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PROJECT FORMULATION REPORT PART 2 - KISUMU

FINAL
TA2009019 R0 PPF

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative
The technical assistance operation is financed under the EU ACP Water Project Preparation Facility August 2012

I R X I M X M A T A R T I R T I X T N E M P L T A N T S R U S N O C O T I R T D E V E L T A M X A M X I R A M X I R T M I R T T R A I T A M T R A X I M A R X A T I M A R X M M T I A R T

WS Atkins International Ltd in association with Matrix Development Consultants

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

Notice
This document and its contents have been prepared and are intended solely for the European Investment Bank solely for the purpose of presenting the Project Formulation Study for Scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative. It may not be used by any person for any other purpose other than that specified without the express written permission of WS Atkins International Limited (Atkins) and Matrix Development Consultants Ltd. Any liability arising out of use by a third party of this document for purposes not wholly connected with the above shall be the responsibility of that party who shall indemnify WS Atkins International Limited (Atkins) and Matrix Development Consultants Ltd against all claims costs damages and losses arising out of such use. The authors take full responsibility for the contents of this report. The opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the view of the European Union or the European Investment Bank. Document History JOB NUMBER: 5099279 Revision Purpose Description Originated 0 1 2 3 4 5 Draft / Unreviewed for information only Draft for client review Separate Volume plus amendments Draft for issue to EIB for joint mission Final Draft Final RS CH RS RS RS RS CH CH CH DH MW CH MJW MJW MJW PS PS PS 15.09.11 24.02.11 17.08.12 PS 27.05.11 DOCUMENT REF: 5099279/70/Kisumu Report Final Checked Reviewed Authorised Date

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

Table of Contents
2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.5. 2.2.6. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.4. 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.5. 2.5.1. 2.5.2. 2.5.3. 2.5.4. 2.5.5. 2.5.6. 2.5.7. 2.5.8. 2.5.9. 2.5.10. 2.5.11. 2.5.12. 2.5.13. 2.6. 2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.7. 2.7.1. 2.7.2. 2.7.3. 2.8. 2.8.1. 2.8.2. 2.8.3. 2.8.4. 2.8.5. 2.9. Kisumu Introduction Environmental and Social Context Overview Socio-economic and Environmental Context Water Supply Context Health and Sanitation Context Institutional Governance Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Roles in Water and Sanitation The Urban Development Context Baseline Population 2009 Urban Structure Population Projections Kisumu Structure Plan 2010-30 Water Demand Projection Development Scenario for Water & Sanitation Planning Water Demand Water Supply Background Institutional Structure System Performance Water Resources Treatment Water Quality Pumping Storage Distribution Operations and Maintenance Planned Developments Further Development Needs Summary of Interventions Wastewater General Sewerage Sewage Treatment Development Needs Sanitation Existing Situation Potential Measures Summary of Costs Urban Drainage Kisumu Urban Drainage General Existing Urban Drainage Network Planned Developments Development Needs Solid Waste 1 1 3 3 8 14 16 17 18 21 21 22 25 26 34 34 34 36 36 36 38 40 42 44 45 45 46 48 49 56 63 65 65 65 69 71 74 74 76 81 82 82 82 82 82 83 85

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


2.9.1. 2.9.2. 2.9.3. 2.9.4. 2.9.5. 2.9.6. 2.9.7. 2.9.8. 2.9.9. 2.9.10. 2.10. 2.10.1. 2.10.2. 2.10.3. 2.10.4. 2.11. 2.11.1. 2.11.2. 2.12. 2.12.1. 2.12.2. 2.12.3. 2.13. 2.13.1. 2.13.2. 2.13.3. Introduction Collection Systems Collection infrastructure Disposal Systems Recycling and Composting Hazardous Waste Planned Developments Proposals for Improvements to Existing Solid Waste Management Systems Further Studies and Pilot Projects Overview of Possible Interventions Institutional Assessment Introduction Lake Victoria South Water Services Board Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) KIWASCO Mandate Financial Analysis Introduction Kisumu LVSWSB and KIWASCO Environmental Policy and Legislation Summary of Environmental Legislation Provision for Resettlement and Compensation Institutional Structure in the Water and Sanitation Sector Environmental and Social Impact Analysis Introduction Potential environmental impacts and mitigation measures Potential social impacts and mitigation measures 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 89 91 92 94 94 94 96 97 103 103 103 108 108 109 110 111 111 113 117

