarse impurities and suspended particles. The most commonly used source of UV-radiation is a low pressure quartz mercury vapor lamp which emits invisible light at a wavelength in the range between 200 and 300 nm with part of the energy in the spectral region of 2537 A. this method is only recommended in exceptional castes.7 Ultra-violate Radiation The germicidal effect of UV rays had been known long before the first experiments were carried out to harness it for water disinfection. Residual matter doesn't occur.commercially available devices are relatively expensive. alters the taste of water. small amounts of dissolved iron) absorb UV light. suspended matter) inhibit or prevent the transmission of radiation. viruses. A disinfection unit is built such that the water is made to flow through a pipe in a thin film around the lamp. Since it requires a significant amount of energy. and tastes and odors are neither produced in the water nor altered.6 Boiling Boiling water is a very effective though energy-consuming method to destroy pathogenic germs: bacteria. It decreases with increasing distance between water and lamp. 6. preferably twenty minutes.com 103 silver preparations are more widely applicable (direct disinfection and protection against recontamination). many substances present even in pretreated water (e.http://www. Also.filtered. If boiling is the only type of treatment available.. so as to protect it from recontamination. the effect of sunlight on surface water is imitated in a more intense and controllable way. Automatic devices are available which indicate when the lamp's output is not sufficient. emitting radiation. it must not be transferred to a different vessel. together with the associated release of gases.g. The flow rate is adjusted as required. The water must be pre. boiling is a very effective and simple disinfection method. it is not expected to find any consideration for application in the areas targeted by this manual: . If done properly. spores. worm eggs. 6. the most energyefficient way of boiling should be employed.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Disinfection by UV radiation is a "clean" process.6. The germicidal effect depends on the electric power of the lamp and on the time of exposure of the water to the radiation. the water picks up air and loses its bland taste. The water is then brought to a strong boil which is maintained for at least five. which is located at the pipe's center. . Other constituents (turbidity. cercerea and amoeba cysts.

though no protection for recontamination is provided.clicktoconvert. Aqua guard – UV radiation c. and impurities reduce the effectiveness notably. 3. UV radiation plants Observe some of these purifiers and make a note of the process involved. . and prepare a table showing the performance and units of these treatment facilities. number of units present i. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. During rainy season and during epidemics.the lamps gradually lose their radiation power.turbidity.the lamp's powers of penetration are limited. Reverse Osmosis plants f. 4.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . Charcoal column. and write your answer in the space given below. potassium permanganate. Self – check Exercise 4 What is the need of disinfection and what are the different disinfectants commonly used? Note: a) Go through the section 6. membrane filter etc. most of the houses and other establishments have water purifiers and or Reverse osmosis plants. Visit the nearby water pumping station and examine the various treatment methods carried out for the drinking water before supply.6 thoroughly before you answer and write your points b) Don’t proceed unless you attempt the question. Water Doctor .. Zero ‘B’ e. Have an interview with the employee of the pumping station and get details about the way of treatment practiced there. thin water films are necessary. Smell the water during this period and observe the strength of the bleaching powder added to water. accelerated by a coating of dirt.8 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES We would like to suggest the following activities based on Lesson 6: 1. Ozone generator. Normally the following purifiers are used: a. Pre filters.com 104 . drinking water is supplied after chlorination.there is a dependence on steady power supply ? . UV lamp. Now a days. iodine.e. boiling and UV radiation 6.. .9%).disinfection occurs rather quickly and effectively (up to 99. ozonation.Ozonation b. . 2. Pure it purifiers d.http://www. The lamp's average life is 1000 to 5000 hours.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the various treatment process for potable water · Learned the techniques of aeration · Studied about sedimentation process · Identified the mechanisms of coagulation and flocculation · Evaluated the filtration techniques and its types · Listed out the disinfection by chlorination.

4. Aeration always precedes some other treatment process. They are surrounded by an electrical double layer (due to attachment of positively charged ions from the ambient solution) and thus inhibit the close approach of each other. This constitutes a simple means of reducing the contents of suspended matter and partially of bacteria. Critically examine the necessity of filtration in removing micro organisms from water. Significance of aeration and types of filters The basic purpose of aeration is the reduction of the content of substances which cause unpleasant tastes and odors as well as discoloration. When treating surface water aeration is useful in adding oxygen to the raw water.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. coagulants of plant origin and other natural coagulants. Filtration and types of filters Filtration is the deliberate passage of polluted water through a porous medium. Evaluate the role of aeration. Refer section 6. Due to their low specific gravity. 1. pathogenic organisms and colour. 3. thus utilizing the principle of natural cleansing of the soil. they don't settle out. Need of disinfection and types of disinfectants . Justify the significance of treating water for potable use. 2.2 carefully for types of aerators. Mechanism of coagulation and types of coagulants Colloidal particles generally carry a negative electrical charge. Use is made of this physical process in the treatment of water by passing it through settling basins or storage tanks at low and uniform velocities. 2. Substantiate the dosage of disinfectants used for treating potable water and wastewater. coagulation and sedimentation mentioned in treating the wastewater. Their diameter may range between 10-4 to 10-6 mm. 6.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This widely used technique in water treatment is based on several simultaneously occurring phenomena like mechanical straining of undissolved suspended particles. Aeration is frequently used for treatment of groundwater where it also has additional positive side effects (precipitation of iron and manganese). charge exchange.com 105 6. They remain finely divided and don't agglomerate.clicktoconvert. Sedimentation and its areas of application Sedimentation is a phenomenon which occurs in nature perpetually. It aids the natural purification of lakes and rivers. Also refer section 6.10 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Also write about various areas of application like turbidity.http://www. Add note on chemicals used as coagulants. 3. materials of soil origin.5 carefully for types of filters. 1. flocculation adsorption of colloidal matter (boundary layer processes) and bacteriological-biological processes within the filter.

B.http://www. Tiruchirappalli. ozonation and boiling. Publication No. None of these methods can guarantee the complete removal of germs. 2004. Pragati Prakashan. A and Alice Emerenshiya. 45.P Sharma. 1985 Environmental Chemistry. New Delhi.com 106 Disinfection is essential that drinking water be free of pathogenic organisms. Mc Graw Hill Publishing company.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Stanly Manahan - Advances in Environmental Sciences. potassium permanganate. 6. Storage. coagulation. p138 – 142. C Anil Kumar De Gilbert M.P Kumaraswamy. 2007 Environmental Chemistry. Alagappa Moses and M. Masters Kudesia. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company. silver. UV radiation. Meerut. 1999 . Disinfection is needed at the end.. 1997 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering. K. flocculation and filtration of water both individually and jointly reduce the contents of bacteria in water to a certain extent. 1998 Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University.11 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses. GEMS. K. disinfection by iodine. sedimentation. Water with low turbidity may even be disinfected without any additional treatment for bacteria removal. 1998 Water Pollution. Meerut. Tiruchirappalli. A. Vasanthy Mahajan.. 2000 Environmental Chemistry.clicktoconvert. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Discuss about chlorination. New Delhi. S. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. Pollution Control in Process Industries. V.

Pollutants in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals.10 7. Silt-bearing runoff from many activities including construction sites. storms. oils. Many of the .0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we will see discuss about the major sources of water pollution. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes. organic toxins.6. 7.2 7.http://www. 7. Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication.1.clicktoconvert. these are not deemed to be pollution. and solids. 7.3 Aims and Objectives Introduction Sources of Water Pollution Contaminants 7. you should be able to · · · · · · Understand the general concepts of water pollution List out the organic waste pollutants List out the inorganic waste pollutants Determine the transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants Identify the direct point sources Identify the non point sources 7. pathogens. groundwater) caused by human activities.2.3. Industries discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals. especially those from power stations.8 7. earthquakes etc. also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. and these too reduce the available oxygen. Diffuse urban sources Let Us Sum Up Lesson – End Activities Points for Discussion Check your progress .2. and physical chemistry or sensory changes.0 7.Point Sources 7. deforestation and agriculture can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column. rivers. Diffuse agricultural sources 7.1. Organic wastes such as sewage and farm waste impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole eco-system.11 7.7 7.4. After reading this lesson.9 7.6.Model Answers References 7. Discharges can also have thermal effects. in turn damaging ecological systems. Some organic water pollutants 7. restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed.5.1 INTRODUCTION Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. nutrients. oceans.6.com 107 LESSON – 7: WATER POLLUTION CONTENTS 7. Some inorganic water pollutants Transport and Chemical Reactions of Water Pollutants Direct Point Sources Non .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3.1 7.

which is often an element within shifting cultivation agricultural systems · surface runoff containing spilled petroleum products · surface runoff from construction sites.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2 Some inorganic water pollutants include: · heavy metals including acid mine drainage · acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants) · chemical waste as industrial by products · fertilizers. slash and burn practices or land clearing sites. temperature. List out the principal sources of water pollutants.clicktoconvert. and eutrophication.http://www. Note: Please don’t proceed unless you give the answer in the space given below. in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates · Silt in surface runoff from construction sites. Eutrophication is the fertilisation of surface water by nutrients that were previously scarce. including pathogens · tree and brush debris from logging operations · VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds. a huge range of organohalide and other chemicals · bacteria. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. 7.com 108 chemical substances are toxic or even carcinogenic. Pathogens can obviously produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. · food processing waste. conductivity.3. or paved and other impervious surfaces e. . farms.1 Some organic water pollutants are: · insecticides and herbicides.3 CONTAMINANTS Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances.3. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developed countries can present health risks. logging. 7. often is from sewage or livestock operations. thence aquifer contamination.2 SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION Principal sources of water pollution are: · industrial discharge of chemical wastes and byproducts · discharge of poorly-treated or untreated sewage · surface runoff containing pesticides · slash and burn farming practice.g. Alteration of water's physical chemistry include acidity. silt · discharge of contaminated and/or heated water used for industrial processes · acid rain caused by industrial discharge of sulfur dioxide (by burning high-sulfur fossil fuels) · excess nutrients added by runoff containing detergents or fertilizers · underground storage tank leakage. leading to soil contamination. Self – check Exercise 1 Define water pollution. industrial solvents) from improper storage 7.

Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or change especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. .5 DIRECT POINT SOURCES Transfer of pollutants from municipal industrial liquid waste disposal sites and from municipal and household hazardous waste and refuse disposal sites. Some of these secondary impacts are: · · · Silt bearing surface runoff from can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry. dilution. in some cases. because toxins climb the foodchain after small fish consume copepods.4 TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF WATER POLLUTANTS Most water pollutants are eventually carried by the rivers into the oceans. and. Groundwater that moves through cracks and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Thermal pollution can induce fish kills and invasion by new thermophyllic species 7. which are carcinogens themselves. chemical reactions and biological activity: however. There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant. but a derivative condition. Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms. caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. then large fish eat smaller fish. undergo partial decomposition reactions leading to new hazardous chemicals. hampering Photosynthesis in aquatic plants.com 109 Self – check Exercise 2 List out some common organic and inorganic water pollutants Note: Please answer in the space provided below.http://www. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Non-porous aquifers such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption). Both of these chemicals.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . in some cases. Fish and shellfish kills have been reported. There are areas of oxygen depletion.clicktoconvert. Each step up the food chain concentrates certain toxins like heavy metals and DDT by approximately a factor of ten. etc.

7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · · · · · · Discussed the major sources of water pollution Learned the organic water pollutants Listed out the inorganic water pollutants Described the transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants Identified the point sources of water pollution Evaluated the non – point sources of water pollution like diffuse agricultural and urban sources 7. mainly fertilizers. 3. If you are in a hilly area you can very well witness the shifting cultivation and its effects.http://www. Go to a water body near your place and identify the point and non point sources that pollute the water body.6. from horticultural.6 NON POINT SOURCES 7.END ACTIVITIES 1. 2.2 Diffuse urban sources: Run off from city streets. Establish how pesticides lead to biomagnification? . In a rainy season you can easily see the water pollution due to mixing of agricultural and urban runoff 4. Critically examine the major constituents of water pollution 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 110 7. herbicides and pesticides.6.clicktoconvert. Visit a water body near an agricultural field. 7. Self – check Exercise 3 Distinguish point and non point sources of water pollution with examples Note: a) Please write your answer in the space given below b) Please don’t proceed till you complete your answer ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. You can see eutrophication in the water body due to the runoff from the nearby field 7.1 Diffuse agricultural sources: Wash off and soil erosion from agricultural lands carrying materials applied during agricultural use. Substantiate how the water is polluted by natural and manmade processes? 3.8 LESSON . gardening and commercial activities in the urban environment and from industrial sites and storage areas.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1.

V. Meerut.com 111 7.http://www.2 2.11 REFERENCES Alagappa Moses.. Define water pollution and principal sources of it. Tiruchirappalli. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes. 1998 Water Pollution. K. New Delhi. C Anil Kumar De Gilbert M. A. 1985 Environmental Chemistry. B. For non – point sources discuss about both the diffuse agricultural and urban sources 7.clicktoconvert.P Kumaraswamy.. 45. Stanly Manahan Pollution Control Legislation Advances in Environmental Sciences. GEMS. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Pragati Prakashan. 2004. 1999 (Vol I – II) – Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board - . p138 – 142. Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes. Alagappa Moses and M. S. Vasanthy Mahajan. Publication No. Distinguish point and non point sources of water pollution Transfer of pollutants from municipal industrial liquid waste disposal sites and from municipal and household hazardous waste and refuse disposal sites. these are not deemed to be pollution. Organic and inorganic water pollutants Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances discussed in section 7. 1998 Environmental Studies (A Text Book for all Under Graduate Courses) Bharathidasan University. Masters Kudesia. 2000 Environmental Chemistry. A and Alice Emerenshiya. 2007 Environmental Chemistry. New Delhi. 1997 Introduction to Environmental Science and Engineering. K. Also discuss about Principal sources of water pollution mentioned in section 7. storms. Pollution Control in Process Industries. earthquakes etc.P Sharma.3 3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . rivers. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company. Mc Graw Hill Publishing company. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited. groundwater) caused by human activities. oceans. Tiruchirappalli. also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.10 CHECK YOUR PROGGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Meerut.

A.MAJOR STAGES OF TREATMENT CONTENTS 8. After reading this lesson you will be able to · Determine the preliminary treatment methods like screening and grit removal · Identify primary treatment like sedimentation · List out various major aerobic biological process · Point out major anaerobic biological process 8.2. Major Anaerobic Biological Processes 8. with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets.3 Secondary Treatment 8.1 Sand and grit removal 8.3.This can be achieved by physical. 1. B. 2 Primary Settling Basins 8.1 INTRODUCTION Wastewater treatment aims at removal of unwanted components in waste stream.2.8 Points for Discussion 8.http://www. However. chemical and biological methods either alone or in combination. A Preliminary Treatment 8.1 Introduction 8.10 References 8.2. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. B. A lot of sewage also includes some surface water from .2.4 Advanced Treatment 8. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds.3. most of the treatment processes are not completely effective and also do not offer complete solutions for the removal of contaminants as it transfers the contaminant to a different component.2 Grit and Screen Facility 8. The division of household water drains into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world. A.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this unit we have made an attempt to make you familiarize with the major stages of treating wastewater in industries. 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . B Primary Treatment 8.5 Outputs of Treatment 8.6 Let Us Sum Up 8.2.com 112 LESSON 8 .2 Preliminary and Primary Treatment 8. 1 Sedimentation 8.2.7 Lesson – End Activities 8. commercial.clicktoconvert. Major Aerobic Biological Processes 8. The wastewater generated by residential. and industrial sources is collected by a system of sewers and transported to the Wastewater Treatment Plant.9 Check your progress – Model Answers 8.0 Aims and Objectives 8.

Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential.http://www. Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. BOD 30. animal waste. and oil and grease. organic compounds. Sewage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined systems. (sediment). Sewrage systems that transport liquid waste discharges and stormwater together to a common treatment facility are called combined sewer systems.com 113 roofs or hard-standing areas.2 PRELIMINARY AND PRIMARY TREATMENT It is used to reduce Solids 50-60%. It is preferable to have a separate storm drain system for stormwater. Comminutor. heavy metals.clicktoconvert. Such systems are usually avoided since they complicate and thereby reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment plants owing to their seasonality. and may include stormwater runoff. As rainfall runs over the surface of roofs and the ground. Grit chamber (Settling tank). The commonly used units in this treatment are bar screens. causing a spill or overflow. heavy storms may overwhelm the sewage treatment system. 8. In addition.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles.1: Degrees of Treatment Preliminary Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment . Raw Sewage Bar Rack Grit Chamber Equalization Basin Pump Solids Handling Primary Clarifier Biological Treatment Advanced or Tertiary Treatment Secondary Clarifier Disinfection Receiving Body Fig 8.50%. commercial. and industrial liquid waste discharges.

consists of the removal of substances that may interfere with the downstream processes or be detrimental to the plant equipment. plastic. and plastic that would cause plugging problems in the downstream lines. lumber. but in many cases.1 Sand and grit removal This stage typically includes a sand or grit channel where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is carefully controlled to allow sand grit and stones to settle but still maintain the majority of the organic material within the flow.2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . grit. This equipment is called a detritor or sand catcher. Materials removed may include rags. A PRELIMINARY TREATMENT Preliminary treatment. This is done by bar screens which remove large objects. such as rags. The contents from the sand catcher may be fed into the incinerator in a sludge processing plant. grit. hence the name mechanical treatment. This type of waste is removed because it can damage the sensitive equipment in the sewage treatment plant.com 114 Fig 8. cans.. and grit. Influx (influent) and removal of large objects In the mechanical treatment. Sometimes there is a sand washer (grit classifier) followed by a conveyor that transports the sand to a container for disposal. and coarse (settleable) solids. plastic. This is most commonly done with a manual or automated mechanically raked screen. the influx (influent) of sewage water is strained to remove all large objects that are deposited in the sewer system. lumber. rags. the first treatment process. This step is done entirely with machinery. Sand grit and stones need to be removed early in the process to avoid damage to pumps and other equipment in the remaining treatment stages. 8. the sand and grit is sent to a land-fill. sanitary towels (sanitary napkins) or tampons.2: Typical Process Flow Diagram 8. Grit is abrasive materials such as sand and gravel that must be removed to minimize wear on the downstream .2. A. Primary treatment is to reduce oils. etc. grease.clicktoconvert. condoms.http://www. The grit basins remove the grit by sedimentation. fats. sticks. sand. fruit.

8. The wastewater continues through the grit tanks and passes through bar screens to remove any material larger than 12. 8. B. the velocity of the wastewater is reduced to 3 metres per minute.2.2. The main purpose of the primary stage is to produce a generally homogeneous liquid capable of being treated biologically and a sludge that can be separately treated or processed. It takes .2.5mm in size. 8. Upon entering the Primary Settling Basins. Self – check Exercise 1 What are the different stages in the preliminary treatment? What is the use of it? Note: a) Please don’t proceed until you answer the above question. The larger sand particles settle to the bottom of the tanks.2 Grit and Screen Facility The Grit and Screen Facility is where sewage first enters the plant.3 metres per second and air is pumped in to set up a rolling motion. The speed of the wastewater is reduced to 0. Materials removed by the bar screens and grit removal system are de-watered. 2 Primary Settling Basins This is where suspended solids settle out and floating scum is removed for further treatment. Primary treatment does not remove colloidal or dissolved solids. The wastewater then flows by gravity to the Primary Settling Basins. The settled sand is removed once a month and buried at approved sites. B PRIMARY TREATMENT The second step in the treatment process is primary treatment. allowing fine particles to settle to the bottom. Primary settlement tanks are usually equipped with mechanically driven scrapers that continually drive the collected sludge towards a hopper in the base of the tank from where it can be pumped to further sludge treatment stages. and transported to the landfill for disposal. commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary sedimentation tanks". discharged to a dump trailer. 1 Sedimentation Many plants have a sedimentation stage where the sewage is allowed to pass slowly through large tanks. B. Biochemical Oxygen Demand is a measure of the amount of oxygen needed to biochemically degrade the organic matter in the wastewater.com 115 equipment.http://www.2. The primary clarifiers remove about 60% of the Total Suspended Solids and about 30% of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand in the incoming wastewater. The wastewater enters two primary clarifiers (sedimentation basins) which remove suspended and floating materials. The tanks are large enough that faecal solids can settle and floating material such as grease and plastics can rise to the surface and be skimmed off. A. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. Settled sludge on the bottom of the basins is continuously scraped into hoppers at the end of tanks.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This movement separates the heavier grit and sand materials from the suspended organic matter.clicktoconvert. thus preventing harm to equipment within the Plant or clogging of pipes during the treatment process.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

116 about 4 hours for wastewater to flow through the Primary Settling Basins. Upon completion, the primary effluent is pumped to the Bioreactors and the settled sludge is pumped to the Fermenters. The scum from the top of the basins is collected in hoppers and pumped to the Digesters. Self – check Exercise 2 Why do you need to have the primary treatment? Note: Please try to answer the above question within the space given below. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.3. SECONDARY TREATMENT It is used to reduce Solids 85-95%, BOD 80-95%, Col. 90-95%. The commonly used units in this treatment are Trickling filter, Activated sludge, Water treatment ponds. The biological treatment of water is based on the natural self-purification capacity of natural waters.This treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage such as are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal and industrial plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. For this to be effective, the biota require nutrients and a substrate on which to live. There are number of ways in which this is done. In all these methods, the bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed film or suspended growth, such as rock filters where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. In suspended growth systems - such as activated sludge - the biomass is well mixed with the sewage & can be operated in a smaller space than fixed film systems that treat the same amount of water. However, fixed film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems. This is reflected in 2 different possibilities for water treatment. The first type is a so-called fixed bed bio-reactor, usually referred to as a trickling filter. Roughing filters are intended to treat particularly strong or variable organic loads, typically industrial, to allow them to then be treated by conventional secondary treatment processes. Characteristics include typically tall, circular filters filled with open synthetic filter media to which sewage is applied at a relatively high rate. Designed to allow high hydraulic loading and a high flow-through of air. On larger installations, air is forced through the media using blowers. The resultant liquor is usually within the normal range for conventional treatment processes. Secondary treatment usually consists of two steps which remove the dissolved and colloidal organic material not removed by the primary treatment. There are various secondary

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

117 treatment processes in use today. This treatment Use microorganisms to convert organic wastes into stabilized compounds - similar to self-purification process in streams. 8.3.1 MAJOR AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES The major aerobic biological processes are listed in the following Table 8.2: Type of Growth Suspended Growth Common Name Activated Sludge (AS) Use

Attached Growth

Combined Suspended & Attached Growth

Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification) Aerated Lagoons Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification) Trickling Filters Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification Roughing Filters (trickling filters Carbonaceous BOD removal with high hydraulic loading rates) Rotating Biological Contactors Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification) Packed-bed reactors Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification) Activated Biofilter Process Carbonaceous BOD removal ü Trickling filter-solids contact (nitrification) process ü Biofilter-AS process ü Series trickling filter-AS process Table 8.1 Aerobic Biological Processes

8. 3. 2 MAJOR ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Type of Common Name Growth Suspended Anaerobic Contact Process Growth Upflow Anaerobic Sludge-Blanket (UASB) Attached Anaerobic Filter Process Growth Expanded Bed Use Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal, waste stabilization (denitrification) Carbonaceous BOD removal, waste stabilization

Table 8.2 Anaerobic Biological Processes Self – check Exercise 3 What is the role of secondary treatment in treating wastewater? Note: a) Please don’t proceed without answering the above question. b) Please answer in the space provided below

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

118

8.4 ADVANCED TREATMENT This treatment will reduce nearly Solids ~100%, BOD ~99%, Col. ~99%). This treatment technique includes Land Application, Coagulation-sedimentation, Adsorption, Electrodialysis. 8.5 OUTPUTS OF TREATMENT Effluent: Sprayed on fields, Treated to make potable Sludge (Treated Biosolids) Old Way: Burned, Landfilled, Dumped in ocean (illegal now) New Way: Fertilizer, Dewater and treat (then reuse) the water, Digestion in heated sludge tanks, Process and reuse the methane gas

Fig 8.3: Typical wastewater treatment facility

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

119

8.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the various preliminary treatment of wastewater like sand and grit removal and grit and screen facility · Studied the primary treatment techniques of wastewater like sedimentation and primary settling basins. · Learned the various secondary treatment techniques of wastewater like major aerobic and anaerobic biological process. 8.7 LESSON - END ACTIVITIES 1. Visit different types of industries to get an idea about the various treatment techniques practiced there. Surely the treatment in one industry varies from other depending upon the character of the receiving effluent. 2. You can visit a dairy, tannery, distillery, oil refinery industries 8.8 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Justify the significance of treating wastewater before releasing it into any water body. 2. Critically examine the major constituents of preliminary and primary treatment. 3. Establish how the Secondary treatment helps in reducing the organic load present in wastewater. 8.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS - MODEL ANSWERS 1. Significance of treatment of wastewater: The wastewater contains many of the physical, chemical and biological impurities which might impair quality of the receiving water body as well as it interfere with the aquatic ecosystem in many ways. In order to render it safe it would be appropriate to treat the wastewater prior to disposal by adopting a systematic logical sequence of treatment. 2. Major constituents of preliminary and primary treatment: The wastewater contains many floatable materials that may interfere with the downstream processes or be detrimental to the plant equipment. In order to increase the treatment efficiency of the secondary treatment units it is very essential to have preliminary and primary treatment of wastewater. Materials removed may include rags, plastic, lumber, and grit. This is done by bar screens which remove large objects, rags, and plastic that would cause plugging problems in the downstream lines. The grit basins remove the grit by sedimentation. Grit is abrasive materials such as sand and gravel that must be removed to minimize wear on the downstream equipment. Materials removed by the bar screens and grit removal system are de-watered, discharged to a dump trailer, and transported to the landfill for disposal. 1. Secondary treatment helps in reducing the organic load present in wastewater. Secondary treatment units reduce Solids to an extent of 85-95% and BOD 80-95%. The commonly used units in this treatment are Trickling filter, Activated sludge, Water treatment ponds. The secondary treatment of water is based on the natural self-purification capacity of natural waters.This treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

120 the sewage such as are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal and industrial plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. For this to be effective, the biota require nutrients and a substrate on which to live. There are number of ways in which this is done. In all these methods, the bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into flocs. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed film or suspended growth, such as rock filters where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. In suspended growth systems - such as activated sludge - the biomass is well mixed with the sewage and be operated in a smaller space than fixed film systems that treat the same amount of water. However, fixed film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems. This is reflected in 2 different possibilities for water treatment. The first type is a so-called fixed bed bio-reactor, usually referred to as a trickling filter. 8.10 REFERENCES Agrawal. K.M, Sikdar. P.M and Deb. S.C.

- A Textbook of Environment. Macmillan India Limited, Chennai. 2002 Alagappa Moses. A and Alice - Advances in Environmental Sciences, Emerenshiya. C GEMS, Tiruchirappalli, 2007 Dash. M.C - Ecology, Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi. 2004 Kumaraswamy. K, Alagappa Moses. A and Environmental Studies.bharathidasan Vasanthy. M University Publication, Tiruchirappalli, 2004 Howard, Peavy and Tchobanogloss - Environmental Engineering, Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy - Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition, New Delhi, 2003. Sharma. B. K. - Environmental Chemistry, Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd, Meerut. 2000

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

121

LESSON – 9: KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL GROWTH
CONTENTS 9.0 Aims and Objectives 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Kinetics of Biological Growth 9.2.1 Biofilms 9.2.2 Kinetics 9.2.2.1 Bacterial growth kinetics 9.3 Co – Metabolism and Secondary Substrate Utilzation 9.4 Let Us Sum Up 9.5 Lesson – End Activities 9.6 Points for Discussion 9.7 Check Your Progress – Model Answers 9.8 References 9.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson gives an idea about the formation of biofilms, and the growth kinetics of microbes. After reading this lesson, you should be able to · Understand the formation of biofilms on various substrates · Determine the kinetics of biodegradation · Learn the bacterial growth kinetics · Define the process of co – metabolism with examples 9.1 INTRODUCTION There are a number of compounds in the environment which are transformed by microorganisms, yet it has been difficult or impossible to find organisms that can use them as a source of carbon and/or energy. The compounds may be transformed sequentially by a series of bacteria or other microorganisms such that no organisms gained energy sufficient to allow growth or cell division, from the reactions it is necessary to have an alternate or primary substrate for growth under these conditions. 9.2 KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL GROWTH 9.2.1 Biofilms Biofilms are composed of populations or communities of microorganisms adhering to environmental surfaces. These microorganisms are usually encased in an extracellular polysaccharide that they themselves synthesize. Biofilms may be found on essentially any environmental surface in which sufficient moisture is present. Their development is most rapid in flowing systems where adequate nutrients are available Biofilms may form: · on solid substrates in contact with moisture. · on soft tissue surfaces in living organisms. · at liquid air interfaces.

The final stage in the irreversible adhesion of a cell to an environmental surface is associated with the production of extracellular polymer substances or EPS. rhamnose.com 122 Typical locations for biofilm production include rock and other substrate surfaces in marine or freshwater environments. These organic compounds are found to be polysaccharides or glycoproteins. Tissue surfaces such as teeth and intestinal mucosa which are constantly bathed in a rich aqueous medium rapidly develop a complex aggregation of microorganisms enveloped in an extracellular polysaccharide they themselves produce. This attachment called adsorption is influenced by electrical charges carried on the bacteria. Fig 9. other types of chemical and physical structures may form which transform the reversible adsorption to a permanent and essentially irreversible attachment. by Van der Waals forces and by electrostatic attraction although the precise nature of the interaction is still a matter of intense debate. galactose.http://www. in the association between a pathogen and the receptor sites of cells of its host there may be a stereospecificity which though still reversible is stronger than that achieved strictly by ionic or electrostatic forces. This changes the chemical and physical properties of the glass slide or other substrate. mannose. as for example. an organic monolayer adsorbs to the surface of the slide substrate. both plant and animal. If the association between the bacterium and its substrate persists long enough. . These adsorbed materials condition the surface of the slide and appear to increase the probability of the attachment of planktonic bacteria.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1: How do biofilms form? Typically. N-acetylglucosamine and others.clicktoconvert. Free floating or planktonic bacteria encounter the conditioned surface and form a reversible. Most of the EPS of biofilms are polymers containing sugars such as glucose. within minutes. fructose. In some instances. Biofilms are also commonly associated with living organisms. sometimes transient attachment often within minutes.

CB = some reacting species This can be applied to the reaction of the compounds with a surface such as a metal catalyst. k2 = rate constants mol/1-sec. /sec.com 123 This layer of EPS and bacteria can now entrap particulate materials such as clay. the rate of substrate utilisation is proportional to the concentration of the microorganisms present [X] and is a function of the substrate concentration. Two extremes of concentration can be delineated.k0 C A k' + CA Where k' = ko /kl This is the very common biological form of the equation for growth on a substrate as the concentration of the substrate is increased. The enzyme cannot operate faster. . Secondly.1 Bacterial growth kinetics Bacterial growth kinetics are slightly more complex and follow the classical "Monodtype" kinetics. few of the available sites will be covered.2. In this case.clicktoconvert. organic materials. Self – check Exercise 1 Comment on the growth of biofilms on different substrate. Note: Carefully read the above section and try to answer the given question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. In this case. a soil surface or an enzyme. Three suffice to describe most biological reactions: dCA/dt = -k0 Zero order dCB/dt = -klCA First order dCB/dt = -k2 CACB Second order k0 .limited substrate. k1 . so the reaction rate dCA/dt is proportional to the concentration of A (first order reaction above). 1/mol-sec. respectively CA. dead cells and precipitated minerals adding to the bulk and diversity of the biofilm habitat. 9.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2 Kinetics The kinetics of biodegradation are a set of empirically derived rate laws. The enzyme sites or the adsorbing sites are "saturated".http://www. and the adsorbing substrate cannot adsorb any more material. the rate is constant (zero order reaction above).2. when CA is so large that every site is saturated with A.2. The combined function of these reactions can be written. It is that same as adsorption onto a surface-area. This growing biofilm can now serve as the focus for the attachment and growth of other organisms increasing the biological diversity of the community. It leads to Michaelis-Menton (or Monod-) type kinetics. dCA /dt= . the first is when there are few molecules of reactant (CA) and many of the surface. The saturation coefficient (Ks) is the concentration of substrate equal to half that causing saturation of the enzyme sites (zero order).

The first. CONTINUOUS model kinetics deal with a more-or-less constant flow of the substrate through or into a known volume system. The second. This has been confirmed experimentally in many sites and with many systems.com 124 The Monod bacterial growth kinetics are traditionally written as: d [S] = k[X][S] dt y[Ks]+[S] Where: [S] = substrate concentration k = maximum utilisation rate for the substrate per unit mass of bacteria [X] = concentration of bacteria [Ks] = half. It is based on the theory that the bacteria are attached to solid particles in the subsurface environment and behave accordingly. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Note: a) Please don’t proceed without answering the above question b) Please write your answers in the space provided below. They cannot be considered ''biofilms'' in the engineering sense. The third is that of BIOFILM model kinetics. -d[S] = k[X][S] = K' [X][S] dt yKs Where K' = k/yKs If substrate concentrations are low. These models are useful for predicting results of slow but continuous processes. some degree of biofilm may be present. In particular. subsurface environments where the substrate content and concentration is very high (landfill site leachates?). There are really three kinds of kinetic models used in describing biotransformations in soils and groundwater systems. This last model still uses Monod-type kinetics but extends the model to include the effects' of biofilm thickness and diffusion of substrate into and out of the biofilm. More than likely the actual "biofilms" in the field situation are so sparse as to simply constitute a random distribution of individual cells attached to mineral or organic matter particles. but calculations of population densities and actual direct observations should always be done to confirm this possibility.clicktoconvert. In this particular case.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Self – check Exercise 2 Write an account on growth kinetics. are those which deal with the utilisation and biotransformation of the substrate and the growth of bacteria over time in a closed system. the reaction becomes first order with respect to both substrate and bacterial population size.velocity coefficient for the substrate y = yield coefficient = d[X]/d[S] Groundwater systems therefore usually operate in the range where Ks is more than [S].http://www. the equation reduces to second order kinetics. BATCH model kinetics.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version .4 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the formation of biofilms on various substrates · Determined the kinetics of biodegradation · Learned the bacterial growth kinetics · Defined the process of co – metabolism with some examples 9. · If you touch them you can feel the slimy formation on the surface of the stones and fuginospirals depicting the growth of micro – organisms. Immerse some small stones inside it. · This is because compared to the stones fuginospirals provide more space for the growth of biofilms. perillyl alcohol Nocardia hexadecane p-cymeme cumic acid Table 9.6 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. · Like this you can also try with some other substrates and find out the best one. amethyl muconic acid hexadecane p-xylene 2.3 CO – METABOLISM AND SECONDARY SUBSTRATE UTILZATION Co-metabolism is " the transformation of a non-growth substrate in the obligate presence of a growth substrate or another transformable compound'.3-dihydroxybenzoic acid.http://www. · The formation of biofilms will be more in fuginospirals. acetaldehyde. 3chlorocatechol Corynebacterium hexadecane naphthalene salicyclic acid glucose anthracene 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid AIycobacterium propane cyclohexane cyclohexanone Pseudomonas glucose limonene perillic acid. · Take another tub full of water and immerse some fuginospirals (made of PVC) in it. · Now remove the stones and fuginospirals and examine the formation of biofilm.clicktoconvert. Critically examine the growth of biofilms on various substrates. 9.com 125 9. · Leave both the arrangement for a week.1: Some examples of co-metabolism 9. Organism Methylomonas Nocardia Growth substrate methane hexadecane Non-growth substrate ethane toluene Products ethanol.3-dihydroxytoluic acid. p-toluic acid Achromobacter benzoate m-chlorobenzoate 4-chlorocatechol. 2.5 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES · Take a tub full of water. acetic acid 2. Substantiate how the biofilm is formed by natural processes? 3. Justify the growth of biofilms on solid substrates in contact with moisture/soft tissue surfaces in living organisms/ at liquid air interfaces .

Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.clicktoconvert. on soft tissue surfaces in living organisms and at liquid air interfaces. These microorganisms are usually encased in an extracellular polysaccharide that they themselves synthesize. Meerut.com 126 9. 2000 . C GEMS. Chennai. S. . Growth kinetics Refer section 9. Alagappa Moses. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.Advances in Environmental Sciences.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2 for bacterial growth kinetics.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Mc Graw Hill. 2004 Kumaraswamy.M. These models are useful for predicting results of slow but continuous processes. K. You should also discuss about BATCH model kinetics. Sharma.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. K. M University Publication. A and Alice . P. K. CONTINUOUS model kinetics deal with a more-or-less constant flow of the substrate through or into a known volume system. Emerenshiya. Macmillan India Limited. 2003.Environmental Chemistry.C .Environmental Engineering. 2. Tiruchirappalli. Their development is most rapid in flowing systems where adequate nutrients are available Should also add note on solid substrates in contact with moisture.C.2.A Textbook of Environment.8 REFERENCES Agrawal. New Delhi. 2002 Alagappa Moses. New Delhi. . 2007 Dash.Ecology. The third is that of BIOFILM model kinetics. Biofilms may be found on essentially any environmental surface in which sufficient moisture is present.http://www. Growth of biofilms on different substrates Biofilms are composed of populations or communities of microorganisms adhering to environmental surfaces. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . New Delhi. Macmillan India Limited. 2004 Howard. B.M and Deb. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Sikdar. M. 9. A and Environmental Studies. Tiruchirappalli.

10 Rotating Biological Contactor 10.0 Aims and Objectives 10. Secondary treatment typically utilizes biological treatment processes.3 The Activated Sludge Process 10.1 Introduction 10.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson we will discuss mainly about the treatment of wastewater using microorganisms.12 Lesson – End Activities 10.11 Let Us Sum Up 10.http://www.1 INTRODUCTION Treatment of industrial effluents using microorganisms is a well-established and proven technology.1 Effluent treatment 10.2 Flocculation 10.1 Organisms in a trickling filter 10.14 Check your progress – Model Answers 10. After reading this lesson. in which microorganisms convert nonsettleable solids to settleable solids. Secondary treatment for municipal wastewater is the minimum level of treatment required by the Clean Water Act.8 Bioreactor 10.6 Pond Treatment Processes 10.4.clicktoconvert.5.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . .9 Secondary Clarifiers 10.com 127 LESSON – 10: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER CONTENTS 10.7 Fermenters 10. you should be able to · · · · · Define flocculation techniques Identify treating wastewater using flocs Determine the trickling filter method of waste disposal Understand the working of fermentors and bioreactors Learn the process of treating wastewater using Rotating Biological Contactor 10.13 Points for Discussion 10.15 References 10. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment.4 Trickling Filter 10.5 Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge 10. Biological treatment processes followed by settling tanks and will remove approximately 85% of the BOD and TSS in wastewater.

when released into the water. 10.S . Al(OH)3 . including reproduction. is returned to the head of the aeration system to re-seed the new sewage entering the tank. the zeta-potential of the colloid will be strongly reduced. also called W.S .A. a range of mucilaginous filamentous bacteria can develop including Sphaerotilus natans which produces a sludge that is difficult to settle and can result in the sludge blanket decanting over the weirs in the settlement tank to severely contaminate the final effluent quality. The higher this zeta potential is. flocs.Surplus Activated Sludge) The microorganisms. the sludge.A. (W. The aluminium ion. use the organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater to sustain their life processes. The active biomass (called return activated sludge) is mixed with the wastewater leaving the primary clarifiers and with air in the aeration basins.A.com 128 10. Peritrichs including Vorticellids and a range of other filter feeding species. If to such a solution aluminium ions are added. will form aluminium hydroxide. The biomass largely composed off saprophytic bacteria but also has an important protozoan flora mainly composed of amoebae. Spirotrichs. is further treated prior to disposal. The remaining sludge. It also traps particulate material and can. This material is often described as sewage fungus but true fungal communities are relatively uncommon to neutralize the organic matter in the wastewater.S . convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas. The electrical potential of that layer is called the zeta-potential. Part of the settled material. If aluminium compounds are able to do that in sea water is doubtful.S is also sometimes called S. Effluent from the aeration basins contains large quantities of suspended biological solids (called activated sludge) that must be removed prior . that create an electrical double layer around it. A flocculant should in principle also be able to destabilize colloid solutions.Return Activated Sludge. under ideal conditions.clicktoconvert.http://www. This fraction of the floc is called R.A.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . in the presence of oxygen. In poorly managed activated sludge. This process is called salt flocculation. which will partly block the pores of a sand filter and thus enhance filtering action.Waste Activated Sludge. A colloid in water containing a low concentration on some ions. the stronger the repulsion between the particles and thus the smaller the chance that 2 particles will collide and then coagulate.3 THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS The activated sludge process is a biological process in which air or oxygen is forced into sewage liquor to develop a biological floc utilizing an active biomass.2 FLOCCULATION Generally aluminium compounds are used as flocculants. The activated sludge plants use a variety of mechanisms and processes to use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material. will be surrounded by charged particles. Other important constituents include motile and sedentary Rotifers. the colloid solution becomes unstable and flocculation will occur.

com 129 to discharge. and aromatic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide gas may also be released.4 TRICKLING FILTER In the trickling filter method of waste disposal. and resins. it requires stable.clicktoconvert. . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. Most of the solids removed in the secondary clarifiers are returned to the aeration basins as returned activated sludge to maintain the appropriate population of microorganisms needed to assimilate the organic matter entering the aeration basins. Therefore. chlorinated hydrocarbons. benzene. As with all biological treatment. formaldehyde. consistent operating conditions. It isn't suitable for highly chlorinated organics. This is a common method used in sewage treatment plants and to treat acetaldehyde. acetic acid. Fig 10. The liquid waste is sprayed over the bed and the microorganisms act on the contaminants as they pass through the filter. Heavy metals and organic chemicals may kill the microorganisms. aliphatics. a bed of crushed rock or synthetic media supports a film of aerobic microorganisms. the second step of the secondary treatment process is sedimentation in the secondary clarifiers.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. Heavy metals and non-biodegradable organics may also concentrate in the sludge.1: The activated sludge process Self – check Exercise 1 Explain the activated sludge process Note: Please give your answer in the space provided below. amines. cyanides. ketones. Trickling filterization is generally effective for aqueous wastes where concentrations are less than 1%.

film and can thus be removed with the flocs. In the course of that flow organic matter. To this group belong among others protozoa and nematodes. nearly all organic matter can be removed.clicktoconvert. so if water from the trickling filter is led through a settling area first. Apart from . In short what is happening in a trickling filter is the following: · dissolved organic matter is mineralized · particulate organic matter and colloids are either converted into dissolved organic matter and then mineralized.com 130 Fig 10.2: Trickling Filter In a trickling filter.film will increase its thickness. If a film becomes too thick it will start sloughing. whereas in a trickling filter they will be attached to the filter bed. both dissolved and suspended. · inorganic matter. In the lower part of the trickling filter nitrification can occur. In the first part of the filter (the top) mainly carbon decomposition will take place. Because some reactions proceed faster than others you can see a stratification in the filter.http://www. If a trickling filter is just put into operation the first organisms that will grow in it will be bacteria and fungi. is attacked by micro-organisms. These will coat the filling material: a bio. or are adsorbed onto the bio. On this film the secondary colonizers will start growing. since they grow slowly.1 Organisms in a trickling filter The organisms that can be found in a trickling filter do not differ much from the ones found in activated sludge. This sloughed film will appear in the water as flocs.4. colloidal or dissolved can react with or be adsorbed onto the bio. 10. No differences have been found between the bacterial flora of activated sludge and that of trickling filters. In activated sludge most are attached to suspended flocs. In heavily loaded filters carbon decomposition may be the only process taking place. It will take several weeks before a filter is properly conditioned.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It will take rather long before a population of nitrifying bacteria has been established. These flocs settle easily. The growth of organisms in and on the bio. particulate.film and removed from the water as settleable flocs.film is formed. The depth of that carbon decomposition zone depends on the load: if the water contains much organic carbon the zone will be very deep. water is divided over the top and is allowed to flow slowly over the filter bed.

· Nematoda · Diatoms.com 131 heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. they are very common and they graze on bacteria.the thermophilic range) in order to speed digestion. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------· · · 10.the mesophilic range. Some of the energy available from the methane generated can be recycled for this purpose. belonging to genera like Aspidisca. they usually are present in lightly loaded systems Self – check Exercise 2 How do Trickling filter act as a biological treatment process? Note: a) Please don’t proceed without answering the question b) Please give only the important points or phrases. Paramecium and Euplotes. organic material and as such has been used for the treatment of sewage sludge for over a century. This can then be used as a fuel. 10. Some of this material is termed 'hard COD' meaning it cannot be accessed by the anaerobic bacteria for conversion into biogas. and free swimming species. or up to 60°C .5. This treatment will typically be an oxidation stage where air is passed through the water in a sequencing batch reactors or reverse osmosis unit. or more commonly the residue is used as a soil conditioner. they following organisms take part in the purification process: Zooflagellates (Mastigophora).http://www. In an oxygen free environment it reduces organic waste to a relatively stable solid residue (digestate) similar to compost. The digester will require an energy input to retain the material at elevated temperatures (between 20 and 40°C .clicktoconvert. The organic portion is separated from the waste to remove plastic.1 Effluent treatment The wastewater exiting the anaerobic digestion facility will typically have elevated levels of BOD and COD. Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to wet. especially in higly loaded systems Amoebae. The conditions necessary for biological degradation are created which allows for the production of biogas. a fibre product for board manufacture. The methane is generally burnt on site for heating or to produce electricity on a small scale.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .5 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Waste treatment in this fashion uses the same process as that which naturally occurs in landfills. a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. If this effluent was put directly into watercourses it would negatively affect them by causing eutrophication. . like representatives of the genus Vorticella. typically 20-40% of the total energy produced. glass and metals and then placed in a sealed reactor. different species appear in differently loaded systems Ciliates. As such further treatment of the wastewater is often required. There are attached species. Alternatively the process can produce solid fuel.

1. anoxic (chemically available oxygen only). The micro-organisms naturally break down excess carbon and nutrients present in the wastewater. The effluent is moved through carefully controlled anaerobic (absence of available oxygen). An example of a VFA is acetic acid or vinegar. the effluent from the Primary Settling Basins is mixed with micro-organisms and Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA's).http://www. where they have settled out and are then returned to the Bioreactors. a short description about the unit and the extent of the use of the unit in reducing the organic load in wastewater. The table provides you with information related to the name of the treatment unit.com 132 10. a bottom anaerobic zone. anaerobic and Carbonaceous BOD facultative bacteria. and an intermediate zone partly aerobic-anaerobic Treatment with anaerobic bacteria.6 POND TREATMENT PROCESSES The treatment of wastewater could also be accomplished by pond treatment processes which are listed below in Table 10.8 BIOREACTOR The two Bioreactors are where the Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process takes place. The microorganisms come from the secondary clarifiers (see below). the pond has 3 zones: a removal surface aerobic zone. Each of these areas remove specific organic compounds as the micro- .5 m Maturation (tertiary) Ponds Facultative Ponds Use aerobic treatment. applied loadings are Secondary effluent low to preserve aerobic conditions polishing and seasonal nitrification Treatment with aerobic.clicktoconvert. The VFA's are created in the Fermenter (see above). 10. Common Comments Use Name Aerobic Treatment with aerobic bacteria. phosphorus. depths of Carbonaceous BOD up to 9.1: Pond Treatment Processes Anaerobic Ponds 10.1 m to conserve anaerobic conditions r e m o v a l ( w a s t e stabilization) Table 10. The fermentation process converts the organic material into volatile acids called Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA's). The VFA's are sent to the Bioreactors and utilized by the nutrient consuming microorganisms. depth of 0.7 FERMENTERS The Fermenters are where the primary sludge that settled out from the Primary Settling Basins is broken down. oxygen is Carbonaceous BOD Stabilization supplied by algal photosynthesis and natural removal Ponds surface reaeration.15 to 1. and aerobic (abundance of free oxygen) zones of the Bioreactors. This natural process greatly reduces the concentration of dissolved organic compounds in the effluent and removes unwanted carbon. and nitrogen from the wastewater without the addition of chemicals.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . In the Bioreactor.