Appendices
Appendix 2.1 Kibos River Development Hydrology Appendix 2.2 LTAP Designs Package 1 Appendix 2.3 Kisumu Water Treatment Appendix 2.4 Kisumu Sewerage Appendix 2.5 Proposal from Vitens for Support to KIWASCO 124 129 132 136 139

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

Acronyms and Abbreviations


ADF AFD AfDB AGR AWF BoQ CBD CBO CDM COWSO CP CR CSP CTI DEWAT DER DMM DP DSC DWF EAC EACAC EACCCP EIRR EIB ESMP ETA EWURA / EUWRA FOs ha IA GoB GEF GoK GoT GIZ (GTZ) GWA African Development Fund Agence Franaise de Dveloppement African Development Bank Annual Growth Rate Africa Water Facility Bill of Quantities Central Business District Community Based Organisation Clean Development Mechanism Community Owned Water Supply Organisation Collection Period Current Ratio Country Strategy Paper Percentage Contribution to Investment Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Tank Debt Equity Ratio Delegated Management Model Development Partners Debt Service Coverage Ratio Dry Weather Flow East African Community East African Community Audit Commission East African Community Climate Change Policy Economic Internal Rate of Return European Investment Bank Environmental and Social Management Plan Extraordinary Tariff Adjustment Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority Field Offices hectare Implementing Agency Government of Burundi Global Environment Facility Government of Kenya Government of Tanzania German Technical Cooperation Gender and Womens Alliance PEDP O&M ILO JICA KfW KISWAMP KIWASCO KMC KPIs KWFT KWSDP Lcd LGA LTAP LVB LVBC LVEMP LVSWSB LVWATSAN MCC M&E MDGs MIG MTP MoU MSF NBS NSGRP mASL MoPH&S MWAUWASA MWI / MoWI NA NGO Partner States International Labour Organisation Japan International Cooperation Agency German Government Development Bank Kisumu Integrated Sustainable Waste Management Programme Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company Kisumu Municipal Council Key Performance Indicators Kenya Women Finance Trust Kenya Water Sector Development Programme Litres per capita per day Local Government Authority Long Term Action Plan Lake Victoria Basin Lake Victoria Basin Commission Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme Lake Victoria South Water Services Board Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Mwanza City Council Monitoring and Evaluation Millennium Development Goals Medium Income Group Medium Term Programme Memorandum of Understanding Multi Stakeholder Forum National Bureau of Statistics National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction Metres above sea level Min. of Public Health and Sanitation Mwanza Urban Water and Sewerage Authority Ministry of Water and Irrigation Not Applicable Non-Governmental Organisation The 5 member states of the East African Community, namely Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania & Uganda Primary Education Development Programme Operation & Maintenance

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


OR PAP RoT RE RPG RPSC RR RRTA RSF SME SIDA SANA SPI STAP STI SWAP ToR UFW UA Operating Ratio Project Affected Person The United Republic of Tanzania Return On Equity Regional Public Good Regional Policy Steering Committee Return On Net Fixed Assets Regular Tariff Adjustment Rapid Sand Filter Small and Medium Enterprise Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency Sustainable Aid in Africa Staff Productivity Index Short Term Action Plan Short Term Interventions Sector Wide Approach to Planning Terms of Reference Unaccounted for Water Unit of Account UNEP UNFCCC UNHABITAT UOC USAID USD WASREB WASSIP WATSAN WB WHO WR WSB WSDP WSP WSTF WTW United Nations Environment Program UN Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Human Settlements Programme Unit Operational Cost The United States Agency for International Development United States Dollar Water Services Regulatory Board Water Supply and Sanitation Service Improvement Project Water and Sanitation World Bank World Health Organisation Working Ratio Water Service Boards Water Sector Development Programme Water and Sanitation Programme Water Services Trust Fund Water Treatment Works

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

References
1. The United Republic of Tanzania (2010) - Water Sector Status Report 2010, Ministry of Water
and Irrigation

2. The United Republic Of Tanzania (2006) - Ministry of Water Mkukuta Based MDG Costing For
The Water And Sanitation Sector - Final Report - Dar Es Salaam April 2006

3. The United Republic Of Tanzania (2006) - National Water Sector Development Strategy 2006
to 2015

4. WASREB (2010) - IMPACT: A performance Report of Kenyas Water Services Sub-Sector,


Issue No. 3, October 2010.