. about 97% are returned to the Bioreactors to be used again in the BNR process and 3% are sent to the DAF Thickener and then to the Digesters for further treatment. they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage.clicktoconvert. are used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). the effluent flows to the Secondary Clarifiers. The slime is 1-3 mm in thickness on disc. RBC's were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. 10.9 SECONDARY CLARIFIERS The Secondary Clarifiers are where any remaining solids along with the microorganisms from the Bioreactors settle to the bottom and the clear effluent flows out the top of the basins.com 133 organisms continue to grow and flourish. which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. consuming impurities in the wastewater. It consists of series of closely spaced discs mounted on a horizontal shaft and rotated while ~40% of each disc is submerged in wastewater. After approximately 9 hours in the Bioreactors. To be successful. Of the settled micro-organisms. The rotation in and out of the wastewater serves to vary the feeding cycle (starve/gorge) of the microorganisms that make up the biofilm.10 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR Rotating Biological Contactors. As the micro-organisms grow. As the disk rotates the biofilm is exposed to the wastewater only part of the time then with atmosphere for adsorption of oxygen. micro-organisms need both oxygen to live and food to grow. commonly called RBC’s. Excess solids are removed by shearing forces created by the rotation mechanism. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. The shaft rotates about 1-2 rpm (slowly). Primary Settling Sludge Treatment Secondary Settling Sludge Treatment Fig 10. The clarified final effluent flows from the Secondary Clarifiers to the Chlorine Contact Chamber before being released to the river. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present in the sewage.3: Rotating Biological Contactor The primary function of these bio-reactors at WWTPs is the reduction of organic matter. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The discs are made up of light-weight plastic and are covered with a biofilm. 10.http://www. which breakdown and stabilise organic pollutants.

2.http://www.4: Detail of an attached growth biomass film Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as a sludge. bioreactor and rotating biological contactor 10.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Using jar test apparatus try to find out the optimum coagulation dosage 2.13 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1.11 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the biological treatment technologies of wastewater. Scrape some biofilms developed on the Trickling filter. Justify the significance of anaerobic digestion as a soil conditioner . Repeat the same procedure in Rotating Biological Contactors also. Visit a nearby industry and get an idea about the commonly used flocculants other than aluminium compounds.clicktoconvert. The primary and secondary treatment processes generally remove at least 85% of the total suspended solids and biochemical oxygen demand. Precise control of this process is necessary to effectively treat the wastewater. The secondary process is a very sensitive biological process and can be adversely impacted by the discharge of incompatible or toxic wastes into the sewer system. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. 4. Self – check Exercise 3 How do Rotating Biological Contactors treat wastewater? Note: Please give your answer in the space provided. 3. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. 10.12 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. · Discussed the flocculation techniques · Described the activated sludge process · Elaborated the trickling filter techniques · Described the organisms present in a trickling filter · Explained the pond treatment process · Discussed about the fermentors. Incubate it in a culture medium and try to find out the different types of micro – organisms grown in it. Establish how the Trickling filter helps in reducing the organic load 3.com 134 R B C m e di a B i o l o g i c a l g r o w t h CO2 Organic/Nutrient O2 WATER Final Product Sludge Particles Fig 10. Substantiate the need of flocculation in treating wastewater.

New Delhi. Environmental Chemistry.S and W.A. As with all biological treatment. 2000 . C Dash. New Delhi. and resins. a bed of crushed rock or synthetic media supports a film of aerobic microorganisms.C. 2004 Environmental Engineering. formaldehyde.C Kumaraswamy. benzene.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It also traps particulate material and can. consistent operating conditions. Alagappa Moses. B. A and Vasanthy. K. under ideal conditions.10. For further information refer section 10. 2003. 2002 Advances in Environmental Sciences. Trickling filterization is generally effective for aqueous wastes where concentrations are less than 1%. it requires stable. Also discuss about the organisms in the Trickling filter. Working of Rotating biological Contactors (RBC) Rotating Biological Contactors. S. K. 10. New Delhi.M. acetic acid. A and Alice Emerenshiya. Principle of activated sludge process The activated sludge process is a biological process in which air or oxygen is forced into sewage liquor to develop a biological floc utilizing an active biomass. Critically examine the role of primary and secondary treatment in reducing Total Solids and BOD 10.http://www. Tiruchirappalli. A Textbook of Environment. cyanides. Alagappa Moses.clicktoconvert.15 REFERENCES Agrawal. The activated sludge plants use a variety of mechanisms and processes to use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material. chlorinated hydrocarbons. are used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The liquid waste is sprayed over the bed and the microorganisms act on the contaminants as they pass through the filter. ketones.S 2. 2002 Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Chennai. RBC's were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. 2007 Ecology. Peavy and Tchobanogloss Metcalf and Eddy Sharma. which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. This is a common method used in sewage treatment plants and to treat acetaldehyde. 3. GEMS.M and Deb. commonly called RBC’s.A. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. P. Trickling filter as biological treatment process In the trickling filter method of waste disposal. K. Macmillan India Limited. convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas. M. Also discuss about R. 2004 Environmental Studies. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems. Tiruchirappalli. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Macmillan India Limited. M Howard.com 135 4.14 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Sikdar. Bharathidasan University Publication. Mc Graw Hill. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Meerut.

2.1.1.1. Membrane filtration 11. Types of Advanced Wastewater Treatment 11. The Oxidation Ditch Process 11.http://www.7.6.3.clicktoconvert.13 References 11.4.8. After reading this lesson. Anode and Cathode Reactions 11.8.1. Limitations 11. Ion exchange resin 11.4.3.8.7.8. Variations from the Typical Process 11. Applications 11.5. their applications. Reverse Osmosis 11. Advantages and Disadvantages 11.2.5. Adsorption 11.4.2.8. advantages and limitations.1.5.2. Treatment Marshes 11. Adsorption Isotherms 11.4.1.5.5.Model Answers 11. Distillation 11. Comparison to a Packaged Plant 11.8.com 136 UNIT – III LESSON – 11: ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT CONTENTS 11.8.5. Ion exchange 11. Ammonia Removal 11.9 Let us sum up 11.1 Introduction 11.3. Biosorption 11.3. Electrodialysis 11.2. Diversion Basins and Washouts 11.7.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . you should be able to · Define Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility · List out the types of Advanced Wastewater Treatment process · Determine the ion exchange technique · Identify the reverse osmosis process · Understand the technique of electrodialysis · Point out the process of adsorption and oxidation · Determine the method of treating wastewater by oxidation process .11 Points for Discussion 11.10 Lesson – End Activities 11. Efficiency 11.8. Oxidation 11.12 Check Your Progress .4.4.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we will discuss about the various technologies involved in the advanced wastewater treatment.

com 137 11. these wastewaters are discharged. Hence. Similarly. the treatment of wastes remains probably the best practiced way of managing the wastes in municipalities and process industries. it is generally discarded as waste. The necessity to protect the natural environment from wastewater-related pollution has led to much improved treatment techniques. concerns among consumers. either as untreated waste or as treated effluent. Due to stringent requirement of the quality of potable and process water. However. Wastewater. chemical and biological contaminants. in this context. It includes physical. from which they are abstracted for further use after undergoing "self-purification" within the stream. recycling and better in.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Wastewater treatment. and a largely experimental option for the supply of domestic water. Wastewater reuse for drinking raises public health. Due to the competition and requirements. despite the fact that the prevention of pollution via minimization at source through process changes. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. all over the world. In many countries. and industrial discharges. Such indirect reuse is common in the larger river systems of Latin America. is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater.1 INTRODUCTION Once freshwater has been used for an economic or beneficial purpose. tertiary treatment of water is not a luxury any more rather it has emerged out as the only way to provide adequate safe guard for community health. Extending these technologies to the treatment of wastewaters to potable standards was a logical extension of this protection and augmentation process. chemical and biological processes to remove physical. newer technologies are emerging to meet the requirement. Primary and secondary treatment removes the majority of BOD and Suspended Solids found in wastewaters. and possibly religious. stormwater runoff. In many countries. into natural watercourses.house management is the preferred option. the waste has to be managed by environment.http://www. in an increasing number of cases this level of treatment has proved to be insufficient to protect the receiving waters or to provide reusable water for .clicktoconvert. both runoff and domestic.friendly and economically feasible treatment technologies. water quality standards have been developed governing the discharge of wastewater into the environment. However. includes sewage effluent. wastewater may be reused up to a dozen times or more before being discharged to the sea. Through this system of indirect reuse. The adoption of wastewater treatment and subsequent reuse as a means of supplying freshwater is also determined by economic factors. more direct reuse is also possible: the technology to reclaim wastewaters as potable or process waters is a technically feasible option for agricultural and some industrial purposes (such as for cooling water or sanitary flushing).

Nutrient removal 4. there is an additional oxygen demand resulting from the nitrogen present in the wastewater. Additional organic and suspended solids removal 2. the BOD test does not measure all of the organic material present in the wastewater. The above definition is intentionally very broad and encompasses almost all unit operations not commonly found in wastewater treatment today. when high quality effluents are required. Physical-chemical treatment is defined as a treatment process in which biological and physical-chemical processes are intermixed to achieve the desired effluent.com 138 industrial and/or domestic recycle. The average secondary plant removes approximately 65% of the influent COD. Advanced wastewater treatment is used for: 1. Advanced Wastewater Treatment will be defined as: any process designed to produce an effluent of higher quality than normally achieved by secondary treatment processes or containing unit operations not normally found in Secondary Treatment. additional organic removals must be accomplished. The fourth requires some explanation. .2 TYPES OF ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT Advanced Wastewater Treatment may be broken into three major categories by the type of process flow scheme utilized: 1. However. Removal of toxic materials The first three reasons for additional organic removal through advanced wastewater treatment are simple. A well designed and operated secondary plant will remove from 85 to 95% of the influent BOD and SS. Physical-Chemical Treatment 3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. An average secondary effluent may have a BOD of 20 mg/L and a COD of 60 to 100 mg/L. Combined biological-physical-chemical treatment is differentiated from tertiary treatment in that in tertiary treatment any unit processes are added after conventional biological treatment.clicktoconvert. suspended solids. 11. Combined Biological-Physical Treatment Tertiary treatment may be defined as any treatment process in which unit operations are added to the flow scheme following conventional secondary treatment. biological and physicalchemical treatment are mixed. nitrogen and phosphorous removal. The performance of secondary treatment plants is almost always measured in terms of BOD and SS removals. Additions to conventional secondary treatment could be as simple as the addition of a filter for suspended solids removal or as complex as the addition of many unit processes for organic. Another way to classify advanced wastewater treatment is to differentiate on the basis of desired treatment goals. In addition to the organic materials remaining in most secondary effluents. Removal of nitrogenous oxygen demand (NOD) 3. Thus. Tertiary Treatment 2. while in combined treatment. Thus. additional treatment steps have been added to wastewater treatment plants to provide for further organic and solids removals or to provide for removal of nutrients and toxic materials.

Note: a) Please don’t proceed unless you give the answer for the above question. When secondary treatment is used.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Ion exchange is a reversible process and the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded by washing with an excess of the ions to be exchanged. clay. The effluents from secondary treatment plants contain both nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). There are also exchangers called mixed beds which have anion and cation exchanging resins within them.NO2 + O2 + Bacteria . Fixed plant growth may also be accelerated causing the eventual process of a lake becoming a swamp to be speeded up. much of the nitrogen is found in the form of ammonia.3.clicktoconvert. advanced wastewater treatment processes have been used in cases where conventional secondary treatment was not possible due to materials toxic to bacteria entering the plant as well as in cases where even trace amounts of toxic materials were unacceptable in plant effluents. and humus.. NH3 + O2 + Bacteria . Bacteria can utilize this ammonia as an energy source and convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate. it will be necessary to remove them prior to biological treatment. a great deal of this ammonia is discharged in the effluent. it is necessary to remove even small amounts of these materials prior to discharge to protect receiving waters or drinking water supplies. Therefore. b) Please give your answer in the space provided below ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. it has become necessary to remove nitrogen and phosphorous prior to discharge in some cases. plant growth in the receiving waters may be accelerated. When these materials are present in sufficient quantities to be toxic to bacteria. Algae growth may be stimulated causing blooms which are toxic to fish life as well as aesthetically unpleasing. Mention the types of treatment. ION EXCHANGE Ion exchange is a process for water purification in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger.NO3 Another reason for advanced wastewater treatment may be to remove nutrients contained in discharges from secondary treatment plants.http://www. montmorillonite. When excess amounts of N and P are discharged. Toxic materials. a non-aqueous solid or gel. Self – check Exercise 1 Say the importance of advanced wastewater treatment. Thus. .. zeolite. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers for positively charged cations or anion exchangers for negatively charged anions. In other cases. Typical ion exchangers are ion exchange resins. both organic and inorganic are discharged into many sewage collections systems. N and P are ingredients in all fertilizers.com 139 In wastewaters.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version . chemical and petrochemical. There are four main types differing in their functional groups: · strongly acidic (sulfonic acid groups. There are multiple different types of ion exchange resin which are fabricated to selectively prefer one or several different types of ions.com 140 Ion exchange is a method widely used in household and industrial water purifications to produce soft water. sodium polystyrene sulfonate or polyAMPS) · strongly basic. softening and industrial water.1. ground and potable water. (trimethylammonium groups.http://www. Ion exchange is also applied in water softeners. eg. eg. polyethylene amine) There are also specialised types: · chelating resin . polyAPTAC) · weakly acidic (carboxylic acid groups) · weakly basic (amino groups. Ion exchange resin Fig 11. smaller particles have larger surface.1: Ion exchange resin beads An ion exchange resin is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1-2 mm diameter) beads. usually white or yellowish. Particle size also influences the resin parameters. They were developed as a more flexible alternative to the use of natural or artificial zeolites. power. eg. sugar and sweeteners. metals finishing. and a host of other industries. or substituted monomers can be used. Membranes made of highly cross. but cause larger head loss in the column. Ion exchange chromatography is a chromatographical method that is widely used in biochemistry to separate charged molecules such as proteins. This is accomplished by exchanging calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ cations against sodium Na+ or hydrogen H+ cations. nuclear. pharmaceutical. semiconducter.linked ion exchange resins that allow passage of ions but not of water are used for electrodialysis.3. However. Most ion exchange resins are based on crosslinked polystyrene.clicktoconvert. crosslinking somewhat decreases the capacity of the resin and prolong the time for reaching the equilibrium for the ions in solution and in the resin. The crosslinking is usually achieved by adding a small proportion of divinyl benzene to styrene. hydrometallurgical. The required active groups can be introduced after polymeration. 11. fabricated from an organic polymer substrate on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions in a process called ion exchange. This resin is used extensively for water softening during water purification. Ion Exchange can be used in the food and beverage. Non-crosslinked polymers are used only rarely because of their tendency to change dimensions in dependence on the ions bonded.

sediment purification techniques. while other substances are caught. When salts need to be removed from water. Membrane filtration This can be used as an alternative for flocculation. For the desalination of seawater.http://www. flowing into the unsalted side. When membrane filtration is used for the removal of larger particles.4.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .4. to create extra pressure on the water column. in order to push the water through the membrane. Membrane filtration can be divided up between micro and ultra filtration on the one hand and nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis (RO or hyper filtration) on the other hand. adsorption (sand filters and active carbon filters. pressure must be created upon the water column on the salt side of the membrane. To achieve this. : *selectivity *productivity. . electro dialysis. the pressure must be about 50-60 bars. There are two factors that determine the affectivity of a membrane filtration process that are membrane-dependent. Selectivity is expressed as a parameter called retention or separation factor (expressed by the unit l/m2h).com 141 Self – check Exercise 2 Elaborate the importance of ion exchange process in detail. to remove the natural osmotic pressure and secondly.clicktoconvert.1. ion exchangers). firstly. Examples are reverse osmosis. Note: Carefully study the above section and give your answer -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. 11. REVERSE OSMOSIS To desalinate water. Because of the open character of the membranes the productivity is high while the pressure differences are low. Membranes occupy through a selective separation wall. Nano filtration and RO membranes do not work according to the principle of pores. we must create a flow through a membrane. distillation and ion exchange: Reverse osmosis is the most economic process for the desalination of brackish water and seawater. Productivity is expressed as a parameter called flux (expressed by the unit l/m2h). causing the water to leave the salty side of the membrane. micro filtration and ultra filtration are applied. When we compare this process to the traditional thermic process of distillation. nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis are applied. extraction and distillation. the capital investments and the energy use are much lower. There are several different techniques that can be applied for water desalination. Certain substances can pass through the membrane.

Self – check Exercise 3 Briefly explain the desalination process using reverse osmosis technique Note: a) Please write your answer in the space given below b) Please don’t proceed unless you attempt the above question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11.clicktoconvert.5 ELECTRODIALYSIS Fig 11. Because the quantity of dissolved species in the feed stream is far less than that of the fluid. . with alternating anion and cation exchange membranes forming the multiple electrodialysis cells. This is done in a configuration called an electrodialysis cell. In almost all practical electrodialysis processes.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . multiple electrodialysis cells are arranged into a configuration called an electrodialysis stack.com 142 separation takes place by diffusion through the membrane. The pressure that is required to perform nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis is much higher than the pressure required for micro and ultra filtration.2: Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is used to transport salt ions from one solution through ionexchange membranes to another solution under the influence of an applied electric potential difference.http://www. Electrodialysis processes are unique compared to distillation techniques and other membrane based processes (such as reverse osmosis) in that dissolved species are moved away from the feed stream rather than the reverse. The cell consists of a feed (diluate) compartment and a concentrate (brine) compartment formed by an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane placed between two electrodes. while productivity is much lower. electrodialysis offers the practical advantage of much higher feed recovery in many applications.

anions and cations from the electrode stream may be transported into the C stream. sodium chloride) or may be a separate solution containing a different species (e.g.5. sodium) in the D stream migrate toward the negatively charged cathode and pass through the negatively charged cation exchange membrane. but are prevented from further migration toward the anode by the negatively charged cation exchange membrane and therefore stay in the C stream. 11.g.com 143 Fig 11._note-Mulder. chloride) in the diluate stream migrate toward the positively charged anode.wikipedia. brine or concentrate (C) stream.g.3: Electrodialysis In an electrodialysis stack. this transport is necessary to carry current across the stack and maintain electrically neutral stack solutions.or 2 Cl. 2e..1. Under the influence of an electrical potential difference. Depending on the stack configuration. the diluate (D) feed stream.› Cl2 (g) + 2e- . As a result of the anion and cation migration. The overall result of the electrodialysis process is an ion concentration increase in the concentrate stream with a depletion of ions in the diluate solution feed stream. and electrode (E) stream are allowed to flow through the appropriate cell compartments formed by the ion exchange membranes.http://www. sodium sulfate). This stream may consist of the same composition as the feed stream (e...g. H2 O › 2 H+ + ½ O2 (g) + 2e. These ions pass through the positively charged anion exchange membrane.+ 2 H2 O › H2 (g) + 2 OHwhile at the anode http://en..This watermark does not appear in the registered version . electric current flows between the cathode and anode. These cations also stay in the C stream. prevented from further migration toward the cathode by the positively charged anion exchange membrane. In each case. the negatively charged ions (e. Anode and Cathode Reactions Reactions take place at each electrode. The E stream is the electrode stream that flows past each electrode in the stack. Only an equal number of anion and cation charge equivalents are transferred from the D stream into the C stream and so the charge balance is maintained in each stream. At the cathode. which becomes concentrated with the anions.clicktoconvert. The positively charged species (e. or anions and cations from the D stream may be transported into the E stream.org/wiki/Electrodialysis .

g. Efficiency Current efficiency is a measure of how effective ions are transported across the ion exchange membranes for a given applied current.5. shunt currents between the electrodes. electrodialysis systems can be operated as continuous production or batch production processes. Current efficiency is calculated according to: where ξ = current utilization efficiency z = charge of the ion F = Faraday constant.. some (e.3. In a continuous process. These gases are typically subsequently dissipated as the E stream effluent from each electrode compartment is combined to maintain a neutral pH and discharged or re-circulated to a separate E tank. 11. industrial laundry wastewater. mol/L = diluate ED cell outlet concentration. Electrodialysis is usually applied to deionization of aqueous solutions.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . L/s = diluate ED cell inlet concentration. Some applications of electrodialysis include: · · · Large scale brackish and seawater desalination and salt production. mol/L N = number of cell pairs I = current. 96. Typically current efficiencies >80% are desirable in commercial stacks to minimize energy operating costs. wash-rack water) .clicktoconvert.. towns & villages. Amps.. cooling tower makeup & blowdown. Applications In application.5. nitrate reduction. feed is passed through a sufficient number of stacks placed in series to produce the final desired product quality.) have proposed collection of hydrogen gas for use in energy production. desalting of sparingly conductive aqueous organic and organic solutions is also possible. In batch processes. produced water from oil/gas production.g. However.http://www. hotels and hospitals) Water reuse (e. Low current efficiencies indicate water splitting in the diluate or concentrate streams. Small and medium scale drinking water production (e. However.2. Current efficiency is generally a function of feed concentration.com 144 Small amounts of hydrogen gas are generated at the cathode and small amounts of either oxygen or chlorine gas (depending on composition of the E stream and end ion exchange membrane arrangement) at the anode. construction and military camps. 11. metals industry fluids. or back-diffusion of ions from the concentrate to the diluate could be occurring. the diluate or concentrate streams are re-circulated through the electrodialysis systems until the final product or concentrate quality is achieved.485 Amp-s/mol Qf= diluate flow rate.g.

. precipitate onto.. boiler makeup and pretreatment. Non-charged. semiconductor.com 145 Pre-demineralization (e. and air conditioning (HVAC)) · Glycerin Purification The major application of electrodialysis has historically been the desalination of brackish water or seawater as an alternative to RO for potable water production and seawater concentration for salt production (primarily in Japan). or otherwise "foul" the surface of the ion exchange membranes. chemical manufacturing. silica. both ion transport and energy efficiently greatly declines. higher molecular weight.g.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and micron or multimedia filtration can be used to .000 ppm or when high recoveries of the feed are required. allowing these to be transported across the ion exchange membranes.clicktoconvert. in contrast to RO. working best at removing low molecular weight ionic components from a feed stream.g. RO is generally believed to be more costeffective when total dissolved solids (TDS) are 3. Species of concern include calcium and magnesium hardness.000 parts per million (ppm) or greater. while electrodialysis is more cost-effective for TDS feed concentrations less that 3. conditioning and processing solutions. 11. power generation. irrigation. ultrapure water pretreatment. capacitor electrolyte fluids. and organic compounds. water for greenhouses. suspended solids.. The ion exchange resins act to retain the ions.g. and with fewer ions in solution to carry current. Also. Innovative systems overcoming the inherent limitations of electrodialysis (and RO) are available. pharmaceutical. The main usage of EDI systems are in electronics. This fouling decreases the efficiency of the electrodialysis system. these integrated systems work synergistically. comparatively large membrane areas are required to satisfy capacity requirements for low concentration (and sparingly conductive) feed solutions. with each sub-system operating in its optimal range. the compartments (diluate. In EDI. oil and gas dehydration.5. Water softening can be used to remove hardness. In normal potable water production without the requirement of high recoveries. and cooling tower applications. · Another important application for electrodialysis is the production of pure water and ultrapure water by electrodeionization (EDI). concentrate. Limitations Electrodialysis has inherent limitations.http://www. livestock) · Glycol desalting (e.g. venting.4. electrodialysis systems require feed pretreatment to remove species that coat. industrial heat transfer fluids. and less mobile ionic species will not typically be significantly removed. or both) of the electrodialysis stack are filled with ion exchange resin. Consequently.. providing the least overall operating and capital costs for a particular application. 18 Megaohms). As with RO. food and beverage) · Food processing · Agricultural water (e. When fed with low TDS feed (e. process water desalination.g. the diluate can reach very low levels (e.. electrodialysis becomes less economical when extremely low salt concentrations in t h e product are required and with sparingly conductive feeds: current density becomes limited and current utilization efficiency typically decreases as the feed salt concentration becomes lower. secondary coolants from heating. antifreeze or engine-coolants. feed purified by RO). hydroponics.

Commercial activated carbon is regarded as the most effective material for controlling the organic load. However. because of contaminants with similar boiling points and droplets of unvaporized liquid carried with the steam.com 146 remove suspended solids. water and wastewater treatment. and oxidation process. 99. Also. electrodialysis reversal systems seek to minimize scaling by periodically reversing the flows of diluate and concentrate and polarity of the electrodes. and as an adsorbent in point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) of home water filtration systems.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Hardness in particular is a concern since scaling can build up on the membranes.http://www. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. represents a path for developing sustainable processes and for reducing the environmental burden. using waste materials as adsorbents. A number of technologies have been developed over the years to remove organic matter (expressed as chemical oxygen demand. unconventional adsorbents like fly ash. wood. Activated carbon is a commonly used adsorbent in sugar refining. they remain in the boiling solution. Various chemicals are also available to help prevent scaling. peat processed into activated carbons have been reported to be the important adsorbents for the removal of metals and organics from municipal and industrial wastewater. The water vapour then rises to a cooled surface where it can condense back into a liquid and be collected. ADSORPTION Wastewater treatment.9% pure water can be obtained by distillation. bagasse pith. The high cost of coal-based activated carbons has stimulated the search for cheaper alternatives.7. The most important technologies include coagulation or flocculation process. lignite. DISTILLATION This involves boiling the water to produce water vapour. 11. Self – check Exercise 4 Explain the role of electrodialysis in treating wastewater Note: Please don’t write full statements/sentences. . Instead use words or phrases. Because the solutes are not normally vaporized. time consuming and requires skilled personnel. have attracted the attention of several investigations and adsorption characteristics have been widely investigated for the removal of refractory materials for varying degree of success. COD) from industrial wastewater. bone. Even distillation does not completely purify water. peat. However due to its high cost and about 10-15 % loss during regeneration.clicktoconvert. wood. Increasing requirements for clearer and more polished effluent from many processes suggest that. complicated. membrane filtration. industrial need for activated carbon will only increase in future. saw dust etc. Low cost and non-conventional adsorbents including agricultural by products such as nut shells. chemical and pharmaceutical industries. barring the development of new technologies.6. These methods are generally expensive.

forming cementation calcium-silicate hydrates.7.clicktoconvert. biopreciptation. Biosorption Biosorption.1. Apparently there are many modes of non-active metal uptake by (microbial) biomass. sulfhydryl and hydroxyl groups can all be active to various degrees in binding the metal. Any one or a combination of them can be functional in immobilizing metallic species on biosorbents. In the past few years a lot of effort has been made on screening of efficient biomass types. The adsorption capacity increases with the increasing carbon content of fly ash. have been shown to be relatively efficient in metal uptake from polluted effluents.com 147 Thus the removal of organic material by adsorption onto low cost waste material has recently become the subject of considerable interest. usually the ratio between the quantity adsorbed and that remaining in solution at a fixed temperature at equilibrium. 11. . Other advantage is that it could easily be solidified after the pollutants are adsorbed because it contains pozzolanic particles that react with lime in the presence of water. Its advantage is especially in the treatment of large volumes of effluents with low concentration of pollutants. its preparation and the biosorption mechanism determination. This approach offers a potentially simple and economic “End of Pipe” solution to the challenges set by new legislation covering effluent discharges. live or dead.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. Biosorption is a promising method for removal of toxic ions from wastewater. The cell surfaces of all microorganisms are negatively charged owing to the presence of various anionic structures. The equilibrium relationship between adsorbent and adsorbate are described by adsorption isotherms. Most often biosorption equilibria are described with adsorption isotherms of Langmuir or Freundlich types.2. Fly ash is also suited for the removal of COD from the domestic wastewater. and uptake by purified biopolymers derived from microbial cells provide alternative and/or additive processes for conventional physical and chemical methods. Intact microbial cells. Various microbial species.7. mainly Pseudomonas. Fly ash is a residue that results from the combustion of coal in power plants. Fly ash has a significant capacity for adsorption of organic compounds from aqueous solutions. A number of anionic ligands participate: phosphoryl. carbonyl. Adsorption Isotherms Two important physicochemical aspects of evaluation of the adsorption process as a unit operation are the equilibria of the adsorption and the kinetics. Equilibrium studies give the capacity of the adsorbent. and their products can be highly efficient bioaccumulators of both soluble and particulate forms of metals. This gives the bacteria the ability to bind metal cations. 11. One of the main advantages of COD removal by using fly ash over the other chemical treatment methods is that it is in abundance and easy availability makes it a strong choice in the investigation of an economic way of COD removal. Biosorption is a fast and reversible process which resembles adsorption and in some cases ion exchange. The carbon content of fly ash plays a significant role during the adsorption of organic compounds by fly ash.

Much like the way the humans consume food to create energy to be burned by your own metabolism.com 148 Self – check Exercise 5 Differentiate adsorption and biosorption techniques Note: a) Please answer in the space provided b) Please try to give your answer in points ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By now you would have got a clear idea about the adsorption and biosorption techniques.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The microbes and bacteria consume the unwanted nutrients present in the wastewater. Breakdown of the floating and settling organic matter in the sewage is aided by algae growth and microbial/bacteria activities in the ponds. They are approximately 5 feet deep each. produces oxygen. The oxidation ponds are virtually void of macrophytic plant life to promote the growth of algae. Oxidation ponds one and two are the main ponds and are very large. That’s where the algae comes in.4: oxidation pond The large size of the oxidation ponds and the 5 foot depth are perfect for settling out solids leftover from primary treatment. through the process of photosynthesis. Algae also consumes Nitrogen and Phosphorous.http://www. These two ponds are a heaven for many birds that visit the marsh. they produce carbon dioxide through this process. The three oxidation ponds cover an area of approximately 55 acres. The carbon dioxide is then used by the algae to produce more oxygen for the microbes. As the wastewater flows slowly from oxidation pond 1 to pond 2 to the treatment marshes (or oxidation pond 3 depending on the season) more and more solids settle out. Algae. The microbes do the same thing. The microbes and bacteria use the oxygen to breakdown and use the nutrients in the waste through their metabolism. they need oxygen. two common nutrients found in the wastewater. . OXIDATION Secondary treatment begins in oxidation pond one and then into oxidation pond two and sometimes into oxidation pond three. Fig 11.clicktoconvert. Approximately half of the solid waste left after primary treatment settles out in the oxidation ponds. 11. Treating wastewater in oxidation pond is of two reasons: the settling of solids and to breakdown the organic matter in the sewage. To do this. There are virtually no plants in the oxidation ponds. Again like the humans.8.

The treatment marshes cover about 7. becomes a pollutant when it dies. the marshes and the chlorine contact basin. and is used in determining how much "waste" or nutrients are still in the wastewater. a hardstem bulrush that is native to the Humboldt Bay. The amount of oxygen being consumed by the microbes is called BOD.htmlYou may be wondering what happens to the solids that have settled to the bottom of the pond. They will incorporate the nutrients into their bio.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Humans at the treatment plant monitor the wastewater coming into the plant. Algae. The treatment marshes are packed with plants. 11. the oxidation ponds.edu/~ere_dept/marsh/flow2. for good reasons too. many microbes who will consume lots of the oxygen in the wastewater. The Scirpus acutus is good for pulling the unwanted nutrients out of the wastewater. One of the functions of the treatment marshes is to filter out this dead algae and to shade the water so the algae will not grow.clicktoconvert. in the oxidation ponds the wastewater tend to promote algal growth.1. The treatment marshes appearance are the absolute opposite of the oxidation ponds. but the treatment process in the oxidation ponds. BOD stands for Biological Oxygen Demand. algae is an unwanted element in the treatment marshes. http://www. though a necessary part of the process.http://www. If there is a lot of waste. The plants in the treatment marshes also slow down the flow of wastewater so even more solids can settle to the bottom. Fig 11. The algae eventually dies. the treatment marshes are the opposite of the oxidation ponds. Treatment Marshes From oxidation pond two the treated wastewater flow into the treatment marshes. then there will be many.com 149 Since the wastewater is still very high in nutrients or "waste".8. many. Some of the plants that we have to thank for this are the freshwater Scirpus Acutus. the city also uses mechanical aerators in oxidation pond one to ensure that there is enough oxygen in the water for the microbes to consume the waste. The solids that have settled out sink to the bottom where microbes continue to break them down. After the oxidation ponds. You see.5: Treatment Marshes The plants are very important in the wastewater treatment process.mass for their own purposes. it would appear that the wastewater had been more polluted than it was before! But it’s not actual "waste" that is doing that. . As discussed above.humboldt. the clarifier.5 acres and are 2 feet deep on average.

wastewater flows directly into the oxidation ditch.8. This sludge is pumped to an aerobic digester where the sludge is thickened with the help of aerator pumps. This method greatly reduces the amount of sludge produced.O.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.2.6: Oxidation ditch Treatment of wastewater using an oxidation ditch is relatively similar to wastewater treatment in a packaged plant.http://www. in the water. The oxidation ditch is a circular basin through which the wastewater flows. the treatment of wastewater in an oxidation ditch is similar to treatment in a packaged plant. has been removed from the wastewater.D. Once the B. Some of the sludge is returned to the oxidation ditch while the rest of the sludge is sent to waste. This mixture of raw wastewater and returned sludge is known as mixed liquor. . Sludge is removed in the clarifier. The Oxidation Ditch Process Fig 11. But the oxidation ditch replaces the aeration basin and provides better sludge treatment.D. RBC's also increase surface area and create waves and movement within the ditches. Activated sludge is added to the oxidation ditch so that the microorganisms will digest the B.O.3. Oxygen is added to the mixed liquor in the oxidation ditch using rotating biological contactors (RBC's. Self – check Exercise 6 State the treatment process of oxidation pond and marshes.) RBC's are more efficient than the aerators used in packaged plants. Note: a) Please stick on to the space provided b) Please don’t answer until you answer the above question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. After passing through the bar screen. In addition to increasing the water's dissolved oxygen. The two main differences between the processes are the retention time and the type of organisms which digest the wastewater.The only pretreatment typically used in an oxidation ditch system is the bar screen.8.com 150 11. Comparison to a Packaged Plant As you can see. the mixed liquor flows out of the oxidation ditch.

but oxidation ditches are also one of the most costly forms of treatment. heavy rains could cause a washout to occur. These microorganisms are very efficient at removing B.O.8.D.D.2. is higher in the oxidation ditch than in a packaged plant.4.O. 11. Wastewater can be sent through two sets of ditches. only about 15% of the original B. becomes sludge. Diversion Basins and Washouts Some oxidation ditches. and wastewater are pushed through the plant and out into a river or stream before being properly treated. most new treatment facilities are designed as oxidation ditches. The electricity used to operate the plant causes sulphur dioxide and other contaminants to be released into the atmosphere from coal-burning electrical plants. The different pH in the two ditches creates a niche for certain microorganisms. The water is moved through the ditches using rotors. Variations from the Typical Process 11. like the one located in Big Stone Gap. . the cost may reach nearly 350 dollars per ton.D and converting ammonia to nitrates.8.4. total washouts can be prevented by shutting off the inner ditches and allowing the outside ditch to circulate the influent. 11.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .O. In some cases. each of which has a different pH. have a diversion basin to hold the influent when flows increase because of excessive rainfall. The ditches are unable to contain the extra water. However. Without diversion basins. Ammonia Removal Oxidation ditches can be set up to remove ammonia very effectively. a greater variety of microorganisms live in the oxidation ditch. and these rotors in turn use electricity. Oxidation ditches provide the most thorough process for treating sewage. In periods of excessive rainfall. Virginia.1.D. providing primary treatment to the water before it is released. In an oxidation ditch.8.clicktoconvert. The monetary cost is very high per ton of B. Without a diversion basin.5. The diversion basin holds the excess influent and allows more time for treatment.http://www. Since the D. Oxidation ditches have an additional environmental drawback. oxidation ditches are expensive to maintain. Oxidation ditches are much more efficient at ammonia removal than packaged plants are.O. 11. A washout occurs when a large influx of influent rushes into the oxidation ditches.8. compared to a packaged plant where about 60% of the B. ends up as sludge. packaged plants usually depend upon only a few types of microorganisms to eat the sewage.com 151 Retention time is much longer in an oxidation ditch. A packaged plant usually has a retention time of two to four hours while an oxidation ditch retains the wastewater for two days. As a result. In contrast. so microorganisms. sludge. Advantages and Disadvantages The greatest advantage of an oxidation ditch is the efficiency of sludge removal. removed. oxidation plants can be operated on high flow settings for a month at a time.4.O.

zeolite. Importance of advanced wastewater treatment and its types. montmorillonite. montmorillonite and the ecofriendly ion exchangers like clay and humus. 3. Visit such place in your area and try to identify the components and working of the RO plant.9 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the various technologies involved in the Advanced wastewater Treatment · Described the types of Advanced wastewater Treatment · Pointed out the process like ion exchange and ion exchange resins · Listed out reverse osmosis and membrane filtration technique · Studied the process of electrodialysis and their applications and limitations · Learned the techniques of distillation and adsorption isotherms · Identified the oxidation process and their advantages and limitations 11. a non-aqueous solid or gel. 11. For types refer section 11.10 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Substantiate how the techniques of distillation and adsorption isotherms help in water treatment 4. Critically examine the function of treatment marshes and oxidation ponds in reducing the organic load. clay.com 152 11. Visit an industry using ion exchanger for treating water and ask them about the difference in the efficiency of treating water using commercially available ion exchangers like zeolite. The above definition is intentionally very broad and encompasses almost all unit operations not commonly found in wastewater treatment today. .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Typical ion exchangers are ion exchange resins. 11. 2. Ion exchange process Ion exchange is a process for water purification in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger. 3.11 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Advanced Wastewater Treatment will be defined as: any process designed to produce an effluent of higher quality than normally achieved by secondary treatment processes or containing unit operations not normally found in Secondary Treatment. Evaluate the role of reverse osmosis and membrane filtration techniques in the process of reducing solids. Go to a sugar refinery and get an idea about the adsorption technique using activated carbon. 2.clicktoconvert. You can visit a chemistry laboratory and can have a clear view regarding the process of distillation. Justify the significance of treating water using ion exchangers. 4. Nowadays most of the houses and other establishments are having their own reverse osmosis treatment plant for treating water. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers for positively charged cations or anion exchangers for negatively charged anions.http://www. and humus.2 2.12 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1.

4 4. Add further notes after referring section 11.5.com 153 Refer section 11. The oxidation ponds are virtually void of macrophytic plant life to promote the growth of algae. The cell consists of a feed (diluate) compartment and a concentrate (brine) compartment formed by an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane placed between two electrodes. The treatment marshes are packed with plants.1 for ion exchange resin 3.3.2).http://www. we must create a flow through a membrane. causing the water to leave the salty side of the membrane. Treating wastewater in oxidation pond is of two reasons: the settling of solids and to breakdown the organic matter in the sewage. pressure must be created upon the water column on the salt side of the membrane. . firstly. the pressure must be about 50-60 bars. Electrodialysis processes are unique compared to distillation techniques and other membrane based processes (such as reverse osmosis) in that dissolved species are moved away from the feed stream rather than the reverse.clicktoconvert. Oxidation ponds one and two are the main ponds and are very large. Distinguish oxidation ponds and treatment marshes Secondary treatment begins in oxidation pond one and then into oxidation pond two and sometimes into oxidation pond three. They are approximately 5 feet deep each.5. The treatment marshes cover about 7. The treatment marshes appearance are the absolute opposite of the oxidation ponds. There are virtually no plants in the oxidation ponds. Desalination using RO technique. its efficiency (section 11. This is done in a configuration called an electrodialysis cell. flowing into the unsalted side. To achieve this. multiple electrodialysis cells are arranged into a configuration called an electrodialysis stack. From oxidation pond two the treated wastewater flow into the treatment marshes.3) and limitations (section 11.5 acres and are 2 feet deep on average. To desalinate water. Also add note on anode cathode reactions (section 11. For the desalination of seawater.4) 5. In almost all practical electrodialysis processes.5. Electrodialysis Electrodialysis (ED) is used to transport salt ions from one solution through ionexchange membranes to another solution under the influence of an applied electric potential difference. with alternating anion and cation exchange membranes forming the multiple electrodialysis cells. applications (section 11. The three oxidation ponds cover an area of approximately 55 acres.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .1).5. to create extra pressure on the water column. in order to push the water through the membrane. to remove the natural osmotic pressure and secondly.

C GEMS. Macmillan India Limited.clicktoconvert. Alagappa Moses. Chennai. A and Alice . Tiruchirappalli. A and Environmental Studies. K. New Delhi. 2002 Alagappa Moses. 2004 Howard. P. K. K. S. Tiruchirappalli. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition.Environmental Engineering.Ecology.Advances in Environmental Sciences. . Meerut.com 154 11. B.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Emerenshiya.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . New Delhi. Mc Graw Hill.http://www. Macmillan India Limited. Sikdar. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. New Delhi.13 REFERENCES Agrawal. 2003. M University Publication. 2007 Dash.M. 2000 . M. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.C.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . 2004 Kumaraswamy.Environmental Chemistry.C . Peavy and Tchobanogloss .M and Deb. Sharma. .A Textbook of Environment.

Different treatment processes are required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus. a rapid growth in the population of algae.5 Let Us Sum Up 12. 12.2. Nitrococcus a n d Nitrospina.0 Aims and Objectives 12. the conversion of ammonia to nitrate. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most of them die. you should be able to · Evaluate the nutrients present in wastewater · Determine the nitrification process · Learn the biological de nitrification process · Understand the removal of nitrogen technique · Point out the phosphorus removal method 12. Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build up of nutrients. adapted fast to different .1 INTRODUCTION Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus.http://www. NO3 -.1 Introduction 12. which creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose.3 Nitrogen Removal 12. This is done by bacteria. some algal species produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies. is a process that takes place under aerobic conditions. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of oxygen in the water that most or all of the animals die. In addition to causing deoxygenation. NO2 -.2 Nitrification and Denitrification 12. After studying this lesson.9 References 12.1 Nitrification 12. The next step in the nitrification process is the conversion of nitrite.clicktoconvert.2 Biological Denitrification 12. NO2 -.green algae).2. called eutrophication.8 Check your Progress – Model Answers 12. This may cause an algal bloom. to nitrate.6 Lesson – End Activities 12. There are 4 species of nitrite oxidizers: Nitrobacter (2 species).0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson deals about the nutrients availability in the wastewater and also talks about its removal. and cyanobacteria (blue. which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds.2 NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION Nitrification.com 155 LESSON – 12: REMOVAL OF NUTRIENTS CONTENTS 12. NH4 + to nitrite.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . algae.7 Points for Discussion 12. The first step in the process is the conversion of ammonia.4 Phosphorus Removal 12. It was found that Nitrobacter sp.

several bacteria species can use nitrate in respiration instead of oxygen. Optimum pH has been found to be approximately 7. If there is not enough light.5 pounds of dissolved oxygen are required for the conversion of 1 pound of ammonia to nitrate. For the removal of nitrate there are 2 possible pathways. nitrate is the end stage of nitrogen metabolism.1 Nitrification Biological nitrification may be used to prevent oxygen depletion from nitrogenous demand (NOD) in the receiving waters. nitrification systems are operated at higher return sludge rates than conventional secondary treatment. provided there is plenty of light available. Reductions in nitrification have been found outside this .2. the danger always exists for the "wash out" of the nitrifying organisms. the same basic requirements for nitrification must be maintained: 1. dissolved oxygen levels of approximately 2 . There are several large algae. For this reason. Dissolved oxygen sufficient to satisfy the remaining BOD is also required. bacteria from the Pseudomonas group are predominant. Nitrification may be carried out in the same tank as BOD removal or in a separate stage. pH 6. The amount of sludge to be wasted is significantly less than from a conventional activated sludge system. In the process elementary nitrogen. N2 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Among these. Under anaerobic conditions. 12. Generally.0. Loading rates 3. Thus. Solids retention time 4. Nitrification is simply the conversion of ammonia to nitrate in the treatment plant rather than in the receiving water. Oxygen level 2. Approximately 4. That is.5%. that can use nitrate nitrogen for the formation of organic nitrogen compounds.com 156 salinities and grew equally well over the whole range from 0 to 3.induced respiration. The bacteria responsible for nitrification reproduce at a much slower rate than those responsible for BOD removal. Since the energy gain from nitrate.http://www. unless the nitrifying bacteria reproduce at the same or greater rate than they are removed from the system (by waste sludge) then the population of bacteria will be insufficient to carry out nitrification. which will escape as a gas. Under aerobic conditions. Nitrification systems are sensitive to pH variation.clicktoconvert.3 mg/L are recommended for nitrification. among others Ulva sp. Alkalinity 5. Freedom from toxic materials 7. I n activated sludge plants the mixing requirement of the basins must also be considered. is formed. Temperature Sufficient oxygen must be available for nitrification to occur. Regardless of the particular scheme chosen. they will start metabolizing organic nitrogen and in that way increase the nitrate concentration. the latter will have preference if oxygen is present.induced respiration is about 10% less than that of oxygen.8 to 9. Nitrification may be carried out either in activated sludge flocs or in fixed films.

such as discharge into enclosed bodies of water or recycle to water supplies. nitrification may not be sufficient. The optimum pH is from 6. Alkalinity is also destroyed during nitrification. methanol is used. When nitrogen removal is required. Mixed slurry systems consist of a denitrification reactor.2 Biological Denitrification Biological nitrification satisfies the nitrogenous oxygen demand by converting NH3 to NO3 . methanol feed and temperature is essential to successful operation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 12. Denitrification rates have been shown to increase five. operating parameters such as sludge age and retention time must be varied with temperature. Denitrification filters carry out both denitrification and filtration in the same unit. Constant monitoring of pH. reaeration basin and clarifiers. In order for denitrification to occur. Most commonly. if excess methanol is fed to the system.com 157 range. Denitrification may be carried out in either a mixed slurry reactor or in fixed bed reactors. Usually 3 to 4 pounds of methanol per pound of nitrate are required.0 to 8. Theoretically. a carbon source must be available. The methanol must be added in sufficient quantity to provide for cell growth and to consume any dissolved oxygen which may be carried into the denitrification reactor. The pH in denitrification systems must be carefully controlled.0.http://www. . However. unused methanol will be carried out in the effluent causing excessive BOD. sufficient oxygen must be provided for the organic demand and organic shock loads must be avoided. 7. Denitrification is accomplished under anaerobic or near anaerobic conditions by bacteria commonly found in wastewater. In some applications. Nitrates are removed by two mechanisms: (1) Conversion of NO3 to N2 gas by bacterial metabolism and (2) conversion of NO3 to nitrogen contained in cell mass which may be removed by settling. Denitrifying bacteria grow very slowly and are extremely sensitive to temperature.fold when the temperature is increased from 10°C to 20°C. Thus. Denitrification is a very sensitive and difficult process to operate. Careful control of methanol feed is necessary to prevent waste of chemicals. In addition. Reaeration prior to clarification is required to free the sludge from trapped bubbles of nitrogen gas. the influent BOD to nitrification systems has not been found to effect performance. Quick lime (CaO) or Ca(OH)2 is often used to provide alkalinity and pH control.2 pounds of alkalinity are destroyed in converting 1 pound of ammonia to nitrate. Little full scale operational experience is available. Generally. one of the available methods is to follow biological nitrification with biological denitrification.clicktoconvert.2. In low alkalinity wastewaters.

. 12.. 12. is now known to be facilitated in the environment almost exclusively by Nitrospira spp. specific bacteria. but the activated sludge process (if designed well) can do the job the most easily. depending on the wastewater. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological communities to form. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical precipitation. This can be. (nitroso=ammonium). followed by denitrification. It is facillitated by a wide diversity of bacteria. The resulting chemical sludge is difficult to handle and the added chemicals can be expensive. (nitro=nitrite). organic matter (from faeces). these biosolids have a high fertilizer value.). Since denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas.) is most often facillitated by Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water. though traditionally believed to be facilitated by Nitrobacter spp.g. each step facilitated by a different type of bacteria.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water.4 PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal. sulfide.http://www. Note: a) Please try to give your answers in points b) Please answer in the space provided ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By answering the above question you would be clear about nitrification and denitrification. is easier to operate and can be more reliable in areas that have wastewater compositions that make biological phosphorus removal difficult.g. Nitrite oxidation to nitrate (NO3 . Sometimes the conversion of toxic ammonia to nitrate alone is referred to as tertiary treatment. lagooning and reed beds can all be used to reduce nitrogen.com 158 Self – check Exercise 1 Differentiate the process of nitrification and denitrification. the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. usually with salts of iron (e. called polyphosphate accumulating organisms.3 NITROGEN REMOVAL The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia (nitrification) to nitrate. Sand filters. The oxidation of ammonia (NH 3 ) to nitrite (NO2 . ferric chloride) or aluminum (e. Nitrification itself is a two-step aerobic process. an electron donor is needed. In this process. Despite this. chemical phosphorus removal requires significantly smaller equipment footprint than biological removal. With this idea we shall discuss about the removal of nutrients.clicktoconvert. are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20% of their mass). or an added donor like methanol. alum).

2. When nitrogen removal is required. such as discharge into enclosed bodies of water or recycle to water supplies. Biological nitrification satisfies the nitrogenous oxygen demand by converting NH3 to NO3.5%. Collect wastewater sample from a soak pit of a septic tank and a control sample and determine the level of nitrate. The next step in the nitrification process is the conversion of nitrite. the conversion of ammonia to nitrate. adapted fast to different salinities and grew equally well over the whole range from 0 to 3. This is done by bacteria. one of the available methods is to follow biological nitrification with biological denitrification. nitrification may not be sufficient. NH4 + to nitrite.7 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Collect water sample from a washing area and a control sample and determine the level of phosphate. is a process that takes place under aerobic conditions. Evaluate the treatment processes required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. Critically examine the reason behind the occurrence of nutrients in wastewater. It was found that Nitrobacter sp. Substantiate how the bacteria help in the conversion of ammonia to nitrate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions? 3. The first step in the process is the conversion of ammonia. Denitrification is accomplished under anaerobic or near anaerobic conditions by bacteria commonly found in wastewater.com 159 Self – check Exercise 2 Explain the process of nutrient removal Note: a) Please read carefully and give your answer b) Please don’t proceed until you write the answer for this question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. Under aerobic conditions. 12.6 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we will · Discussed about the nutrients availability in wastewater · Learned the nitrification process · Studied the Biological Denitrification process · Pointed out the removal of Nitrogen · Described the process of Phosphorus removal 12. to nitrate. NO3 -.http://www. In some applications. Distinguish nitrification and denitrification Nitrification. 12. nitrate is the end stage of nitrogen metabolism. 2. . Nitrococcus a n d Nitrospina.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . There are 4 species of nitrite oxidizers: Nitrobacter (2 species). NO2 -. NO2 -.clicktoconvert.

3 and 12. . Emerenshiya. 2007 Dash. 2003. are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20% of their mass).C . S. 2004 Howard. B. A and Alice . K. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water.Ecology.Environmental Chemistry.M. In this process. Alagappa Moses. Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal.M and Deb. New Delhi. Meerut.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Peavy and Tchobanogloss . K. K. P. Macmillan India Limited. Nutrient Removal The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia (nitrification) to nitrate. Sharma. M.9 REFERENCES Agrawal. 2004 Kumaraswamy. Also refer section 12. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Sikdar. C GEMS. Tiruchirappalli. followed by denitrification. New Delhi. A and Environmental Studies.Environmental Engineering. 2002 Alagappa Moses.clicktoconvert.4 carefully. Tiruchirappalli. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition.A Textbook of Environment.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Macmillan India Limited. 2000 . 2002 Metcalf and Eddy .C. called polyphosphate accumulating organisms. New Delhi. the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. 12. specific bacteria. M University Publication.com 160 2.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. .http://www. these biosolids have a high fertilizer value. Mc Graw Hill. Chennai. When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.Advances in Environmental Sciences.

6 Let Us Sum Up 13.2 Heavy Metals 13. Al.2. Traditional Metal Removal Processes 13. Au. Co. Pb. at high levels both essential and nonessential metals .5. While many other metals have no biological role (i. After studying this lesson.3. Fe. 1. Sulfide precipitation 13. Ca. Organometallic Precipitation 13.4. K. and are nonessential and potentially toxic to living organism specially microorganisms. you should be able to · · · · · Identify the integral role of metals in the life processes of living organisms Determine the process of removal of cyanide and heavy metal Define the chrome destruction technique Explain the process of mercury removal Distinguish between traditional and modern metal removal process 13. Some metals (e.9 Check your Progress – Model Answers 13. and regulation of osmotic pressure. and Hg).http://www. Modern Metal Removal Processes 13.5.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we will discuss about the role of metals in the life processes of living organisms and their removal process.1. Mg. Aims and Objectives 13.8 Points for Discussion 13.clicktoconvert.3 Metal Removals 13.10 References 13.3 Mercury Removal 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Cyanide Removal 13.1.3.1 Waste Segregation 13.1 Cyanide and Heavy Metal Removal 13.e.4. Sodium Borohydride 13.com 161 LESSON – 13: REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS 13. Hydroxide Precipitation 13. serve as micronutrients and are used for redox-processes. as components of various enzymes.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Mn.3. to stabilize molecules through electrostatic interactions.2 Chrome Destruction 13.1 INTRODUCTION Metals play an integral role in the life processes of living organisms. Cr.7 Lesson – End Activities 13. In addition.3. 2.3.4. Cd. Na. Carbamates 13. Cu. Ni and Zn) are essential. Ag. Toxicity of nonessential metals occurs through the displacement of essential metals from their native binding sites or through ligand interactions.1.g.3.5.5.

Moreover the toxicity of heavy metals in wastewater was shown to be dependant on factors like metal species and concentration.3. and highly chelated streams. and damage the structure of DNA. 13.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . people's way of life and awareness of the impacts done to the environment by careless disposal of wastes. With the enactment of the "Clean Water Act".3 METAL REMOVALS Biological removal processes has been attracting considerable attention for removing heavy metals from aqueous wastes and screening for microorganisms having higher potential for removing heavy metals from wastes. The first. gold. ever more stringent levels of water quality in industrial wastewater are required. Heavy metals in wastewater come from industries and municipal sewage. and is not used in this country. Microbial removal of heavy metals offers the advantages of low operating cost. it is necessary to segregate the different wastewater streams according to the type of treatment that will be required. as a result adversely affecting biological wastewater treatment processes. the pH of the solution is lowered with sulfuric acid and the resulting hydrogen cyanide is captured and recovered. and all chrome bearing wastes. If possible. There are three different methods for removing cyanide.1 Cyanide and Heavy Metal Removal Cyanide and heavy metals removal from wastewater streams are only a few of the extremely important fields required to insure the protection of global bio diversity through responsible environmental management. Therefore the presence of heavy metals in wastewater is not only of great environmental concern but also strongly reduces microbial activity. 13. is acid hydrolysis. so that they will remain in solution at high pH ranges. . This process is extremely dangerous due to the production of cyanide gas. it is imperative to segregate all cyanide bearing wastes.1. minimizing secondary problems with metal-bearing sludge and high efficiency in detoxifying very dilute effluent. and the need for a more sustainable level of industrial development.http://www. wastewater pollution load and solubility of the metal ions. As a minimum. pH. etc.3. platinum.1. Accumulation of these metals in wastewater depends on many local factors such as type of industries in region. 13. 13.2 Cyanide Removal The first step in any waste treatment process is to remove cyanide. alter enzyme specificity.clicktoconvert.3. from basic streams.1 Waste Segregation Prior to treatment. it is also desirable to segregate acidic streams. Cyanide is used to complex metals such as cadmium. 13. from any other waste streams. disrupt cellular functions. and they are one of the main causes of water and soil pollution.2 HEAVY METALS Heavy metals are metals with densities higher than 5 g/cm3 . In this process.com 162 can damage cell membranes. used in Europe but not in the US.

+6 and +3. This reaction is fairly quick and will normally be accomplished in approximately 15 .3 Mercury Removal Many types of mercury treatment technology have been reported and the majority are based upon laboratory or piolet scale studies. 13. After all of the hexavalent chrome has been reduced to trivalent chrome. solution pH is lowered to 8. The reason for this is most likely due to the short half life of ozone.3. . however this method is relatively expensive. chrome. The first step in removing chrome is to reduce the hexavalent chrome to the trivalent form. This is usually accomplished by reducing the pH to 2. In the second stage.3.5 to 11. The metals that usually cause these complex cyanides to form are. and nickel.20 minutes. It is therefore important to prevent these complex cyanides from forming in the first place.90 minutes and will oxidize the cyanate to CO2 and nitrogen.5 .com 163 The second method is to oxidize the cyanide to cyanate with ozone.0 with sulfuric acid and then adding sodium metabisulfite. or trivalent state is insoluble at higher pH levels and is fairly easy to remove from water. This method has all of the problems associated with sulfide precipitation that are discussed later in this report.9. The most common method of cyanide destruction is known as alkaline chlorination. The +6 or hexavalent state is very soluble over a broad pH range. Precipitation with sodium borohydride has also been reported. this method is discussed later in this report. The +3.2 Chrome Destruction Chrome exists in two valence states. In the first stage. This is usually accomplished in two stages. 13. Eliminating the use of sulfuric acid is an advantage.http://www. with soluble levels exceeding 75 mg/l mercury over a pH range of 3. At this point the cyanide bearing waste streams can be mixed with the normal non-cyanide bearing waste streams for additional treatment.clicktoconvert. Again.5.60 minutes while the cyanide is oxidized to cyanate.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This is also the most toxic form of chrome. The solution is then allowed to react for 30 .0.5 . the solution can be added to the normal metal bearing waste streams for additional treatment. Additional bleach is added if required. An alternative method of reducing chrome is done at a high pH with the addition of hyrosulfide. Hydroxide precipitation is ineffective.3. the solution pH is raised to approximately 10 – 11 and bleach is added. This method has been demonstrated to work in the laboratory but has not been as successful in the field. This reaction takes 45 . This method has many problems associated with it that include the formation of explosive hydrogen gas and the tendency for the mercury to go back into solution. Once these complexes have formed it may be possible to break them by adding excess bleach and increasing the reaction time. It is important to note that cyanide can form complexes that are not amenable to alkaline chlorination. iron. Sulfide precipitation is the most common method of removing mercury.

and although it will work. The main problems associated with this process are that hydroxides of different metals have different pH levels for minimum solubility (see Figure 13. it creates a large volume of "RECRA" sludge that is typically hauled to landfills. This method can be used to reduce the level of mercury to 10 µg/l or less.1).e. dissolved metals have been removed from water by the process of hydroxide precipitation. 1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . it would appear easy to remove metals by this process.1: Relationship between pH and metal concentration Self – check Exercise 1 Write down the significance of heavy metals and the process to remove them. and the reactions are of an equilibrium type. Later in this paper we will discuss an extremely effective and new process for removing chelated metals that significantly reduces the creation of sludge.http://www. Hydroxide Precipitation Traditionally. The use of large amounts of coagulants is called "salting out". In order to remove the metals it is necessary to break the chelated complexes. i. In the past. EDTA. and citric acid. . Since most metal hydroxides are insoluble. TRADITIONAL METAL REMOVAL PROCESSES 13. this has typically been accomplished by either adding large quantities of coagulants such as alum or ferric chloride or by raising or lowering the pH to extreme levels. NTA. ammonia. some of the metal hydroxide will disassociate with the resulting metal ions going back into solution.com 164 The most successful method is to use organometallic precipitation.. Note: Please write your answer either as short sentences or phrases in the provided space ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. This process is discussed in more detail later in this report. Fig 13.4. Chelates function by complexing with metal ions thereby keeping them in solution at elevated pH levels. Chelated Wastes The most common chelating agents found in metal bearing wastes are cyanide. Frequently we are able to achieve results of non-detectable levels.4.clicktoconvert.

1. this method of metal removal can leave high levels of some metals still in solution or require an additional neutralization step. Explosive hydrogen gas is evolved at acidic pH values. Self – check Exercise 2 Briefly explain the traditional metal removal process Note: Please read the above section carefully and answer.0 .2. but chrome is at a minimum solubility at a pH of 7.4. A major disadvantage.clicktoconvert. Therefore. nickel has its lowest solubility at a pH of 10. Carbamate precipitation is again an equilibrium reaction that does not go to completion.8. Sodium Borohydride Sodium borohydride is an extremely strong reducing agent and can reduce both chelated and non chelated metals. lime.com 165 For example. 13. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. Therefore. Additionally.5 .0.5 mg/l can usually be obtained. is that unless the liquid is removed from the sludge immediately. 13.http://www. This method yields more complete metal removal than hydroxide precipitation but can easily leave toxic sulfides in solution. High cost of this reagent has also been a problem.5.5. This process has the advantage of producing the least amount of sludge of any process but it has a number of disadvantages that almost always preclude its use in an efficient and cost effective system. 2.0. Another problem is that pH control is critical. and magnesium hydroxide. Sulfide precipitation Soluble metals can also be removed by precipitating them as a sulfide by the addition of sodium sulfide to the solution. . metals tend to go back into solution with the water. and as a result. Metal residuals of 1. Carbamates Carbamates are chemical reducing agents that can be obtained as either sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate.5. This method is much more expensive than hydroxide precipitation since the excess sulfides are usually regulated and the resulting sludge may be difficult to landfill.5 . it is not as widely used as hydroxide precipitation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . it has been very difficult to justify its use. The most common reagents used for hydroxide precipitation are caustic soda. mercury cannot be removed by this method at all.1. Carbamates are not effective at acidic pH levels and are not always effective at treating chelated wastes.11. MODERN METAL REMOVAL PROCESSES 13.

The pH is next adjusted to 7.com 166 13. Since the metals are precipitated as an organometal complex at all pH values. Anionic polymer is . pioneered a new more environmentally responsible method of removing heavy metals. The process is easily controlled with an inexpensive ORP controller and can adapt to changing levels of contaminants in the waste stream influent. (Figure 2) illustrates this.5 .8 with magnesium hydroxide and any coagulants required are added. In 1991 Steve Holtzman. which was often added to the gasoline that fuels internal-combustion engines.12) and has the ability to break most chelates in extremely high concentrations.5. A familiar example of this class of substance is tetraethyl lead. Adjust pH (if found necessary during bench testing) and add the organic reducing agent on a 2. The sludge volume produced by this method and caustic soda is approximately 50% of the sludge that is produced by using caustic soda alone and precipitating the metals as hydroxides. The only reasons for pH control are to make certain that the waste effluent is in a range that is allowed by the discharge permit and to allow the polymer flocculents to be in a pH range where they are effective. Figure 13.5 . If magnesium hydroxide is used as the caustic agent. there is no problem with different levels of solubility based on pH.2: Relative amounts of sludge produced by different methods of precipitation The best treatment approach that we have found is to first do any cyanide or chrome destruction that may be required. This process revolves around the formation of insoluble organometallic compounds formed by reacting metal bearing wastes with a proprietary organic agent.http://www. Organometallic Precipitation The synthesis of organometallic and coordination compounds has attracted interest among chemists during the past few decades. Other organometallic compounds include catalysts used in plastic manufacture and in organic synthesis.clicktoconvert.5 to 1 stoichiometric basis.3. all regulated metals can be reduced to non-detectable levels. sludge volumes can be as low as 25% of the sludge volume produced by hydroxide precipitation. This process works over an extremely broad pH spectrum (1. The volume of sludge produced is comparable to that produced by borohydride.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . By forming specific types of insoluble organometallic compounds. Organometallic compounds are organic molecules containing at least one atom of a metal bonded to a carbon atom.

06 1.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .71 2.20 Organometallic Precipitation <0.com 167 then added to flocculate the metals.3: Typical wastewater treatment Metal Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Silver Zinc Effluent Limit 0.34 1. Figure 13.97 0. (Figure 13.01 mg/l or less.48 Hydroxide Precipitation 0.38 0.07 1.01 <0.04 0.1: Comparison of metal residuals between hydroxide precipitation and organometallic precipitation . Metal levels in the effluent can be "dialed in" according to customer requirements. Typical results comparing hydroxide precipitation to organometallic precipitation are illustrated in Table 13.75 0. sodium metabisulfite for chrome destruction and.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.24 1.http://www.01 1.01 <0.43 2. organometallic precipitation for the removal of heavy metals.1.01 Table 13.3) shows a typical waste treatment facility using alkaline chlorination for cyanide destruction. Typical residuals of all regulated metals are 0.002 <0.07 0.

. Have an interview with a doctor and understand the role of metals in the life processes of living organisms. Elaborate traditional metal removal process.e. Cu. Significance of heavy metals and the process to remove them. Ni and Zn) are essential. as components of various enzymes. Cd. Substantiate how metals are removed in traditional and modern metal removal process. Note: Please write your answer in the space provided below --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. Traditionally. serve as micronutrients and are used for redox-processes. it would appear easy to remove metals by this process. Pb. tanneries etc and ask them about the treatment technology they adopt for removing heavy metals from their waste stream. Cr. For removal of metals refer section 13. Critically examine the mercury removal technology 4. Metals play an integral role in the life processes of living organisms.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and Hg). and are nonessential and potentially toxic to living organism specially microorganisms. Some metals (e. Visit the industries based on heavy metals like electroplating industry. Since most metal hydroxides are insoluble.g. 13.com 168 Self – check Exercise 3 Explain the methods involved in modern metal removal process.8 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1.http://www. Ag. Na. Evaluate the process of cyanide and heavy metal removal 3. While many other metals have no biological role (i. Ca. Au. to stabilize molecules through electrostatic interactions.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the significance of metals in the life processes of living organisms · Described the process of cyanide and heavy metal removal · Studied the chrome destruction process · Listed out the mercury removal technology · Learned the traditional removal process of metals. 2. 13. 13. Al. K.3 2. dissolved metals have been removed from water by the process of hydroxide precipitation.7 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Mg. and regulation of osmotic pressure. Justify the significance of metals in the life processes of living organisms 2.clicktoconvert. Fe. Co. · Also pointed out the modern removal process of metals. Mn.

K. Sikdar. Alagappa Moses.4 3. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . P. 2002 Alagappa Moses. 2004 Howard.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. .Environmental Chemistry. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Tiruchirappalli. New Delhi.M. Mc Graw Hill. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Macmillan India Limited.bharathidasan Vasanthy. 13. Chennai. K. Emerenshiya. New Delhi.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Meerut.5 and write about the removal process of carbamates. .10 REFERENCES Agrawal. M University Publication. 2004 Kumaraswamy. A and Environmental Studies. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.Advances in Environmental Sciences. A and Alice .com 169 Soluble metals can also be removed by precipitating them as a sulfide by the addition of sodium sulfide to the solution. Carefully go through section 13.M and Deb. K.http://www. New Delhi.C.Ecology. Tiruchirappalli. 2003. 2000 . M. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy .Environmental Engineering. S. sodium borohydride and organometallic precipitation. Macmillan India Limited. C GEMS. 2007 Dash.A Textbook of Environment. Also see section 13. B. Describe modern metal removal process. This method yields more complete metal removal than hydroxide precipitation but can easily leave toxic sulfides in solution.C .clicktoconvert. Sharma.

3.1 Filtration 14.5.2 Sewage Treatment Methods 14.4.5 Biological aerated filters 14.5 Nitrogen removal 14.6 Sewage Sludge Treatment and Disposal 14.1 Roughing filters 14.3 Constructed wetlands 14.4.0 Aims and Objectives 14.6.4.5 Tertiary Treatment 14.3 Composting 14.5.3 Primary Treatment 14.8 Rotating biological contactors 14.4 Waste removal 14.2 Lagooning 14.3.5.7 Disinfection 14.5.http://www.2 Sand and grit removal 14.6 Membrane biological reactors 14.7 Let Us Sum Up 14.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson will provide us an idea about the overall wastewater treatment process for sewage water.10 Check your Progress – Model Answers 14.3 Sedimentation 14. you should be able to · · · Define sewage and their characters Understand the various Sewage treatment techniques List out the sewage treatment stages like mechanical.4.4.3 Fluidized bed reactors 14.4.4 Sludge disposal 14. biological and chemical .1 Influx (influent) and removal of large objects 14.com 170 LESSON – 14: OVERALL WASTE WATER TREATMENT FOR SEWAGE WATER CONTENTS 14.6.4.5.6 Phosphorus removal 14.4 Filter beds (oxidising beds) 14.clicktoconvert.1 Anaerobic digestion 14.8 Lesson – End Activities 14.6.2 Activated sludge 14.5. After studying this lesson.3.7 Secondary sedimentation 14.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .9 Points for Discussion 14.6.5.4.4 Secondary Treatment 14.11 References 14.2 Aerobic digestion 14.1 Introduction 14.

It can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks. Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local. is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specialized treatment processes. Then dissolved biological matter is progressively converted into a solid mass by using indigenous. baths.1 INTRODUCTION Sewage treatment. bay. secondary and secondary treatment methods involved in sewage water treatment Explain the sewage sludge disposal methods 14. Influx (Influent) Removal of large objects Removal of sand and grit Pre-precipitation Biological treatment. secondary a n d tertiary treatment. both runoff and domestic.used.filtration). waterborne bacteria. kitchens. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds. and industrial liquid waste discharges. sewage treatment involves three stages.com 171 · · Determine the primary. Sewage is created by residences. chemical and biological systems that comprise the wastewater treatment plant are typically the same for most of the countries: · · Mechanical treatment. Finally. Sewage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined systems. river. The final effluent can be discharged into a stream.clicktoconvert. called primary. it can also be used for groundwater recharge. the biological solids are neutralized then disposed of or re. and may include stormwater runoff. and commercial and industrial establishments. Household waste that is disposed of via sewers. 14. The order and types of mechanical. commercial. Oxidation bed (oxidizing bed) or aeration system . and the treated water may be disinfected chemically or physically (for example by lagoons and micro. Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential. or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course.http://www. chemical and biological processes to remove physical. First. Typically. green way or park. showers. state and federal regulations and standards (regulation and controls). biofilters or aerobic treatment systems).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant. institutions. Raw influent (sewage) is the liquid waste from toilets. If it is sufficiently clean.2 SEWAGE TREATMENT METHODS The site where the raw wastewater is processed before it is discharged back to the environment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. chemical and biological contaminants. o r domestic wastewater treatment. It includes physical. the solids are separated from the wastewater stream. sinks etc. lagoon or wetland.

14. while keeping the majority of the suspended organic material in the water column. sanitary towels (sanitary napkins) or tampons. larger settleable solids including human waste and floating materials.3 PRIMARY TREATMENT Primary treatment removes the materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater and disposed of. sand. such as filtration. This type of waste is removed because it can damage or clog the equipment in the sewage treatment plant. 14.3. The tanks are large enough that fecal solids can settle and floating material such as grease and oils can rise to the surface and be skimmed off. This step is done entirely with machinery. hence the name mechanical treatment.clicktoconvert. and greases (also referred to as FOG). etc. the influx (influent) of sewage water is strained to remove all large objects that are deposited in the sewer system. gravels and rocks (also referred to as grit).com 172 Post precipitation Effluent · Chemical treatment (this step is usually combined with settling and other processes to remove solids. condoms. the sand and grit is sent to a landfill.3. Primary settlement tanks are usually equipped with mechanically driven scrapers that continually drive the collected sludge towards a . oils.) Self – check Exercise 1 What do you mean by sewage? What are the various sewage treatment methods? Note: Please answer in the space provided ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14.http://www. This is most commonly done with a manual or automated mechanically raked screen. but in many cases. sticks.1 Influx (influent) and removal of large objects In the mechanical treatment.2 Sand and grit removal Primary treatment typically includes a sand or grit channel or chamber where the velocity of the incoming wastewater is carefully controlled to allow sand grit and stones to settle. The main purpose of the primary stage is to produce a generally homogeneous liquid capable of being treated biologically and a sludge that can be separately treated or processed.3. Sand grit and stones need to be removed early in the process to avoid damage to pumps and other equipment in the remaining treatment stages. Sometimes there is a sand washer (grit classifier) followed by a conveyor that transports the sand to a container for disposal. The typical materials that are removed during primary treatment include fats. This equipment is called a detritor or sand catcher. commonly called "primary clarifiers" or "primary sedimentation tanks". cans. 14. such as rags. fruit.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3 Sedimentation Many plants have a sedimentation stage where the sewage is allowed to pass slowly through large tanks. The contents from the sand catcher may be fed into the incinerator in a sludge processing plant.

4. They are designed to allow high hydraulic loading and a high flow-through of air. Note: Please give your answers as points ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14.film treatment process including trickling filter and rotating biological contactors where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface. 14. soaps and detergent.4. It also traps particulate material and can.clicktoconvert. For this to be effective. under ideal conditions. Characteristics include typically tall. sugars.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. The majority of municipal and industrial plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes.1 Roughing filters These are intended to treat particularly strong or variable organic loads. The resultant wastewater is usually within the normal range for conventional treatment processes. However.com 173 hopper in the base of the tank from where it can be pumped to further sludge treatment stages.film systems that treat the same amount of water. Self – check Exercise 2 Write about the various primary treatment units. typically industrial. fats. circular filters filled with open synthetic filter media to which wastewater is applied at a relatively high rate. Fixed. 14. air is forced through the media using blowers.4 SECONDARY TREATMENT Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage such as are derived from human waste. In all these methods. etc. the bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e. convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimately to nitrogen gas.2 Activated sludge Activated sludge plants encompasses a variety of mechanisms and processes that use dissolved oxygen to promote the growth of biological floc that substantially removes organic material. . to allow them to then be treated by conventional secondary treatment processes. On larger installations. fixed-film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed film or suspended growth. food waste.g. In suspended growth systems—such as activated sludge—the biomass is well mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed. There are number of ways in which this is done. organic short-chain carbon molecules. the biota require both oxygen and a substrate on which to live.

Such media must have high surface areas to support the biofilms that form.clicktoconvert.4. continuous flow reactors. Carbon reduction and ammonia conversion occurs in aerobic mode and sometime achieved in a single reactor while nitrate conversion . Overloading of beds increases the thickness of the film leading to clogging of the filter media and ponding on the surface. protozoa and fungi form on the media’s surfaces and eat or otherwise reduce the organic content. This causes low mixing. Biological films of bacteria.5 Biological aerated filters Biological Aerated (or Anoxic) Filter (BAF) or Biofilters combine filtration with biological carbon reduction. The distributed liquor trickles through this bed and is collected in drains at the base. The dual purpose of this media is to support highly active biomass that is attached to it and to filter suspended solids. keeping it aerobic.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . these type of reactors are highly suitable for the exothermic reactions. These drains also provide a source of air which percolates up through the bed. 14. However the velocity must not be so high that the enzymes are swept away from the reactor entirely.1: Trickling filter bed using plastic media In older plants and plants receiving more variable loads. It is most often applied in immobilized enzyme catalysis. limestone chips or specially fabricated plastic media. The media is either in suspension or supported by a gravel layer at the foot of the filter. 14.http://www. It is very important to chemical engineering because of its excellent heat and mass transfer characteristics.4 Filter beds (oxidising beds) Fig 14.4. BAF usually includes a reactor filled with a filter media. This biofilm is grazed by insect larvae and worms which help maintain an optimal thickness. nitrification or denitrification. trickling filter beds are used where the settled sewage liquor is spread onto the surface of a deep bed made up of coke (carbonised coal).3 Fluidized bed reactors The carbon adsorption following biological treatment was particularly effective in reducing both the BOD and COD to low levels. A fluidized bed reactor is a combination of the most common stirred tank packed bed. the substrate is passed upward through the immobilized enzyme bed at a high velocity to lift the particles.com 174 14.4. The liquor is distributed through perforated rotating arms radiating from a central pivot. In a fluidized bed reactor.

as the technology has become increasingly popular and has gained wider acceptance throughout the industry. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present . the life-cycle costs have been steadily decreasing.com 175 occurs in anoxic mode.000 mg/L. 14. 14. The cost of building and operating a MBR is usually higher than conventional wastewater treatment. The technology permits bioreactor operation with considerably higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration than CAS systems. Fig 14.6 Membrane biological reactors Membrane biological reactors (MBR) combines activated sludge treatment with a membrane liquid-solid separation process. while CAS are operated in the range of 2. BAF is operated either in upflow or downflow configuration depending on design specified by manufacturer.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .4.000–12.000–3. The membranes are typically immersed in the aeration tank (however. One of the key benefits of a membrane bioreactor system is that it effectively overcomes the limitations associated with poor settling of sludge in conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes.4. The membrane component utilizes low pressure microfiltration or ultra filtration membranes and eliminates the need for clarification and tertiary filtration. which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load.clicktoconvert.4.2: Secondary Sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant 14.7 Secondary sedimentation The final step in the secondary treatment stage is to settle out the biological floc or filter material and produce sewage water containing very low levels of organic material and suspended matter.8 Rotating biological contactors Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems.000 mg/L. The elevated biomass concentration in the membrane bioreactor process allows for very effective removal of both soluble and particulate biodegradable materials at higher loading rates. some applications utilize a separate membrane tank). Thus increased Sludge Retention Times (SRTs)—usually exceeding 15 days—ensure complete nitrification even under extreme cold weather operating conditions. which are limited by sludge settling.http://www. The process is typically operated at MLSS in the range of 8. RBCs were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. however.

14. is often encouraged.5 TERTIARY TREATMENT Tertiary treatment provides a final stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea. which creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. also see phytoremediation.). Self – check Exercise 3 How does secondary treatment help in treating sewage water? Note: Please don’t proceed until you answer this question ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in treatment by removing fine particulates. all of which provide a high degree of aerobic biological improvement and can often be used instead of secondary treatment for small communities.green algae). Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build up of nutrients.1 Filtration Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter. This may cause an algal bloom. 14.clicktoconvert. 14. and cyanobacteria (blue. a rapid growth in the population of algae. which breakdown and stabilise organic pollutants. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as a sludge. etc. These lagoons are highly aerobic and colonization by native macrophytes. It is also called "effluent polishing".5.5. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of oxygen in the water that most or all of the animals die.3 Constructed wetlands Constructed wetlands include engineered reedbeds and a range of similar methodologies. More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant.5.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Filtration over activated carbon removes residual toxins.5. If disinfection is practiced. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. it is always the final process.4 Waste removal Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. river. they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. ground. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most of them die. As the micro-organisms grow. To be successful. especially reeds. microorganisms need both oxygen to live and food to grow. called eutrophication.2 Lagooning Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage in large man-made ponds or lagoons. lake. which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds. 14.com 176 in the sewage. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. In addition to causing . algae.http://www.

5. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated (e. short contact times.com 177 deoxygenation. . The purpose of digestion is to reduce the amount of organic matter and the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. The choice of a wastewater solid treatment method depends on the amount of solids generated and other site-specific conditions. is not used in wastewater treatment because of its persistence. When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water. Common methods of disinfection include ozone. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14.5. followed by denitrification. 14. the type of disinfection being used. pH. composting is most often applied to smaller-scale applications followed by aerobic digestion and then lastly anaerobic digestion for the larger-scale municipal applications. etc. low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection. or ultraviolet light. especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water. and other environmental variables. these biosolids have a high fertilizer value..5 Nitrogen removal The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia (nitrification) to nitrate. The most common treatment options include anaerobic digestion.6 Phosphorus removal Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully since solid matter can shield organisms.clicktoconvert. specific bacteria. In this process.6 SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL The sludges accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. aerobic digestion. in general. 14. and composting. cloudiness.). the disinfectant dosage (concentration and time). Chloramine. Self – check Exercise 3 Why is it essential to go for tertiary treatment? Note: Please read the above section carefully and answer. Generally.g. which is used for drinking water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . chlorine.5. Different treatment processes are required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus.7 Disinfection The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of wastewater is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment. 14. However. are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20% of their mass). the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas.http://www. called polyphosphate accumulating organisms. some algal species produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies.

There is no process which completely eliminates the need to dispose of biosolids. Under aerobic conditions.com 178 14. . thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of energy consumption for heating the sludge. sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce the volumes transported off-site for disposal. This product is then sold to local farmers and turf farms as a soil amendment or fertilizer.6. or mesophilic. at a temperature of around 36°C. further treatment may be required to make it suitable for final disposal. 14.http://www.2 Aerobic digestion Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen.clicktoconvert. The operating costs are characteristically much greater than for anaerobic digestion because of the energy costs needed to add oxygen to the process. however. Typically. One major feature of anaerobic digestion is the production of biogas.3 Composting Composting is also an aerobic process that involves mixing the wastewater solids with sources of carbon such as sawdust. in doing so. There is. which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in boilers for heating purposes. bacteria digest both the wastewater solids and the added carbon source and.6. In the presence of oxygen.4 Sludge disposal When a liquid sludge is produced.6.1 Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen.6. an additional step some cities are taking to superheat the wastewater sludge and convert it into small pelletized granules that are high in nitrogen and other organic materials. reducing the amount of space required to dispose of sludge in landfills. Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller tanks).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 14. straw or wood chips. 14. bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. produce a large amount of heat. in which sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55°C. The process can either be thermophilic digestion.

exceptionally. you may look for such facilities and note down your observations. 4. Visit the nearby sewage sub – pumping station and observe the primary treatment units such as Screening and grit removal. 3. · Learned the Primary treatment which removes the materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater and disposed of..8 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. · Sludge treatment process which helps in disposing the waste in a safe and effective manner 14. 5.clicktoconvert. Go to the nearby main sewage pumping station and ask about the sewage generated per day. Visit your municipality and get the details about the total wards of your city. Visit a nearby sewage treatment plant and analyze the units installed for treating the sewage such as screening.com 179 Fig 14.http://www. Reverse Osmosis etc. 2. .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . aerobic and anaerobic ponds etc. some STP have installed Advanced or Tertiary units such as Adsorption. grit removal.7 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the process of removing contaminants from wastewater.3: Municipal sewer systems 14. both runoff and domestic.. In many of the Sewage Treatment Plants only secondary treatment units are present. · Determined the Secondary treatment designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage · Understood the Tertiary treatment providing a final stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment.

secondary a n d tertiary treatment. Establish how the Tertiary treatment helps in providing a final stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment. Influx (Influent) Removal of large objects Removal of sand and grit Pre-precipitation · Biological treatment.com 180 14. baths. · 3. food waste. Sewage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined systems. Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential. 3. soaps and detergent. 5.http://www. called primary. Oxidation bed (oxidizing bed) or aeration system Post precipitation Effluent · Chemical treatment (this step is usually combined with settling and other processes to remove solids. Secondary treatment in treating sewage water. Primary treatment units Have to discuss about Influx (influent) and removal of large objects. The majority of municipal and industrial plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. For this to be effective. and commercial and industrial establishments. state and federal regulations and standards (regulation and controls). 4. Household waste that is disposed of via sewers. Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local. showers. Critically examine the role of primary treatment in increasing the efficiency of secondary and tertiary treatment. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specialized treatment processes.3. such as filtration.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Substantiate how the contaminants from runoff and domestic sources are removed? 2.9 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Justify the significance of having Sewage systems capable of handling stormwater. commercial. sewage treatment involves three stages. or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant. Typically. kitchens. Various sewage treatment methods Sewage is created by residences. Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage such as are derived from human waste. Raw influent (sewage) is the liquid waste from toilets. It can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks.clicktoconvert. 14. biofilters or aerobic treatment systems). the biota require both oxygen and a substrate on which to . sand and grit removal and sedimentation process elaborated in section 14. Define sewage. Treatment Methods: Mechanical treatment.) 2.10 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. and may include stormwater runoff. sinks etc. institutions. and industrial liquid waste discharges. Evaluate the necessity of Secondary treatment to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage.

Significance of tertiary treatment Tertiary treatment provides a final stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea. . Sikdar. the bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed film or suspended growth. river.bharathidasan Vasanthy. However.). Tiruchirappalli. fats. Macmillan India Limited. sugars. etc. organic short-chain carbon molecules. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. B. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. C GEMS. If disinfection is practiced.Environmental Engineering. S. Refer section 14. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.Advances in Environmental Sciences. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . 2004 Howard. A and Environmental Studies. Peavy and Tchobanogloss .) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc.http://www.g. Alagappa Moses. There are number of ways in which this is done. Emerenshiya. K. fixed-film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems. Mc Graw Hill. Tiruchirappalli.4 for description of the secondary treatment units. Chennai. it is always the final process.11 REFERENCES Agrawal. P. 2007 Dash.Environmental Chemistry.film treatment process including trickling filter and rotating biological contactors where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface.film systems that treat the same amount of water.Ecology. 2002 Alagappa Moses. 2004 Kumaraswamy.5 14. 2000 . 2003. . M University Publication.C . A and Alice . New Delhi.com 181 live. Sharma. lake.M. M. etc.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Fixed.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 4. Macmillan India Limited. Meerut. New Delhi.M and Deb. It is also called "effluent polishing". ground.A Textbook of Environment. In all these methods. New Delhi. The various treatment units were described in section 14.clicktoconvert. In suspended growth systems—such as activated sludge—the biomass is well mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than fixed.C. K. More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. K.

you should be able to · Provide a detailed overview of the concept of treatment Water pollution using constructed wetlands · Determine the pollutant removal mechanism · Provide details about the construction. 15. 15.9 Check your Progress – Model Answers 15. continual replacement and on-going operation costs of these . The limited successes of such strategies can be attributed to the high capital Investment requirement.10 References 15. iron and aluminium rich solid media are recommended. 1 Types of Constructed wetlands 15.1 Introduction 15.5 Filtration 15.0 Aims and objectives 15. 2 LAGOONING Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage in large man-made ponds or lagoons.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Strategies for control of water pollution caused by municipal wastewater have focused mainly on Implementation of expensive and energy intensive conventional treatment technologies. especially reeds.6 Let Us Sum Up 15.http://www.1 INTRODUCTION Constructed wetlands offer an attractive alternative to conventional waste water treatment in certain circumstances but removal of phosphorus is strongly dependent on the bed medium. These lagoons are highly aerobic and colonization by native macrophytes. Calcium. After reading this lesson. 2 Lagooning 15.3 Constructed Wetlands 15.clicktoconvert. 15.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson we will discuss about the significance of wetlands in the treatment of wastewater. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in treatment by removing fine particulates.com 182 LESSON – 15: WATER POLLUTION TREATMENT USING CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS CONTENTS 15.3 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS Disposal of untreated urban wastewater has been a major cause of water pollution in India.8 Points for Discussion 15. operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.7 Lesson – End Activities 15.4 General Contaminant Removal 15. is often encouraged.3.

There is a growing Interest to develop and adopt this technology for water pollution control in India as well. surface-flow wetlands move effluent above the soil in a planted marsh or swamp.3.clicktoconvert. appropriate wastewater treatment technologies for water pollution control in our country. Subsurface horizontal- . Natural wetlands act as biofilters. Subsurface. 15. Fig 15. stems. or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance. Different species of aquatic plants have different rates of heavy metal uptake. which often goes beyond the financial grasp of most of our towns and cities.flow systems. or vertically. A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp. and thus can be supported by a wider variety of soil types including bay mud and other silty clays.flow wetlands move effluent (agricultural or mining runoff. or other water to be cleansed) through a gravel or sand medium on which plants are rooted. stormwater runoff or sewage treatment. from the planted layer down through the substrate and out. and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features. tannery or meat processing wastes. and as habitat for wildlife.com 183 'concrete and steel' facilities. removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water. a consideration for plant selection in a constructed wetland used for water treatment.flow wetlands can be further classified as horizontal flow and vertical flow constructed wetlands.1: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands Vegetation in a wetland provides a substrate (roots.performing wastewater treatment technology in many European and American countries. 1 Types of Constructed wetlands Constructed wetlands are of two basic types: subsurface. and leaves) upon which microorganisms can grow as they break down organic materials.http://www. wastewater from sewage or storm drains.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . This community of microorganisms is known as the periphyton. Subsurface. In recent years.flow wetlands. parallel to the surface. and act as a carbon source for the microbes when they decay.flow and surface. The periphyton and natural chemical processes are responsible for approximately 90 percent of pollutant removal and waste breakdown. the effluent may move either horizontally. needs no emphasis. In subsurface. The criticality of cost-effective. constructed wetlands systems have emerged as a low-cost high. The plants remove about seven to ten percent of pollutants. hence. created for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater.

and plants such as cattails (Typha spp. Plantings of reedbeds are popular in European constructed wetlands.4 GENERAL CONTAMINANT REMOVAL Physical. and bulrushes are used worldwide.flow constructed wetlands. all of which provide a high degree of aerobic biological improvement and can often be used instead of secondary treatment for small communities. Phosphorus is coprecipitated with iron. Harmful bacteria and viruses are reduced by filtration and adsorption by biological films on the rock media in subsurface flow and vertical flow systems. A thin aerobic film around each root hair is aerobic due to the leakage of oxygen from the rhizomes. Subsurface. Suspended solids are filtered out as they settle in the water column in surface flow wetlands or are physically filtered out by the medium within subsurface flow wetland cells. Decomposition of organic matter is facilitated by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms present. Microbial nitrification and subsequent denitrification releases nitrogen as gas to the atmosphere. Recent research in use of constructed wetlands for subarctic regions has shown that buckbeans (Menyanthes trifoliata) and pendant grass (Arctophila fulva) are also useful for metals uptake.com 184 flow wetlands are less hospitable to mosquitoes. roots. sedges. and rootlets. Note: a) Please don’t write stories b) Please give your answers in short sentences or phrases ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Theoretically. treatment of wastewater within a constructed wetland occurs as it passes through the wetland medium and the plant rhizosphere. One example is a small reedbed used to clean the drainage from the elephants' enclosure at Chester Zoo in England. aluminum. and biological processes combine in wetlands to remove contaminants from wastewater.). An understanding of these processes is fundamental not only to designing wetland systems but to understanding the fate of chemicals once they have entered the wetland.5 FILTRATION Granular media filtration to remove those suspended and colloidal solids which are carried over from previous unit processes is a common unit process in advanced wastewater . 15. and calcium compounds located in the root-bed medium http://en.http://www. chemical. whose populations can be a problem in constructed wetlands (carnivorous plants have been used to address this problem). Self – check Exercise 1 Mention the role of constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and explain its types.wikipedia._note-1. Constructed wetlands include engineered reedbeds and a range of similar methodologies.flow systems have the advantage of requiring less land area for water treatment.org/wiki/Constructed_wetland . but are not generally as suitable for wildlife habitat as are surface.

Take some water and filter it using a neat and clean cloth. · Discussed about the role of construction wetlands in treating wastewater · Pointed out the types of wetlands · Identified the contaminants removal using constructed wetlands · Explained the techniques of filtration 15. Effluents of less than 10 mg/L BOD and 5 mg/L suspended solids are not uncommon for effluents from biological treatment processes after filtration. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. You can see the contaminants attached to the cloth.clicktoconvert. 15.7 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Substantiate how lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement of wastewater? 3. Often a combination of filter medias. This you can witness even in household levels where the women use this method to filter the drinking water.http://www. Critically examine the process of removing contaminants using constructed wetlands. . As filtration proceeds.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Ideally. Justify the significance of wetlands in treating wastewater 2.com 185 treatment.6 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Described the process of lagooning · Learned the significance of wetlands in the treatment of wastewater. Gravity filters are generally run at 1.5 to 2.5 gpm per square foot. When either the headloss becomes excessive or solids breakthrough occurs. The water passes through the filter media and support gravel and is then collected by the underdrain system. Repeat the process with filter paper. filters are designed to have the solids in the effluent and the headloss reach their allowable levels at the same time. Gravity filters similar to rapid sand filters are sometimes used. 2. Self – check Exercise 2 Explain the process of removing contaminants Note: Please don’t proceed until you attempt to write the answer for the above question. the filter is backwashed. Pressure filters are used to obtain filter rates up to 6 gpm per square foot. This filters contaminants more efficiently than cloth. the headloss through the filter increases until it reaches an unacceptable level or until solids breakthrough occurs and the effluent becomes unacceptable. 4. Evaluate the techniques of filtration. such as anthracite coal and sand are used to provide coarse to fine filtration as the water passes through the filter.8 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1.

Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. S. B. removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .Advances in Environmental Sciences. chemical. . Alagappa Moses. Phosphorus is coprecipitated with iron. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . A and Environmental Studies.A Textbook of Environment.M. Tiruchirappalli. Decomposition of organic matter is facilitated by aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms present.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: MODEL ANSWERS 1. K. Process of removing contaminants Physical. Role of constructed wetlands in treating wastewater. and biological processes combine in wetlands to remove contaminants from wastewater._note-1. Macmillan India Limited. Macmillan India Limited. Microbial nitrification and subsequent denitrification releases nitrogen as gas to the atmosphere. 2000 . Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.M and Deb. M. Tiruchirappalli. created for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater. Mc Graw Hill.Environmental Chemistry. M University Publication. Calcium. Also refer filtration process mentioned in section 15. A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp. aluminum.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructed_wetland . Constructed wetlands offer an attractive alternative to conventional waste water treatment in certain circumstances but removal of phosphorus is strongly dependent on the bed medium. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition.C.C . 2002 Alagappa Moses. iron and aluminium rich solid media are recommended. Suspended solids are filtered out as they settle in the water column in surface flow wetlands or are physically filtered out by the medium within subsurface flow wetland cells. and rootlets. Sharma. 2007 Dash. 2004 Howard. and as habitat for wildlife.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse.http://www. storm water runoff or sewage treatment. 15. Harmful bacteria and viruses are reduced by filtration and adsorption by biological films on the rock media in subsurface flow and vertical flow systems.com 186 15.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Natural wetlands act as biofilters. Sikdar. .clicktoconvert.5. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . roots. K. P. 2003. New Delhi. A and Alice . C GEMS. Emerenshiya. A thin aerobic film around each root hair is aerobic due to the leakage of oxygen from the rhizomes. 2.Ecology. and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these features. and calcium compounds located in the root-bed medium http://en. the last part of this lesson.10 REFERENCES Agrawal. New Delhi. or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance. Meerut.Environmental Engineering. 2004 Kumaraswamy. K. Chennai. New Delhi.