5. GoK (2007) - Kenya Vision 2030, the Popular Version, July 2007 6. GoK (2010) - Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2011/12 - 2013/14 7. Environment, Water And Irrigation Sector Report 2010, January 2011 8. MWAUASA (2010) - Business Plan, July 2010 - June 2013, July, 2010 9. KIWASCO (2010) - KIWASCO, Water Demand Management Policy and Strategy, 26 April
2010

10. WASREB (undated) - Tariff Guidelines 11. World Bank (2010) - Tanzania: Public Expenditure Review (PER) of the Water Sector, June
2010

5099279/70/Kisumu Report - Final

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

2.

Kisumu
Introduction
Kisumu, the third largest city in Kenya, is the headquarters of Kisumu District, as well as of Nyanza Province. It has developed progressively from a railway terminus and inland port in 1901, to become the leading commercial, trading, industrial, communication and administrative centre in the Lake Victoria basin, an area that traverses the three provinces of Nyanza, Western and Western Rift Valley. In addition, Kisumu serves as an important communication and trading confluence for the Great Lakes region - Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. The city has recently been declared the first UN Millennium City in the world by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. Kisumu city covers an area of c297 km and lies at an altitude of c1144 metres above sea level. It is the administrative headquarters of the Nyanza Province. There are differing figures as well as opinions regarding the population of Kisumu city and district. According to the 1999 Census the population was 345,312. The estimated population according to a KIWASCO pamphlet is 500,000. According to the "Proposal for the upscaling of the Lake Victoria Region Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN)", Kisumu is the third largest town in Kenya with a population of 597 000 persons. Poverty is prevalent with over 50% of people living in poverty, against the national average of 29%. Kisumu, lying at the shore of Lake Victoria, has a temperate climate, influenced by the lake. The average rainfall is 1,083 mm per annum and mostly occurs between December and May. Temperature averages between 17 and 29 degrees Celsius. Many in Kisumu district rely on the rainfall for subsistence farming. The water and sewerage provider is KIWASCO, who has an abundant resource (Lake Victoria) from which it can draw to supply the needs of the city. Resource quality is an issue. This will be discussed in more detail later in the report. The first water supply for Kisumu was taken from the Kibos River at Kajulu in 1922. Stream flow was captured, treated and gravitated to a reservoir at Kibuye. The source produced around 1,500 m3/day. Subsequently this source was augmented by an intake on Lake Victoria at Hippo Point and treatment plant at nearby Dunga, which was developed into the principal source of water for the city. Prior to the start of the current water system upgrades, the lake source yielded some 17,000 m3/day, 4,500 m3/day below its design capacity of 21,500 m3/day. The water system for Kisumu is currently undergoing expansion and upgrading with financial support from AFD. The works are being undertaken in 3 phases: i) Short Term Action Plan (STAP) intended to restore the capacity of the existing system to near design covering rehabilitation of the Dunga sourceworks (Lake Victoria) to deliver 21,000 m3/day and expansion of the pipe distribution system.

2.1.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

ii)

Emergency Plan an additional phase introduced to bridge the time gap between the Short and Long Term Plans which increases the capacity of the Dunga source to 45,500 m3/day.

iii) Long Term Action Plan covering the major expansion of the Kibos River source at Kajulu, intended to increase the overall supply by a further 36,000 m3/day, further expansion of the distribution network and improvements to the sewerage coverage and treatment. (Note the hydrological analysis for this report has cast doubt on the ability of the source to achieve this capacity reliably). The total investment from AFD is in the region of 35 million with the commitment to the LTAP programme being 19.0 million. This report forms Part 2 of the Project Formulation Study Report and covers specifically the technical assessment for the city of Kisumu. Part 1 is the Main Report and Parts 3 to 6 cover Mwanza, Musoma, Bukoba and Mwanzas satellite towns respectively.

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Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

2.2.
2.2.1.

Environmental and Social Context


Overview
A social survey was carried out using in 220 households in 14 estates comprising low, middle and high income areas under the STAP: Low income group residents from Obunga, Bandani, Nyalenda and Manyatta; Middle income group residents from Migosi, Lumumba and Ondiek estates; and High income group residents of Milimani, Ondiek and Robert Ouko estates.

For the peri-urban area, residents of Nyamasaria, Kibos and Mamboleo communities were also interviewed. Although survey data are slightly outdated they can be considered representative of the situation prior to the commissioning of the STAP improvements in mid-2011, which will have improved system performance significantly. The main improvement works are, however, being carried out under the current LTAP programme. Where survey responses are quoted in this section, it refers to the survey carried out under the STAP. Section 2.2.1 provides an overview. The following sections provide detailed context on socio-economics and environment, water supply, health and sanitation, institutional governance, and relevant stakeholders. 2.2.1.1. Social context Kisumu has four main industries: agriculture, fisheries, general business and manufacturing (drinks, concrete products, paper, foam products and the African Radio Manufacturing Company). Agriculture is the main source of income for majority of the people in the hinterland. Approximately 53% of the total population is economically active; the dependency ratio is high at 1:1.18 (100 people supports 118 dependants). The bulk of the population living in informal areas work in the informal sector with monthly incomes of between Ksh 3,000 and Ksh 4,000. Low incomes and job insecurity are the greatest challenges facing the poor. Studies undertaken in support of LTAP showed that a significant majority (96%) of the population has been formally educated. In approximately 79% of households the male is the main source of income; more males than females earn Ksh 4,000 and over. Despite their considerable contributions to both family income and the rural economy, women in Kisumu continue to be faced with inhibitive cultural traditions relating to divisions of labour, lack of access to land and property, and exclusion of women in decision making processes (as women are considered second class citizens relative to men). Housing quality varies across the municipality; housing in the middle and upper class residential areas is characterised by permanent structures made of block or stone walls with iron sheet or tiled roofing, while the quality of housing is more varied in the low-income areas and informal settlements, tending to contain both traditional and modern houses.

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Land tenure in Kisumu Municipality tends to be either on a freehold or leasehold basis. The original inhabitants of the area, the Luo community, controlled the distribution of land in the peri-urban areas of Kisumu. In the Kisumu informal belt, land has gone through the process of adjudication and a large portion has been registered to individuals as freehold land, putting the government and municipality at a disadvantage since they have to acquire land for development purposes at greater expense. Kisumus high income residential areas and formal public housing areas are well served with road infrastructure. Poor road networks are common in low income areas due to limited planning and capital outlay. Road reserves, intended for the provision of service corridors for sewerage, storm drainage and piped water networks, are almost non existent in informal areas. There are no government health facilities in some of the settlements and residents walk long distances to government district hospitals, or municipal health centres. Consequently, the use of alternative or traditional medicines is common. Major WATSAN stakeholders include the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA), Kisumu Water Supply and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO), Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB), Municipal Council of Kisumu, Non-Governmental Organisations, Community Based Organisations and the communities of the city and its peri-urban areas. A number of civil society, NGO and microfinance organisations are actively working on water and sanitation projects in informal settlements. These include World Vision, Sustainable Aid in Africa (SANA), KADET, WEDCO, KWFT and the Undugu Society.

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PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

DATE FIGURE CREATED

September 2011

LEGEND

Main Rivers Hotels Building blocks Single buildings Unfinished buildings

Main road Secondary road Minor road (motorable) Footpath Railway

Kisumu Airport Lake Victoria Contours Background


113 7

FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

Figure 2.1 - Kisumu Overview European Investment Bank

CLIENT

Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT185BW ENGLAND

Fax + 44 (0) 01372 740055 Tel. + 44 (01372) 726140

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European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

2.2.1.2.