This is becoming more intense with the burgeoning population causing food security problems in developing countries.. socio-economic aspects etc.7 Management and institutional set up 16.10 Points for Discussion 16.2. The main objectives are: 1. .3 Focus on Key Institutional and Policy Changes 16.2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . to analysis the conventional approach and their impact on watershed management and 3.7. protecting the environment is a big challenge for developing nations.6 Participatory watershed management and its evolution 16.5 Paradigm shift 16.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson mainly focuses on how to manage the river basin for optimum utilization of water resource and thereby sustainable development of the society.2. on watershed 2.2 Decision on economic and social aspects 16. and greater emphasis should be given to check the exploitation of the natural resources base.http://www. Soil erosion and land degradation coupled with declining per capita availability of land and freshwater are posing serious threat to environment.com 187 UNIT – IV LESSON – 16: WATERSHED MANAGEMENT CONTNETS 16. Several government and nongovernment agencies have launched watershed development projects to tackle some of these generic problems with the objectives of soil conservation. To know about the impact of various parameters such landuse.clicktoconvert.2 Approaches of Watershed Management 16.4 Weaknesses in the conventional approach 16.1 Decisions on Land use 16.0 Aims and Objectives 16.3 History of watershed development in India 16.1 Introduction 16. to study about the development of watershed management in India 16.1 INTRODUCTION As the international development goals have widened from merely increasing food production to include poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.1 Analysis of the impact of participatory watershed management 16. Hence careful and concerted efforts are needed for efficient and effective management of natural resources for increased productivity of the soils.12 References 16.8 Let Us Sum up 16. improving the land productivity and promoting appropriate technologies for efficient and sustainable use of natural resources.11 Check your Progress – Model Answers 16.9 Lesson – End Activities 16.

instead use words or phrases. decisions at the international. decisions on land use also affect water. Third.2 APPROACHES OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT The key to the success of any watershed project and its sustainability depends on people’s participation. and decisions on water also affect the environment and land use.clicktoconvert. 16. common waterways and residential areas.1 Decisions on Land use Watersheds cover a variety of resources including agricultural land. many watershed projects around the world have not performed well because of the poor community participation. water resources must be viewed holistically. wetlands. affect the hydrology and ecosystems in which humans live. moving to implementation and the project maintenance. A land unit classified as suitable for intensive use may also be used for less intensive activities. many areas in project watersheds are overused and it is these that are causing most of the watershed problems. integrated decision-making that recognises the interdependence in three areas. Local people must play an active role starting from project design. and environmental. agricultural. It is based on physical properties and can be considered as a constant for that unit. Second. groups and other stakeholders are crucial. industrial (including energy). Sustainable management of water resources requires systemic. the roles of community organizations. and these resources have many users. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. decisions on our economic and social future currently organised by socioeconomic sectors and fragmented.2. and local levels are interrelated.com 188 However. . both in their natural state and in balancing competing demands on them—domestic. Ideally no land in a watershed should be used beyond its capacity. national. However. the categories can be used at a micro-spatial level and take into account the great diversity in slopes (angles.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . forests. To ensure their sustainability. In reality. In this context. The categories have been a convenient macro-level planning tool particularly appealing to officials and technicians from outside the areas in question. It is critical to select interventions that match the protective potential of those resources as defined by their land use capacity which is the most intensive use that a land unit will support without being physically degraded. These land use potential categories have traditionally been applied in regional and national land evaluations to define broad and homogeneous units in a landscape. a participatory watershed management approach is considered as the ideal for achieving food security and sustainability. Self-check Exercise – 1 What is watershed management? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. grazing land. First. For achieving the desired participation of people.

that watershed management organisations engage natural resource users to identify local land use classes that reflect their landscape. boundaries can be defined by the issue at hand – whether inscribed within a set of . society at large or diverse external stakeholders (i. stakeholders and methods. It is more important and effective to embrace the principle of the need for farmers and other resource users to identify and agree upon simple criteria by which they can determine the most intensive use of a land unit than to adopt one classification and teach it to farmers. primarily those for soil and water conservation or environmental protection more generally (see analysis by. soil types and mosaics of cultivated and fallowed fields on composite toposequences that characterise most landscapes. If implemented for the benefit of local users. for example. Yet among social scientists and others.2 Decision on economic and social aspects The political ecology of watershed management the recent surge in funding and interest in watershed management must be looked at closely in terms of its political foundations. Often one sees a combination of many land use classes within one dominant land use.e. is needed to define everything from watershed objectives to watershed boundaries. Micro-scale land use capacity assessment need not be complicated. Defining local land use capacity. however. where multiple actors see in the approach a means to accomplish disparate objectives. in patterns that resemble more an archipelago of land uses (or a landscape mosaic) than a solid. Among agronomists. the closer one gets to the level of micro-catchments and villages the more complex the landscapes seem. agricultural. Obviously. It is therefore important.http://www.clicktoconvert. For the water resource sector and policy.com 189 lengths and shapes). Political ecology helps to shed light on how the agendas of different actors in the global system shape how ideas are shaped by political interests and leveraged toward particular ends. in which livelihood concerns are often addressed only to the extent that they help to further conservation goals. even if it takes the form of sketch mapping with local residents as surveyors and tri-dimensional renditions or GIS. 16. conservation or health organizations). whether local users. It is no different within the watershed domain. This has resulted in multiple visions of the ‘‘watershed approach’’. it is seen as a means of scaling out technologies. so that the classifications are as useful as possible for planning at farm level. It does not necessarily require investment in maps and GIS. watershed management is seen as a framework for enhancing collective action and equity in natural resource access and governance. it is viewed as a framework for enabling trans-boundary natural resource management (NRM).2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . single land use type. certainly must reflect local resource interaction practices. ‘‘watershed management for whom?’’ A clarification of the intended beneficiaries. A critical question that we must ask ourselves to unravel the political ecological foundations of watershed management aims and methods (in terms of who benefits and whose agendas are furthered by the approach) is. or livelihood problems that cannot be solved at the level of the farm or household. it is seen as a means for enhancing environmental services and public goods emanating from upper watersheds for the society at large. Among conservationists.makers.

the micro-watershed at other spatial scales. a common approach is to emphasize the integration of disciplines (technical. Participatory problem definition also implies that the relevant boundaries for interventions are not necessarily the ‘‘watershed. food security. comprehensive efforts and improved communications and more direct involvement of local communities. Only by gaining clear answers to this question can a participatory watershed approach be developed. While different people may define integration differently. the process must be integrated. income generation). Participatory. and technical with institutional interventions. administrative units may be equally useful units of analysis and intervention. requires taking into account and working with more factors than the typical farm-based soil conservation or site-specific restoration project. Watershed management necessarily entails coordination.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . A critical question to ask when formulating a participatory watershed management agenda is. While it is increasingly clear that the success of watershed management programs rests on the integration of conservation with livelihood goals. If for scaling out technologies or reforming policies. First. It is therefore essential that any approach integrate an understanding of the principles operating within natural and social systems. ‘‘Why would a farmer want to think beyond the farm level?’’. Effective management of a watershed. it is standard practice for them to engage in dialogue with the leaders and authorities of individual villages to promote soil and water conservation. It must therefore be treated as a hypothetical unit of analysis until participatory diagnosis confirms that problems conform to hydrological boundaries.com 190 contiguous farms. If the aim is water provision for society at large. institutions. Second.3 Focus on Key Institutional and Policy Changes Most implementing organisations watershed management extension efforts focus on technology transfer and environmental education at the level of individual producers and their associations. local governments and other stakeholders in the management of the watershed as . then boundaries become the basin. It is less common for the organisations to communicate regularly with or facilitate the coordination of activities among all the institutions operating in the same target area in order to promote a coordinated approach to watershed management. In this context. however. few programs have effectively achieved such integration in practice. social and institutional dimensions) or objectives (conservation.2.clicktoconvert. a set of neighbouring farms or a particular landscape niche).’’ but perhaps units defined by nonbiophysical parameters (administrative or cultural units) or at other scales (for example. the approach can be qualified through two aims. and how related activities are carried out. beneficiaries and the nature of problems to be addressed. Any attempt to operationalise watershed management must therefore be grounded in a preliminary statement of aims. the process must be participatory in terms of the particular issues to be worked on.http://www. 16. It is even more infrequent for them to go beyond coordination and actually promote policy and institutional changes. integrated watershed management in participatory integrated watershed management.

) which unifies the watershed. municipal and agricultural land and water uses in watersheds. To one extent or another. taxes. To be effective watershed management requires interagency and multi. rights.clicktoconvert.http://www. controls and permits for domestic.use decisions. landslides. This is not only because of the web of chemical recycling and energy flow (water flow. irrigation. hydroelectric plants and other forms of employment that affect the quality of watersheds. fostering an understanding of environmental interactions and taking into account the many government. At the same time. the more serious problem is often enforcement of the policies and rules. therefore. it will require fostering a comprehensive understanding by citizens and governments of the environmental effects and values of land and water use decisions.com 191 a whole. including the operation of public or private water supply and distribution systems. to engage in dialogue with citizens. Implementing organisations should provide information and facilitate experimentation with several methods that may be appropriate to enhance environmental stewardship. It is critical for implementing organisations. Local.fishing. management and evaluation of upland and downstream activities as a whole. including establishing clearer property rights and land use regulations. Assisting government agencies and legislatures with the drafting of the rules can have great impacts. Many laws and regulations are impossible to enforce or open the way to corruption because they are poorly designed.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . etc. fish migration.use and other policies governments directly or indirectly promote or undermine the management of watersheds and the conservation of resources. local governments define and enforce prices. over. religious and customary laws and local norms that regulate access to natural resources. They enforce common law practices or pass legislation against over-grazing. mining.level governments and institutions influence watershed management. This is particularly important in the context of government decentralization and devolution of powers to municipalities and other forms of local government. municipalities or provinces) within the watershed. logging. road and bridge construction. water pollution. However. provincial.and national. and promoting discussions to find ways within a watershed system to make groups more responsible for the impacts they have on other groups.e.user interactions and agreements regarding land. industrial. fines and grants related to the use of natural resources. Increasingly. erosion. local governments regulate zoning. Achieving this type of coordination is a complex undertaking that has often been attempted but seldom satisfactorily accomplished. communities and local governments to promote planning. This should lead to public and open recognition and reconciliation of potential conflicts between natural and political boundaries and acknowledgement of the impacts policies may have on natural resources. Through land. subsidies. nature reserves or protected areas. burning and illegal harvesting of forests and wildlife in common lands. fostering multigovernment coordination groups within watersheds. applying the ‘polluter pays’ principle . This will require bridging several local government and political boundaries (i. It is also because of the confluence of individuals and institutions which impact on the resources of the watershed through agricultural production.

http://www. A watershed is a logical. Hydro logically. perhaps derived from migration. Watersheds with areas up to 1250 hectares were classified as micro-watersheds. . (iv) Gujarat Plains and Hill zone. Watershed programs have been established over a diverse range of rain. part-time trade or handicraft production may make a large contribution to an individual’s or a household’s livelihood. they have divergent potentials and opportunities.fed agro eco regions in India. A decade later. Agricultural land and livestock frequently generate only a portion of rural livelihoods. such as the watershed development program. 16. and (v) Southern zone. and negotiating payments from downstream land and water users for soil and water conservation measures provided by upstream land users. however by the end of the 1980s the situation changed radically. watershed development held no special significance for the development community in India. Depending upon the size of the watersheds. natural planning unit for sustainable agricultural research and development particularly when environmental considerations are emphasized. it became apparent that technical and physical works alone would not lead to the desired objectives of watershed development and it must also take into account the social. whereas the macro-watersheds were those. India began to look at the watershed development programs in the 1970s for increasing land controlling land degradation and increasing the productivity of soils. which are not primarily agrarian or land-based. of greater area. Instead of considering land or water and its potential for development. Other forms of income generation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . These grew from awareness that rural development approaches based purely on agricultural production were insufficient to meet the livelihood needs of the rural and landless poor. attention was given instead to people’s needs and their priorities for development. (ii) Western Himalayan zone. In the 1970s. Due to inherent heterogeneity of agro-climatic characteristics over different regions. Initially watershed projects were concentrating on soil and water conservation issues.3 HISTORY OF WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA The development of ideas on sustainable livelihoods was witnessed during 1990s.com 192 (particularly for better-off resource users) and/or providing rewards for good environmental stewardship to discourage downstream pollution by upstream polluters. watershed could be defined as an area from which the runoff drains through a particular point in the drainage system. financial and institutional aspects of rural development. Watersheds in India are broadly grouped into five agroclimatic zones: (i) Trans-Gangetic Plain zone. (iii) Western Plateau and Hill zone.clicktoconvert. which is challenging for land based development projects. these are broadly divided into micro and macro watersheds.

instead use words or phrases. This produced a mismatch between local population and outside watershed project managers and no flow of information between land users and other key actors such as researchers. planners and policy makers etc. Self-check Exercise – 2 Write the sequences of watershed development in India. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. which aimed to tackle the concerns related to the realisation of the full benefits of watershed work. priority of watershed management was given to the Biophysical frame work of watershed which is often based on top-down approach.4 WEAKNESSES IN THE CONVENTIONAL APPROACH The traditional system of natural resource use in rural communities has significantly evolved over the years. Another key weakness is ignoring local knowledge on local soil types and conditions for suitability of technology to the specific soil while designing and implementation of the projects. partnerships with NGOs.up planning. User participation has a lot of implications for watershed management and research. A major challenge in the traditional watershed management approach was the assumption of technology transfer instead of development of technology on peoples land and their surroundings. bottom. Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. such as awareness raising.clicktoconvert. government of India has spent over US $3. and community participation. In the past. Currently about US $200 million is allocating annually for watershed development in India. Since 1994-95 Ministry of rural areas and employment.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Another important weakness was regarding the training and research where the major responsibility for training has been given to agricultural research institutions and agricultural universities. This progressive policy was essentially people-centred and it incorporated good practice from NGO and government policy. the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) of the GoI produced a set of guidelines for implementing its watershed programmes. which resulted in failure of projects in achieving the project goals. There was hardly any scope for learning in the traditional approach and there would be tendency towards giving priority to the biophysical frame work of watersheds justified a topdown planning approach. Watershed projects are more efficient and effective when users are given a role in managing their own watershed resources. However in the traditional system. local people were not often consulted in the design of top-down approach. It would be better to adopt on-farm research trails for watershed projects designed . Planning in the traditional system was often based on the capacity of land rather than needs and capacities of local people. which are sounds in technical aspect of watershed but are weak in social science aspects of the institution building as well as forging links with non-farm sector to generate value added products from watersheds.com 193 In 1994.5 billion and implemented nearly 10000 watersheds.

With allocation of more funds for watershed development. The concept of participatory watershed management emphasizes an inter-disciplinary. Realizing this. soil and water conservation measures. 16. which is essential for sustainability”. several non. In the conventional approach people’s participation often limited to project implementation stage and no focus on institutional building for long term collective management of resources.governmental organizations came forward to aggressively participate in implementing the watershed programs.farm research will provide an interactive mode so that both scientists and farmers can decide on the conduct of trials and technology to be tested. like zilla parishads (district revenue administrative units). This top-down approach was not conducive for including the stakeholder’s participation in designing the programs that are targeted to their improvement. This paradigm shift was expected to contribute towards more decentralized governance and increased participatory approaches to natural resource management that will rise to face the new challenges by strengthening the capacity of local people.http://www. Participatory watershed management has been defined as a process “which aims to create a self-supporting system. inter-sectoral and multi institutional mechanism. 16. participatory watershed management has roots in the non-government sector that go back nearly as far as the government programs. In India. This concept came widely into practice in late 1980s and over the time peoples' institutions. Such watershed projects often failed to achieve the intended targets in the absence of people’s participation. Participatory watershed management provides opportunities to the stakeholders to jointly negotiate their interests. The seeds of the participatory watershed management can be traced to a small village called Ralegan siddhi in Maharshtra state of India. a local leader was responsible for bringing many social changes in the village particularly soil and water . and active participation of stakeholders in the research that is important for successful adoption of technology. implement and monitor the outcomes. self help groups. set priorities.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . scientists and other stakeholders. and watershedimplementing committees were gradually involved in the project management system.5 PARADIGM SHIFT Earlier resources were allocated by the central and state governments for watershed development and which are supply driven. Farmer participation in the on.com 194 and implemented jointly by users. Anna Hazare. In many watersheds excessive emphasis on engineering structures.6 PARTICIPATORY WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND ITS EVOLUTION Participatory watershed management has emerged as a new paradigm for sustainable rural livelihoods and it occupied the central-stage of rural development in the fragile and semiarid environments of the developing nations. evaluate opportunities. There was lot of mismatch between the needs of the stakeholders and the activities for implementation of watershed development.clicktoconvert. participatory watershed management has emerged as a new paradigm for watershed development in India.

They appoint watershed Development Advisory Committee to advice on issues like selection of villages. The series of steps followed for forming watershed committees are presented below. instead use words or phrases. training and monitoring. It is now widely accepted that the communities must participate to enhance the productivity of natural resources in a sustainable fashion.com 195 conservation measures besides family planning. a ban on alcohol. Management of watershed development in India evolved significantly over the past there decades. In 1994-95 Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment. respectively. Government of India came up with district guidelines to achieve multiple objectives including productive.clicktoconvert. social. easy and affordable solutions and social condition of the resource poor. In late 1980s there were some significant changes looking beyond soil and water conservation to include improving the productivity of natural resources. the operational procedures and provide sufficient operational flexibility at State. The present guidelines outline the various implementation stages of the watershed development projects. This ultimately led to people participation in watershed management and the evolution of participatory watershed management looking beyond just the biophysical aspects to also focus on social and institutional aspects following a bottom up approach. PIAs (Project Implementation Agencies) are selected by the DRDA and the programs requires . The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) or Zilla Parishad (ZP—district level council) was made responsible for the overall responsibility for program implementation in the concerned district. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. Self-check Exercise – 3 Write about participatory watershed management.http://www. the main concentration was largely on biophysical criteria. protection of non arable lands against open grazing and felling of trees and voluntary labor for community welfare and other measures which helped in restoring natural resources base of the village. employment generation and development of other economic resources in the village. ecological or environmental and equity issues to achieve optimum utilization of the watershed’s natural resources. District and Project levels to enable them to respond to differing situations and aspirations of the village community. Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The 1994 Guidelines assumed new arrangements for allocating funds and managing projects.7 MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL SET UP The management structure and the institutional setup appears to be complex and it is better to look at the institutional arrangements in implementing participatory watershed development program for understanding the impact of participatory watershed management better. During the 1970s to early 1980s.

This leads to the development of a watershed development plan. to assist watershed committees. Several useful studies have been conducted to assess the contribution of participatory watershed programs and the results from these studies are discussed here. The Watershed Association (WA) represents all members of the community who are directly or indirectly associated with the watershed. many developing countries have adopted watershed development approach as part of their rural development strategy. the gram panchayat (elected village assembly) and the WDT.clicktoconvert. These watershed programs are supported by National governments and also by some international donors. soil scientists etc. The WDT works closely with the rural communities in planning and implementing the watershed program. drought rural unemployment and poverty.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Funds flow directly from central Government and state government to the DRDA/ZP. Many studies revealed that participatory watershed projects had a positive impact on crop productivity. Each WDT is expected to handle 10 micro watersheds. Most of the watershed projects were launched for the following purposes: • Raising farm income • Enhancing agricultural productivity • Soil and water conservation • Generating rural employment • Reducing risk by diversifying crops in rain fed areas. extensively undertaking the watershed development programs in the dry and semi-arid regions as a means of addressing soil erosion. Due . Watershed programs were initiated over a wide range of agro e c o -regions of India. containing details of various activities. 16. raise agricultural productivity and conserve soil and water resources through the process of participatory watershed management. The new paradigm shift in watershed development focused on achieving the overall goal of enhancing sustainable rural livelihoods for reducing the incidence of rural poverty. The plan is approved by the WA and then submitted to the DRDA through the PIA. The WA appoints a watershed committee (WC) consisting of representatives of user groups. These new guidelines also aim to promote up gradation and adoption of low cost local technologies and materials and emphasize the importance of people's participation in the programs and the need to improve technical as well as management skills of project staff and the village community.7.com 196 formation of Watershed Development Teams (WDT) of technical experts like civil or agriculture engineers. Partnership based community participation is central to the watershed program and the guidelines lay down a detailed planning process.http://www. self help groups.1 Analysis of the impact of participatory watershed management In recent years. The guidelines also encourage the involvement of users groups (UGs) and self help groups (SHGs). Each team is expected to conduct a participatory rural appraisal to identify potential programs and concerned user groups. lists of user groups. funding requirements and users’ contributions. Secretary from each committee is responsible for maintaining accounts and records. For example the Government of India with the help of external donors. It was anticipated that watershed programs would augment farm income. agronomists.

diversified cropping pattern including cultivation of labor intensive vegetable crops and other horticultural crops. Due to the watershed programs cropping intensity will be increased significantly and it is observed that cropping intensity is increased by 13-25%. Another important impact of watershed development was its impact on controlling soil erosion.fed crops (e.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .g.fed crops. and increasing the ground water recharge. Thus watershed programs also contributed towards checking migration of rural people to the urban areas.fed areas which contributes to increased farm income and better livelihoods of the poor in fragile and high risk environments. and the labor intensive crops grown in that region. This migration has greater concern for planning and devising rural development strategies.http://www. This additional employment generation from a watershed program varies across regions depending on the cropping intensity. agricultural productivity. This improved soil moisture will open new opportunities for diversifying farming activities in rain. It is increasingly recognized that community participation was central to watershed development.com 197 to increased irrigated area under watershed area helped in increasing crop productivity. increasing cropping intensity. soybeans and legumes) increased by as much as by 280%. generating employment and conserving soil and water resources. Productivity gains were reported to be greater in case of rain.clicktoconvert. This additional employment generation in the villages led to minimizing migration of landless and other labor. Soil and water conservation measures adopted in the watershed development projects were helpful in augmenting water storage capacity and improving local water resources by reducing the rate of runoff.fed areas. This was due to the increased availability of water resources. This effect was more significant in case of rain. · It has been noted that participatory watershed management projects have been raising income. Watershed development projects have greater potential to generate employment opportunities to the rural people. This information suggests that participatory watershed management programs made significant impact in terms of productivity gains in rain. Many studies have revealed that watershed development interventions were successful in controlling soil erosion. Government of India. India’s watershed development project is seen as flagship project of Ministry of Rural development. Average yields of rain.fed areas as dry lands are more prone to erosion compared to the irrigated lands. · Watershed management in India has undergone dramatic change to include greater stakeholder’s participation for management of natural resources in a sustainable way. development of new institutions. . The watershed programs have also helped in improving soil moisture content. · Evidence from the three case studies and other general impact studies suggests that watershed development brought several positive trends including diversification of the rural economy. 16.8 LET US SUM UP · The participatory watershed management is a critical area of rural development that could support rural people in many ways. More participatory approaches have achieved greater success in enhancing livelihoods in an equitable fashion. Many farmers in the watershed development area reported an increase in soil moisture level.

9 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES · We all live in a watershed. Initially watershed projects were concentrating on soil and water conservation issues. Third. socio-economic aspects etc. affect the hydrology and ecosystems in which humans live. Critically examine the development of watershed management in India 16. A decade later. First. it has been suggested that participatory watershed management could be a viable strategy of rural development for achieving sustainable rural livelihoods in India. Based on the evidence found. increased availability of drinking water with rising ground water table. Sequences of watershed development in India India began to look at the watershed development programs in the 1970s for increasing land controlling land degradation and increasing the productivity of soils. · 16. Evaluate the conventional approach and their impact on watershed management and 3. Participatory watershed management Participatory watershed management has emerged as a new paradigm for sustainable rural livelihoods and it occupied the central-stage of rural development in the fragile and semiarid environments of the developing nations. inter-sectoral and multi institutional mechanism. national. however by the end of the 1980s the situation changed radically.clicktoconvert. integrated decisionmaking that recognises the interdependence in three areas. 2. The concept of participatory watershed management emphasizes an inter-disciplinary.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and decisions on water also affect the environment and land use. Necessity of water shed management Sustainable management of water resources requires systemic. decisions at the international. on watershed 2. Watershed programs have been established over a diverse range of rain. and local levels are interrelated. improved fodder production. Justify the impact of various parameters such landuse. identify your watershed and claim that you belong to a watershed that is near to you. decisions on our economic and social future currently organised by socioeconomic sectors and fragmented.. Participatory watershed management has been defined as a process “which aims .10 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. decisions on land use also affect water. it became apparent that technical and physical works alone would not lead to the desired objectives of watershed development and it must also take into account the social. In the 1970s. capacity development of the community etc. watershed development held no special significance for the development community in India.11 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Second.com 198 Increasing cropping intensity. For agro climatic zones of India refer section 16.3 3. · List down the problems faced in your watershed such as point and non-point sources of pollution 16.fed agro eco regions in India. financial and institutional aspects of rural development.

Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. C Budumuru Yoganand and Tesfa G.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Gebremedhin Dash. M Howard.A Textbook of Environment.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .Ecology. Tiruchirappalli.Environmental Engineering.C . 2007 . set priorities. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. M.C.“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005” Why. K. Sikdar. New Delhi. 2004 .6 16. P. 2004 Environmental Studies. Alagappa Moses. What and How? (2004). New Delhi.clicktoconvert. implement and monitor the outcomes. B. 2002 . Torkil Jønch-Clausen . United Nation Development Programme .M and Deb. Meerut. Macmillan India Limited. K.M. Further refer section 16. A and Alice Emerenshiya. Macmillan India Limited.Advances in Environmental Sciences. S.com 199 to create a self-supporting system. 2002 . which is essential for sustainability”. Participatory watershed management provides opportunities to the stakeholders to jointly negotiate their interests. . Alagappa Moses.bharathidasan University Publication.Training Manual and Operational Guide (2005). Chennai. .Participatory Watershed Management for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India (2006). GEMS. Tiruchirappalli. published by Global Water Partnership. evaluate opportunities. by.http://www. A and Vasanthy.12 REFERENCES Agrawal. 2003. Mc Graw Hill. K. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.Environmental Chemistry. Kumaraswamy. Peavy and Tchobanogloss Integrated Water Resources Management Plans Metcalf and Eddy Sharma. 2000 . New Delhi.

com 200 LESSON -17: CONCEPTS AND FRAME WORK CONTENTS 17.7.1 National. and withdrawal levels vary widely.1 Need for a comprehensive framework 17.4.4.4.2.7. The objectives of the lesson are: 1.6 Designing country programs 17.11 Lesson – End Activities 17.4 Water-conserving technology 17.4.5 Environmental protection 17.4 Policy implications 17.5 Watershed Management in India 17.2 State Government 17.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim of this lesson to know about the problem associated with water resource management and the policy and framework for overcome these problems.13 Check your Progress – Model Answers 17.4.3 Institutional and regulatory systems 17.1 Introduction 17.10 Let Us Sum up 17.7 Issues in Water Supply 17.14 References 17.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www.7.2 Country focus of the policy 17.clicktoconvert.8 Factors affecting the functioning of Institutions 17.9 Overcoming Institutional Challenges 17.6. with an annual flow about fifty times the normal stock held in lakes.3 Water policy objectives 17.2 State.5. and reservoirs.9.1 Introduction 17.2 A Framework for Improving Water Resource Management 17.2 A comprehensive analytical framework 17. to know about the water resource management in India 17.level 17.0 Aims and Objectives 17.4.1 The World Bank Policy 17. Annual precipitation can be highly variable.1 Steps to overcome these challenges 17.2. to state the problems associated with water resource management 2. rivers.level 17.3 Field level 17. The same area can experience drought one year and floods the next.12 Points for Discussion 17. to study the framework and policy for water resource management and 3.6.1 INTRODUCTION Precipitation is the primary source of freshwater. Precipitation per capita is highest in Latin America and the Caribbean .6 Water Management and Water Services in India 17.1 Central Government 17.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

201 and lowest in the Middle East and North Africa. Withdrawals are highest in North America and lowest in Africa. Twenty-two countries today have renewable water resources of less than 1,000 cubic meters per capita, a level commonly taken to indicate a severe scarcity of water. An additional eighteen countries have less than 2,000 cubic meters per capita on average (dangerously little in years of short rainfall), and these levels are projected to decline further as population expands. Elsewhere, water scarcity is less of a problem at the national level, but it is nevertheless severe in certain regions, at certain times of the year, and during periods of drought. Worldwide, agriculture is by far the largest user of water: 69 percent is used by agriculture compared with 23 percent by industry and 8 percent by households. But in developing countries the share used by agriculture is even higher: 80 percent. Water is an increasingly scarce resource requiring careful economic and environmental management. The situation is exacerbating by rapid population growth and urbanization in developing countries. As the demand for water for human and industrial use has escalated, so has the competition for water used for irrigated agriculture. At the same time, the engineering and environmental costs are much higher for new water supplies than for sources already tapped. New challenges call for a new approach. Governments have often misallocated and wasted water, as well as permitted damage to the environment, as a result of institutional weaknesses, market failures, distorted policies, and misguided investments. Three problems in particular need to be addressed: * Fragmented public investment programming and sector management that have failed to take account of the interdependencies among agencies, jurisdictions, and sectors. * Excessive reliance on overextended government agencies that have neglected the need for economic pricing, financial accountability, and user participation and have not provided services effectively to the poor. * Public investments and regulations that have neglected water quality, health, and environmental concerns. To manage water resources more effectively, a balanced set of policies and institutional reforms should be sought that will both harness the efficiency of market forces and strengthen the capacity of governments to carry out their essential roles. 17.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The proposed new approach to managing water resources builds on the lessons of experience. At its core are the adoption of a comprehensive policy framework and the treatment of water as an economic good, combined with decentralized management and delivery structures, greater reliance on pricing, and fuller participation by stakeholders. The proposed approach is consistent with the Dublin Statement (1992) from the International Conference on Water and the Environment as well as with Agenda 21 from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. 17.2.1 Need for a comprehensive framework The adoption of a comprehensive framework for analyzing policies and options would help guide decisions about managing water resources in countries where significant problems exist, or are emerging, concerning the scarcity of water, the efficiency of service, the

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

202 allocation of water, or environmental damage. The complexity of the analysis would vary according to the country's capacity and circumstances, but relatively simple frameworks can often clarify priority issues. The framework would facilitate the consideration of relationships between the ecosystem and socioeconomic activities in river basins. The analysis should take account of social, environmental, and economic objectives; evaluate the status of water resources within each basin; and assess the level and composition of projected demand. Special attention should be given to the views of all stakeholders. The results of the analyses at a river basin level would become part of the national strategy for water resource management. The analytical framework would provide the supporting structure for formulating public policies on regulations, incentives, public investment plans, and environmental protection and on the inter- linkages among them. It would establish the parameters, ground rules, and price signals for decentralized implementation by government agencies and the private sector. Decentralizing the delivery of water services and adopting pricing that induces efficient use of water are key elements of sound water resource management. But, for decentralized management to be effective, a supportive legal framework and adequate regulatory capacity are required, as well as a system of water charges to endow water entities with operational and financial autonomy for efficient and sustainable delivery of services. 17.2.2 Country focus of the policy The comprehensive analytical framework outlined above will need to be tailored to the situations and constraints facing individual countries. Many of the countries with limited renewable water resources are in the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, and SubSaharan Africa, where populations are growing fastest. Elsewhere, water scarcity may be less of a problem at the national level but is nevertheless severe in many areas such as in northern China, western and southern India, western South America, and large parts of Pakistan and Mexico. For some countries, such as those in Eastern Europe, pollution is the largest problem affecting water resources. In much of Africa, implementation capacity is a critical issue exacerbated by the frequency of prolonged droughts. In some countries, water resource management is not yet a significant problem. These differences among regions and countries will shape the design of strategies and programs for a given country. Self-check Exercise – 1 Write about the framework for improving water resources management? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements; instead use words or phrases. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

203

17.3 WATER POLICY OBJECTIVES Differences among countries notwithstanding, water resource management that follows the principles of comprehensive analysis, opportunity cost pricing, decentralization, stakeholder participation, and environmental protection outlined in this volume will yield more coherent policies and investments across sectors, promote conservation, and improve the efficiency of water allocation. The objective is to achieve, over time, the following improvements: * For industry, extensive water conservation and protection of groundwater sources. Experience in industrial countries suggests that controlling pollution will also substantially reduce the quantity of water used per unit of industrial output. * For water supply and sanitation, more efficient and accessible delivery of water services and sewage collection, treatment, and disposal, with the ultimate goal of providing universal coverage. This will be achieved by extending existing supplies through water conservation and reuse and by using other sustainable methods. Greater involvement of the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and user groups will be required, as will cost recovery to ensure financial viability while applying graduated fees to assist the poor. * For irrigation and hydropower, modernized irrigation practices, greater attention to cost recovery, drainage and salinity control, measures to reduce pollution from agricultural activities, improvements in operation and maintenance of existing systems, and investments in small-scale irrigation and various water-harvesting methods. This calls for the development of institutions and technologies that respond to the needs of farmers for higher quality services, including greater participation of community groups and user associations, while reinforcing the efficient management of demand. Particular attention will be given to the needs of small scale farmers, who comprise most of the agricultural community. Greater priority should be given to managing the demand for energy, identifying small scale and renewable energy alternatives, promoting watershed conservation practices, and retrofitting and enhancing dam facilities. * For the environment and poverty alleviation, more rigorous attention to minimizing resettlement, maintaining biodiversity, and protecting ecosystems in the design and implementation of water projects. Water and energy supplies gained through conservation and improved efficiency can be used instead of developing new supplies to extend service to the poor and maintain water-dependent ecosystems. Low-cost and environmentally benign methods of developing new water supplies for agriculture, rural drinking water, and industry will be pursued. The water supply needs of rivers, wetlands, and fisheries will be considered in decisions concerning the operation of reservoirs and the allocation of water. Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the types of water policies? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements; instead use words or phrases. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

204

17.4 POLICY IMPLICATIONS For the interventions to have a positive impact on watershed conditions, the general principles are: Concentrate on contiguous sites defined by the threats to the landscape, chances of success and cost-effectiveness of the investment, where landscape and economic improvement will be self-evident. · Include all stakeholders in watershed management rather than only the poor farmers in the target areas, as is the current practice among most development organisations. · Select preventive rather than curative activities, and base them on land use capacity and income generating potential for maximum cost-effectiveness. · Treat farmers, large and small, as informed clients to whom development organisations are accountable and who are capable of deciding what is good for them in the light of their resources, priorities and values. 17.4.1 The World Bank Policy The Bank's includes every objective is to reduce poverty by supporting the efforts of countries to promote equitable, efficient, and sustainable development. This involve support for the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities, flood control, and water for productive activities in an economically viable, environmentally sustainable, and socially equitable manner. The new approach is designed to help countries achieve these objectives more effectively while sustaining the water environment and the Bank will support member governments to that end. The Bank will give priority to countries where water is scarce or where the problems of water allocation, service efficiency, or environmental degradation are serious. In these countries, through its economic and sector work, lending, and participation in international initiatives, the Bank will promote policy reforms, institutional adaptation and capacity building, environmental protection and restoration, and when requested, cooperation in the management of international watercourses. Because of the crucial interdependencies between water and other sectors, the Bank will incorporate water resource policy and management issues in its country policy dialogues and in the formulation of country assistance strategies where water issues are considered to be significant. 17.4.2 A comprehensive analytical framework The Bank will encourage and, when requested, selectively help countries develop a systematic analytical framework for managing water resources that is suitable for a country's needs, resources, and capacities. The framework will be designed so that options for public water management can be evaluated and compared in the context of a national water strategy that incorporates the interdependencies between water and land use. It will enable coherent, consistent policies and regulations to be adopted across sectors. To facilitate the introduction of such a framework, the Bank is ready to support capacity building through training, demonstrating participatory techniques, and helping in water resource assessments. The Bank will also promote the creation, .enhancement, and use of hydrologic, hydro-geologic, socioeconomic, water quality, and environmental data bases for both groundwater and ·

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

205 surface water, as well as help governments effectively use this information in decision making. 17.4.3 Institutional and regulatory systems The reform of water resource management policies will have implications for the institutions dealing with water resources. The Bank will assist governments in establishing a strong legal and regulatory framework for dealing with the pricing, monopoly organizations, environmental protection, and other aspects of water management. Similarly, the Bank will support the adaptation of institutional structures at the national and regional levels to coordinate the formulation and implementation of policies for improved water management, public investment programs, and drought planning. In many countries, institutional reform will focus on river basins as the appropriate unit for analysis and coordinated management. Such coordinating arrangements are particularly important in countries with federal structures, in which provincial or state governments have primary authority over the management of water resources in their jurisdictions. In such countries, before committing funds to support operations that have important interstate effects, the Bank will require legislation or other appropriate arrangements to establish effective coordination and agreed procedures for allocating water. The Bank will also use water resources sector loans to coordinate water resource activities across sectors. 17.4.4 Water-conserving technology An important element in any strategy to conserve water will be incentives for adopting technologies and management approaches that increase the efficient use, allocation, and distribution of water. Such technologies and management approaches will make it easier to conserve water, to increase the efficiency of water use and conveyance, and to reuse wastewater. As water scarcity and waste disposal problems become more acute, adopting and improving water conservation practices, wastewater reuse systems, and overall approaches to reduce pollution will become increasingly important. 17.4.5 Environmental protection Preservation of the environment and the resource base are essential for sustainable development. The protection, enhancement, and restoration of water quality and the abatement of water pollution will therefore be a focus of Bank-supported operations, particularly since providing safe drinking water is so critical to maintaining and improving human health. Accordingly, the Bank will increase its support of government efforts to improve and expand sanitation and the collection and treatment of wastewater. Similarly, the Bank will promote the use of efficiency pricing and "the-polluter-pays" principle through the imposition of pollution charges to encourage water conservation and reduce pollution. For industrial waste, mining runoff, and wastewater discharges, a balanced strategy involving economic incentives, effective legislation and regulatory systems, and guidelines for levels of pollution control will be used to reduce effluents at the source especially toxic substancesand to stimulate reuse. For pollution originating from agricultural activities, the Bank will support initiatives that restore and protect surface and subsurface waters degraded by

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

206 agricultural pollutants and that minimize soil erosion. The Bank will assist governments in developing strategies and cost-effective mechanisms for the ecologically sustainable management, protection, and restoration of recharge areas and water-dependent ecosystems, such as wetlands, riverine floodplain areas, estuaries, and coastal zones. Investments that involve resettlement should be avoided or minimized, and, where resettlement is necessary, former incomes and living standards should be restored or improved. Given the increasing importance of groundwater, especially in arid and semiarid areas, the Bank will pay attention to the linkages between ground and surface water in managing river basins and will support the establishment of government programs and policies, including land use policies, which restore and protect the quality of groundwater and preserve groundwater recharge areas. 17.4.6 Designing country programs Countries differ in their water requirements and endowments, their poverty profiles, their institutional capacities, and the problems they face from environmental degradation. Thus, the design of relevant reforms, and the time frame for implementation, will need to be developed and evaluated case by case. Nonetheless, introducing the recommended reforms will typically entail difficult political choices, and commitments by governments will therefore be essential. Given the present status of water resource management and institutions in many countries, implementing the necessary changes will take time. Accordingly, * In countries with significant water management problems, the Bank will, in collaboration with other international and national agencies, assist governments through sector work, technical assistance, and environmental action plans in identifying and formulating priority policy and institutional reforms and investments and in determining their appropriate sequencing. These priorities-and the degree of government commitment to them-will be highlighted in the country assistance strategy and will guide the sectoral lending program. * The priority reforms and activities to be addressed in analytic work and referred to in the country assistance strategy will deal with issues such as, (a) Incentive framework and pricing, (b) Service delivery to the poor, (c) Public investment priorities, (d) Environmental restoration and protection, (e) Water resource assessment and data requirements, (f) Comprehensive analytical framework, and (g) Legislation, institutional structures, and capacities. Assessing the degree of government commitment to implementing the requisite reforms will be an important part of the analysis. · Progress in implementing the identified priorities will be monitored through normal Bank interactions with the country. When inadequate progress on priority actions is judged to cause serious misuse of resources and to hamper the viability of waterrelated investments, Bank lending in this area will be limited to providing potable water to poor households and to operations designed to conserve water and protect its quality without additionally drawing on a country's water resources. Such operations include sanitation, waste treatment, water reuse and recycling, abatement of water

In fifty years of independence. water management has been a government priority for several centuries. and financial autonomy and sustainability will receive particular attention. with various rulers. investment. the Indian government developed the country’s water resources further and today the scope for expanding surface and ground water sources is rather limited. Although there are several points of contrast between the two cases. . resulting in increased food per capita. within an overall context of integrated water resource management in the country as a whole. including increased competition and an imperative to improve water productivity in order to maintain growth in the agricultural economy. Increased food production has required rapid expansion of irrigated area and water diversion to agriculture. Water resources analysis in regions experiencing closure should be carried out in a basin context.5. which has resulted in groundwater overdraft and stream flow depletion in some basins. The issue here is thus the better management of existing water resources.1 Introduction Food production increased markedly in many parts of the world during the twentieth century. most likely a river basin. The rationale for institutional arrangements for implementation. The analysis of operations will include an assessment of the implications for other water. one common point is the emphasis on local.using sub sectors within the relevant regional setting. with local government institutions and communities working together to improve access to water supplies. which may impact water availability and introduce additional uncertainties. particularly the division of responsibilities between · 17. Basin closure also occurs in the context of global climate change. and rehabilitation of the distribution systems. cost recovery. from the Mughals to the British and the smaller Princely States paying great attention to irrigation and drinking water supplies. drainage. through a judicious mix of delegation of responsibility and authority to local institutions and large-scale investment in re-directing surplus water to deficit areas. Relevant pricing issues.com 207 pollution. although it does not specify quantities. These investments will be assessed on their individual merits.clicktoconvert. 17. the rate of growth of food production surpassed the rate of population growth.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Individual water lending operations should discuss the linkage top priorities for reform.http://www. because uses in one area affect water availability in downstream areas.level management of water resources. though significant problems of malnutrition and distribution remain. In India.6 WATER MANAGEMENT AND WATER SERVICES IN INDIA Policy and Institutional Framework The Indian Constitution also enshrines the right to adequate potable water. In India.5 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 17. Water scarcity resulting from basin closure has numerous implications for water management. and Bank support as well as the likely impact of the overall water-related program.

1).This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. coordination and guidance in the sector of water resources (see Table 17. the Table 17.1 Central Government Although the Ministry of Water Resources in charge of overall planning.com 208 17.clicktoconvert.6.1: Functions of the Ministry of Water Resources .

Table 17.http://www.com 209 Department of Drinking Water Supply is in the Ministry of Rural Development (MORD).2). the Drought-Prone Areas Programme (DPAP) and the Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP). including building check dams and water harvesting structures (see Table 17. which carries out water resource development activities.clicktoconvert.2: Functions of the Ministry of Rural Development . In addition. the Department of Land Resources (DOLR) in the MORD is in charge of watershed-based rural development programmes such as the Desert Development Programme (DDP).This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

while the Department of Panchayati Raj and Rural Development. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka (see also Table 17. the Department of Irrigation is in charge of developing and maintaining major. which are implemented by state governments with a 100% grant from the central government.3: Functions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation 17. the Department of Environment.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Science and Technology and the Department of Agriculture implement watershedbased development programmes (see Annexure 1 for more details). medium and minor irrigation projects as well as groundwater development. Forests. the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation (MOAC) also funds and implements watershed-based development programmes such as the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) and the Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas (WDPSCA). Within States.http://www. etc.com 210 In addition. the Karnataka Watershed Development Project. the Department of Finance and Planning overseas the work of the state remote sensing agency.clicktoconvert. the State government also implements some schemes where they share the costs with the Central Government. besides externally aided projects like the Integrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP-Hills-Phase II). . In addition.6.3). afforestation. Ramanathapuram (Tamil Nadu). Table 17. which is in charge of investigating and proposing areas in the state for water management.2 State Government In addition to centrally sponsored schemes. Koraput (Orissa). and Comprehensive Watershed Development Projects in Tirunelveli (Tamil Nadu).

maintenance and management of every irrigation source (e. the State Department of Agriculture does not deal with water – but recently. allocation and use. Instead. they follow narrow sectoral objectives.. it has been brought under the purview of the Water Conservation Mission (permanent invitee to its meetings).). making drought-prone areas less vulnerable to droughts. Surprisingly..This watermark does not appear in the registered version .g. watershed-based poverty alleviation.3 Field level Lack of Field-level Coordination: Despite an innovative state. etc. canal.7.http://www. directly or indirectly. forestry. etc.7 ISSUES IN WATER SUPPLY Despite the fairly impressive array of government initiatives for water resource development and poverty alleviation. etc.g.). 17. there is little overlap with similar field level bodies being promoted by other programmes (e. river.level Act (Government of AP) dealing with the Constitution and Election of Water Users Association (circa. 1997). under the insistence of the Chief Minister. their implementation has raised several issues.g. government institutions have been formed on Departmental lines and not to implement a coordinated vision of (or vision of) resource development.) and no local presence to influence local level management of water resources. farmer involvement in irrigation management. irrigation).. to guide resource development.clicktoconvert.. both in terms of content and institutions. Participatory Irrigation Management groups promoted by the MoWR. ‘sound watershed management’ to control floods. Lack of coordination within Government: There are several ministries and departments dealing with water. Disjunction of Institutional Responsibility: National Water Act makes recommendations for water use at local level (e. 17. Watershed Associations and Watershed Committees of the watershed programme.but no link with sectors and their institutions working explicitly on drought-prone areas (e. shift to less water intensive land uses..8 FACTORS AFFECTING THE FUNCTIONING OF INSTITUTIONS Undue Political Interference: Several politicians harass officials for a ‘cut’ of the funds allocated for development of large government projects (e. power sector reforms. and derail .) . without reference to (or without feeling the need to consult) other departments working in related sectors.g. especially with regard to water supply and management at the local level. 17. but more coordination is required both between Departments within the same Ministry and also between Ministries.7. tank.com 211 17. 17. etc.7.1 National-level Lack of visioning and integrated policy: There is a lack of integrated policy at the central and state levels. which is a field level body dealing with the development.2 State-level Institutional development on sectoral lines: Historically.g.

http://www. Long delay in implementing planned irrigation projects: A combination of a lack of sufficient fund allocation (despite a higher agreed budget) and political conflicts over water rights and allocations have caused a large number of sanctioned irrigation projects to proceed slowly and hence overshoot their estimated costs due to inflation.g. The contractor who gets the bid either shares the proceeds with the others. Upright bureaucrats. Non-availability of good NGOs: Although there are good NGOs who have the competence and experience to do community level mobilisation and encourage people’s participation.com 212 planned work and/or victimize government officials (e.. to counter the problem of favouritism and over. are sometime taken up for implementation purely for political considerations.level pollution in existing water bodies in different watersheds in the state. forest management. This has led not only to continued hardship to the expected beneficiaries (and the frustration due to unfulfilled expectations). officials are often forced to implement the scheme – leading to further problems or incompletion.. This leads to dangerous construction. The awardee will also have to share the proceeds with local politicians and government officials.). etc. in schemes where people’s participation is stipulated (e.invoicing. with punitive transfers) if their demands are not accommodated.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . environmental) clearances. or shares the benefit by awarding sub-contracts. there are several NGOs who are given charge of doing similar work.g.clicktoconvert. water supply schemes) which do not have assured water in the source.. to identify areas where . and collapsing structures. but also to a lack of belief in governmental and political promises.g. Low quality constructions: Institutionalised corruption (where contractors. or which do not have favourable cost benefit ratios. Non-viable and Unplanned Schemes: Schemes (e. are victimised – often with allegations of corruption Contractor cartels to counter tendering: Even the standard government practice of calling for sealed tenders for large-scale government construction projects. schemes are announced by politicians and even foundations stones are laid. irrigation management. The consequence is a lack of adequate community involvement on the ground (as opposed to on paper). Due to political compulsions. corrupt politicians and bureaucrats inflate costs of new proposals as well.. pay bribes to get contracts) has led to poor quality construction as these contractors try to reduce the quality of construction (e. but do not have the required competence to carry out their stipulated functions.. for instance.g. Water Quality Issues: The State Pollution Control Board is measuring base. is being countered by cartels of contractors who agree on a minimum bid. but there has been no exploration or thinking about the scheme by competent authorities about its feasibility and relevant departmental (e. who protest these systems or take strict action against corrupt officials or politicians. to a wastage of valuable national resources. in using less than required cement in concrete or substandard materials) to make up their profit margins. in watershed management.g. Sometimes. Institutionalized Corruption: While there are established systems (of percentages) of corruption in sanctioned projects. and hence.