Water Supply Context Lake Victoria is the main water supply for Kisumu City, although water (frequently of poor quality) is also abstracted from shallow wells, springs, boreholes, streams and rivers. Residents interviewed observed that a number of prevalent diseases are associated with unsafe water (and/or inadequate sanitation). Over half of households in Kisumu use water from piped connections, either through individual household connections, yard tap or residential resale, while 26% rely on water vendors who deliver water to the consumers using handcarts, bicycles and other modes of transportation. In some of the informal settlements, KIWASCO has piped water supply distribution networks in place. However, water supplies are interrupted by vandalism and misuse of the network. The survey indicated that 68% of respondents would be willing to be connected to an improved water supply; there was however a significant proportion who would be unwilling to pay for such connections. The problem of illegal connections is likely to continue at some level until adequate, reliable and affordable water supplies are available. Survey respondents suggested improvements for water supply. These included network extension and maintenance; increased water supply and reliability; affordable prices for water and distribution of water kiosks to low affordability areas; contracting of NGOs and/or CBOs to manage water (using a Delegated Management Model); elimination of corruption through increased vigilance and improved management practices; regulation of water kiosk operators and enforcement of existing laws by health officers.

2.2.1.3.

Sanitation context 11% of the informal residents have no latrines. They rely on mechanisms such as visiting neighbours toilets, and wrapping and throwing waste. In the peri-urban areas of Kibos, Usoma and Kanyakwar with lower population densities, sanitation facilities such as pit latrines and septic tanks are used. A significant majority (84%) of survey respondents preferred private toilets; this may be attributable to the challenges faced by women and girls who use public and shared toilet facilities. Suggested improvements for sanitation by survey respondents included increased access to sewer network and drainage facilities, improved maintenance of sewers, proper solid waste management and elimination of corruption within providing organisations.

2.2.1.4.

Positive and negative impacts of the proposed project interventions It is anticipated that the second phase of the LVWATSAN Initiative will have a tangible impact on public health (including improving maternal health and reducing under-five mortality), through the provision of increased access to clean water, improvement of wastewater treatment facilities, provision of adequate sanitation facilities, improved urban drainage and solid waste collection and treatment. Improving sewage treatment facilities and sewage coverage will prevent further pollution of the Lake, and have a direct impact on the quality of its water and ecosystems. Improved drainage would contribute to reduced incidence of malaria (by eliminating breeding habitats for malaria-carrying mosquitoes), as well as other waterborne diseases, while efficient solid waste disposal systems would also have a positive impact on public health by discouraging disease-spreading vermin and preventing entry of toxic leachates into soils and water sources. The combined beneficial effects of these interventions are associated with greater productivity and

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output, and therefore with alleviation of poverty and hunger. Given that poverty and environmental well-being are inversely linked, the implication is that overall environmental conservation and protection will be enhanced. Specific positive social impacts include: Decreased incidence of waterborne diseases; Reduced cost and waste of productive time spent in search of water; Decreased cost of treatment for water borne diseases as well as decreased travel frequency to health facilities; Reduction in household expenditure on water; Improved hygiene standards; Increased population with access to sanitation facilities / status; Year round access to water for households; Constructed water supply systems operated and maintained by the community being served; and Increased number of women working for water sector institutions and involved in decision making.

To address gender inequities, project interventions should focus on womens and mens involvement in the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and management of domestic water supply, irrigation, sanitation or environmental protection. Project interventions should also give due consideration to internal culture and staffing issues, for example recruitment, promotion and training opportunities for female and male staff, sexual discrimination and harassment, and issues such as child care, paternity or maternity leave, and safe travel arrangements. 2.2.1.5. Objectives of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) The objectives of the ESIA were to: Establish the baseline situation (this section); Identify the positive and negative impacts related to the project components and the risks relevant to each component during construction and operation (Section 2.13); Identify and propose mitigation and enhancement measures (Section 2.13).