The need to build capacity at all levels: Capacity building is vital at different levels within government institutions. regulations and procedures critical to effective coordination. These capacities do not only relate (as is commonly understood) to technical issues. as also within local communities. or empowering CBOs to play this role. The need for effective involvement of local communities: Even after capacities have been enhanced. Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. this work is not coordinated with the work of the Water Conservation Mission or the watershed development agencies. require the others (especially superiors or elders) to be sensitised to the issues concerned. using existing democratic institutions. Not everyone can do these. Official consultations with local communities need to be judicious in choosing between full participation and participation by representation. Better coordination is needed both within government structures. there is a need to develop institutional space and mechanisms for governments and local communities to interact effectively. instead use words or phrases.clicktoconvert. However.http://www. building solidarity.9 OVERCOMING INSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGES Institutional Challenges Four common challenges characterising the cases of South Africa and India in the area of water supply and sanitation provision are the following: The need to improve coordination within government: Although a significant amount of literature exists on laws.com 213 new water-using industries (both as a source and a sink) can be located. . policies. vision and a sense of purpose within communities. rules and regulations governing the provision of water supply services to the citizens of both countries.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . but more importantly to a range of social. and in the way in which government bodies interact with local communities for provision of water services. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. in order to improve the provision and maintenance of water supply services. Self-check Exercise – 3 Write about watershed management in India. to implementing the changes required in the rules. managerial and institutional issues from organising effective community participation. Greater coordination and streamlining within government departments needs to go beyond official statements affirming commitment to coordination. and starting and running efficient community-based organisations to dealing with government procedures and legal requirements and conflict resolution within CBOs. and even those who can. there is a great need for clarity on roles and responsibilities within government institutions.

focusing on the final outcome and not on the mere activities of building capacity. should be on collating existing secondary information and on tapping a wide variety of resource persons (including community members) for issues and suggestions for improvement. but focusing on issues on which policy. the final steps of institutional reform require more than commitment from senior government officials. economic. local government and policy makers. demand assessment. policies. technical. The priority. given that a few can ‘take over’ a focus (or reference) group of community members. it is crucial that these are carried out in the appropriate manner. Similarly. and requires a high level of research and analytical skills. however. the lessons learnt have to be used for policy reform. and ‘back-stopped’ by a capable body till it becomes accepted practice. Given the workloads of most government officials. and a capacity building needs assessment. Piloting mechanisms for public participation – in public decision. on an on-going basis.. cost recovery. and the goal of informed decision.g. It requires practical facilitation and mechanisms to ensure that lessons learnt lead to appropriate change.). social. Analysis and Feedback – Analysing this information is as difficult and as essential as collecting the required information.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Step 3: Institutional Reform Coordination and streamlining within government – to ensure that resources are not wasted through duplication of effort or by a lack of integration of purpose. explained to concerned officials. procedural problems.http://www. potential for scaling. especially for rural communities: Step 1: Information Inventory Information Collection and Collation – on technical and social/institutional issues. . etc. Facilitation of these stakeholder meetings is vital. economic/financial. and institutional. social. and a skill that not everyone has.clicktoconvert.making requires good quality information on a range of issues. Some academic-quality research is a requisite n the first step. of the results of the analysis of information collected and collated. While none of these is new. legal issues.makers require more clarity (e. technical.9. while the second steps requires informed and appropriate capacity building.up. Finally. The need for good quality information for decision-making: Participation in decision making is a means to an end. managerial.1 Steps to overcome these challenges There are three key practical steps to improving the effectiveness of institutions to ensure better access to water supply and sanitation services. Step 2: Knowledge and Awareness-Raising Capacity Building and Awareness Raising – on a range of issues. and the identification of tasks ahead. But the output must be appropriate feedback to local communities.com 214 Explicit mechanisms have to be drafted into government rules and regulations. willingness to pay. and that too large a group can be unwieldy and unproductive.making. procedures and programmes. 17. including an inventory of physical and other resources. NGOs can play a vital role as facilitators in all three steps. legal and institutional.

17. greater reliance on pricing.12 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Evaluate the framework and policy for water resource management 3. Frameworks for improving water resources management The proposed new approach to managing water resources builds on the lessons of experience. is not very effective. Watershed management in India The proposed new approach to managing water resources builds on the lessons of experience. namely carrying out pilot projects.intentioned policy documents.6 . Visit your watershed and observe the land use pattern 2. following a clear understanding of the linkages. Substantiate the problems associated with water resource management 2. Within this process NGOs and external projects can play an important part. Note down the type of environmental problems encountered in your watershed. Should also discuss about the need for a comprehensive framework.com 215 17. The proposed approach is consistent with the Dublin Statement (1992) from the International Conference on Water and the Environment as well as with Agenda 21 from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. especially to rural communities.13 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: MODEL ANSWERS 1. At its core are the adoption of a comprehensive policy framework and the treatment of water as an economic good.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . roles and responsibilities of the various institutions engaged in providing water supply services. Also refer section 17. · Such a re-examination is best carried out in a facilitated multi-stakeholder setting. greater reliance on pricing. However.3 3.http://www.10 LET US SUM UP · Despite well.11 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. and fuller participation by stakeholders. The proposed approach is consistent with the Dublin Statement (1992) from the International Conference on Water and the Environment as well as with Agenda 21 from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Types of water policies Have to discuss about the water policy objectives for · Industry · Water supply and sanitation · Irrigation and hydropower and the environment and poverty alleviation This you can refer in section 17. research and analysis and the infusion of new ideas. 17. There is a need for a thorough reexamination of existing procedures and norms of government and NGO functioning. combined with decentralized management and delivery structures.clicktoconvert. At its core are the adoption of a comprehensive policy framework and the treatment of water as an economic good. Critically examine the water resource management in India 17. 2. with a clear mandate to modify procedures and institute mechanisms that improve water supply services to the level required by the Constitution. combined with decentralized management and delivery structures. providing safe drinking water to citizens remains a problem for both India. and fuller participation by stakeholders. the usual call for ‘policy makers’ to listen and draft new policies.

M. 2007 . C Budumuru Yoganand and Tesfa G. By. GEMS. Meerut. Alagappa Moses. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Peavy and Tchobanogloss Integrated Water Resources Management Plans James. B. Macmillan India Limited.A Textbook of Environment. New Delhi.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. P.C Kumaraswamy.clicktoconvert. THE WORLD BANK Dash.14 REFERENCES Agrawal. Torkil Jønch-Clausen Water Resources Management . Alagappa Moses. by. K. Macmillan India Limited.(2003) Agricultural Research & Extension Network(AgREN) . K.Ecology. 2000 .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .Environmental Chemistry. United Nation Development Programme . S.bharathidasan University Publication.M and Deb.(1993). New Delhi. A and Vasanthy.Participatory Watershed Management for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India (2006). Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. WHIRL Project Working Paper 7 (draft) .com 216 17.http://www. Mc Graw Hill. K.Training Manual and Operational Guide (2005).Institutional challenges for water resources management: India and South Africa.Advances in Environmental Sciences. 2002 . A and Alice Emerenshiya. Gebremedhin Carlos Perez and Henry Tschinkel . What and How? (2004). . 2003.M. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.Environmental Engineering. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. M Howard. 2004 Environmental Studies. 2002 . Tiruchirappalli. AJ Metcalf and Eddy Sharma. Tiruchirappalli. Chennai. publishe d b y Global Water Partnership. .C. Sikdar..“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005” Why. . New Delhi.Improving Watershed Management in Developing Countries: A Framework for Prioritizing Sites And Practices. 2004 .

using it to provide water for residential and commercial landscapes.9 Check your Progress – Model Answers 18. To know about the meaning of water harvesting and types of water harvesting 2. Water harvesting for dry.8 Points for Discussion 18. Additionally.1 INTRODUCTION The problem of water shortage in arid and semi.5 Benefits of Harvesting Rainwater 18. The objectives are. landscape watering. To study about the kinds of storages and 3. low-water-use and desert-adapted plants.com 217 LESSON – 18: WATER HARVESTING CONTENTS 18. It is also an effective water conservation tool and proves more beneficial when coupled with the use of native. people have become reacquainted with water harvesting. rainwater is available free of charge and puts no added strain on the municipal supply or private wells.10 References 18.2 Definition 18.0 Aims and Objectives 18.land agriculture is a traditional water management technology to ease future water scarcity in many arid and semi-arid regions of world. As the appropriate choice of technique depends on the amount of rainfall and its distribution.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson deals about water scarcity and need of water harvesting for the present and future generation. The classical References of irrigation water are often at the break of overuse and therefore untapped sources of (irrigation) water have to be sought for increasing agricultural productivity and providing sustained economic base.4 Kind of Storage 18. More recently. This old technology is gaining new popularity these days. which makes rainfed agriculture a risky enterprise.6 Let Us Sum Up 18. centralized water supply systems replaced the need to harvest water. land topography. 1. Therefore new interest came up in recent decades to evaluate traditional water management techniques most of them being simple. soil type and soil depth and local socio-economic factors.http://www. Historically.7 Lesson – End Activities 18. To know analysis the impacts and benefits of water harvesting 18. sure to implement and of low capital investment. these systems tend to be very site specific. and for agricultural uses.1 Introduction 18. Once urban areas started to develop. harvested rain water provided water for drinking. . Harvesting rainwater can reduce the use of drinking water for landscape irrigation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .arid regions is one of low rainfall and uneven distribution through out the season.clicktoconvert.3 Types of Water Harvesting 18.

diversion. 18. parking lots. a bush or with annual crops. and apartment complexes. also known as ‘large catchment water harvesting’ or ‘Spate Irrigation’. commercial sites. also called harvesting from external catchments. the ancient people stored rainwater in public placed separately one for drinking purposes and another for bathing and other domestic purposses and called them as Ooranies. know the methods of conservation of rainwater.http://www. courtyards and similar compacted or treated surfaces is used for domestic purpose or garden crops. In Tamil Nadu. schools. 2. c) Macro-catchment water harvesting. the following three groups of water harvesting can be distinguished. 18. During independence period. there was very good system of water management as could be seen in the latest excavation at Dholavira in Kachch. Flood water harvesting. They periodically clean the water ways so as to get clean water throughout the year. pitting. especially Indians.3 TYPES OF WATER HARVESTING To facilitate the presentation of the various types of water harvesting techniques. Three types of water harvesting are covered by rainwater harvesting. The various methods of rainwater harvesting are classified below under two category. collecting. In ancient days itself.clicktoconvert. harvesting springs in hilly areas and mountainous region and percolation ponds and tanks in southern India. even during Harappan period. the people use to manage water resources considering it as part of the nature which is essential for their survival. It is appropriate for large scale landscapes such as parks. There are evidences that. a) Water collected from roof tops. Traditional and Modern methods. This could be seen from the rain water harvesting structures in the low rainfall areas of Rajasthan. Flood water harvesting can be defined as the collection and storage of creek flow for irrigation use. micro-catchments water harvesting.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . b) Micro-catchment water harvesting is a method of collecting surface runoff from a small catchment area and storing it in the root zone of an adjacent infiltration basin. as well as small scale residential landscapes. for the purpose of recharging irrigation or domestic wells. They also formed percolation tanks or ponds. These are instances in the history that people constructed crude rubble bunds across river courses either for diversion of water or for augmenting the ground water. may be classified into following two forms: . Rainwater harvesting: Rainwater harvesting is defined as a method for inducing.com 218 The water harvesting methods applied strongly depend on local conditions and include such widely differing practices as bunding.2 DEFINITION Water harvesting is the capture. is the case where runoff from hill-slope catchments is conveyed to the cropping area located at hill foot on flat terrain. flood water and ground water harvesting. and storage of rainwater for plant irrigation and other uses. The basin is planted with a tree. storing and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. A brief description of these water harvesting techniques along with sub-types is given below: 1. people.

Qanat systems. the wadi water is forced to leave its natural course and conveyed to nearby cropping fields. underground dams and special types of wells are few examples of the groundwater harvesting techniques. Pakistan.http://www. inundates the valley bottom of the flood plain. consists of a horizontal tunnel that taps underground water in an alluvial fan. Qanat tunnels have an inclination of 1-2% and a length of up to 30 km. 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . No reduction in storage volume due to siltation. and 4. 3. Sand filled reservoirs have the following advantages: 1. Health hazards due to mosquito breeding are avoided. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the types of water harvesting? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. Evaporation losses are reduced. b) In case of ‘floodwater diversion’. Qanats. widely used in Iran. 3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . instead use words or phrases. brings it to the surface due to gravitational effect. Groundwater dams like ‘Subsurface Dams’ and ‘Sand Storage Dams’ are other fine examples of groundwater harvesting. The water is forced to infiltrate and the wetted area can be used for agriculture or pasture improvement.clicktoconvert. Self-check Exercise – 1 What is water harvesting? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. Groundwater harvesting is a rather new term and employed to cover traditional as well as unconventional ways of ground water extraction.com 219 a) In case of ‘floodwater harvesting within stream bed’. Stored water is less susceptible to pollution. therefore special consideration is given here to the latter two. They obstruct the flow of ephemeral streams in a river bed. Groundwater harvesting does not play the same role globally as rain. Many are still maintained and deliver steadily water to fields for agriculture production and villages for drinking water supply.and floodwater harvesting. the water flow is dammed and as a result. instead use words or phrases. the water is stored in the sediment below ground surface and can be used for aquifer recharge. It is difficult to give exact figure on the present area under various forms of floodwater harvesting systems. For example. North Africa and even in Spain.

This means.humid areas (up to 1300 mm/a rainfall). their water losses by deep percolation or by evaporation can be minimal. more than 500000 tanks store rain water. Without this tank system. a number of storage media are employed. paddy cultivation in large parts of the country would be impossible..g. but in semi.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . In India and Sri Lanka. 10 to 30 hectares in size. The availability of rainfall data series in space and time and rainfall distribution is important for rainfall-runoff process and also for determination of available soil moisture. chalky rocks were preferred.g. A threshold rainfall events (e. underground storage of water may be an interesting alternative.made caves or underground constructions to store water. in wadi beds). sometimes supplemented by water from streams or small rivers.and Floodwater Harvesting Areas The most important parameters to be considered in identifying areas suitable for rain and floodwater harvesting are as follows: a) Rainfall: The knowledge of rainfall characteristics (intensity and distribution) for a given area is one of the pre-requisites for designing a water harvesting system. which deliver water to an extensive canal system. Nowadays cisterns are often constructed using concrete. Tanks play several important roles e. NW India. Similar in-house cisterns are known from Rajasthan. calling for a conjunctive management of water resources.and floodwater harvesting schemes the water delivered by surface runoff and overland flow is stored (only) in the soil matrix. Additionally. The larger ones.or floodwater harvesting system include: (1) Number of days in which the rain exceeds the threshold rainfall of the catchment. or in cisterns. one cellar room was specifically designed to store rainwater. Parameters for Identification of Suitable Rain.clicktoconvert. ranging from Ferro-cement tanks of little metre square content to large reservoirs. This storage can be done in near surface aquifers (e. of 5 mm/event) is used in many rainfall runoff models as a start value for runoff to occur. Traditionally. ‘Kunds’. too. feed several thousand hectares of irrigated land. They are equipped with sluices.4 KIND OF STORAGE Above-ground water storage: In most rain. are found. pollution problems and loss of agricultural land. The construction of cisterns was already practiced several thousand years ago. . that its application is limited to the rainy season.http://www. covered underground tanks with plastered catchments. Underground Storage: As several disadvantages are connected with surface storage of water – large evaporation losses. in Mediterranean houses. on a weekly or monthly basis.com 220 18. Useful rainfall factors for the design of a rain. To allow cropping outside the rainy season. The intensity of rainfall is a good indicator of which rainfall is likely to produce runoff. These rainwater reservoirs are not only employed for irrigation in arid or semi-arid regions. they recharge the groundwater in surrounding areas. loss of storage caused by siltation. In the same region. Often the walls of these cisterns are plastered. storing millions of cubic metre. as flood-control system and in preventing soil erosion and wastage of runoff during periods of heavy rainfall. Cisterns are man.g.

c) Topography and terrain profile: The land form along with slope gradient and relief intensity are other parameters to determine the type of water harvesting. The quantity of rainfall which produces runoff is a good indicator of the suitability of the area for water harvesting. and (3) The soil depth incl. f) Socio-economic and infrastructure conditions: The socio-economic conditions of a region being considered for any water harvesting scheme are very important for planning. the cultural behaviour together with religious belief of the people. The chances for success are much greater if resource users and community groups are involved from early planning stage onwards. which determine water movement into the soil and within the soil matrix. the farmers knowledge about irrigated agriculture. retention and infiltration rates which consequently decrease the volume of runoff. the runoff volume increases with the length of slope. (3) Probability and reoccurrence for the minimum and maximum monthly rainfall and (4) Frequency distribution of storms of different specific intensities.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . is suddenly changed by water harvesting.clicktoconvert. The slope length can be used to determine the suitability for macro or micro or mixed water harvesting systems decision making. Soil type & soil depth: The suitability of a certain area either as catchment or as cropping area in water harvesting depend strongly on its soils characteristics viz. deep percolation). e) Hydrology and water resources: The hydrological processes relevant to water harvesting practices are those involved in the production.com 221 (2) Probability and occurrence (in years) for the mean monthly rainfall. Vegetation density can be _haracterized by the size of the area covered under vegetation. g) Environmental and ecological impacts: Dry area ecosystems are generally fragile and have a limited capacity to adjust to change. The rain falling on a particular catchment area can be effective (as direct runoff) or ineffective (as evaporation. The terrain analysis can be used for determination of the length of slope. soil texture. the environmental consequences are often far greater than foreseen.http://www. a parameter regarded of very high importance for the suitability of an area for macro-catchment water harvesting. The farming systems of the community. Surface structure. which influence the rainfall-runoff process. flow and storage of runoff from rainfall within a particular project area. With a given inclination. If the use of natural resources (land and water). attitude of farmers towards the introduction of new farming methods. The infiltration and percolation rate. the financial capabilities of the average farmer. b) Land use or vegetation cover: Vegetation is another important parameter that affects the surface runoff. The existing or planned infrastructure as well as regional development plans have to be duly taken into account when planning a water harvesting scheme. Consideration should be given to the possible (1) (2) . An increase in the vegetation density results in a corresponding increase in interception losses. designing and implementation. which determines the quantity of water which can be stored in the soil. land tenure and property rights and the role of women and minorities in the communities are crucial issues. There is a high degree of congruence between density of vegetation and suitability of the soil to be used for cropping.

Rainwater harvesting should suit its purpose. Water harvesting technology should be seen as one component of a regional water management improvement project. Rainwater harvesting can reduce salt accumulation in the soil which can be harmful to root growth. Water harvesting not only reduces potable water use and related costs. but also reduces off-site flooding and erosion by holding rainwater on the site. This allows for greater root growth and water uptake. salt-free source of water for plants. If large amounts of water are held in pervious areas where water penetrates easily.clicktoconvert. be accepted by local population. Using harvested rainwater helps in decreasing the use of other valuable water sources like groundwater. 5. With regard to tree establishment. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems can help in the determination of areas suitable for water harvesting. Components of such integrated plans should be the improvement of agronomic practices.forestry. Rainwater is a clean. The decision making process concerning the best method applicable in particular environmental and geo-physical conditions depends on kind of crop to be grown and . field crops with deep rooting and drought resistant trees constitute the most promising application.6 LET US SUM UP Rainwater and Floodwater Harvesting have the potential to increase the productivity of arable and grazing land by increasing the yields and by reducing the risk of crop failure.http://www. rainwater and floodwater harvesting can contribute to the fight against desertification. 3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. which increases the drought tolerance of plants. water harvesting saves energy and maintenance costs. They also facilitate re. In dry areas (and without storage facilities). both in terms of water quality and quantity. Most of these techniques are relatively cheap and can therefore be a viable alternative where irrigation water from other sources is not readily available or too costly. including the use of good plant material.5 BENEFITS OF HARVESTING RAINWATER 1. some of the water may percolate to the water table. Limitations of water harvesting are few and are easily met by good planning and design. plant protection measures and soil fertility management. instead use words or phrases.com 222 effect on natural wetlands as on other water users. When collected. New water harvesting systems may intercept runoff at the upstream part of the catchment. forcing salts down and away from the root zone area.or afforestation.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 18. rainwater percolates into the soil. Unlike pumping water. thus depriving potential down stream users of their share of the resources. Self-check Exercise – 3 What are the benefits of water harvesting? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. 2. fruit tree planting or agro. 4. and be sustainable in local environment.

visit your nearest ground water authority and collect details about the extent of rainwater harvesting and its status 2. Try to make an assessment of the potential for implementing a rain water harvesting structure for plantations. and apartment complexes. Water harvesting to be successful requires local capacity building and agriculture extension services. Water harvesting may be of small scale but certainly have edge over dams due to its suitability for immediate local environment. 3. commercial sites. A consensus is necessary for operation and maintenance of water harvesting structures. 2.2 . water and labour management.clicktoconvert. co-operation and extensive participation. Finally a comparison between water harvesting techniques and the construction of large or medium dams shows that: 1. democratic and participatory in nature. schools. can not be offered by water harvesting and 6. 18.9 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: MODEL ANSWERS 1.8 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION · Substantiate water harvesting and types of water harvesting · Critically analyze the kinds of storage · Evaluate the impacts and benefits of water harvesting 18. The accessibility of the site has also to be considered for construction of water harvesting structures and distance from village. as well as small scale residential landscapes. Water harvesting can supplement irrigation water supply during water scarcity or low water availability periods. Through the introduction of water harvesting. One of the crucial social aspects for the success is the involvement/ participation of the stakeholders or beneficiaries. supplying drinking water for big cities etc.http://www. Its proximity to cropping area can be an important point in improving water use efficiency and avoiding field losses. diversion. integrating land. water resources in upstream watershed can be managed more efficiently. For further details refer section 18. Water management problems can only be tackled in a holistic way. Local availability of labour and material are the most important factors. designing and implementation of water harvesting structure. training and credit facilities for resources users. and storage of rainwater for plant irrigation and other uses. All stakeholders have to get involved in planning.7 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Some of the benefits of large dams like generating hydropower energy. It is appropriate for large scale landscapes such as parks. no foreign investment is needed (but banking facilities are sometimes needed). 18. 5. they are labour intensive (local employment generating). List our the areas that needs establishments of rainwater harvesting structures. 3.com 223 prevalent socio-economic and cultural factors. With the small scale of water harvesting technology. Water harvesting Water harvesting is the capture.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . parking lots. Involvement of local NGOs may also benefit the community for collective action. 4.

Tiruchirappalli. Chennai. Alagappa Moses. .Ecology.com 224 2. New Delhi.A Textbook of Environment. the following three groups of water harvesting can be distinguished. Emerenshiya. 18. M. Sikdar. Types of water harvesting To facilitate the presentation of the various types of water harvesting techniques.M. salt-free source of water for plants. Macmillan India Limited. S. Macmillan India Limited. Mc Graw Hill. which increases the drought tolerance of plants.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . rainwater percolates into the soil.M and Deb. This allows for greater root growth and water uptake. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . A and Alice .bharathidasan Vasanthy.C . 2004 Howard. some of the water may percolate to the water table.10 REFERENCES Agrawal. In this you have to write about: (see section 18. · Rainwater harvesting can reduce salt accumulation in the soil which can be harmful to root growth. Carlos Perez and Henry Tschinkel .. · If large amounts of water are held in pervious areas where water penetrates easily. forcing salts down and away from the root zone area.Improving Watershed Management in Developing Countries: A Framework for Prioritizing Sites And Practices. K. 2007 Budumuru Yoganand and Tesfa G. A and Environmental Studies. Benefits of water harvesting · Water harvesting not only reduces potable water use and related costs. C GEMS.(2003) Agricultural Research & Extension Network(AgREN) Dash.clicktoconvert.Advances in Environmental Sciences. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. By.Participatory Watershed Management for Gebremedhin Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India (2006).http://www. 2002 . K. . 2002 Alagappa Moses. but also reduces off-site flooding and erosion by holding rainwater on the site. P. M University Publication. · Limitations of water harvesting are few and are easily met by good planning and design.3) · Rain water harvesting · Flood water harvesting · Ground water harvesting 3.Environmental Engineering.C. · Rainwater is a clean. 2004 Kumaraswamy. Tiruchirappalli. New Delhi. When collected.

Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.Training Manual and Operational Guide Plans (2005). New Delhi. 2000 Torkil Jønch-Clausen . PATRICIA H. THE WORLD BANK .Environmental Chemistry. WHIRL Project Working Paper 7 (draft) Metcalf and Eddy . Water Resources Management . United Nation Development Programme James. K. Meerut.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. WATERFALL. AJ .“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005” Why. publishe d b y Global Water Partnership.com 225 Integrated Water Resources Management .Harvesting Rainwater for Landscape Use.Institutional challenges for water resources management: India and South Africa. . .http://www. by.clicktoconvert.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. 2003. What and How? (2004). B. University of Arizonoa Sharma.(1993).

but in water abundant regions as well.4 Increasing Water Demands 19.3 Water reuse drivers 19.12 Check your Progress – Model Answers 19. 2.clicktoconvert. The growing trend is to consider water reuse as an essential component of integrated water resources management and sustainable development. To estimate the water crisis in the world and identifying the suitable characteristics for using non-potable water.com 226 LESSON – 19: WATER RECYCLING CONTENTS 19. water reuse has become an important economic alternative to developing new sources of water.0 Aims and Objectives 19.8 Water Reuse Programs in India: 19.9 Let Us Sum up 19.2 Water Reuse Applications – Urban and Agriculture 19. In areas with high precipitation where water supply may be costly due to extensive transportation and/or pumping. are the driving forces for developing water reuse strategies in the world today. Water reuse enables practitioners to manipulate the water cycle.1 Environmental Protection and Public Health 19.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . thereby creating needed alternative water resources and reducing effluent discharge to the environment.1 Environmental Benefits of Water Recycling 19. coupled with increasingly stringent water quality discharge requirements. The world’s population is expected to increase dramatically between now and the year 2020 . To enumerate the benefits and environmental impacts of water reuse. or have already reached.1 Introduction 19. 19. To identify the water reuse driver 3.7.http://www.1 INTRODUCTION The need for alternative water resources.5 Water Scarcity 19.6.10 Lesson-End Activities 19. as well as an increased production of wastewater. 1. Many communities throughout the world are approaching. To analysis water demands and water recycling and 4.2 Main Characteristics of Water Reuse in the World 19.13 References 19. The objectives of this chapter are.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This chapter envisages the effective utilization of non-potable water by giving proper effluent treatment and thereby reducing the water crisis as well as protecting the environment from polluted water.and with this growth will come an increased need for water to meet various needs.6.7 Benefit of Recycled Water 19. not only in dry and water deficient areas.11 Points for Discussion 19. the limits of their available water supplies. there is .6 Water Recycling 19.

Within the next 2 decades. A lack of a commodity as basic as water has a cascade of effects elsewhere.political issue at the local. The health of the river systems and aquifers is also forcing its way to the forefront of public consciousness as whole landscapes lose their ability to absorb. and perhaps even more ominously. unplanned use of inadequately treated wastewater for irrigation of crops continues today and is often confused with planned and regulated reuse. Some first world cities have clearly hit crisis levels with their water supplies and many if not most others are facing difficult choices on securing their future water supplies in the immediately forseeable future. Africa. where it is estimated that 1. must also have its share of available water. properly implemented non-potable reuse projects can help communities meet water demand and supply challenges without any known significant health risks. Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is practiced today in almost all arid areas of the world.com 227 growing realisation that much of the world is now facing or will soon face chronic shortages of the freshwater without which life is not possible. disease vectors and catastrophic weather events. Poor Water: “From Seville to Sacremento to Sydney. This not only threatens water supplies but also increases risks and impacts associated with pest species.” Whole industries and cities which have grown up on the premise of abundant and cheap water are now finding that neither is the case. particularly in developing countries in Asia. provide and purify water. water is now a key – sometimes the key . Dramatic increases in the cost of so basic a commodity are impacting on the whole economy and will do so increasingly in the future. we now know to our cost. during this era of rapid development of wastewater collection and treatment. This major health concern makes it imperative to governments and the global community to implement proper reuse planning and practices.1 billion people are currently forced to live without adequate water supplies and more than twice that number without adequate sanitation. As WWF recently noted in the report Rich Countries. and Latin America. As increasingly ambitious targets for sewage collection are pursued. The environment. Also.clicktoconvert. over 80 percent of which will be located in developing countries. The challenges will be particularly acute in mega-cities (cities with a population of 10 million or more). emphasizing public health and environmental protection. Nor is this an issue solely for the developing world. massive and growing volumes of wastewater will be disposed of without treatment to rivers and natural water bodies.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . humanity in recent decades has made unprecedented alterations to global hydrological cycles that we barely understand – .http://www. Water reuse may also present communities with an alternate wastewater disposal method as well as provide pollution abatement by diverting effluent discharge away from sensitive surface waters. Numerous countries have established water resources planning policies based on maximum reuse of urban wastewater. In many dry regions. regional and national level. 60 percent of the world’s population will live in cities. Already accepted and endorsed by the public in many urban and agricultural areas. Water reclamation and reuse have almost become necessary for conserving and extending available water supplies.

as well as the relative contribution of water reuse to the total water demand. Table 19. Australia. 19. By the same token. in terms of economic viability and public acceptance. According to the conclusions of various water reuse surveys. environmental restoration. conservative cost and sales estimates. The main benefits of using reclaimed water in these situations are conservation of water resources and pollution reduction. of the total water demand within the next few years In Jordan. and Tunisia. and good project communication are the basis for project success. Self-check Exercise – 1 What are the characteristics of water reuse? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. The reclaimed water volume in Egypt is expected to increase by more than 10 times by the year 2025. surveyed non-potable water reclamation planning and management practices worldwide. Scientists are still trying to work out what this might mean. the best water reuse projects. sound institutional arrangements. plundering ancient groundwater supplies.2 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER REUSE IN THE WORLD Increased water shortages and new environmental policies and regulations have stimulated significant development in reuse programs in the past 20 years. inadequate valuation of economic benefits. Recent projections show that in Israel. urban. and 10 percent. institutional obstacles. A number of countries in the Middle East are planning significant increases in water reuse to meet an ultimate objective of reusing 50 to 70 percent of the total wastewater volume. the volume of reclaimed water will satisfy 25 percent. or a lack of public information can delay projects or cause them to fail. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .http://www. The survey findings confirmed that in addition to operational performance. are those that substitute reclaimed water in lieu of potable water for use in irrigation. reclaimed water volumes must increase more than 4 times by the year 2010 in order to meet demands. A project commissioned by the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF). respectively.clicktoconvert.com 228 dramatically reducing the flow of rivers. and disrupting vapour and sediment flows.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . By 2012.1 shows the average volumes of reclaimed water produced in several countries. instead use words or phrases. and industrial water reuse projects in both advanced and developing countries in the arid and semi-arid belts around the globe. the volume of reclaimed water in Spain will increase by 150 percent. 11 percent. toilet flushing. and industrial uses. The study reviewed 65 international non-potable water reuse projects to document planning and management approaches for agricultural. with some predicting the consequences may rival and will worsen the adverse climate consequences of unintended and uninformed human changes to the composition of the atmosphere. cleaning.

developing. such as in Europe. reclaimed water is a vital and drought-proof water source to ensure economic and agricultural activities. Water scarcity and droughts. in a number of industrialized countries. and tourist regions.clicktoconvert. Increasing water demands to sustain industrial and population growth. Australia. particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. and South Africa. Table 19. and transitional countries. 2001 Note: (-) indicates that data was not available. 2. . In this case. coastal areas.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 3. Environmental protection and enhancement in combination with wastewater management needs represent an emerging driver.http://www.3 WATER REUSE DRIVERS The main drivers for water reuse development worldwide are: 1.1: Sources of water in several countries Sources: Adapted from World Bank.com 229 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. This is the most common and important driver for dry and water-abundant regions in developed. In areas with more stringent wastewater discharge standards. wastewater reuse becomes a competitive alternative to advanced water treatment from both economic and environmental points of view.

1) 19. Projections predict that in 2025.clicktoconvert. By 2020.000 m3/capita/year (0. measured as the annual renewable water resources per capita that are available to meet needs for domestic.http://www.45 mg/capita/year) has been proposed as the minimum value at which countries are most likely to begin to experience water stress.4 INCREASING WATER DEMANDS Population growth. renewable freshwater resources of 1. chronic water scarcity appears. and Latin America will be living in cities and all of these cities will need additional water supplies. Based on past experiences in moderately developed countries in arid zones. Socio-economic factors such as new regulations.700 m3/capita/year (0. which may impede development and harm human health (Earth Trends. Figure19.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Africa. in the year 2002. (Fig 19. 2001). 19. these same factors increase water pollution. In addition. more than half the total population of Asia. public policies. 2/3 of the world’s population will be under conditions of moderate to high water stress and about half of the population will face real constraints in their water supply. According to some experts.26 mg/capita/year) of renewable freshwater sources. health concerns. add to potable water treatment costs.com 230 4.5 WATER SCARCITY The most common approach used to evaluate water availability is the water stress index.026 mg/capita/year) is the minimum survival level for domestic and commercial use. Public health protection and environmental risk mitigation are key components of any reuse program under these conditions. countries experience absolute water stress and the value of 100 m3/capita/year (0. industrial. Whereas only 1 in 3 mega-cities were located in developing countries in 1950. have adverse health effects. below 500 m3/capita/year (0. urbanization. and agricultural use. For example. and industrial development contribute to water shortages by perpetually pushing up demand. 14 of 22 such cities were in developing countries. 5. Urban growth impacts in developing countries are extremely pressing. drives untreated reuse in agriculture. the increase in the cost of potable water will help promote the implementation of wastewater reuse. Below 1. Public health protection is the major driver in developing countries where lack of access to fresh water supplies coupled with high market access in urban and periurban areas.13 mg/capita/year). and most likely. and economic incentives are becoming increasingly important to the implementation of water reuse projects.1: World Population in Cities (Source: United Nations 2002) .

Important criterion for evaluating water stress is water withdrawal as a percentage of the annual internal renewable water resources. western and southern India. Africa and parts of western Asia appear particularly vulnerable to increasing water scarcity.2) such as France. Germany. the western coasts of the U. Tunisia. A number of arid and semi-arid countries meet water demands by seawater desalination or by withdrawals from non-renewable deep aquifers with extracted volumes 2 to 30times higher than available renewable resources (Fig 19. and urban non-potable purposes. or will be. This data also shows that a number of Middle Eastern countries are already well below the absolute water stress of 500 m / capita/year (0. where current fresh water reserves are. In addition. meaning that in these areas.13 g/capita/year) and by 2050 will reach the minimum survival level of 100 m /capita/year (0. water reclamation. and Hungary. the major portion of the renewable resources are withdrawn. and Jordan are facing high risks of water scarcity. Belgium. Spain.S. Water management becomes a vital element in a country’s economy when over 20 percent of the internal renewable resources are mobilized. Ukraine. the Netherlands. and South America.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . The Mediterranean region. Fig 19. and the Mediterranean region). North Africa. Morocco. and reducing distribution losses are the most affordable solutions to relieve water scarcity. This is currently occurring in several European countries (Fig 19. Israel. reclaimed wastewater is the only significant.http://www. large parts of Pakistan and Mexico.clicktoconvert. low cost alternative resource for agricultural. Improving the efficiency of water use. For a number of countries in the Middle East and North Africa.com 231 Population Action International has projected the future water stress index for 149 countries and the results indicate that 1/3 of these countries will be under water stress by 2050. Italy. numerous nations with adequate water resources have arid regions where drought and restricted water supply are common (north-western China. industrial.2: Countries with Chronic Water Stress Using Non-Renewable Resources 3 3 . at the survival level.026 g/capita/year) for domestic and commercial use.3).

com 232 19. Water recycling is often characterized as "unplanned" or "planned.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. for example. Fig 19. water can be recycled as well. A common type of recycled water is water that has been reclaimed from municipal wastewater. “Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. and newspapers. generally refers to projects that use technology to speed up these natural processes. instead use words or phrases. glass bottles. when an industrial facility recycles water used for cooling processes. Water recycling. and piped into the water supply a number of times before the last downstream user withdraws the water.6 WATER RECYCLING While recycling is a term generally applied to aluminum cans. or sewage." A common example of unplanned water recycling occurs when cities draw their water supplies from rivers. The term water recycling is generally used synonymously with water reclamation and water reuse. the earth has recycled and reused water for millions of years. Planned projects are those that are developed with the goal of beneficially reusing a recycled water supply. though. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .clicktoconvert. and replenishing a ground water basin (referred to as ground water recharge)” Water is sometimes recycled and reused onsite. industrial processes. toilet flushing.3: Countries with Moderate Water Stress Through the natural water cycle. treated. which receive wastewater discharges upstream from those cities. Self-check Exercise – 2 What is water recycling? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. Water from these rivers has been reused.

and industrial processing is non-consumptive. 19. Most urban reuse. or 1. and tourist areas. Canada. 3. north of Mexico City. and Tunisia – water reuse provides the greatest share of irrigation water.2 Water Reuse Applications – Urban and Agriculture Agriculture is the largest user of water. believed to be the largest in the world. the key issue remains public health safety. The reuse of raw wastewater. coastal. For example. Japan. golf courses. accounting for approximately 80 percent of the global demand. Egypt. and sports fields).000 inhabitants. Vietnam and most of South America. Pakistan. and unintended indirect potable reuse of water from that aquifer by a population of 300. Urban water reuse is developing rapidly. year-round (IWA. agricultural irrigation is the major water reuse application worldwide. still widely practiced in several regions in China.6. For example. 1.400-acre (90.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . vehicle washing. and lakes). 2002). high salinity levels in effluent can lead to a decrease in productivity for certain crops and destabilization of the soil structure. and dangerous epidemics. 2. with over 70 percent of collected and treated wastewater reused for agricultural purposes. and the United Kingdom use treated domestic wastewater for toilet flushing. urban development (waterfalls. particularly in large cities.15 million acre-feet/year) of untreated wastewater from the capital city of Mexico City is used for agricultural irrigation in a 222. therefore.1 Environmental Protection and Public Health In spite of the economic and ecological advantages associated with wastewater reuse.Israel. the water can be reused again for subsequent consumptive uses in agriculture or industry. has given rise to inadvertent and massive recharge of the local aquifers. such as toilet flushing. insufficiently treated effluent may also have detrimental effects on the environment. stack gas cleaning. Jordan. Wastewater treatment for reuse may have a lower cost than developing new water supply sources. Morocco. helminthic infections. In the Mezquital Valley. In addition to public health risks. leads to enteric diseases. Another possible adverse effect is groundwater pollution. Urban reuse water generally holds a higher value than agricultural reuse because it can be metered and appropriate charges levied. Consequently. Japan is the leader in urban water reuse. and firefighting. The urban markets for water reuse are generally closer to the points of origin of the reclaimed water than are the agricultural markets.6.113 mgd or 8 millions m /year) used for urban purposes. In a number of arid and semiarid countries . Golf course irrigation is reported as the most rapidly growing application of urban water reuse in Europe.http://www. while replenishment of river flows for recreational uses is becoming increasingly popular in Spain and Japan.com 233 19. Nepal. There are several advantages to implementing urban reuse versus agricultural reuse: 1. fountains. particularly for low-quality reuse in toilet flushing and similar non-potable 3 3 . with 8 percent of the total reclaimed water (about 2. This huge wastewater irrigation project. Australia. car washing. Another major type of reuse is on-site water reuse within commercial and residential buildings. The most common urban uses are for the irrigation of green areas (parks.000hectare) area. Israel is the world’s leader in this area.027 mgd (45 m /s. India. road cleaning.clicktoconvert.

In addition.7 BENEFIT OF RECYCLED WATER Recycled water can satisfy most water demands. peer-reviewed publication based on this declaration.) for water supply augmentation through the replenishment of surface reservoirs. instead use words or phrases. there has been increasing interest in indirect potable reuse in a number of industrialized countries (Australia. Over recent years.clicktoconvert. and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). France. The International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Singapore. However. The declaration recognizes that in situations where wastewater treatment to produce usable reuse water is not available. the Middle East. more treatment is required. based in Ottawa. there are parts of the world where the wastewater management systems do not allow for the development of water reuse.S. The conference organizers are preparing an official. in 2004. In some regions untreated wastewater is improperly used for irrigation. At the workshop the Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture was adopted. Africa. Self-check Exercise – 3 What are water reuse applications? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. Agricultural irrigation will probably continue to dominate water reuse practices for many years into the future. aquifers.http://www. Untreated reuse water is a large and rapidly growing problem practiced in both low. Belgium. In uses where there is a greater chance of human exposure to the water. health problems could arise from drinking or being exposed to recycled water if it contains disease-causing organisms or other contaminants. as long as it is adequately treated to ensure water quality appropriate for the use. and the U. Canada held a workshop to discuss the use of untreated reuse water. The US Environmental Protection Agency regulates many aspects of wastewater treatment and drinking water quality. As previously mentioned. Spain. The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture is reproduced below. Sri Lanka.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . usually illegally.com 234 urban uses.income countries around the world. South Africa. there are alternatives to improve the management of water reuse. reclamation projects are not likely to be built to serve agriculture.and middle. based in Colombo. and the majority of states in the US have established criteria or guidelines for the beneficial use of recycled water. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. and salt intrusion barriers in coastal areas. especially in developing countries. at which a range of case studies were presented from Asia. Figure shows types of treatment processes and suggested uses at each level of treatment. and Latin America. EPA . As for any water source that is not properly treated.

recycled water can be spread or injected into ground water aquifers to augment ground water supplies.clicktoconvert. and golf course irrigation. public parks. dust control. and guidelines for the treatment and uses of recycled water. Other non-potable applications include cooling water for power plants and oil refineries. the Water Factory 21 Direct Injection Project. California. landscape. Fig 19.4: Suggested water Recycling Treatment and uses* . and to prevent salt water intrusion in coastal areas. Recycled water is most commonly used for non-potable (not for drinking) purposes." which contains such information as a summary of state requirements. In ground water recharge projects. For example. construction activities. Although most water recycling projects have been developed to meet non-potable water demands. while augmenting the potable ground water supply. industrial process water for such facilities as paper mills and carpet dyers. toilet flushing. State and Federal regulatory oversight has successfully provided a framework to ensure the safety of the many water recycling projects that have been developed in the United States. has been injecting highly treated recycled water into the aquifer to prevent salt water intrusion. and artificial lakes. concrete mixing.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 235 developed a technical document entitled "Guidelines for Water Reuse.http://www. since 1976. located in Orange County. a number of projects use recycled water indirectly1 for potable purposes. These projects include recharging ground water aquifers and augmenting surface water reservoirs with recycled water. such as agriculture.

http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .5: The Hyderabad Declaration on Wastewater Use in Agriculture .clicktoconvert.com 236 Fig 19.

19. than potable water. 3.1 Environmental Benefits of Water Recycling In addition to providing a dependable. Water users can supplement their demands by using recycled water. Direct potable reuse is the use of recycled water for drinking purposes directly after treatment. high volumes of treated wastewater discharged from the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant into the South San Francisco Bay threatened the area's natural salt water marsh. By providing an additional source of water. urban. water recycling provides tremendous environmental benefits. While direct potable reuse has been safely used in Namibia (Africa). Recycled water can also be used to create or enhance wetlands and riparian habitats. a $140 million recycling project was completed in 1997. For streams that have been impaired or dried from water diversion. locally-controlled water supply. or a stream. can cause deterioration of water quality and ecosystem health. which can free considerable amounts of water for the environment and increase flows to vital ecosystems. rivers. For example. 2. Water recycling can decrease diversion of freshwater from sensitive ecosystems: Plants. as a result of diversion for agricultural. which include wildlife and wildfowl habitat. water quality improvement. In response. By avoiding the conversion of salt water marsh to brackish marsh. substances that can be pollutants when discharged to a body of water can be beneficially reused for irrigation. Water recycling can reduce and prevent pollution: When pollutant discharges to oceans. in some cases. and industrial purposes.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . the impetus for water recycling comes not from a water supply need. 4. such as nitrogen. The lack of adequate flow.clicktoconvert.http://www. the habitat for two endangered species can be protected. but from a need to eliminate or decrease wastewater discharge to the ocean. 1. the pollutant loadings to these bodies are decreased. Recycled water may be used to create or enhance wetlands and riparian (stream) habitats: Wetlands provide many benefits. Water recycling decreases discharge to sensitive water bodies: In some cases. and fisheries breeding grounds.7. wildlife.com 237 Indirect potable reuse refers to projects that discharge recycled water to a water body before reuse. it is not a generally accepted practice in the US. Other benefits include decreasing wastewater discharges and reducing and preventing pollution. water recycling can help us find ways to decrease the diversion of water from sensitive ecosystems. flood diminishment. water flow can be augmented with recycled water to sustain and improve the aquatic and wildlife habitat. . and fish depend on sufficient water flows to their habitats to live and reproduce. and other water bodies are curtailed. Application of recycled water for agricultural and landscape irrigation can provide an additional source of nutrients and lessen the need to apply synthetic fertilizers. Moreover. For example. an estuary. The South Bay Water Recycling Program has the capacity to provide 21 million gallons per day of recycled water for use in irrigation and industry. recycled water may contain higher levels of nutrients.

3 Mm /d (3.92 million). As a result of the fast-growing urban population. The large. Urban. This section illustrates the applications of water reuse in India.630 gallons/capita/year) and it was estimated that 40 percent of India’s water resources were being withdrawn. Other efforts have been made in the Calcutta metropolitan area. Hyderabad (6 million). Chennai (formerly Madras) (5. landscape irrigation.38 million). toilet flushing. where 2.com 238 19.57 million). or oxidation ponds. India’s total renewable water resources were estimated at 1. where 13 sewage treatment plants have been constructed with a total capacity of 386.3 Mm /d (608 mgd) of raw sewage is discharged into the Arabian Sea.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 3 3 3 3 3 . trickling filters. Another example is Mumbai. the total volume of wastewater generated in India was 17 Mm /d (4. service infrastructure is insufficient to ensure public health.500 mgd). $300 million. coupled with India’s severe water pollution. Almost 30 percent of the population lives in urban mega-cities. non-potable reuse. yet the current treatment capacity is only about 1. in particular. Delhi (8. road cleaning. 1999).36 million).8 WATER REUSE PROGRAMS IN INDIA The principal reuse application remains agricultural irrigation. with a current population of over 1 billion that is projected to increase to 1.clicktoconvert. Indirect potable reuse and the use of reclaimed water for industrial purposes have also been receiving increased attention in several industrialized countries. The capital city of Delhi is one illustration of failing service infrastructure and deteriorating environment. Bangalore (4.000 m /d (102 mgd) using either activated sludge processes. In addition.244 m / capita/year (328. such as reuse for. car washing. Calcutta (Kolkata) (10. has put India in a challenging position to supply adequate amounts of water to their growing population. there have been some attempts at rectifying these situations. especially in developing countries. of which 72 percent was collected and only 24 percent was ever treated.400 mgd) – which is only 73 percent of the wastewater generated. Bombay Sewage Disposal Project was approved in 1995 with the financial support of the World Bank. in the 7 giant conglomerates of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) (12. about 15 percent of the urban population does not have access to safe drinking water and about 50 percent is not serviced by sanitary sewers. These conditions cause a high number of waterborne diseases in the country (more than 30 million life years according to the World Bank). In 2000.5 billion by 2050 (World watch Institute. used for agricultural irrigation. However. and Ahmedabad (3 million). and river flow augmentation. India is the second most populous country of the world.09 million). The growing population in Delhi has led to an increase in the volume of wastewater. with the majority of that volume (92 percent). the Ganges River program is to include treatment facilities for 6 cities in Uttar Pradesh that will incorporate reuse for agriculture and forestry. is developing rapidly in high density urban and tourist areas. Fast depletion of groundwater reserves. In 1997. In fact.http://www.

000 acres). Self-check Exercise – 4 What are the problems of water reusing in India? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. The coliform counts reported were within the WHO guidelines set for unrestricted irrigation.clicktoconvert. instead use words or phrases. Hyderabad can supply wastewater to irrigate an estimated 40. There has been a dramatic increase in wastewater volumes discharged and used for agricultural irrigation in India. is the fifth largest and the fastest growing city in India with 6 million inhabitants (2001). anemia. COD.http://www.000 hectares (98. Consumers of salad and vegetable crops are also at risk. over 73. the capital city of Andhra Pradesh. The city produces over 700. yet the prohibited practice is widespread and government agencies reportedly do not actively enforce regulations governing reuse. and bananas. Agriculture is the sole livelihood of over 40. 40 kilometers (25 miles) downstream of Hyderabad.000 farming families living within a 50-kilometer (31.840 acres) of agricultural land.com 239 In 1985.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Perceived negative impacts include an increase in reported fever cases.000 acres) of land were irrigated with wastewater on at least 200 sewage farms.000 hectares (99. Farming communities along the Musi River experience negative and positive impacts from the discharge of wastewater into the river. rice. Downstream of Hyderabad. the Musi River water is diverted through a system of weirs into irrigation canals (see photo) that were originally designed to retain water for the dry season after the monsoon rain. would have been confined to the monsoon season. untreated in the Musi River. which without the addition of wastewater. joint aches. The law prohibits irrigation of salad vegetables with wastewater. Furthermore. Data reported that water samples taken out of the Musi River. in many states there is no microbiological standard and hence no parameter to control the level of treatment. of which less then 4 percent receives secondary treatment. Hyderabad. With its current population. The Musi River is the main source of irrigation water for over 40. and gastrointestinal illnesses are high among sewage farm workers. Positive impacts include savings in chemical fertilizer application and larger crops as a result of a year-round availability of water. The remaining 95 percent of the wastewater is disposed.000 hectares (180. have normal river water quality parameter readings including a gradual reduction in BOD. as well as different varieties of spinach and other vegetables. The main crops grown are fodder. and coliform. Enteric diseases. and stomach problems. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 . skin rash.000 m (185 mg) of wastewater per day.mile) radius of Hyderabad.

are those that substitute reclaimed water in lieu of potable water for use in irrigation. toilet flushing. 19. the best water reuse projects. Table 19.11 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION · Evaluate the water crisis in the world and identify the suitable characteristics for using non-potable water. the uses of recycled water are expanding in order to accommodate the needs of the environment and growing water supply demands.2 for further information. cleaning. .9 LET US SUM UP Water recycling has proven to be effective and successful in creating a new and reliable water supply. While water recycling is a sustainable approach and can be cost-effective in the long term. The main benefits of using reclaimed water in these situations are conservation of water resources and pollution reduction. 0Visit a water works and learn the funcitoning of the plant 2. As water demands and environmental needs grow. along with water conservation. agencies must implement public outreach to address any concerns and to keep the public involved in the planning process. and industrial uses.12 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. According to the conclusions of various water reuse surveys. Visit a water treatment plant to understand its functioning. water recycling. as well as varying agency priorities. Refer section 19. Characteristics of water reuse Increased water shortages and new environmental policies and regulations have stimulated significant development in reuse programs in the past 20 years. can make it difficult to implement water recycling projects.com 240 19. water recycling will play a greater role in our overall water supply. However.10 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . while not compromising public health. Institutional barriers. in terms of economic viability and public acceptance. the treatment of wastewater for reuse and the installation of distribution systems can be initially expensive compared to such water supply alternatives as imported water or ground water. early in the planning process. By working together to overcome obstacles. in many parts of the United States. Non-potable reuse is a widely accepted practice that will continue to grow. 19.http://www.1 tells you about the avefage volumes of reclaimed water in several countries. 19. can help us to conserve and sustainable manage our vital water resources. environmental restoration.clicktoconvert. Advances in wastewater treatment technology and health studies of indirect potable reuse have led many to predict that planned indirect potable reuse will soon become more common. · Substantiate the water reuse driver · Critically examine the water demands and water recycling · Justify the benefits and environmental impacts of water reuse. Finally.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

241 2. Water recycling Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and replenishing a ground water basin referred to as ground water recharge. Refer section 19.6 for further details. 3. Water reuse applications Agriculture is the largest user of water, accounting for approximately 80 percent of the global demand. Consequently, agricultural irrigation is the major water reuse application worldwide. Israel is the world’s leader in this area, with over 70 percent of collected and treated wastewater reused for agricultural purposes. Urban water reuse is developing rapidly, particularly in large cities, coastal, and tourist areas. Japan is the leader in urban water reuse, with 8 percent of the total 3 reclaimed water (about 2,113 mgd or 8 millions m /year) used for urban purposes. The most common urban uses are for the irrigation of green areas (parks, golf courses, and sports fields), urban development (waterfalls, fountains, and lakes), road cleaning, car washing, and firefighting. Another major type of reuse is onsite water reuse within commercial and residential buildings. There are several advantages to implementing urban reuse versus agricultural reuse: · Most urban reuse, such as toilet flushing, vehicle washing, stack gas cleaning, and industrial processing is non-consumptive; therefore, the water can be reused again for subsequent consumptive uses in agriculture or industry. · The urban markets for water reuse are generally closer to the points of origin of the reclaimed water than are the agricultural markets. · Urban reuse water generally holds a higher value than agricultural reuse because it can be metered and appropriate charges levied. 19.13 REFERENCES Agrawal. K.M, Sikdar. P.M and Deb. S.C. Alagappa Moses. A and Alice Emerenshiya. C Budumuru Yoganand and Tesfa G. Gebremedhin Carlos Perez and Henry Tschinkel - A Textbook of Environment. Macmillan India Limited, Chennai. 2002 - Advances in Environmental Sciences, GEMS, Tiruchirappalli, 2007 - Participatory Watershed Management for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India (2006), - Improving Watershed Management in Developing Countries: A Framework for Prioritizing Sites And Practices, By.,(2003) Agricultural Research & Extension Network(AgREN) - Ecology, Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi. 2004 Environmental Studies.bharathidasan University Publication, Tiruchirappalli, 2004 - Environmental Engineering, Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi. 2002 - Training Manual and Operational Guide

Dash. M.C

Kumaraswamy. K, Alagappa Moses. A and Vasanthy. M Howard, Peavy and Tchobanogloss Integrated Water Resources Management

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

242 Plans James, AJ (2005), United Nation Development Programme Institutional challenges for water resources management: India and South Africa, WHIRL Project Working Paper 7 (draft) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition, New Delhi, 2003. Harvesting Rainwater for Landscape Use, University of Arizonoa Environmental Chemistry, Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd, Meerut. 2000 “Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005” Why, What and How? (2004), by, publishe d b y Global Water Partnership. (1993), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, THE WORLD BANK

Metcalf and Eddy

-

PATRICIA H. WATERFALL, Sharma. B. K. Torkil Jønch-Clausen

-

Water Resources Management

-

UNIT – V

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

243

LESSON – 20: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCE
CONTENTS 20.0 Aims and Objectives 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Integrated Water Resources Management 20.3 Water Resources Management 20.4 The Primary Objectives of Integrated Water Resources Management 20.5 Key Issues in Water Management 20.5.1 Water Governance Origin 20.5.2 Securing water for People 20.5.3 Securing Water for Food Production 20.5.4 Protecting vital Ecosystems 20.5.5 Gender Disparities 20.6 Water Management Principles 20.7 Water Use, Impacts and Benefits 20.7.1 Impacts 20.7.2 Benefits from IWRM 20.7.2.1. Environmental benefits 20.7.2.2 Agricultural benefits 20.7.2.3 Water Supply and Sanitation Benefits 20.8 Implementing IWRM 20.8.1 Policy and legal framework 20.8.2 Institutional framework 20.9 Water Resource Management - Case Studies in Tamil Nadu 20.10 A case study of Aravatala watershed in Vellore District 20.10.1 Need for GIS 20.10.2 Scope of Development 20.10.3 A case study of Dharmapuri District 20.11 Let Us Sum Up 20.12 Lesson End Activities 20.13 Points for Discussion 20.14 Check Your Progress – Model Answers 20.15 References 20.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main focus of this lesson is to optimum utilization of water resource by implementing effective management and plans. Objective of this lesson are, 1. To know about the meaning of integrated water resource management and need of IWRM in water resource management 2. To know about the key issues and water principles and 3. To know about the impacts and benefits of water resource management 20.1 INTRODUCTION

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

244 One of the greatest challenges facing humankind is the concept of sustainable development, which is related to economic development, water scarcity, and environmental degradation. This concept, proposed a decade ago, offers a scientific framework to keep economic development sustainable without jeopardizing the ecosystem. Recently, the issue concerning sustainable water resources management has arisen. Sustainable water resources management includes supply and demand aspects, policy implementation, and participatory planning and envisioning. In this new vision, the major issue is to integrate demand management into water supply planning to achieve rational balance between supply and demand of water resources. Traditional, supply-oriented management has led to the overexploitation and depletion of freshwater resources. Therefore, new sustainable schemes with a good balance between water conservation, demand management, and the development of new supplies should be formulated. Actually, the scarcity of water resources has already led many countries to introduce the demandoriented water management in the agricultural section in place of the existing supply-oriented water management during the past several years. In developing countries both nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and government development agencies have implemented watershed management projects for at least 25 years with the aim of increasing agricultural productivity and reducing poverty on hillsides in rural areas. In the last seven years or so, biodiversity conservation organizations have also set up a few watershed management projects as a way to intensify production and reduce farmer encroachment on neighboring forested areas with high biological diversity. Many of the watershed management projects throughout the world have not taken into account land use capacity and its restoration and prevention potential. They have centred on activities that although important at the plot level do not add up to transformations at the landscape level. Additionally, they have been top down, have not accommodated the interests of resource users nor motivated their interests, and have not incorporated all stakeholders nor learned from their feedback. They have been fixated on rigid technology solutions geared to replace instead of complement local conservation practices. With these approaches, projects have not been able to foster activities that strongly reinforce both economic development and long-term management of natural resources. A major question is, how to select watershed management sites and activities in such a way that organizations can simultaneously address the social and economic goals for local inhabitants as well as the aims of watershed conservation and restoration. In other words, the issue is how to prioritize the many possible activities, and sharpen the intervention focus on those few critical activities and locations with good, long-term results for resource users, their communities and the environment. Water as a resource and its development and management is specific to the geographical, historical, cultural and economic context of any country. Hence water resource management processes will differ from country to country, and there is no “one size fits all.” To assure political interest and public support, the initial focus should be on crucial, urgent

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

245 issues. Flood management, irrigation water disputes or other such issues may be entry points. For the poorest countries of the world the national water resource management planning processes may well focus strongly on how to attain the UN Millennium Development Goals on reducing poverty and hunger, diseases and environmental degradation, including halving the proportion of people without access to basic drinking water and sanitation services. For the richer countries of the world, progress towards IWRM may be pursued by focusing on environmental maintenance and restoration, being the aim of the “Water Framework Directive” of the European Union (EU). 20.2 INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT At its simplest, integrated water resources management is a logical and appealing concept. Its basis is that the many different uses of water resources are interdependent. That is evident to us all. High irrigation demands and polluted drainage flows from agriculture mean less freshwater for drinking or industrial use; contaminated municipal and industrial wastewater pollutes rivers and threatens ecosystems; if water has to be left in a river to protect fisheries and ecosystems, less can be diverted to grow crops. There are plenty more examples of the basic theme that unregulated use of scarce water resources are wasteful and inherently unsustainable. Integrated management means that all the different uses of water resources are considered together. Water allocations and management decisions consider the effects of each use on the others. They are able to take account of overall social and economic goals, including the achievement of sustainable development. This also means ensuring coherent policy making related to all sectors. As we shall see, the basic IWRM concept has been extended to incorporate participatory decision- making. Different user groups (farmers, communities, environmentalists…) can influence strategies for water resource development and management. That brings additional benefits, as informed users apply local selfregulation in relation to issues such as water conservation and catchment protection far more effectively than central regulation and surveillance can achieve. Management is used in its broadest sense. It emphasises that we must not only focus on development of water resources but that we must consciously manage water development in a way that ensures long term sustainable use for future generations. “Integrated water resources management is therefore a systematic process for the sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social, economic and environmental objectives.” 20.3 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Water is vital for human survival, health and dignity and a fundamental resource for human development. The world’s freshwater resources are under increasing pressure yet many still lack access to adequate water supply for basic needs. Growth in population, increased economic activity and improved standards of living lead to increased competition

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

246 for, and conflicts over, the limited freshwater resource. Here are a few reasons why many people argue that the world faces impending water crisis: 1. Water resources are increasingly under pressure from population growth, economic activity and intensifying competition for the water among users; 2. Water withdrawals have increased more than twice as fast as population growth and currently one third of the world's population live in countries that experience medium to high water stress; 3. Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream; 4. Shortcomings in the management of water, a focus on developing new sources rather than managing existing ones better and top-down sector approaches to water management result in uncoordinated development and management of the resource. 5. More and more development means greater impacts on the environment. 6. Current concerns about climate variability and climate change demand improved management of water resources to cope with more intense floods and droughts. 1. Only 0.4% of total of global water in the world is available for humans. 2. Today more than 2 billion people are affected by water shortages in over 40 countries. 3. 263 river basins are shared by two or more nations. 4. 2 million tonnes per day of human waste are deposited in water courses. 5. Half the populations of the developing world are exposed to polluted sources of water that increase disease incidence. 6. 90% of natural disasters in the 1990s were water related. 7. The increase in numbers of people from 6 billion to 9 billion will be the main driver of water resources management for the next 50 years.
Table 20.1: W a t e r C r i s i s - F a c t s

Self-check Exercise – 1 What is integrated water resources management? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements; instead use words or phrases. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20.4 THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The three primary objectives of integrated water resources management are: • Empower women, men, and communities to decide on their level of access to safe water and hygienic living conditions and on the types of water-using economic activities they desire — and to organise to achieve them. • Produce more food and create more sustainable livelihoods per unit of water applied (more crops and jobs per drop) and ensure access for all to the food required to sustain healthy and productive lives.

• Massively increase investments in water. Even with an estimated need for an additional 15-20% of irrigation water over the next 25 years . one fifth of the world’s population is without access to safe drinking water and half of the population is without access to adequate sanitation.http://www. Doing so will require a substantial reorientation of investment priorities. p.com 247 • Manage human water use so as to conserve quantity and quality of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems that provide services to humans and living things. In these countries.5 KEY ISSUES IN WATER MANAGEMENT 20. • Move to full-cost pricing of water services for all human uses. 2000. This leads to fragmented and uncoordinated development and management of the resource. Halving the proportion of the population lacking water and sanitation services by 2015 is one of the Millennium Development Goals.3 Securing water for food production Population projections indicate that over the next 25 years food will be required for another 2-3 billion people. Moreover. water management is usually in the hands of top-down institutions. weak governance aggravates increased competition for the finite resource.1 Water Governance Crisis Sectoral approaches to water resources management have dominated in the past and are still prevailing. Five primary actions are required to achieve these objectives: • Involve all stakeholders in integrated management. plus a fostering of stakeholder participation.2 Securing Water for People Although most countries give first priority to satisfying basic human needs for water.5.5. Source :( World Water Council. 2-3.) 20. the legitimacy and effectiveness of which have increasingly been questioned. These service deficiencies primarily affect the poorest segments of the population in developing countries like India. • Recognise the need for cooperation on integrated water resource management in international river basins.clicktoconvert.which is probably on the low side – serious conflicts are likely to arise between water for irrigated agriculture and water for other human and ecosystem uses. 20. etc. Thus. equivalent to if not more crucial than land scarcity. which will be very much more readily achieved in those countries that are also implementing IWRM. China. 20.5. water conservation and demand management equitably . • Increase public funding for research and innovation in the public interest. IWRM brings coordination and collaboration among the individual sectors.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . transparency and cost-effective local management. Irrigated agriculture is already responsible for more than 70% of all water withdrawals (more than 90% of all consumptive use of water). IWRM offers the prospect of greater efficiencies. meeting water supply and sanitation needs for urban and rural areas represents one of the most serious challenges in the years ahead. Water is increasingly seen as a key constraint on food production.

5 Gender disparities Formal water management is male dominated. 20. and of increased recycling and reuse of wastewater to supplement new resource development. The ecosystems depend on water flows.4 Protecting vital ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems in the upstream areas of a basin are important for rainwater infiltration. Yet. groundwater recharge and river flow regimes. locations of water points and operation and .clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Aquatic ecosystems produce a range of economic benefits. decisions on water supply and sanitation technologies.com 248 shared among water users. including such products as timber. Though their numbers are starting to grow.1: Integrated Water Resource Management Cycle 20. the representation of women in water sector institutions is still very low.http://www.5. As custodians of family health and hygiene and providers of domestic water and food. Fig 20. women are the primary stakeholders in household water and sanitation. fuel wood and medicinal plants. That is important because the way that water resources are managed affects women and men differently. and they also provide wildlife habitats and spawning grounds. seasonality and water-table fluctuations and are threatened by poor water quality. Land and water resources management must ensure that vital ecosystems are maintained and that adverse effects on other natural resources are considered and where possible reduced when development and management decisions are made. IWRM can help to safeguard an “environmental reserve” of water commensurate with the value of ecosystems to human development.5.

http://www.com 249 maintenance systems are mostly made by men. Principle 2. planners and policymakers at all levels.made pollution. A participatory approach is the best means for achieving long. A crucial element of the IWRM philosophy is that water users. Principle 1. has to be holistic (integrated) and involve consideration of the demands placed on the resource and the threats to it. though it can be. and frequently is.clicktoconvert. development and the environment. arbitration processes or other conflict resolution mechanisms also need to be put in place. essential to sustain life. Governments have to help create the opportunity and capacity to participate. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach.lasting consensus and common agreement. Decentralising decision making to the lowest appropriate level is one strategy for increasing participation. This principle recognises that water is required for many different purposes. Real participation only takes place when stakeholders are part of the decision. are able to influence decisions that affect their daily lives. management therefore. The principle also recognises the catchment area or river basin as the logical unit for water resources management. Participation is about taking responsibility. functions and services. recognizing the effect of sectoral actions on other water users and aquatic ecosystems and accepting the need for change to improve the efficiency of water use and allow the sustainable development of the resource. male and female. 20. depleted by man. Participation does not always achieve consensus.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . rich and poor. It has to be recognised that simply creating participatory opportunities will do nothing for currently disadvantaged groups unless their capacity to participate is enhanced. involving users. The type of participation will depend upon the spatial scale relevant to particular water management and investment decisions. without first asking the women about the extra two liters of water they would have to carry from distant sources for every flush. The freshwater resource is a natural asset that needs to be maintained to ensure that the desired services it provides are sustained. determine land uses and generate waterborne waste products. . Water is a subject in which everyone is a stakeholder. This overall quantity cannot yet be altered significantly by human actions. It will be affected too by the nature of the political environment in which such decisions take place. Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource. particularly among women and other marginalised social groups.making process. The notion that freshwater is a finite resource arises as the hydrological cycle on average yields a fixed quantity of water per time period. The integrated approach to management of water resources necessitates co-ordination of the range of human activities which create the demands for water. The Gender and Water Alliance cites the example of a well meaning NGO that helped villagers to install pour flush latrines to improve their sanitation and hygiene.6 WATER MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES A meeting in Dublin in 1992 gave rise to four principles that have been the basis for much of the subsequent water sector reform.

but that they have a much less influential role than men in management. whether by regulatory or economic means. The pivotal role of women as providers and users of water and guardians of the living environment has seldom been reflected in institutional arrangements for the development and management of water resources. Managing water as an economic good is an important way of achieving social objectives such as efficient and equitable use. There is an important synergy between gender equity and sustainable water management. affect behavior towards conservation and efficient water usage. Treating water as an economic good is an important means for decision making on the allocation of water between different water use sectors and between different uses within a sector. provide incentives for demand management. IWRM requires gender awareness.making.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Within this principle. Women play a central part in the provision. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good as well as a social good. Self-check Exercise – 2 What are the principles of water management? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements. In developing the full and effective participation of women at all levels of decision. and managing water in an integrated and sustainable way contributes significantly to gender equity by improving the access of women and men to water and water-related services to meet their essential needs. Water has a value as an economic good as well as a social good. The value of water in alternative uses is important for the rational allocation of water as a scarce resource. management and safeguarding of water. instead use words or phrases. Principle 4. it is vital to recognise first the basic right of all human beings to have access to clean water and sanitation at an affordable price.com 250 Principle 3. Charging (or not charging) for water is applying an economic instrument to support disadvantaged groups. This is particularly important when extending supply is no longer a feasible option. Value and charges are two different things and we have to distinguish clearly between them. and of encouraging conservation and protection of water resources. problem analysis and the decision making processes related to water resources. economic and cultural roles to men and women. ensure cost recovery and signal consumers’ willingness to pay for additional investments in water services. consideration has to be given to the way different societies assign particular social. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Involving men and women in influential roles at all levels of water management can speed up the achievement of sustainability. It is widely acknowledged that women play a key role in the collection and safeguarding of water for domestic and – in many cases – agricultural use. Many past failures in water resources management are attributable to the fact that the full value of water has not been recognised.clicktoconvert.

2 Benefits from IWRM 20. Positive impacts Environment # Purification # Storage # Hydrological cycle # Return flows # Increased infiltration # Decreased erosion # Groundwater recharge # Nutrient recycling # Nutrient recycling Negative impacts # Depletion # Pollution Agriculture # Salinisation # Water logging # Erosion Water supply # High level of water security required & sanitation # Surface and groundwater pollution Table 20. reforestation. social and political realities.2. Often these are undervalued and not incorporated into planning and decision.com 251 20.clicktoconvert. Recognising he inter-related nature of different sources of water and thus also the inter-related nature and impacts of the differing water uses is a major step to the introduction of IWRM. pollution control (e.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .g.7.http://www.making. but the willingness and ability to address these issues in a coordinated way is affected by the governance structure of water.7. point source reduction.7 WATER USE. soil erosion control). groundwater protection) and environmental flows.1 Impacts Most uses of water bring benefits to society but most also have negative impacts which may be made worse by poor management practices. Problems and constraints arise in each water use area. . b) IWRM can assist the sector by raising awareness among other users of the needs of ecosystems and the benefits these generate for them. non-point source incentives. lack of regulation or lack of motivation due to the water governance regimes in place.7. c) The ecosystem approach provides a new framework for IWRM that focuses more attention on a system approach to water management: protecting upper catchments (e. It provides an alternative to a sub-sector competition perspective that can join stakeholders in developing a shared view and joint action.2: Impacts of the water use sectors on water resources 20. At present these needs are often not represented at the negotiating table.g. good land husbandry. IMPACTS AND BENEFITS 20. Each country has its priority developmental and economic goals set according to environmental.1 Environment benefits a) Ecosystems can benefit from applying an integrated approach to water management by giving environmental needs a voice in the water allocation debate.

and particularly women and the poor. Equally. Taken alongside the low value added in agricultural production.clicktoconvert. b) By bringing all sectors and all stakeholders into the decision. indiscriminate reduction in water allocation for agriculture may have far reaching economic and social consequences. water is diverted from agriculture to other water uses.2. with often detrimental environmental effects elsewhere. planners are encouraged to look beyond the sector economics and take account of the implications of water management decisions on employment.making process. with benefits for domestic water supplies and the environment. Introduction of IWRM will improve the opportunity for introduction of sustainable sanitation solutions that aim to minimise waste- .2. However. This may mean that the contribution of food production to health. For the agricultural sector IWRM seeks to increase water productivity (i. c) The focus on integrated management and efficient use should be a stimulus to the sector to push for recycling. reuse and waste reduction. land and other resources are utilised in a sustainable manner. for example.http://www. IWRM is able to reflect the combined “value” of water to society as a whole in difficult decisions on water allocations. thus keeping the human territories clean and healthy. The implementation of IWRM based policies should mean increased security of domestic water supplies. d) Past sanitation systems often focused on removing the waste problem from the areas of human occupation. c) IWRM calls for integrated planning so that water. especially under conditions of water scarcity. b) Recognizing the rights of people. could over-ride strict economic comparisons of rates of return on each cubic metre of water.7.e.com 252 20. more crops per drop) within the constraints imposed by the economic.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . this frequently means that. as well as reduced costs of treatment as pollution is tackled more effectively.2 Agriculture benefits a) As the single largest user of water and the major non-point source polluter of surface and groundwater resources. leads inevitably to the need to ensure proper representation of these groups on the bodies that make water resource allocation decisions.3 Water supply and sanitation benefits a) Above all. With IWRM. properly applied IWRM would lead to the water security of the world’s poor and unserved being assured. the environment and social equity. High pollution charges backed by rigid enforcement have led to impressive improvements in industrial water-use efficiencies in the industrialised countries. agriculture has a poor image. but merely replacing the waste problem. social and ecological context of a particular region or country.7. 20. poverty reduction and gender equity. to fair share of water resources for both domestic and household-based productive uses. IWRM can bring into the equation the reuse potential of agricultural return flows for other sectors and the scope for agricultural reuse of municipal and industrial wastewaters.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

253 generating inputs, and reduction of waste outputs, and to solve sanitation problems as close as possible to where they occur. e) At a practical local level, improved integration of water resource management could lead to greatly reduced costs of providing domestic water services, if for instance more irrigation schemes were designed with a domestic water component explicitly involved from the start. Self-check Exercise – 3 What are the benefits of integrated water resources management? Note: Please proceed after answering the question Do not write full sentences or statements; instead use words or phrases. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20.8 IMPLEMENTING IWRM The case for IWRM is strong – many would say incontestable. The problem for most countries is the long history of sectoral development. As the Global Water Partnership puts it: “IWRM is a challenge to conventional practices, attitudes and professional certainties. It confronts entrenched sectoral interests and requires that the water resource is managed holistically for the benefits of all. No one pretends that meeting the IWRM challenge will be easy but it is vital that a start is made now to avert the burgeoning crisis.” IWRM is, above all, a philosophy. As such it offers a guiding conceptual framework with a goal of sustainable management and development of water resources. What it does demand is that people try to change their working practices to look at the bigger picture that surrounds their actions and to realise that these do not occur independently of the actions of others. It also seeks to introduce an element of decentralised democracy into how water is managed, with its emphasis on stakeholder participation and decision making at the lowest appropriate level. All of this implies change, which brings threats as well as opportunities; there are threats to people’s power and position; and threats to their sense of themselves as professionals. IWRM requires that platforms be developed to allow very different stakeholders, often with apparently irreconcilable differences to somehow work together. Because of the existing institutional and legislative frameworks, implementing IWRM is likely to require reform at all stages in the water planning and management cycle. An overall plan is required to envisage how the transformation can be achieved and this is likely to begin with a new water policy to reflect the principles of sustainable management of water resources. To put the policy into practice is likely to require the reform of water law and water institutions. This can be a long process and needs to involve extensive consultations with affected agencies and the public. Implementation of IWRM is best done in a step by-step

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

254 process, with some changes taking place immediately and others requiring several years of planning and capacity building. 20.8.1 Policy and legal framework Attitudes are changing as officials are becoming more aware of the need to manage resources efficiently. They see too that the construction of new infrastructure has to take into account environmental and social impacts and the fundamental need for systems to be economically viable for maintenance purposes. However, they may still be inhibited by the political implications of such a change. The process of revising water policy is therefore a key step, requiring extensive consultation and demanding political commitment. Water legislation converts policy into law and should: i. Clarify the entitlement and responsibilities of users and water providers; ii. Clarify the roles of the state in relation to other stakeholders; iii. Formalise the transfer of water allocations; iv. Provide legal status for water management institutions of government and water user groups; v. Ensure sustainable use of the resource. Bringing some of the principles of IWRM into a water sector policy and achieving political support may be challenging, as hard decisions have to be made. It is therefore not surprising that often major legal and institutional reforms are only stimulated when serious water management problems have been experienced. 20.8.2 Institutional framework For many reasons, developing country governments consider water resources planning and management to be a central part of government responsibility. This view is consistent with the international consensus that promotes the concept of government as a facilitator and regulator, rather than an implementor of projects. The challenge is to reach mutual agreement about the level at which, in any specific instance, government responsibility should cease, or be partnered by autonomous water services management bodies and/or community-based organisations. The concept of integrated water resources management has been accompanied by promotion of the river basin as the logical geographical unit for its practical realisation. The river basin offers many advantages for strategic planning, particularly at higher levels of government, though difficulties should not be underestimated. Groundwater aquifers frequently cross catchment boundaries, and more problematically, river basins rarely conform to existing administrative entities or structures. In order to bring IWRM into effect, institutional arrangements are needed to enable: 1.The functioning of a consortium of stakeholders involved in decision making, with representation of all sections of society, and a good gender balance; 2. Water resources management based on hydrological boundaries; 3. Organisational structures at basin and sub-basin levels to enable decision making at the lowest appropriate level; 4. Government to co-ordinate the national management of water resources across water use sectors.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

255 Basin-wide management has been applied for several decades and on all continents; the fact that the success level may be limited should not condemn the whole approach, quite the contrary. Let us mention again that river basin management does not require the creation of an institution dedicated exclusively to this task; this is an approach which, through collaboration processes involving public institutions, private enterprises and public participation, will ensure that water resources are used in a sustainable manner, meeting the essential needs of all users while maintaining the functions of the natural ecosystem. Based on cases with which we are familiar, we have identified some of the elements that contribute to the success of an integrated river basin management approach. Successful experiences derive from the combination of several of these factors: ü Political Will. At the highest possible level. Clear and tangible (legal framework, institutional arrangements, budgets). Sustained over time, beyond elected terms of politicians. ü Knowledge. Not science alone, but through the proper use of all available sources of information. Information has to be shared and easily accessible. Integration of information is key to sensible decision- making. Information technologies need to be adapted to managers’ needs; these management tools need to be properly understood to be useful. ü Sustainable Technologies. Start small to validate the most appropriate technology. Learn from the mistakes of others: technology transfer is essential. Readiness to innovate, while technology dumping may do a lot of damage. ü Institutional Arrangements. Water is a responsibility shared by a wide range of institutions. Start with existing institutions, but redefine mandates. Informal arrangements are useful to start with; begin with working groups or task forces to bring people together. This is a people issue; be mindful of personal expectations. ü Building on Existing Expertise. There exists a wealth of expertise to build upon. This expertise should be put to better use. Capacity development is the key. ü Community Involvement. Takes time to put it in place; is a long-term investment. Once trust is established, it needs to be nurtured over time. A strong component of any natural resources management project. ü Economic Prosperity. Difficult to manage without financial support. More than just direct project funding; a whole range of government incentives create a favorable context in which initiatives flourish. Explore new sources of funding; local partnerships can provide a lot of support. ü Right Timing. All of the above do not have to occur simultaneously, but there exists a successful combination of these elements that requires some of them to be present in the right mix and at the right time. 20.9 WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - CASE STUDIES IN TAMIL NADU Irrigation water management and soil and water conservation holds the key for the Second Green Revolution. Ensuring "Water Security" by appropriate use of technology is the focus of the Government of Tamil Nadu. Through integration of rain water harvesting with precision and high tech farming and monitoring through Geographical Information System, the Government of Tamil Nadu proposes to move towards saving every drop of rain water, ensuring more crops per unit of water and adequate supply of water for agriculture. Various

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

256 approaches have been advocated and experimented to halt the process of degradation of these resources. Watershed approach, of late has been considered appropriate to help reduce the face of degradation and the process of development and conservation of land, water and vegetations in an integrated manner. As watersheds support the entire dryland agriculture / horticulture, the strength of the watershed development programmes will largely determine the growth in agriculture. Tamil Nadu has fully utilized the irrigation potential of 15.00 lakh hectares in respect of major and medium irrigation projects and is now left with a scanty ground water potential to be harnessed by wells and tube wells. With the average annual rainfall of 976.6 mm as only source of water, in the absence of any perennial source of water and in the backdrop of having exhausted almost all irrigation potential in the State, the strategies available for sustainable water management are: 1. Rain water harvesting for ground water recharge to stabilize drinking water and irrigation wells 2. Scientific use of water in canal irrigated areas and reduction of water loss 3. Rehabilitation of water bodies. 4. Introduction of water saving irrigation methods like Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation on a large scale 5. Construction of Community Wells to promote conjunctive use of surface and ground water. To satisfy the need for more area under crops to meet the demand of the growing population and to improve the quality and quantity of the farm produces to meet the post WTO days after few years, Govt of Tamil Nadu has launched the waste land programme under agriculture, horticulture, forest and fodder plantations in 20 lakh ha. Out of which 55,000 ha has been taken as pilot project area in 10 districts on micro watershed basis. While drawing this programme, it has been decided by the Government to use the GIS as management tool for this programme. This paper explains the use of GIS in creation of watershed information system in 1:10,000 scale for one micro watershed namely ARVATALA watershed in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu and how this 1:10,000 scale will be useful in managing this programme. 20.10 A CASE STUDY OF ARAVATALA WATERSHED IN VELLORE DISTRICT The Aravatla watershed lies in Palar river basin and located in Peranampet taluk of Vellore district near the border of Andhra Pradesh State at about 180 km west of Chennai City of Tamil Nadu. The watershed is a hilly terrain surrounded by Mardona reserved forest covering 2516 ha area covering Aravatla village and three hamlets. The slope is between 5 to 25% in this watershed. The maximum altitude is 900 m and the minimum altitude is 600 m. The Aravatla stream originates in this watershed and fills up three tanks and few ponds. Since the land is sloppy the farmers leaves the land to rain fed agriculture excepting a few hundred ha of lands near the tanks. The areas near the tanks are used for cultivation of sugarcane and paddy using well irrigation. Remaining about 600 ha, is under wasteland and depend on seasonal rains to grow maize or rain fed groundnut. As the land is thin laterite capping on the parent granite rocks and with pebble and stones the farmers are depending on sheep farming

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

257 or depend on Pernamapet town which is about 8 km from the watershed to work as laborers in construction and farm works. The watershed is surrounded by dry deciduous Mardona forest and thorny bushes as the elevation of the watershed is about 300 m to 900 m from ground level and subjected to grazing by the sheeps and cattle from the Arvatala and near by village. 20.10.1 Need for GIS Normally the lands are surveyed by manual means. The plans and programmes are drawn for development of watershed development programmes. But the watershed being a hilly terrain precise information on slope, soil, land use, survey no, land ownership, land use as per revenue records etc are required. This information is kept in volume of records. Mapping the area on various themes is difficult by manual means. As the farming, soil erosion control works, forest plantation works are to be taken up it is felt to have spatial data in 1:10,000 scale maps and non spatial data including land holding etc will be used to create an information system so that the field officers, engineers and administrators can sit with the people in the watershed. 20.10.2 Scope of Development The watershed is in 300 to 900 m elevation area with red laterite soil. The streams and drainage pattern and old irrigation structures constructed by the villages and their enthusiasm to grow sugarcane in the command areas of the tanks shows that the farmers in this watershed are aware of the soil, climatic factors and water resources available in their land and they use it in their own way to earn the livelihood adopting the age old techniques known to them. If the lands are brought under effective high yielding plantation and perennial crops adopting soil conservation measures the soil erosion taking place in the watershed by cultivation on slopes and eco degradation by grazing and cutting trees for fuel and other needs can be minimized and the watershed can become a high production zone as the farmers who are aware of the resources of the watersheds can earn more by adopting modern farming techniques. The watershed should therefore be covered with rain water harvesting measures by improving the existing water bodies, soil erosion control measures by forming terraces, drains, contour bunds, contour trenches, stream training works, regulating the encroachments affecting the waterways and streams, adopting perennial plantation instead of annual crops, improving the hills as grazing lands etc. 20.10.3 A case study of Dharmapuri District District Profile: This district occupies the northern most part of Tamil Nadu State and covers an area of 9581.26 sq.km. Geographically it is situated between 11° 46. 21.. to 12° 53. 23.. North latitude and 77° 28. 34.. to 78° 44. 13.. East longitude. This district is situated on the western side of the Eastern Ghats. A major part of the district is hilly, rocky and uplands with steep to gently to moderate slopes, radiating in all directions and merging in to the stream courses which are flowing throughout the district. The altitude of the district ranges from 380 to 1395 m above MSL.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

258 Application of NRIS (Natural Resource Information System) Data Base for Dharmapuri District Both spatial and non-spatial data created were integrated to form a unique solution for the following activities. Prioritization of watersheds Land resources development plan Suitability for land irrigability, land capability and soil irrigabilty and iv. Forest management. Prioritization of Watersheds: The methodology for prioritization of watersheds were two fold one based on severity of soil erosion and another by using DPAP scheme norms. The norms for soil erosion are.
i. ii. iii.

Severity of soil erosion. Landuse such as crop land, plantation, wasteland, forest etc., (iii) Slope group from nearly level to very steep (iv) Rainfall. Based on the above silt yield index were computed for all micro watersheds in the area. The following DPAP norms were used for prioritization of the watershed by the administrators viz.
(i) (ii)

1. Predominance of wasteland/ degraded land 2. Areas having low ground water potential 3. Severity of soil erosion 4. Predominance of SC/ST population 5. Low irrigation potential Land Resources Development Plan: The spatial integration of various maps results in segmentation of various land units to consider for any development activities. Each land unit possesses a variety of information on the land form, physiography, behaviour of soil, productivity potential etc., land resources grouping have been arrived at with site specific solution. The recommended categories for the region are as follows: (1) Intensive agriculture, (2) Dry farming with soil and water conservation, (3) Horticulture, (4) Agro Horticulture and Agro forestry, (5) Afforestation and (6) Social forestry. Fuel wood and fodder. Ground Water Prospects Map: Integrated studies involving geomorphological, lithological and structured investigation followed by hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical exploration led to the identification of groundwater potential zones. The prospects identified were 1) Good to moderate 2) Moderate to poor and 3) Poor to nil Suitability for land capability classification: The land capability classes place soils into general order of suitability or unsuitability for cultivation, forestry, grassland or other uses for

20. that the intensive double cropping area has gone up to 16. · Our framework is based on the assumption that watershed management will work provided that the right biophysical context and potential are matched with the proper socioeconomic incentive and the most supportive policy context.09% from 13. The actual development indicates as per the latest landuse /landcover dated year 2000. drainage requirement etc.http://www. (2) Lands that have moderate limitation for sustained use under irrigation. that remote sensing technology combined with GIS has its own responsibility for the constructive activities for development at all times. In this district five different land capability units were identified. Soil irrigability classes: Soil irrigability classes are very useful for making group of soil for their sustained use under irrigation. The land irrigability classes established were viz. The classes are defined in terms of degree of soil limitation as reflected by the soil properties like effective soil depth. texture. (1) Lands that have few limitation for sustained use under irrigation. (4) Lands that have marginal for terraced use under irrigation because of severe limitation.clicktoconvert. soil depth..65% of the total area suggested by the action plan generated for land use/landcover dated year 1992 . · The framework also assumes the need to adopt a flexible and learning approach to watershed management. The process over the decade under IMSD by way of suggesting alternate landuse practices. NPK.11 LET US SUM UP · The adoption of a watershed-wide approach will necessarily require some institutional adaptations. · The most important change needed from both implementing organizations and watershed stakeholders is the adoption of a holistic and ‘systems’ approach to watershed management.A Success Story: The implementation of IMSD activities with the on going developmental activities of the district planners were carefully monitored. It also evaluates soils with respect to their susceptibility to erosion. presence of minerals. . Dharmapuri . it implies ironically. keeping track of what really is happening.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . None to slight soil limitations for sustained use under irrigation Class B Moderate soil limitations for sustained use under irrigation Class C Severe soil limitations for sustained use under irrigation Class D Very severe soil limitation for sustained use under irrigation Class E Non irrigable soil class In Dharmapuri district three classes of soil irrgability classes were identified. etc. ground water exploitation were found fruitful. The soils that have the least limitation or hazard and respond best to management are placed in the higher order. A list of the most important changes needed is included in Table. By this. Five soil irrigability classes have been established as follows : Class A.com 259 sustained production. drainage problem and other soil characteristics that would affect to sustained production of crops. water harvesting structures. (3) Lands that have severe limitation for sustained use under irrigation. quality of water. Land irrigability class: The suitability of land for Irrigation depends on physical land features and socioeconomic condition. and particularly what the stakeholders are doing and thinking. This requires active learning from feedback.

Commitment to specificity) landscape.Scaling up and out critical. which requires that organizations facilitate a dialogue between residents of the watershed and those downstream as well as the active involvement of the relevant local governments and institutions. A systems view will require engaging all stakeholders in a watershed.level impact and large-scale economic influence Benefits expected on-site Benefits expected on-site and downstream Promotion of practices that are locally effective Promotion of practices that are locally effective but are also likely to continue to Activities address needs of people most in spread without external assistance need Activities address the needs of all major Generally.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Common current approach Proposed approach · Primary focus on poverty alleviation and Primary focus on protection and enhancement production for domestic consumption of ecological functions and services via income generation Opportunistic selection of target communities: whoever wants to participate Selection of target communities based on a is accepted. Part of the goal of watershed management will be to resolve conflicts of land use.com 260 · The holistic approach will allow both parties to consider ‘a system in the context of the higher levels in which it is embedded.http://www. potential return and cost-effectiveness The initial focus is on the micro perspective (farm and farm technology) Initial focus is on the macro-perspective and later may shift to the macro (watershed and regional economy). later perspective (watershed and regional shifting to micro perspective economy) Environmental deterioration defined as a sign Environmental deterioration defined as a of economic deterioration (economic solutions biophysical problem (primary emphasis on needed) conservation) Narrower target area and activities: some areas Broad distribution of sites and activities and activities more important than others Expected results do not necessarily require Expected results require to sum up so as to to add up to a critical overall threshold have an impact on the whole watershed Scaling up and out is not a priority (site. and provide insight into the significance of phenomena at lower levels’. Poverty used as criterion for cascade of progressively narrower criteria of watershed selection severity of threat to ecosystem as a whole.clicktoconvert. broad-spectrum technological stakeholders (rich and poor) who impact on packages are implemented across sites watershed conditions (on and off farms) .

although it may seem contradictory to the holistic approach.3: Project design changes required for improving watershed conservation approach Second.http://www. rather than only to donors. . 2. and transfer knowledge efficiently through training.com 261 Focus on technology environmental education transfer and Narrow-spectrum technological menu appropriate to specific sites according to land use characteristics and economic opportunities Focus on generation of income opportunities and economic incentives · · · · · Table 20. Third. successful watershed management requires highly focused interventions. We suggest that organizations promote preventive rather than curative approaches to soil and water conservation. which are often counter. targeting particularly those activities that have demonstrated they produce cash income. The goal is to select small. Above all. implementing organizations must improve their own ability and that of the watershed stakeholders to learn from experience. The organizations take plenty of risks because they don’t suffer the consequences. opportunities to observe and learn. well. We propose that implementing organizations focus on target areas where there is good potential for success in addressing the limiting factors than where there is poverty. use data rather than assumptions. They need to learn from their successes and failures. Converting farmers from beneficiaries to clients by having them pay for at least a small proportion of the services they receive is an approach worth exploring.intuitive and not obvious. Such large-scale effects can usually only be accomplished by practices that spread spontaneously once obstacles have been removed. personnel rotation and more useful reporting.clicktoconvert. Evaluate the availability of waters resources in your campus by calculating the ground and city water supply used. their own as well as others’. and stronger accountability of the organisations to farmers. and potential of replication.focused actions in one segment of the watershed to produce significant. They should concentrate their efforts in a few priority sub-watersheds and communities within them to enhance impact. visibility. learning requires better mechanisms through which farmers can give feedback to the service providers. The critical challenge is to identify and act upon the points of highest leverage. participatory monitoring and client satisfaction is long overdue. enduring improvements in the whole system.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Visit a watershed and observe the integrated watershed management schemes implemented. Linking project performance evaluations to transparent.12 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. 20. They should also hone down a short menu of conservation-tested practices that are both appropriate for the use capacity of the land in question and readily accepted by farmers.

C. management and safeguarding of water.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of social.clicktoconvert. Integrated water resources management is a systematic process for t h e sustainable development.M and Deb. Women play a central part in the provision. Water allocations and management decisions consider the effects of each use on the others. Further refer section 20. Benefits of Integrated water resources management For this question you have to go through section 20. 3.com 262 20.2 carefully and write about Environment benefits Agriculture benefits Water supply and sanitation benefits 20. economic and environmental objectives. Chennai. essential to sustain life. Principle 4. P.7. C GEMS.M. Tiruchirappalli. 2007 Budumuru Yoganand and Tesfa G. . .Advances in Environmental Sciences.Participatory Watershed Management for Gebremedhin Sustainable Rural Livelihoods in India (2006). involving users. Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource. Sikdar. Principles of water management ( Section 20.http://www. A and Alice .15 REFERENCES Agrawal.14 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1.A Textbook of Environment.2 to answer this question 2. Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good as well as a social good. S. Integrated water resources management Integrated management means that all the different uses of water resources are considered together. Macmillan India Limited.13 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION · Evaluate the meaning of integrated water resource management and need of IWRM in water resource management · Critically examine the key issues and water principles and · Justify the impacts and benefits of water resource management 20. 2002 Alagappa Moses. development and the environment. K. Emerenshiya. planners and policymakers at all levels. Principle 3 . Principle 2.6) A meeting in Dublin in 1992 gave rise to four principles that have been the basis for much of the subsequent water sector reform Principle 1. Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach. .

University of Arizonoa Sharma. Mc Graw Hill.Environmental Engineering. K. Meerut. United Nation Development Programme James. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.com 263 Carlos Perez and Henry Tschinkel . PATRICIA H. 2002 Integrated Water Resources Management . published by Global Water Partnership. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd.Training Manual and Operational Guide Plans (2005).Institutional challenges for water resources management: India and South Africa. M University Publication.Environmental Chemistry.bharathidasan Vasanthy.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. New Delhi.(1993). What and How? (2004). K. Macmillan India Limited. . By. Peavy and Tchobanogloss .Harvesting Rainwater for Landscape Use. A and Environmental Studies. WATERFALL.clicktoconvert. 2004 Kumaraswamy. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. THE WORLD BANK . AJ .“Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans by 2005” Why. New Delhi. by. 2004 Howard. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. 2000 Torkil Jønch-Clausen .Improving Watershed Management in Developing Countries: A Framework for Prioritizing Sites And Practices. Water Resources Management .Ecology.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .(2003) Agricultural Research & Extension Network(AgREN) Dash.http://www. Tiruchirappalli.C . M. Alagappa Moses. 2003. . WHIRL Project Working Paper 7 (draft) Metcalf and Eddy . B. New Delhi..

6 Lesson – End Activities 21.1 Introduction 21. 21.4 Joint Boards 21.3. 21. 1974 CONTENTS 21.2 Composition of Joint Boards.3. 21. 21.7 Points for Discussion 21.9 Vacancy in Board not invalidate acts or proceedings. In this lesson we will discuss the framework of the water act and analyse major issues including the scope of judicial relief authorized by the Act. constitutional challenges to the Act.3. you should be able to · · · · · · · Understand the Water Act.5 Let Us Sum Up 21.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3.3.10 Member secretary and officers and other employees of Board.http://www. 1974 framed to prevent water pollution Constitutions of Central and State Board in Water Act Explain the terms and conditions of service of members List out the disqualifications of member of a Board Determine the meeting conducted by the boards Identify the temporary association of persons with Board for particular purpose Elaborate the composition of joint board .3. 21. 21. 21. 21.1 Short title. 21. 21.2 Definitions.8 Temporary association of persons with Board for particular purpose.9 References 21.0 Aims and Objectives 21.4.3 The Central.4 . And State Boards For Prevention And Control Of Water Pollution 21.4. 21. 21. 21.clicktoconvert.3.6 Meetings of Board.3.1 Constitutions of Joint Boards.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson brings an idea about the Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act.3 Special provision relating to giving of directions.3.2 Constitutions of State Board.2.9 Delegation of powers to chairman.2 Preliminary 21. application and commencement. 1974 which is a complex statue had been made in effect for over two decades.3 Terms and conditions of service of members.3.5 Vacation of seats by members.4 Disqualifications. After reading this lesson.7 Constitutions of committees. 21.3. 21.com 264 UNIT – V LESSON – 21: WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT.1 Constitutions of Central Board. 21.8 Check your Progress – Model Answers 21.2.

It is expedient to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water.1 INTRODUCTION The regulatory regimes for environmental conservation comprise a legislative framework. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows:21. in relation to any State or Union territory. with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid. Kerala. (3) It shall come into force. Many features of this Act have been challenged in the courts. Haryana.com 265 21. Karnataka. Gujarat. Tripura and West Bengal and in the Union territories. and long delays and high transaction costs in development projects on the other. of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution and for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto. Kerala. Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh. (2) It applies in the first instance to the whole of the States of Assam. Bihar. Himachal Pradesh. Haryana. Madhya Pradesh. and in any other State which adopts this Act under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution on the date of such adoption and any reference in this Act to the commencement of this Act shall. Jammu and Kashmir.2 Definitions. Bihar.1 Short title. Parliament has no power to make laws for the States with respect to any of the matters aforesaid except as provided in articles 249 and 250 of the Constitution. . Karnataka. unless the context otherwise requires. through a review of the existing legislation. Himachal Pradesh. and a set of regulatory institutions.clicktoconvert. Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir. 1974.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .(a) "Board" means the Central Board or State Board. In this Act. Gujarat. (1) Short title. Haryana. 21. Kerala. mean the date on which this Act comes into force in such State or Union territory. Rajasthan. This Act may be called the Water (Prevention and Control of s Pollution) Act. In pursuance of clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution resolutions have been passed by all the Houses of the Legislatures of the States of Assam. Hence a judicious mix of civil and criminal processes and sanctions will be employed in the legal regime for enforcement. Tripura and West Bengal and the Union territories. Rajasthan. and it shall apply to such other State which adopts this Act by resolution passed in that behalf under clause (1) of article 252 of the Constitution. Karnataka.2.2 PRELIMINARY 21. for the establishment. at once in the States of Bihar.2. application and commencement. Rajasthan. Himachal Pradesh. Inadequacies in each have resulted in accelerated environmental degradation on the other hand. Tripura and West Bengal to the effect that the matters aforesaid should be regulated in those States by Parliament by law. application and commencement.http://www. Madhya Pradesh. The present approach to dealing with environmentally unacceptable behaviour in India has been largely based on criminal processes and sanctions.

commercial. or to domestic. (ii) Water course (whether flowing or for the time being dry). or to the life and health of animals or plants or of aquatic organisers. by notification in the Official Gazette. (j)"stream" includes(i) river. (i) "State Government" in relation to a Union territory means the Administrator thereof appointed under article 239 of the Constitution. (g) "sewage effluent" means effluent from any sewerage system or sewage disposal works and includes sullage from open drains. chemical or biological properties of water or such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or of any other liquid.http://www. (d) "occupier". (f) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act by the Central Government or. as the case may be. the State Government. or is likely to cause. means the person who has control over the affairs of the factory or the premises. (v) sea or tidal waters to such extent or. as the case may be. pollution. agricultural or other legitimate uses. . (c) "members" means a member of a Board and includes the chairman thereof. "sewer" means any conduit pipe or channel. create a nuisance or render such water harmful or injurious to public health or safety. "outlet" includes any conduit pipe or channel. in relation to any substance. in relation to any factory or premises.clicktoconvert. (iii) inland water (whether natural or artificial). or treatment and disposal system" other than domestic sewage. the person in possession of the substance.com 266 (b) " Central Board" means the Central Pollution Control Board Constituted under section3. (h) "State Board" means a State Pollution Control Board constituted under section 4". carrying sewage or trade effluent. (k) "trade effluent" includes any liquid. operation or process. specify in this behalf . gaseous or solid substance which is discharged from any premises used for carrying on any "Industry. to such point as the State Government may. (iv) subterranean waters. openor closed. industrial. or is likely to. open or closed carrying sewage or trade effluent or any other holding arrangement which causes.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (e) "pollution" means such contamination of water or such alteration of the physical. gaseous or solid substance into water (whether directly or indirectly) as may. and includes.

clicktoconvert.time chairman. to be nominated by the Central Government. from amongst the members of the State Boards. appoint. constitute a Central Board to be called the Central Pollution Control Board powers conferred on and perform the functions assigned to that Board under this Act. to be nominated by the Central Government. Jammu and Kashmir. by notification in the Official Gazette. to be nominated by that Government. hold and dispose of property and to contact and may by the aforesaid name. Bihar.2 Constitutions of State Board. namely:(a) a chairman. knowledge and experience of scientific. 21. not exceeding five. Rajasthan. fishery or industry or trade or any other interest which. being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protection or a person having knowledge and experience in . not exceeding five.3. to represent the interests of agriculture. (f) a full-time member-secretary. (1) The State Government shall. namely : (a) a full. (3) The Central Board shall be a body corporate with the name aforesaid having perpetual succession and a common seal with power.3. Karnataka. (d) such number of non-officials. to acquire. not exceeding three. to be nominated by the Central Government.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Kerala. of whom not exceeding two shall be from those referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 4. possessing qualifications. Himachal Pradesh. in the opinion of the Central Government. subject to the provisions of this Act. sue or be used.3 THE CENTRAL AND STATE BOARDS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION 21. (2) The Central Board shall consist of the following members.1 Constitutions of Central Board. (1) The Central Government shall. (c) such number of persons. appoint. controlled or managed by the Central Government.com 267 21. Tripura and West Bengal and in the Union territories) as it may. (b) such number of officials. (2) A State Board shall consist of the following members.http://www. to be nominated by the Central Government to represent that Government. Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh. engineering or management aspects of pollution control to be appointed by the Central Government. being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protections or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid. with effect from such date as it may by notification in the Official Gazette. Haryana. to exercise the powers conferred on and perform the functions assigned to that Board under this Act. (e) two persons to represent the companies or corporations owned. constitute a State Pollution Control Board under such name as may be specified in the notification. with effect from such date (being a date not later than six months of the commencement of this Act in the States of Assam. ought to be represented.

not exceeding five. (1) Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act. possessing qualifications. controlled or managed by the State Government. (b) such number of officials. other than a member-secretary. subject to the provisions of this Act. hold and dispose of property and to contract. to acquire. notwithstanding the expiration of his term. (f) "a full-time member-secretary. not exceeding five. (2) The term of office of a member of a Board nominated under clause (b) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 3 or clause or. (d) such number of non-officials. Provided that in relation to any Union territory the Central Board may delegate all or any of its powers and functions under this sub-section to such person or body of persons as the Central Government may specify. (e) two persons to represent the companies or corporations owned. fishery or industry or trade or any other interest which.s ection (1). shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of is nomination: Provided that a member shall. the Central Board shall exercise the powers and perform the functions of a State Board for that Union territory. 176. use or be used. to be nominated by the State Government Provided that the chairman may be either whole-time or part time as the State Government may think fit. a member of a Board. having perpetual succession and a common seal with power. to be nominated by the State Government to represent that Government.clicktoconvert. not exceeding three.com 268 administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid. by the said name. (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section. in the opinion of the State Government. knowledge and experience of scientific. Self – check Exercise 1 Write the constitutions of Central and State Board Note: Please give your answer in the space provided. no State Board shall be constituted for a Union territory and in relation to a Union territory." (3) Every State Board shall be a body corporate with the name specified by the State Government in the notification under sub. 21.3 Terms and conditions of service of members. to be nominated by the State Government to represent the interests of agriculture. to be nominated by the State Government from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the State. and may.http://www. to be nominated by that Government. ought to be represented. continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.3. (c) such number of persons.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . engineering or management aspects of pollution control. to be appointed by the State Government.cause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 4 shall .

(9) The other terms and conditions of service of the chairman shall be. if it thinks fit. other than the member-secretary. 21. (3) The Central Government or. may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed (a) in the case of the chairman. involves moral turpitude. the State Government may. as the case may be. of the State Government.clicktoconvert. of the company or corporation owned. shall be deemed to have vacated his seat if he is absent without reason. the company or corporation owned. by virtue of which he was nominated.com 269 come to an end as soon as he ceases to hold the office under the Central Government or the State Government or. or . take effect from such date as the Central Government or. any share or interest in any firm or company carrying on the business of manufacture. or (c) is. (e) is. other than the member-secretary. specify. orhas directly or indirectly by himself or by any partner. the State Government may. (8) The other terms and conditions of service of a member of a Board. to the chairman of the Board. or at any time has been. sufficient in the opinion of the Board. other than the chairman and member-secretary. as the case may be. equipment. or at any time has been adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors. or has been. as the case may be. apparatus or fittings for the treatment of a sewage or trade effluents. such as may be prescribed.3. plant. and the seat of the chairman or such other member shall there upon become vacant. the State Government (b) in any other case. in the opinion of the Central Government or. as the case may be. as the case may be. who. if he ceases to be a member of the State Board or of the local authority or. or where he is nominated under clause (c) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 3 or under clause (c) or clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 4. as the case may be. shall be such as may be prescribed. (4) A member of a Board. remove any member of a Board before the expiry of his term of office. to the Central Government or. after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (a) is. or (d) is.4 Disqualifications. or (b) is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court. convicted of an offence under this Act. (7) A member of a Board shall be eligible for renomination.http://www. from three consecutive meetings of the Board. controlled or managed by the Central Government or the State Government. (1) No person shall be a member of a Board. by notification in the Official Gazette. in either case.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . controlled or managed by the Central Government or the State Government and such vacation of seat shall. sale or hire of machinery. (6) A casual vacancy in a Board shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the member in whose place he was nominated. convicted of an offence which. (5) A member of a Board.

If a member of a Board becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 6. as may be prescribed. 21. (g) has so abused.http://www. 21.7 Constitutions of committees. and for such purposes.8 Temporary association of persons with Board for particular purpose. (2) A person associated with the Board under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have a right to take part in the discussions of the Board relevant to that purpose. (3) A person associated with the Board under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the Board.5 Vacation of seats by members. manager or other salaried officer or employee of any company or firm having any contract with the Board. or with a local authority in the State.com 270 (f) is a director or a secretary.clicktoconvert. his position as a member.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (1) A Board may associate with itself in such manner. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (7) of section 5. of the State Government. his seat shall become vacant. in the opinion of the Central Government or as the case may be. (3) The members of a committee (other than the members of the Board) shall be paid such fees and allowances. controlled or managed by the Government.3. a member who has been removed under this section shall not be eligible for renomination as a member.3. and for such purpose or purposes as it may think fit.6 Meetings of Board. under this section unless the member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (1) A Board may constitute as many committees consisting wholly of members or wholly of other persons or partly of members and partly of other persons. in the opinion of the chairman. 21. any business of an urgent nature is to be transacted. as may be prescribed any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act. and shall not be a member for any other purpose. meetings and for attending to any other work of the Board as may be prescribed. A Board shall meet at least once in every three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed: Provided that if. (2) No order of removal shall be made by the Central Government or the State Government. (2) A committee constituted under this section shall meet at such time and at such place.3. as the case may be. for attending it. 21. but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the Board. or with the Government constituting the Board. or with a company or corporation owned. for the carrying out of sewerage schemes or for the installation of plants for the treatment of sewage or trade effluents. as to render his continuance on the Board detrimental to the interest of the general public. as may be prescribed.3. . he may convene a meeting of the Board at such time as he thinks fit for the aforesaid purpose. and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings.

or any defect in the constitution of. The chairman of a Board shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed or as may. and (b) in the case of a regulation made by a State Board. (4) Subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.4 JOINT BOARDS 21. (2) The member-secretary shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed or as may. if any.10 Member secretary and officers and other employees of Board. an agreement may be entered into(a) by two or more Governments of contiguous States. as the case may be.com 271 21. by-the State Board: Provided that no regulation made under this sub-section shall take effect unless. 21. Note: a) Please give your answers in short sentences or phrases b) Please write your answer in the space provided 21. if any. a Board may appoint such officers and employees as it considers necessary for the efficient performance of its functions (3A) The method of recruitment and the terms and conditions of service (including the scales of pay) of the officers (other than the member-secretary) and other employees of the Central Board or a State Board shall be such as may be determined by regulations made by the Central Board or. as may be . and subject to such conditions and limitations. be delegated to him by the Board or its chairman. as the case may be. (3) Subject to such rules as may be made by the Central Government or.http://www. the Board or such committee.9 Vacancy in Board not invalidate acts or proceedings. it is approved by the Central Government.3. (1) The terms and conditions of service of the member-secretary shall be such as may be prescribed. it is approved by the State Government. Self – check Exercise 2 Give an account on the terms and conditions of the members of the board and the conviction of meetings of the board. No act or proceeding of a Board or any committee thereof shall be called in question on the ground merely of the existence of any vacancy in. delegate to any officer of the Board such of its powers and functions under this Act as it may deem necessary.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . a Board may from time to time appoint any qualified person to be a consulting engineer to the Board and pay him such salaries and allowances and subject him to such other terms and conditions of service as it thinks fit.(a) in the case of a regulation made by the Central Board.clicktoconvert.4. as may be specified in the order. from time to time. 21.9 a Delegation of powers to chairman. from time to time. to be in force for such period and to be subject to renewal for such further period. be delegated to him by the Board. (3B) The Board may. or (b) by the Central Government (in respect of one or more Union territories) and one or more Governments of States contiguous to such Union territory or Union territories. the State Government in this behalf. as the case may be.1 Constitutions of Joint Boards (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act.3. by general or special order.3.

2 Composition of Joint Boards. between the participating State Governments and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section. (d) make such incidental and ancillary provisions. in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub.section (1). being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid. controlled or managed by the participating State Governments. (c) provide for consultation. fishery or industry or trade in the State concerned or any other interest which. in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1). knowledge and experience of scientific.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub. as may be deemed necessary or expedient for giving effect to the agreement. for all the participating States. for the participating Union territory or Union territories and the State or States.section (1). for the apportionments between the Central Government and the participating State Government or State Governments. whether the Central Government or the participating State Government (if there are more than one participating State.clicktoconvert. to be appointed by the Central Government. (c) one person to be nominated by each of the participating State Governments from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the State concerned. of the expenditure in connection with the Joint Board. engineering or management aspects of pollution control. (b) determine. (f) a full-time member-secretary.time chairman. to be nominated by the Central Government. in a case referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1). (d) one non-official to be nominated by each of the participating State Governments to represent the interests of agriculture. for the apportionment between the participating States and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that subsection. namely:- . in the Official Gazette of the participating States and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section. is to be represented . 21. in the opinion of the participating State Government. which of the participating State Governments and in a case referred to in clause (b) of that sub-section. and (ii) in a case referred to in clause (b). (e) two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned. in the Official Gazette of the participating Union territory or Union territories and the participating State or States. (3) An agreement under this section shall be published.http://www. possessing qualifications. (1) A Joint Board constituted in pursuance of an agreement entered into under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 13 shall consist of the following members. not inconsistent with this Act.com 272 specified in the agreement to provide for the constitution of a JointBoard. between the Central Government and the participating State Government or State Governments either generally or with reference to particular matters arising under this Act . (2) A Joint Board constituted in pursuance of an agreement entered into under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 13 shall consist of the following members. (b) two officials from each of the participating States to be nominated by the concerned participating State Government to represent that Government. also which of the participating State Governments) shall exercise and perform the several powers and functions of the State Government under this Act and the references in this Act to the State Government shall be construed accordingly. namely:(a) a full.(i) in a case referred to in clause (a).4. (2) An agreement under this section may(a) provide.

and two officials to be nominated. (c) one person to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the participating Union territory or each of the participating Union territories. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act where any Joint Board is constituted under Section – 13. (4) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3). by the concerned participating State Government. 21. (f) a full-time member-secretary. (e) two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned. of the State Government is to be represented.4. as the case may be. (b) two officials to be nominated by the Central Government from the participating Union territory or each of the participating Union territories as the case may be. or any other interest which in the opinion of the Central Government or.time chairman. be construed as including a Joint Board.http://www. to be nominated by the Central Government. fishery or industry or trade in the Union territory or in each of the Union territories or the State or in each of the States. the provisions of subsection (3) of section 4 and sections 5 to 12 (inclusive) shall apply in relation to the Joint Board and its membersecretary as they apply In relation to a State Board and its member-secretary. by the concerned participating State Government. engineering or management aspects of pollution control. (d) one non-official to be nominated by the Central Government and one person to be nominated by the participating State Government or State Governments to represent the interests of agriculture. to be appointed by the Central Government. controlled or managed by the Central Government and situate in the participating Union territory or territories and two persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the companies or corporations owned.3 Special provision relating to giving of directions. from the participating State or each of the participating States. (b) The Central Government alone shall be competent to give any direction under this Act where such direction relates to a matter within the territorial jurisdiction of two or more States or pertaining to a Union territory. as the case may be. . as the case may be. from amongst the members of the local authorities functioning within the participating State or each of the participating States.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (a) The Government of the State for which the Joint Board is constituted shall be competent to give any direction under this Act only in cases where such direction relates to matter within the exclusive territorial jurisdiction of the State.com 273 (a) a full. (3) When a Joint Board is constituted in pursuance of an agreement under clause (b) of subsection (1) of section 13. being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protection] or a person having knowledge and experience in administering institutions dealing with the matters aforesaid. unless the context otherwise requires. 15. as the case may be. as the case may be. (5) Any reference in this Act to the State Board shall. controlled or managed by the participating State Governments. the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 4 shall cease to apply in relation to the Union territory for which the Joint Board is constituted. possessing qualifications knowledge and experience of scientific. and one person to be nominated.

6 LESSON . Note: a) Please write your answer in the space given below b) Please don’t proceed till you complete your answer 21. shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of is nomination: Provided that a member shall.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson. Justify the significance of the judiciary framework for preventing water pollution 2. you should refer sections 21. · Randomly select the employees at different level.3.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2. other than a member .3. A member of a Board.http://www. For further information refer 21.1 and 21. we have · Discussed the judiciary framework for preventing water pollution · Evaluated the constitutions of Central and State boards · Identified the qualification of Central and State boards · Determined the meetings convened by the boards · Assessed the terms and conditions of service of the employees of the boards · Point out the basic facts of the joint boards 21. notwithstanding the expiration of his term.3. its effects. Establish the basic facts of the joint boards 21.END ACTIVITIES · Visit different industries in your area.7 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. To answer this first question. continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.3 and 21.clicktoconvert.com 274 Self – check Exercise 3 Write about the constitution and composition of Joint boards.3. Constitutions of Central and State board. Substantiate the constitutions and qualifications of Central and State boards 3.4 (Disqualification of members) Meetings of the board: A Board shall meet at least once in every three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed: . · Have an interview with them regarding water pollution. steps taken by the industry to prevent and control the water pollution · Through this you can check the awareness level of the employees regarding the water pollution 21. Evaluate the terms and conditions of service of the employees of the Central and State boards 5.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: MODEL ANSWERS 1. Terms and conditions of the member of the board.secretary. 2. Critically examine the meetings convened by the boards 4.

Environmental Engineering.C. Shyam Divan. K. The answer f or the above question had been discussed in the last section (21. Alagappa Moses. K. 2004. Emerenshiya. M University Publication. 21. A and Environmental Studies. Oxford University Press. he may convene a meeting of the Board at such time as he thinks fit for the aforesaid purpose. Peavy and Tchobanogloss .Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. B. . Meerut. M.Environmental Policy and Law.C . 2000 . Tiruchirappalli.M and Deb. 3. Bharathidasan Vasanthy. any business of an urgent nature is to be transacted. in the opinion of the chairman. .9 REFERENCES Agrawal.http://www. S.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .A Textbook of Environment.Advances in Environmental Sciences.M. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Constitutions and composition of joint boards.clicktoconvert. K. Sharma. Chennai. New Delhi. 2004 Kumaraswamy. New Delhi. Macmillan India Limited. Tiruchirappalli. Sikdar. Macmillan India Limited. P. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. New Delhi. 2004 Howard.Environmental Chemistry. A and Alice . Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Mc Graw Hill. 2007 Dash. C GEMS. 2002 Alagappa Moses. 2003.com 275 Provided that if.4) of this lesson. Armin Rosencranz . 2002 Metcalf and Eddy .Ecology.

2.3. 1974 . 22.3.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this lesson.15 Power of board to make application to courts for restraining apprehended pollution of water in streams of wells. A Power to Give Directions 22.14 Emergency Measures In Case of Pollution of Stream or Well 22.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .7 Check your Progress – Model Answers 22. 22.2. After reading this lesson.3.3.7 Restrictions on New Outlets and New Discharges 22.2 Powers and Functions of Boards 22.13 Furnishing of Information to State Board and Other Agencies in Certain Cases 22.3.9 Refusal or Withdrawal of Consent by State Board 22.3.3.com 276 LESSON – 22: WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT.16.POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF BOARDS CONTENTS 22.3. etc.4 Reports of Results of Analysis on Samples Taken Under Section 21 22.3.6 Prohibition on use of stream or well for disposal of polluting matter.1 Power of State Government to Restrict the Application of the Act to Certain Areas 22.5 Power of Entry and Inspection 22.10 Appeals 22.0Aims and Objectives 22.3.1 Introduction 22.2 Power to Obtain Information 22.3.3 Power to Take Samples of Effluents and Procedure to be Followed In Connection Therewith 22.clicktoconvert.3 Prevention and Control of Water Pollution 22.6 Points for Discussion 22.8 References 22.4 Let Us Sum Up 22.3 Powers to give directions 22.12 Power of State Board to Carry Out Certain Works 22.http://www.5 Lesson – End Activities 22.2 Functions of state board 22.11 Revision 22. · Differentiate the functions of Central and State boards · Point out the power of State Government to restrict the application of the Act · Determine the power to take the samples of effluents and procedure to be followed · Understand the procedure for preparing reports of analysis of water samples · Learn the powers empowered by the boards to inspect any area · List out the restriction for allowing the discharge of new outlets and discharges .3. we have discussed the powers and functions of the Central and State boards in preventing water pollution.8 Provision regarding existing discharge of sewage or trade effluent 22.3.3.3.1 Functions of central board 22.3. you should be able to.2.

1 INTRODUCTION By now you must be familiar with the regulatory framework of the Act in preventing and controlling water pollution for maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water. the main function of the Central Board shall be to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States. namely:(a) advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution (b) co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them.http://www.1 Functions of central board (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act. for conferring on and assigning to such Boards Powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith. (c) provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards.(a) to plan a comprehensive programme for the prevention. flow characteristics of the stream or well and the nature of the use of the water in such stream or well or streams or wells (h) plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention. carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention. control or abatement of water pollution (i) perform such other functions as may be prescribed.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents. (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing function.2. for the establishment. with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid. 22.2 Functions of state board (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act.com 277 22. modify or annul. 22.2 POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF BOARDS 22. (3) The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section fficiently. With an idea about the constitutions of the board. It gives an idea about the liability of corporate officers to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water. codes or guides relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents and disseminate information connected therewith (g) lay down. the standards for a stream or well: Provided that different standards may be laid down for the same stream or well or for different streams or wells. the functions of a State Board shall be -.clicktoconvert.2. in consultation with the State Government concerned. having regard to the quality of water. control or abatement of water pollution on such terms and conditions as the Central Board may specify (e) organise through mass media a comprehensive programme regarding the prevention and control of water pollution (f) collect. compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water pollution and the measures devised for its effective prevention and control and prepare manuals. . of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution. the Central Board may perform all or any of the following functions. in this lesson we shall see the role of Central and State board in controlling water pollution. control or abatement of water pollution (d) plan and organise the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programs for the prevention. control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the State and to secure the execution thereof.

after the discharge of such effluents (l) to make. conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 278 (b) to advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention. as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution (k) to lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any particular stream taking into account the minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream. works and plants for the treatment or sewage and trade effluents and to review plans. control or abatement of discharge of waste into streams or wells (ii) requiring any person concerned to construct new systems for the disposal of sewage and trade effluents or to modify. control or abatement of water pollution (c) to collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention. (2) The Board may establish or recognise a laboratory or laboratories to enable the Board to perform its functions under this section efficiently.clicktoconvert. including the analysis of samples of water from any stream or well or of samples of any sewage or trade effluents.http://www. from time to time be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government. climate and water resources of different regions and more specially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution (i) to evolve methods of utilisation of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture (j) to evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land. control or abatement thereof (d) to encourage. modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters (not being water in an inter-State stream) resulting from the discharge of effluents and to classify waters of the State (h) to evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents. (e) to collaborate with the Central Board in organising the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programmes relating to prevention. having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils. alter or extend any such existing system or to adopt such remedial measures as are necessary to prevent control or abate water pollution (m) to lay down effluent standards to be complied with by persons while causing discharge of sewage or sullage or both and to lay down. . modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents (n) to advice the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well (o) to perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may. control or abatement of water pollution. specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water. works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act (g) lay down. control or abatement of water pollution and to organise mass education programmes relating thereto (f) to inspect sewage or trade effluents. vary or revoke any order -(i) for the prevention.

the State Board. it may. if any.http://www. prevention and control area or areas and thereupon the provisions of this Act shall apply only to such area or areas. by order.3 PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION 22.com 279 22. is of opinion that the provisions of this Act need not apply to the entire State. the expenses. direct the Central Board to perform any of the functions of the State Board in relation to such area for such period and for such purposes. by notification in the Official Gazette. (4) For the removal of doubts. as may be specified in the order. by order.3 Powers to give directions (1) In the performance of its functions under this Act -(a) the Central Board shall be bound by such directions in writing the Central Government may give to it. Self – check Exercise 1 State the powers and functions of the Boards. it is hereby declared that any directions to perform the functions of any State Board given under sub-section (2) in respect of any area would not preclude the State Board from performing such functions in any other area in the State or any of its other functions in that area. incurred by the Central Board with respect to performance of such functions may. fix) from the date when a demand for such expenses is made until it is paid from the person or persons concerned as arrears of land revenue or of public demand.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . after consultation with.1 Power of State Government to Restrict the Application of the Act to Certain Areas (1) Notwithstanding contained in this Act. restrict the application of this Act to such area or areas as may be declared therein as water pollution. (2) Where the Central Government is of the opinion that and State Board has defaulted in complying with any directions given by the Central Government under sub-section (1) and as a result of such default a grave emergency has arisen and it is necessary or expedient so to do in the public interest.3. .2. if the State Board is empowered to recover such expenses. Note: a) The space given below is for your answer b) Please don’t write full statements/sentences. it may. (3) Where the Central Board performs any of the functions of the State Board in pursuance of a direction under sub-section (2). and (b) every State Board shall be bound by such directions in writing as the Central Government or the State Government may give to it: Provided that where a direction given by the State Government is inconsistent with the direction given by the Central Board. prevention and control area may be declared either by reference to a map or by reference to the line of any watershed or the boundary of any district or partly by one method and partly by another. be recovered by the Central Board with interest (at such reasonable rate as the Central Government may. the matter shall be referred to the Central Government for its decision. if the State Government.clicktoconvert. (2) Each water pollution. or on the recommendation of. Instead use words or phrases 22.

clicktoconvert. with a view to preventing or controlling pollution of water. (2) A State Board may give directions requiring any person who in its opinion is abstracting water from any such stream or well in the area in quantities which are substantial in relation to the flow or volume of that stream or well or is discharging sewage or trade effluent into any such stream or well. prevention and control areas.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . operation or process.3 Power to Take Samples of Effluents and Procedure to be Followed In Connection Therewith (1) A State Board or any officer empowered by it in this behalf shall have power to take for the purpose of analysis samples of water from any stream or well or samples of any sewage of trade effluent which is passing from any plant or vessel or from or over any place into any such stream or well. installation or operation of such establishment or of any disposal system or of any extension or addition thereto in such establishment and such other particulars as may be prescribed. a State Board may. (3) Subject to the provisions of sub-sections (4) and (5).http://www. prevention and control area in which may be merged one or more water pollution.com 280 (3) The State Government may. a notice. to give such information as to the abstraction or the discharge at such times and in such form as may be specified in the directions. may make surveys of any area and gauge and keep records of the flow or volume and other characteristics of an stream or well in such area. 22. the plant or vessel or in occupation of the place (which person is hereinafter referred to as the occupier) or any agent of such occupier. (3) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (2). and .-(i) in a case where such sample is taken from any area situated in a Union territory. (d) send one container forthwith. and may take steps for the measurement and recording of the rainfall in such area or any part thereof and for the installation and maintenance for those purposes of gauges or other apparatus and works connected therewith. by notification in the Official Gazette(a) alter any water pollution prevention and control area whether by way of extension or reduction.3. (4) and (5) are complied with.3. the person taking the sample shall -(a) serve on the person in charge of. then and there in such form as may be prescribed of his intention to have it so analysed. when a sample (composite or otherwise as may be warranted by the process used) of any sewage or trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1).2 Power to Obtain Information (1) For the purpose of enabling a State Board to perform the function conferred on it by or under this Act. to furnish to it information regarding the construction. or any part or parts thereof. and carry out stream surveys and may take such other steps as may be necessary in order to obtain any information required for the purposes aforesaid. or (b) define a new water pollution. or having control over. give directions requiring any person in charge of any establishment where any industry. 22. to the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board under section. (b) in the presence of the occupier or his agent. (c) cause each part to be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed both by the person taking the sample and the occupier or his agent. the State Board or any officer empowered by it in that behalf. (2) The result of any analysis of a sample of any sewage or trade effluent taken under subsection (1) shall not be admissible in evidence in an legal proceeding unless the provisions of sub-sections (3). divided the sample into two parts. or treatment and disposal system is carried on.

the sample so taken shall be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed by the person taking the sample and the same shall be sent forthwith by such person for analysis to the laboratory referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii). as the case may be. one copy of the report shall be sent by the Central Board or the State Board. send the second container -(i) in a case where such sample is taken from any area situated in a Union territory. a notice under clause (a) of sub-section (3) and the occupier or his agent willfully absents himself. of clause (d) of sub-section (3). as the case may be. as an arrear of land revenue or of public demand: Provided that no such recovery shall be made unless the occupier or. as the case may be. of clause (e) of sub-section (3) and such person shall inform the Government analyst appointed under sub-section (1) or subsection (2). to the laboratory established or specified under subsection (1) of section 52.4 Reports of Results of Analysis on Samples Taken Under Section 21 (1) Where a sample of any sewage or trade effluent has been sent for analysis to the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or. of section 53. (5) When a sample of any sewage or trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1) and the person taking the sample serves on the occupier or his agent a notice under clause (a) of sub-section (3) and the occupier or his agent who is present at the time of taking the sample does not make a request for dividing the sample into two parts as provided in clause (b) of sub-section (3). . as the case may be. another copy shall be preserved for production before the court in case any legal proceedings are taken against him and the other copy shall be kept by the concerned Board.clicktoconvert.3. as the case may be. to the occupier or his agent referred to in section 21. (2) On receipt of the report under sub-section (1).http://www. in writing about the wilful absence of the occupier or his agent. to the laboratory established or recognised by the State Board under section 17. the State Board. as the case may be. and (ii) in an other case. and (b) the cost incurred in getting such sample analysed shall be payable by the occupier or his agent and in case of default of such payment. (3) Where a sample has been sent for analysis under clause (e) of sub-section (3) or subsection (4) of section 21 to any laboratory mentioned therein. the State Board which shall comply with the provisions of sub-section (2). the concerned Board analyst appointed under sub-section (3) of section 53 shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of such analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or the State Board. the Government analyst referred to in that sub-section shall analyse the sample and submit a report in the prescribed form of the result of the analysis in triplicate to the Central Board or. then (a) the sample so taken shall be placed in a container which shall be marked and sealed and shall also be signed by the person taking the sample and the same shall be sent forthwith by such person for analysis to the laboratory referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii). (e) on the request of the occupier or his agent.com 281 (ii) in any other case. to the laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 51. as the case may be. as the case may be. the same shall be recoverable from the occupier or his agent. his agent has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter. (4) When a sample of any sewage of trade effluent is taken for analysis under sub-section (1) and the person taking the sample serves on the occupier or his agent.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . as the case may be. then. 22.

(c) for the purpose of examining any plant. bridge.com 282 (4) If there is any inconsistency or discrepancy between. in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. or (b) no person shall knowingly cause or permit to enter into any stream any other matter which may tend.3. record. so far as may be. improving a maintaining in or across or on the bank or bed of any stream any building. pier. Explanation -. the provisions of any corresponding law in force in that State. as the case may be. either directly or in combination with similar matters. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section -(a) no person shall knowingly cause or permit any poisonous. under the corresponding provisions of the said law. the analysis carried out by the laboratory established or recognised by the Central Board or the State Board. etc. dam. or. or variation in the results of. dock. given. improve or maintain. (b) for the purpose of determining whether and if so in what manner. register. 22. register. direction or authorisation served. as the case may be. 22. any place-(a) for the purpose of performing any of the functions of the Board entrusted to him.For the purposes of this section. or granted under this Act is being or has been complied with. as the case may be.http://www. . shall. apply to an search or seizure under this section as they apply to any search or seizure made under the authority of a warrant issued under section 94 of the said Code. record. document or other material object.6 Prohibition on use of stream or well for disposal of polluting matter. the report of the latter shall prevail. with such assistance as he considers necessary. or.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and that of the laboratory established or specified under section 51 or section 52. to impede the proper flow of the water of the stream in a manner leading or likely to lead to a substantial aggravation of pollution due to other causes or of its consequences.3.-(a) constructing. any person empowered by a State Board in this behalf shall have a right at any time to enter. made. (2) The provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure. order. (2) A person shall not be guilty of an offence under sub-section (1). weir. "place" includes vessel. (5) Any cost incurred in getting any sample analysed at the request of the occupier or his agent shall be payable by such occupier or his agent and in case of default the same shall be recoverable from him as arrears of land revenue or of public demand. by reason only of having done any of the following acts. drain or sewer or other permanent works which he has a right to construct. if he has reason to believe that it may furnish evidence of the commission of an offence punishable under this Act or the rules made thereunder: Provided that the right to enter under this sub-section for the inspection of a well shall be exercised only at reasonable hours in a case where such well is situated in any premises used for residential purposes and the water thereof is used exclusively for domestic purposes. document or any other material object or for conducting a search of any place in which he has reason to believe that an offence under this Act or the rules made thereunder has been or is being or is about to be committed and for seizing any such plant.5 Power of Entry and Inspection (1) Subject to the provisions of this section. noxious or polluting matter determined in accordance with such standards as may be laid down by the State Board to enter (whether directly or indirectly) into any stream or well or sewer or on land. any such functions are to be performed or whether any provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder of an notice. 1973. namely. sluice.clicktoconvert.

as may be specified in the notification and any conditions so specified may by a like notification and be altered. or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto. within the said period of three months. being-(i) in cases referred to in clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1) of section 25. with the consent of the State Board. (3) The State Government may. any industry operation or process. or any steps for such establishment have been taken or a new or altered outlet is brought into use for . operation or process. till the disposal of such application. is established. or on the recommendation of. conditions as to the nature and composition. conditions as to the point of discharge of sewage or as to the use of that outlet or any other outlet for discharge of sewage. 22. without the consent of the State Board. and any such conditions imposed shall be binding on any person establishing or taking any steps to establish any industry. or using the new or altered outlet. or any treatment and disposal system or an extension or addition thereto. the deposit accumulated in a well. if any.7 Restrictions on New Outlets and New Discharges (1) Subject to the provisions of this section. after consultation with. (2) An application for consent of the State Board under sub-section (1) shall be made in such form.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (3) The State Board may make such inquiry as it may deem fit in respect of the application for consent referred to in sub-section (1) and in making any such inquiry shall follow such procedure as may be prescribed. contain such particulars and shall be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed. 1988. operation or process immediately before the commencement of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act. (c) putting into an stream any sand or gravel or other natural deposit which has flowed from or been deposited by the current of such stream. or (b) refuse such consent for reasons to be recorded in writing. repairing or protecting the bank or bed of such stream provided such materials are not capable of polluting such stream. (4) The State Board may -(a) grant its consent referred to in sub-section (1). by notification in the Official Gazette. any person from the operation of sub-section (1) subject to such conditions. Provided that a person in the process of taking any steps to establish any industry.clicktoconvert. pond or reservoir to enter into any stream.com 283 (b) depositing any materials on the bank or in the bed of any stream for the purpose of reclaiming land or for supporting. exempt. volume or rate of discharge of the effluent from the land or premises from which the discharge or new discharge is to be made.http://www.-(a) establish or take any steps to establish any industry. or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto. operation or process. or (c) begin to make any new discharge of sewage. if he has made an application for such consent. the State Board. temperature. and (iii) that the consent will be valid only for such period as may be specified in the order. which is likely to discharge sewage or trade effluent into a stream or well or sewer or on land (such discharge being hereafter in this section referred to as discharge of sewage). (ii) in the case of a new discharge. (5) Where. no person shall. (d) causing or permitting. or (b) bring into use any new or altered outlets for the discharge of sewage. or discharging the effluent from the land or premises aforesaid. subject to such conditions as it may impose. varied or amended.3. without the previous consent of the State Board. for which no consent was necessary prior to such commencement or.

(8) For the purposes of this section and sections 27 and 30 – (a) the expression "new or altered outlet" means any outlet which is wholly or partly constructed on or after the commencement of this Act or which (whether so constructed or not) is substantially altered after such commencement.com 284 the discharge of sewage or a new discharge of sewage is made. (2) A State Board may from time to time review -(a) any condition imposed under section 25 or section 26 and may serve on the person to whom a consent under section 25 or section 26 is granted a notice making any reasonable variation of or revoking any such condition. 22. or by any person authorised by him in this behalf and the conditions so contained in such register shall be conclusive proof that the consent was granted subject such conditions] (7) The consent referred to in sub-section (1) shall.9 Refusal or Withdrawal of Consent by State Board (1) A State Board shall not grant its consent under sub-section (4) of section 25 for the establishment of any industry. (6) Every State Board shall maintain a register containing particulars or conditions imposed under this section and so much of the register as relates to any outlet. or the outlet is so established as to comply with an conditions imposed by the Board to enable it to exercise its right to take samples of the effluent. the State Board may serve on the person who has established or taken steps to establish any industry. temperature. or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto.3.3. unless given or refused earlier. operation or process. volume. the provisions of section 25 shall.clicktoconvert. or to any effluent. such outlet or discharge. be deemed to have been given unconditionally on the expiry of a period of four months of the making of an application in this behalf complete in all respects to the State Board. operation or process. or to the bringing into use of a new or altered outlet unless the industry. or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto.http://www. . from any land or premises shall be open to inspection at all reasonable hours by any person interested in. 22. operation or process. or making the discharge. or treatment and disposal system or extension or addition thereto. and rate of discharge of the effluent substantially a continuation of a discharge made within the preceding twelve months (whether by the same or different outlet).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . or using the outlet. so however that a discharge which is in other respects a continuation of previous discharge made as aforesaid shall not be deemed to be a new discharge by reason of any reduction of the temperature or volume or rate of discharge of the effluent as compared with the previous discharge. a notice imposing any such conditions as it might have imposed on an application for its consent in respect of such establishment. land or premises. so far as may be. as respects the nature and composition.8 Provision regarding existing discharge of sewage or trade effluent Where immediately before the commencement of this Act any person was discharging any sewage or trade effluent into a stream or well or sewer or on land. or affected by such outlet. as the case may be. apply in relation to such person as they apply in relation to the person referred to in that section subject to the modification that the application for consent to be made under sub-section (2) of that section shall be made on or before such date as may be specified by the State Government by notification in this behalf in the Official Gazette. as the case may be. (b) the expression "new discharge" means a discharge which is not.

22. after giving the appellant and the State Board an opportunity of being heard. prefer an appeal to such authority (hereinafter referred to as the appellate authority) as the State Government may think fit to constitute: Provided that the appellate authority may entertain the appeal after the expiry of the said period of thirty days if such authority is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal in time. such authority may direct either that the condition shall be treated as continuing in force unvaried or that it shall be varied in such manner as appears to it to be reasonable. the fees payable for such appeal and the procedure to be followed by the appellate authority shall be such as may be prescribed. as the case may be. or the variation of any condition. dispose of the appeal as expeditiously as possible. such authority may direct either that the condition shall be treated as annulled or that there shall be substituted for it such condition as appears to it to be reasonable. call for the records of any case where an order has been made by the State Board under section 25. (b) where the appeal is in respect of the unreasonableness of any variation of a condition. (4) On receipt of an appeal preferred under sub-section (1). . section 26 or section 27 may within thirty days from the date on which the order is communicated to him. and may make such orders as it deemed fit. but has not been preferred or where an appeal has been preferred such appeal is pending before the appellate authority.11 Revision (1) The State Government may at any time either of its own motion or on an application made to it in this behalf. (2) An appellate authority shall consist of a single person or three persons as the State Government may think fit. 22. was unreasonable.3. section 26 or section 27 for the purpose of satisfying itself as to the legality or propriety of any such order and may pass such order in relation thereto as it may think fit : Provided that the State Government shall not pass any order under this sub-section without affording the State Board and the person who may be affected by such order a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter. (2) The State Government shall not revise any order made under section 25.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .-(a) where the appeal is in respect of the unreasonableness of any condition imposed.clicktoconvert. to be appointed by that Government.com 285 (b) the refusal of any consent referred to in sub-section (1) of section 25 or section 26 or the grant of such consent without any condition. (3) Any conditions imposed under section 25 or section 26 shall be subject to any variation made under sub-section (2) and shall continue in force until revoked under that sub-section.http://www. (5) If the appellate authority determines that any condition imposed. section 26 or section 27 where an appeal against that order lies to the appellate authority.3.10 Appeals (1) Any person aggrieved by an order made by the State Board under Section 25. then. the appellate authority shall. (3) The form and manner in which an appeal may be preferred under sub-section (1).

from the date when a demand for the expenses is made until it is paid. the State Board may serve on the person concerned a notice requiring him within such time (not being less than thirty days) as may be specified in the notice to execute the work specified therein. .com 286 22. or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition thereto is being carried on. (b) remedying or mitigating any pollution caused by its presence in the stream or well. 22.3. fix. or is likely to be discharged into a stream or well or sewer or on land and. as arrears of land revenue. carry out such operations as it may consider necessary for all or any of the following purposes. act or event to the State Board and such other authorities or agencies as may be prescribed. as a result of such discharge. together with interest. operation or process.13 Furnishing of Information to State Board and Other Agencies in Certain Cases (1) If at any place where any industry.clicktoconvert. or of public demand. after the expiration of the time specified in the said notice.12 Power of State Board to Carry Out Certain Works (1) Where under this Act. or is likely to be polluted. (c) issuing orders immediately restraining or prohibiting the persons concerned from discharging any poisonous. that is to say -(a) removing that matter from the stream or well or on land and disposing it of in such manner as the Board considers appropriate. (2) If the person concerned fails to execute the work as required in the notice referred to in sub-section (1). due to accident or other unforeseen act or event. (2) Where any local authority operates any sewerage system or sewage works the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply to such local authority as they apply in relation to the person in charge of the place where an industry or trade is being carried on. any conditions have been imposed on any person while granting consent under section 25 or section 26 and such conditions require such person to execute any work in connection therewith and such work has not been executed within such time as may be specified in this behalf. 22. and if the Board is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient to take immediate action. any poisonous. it may for reasons to be recorded in writing. the water in any stream or well is being polluted. then the person incharge of such place shall forthwith intimate the occurrence of such accident.3. noxious or polluting matter is present in any stream or well or on land by reason of the discharge of such matter in such stream or well or on such land or has entered into that stream or well due to any accident or other unforeseen act or event. then. by order.3. noxious or polluting matter into the steam or well or on land] or from making insanitary use of the stream or well. noxious or polluting matter is being discharged. may be recovered by that Board from the person concerned. (2) The power conferred by sub-section (I) does not include the power to construct any works other than works of a temporary character which are removed on or before the completion of the operations.14 Emergency Measures In Case of Pollution of Stream or Well (1) Where it appears to the State Board that any poisonous. the State Board may itself execute or cause to be executed such work.http://www. (3) All expenses incurred by the State Board for the execution of the aforesaid work. at such rate as the State Government may.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

not inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class. or on any land.http://www.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3. as the case may be. officer or authority.-For the avoidance of doubts. prohibition or regulation of any industry. A Power to Give Directions Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law. (4) All expenses incurred by the Board in removing any matter in pursuance of the authorisation under clause (ii) of sub-section (3) or in the disposal of any such matter may be defrayed out of any money obtained by the Board from such disposal and any balance outstanding shall be recoverable from the person concerned as arrears of land revenue or of public demand. a Board may. (1) Where it is apprehended by a Board that the water in any stream or well is likely to be polluted by reason of the disposal or likely disposal of any matter in such stream or well or in any sewer. officer or authority shall be bound to comply with such directions.clicktoconvert. it may in that order(i) direct the person who is likely to cause or has caused the pollution of the water in the stream or well. to desist from taking such action as is likely to cause pollution or. (2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (I) the court make such order as it deems fit. it is hereby declared that the power to issue directions under this section includes the power to direct(a) the closure. to undertake the removal and disposal of the matter in such manner as may be specified by the court. (3) Where under sub-section (2) the court makes an order restraining any person from polluting the water in any stream or well.15 Power of board to make application to courts for restraining apprehended pollution of water in streams of wells. Explanation. or otherwise. Self – check Exercise 2 Carefully study section 22. water or any other service. 22. such matter. and such person. and (ii) authorise the Board.16.3 once again and list all the significant factors involved in the prevention and control of water pollution Note: Please don’t proceed till you complete your answer . or (b) the stoppage or regulation of supply of electricity. in the exercise of its powers and performance of its functions under this Act. issue any directions in writing to any person. operation or process. the Board may make an application to a court. but subject to the provisions of this Act. and to any directions that the Central Government may give in this behalf. if the direction under clause (i) (being a direction for the removal of any matter from such stream or well) is not complied with by the person to whom such direction is issued.3. to remove such stream or well.com 287 22. for restraining the person who is likely to cause such pollution from so causing.

3 for this answer . Have an interview with the officer regarding the role of the board in preventing and controlling water pollution. Ask them about the immediate steps taken by the board in case of any industry polluting the water body.http://www. Visit a nearby industry and identify where they release their effluents . Justify the emergency measures taken by the boards in case of pollution of stream or well. Evaluate the purpose of enabling the Central and State board to perform the functions conferred on them 3. Refer section 22. 3.2. Substantiate how the final report is prepared? 5. 2. Refer section 22.clicktoconvert.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS: MODEL ANSWERS 1.1 for functions of Central board and section 22.2 for functions of State board. Powers and functions of the board.5 LESSON . Critically examine the functions of the Central and the State board 2. 2. 22.END ACTIVITIES 1.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 22.6 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Significant factors involved in the prevention and control of water pollution.com 288 22. Establish how the water samples are collected? 4. we have · Explained the functions of the Central board · Determined the functions of the State board · Studied the functions bound by the Central and State board · Understood the purpose of enabling the Central and State board to perform the functions conferred on them · Learned the procedure for taking water samples and preparing the final report · Pointed out the prohibition on use of stream or well for disposal of polluting matter · Said the restrictions laid to the industries in releasing new discharges · Discussed the emergency measures taken by the boards in case of pollution of stream or well 22. Visit the pollution control board in your area.4 LET US SUM UP In this lesson.2.

S. M. A and Alice .C . Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Meerut. B.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . New Delhi. Macmillan India Limited.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . Tiruchirappalli. 2004. New Delhi. .C. Sikdar. Emerenshiya. 2004 Kumaraswamy. K. Tiruchirappalli. C GEMS.M.A Textbook of Environment. Mc Graw Hill.bharathidasan Vasanthy.8 REFERENCES Agrawal. M University Publication. Chennai. Alagappa Moses. A and Environmental Studies. Oxford University Press.com 289 22. 2002 Alagappa Moses. 2003. New Delhi. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Sharma. 2007 Dash. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition.Environmental Policy and Law.Ecology.Advances in Environmental Sciences.M and Deb. 2000 Shyam Divan. K.Environmental Chemistry. K.clicktoconvert. P.Environmental Engineering. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . 2004 Howard. Armin Rosencranz .http://www. . . Macmillan India Limited.

4.2.2.7 Offences by companies 23.10 Members.FUNDS.2.com 290 LESSON – 23: WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT.3 Fund of Central Board 23.10 Overriding effect 23.4.3.2.8 Offences by government departments 23.5 A Penalty for contravention of certain provisions of the act 23.7 Returns and reports 23.2.clicktoconvert.12 Power of state government to supersede state board 23.4.3 Penalty for Contravention of Section 25 or Section 26 23.2 State Water Laboratory 23.9 References .14 Power of state government to make rules 23.4.http://www.3.2.3. A Borrowing Powers of Board 23.4.7 Points for Discussion 23.6 lesson – End Activities 23.8 Account and Audit 23.4.4 Reports of analysts 23.8 Check your Progress – Model Answers 23.1 Introduction 23. ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT & MISCELLANEOUS CONTENTS 23.1 Contributions by Central Government 23.9 Cognizance of offences 23.11 Power of central government to supersede the central board and joint boards 23.3.3.6 Publication of names of offenders 23.3.4.1 Penalty for Certain Acts 23. 1974 .4.3.3.5.5 Let us sum up 23. officers and servants of board to be public servants 23.4.4.4 Miscellaneous 23.9 Protection of action taken in good faith 23.3 Penalties and Procedure 23.6 Compulsory acquisition of land for the state board 23.4.7 Annual Report 23.6 Budget 23.4.8 Bar of jurisdiction 23.4 Fund of State Board 23.4.0 Aims and Objectives 23.2 Penalty for Contravention of Provisions of Section 24 23.4 Enhanced penalty after previous conviction 23.5 Local authorities to assist 23.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2.3 Analysts 23.3.2 Funds.2.1 Central water laboratory 23.4.13 Power of central government to make rules 23.3. Accounts and Audit 23.2 Contributions by State Government 23.

be paid to it by the Central Government and all other receipts (by way of gifts.clicktoconvert.2. · · · · · Understand the contributions made by the Government to the boards Evaluate the funding of Central and State Boards in abating pollution Determine the procedure for borrowing money from a source Define the penalties collected in failure of complying the order under the Water Act Point out the miscellaneous activities carried out under this Act 23. control of abatement or air pollution provides for the performance of any function under such law by the Central Board. from time to time. make in each financial year such contribution to the Central Board as it may think necessary to enable the Board to perform its functions under this Act. With this view.2. you should be able to.2 FUNDS ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT 23. let us discuss the funding of the administration and the penalties given to whoever fails to comply the order issued under this act. After reading this lesson.2. after due appropriation made by the Legislature of the State by law in this behalf. be paid to it by the State Government and all other receipts (by way of gifts. and all sums which may. benefactions fees or (otherwise) of that Board shall be carried to the fund of the Board and all payments by the Board shall be made therefrom.3 Fund of Central Board (1) The Central Board shall have its own fund. from time to time. (2) The Central Board may expend such sums as it thinks fit for performing its functions under this Act. where any law for the time being in force relating to the prevention. 23. grants.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson. and the sums which may. and.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .0 AIMS ANND OBJECTIVES This lesson will help us to gain an idea about the funding of the administration of the Water act.1 Contributions by Central Government The Central Government may.2. 23.com 291 23. also for performing its functions under such law and such sums shall be treated as expenditure payable out of the funds of that Board. 23. donations. . benefactions fees or (otherwise) of that Board shall be carried to the fund of the Board and all payments by the Board shall be made therefrom. 23.4 Fund of State Board (1) The State Board shall have its own fund.2 Contributions by State Government The State Government may. grants. we had discussed about the powers and functions of the Central and State board in promoting cleanliness of water bodies thereby maintaining the wholesomeness of water.http://www. donations. make in each financial year such contributions to the State Board as it may think necessary to enable that Board to perform its functions under this Act. after due appropriation made by Parliament by law in this behalf. We shall also discuss about the miscellaneous activities carried out by the laboratories and the procedure of land acquisition.

5. connected vouchers and other documents and papers and to inspect any of the offices of the Board. accounts.2. as it may deem fit. 1956. A Borrowing Powers of Board A Board may. 23. in such form and at such time as may be prescribed. .http://www.2. prepare. and. the State Government.7 Annual Report (1) The Central Board shall. (2) The accounts of the Board shall be audited by an auditor duly qualified to act as an auditor of companies under section 226 of the Companies Act. in such form as may be prescribed. (3) The said auditor shall be appointed by the Central Government or. an annual report giving full account of its activities under this Act during the previous financial ear and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the State Government within four months from the last date of the previous financial year and that Government shall cause every such report to be laid before the State legislature within a period of nine months from the last date of the previous financial year. as the case may be. for the performance of all or any of its functions under this Act.clicktoconvert. control or abatement of air pollution provides for the performance of any function under such law by the State Board. during each financial year.6 Budget The Central Board or. during each financial year. in such form as may be prescribed. during each financial year. prepare. or as the case may be. the State Government. 23. and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the Central Government.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .2. the State Government on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. 23.8 Account and Audit (1) Every Board shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government or. the State Government. (4) Every auditor appointed to audit the accounts of the Board under this Act shall have the right to demand the production of books. as the case may be. prepare. (2) Every State Board shall. the State Board shall. debentures or such other instruments. also for performing its functions under such law] and such sums shall be treated as expenditure payable out of the fund of that Board. an annual report giving full account of its activities under this Act during the previous financial year and copies thereof shall be forwarded to the Central Government within four months from the last date of the previous financial year and that Government shall cause every such report to be laid before both Houses of Parliament within nine months from the last date of the previous financial year. as the case may be. where any law for the time being in force relating to the prevention. borrow money from any source by way of loans or issue of bonds. (1 of 1956). 23. the terms of any general or special authority given to it by the Central Government or. a budget in respect of the financial year next ensuing showing the estimated receipt and expenditure. or in accordance with. with the consent of.2. as the case may be.com 292 (2) The State Board may expend such sums as it thinks fit for performing its functions under this Act.

3 PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE Failure to comply with directions under sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of section of 20. pulls down.1 Penalty for Certain Acts (1) Whoever -(a) destroys. Self – check Exercise 1 Evaluate the funds. the offender shall.com 293 (5) Every such auditor shall send a copy of his report together with an audited copy of the accounts to the Central Government or. (3) If the failure referred to in sub-section (2) continues beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year and six months but which may extend to six years and with fine. removes. cause the same to be laid before both Houses of Parliament. on conviction. and case the failure continues. in respect of each such failure and on conviction. (2) Whoever fails to comply with any order issued under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 32 or any direction issued by a court under sub-section (2) of section 33 or any direction issued under section 33A shall. with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure continues after the conviction for the first such failure. as soon as may be after the receipt of the audit report under sub-section (5).This watermark does not appear in the registered version . by or under the authority of the Board.clicktoconvert. 23.3. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both and in case the failure continues. or orders issued under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of 32 or directions issued under subsection (2) of section 33 or section 33A. cause the same to be laid before the State Legislature.http://www. (1) Whoever fails to comply with any direction given under sub-section (2) or subsection (3) of section 20 within such time as may be specified in the direction shall. injures or defaces any pillar. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years and with fine. the State Government. (6) The Central Government shall. as soon as may be after the receipt of the audit report under sub-section (5). (7) The State Government shall. or conviction. accounts and audit of Central and State boards in abating pollution Note: Please stick on to the space provided below 23. inscribed or placed. as the case may be. with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure continues after the conviction for the first such failure. post or stake fixed in the ground or any notice or other matter put up. or .

he shall. knowingly or willfully makes a statement which is false in any material particular shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both. or (g) for the purpose of obtaining any consent under section 25 or section 26.3.3. or (e) fails to intimate the occurrence of an accident or other unforeseen act or even under section 31 to the Board and other authorities or agencies as required by that section.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . any person who knowingly or willfully alters or interferes with that device so as to prevent it from monitoring or measuring correctly shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both.3 Penalty for Contravention of Section 25 or Section 26 Whoever contravenes the provision of section 25 or section 26 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to six years and with fine.2 Penalty for Contravention of Provisions of Section 24 Whoever contravenes the provisions of section 24 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year and six months but which may extend to six years and with fine.clicktoconvert.http://www. 23. for which no penalty has been elsewhere provided in this Act. knowingly or wilfully makes a statement which is false in any material particular. (2) Where for the grant of a consent in pursuance of the provisions of section 25 or section 26 the use of a meter or gauge or other measure or monitoring device is required and such device is used for the purposes of those provision.4 Enhanced penalty after previous conviction If any person who has been convicted of any offence under section 24 or 25 or section 26 is again found guilty of an offence involving a contravention of the same provision. be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one and half years but which may extend to seven years and with fine: Provided that for the purpose of this section no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made more than two years before the commission of the offence which is being punished. or (f) in giving any information which he is required to give under this Act.3. or (d) fails to furnish to any officer or other employees of the Board any information required by him for the purpose of this Act. on the second and on every subsequent conviction. 23. or (c) damages any works or property belonging to the Board. 23.3.5 A Penalty for contravention of certain provisions of the act Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this Act or fails to comply with any order or direction given under this Act. shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both and in the case of a continuing . 23.com 294 (b) obstructs any person acting under the orders or directions of the Board from exercising his powers and performing his functions under this Act.

com 295 contravention or failure. with an additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such contravention or failure continues after conviction for the first such contravention or failure. 23. where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of. 23.3.7 Offences by companies (1) Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company. secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly. shall be deemed to the guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge for that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence. Explanation--For the purpose of this section. the offence and the penalty imposed to be published at the offender's expense in such newspapers or in such other manner as the court may direct and the expenses of such publication shall be deemed to be part of the cost attending the conviction and shall be recoverable in the same manner as a fine. as well as the company.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . or .3. secretary or other officer of the company. or is attributable to any neglect on the part of. the business of the company. and (b) "director" in relation to a firm means a partner in the firm.8 Offences by government departments Where an offence under this Act has been committed by any Department of Government.http://www. manager. such director. manager.3. and was responsible to the company for the conduct of. every person who at the time the offence was committed was in charge of. any director. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1).9 Cognizance of offences (1) No court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act except on a complaint made by-(a) a Board or any officer authorised in this behalf by it.3.clicktoconvert. 23.-(a) "company" means any body corporate. 23. the Head of the Department shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this section shall render such Head of the Department liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.6 Publication of names of offenders If any person convicted of an offence under this Act commits a like offence afterwards it shall be lawful for the court before which the second or subsequent conviction takes place to cause the offender's name and place of residence. and includes a firm or other association of individuals.

it shall be lawful for any Judicial Magistrate of the first class or for any Metropolitan Magistrate" to pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding two years or of fine exceeding two thousand rupees on any person convicted of an offence punishable under this Act. 23. . of the alleged offence and of his intention to make a complaint. Self – check Exercise 2 Give an account on the penalties and procedures implemented to those who fail to comply with the directions given under the Water Act Note: Please don’t proceed until you attempt the above question 23. to the Board or officer authorised as aforesaid. on demand by such person. after consultation with the Central Board.clicktoconvert. and no court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try any offence punishable under this Act. in its opinion. make available the relevant reports in its possession to that person: Provided that the Board may refuse to make any such report available to such person if the same is. (b) the procedure for the submission to the said laboratory of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent for analysis or tests. (2) The Central Government may.1Central water laboratory (1) The Central Government may.4 MISCELLANEOUS 23. the form of the laboratory's report thereunder and the fees payable in respect of such report.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .3. by notification in the Official Gazette -(a) establish a Central Water Laboratory. the Board shall. (2) Where a complaint has been made under clause (b) of sub-section (1). in the manner prescribed. officers and servants of a Board when acting or purporting to act in pursuance of any of the provisions of this Act (45 of 1860) and the rules made thereunder shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code. officers and servants of board to be public servants All members. or (b) specify any laboratory or institute as a Central Water Laboratory.10 Members. make rules prescribing-(a) the functions of the Central Water Laboratory.http://www. 1973".4.com 296 (b) any person who has given notice of not less than sixty days. against the public interest (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 29 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. to carry out the functions entrusted to the Central Water Laboratory under this Act.

4.4 Reports of analysts Any document purporting to be report signed by a Government analyst or. after consultation with the State Board.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 23. the Central Board or. by notification in the Official Gazette appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 51.2 State water laboratory (1) The State Government may. 23. (3) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 12. the State Board may.com 297 (c) such other matters as may be necessary or expedient to enable that laboratory to carry out its functions.4.4. under section 17. or under any other corresponding law for the time being in force. . 23. and with the approval of the Central Government or the State Government. plans and other documents as may be necessary for the discharge of its functions.5 Local authorities to assist All local authorities shall render such help and assistance and furnish such information to the Board as it may require for the discharge of its functions.6 Compulsory acquisition of land for the state board Any land required by a State Board for the efficient performance of its function under this Act shall be deemed to be needed for a public purpose and such land shall be acquired for the State Board under the provisions of the Land Acquisition Act. appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Government analysts for the purpose of analysis of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or specified under sub-section (1) of section 52. as the case may be. as the case may be.http://www. 23.4. maps. by notification in the Official Gazette. or (b) specify any State laboratory or institute as a State Water Laboratory. a Board analyst may be used as evidence of the facts stated therein in any proceeding under this Act. and shall make available to the Board for inspection and examination such records. 1894 (1 of 1984). 23. (b) the procedure for the submission to the said laboratory of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent for analysis or rests. make rules prescribing -(a) the functions of the State Water Laboratory. (2) The State Government may. as the case may be.3 Analysts (1) The Central Government may. appoint such persons as it thinks fit and having the prescribed qualifications to be Board analysts for the purpose of analysis of samples of water or of sewage or trade effluent sent for analysis to any laboratory established or recognised under section 16. the form of the laboratory's report thereon and the fees payable in respect of such report. by notification in the Official Gazette. (c) such other matters as may be necessary or expedient to enable that laboratory to carry out its functions. to carry out the functions entrusted to the State Water Laboratory under this Act.clicktoconvert. as the case may be. (2) The State Government may. by notification in the Official Gazette -(a) establish a State Water Laboratory.4.

performed or discharged by the Central Board or such Joint Board. accounts and other information with respect to its fund or activities as that government. the Central Government may -- .com 298 23. from time to time. and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act. shall.clicktoconvert. as the case may be. as the case may be. or (b) that circumstances exist which render it necessary in the public interest so to do. as the case may be. until the Central Board or the Joint Board. the Central Government may.4.4. returns. (2) Upon the publication of notification under sub-section (1) superseding the Central Board or any Joint Board.7 Returns and reports The Central Board shall furnish to the Central Government.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 23. statistics. as the case may be.4. 23.8 Bar of jurisdiction No civil court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which an appellate authority constituted under this Act is empowered by or under this Act to determine. 23. as from the date of supersession vacate their offices as such.10 Overriding effect The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any enactment other than this Act. by or under this Act.11 Power of central government to supersede the central board and joint boards (1) If at any time the Central Government is of opinion -(a) that the Central Board or any Joint Board has persistently made default in the performance of the functions imposed on it by or under this Act. to show cause why it should not be superseded and shall consider the explanations and objections if any.9 Protection of action taken in good faith No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against the Government or any officer of Government or any member or officer of a Board in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or the rules made thereunder. performed or discharged by such person or persons as the Central Government may direct. until the Central Board or the Joint Board. as the case may be. is reconstituted under sub-section (3) vest in the Central Government. is reconstituted under subsection (3) be exercised. (a) all the members shall. the Central Board may. as may be specified in the notification: Provided that before issuing a notification under this sub-section for the reasons mentioned in clause (a). of the Central Board or such Joint Board. the Central Government shall give a reasonable opportunity to the Central Board or such Joint Board. require. 23. by notification in the Official Gazette. (3) On the expiration of the period of supersession specified in the notification issued under sub-section (1). or.4.4.http://www. functions and duties which may. (b) all the powers. be exercised. for such period not exceeding one year. and a State Board shall furnish to the State Government and to the Central Board such reports. as the case may be. (c) all property owned or controlled by the Central Board or such Joint Board shall. supersede the Central Board or such Joint Board.

4. amended or repealed without consulting the Board. 23.com 299 (a) extend the period of supersession for such further term. the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 61 shall apply in relation to the supersession of the State Board as they apply in relation to the supersession of the Central Board or a Joint Board by the Central Government. and in such case any person who vacated his office under clause (a) of sub-section (2) shall not be deemed disqualified for nomination or appointment: Provided that the Central Government may at any time before the expiration of the period of supersession.12 Power of state government to supersede state board (1) If at any time the State Government is of opinion -(a) that the State Board has persistently made default in the performance of the functions imposed on it by or under this Act. and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power. as the case may be. not exceeding one year. or (b) reconstitute the Central Board or the Joint Board.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . the State Government may. including the quorum necessary for the transaction of business under section 8. of the State Board. by fresh nomination or appointment. (2) In particular. shall be held and the procedure to be followed at such meetings. such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters namely :(a) the terms and conditions of service of the members (other than the chairman and member-secretary) of the Central Board under sub-section (8) of section 5. if any. varied. as the case may be. as may be specified in the notification: Provided that before issuing a notification under this sub-section for the reasons mentioned in clause (a). . or (b) that circumstances exist which render it necessary in the public interest so to do. whether originally specified under sub-section (1) or as extended under this sub-section. not exceeding six months. (b) the intervals and the time and place at which meetings of the Central Board or of any committee thereof constituted under this Act. make rules in respect of the matters specified in sub-section (2): Provided that when the Central Board has been constituted.http://www.13 Power of central government to make rules (1) The Central Government may. (d) the manner in which and the purposes for which persons may be associated with the Central Board under sub-section (1) of section 10 and the fees and allowances payable to such persons.clicktoconvert. the State Government shall give a reasonable opportunity to the State Board to show cause why it should not be superseded and shall consider the explanations and objections. 23. (2) Upon the publication of a notification under sub-section (1) superseding the State Board. and under sub-section (2) of section 9. (c) the fees and allowances to be paid to such members of a committee of the Central Board as are not members of the Board under sub-section (3) of section 9. as it may consider necessary. simultaneously with the constitution of the Central Board. by notification in the Official Gazette.4. no such rule shall be made. supersede the State Board for such period. take action under clause (b) of this sub-section.

prescribed. including the powers and functions of that Board in relation to Union territories. (b) the time and place of meetings of the State Board or of any committee of that Board constituted under this Act and the procedure to be followed at such meeting. (g) the powers and duties to be exercised and performed by the chairman and member-secretary of the Central Board. (m) the form in which the accounts of the Central Board may be maintained under section 40. amended or repealed without consulting that Board. make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act in respect of matters not falling within the purview of section 63. such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters. (j) the form of the report of the Central Board analyst under sub-section (1) of section 22. both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule of both Houses agree that the rule should not be made. or may be. as the case may be. however. that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule. (mm) the manner relating to the Central Board. including in quorum necessary for the transaction of business under section 8 and under sub-section (2) of section 9. (l) the form in which the time within which the budget of the Central Board may be prepared and forwarded to the Central Government under section 38.4. (3) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid. Provided that when the State Board has been constituted. (c) the fees and allowances to be paid to such members of a committee of the State Board as are not members of the Board under sub-section (3) of section 9. no such rule shall be made. simultaneously with the constitution of the State Board.14 Power of state government to make rules (1) The State Government may. so. (k) the form of the report of the Government analyst under sub-section (1) of section 22. (f) conditions subject to which a person may be appointed as a consulting engineer to the Central Board under sub-section (4) of section 12.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect.com 300 (e) the terms and conditions of service of the chairman and the member-secretary of the Central Board under sub-section (9) of section 5 and under sub-section (1) of section 12. namely:-(a) the terms and conditions of service of the members (other than the chairman and the member-secretary) of the State Board under sub-section (8) of section 5. before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid. (o) any other matter which has to be. and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power. as soon as may be after it is made. before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions. varied. (ll) the form in which the annual report of the Central Board may be prepared under section 39.http://www. (2) In particular.clicktoconvert. and if. 23. .

(h) the form of the notice referred to in section 21. or may be. (oo) the manner in which notice of intention to make a complaint shall be given to the State Board or officer authorised by it under section 49.4 carefully and point out all the miscellaneous activities carried out under this Act Note: a) The space given is for your answer b) Please don’t proceed till you answer the above question 23. (m) the form and manner in which appeals may be filed. (n) the form in which and the time within which the budget of the State Board may be prepared and forwarded to the State Government under section 38.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (i) the form of the report of the State Board analyst under sub-section (3) of section 22. (g) the powers and duties to be exercised and discharged by the chairman and the member-secretary of the State Board. accounts and audit of the Boards · Assessed the penalties and procedure for not complying with the Act · Learned the process of compulsory acquisition of land for the state board .section (3) of section 22. (f) the conditions subject to which a person may be appointed as a consulting engineer to the State Board under sub-section (4) of section 12. (j) the form of the report of the Government analyst under sub.clicktoconvert. (nn) the form in which the annual report of the State Board may be prepared under section 39. the fees payable in respect of such appeals and the procedure to be followed by the appellate authority in disposing of the appeals under sub-section (3) of section 28. (k) the form of application for the consent of the State Board under sub-section (2) of section 25 and the particular it may contain. (o) the form in which the accounts of the State Board may be maintained under subsection (l) of section 40.5 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Studied about the funds. (e) the terms and conditions of service of the chairman and the member secretary of the State Board under sub-section (9) of section 5 and under sub-section (1) of section 12. (p) any other matter which has to be. (l) the manner in which inquiry under sub-section (3) of section 25 may be made in respect of an application for obtaining consent of the State Board and the matters to be taken in to account in granting or refusing such consent.http://www. Self – check Exercise 3 Study section 23.com 301 (d) the manner in which and the purpose for which persons may be associated with the State Board under sub-section (1) of section 10 6 [and the fees and allowances payable to such persons. prescribed.

2 to get an idea for this question. Ask the authorities of the pollution control board laboratory about the parameters they asses to determine the water quality 23.Ecology. B. Refer section 23. 2. 2002 Alagappa Moses.Advances in Environmental Sciences.Environmental Policy and Law. Meerut. Macmillan India Limited. S.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . Also ask them regarding the procedure for collecting penalties for not complying with the Act 3. Chennai. 2004 Howard. New Delhi. Sikdar. K.com 302 · Explained the miscellaneous activities carried out by the Central and State water laboratory 23. Evaluate the miscellaneous activities carried out by the Central and State water laboratory 23. Oxford University Press. Shyam Divan. M. Penalties and procedures implemented Carefully go through section 23.4) 23.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. . 2004. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. . C GEMS. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . Peavy and Tchobanogloss .http://www. 2. 2003.C .9 REFERENCES Agrawal.Environmental Chemistry. K. Armin Rosencranz . accounts and audit of central and state boards in abating pollution. New Delhi.C.Environmental Engineering.8 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Emerenshiya.A Textbook of Environment. Critically examine the necessity of acquiring land under the process of compulsory acquisition of land for the board 3. Funds. A and Environmental Studies.7 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. Mc Graw Hill. Have an interview with the authority of the Pollution control board and evaluate the funding of Central and State Boards in abating pollution.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 2007 Dash. 2000 . A and Alice . K.3 t answer this question 3. New Delhi. Tiruchirappalli. Sharma. 2004 Kumaraswamy. Macmillan India Limited.6 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES 1. Alagappa Moses.clicktoconvert.M. Visit the Central and State water laboratory and assess the activities carried out by them 4. Miscellaneous activities carried out under the Water Act The miscellaneous activities had been discussed in the last part of this lesson (section 23.M and Deb. Justify the significance of collecting penalties for not complying with the Act and how they help in preventing water pollution 2. M University Publication. P. Tiruchirappalli.

clicktoconvert.2 (B) State Board has executive and territorial functions which include i) Planning for prevention. 24. including municipal wastewater treatment plants for the treatment of sewage or trade effluents.2 (B) The executive and territorial functions of State Board 24. The Act provides for the establishment of the Central Pollution Control Board at the Centre and State Pollution Control Boards in the respective States. 1974 to prevent and control water pollution thereby safeguarding the water resources. ii) Coordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them.2 (A) The functions of the Central Board at the national level 24.7 References 24. on matters relating to water pollutioniii) Inspection of sewage or industrial effluent.4 Lesson – End Activities 24. 1974 (AS AMENDED IN 1978 AND 1988).0 Aims and objectives 24.6 Check your Progress – Model Answers 24. After reading this lesson. 24.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson helps us to understand the revision or modification or improvement made to the Water Act. There is a provision of joint boards for two or more contiguous States. vi) Create environmental awareness and vii) To act as State Board for the Union Territories. v) Set the standards for streams and wells.2 (A) The functions of the Central Board at the national level are to i) Advise the Central Govt. you should be able to · · Discuss the modifications made to the Water Act Understand the executive and territorial functions of the Central and State Board 24.3 Let us sum up 24.5 Points for Discussion 24.1 INTRODUCTION The Water Act is a comprehensive legislation providing for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution and for maintaining or restoring the wholesomeness of water in streams or wells. CONTENTS 24. iv) Carry out and sponsor research and investigation in the problems of water pollution.http://www. the Central Board has authority to arbitrate. control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells. ii) Advise the State Govt. on matters relating to prevention and control of water pollution.1 Introduction 24.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . . iii) Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards. iv) Setting standards for the sewage and industrial effluents discharge. In case of dispute between two State Boards.com 303 LESSON – 24: THE WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT.

warranting immediate action. vii) Industry to furnish information to the PCB and other specified agency (ies) in case of discharge of poisonous. for action taken in good faith in pursuance of the Act.http://www. operation or process or. prohibition or regulation of any industry. record. sewer or land. occurred or likely to occur resulting in pollution due to an accident or any other unforeseen event. v) PCB's to grant consent within four months after the date of receipt of the application complete in all respects. for grant of consent for discharge of effluents. register.the closure. refusal or withdrawal of the consent within the specified time in the prescribed manner. noxious or polluting matter into a stream. ii) Restriction on establishment and the operation of any industry process or any treatment and disposal system without prior consent of the PCB. . xv) PCB's to maintain a consent register containing particulars of the consent issued and to provide access to industry at all reasonable hours. 1974 (As amended In 1978 And 1988) are : i) Pollution Control Board (PCB) has the right . x) Bar of jurisdiction in civil court in respect of any matter under purview of the Appellate Authority constituted under the Act and no grant of injunction in respect of any action taken or proposed in pursuance of the Act. noxious or polluting matter in case of emergencies. .clicktoconvert. installation or operation of an industrial establishment or treatment and disposal system . water or any other service to industry in the prescribed manner xiv) Industry to comply with the directions of the PCB within the specified time.to prohibit use of stream or sewer or land for disposal system without prior consent of the PCB.to obtain any information regarding the construction. xii) PCB's to make inquiries.to take samples of trade effluent for the purpose of analysis in the prescribed manner . iii) PCB's right to refuse or withdraw consent. viii) PCB's right to issue orders restraining or prohibiting an industry from discharging any poisonous. vi) Industry to appeal to the Appellate Authority. xi) Bar on filing of any suit or legal proceedings against the Government or Board officials. . xiii) PCB's power to issue directions for .This watermark does not appear in the registered version .com 304 Important provisions in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. ix) PCB's have power to make an application to the court for restraining likely disposal of polluting matter in a stream or on land. document or any other material object.to enter and inspect any industrial establishment. in the prescribed manner. iv) Industry to comply with the conditions stipulated in the consent. in case of grievances against the order passed by the PCB regarding grant. for discharge of effluents.the stoppage or regulation of supply electricity.

5 LESSON – END ACTIVITES 1. Functions of the Boards at the national level i) Advise the Central Govt. ii) Coordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them. 2.3 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Discussed the alterations made to the Water Act. Justify the significance of alterations made to the Water Act.7 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. Refer section 24. Mention the executive and territorial functions of the Boards.com 305 Self – check Exercise 1 What are the functions of the Central boards at the national level? Mention the executive and territorial functions of the State boards. 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . v) Set the standards for streams and wells. 1974 2. Note: a) Please don’t proceed till you attempt the above question b) The space given below is for your answer 24. Evaluate the functions of Central Board at the national level 3. 1974 · Learned the functions of Central Board at the national level · Studied the executive and territorial functions of the State Board 24. Critically examine the executive and territorial functions of the State Board 24.http://www.2 discussed at the end of this lesson . on matters relating to prevention and control of water pollution. Go to a nearby industry and ask them regarding the modifications made in the Water act to know their awareness level.clicktoconvert. iii) Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards.6 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. vi) Create environmental awareness and vii) To act as State Board for the Union Territories. Visit the pollution control board in your area and ask them about the executive and territorial functions carried over. 24. iv) Carry out and sponsor research and investigation in the problems of water pollution.

clicktoconvert. K. M. Tiruchirappalli.Ecology.C. . 2002 Alagappa Moses. C GEMS. S. Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.M and Deb. A and Alice . M University Publication. Oxford University Press. B.Environmental Policy and Law. Meerut. Armin Rosencranz . K. 2000 . K. 2003.C . New Delhi. Macmillan India Limited. 2004. 2004 Howard. Macmillan India Limited. Peavy and Tchobanogloss . New Delhi.Environmental Chemistry. Chennai. Mc Graw Hill.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. Shyam Divan.8 REFERENCES Agrawal.bharathidasan Vasanthy. Tiruchirappalli. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . Alagappa Moses.http://www. Sharma.A Textbook of Environment. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. 2007 Dash.M. New Delhi. . P.Advances in Environmental Sciences.Environmental Engineering.com 306 24.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 2004 Kumaraswamy. Sikdar. A and Environmental Studies. Emerenshiya.

5 Affixing of Meters 25.27 Check your Progress – Model Answers 25.19 Schedule I 25.The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act. 1977 (Amended in 1991) 25.22 Ministry of Environment and Forests 25.17 Power to Amend Schedule-I 25.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This lesson deals with the Water (prevention and control of pollution) Cess Act of 1977 which provides funds for the Central and state pollution control boards. After reading this lesson.18 Power to make Rules 25.10 Power of Entry 25.24 Let Us Sum Up 25.7 Assessment of Cess 25.0 Aims and Objectives 25.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .8 Rebate 25. extent.2 Short title.21 Notification 25.16 Offences by Companies 25.28 References 25.3 Definitions 25.com 307 LESSON – 25: THE WATER PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION CESS ACT.23 Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. you should be able to · Understand the levy and collection of cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries · Learn the procedure for affixing of meters .20 Schedule II 25.http://www.6 Furnishing of Returns 25. It also talks about this Act which empowers the Central Government to impose a cess on water consumed by industries listed in Schedule I of the Act discussed in this lesson. 1977 CONTENTS 25.clicktoconvert.15 Penalty 25.14 Appeals 25.4 Levy and Collection of Cess 25.11 Interest Payable for Delay in Payment of Cess 25.1 Introduction 25.13 Recovery of Amount due under the Act 25.9 Crediting Proceeds of Cess to Consolidated Funds of India and Application thereof 25.12 Penalty of Amount due under the Act 25.26 Points for Discussion 25. application and commencement 25.25 Lesson – End Activities 25.

(b) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under the Act. at such rate. 1974. 1974 (6 of 1974) and utilisation there under. 1977.clicktoconvert. specify. not exceeding the rate specified in the corresponding entry in column (2) thereof. (c) "specified industry" means any industry specified in Schedule I. for any of the purposes specified in column (1) of Schedule II.2 SHORT TITLE.http://www. and (b) every local authority. as the Central Government may. and shall be calculated on the basis of water consumed by such person or local authority. (2) The cess under sub-section (1) shall be payable by-(a) every person carrying on any specified industry. as the case may be.1 INTRODUCTION The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 7th December. (d) words and expressions used but not defined in this Act and defined in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. 25. 1974 applies and the Union territories. unless the context otherwise requires:-(a) "local authority" means a municipal corporation or a municipal council (by whatever name called) or a cantonment board or any other body. by notification in the Official Gazette. entrusted with the duty of supplying the water under the law by or under which it is constituted. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-eighth Year of the Republic of India as follows :– 25. it applies to all the States to which the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. appoint. 1974 (6 of 1974) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act. from time to time. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.4 LEVY AND COLLECTION OF CESS (1) There shall be levied and collected a cess for the purpose of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. . EXTENT. and is hereby published for general information:– An Act to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries and by local authorities.3 DEFINITIONS In this Act.com 308 · · · · Study the power of entry of any officer or authority of Government for the purpose of this Act Identify the process of paying penalty if any cess is not paid properly Evaluate the power of Government to implement rules for carrying out the purpose of this Act List out the industries who have to pay cess for consuming water 25. 1977. with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. 25. APPLICATION AND COMMENCEMENT (1) This Act may be called the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (4) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may. (3) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2). by notification in the Official Gazette.

he or it shall. 25. by order. (2) Where any person or local authority fails to affix any meter as required by sub-section (1). . 1986. as the Central Government may. in such form at such intervals and containing such particulars to such officer or authority. shall furnish such returns. (2) An order of assessment made under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) shall specify the date within which the cess shall be paid to the State Government. until the contrary is proved.5 AFFIXING OF METERS (1) For the purpose of measuring and recording the quantity of water consumed. (1A) If the return has not been furnished to the officer or authority under sub-section (2) of section 5. as the case may be. after making or causing to be made such inquiry as he or it thinks fit. liable to pay the cess under section 3. the local authority first mentioned shall not be liable to pay such cess in respect of such water. the Central Government shall after notice to such person or local authority. fails to furnish any return under sub-section (1). (3) Where any local authority supplies water to any person carrying on any specified industry or to any other local authority and such person or other local authority is liable to pay cess under sub-section (2) or sub-section (2A) in respect of the water so supplied. assess the amount of cess payable by the concerned person carrying on any specified industry or local authority.6 FURNISHING OF RETURNS (1) Every person carrying on any specified industry and every local authority. as the case may be. by order. assess the amount of cess payable by the concerned person carrying or any specified industry or local authority.com 309 (2A) Where any person carrying on any specified industry or any local authority consuming water for domestic purpose liable to pay cess fails to comply with any of the provisions of section 25 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. not exceeding the rate specified in column (3) of Schedule II. 1974 (6 of 1974) or an of the standards laid so down by the Central Government under the Environment (Protection) Act. the officer or the authority shall give a notice requiring such person or local authority to furnish such return before such date as may be specified in the notice. notwithstanding anything contained in that sub-section. then. cess shall be and payable at such rate. after making or causing to be made such inquiry as he or it thinks fit and after satisfying himself or itself that the particulars stated in the return are correct.7 ASSESSMENT OF CESS (1) The officer of authority to whom or which the return has been furnished under section 5 shall.clicktoconvert. cause such meter to be affixed and the cost of such meter together with the cost for affixing the meter may be recovered from such person or local authority by the Central Government in the same manner as an arrear of land revenue. liable to pay the cess under section 3. by notification in the Official Gazette. 25. every person carrying on any specified industry and every local authority shall affix meters of such standards and at such places as may be prescribed and it shall be presumed that the quantity indicated by the meter has been consumed by such person or local authority.http://www. Explanation--For the purpose of this section and section 4. as may be prescribed. as the case may be. from time to time specify. (2) If a person carrying on any specified industry or a local authority. as the case may be.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 25. "consumption of water" includes supply of water.

to the local authority concerned and to the State Government. as the case may be. "Slate Board" includes a Joint Board. so provides. such person or local authority shall from such date as may be prescribed. the Central Government shall have regard to the amount of cess collected by the State Government concerned under sub-section (4) of section 6. as the case may be. if any. local authority. (4) The State government shall. 1986 (29 of 1986).8 REBATE Where any person or local authority. 1974 (6 of 1974) Provided that while determining the sum of money to be paid to any State Board under this section.http://www. such sums of money as it may think fit for being utilised under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . through such of its officers or authorities as may be specified by it in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette. pay to the Central Board and every State Board. Explanation-For the purpose of this section.com 310 (3) A copy each of the order of assessment made under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1A) shall be sent to the person or.clicktoconvert. or (b) fails to comply with any of the provisions of section 25 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. after deducting the expenses on collection.9 CREDITING PROCEEDS OF CESS TO CONSOLIDATED FUNDS OF INDIA AND APPLICATION THEREOF The proceeds of the cess levied under section 3 shall first be credited to the Consolidated Fund of India and the Central Government may. collect the cess from the person or local authority liable to pay the same and pay the amount so collected to the Central Government in such manner and within such time as may be prescribed. instals any plant for the treatment of sewage or trade effluent. if Parliament by appropriation made by law in this behalf. 1974 (6 of 19743). from time to time. 1974 (6 of 1974) or any of the standards laid down by the Central Government under the Environment (Protection) Act. liable to pay the cess under this Act. if he or it-(a) consumes water in excess of the maximum quantity as may be prescribed in this behalf for any specified industry or local authority. from out of such proceeds. Provided that a person or local authority shall not be entitled to a rebate. Self – check Exercise 1 Describe the levy and collection of amount collected under the Cess Act Note: Please give your answer in the space provided below . 25. constituted under section 13 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. 25. be entitled to a rebate of twenty five per cent of the cess payable by such person or.

shall be liable to pay interest on the amount to be paid at the rate of two per cent for every month or part of a month comprised in the period from the date on which such payment is due till such amount is actually paid. 25. a penalty not exceeding the amount of cess in arrears: Provided that before imposing any such penalty. as the case may be.com 311 25.13 RECOVERY OF AMOUNT DUE UNDER THE ACT Any amount due under this Act (including any interest or penalty payable under section 10 or section 11.11 INTEREST PAYABLE FOR DELAY IN PAYMENT OF CESS If any person carrying on any specified industry or any local authority fails to pay any amount of cess payable under section 3 to the State government within the date specified in the order of assessment made under section 6. within such time as may be prescribed. .clicktoconvert. 25. as the case may be. it shall be deemed to be in arrears and the authority prescribed in this behalf may. and (c) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed. 25.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .12 PENALTY OF AMOUNT DUE UNDER THE ACT If any amount of cess payable by any person carrying on any specified industry or any Local authority under section 3 is not paid to the State (government within the date specified in the order of assessment made under section 6.14 APPEALS (1) Any person or local authority aggrieved by an order of assessment made under section 6 or by an order imposing penalty made under section 11 may. such person or local authority.10 POWER OF ENTRY Any officer or authority of the State Government specially empowered in this behalf by that Government may. no penalty shall be imposed under this section. if any. as he or it may think fit. (2) Every appeal preferred under sub-section (I) shall be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed. Local authority. enter at an) reasonable time any place which he or it considers it necessary to enter for carrying out the purposes of this Act including the testing of the correctness of the meters affixed under section 4 (b) do within such place anything necessary for the proper discharge of his or its duties under this Act.http://www.(a) with such assistance. such person or. as the case may be. after such inquiry as it deems fit. 25. as the case may be) from any person carrying on any specified industry or from any local authority may be recovered by the Central Government in the same manner as an arrear of land revenue. appeal to such authority in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed. the local authority shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard and if after such hearing the said authority is satisfied that the default was for any good and sufficient reason. impose on such person Of.

such director. means a partner in the firm.(a) "company" means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals. furnishes any return knowing. at the time the offence was committed. the same to be false shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees or with both. manager. the . after giving the appellant an opportunity of being heard in the matter. or having reason to believe. manager. as soon as may be after the issue of the notification and is it is not sitting. any director. secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly. where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of. be deemed to be amended accordingly. or is attributable to any neglect on the part of. subject to the provisions of sub-section (2). (2) Every such notification shall be laid before each House of Parliament. the company for the conduct of the business of the company as well as the company. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1). in relation to firm. dispose of the appeal as expeditiously as possible. (4) Every order passed in appeal under this section shall be final and shall not be called in question in any court of law. the appellate authority shall. add to Schedule I any industry having regard to the consumption of water in the carrying on of such industry and the consequent discharge thereof resulting in pollution of any stream and thereupon Schedule I shall. was in charge of and was responsible to. by notification in the Official Gazette.16 OFFENCES BY COMPANIES (1) Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company. (2) Whoever. Explanation-For the purpose of this section. every person who.15 PENALTY (1) Whoever.com 312 (3) After the receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1). being under an obligation to furnish a return under this Act.clicktoconvert. secretary or other officer of the company. shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment.17 POWER TO AMEND SCHEDULE I (1) The Central Government may. within seven days of its re-assembly and the Central Government shall seek the approval of Parliament to notification by a resolution moved within a period of fifteen days beginning with the day on which the notification is so laid before the House of the People. (3) No court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under this section save on a complaint made by or under the authority of the Central Government.http://www. 25. being liable to pay cess under this Act willfully or intentionally evades or attempts to evade the payment of such cess shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees or with both. 25. if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence. 25. if it is sitting.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and if Parliament makes any modification in the notification or directs that the notification should cease to have effect. and (b) "director".

Petro-chemical industry 7. (h) the fees which shall accompany an appeal under sub-section (2) of section 13. (d) the date from which any person or local authority liable to pay cess shall be entitled to the rebate and the maximum quantity of water in excess of consumption whereof any person or local authority shall not be entitled to the rebate under section 7. (f) the authority which may impose penalty under section 11. before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid. . the particulars which such returns contain and the officer or authority to who or which such returns shall be furnished. the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect. 4. so.19 SCHEDULE I 1. that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule. 25. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . (g) the authority to which an appeal may be filed under sub-section (I) of section 13 and the time within which and the form and manner in which such appeal may be filed.http://www. Chemical industry. Self – check Exercise 2 Write about the penalty of amount paid under this Act Note: a) Please don’t proceed till you attempt the above question b) The space given below is for your answer 25. Ceramic industry. however. both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made. Non-ferrous metallurgical industry. (e) the powers which may be exercised by the officer or authority under section 9. namely:(a) the standards of the meters to be affixed and the places at which such meters are to be affixed under sub-section (I) of section 4. as the case may be.com 313 notification shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form pr be of no effect. Petroleum industry. and (i) any other matter which has to be or may be prescribed. 5. before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two successive sessions and if. Ore processing industry. Ferrous metallurgical industry. 6. 8. (c) the manner in which and the time within which the cess collected shall be paid to the Central Government under sub-section (4) of section 6. as soon as may be after it is made. 2.clicktoconvert. (3) Every rule made under this Act shall be laid. but without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done thereunder. Mining industry. 3. (b) the returns to be furnished under section 5. as the case may be. the form in which and the intervals at which such returns are to be furnished.18 POWER TO MAKE RULES (1) The Central Government-may make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Act. such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters.

Madhya Pradesh. Engineering industry 25.S. (including cotton synthetic and semi-synthetic fibres manufactured from these fibres). the functions of the Central Government under sub-section (2) of section 4. spraying in mine pits or boiler feeds 2. the Central Government hereby appoints the 26th day of January. section 12 and sub-section (3) of section 14 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act. the 26th January.clicktoconvert.21 NOTIFICATIOIN New Delhi. 1980 G.-In exercise of the powers conferred by sub. Processing whereby water gets polluted and the pollutants are easily biodegradable and are toxic. the President. Kerala. Three paise per kilo litre Seven and a half paise per kilo litre. 10. the 16th January. Processing whereby water gets polluted and the pollutants are not easily biodegradable and are toxic. with the consent of the State Governments concerned hereby entrusts to the Governments of each of the States of Andhra Pradesh. all agricultural products and their wastes.20 SCHEDULE II Purpose for which water is consumed 1. meat. Gujarat. 11. 13. Coal (including coke) industry. Paper industry. .-In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (1) of article 258 of the Constitution. 12.22 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS NOTIFICATION New Delhi. 4. Processing of animal or vegetable products industry including processing of milk. Industrial cooling.R. Textile industry.0.com 314 9. hides and skins. Maximum rate under subsection (2) of section 3 One and a half paise per kilo litre Two paise per kilo litre Four paise per kilo litre Maximum rate under subsection (2A) of section 3 Two and one-fourth paise per kilo litre. Punjab. Power (thermal. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Haryana. Cement industry. 14. Five paise per kilo litre Nine and a half paise per kilo litre Table 25.78(E). Fertilizer industry. 1992 S.1 Water Cess 25. Himachal Pradesh. Rajasthan.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .section (2) of section 1 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act. 16.1992 as the date on which the said Act shall come into force. 1977 (36 of 1977) subject to the conditions that not withstanding this entrustment the Central Government may itself exercise any of the said functions should deem fit to do so in any case. Domestic purpose 3. Bihar. diesel) and Hydel generating industry 15. 25. 1991 (53 of 1991).http://www. 190.

1974. The Cess is levied and collected by the State Government concerned and credited to the consolidated Fund of India.24 LET US SUM UP In this lesson we have · Learned the Cess Act that provides levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries and by local authorities · Studied about the resources of the central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water Act. · Pointed out the procedures for affixing of meters · Studied the details regarding furnishing of returns · Assessed the cess · Learned the crediting proceeds of cess to consolidated funds of India · Discussed the power of entry of any officer or authority of the State Government · Listed out the interest payable for delay in payment of cess · Evaluated the penalty of amount due under the act · Identified the recovery of amount due under the act · Described The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act. The cess has been introduced mainly to augment the resources of the Central and the State Pollution Control Boards. Evaluate the resources of the central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water Act. Substantiate how the tax is been collected from the industries consuming water? 2. 1977 (Amended in 1991) 25.26 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Critically examine the procedures for affixing of meters 4.com 315 25.http://www. Justify the power of entry of any officer or authority of Government inside an industry . 25.23 ERROR! HYPERLINK REFERENCE NOT VALID.25 LESSON – END ACTIVITIES · Have an interview with the authority of the pollution control board of your area and try to understand the levy and collection of cess on water consumed by persons carrying on certain industries · Ask them about the procedure for affixing of meters · Question them about the power of entry of any officer or authority of Government inside an industry for the purpose of this Act · Identify the process of paying penalty if any cess is not paid properly · Have an interview with the authority and try to list out the industries in and around your area paying cess for consuming water 25. 1974.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 3. An industry which installs and operates its effluent treatment plant is entitled to a rebate of 25% on the cess payable.THE WATER PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION CESS ACT 1977 (AMENDED IN 1991) The Water Cess Act provides for the levy of a cess on water consumed by persons carrying on specified industries given in Schedule-I of the Act and also local authorities entrusted with the duty of supplying water under the laws by or under which they are constituted at the rates specified in Schedule-II of the Act.clicktoconvert.

C.4 for this answer 2. New Delhi.27 CHECK YOUR PROGRESS – MODEL ANSWERS 1. .clicktoconvert. Oxford University Press. Mc Graw Hill. 2004 Howard. M. 2004 Kumaraswamy.12 to answer this question. Armin Rosencranz . Alagappa Moses. Shyam Divan. K. A and Environmental Studies. K. Meerut. Chennai.Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. . Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution.Environmental Chemistry.bharathidasan Vasanthy. New Delhi. A and Alice . B.A Textbook of Environment. C GEMS.M.M and Deb. Macmillan India Limited. 2003.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 25. 2007 Dash. K.Environmental Engineering. 2002 Alagappa Moses. Levy and collection of amount Refer section 25. Sikdar. Tiruchirappalli. New Delhi. Tiruchirappalli. 2002 Metcalf and Eddy . Macmillan India Limited. Peavy and Tchobanogloss .Environmental Policy and Law. Krishna Prakashan Media (p) Ltd. Sharma. M University Publication.com 316 25. Emerenshiya.http://www.C . Tata McGraw – Hill Edition. Penalty of amount paid Carefully go through section 25. P.Advances in Environmental Sciences.28 REFERENCES Agrawal.Ecology. 2000 . 2004. S.