The ESIA built on existing assessments undertaken for the LTAP with a particular focus on social aspects, with additional data collection and analysis focused on assessing project impacts on the poor and women. The ESIA included actions to mainstream gender considerations into project planning and implementation, and the operation and maintenance of project facilities, where appropriate. The principal stages of the ESIA were: Setting the context identifying other relevant plans, policies and programmes relevant to the one being assessed; Collecting baseline data for the study area; Setting objectives (particularly social) for the SIA, against which the plan will be tested;

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Testing the plan options (outline design) against the objectives and identifying significant impacts; Refining alternative options (preliminary) and identify mitigation measures in light of assessment; Reporting on the overall impacts of the plan; and Developing a strategy for monitoring the actual impacts of the plan following implementation.

2.2.1.6.

Project Area and Network The areas to be covered by the Water Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) for Kisumu Water Supply and Sanitation include Kibuye, Milimani, Kanyakwar, Nyalenda A and B, Manyatta A and B, Wathorego, Korando, Kogony, Kasule, Chiga (Kibos areas only), Nyalunya, Kadero, Okok Got Nyabondo, Konya and Manyenya covering an area of approximately 7,000 ha. The sewerage network will serve an area of approximately 6,000 ha. Further expansion being considered under this Project includes extending supplies to satellite communities including Kiboswa, Maseno and Ahero. Establishment of the sewer system in Kisumu was phased and now includes two treatment facilities: Kisat Conventional Sewage Treatment Works (commissioned in 1958); and Nyalenda Waste Stabilization Ponds (commissioned in 1978).

The operational efficiency of these facilities is considered sub-optimal. The sewerage system falls into three distinct areas: The Central Wastewater Treatment District (WTD), covering 385 ha at present; proposed work under the LTAP would see this increase to 5,140 ha; The Eastern WTD. Proposed work under the LTAP would see this increase from the present coverage of 214 ha to 1,358 ha; and The Western WTD.

2.2.2.
2.2.2.1.

Socio-economic and Environmental Context


Population The Municipality has an average population density of 1,400 persons/km2 (14 persons per hectare) with an average household size of 4 persons and is estimated to have 42% of its population living in informal settlements. It is estimated that approximately 73% of the total population is aged below 30 years old, and a total of 42% of the population is younger than 15. Only 3.4% of the population is aged above 65 years. The high proportion of young people in the city creates a significant amount of pressure on the available educational, health and other related facilities. Current population data and forecast growth are presented in Section 2.3. In the period between the 1979 census and 1999 census, growth was concentrated in the peri-urban areas and informal settlements, specifically Manyatta, Nyalenda and Pandpieri. Peri-urban areas are home to approximately 60% of Kisumus population. These areas are changing and growing very rapidly and existing water, sanitation and other infrastructure is unable to cope with current demand.

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The growth in population has increased pressure on the availability of housing, health and educational facilities. At the same time poverty, unemployment and environmental degradation have increased and security has declined. Social services such as community centres, health facilities, educational facilities, housing and social support are the responsibility of Kisumu Councils Social Service Department. 2.2.2.2. Settlements and Housing Informal settlements are common in Manyatta and Nyalenda. These are gradually being upgraded. In these informal areas there is a tendency for land owners to subdivide their own land parcels and sell them off for economic gain. As the pressure on land for housing increases, so does the number of land parcels with a commensurate rise in rents. The typical plot size is now less than 0.2 ha. Housing in the middle and upper class residential areas is characterised by permanent structures made of brick or stone walls with iron sheet or tiled roofing. The quality of housing is more varied in the low-income areas and informal settlements. These areas tend to contain both traditional and modern houses. Typical housing in the informal settlements is just one room including a courtyard with shared facilities. The most common type of dwelling inhabited by survey respondents was permanent houses; 56% of respondents lived in permanent houses made of either brick or stone walls with iron sheet or tile roofing. Approximately 38% lived in semi-permanent houses made of mud wall and iron sheet roofs, and 5% lived in mud walled grass thatched houses. The field survey showed that only 22% of respondents owned the houses that they lived in; the majority (75%) were tenants. A small percentage (3%) lived in government houses (in Bandani, Milimani and Nyamasaria). Of the buildings, 77% are used for residential purposes and 22% for mixed residential / commercial purposes. The remaining 1% is used for purely commercial purposes. Most of the settlements lack adequate social facilities (such as schools, which face overcrowding, staff and classroom shortages, and lack of space for activities and expansion). Other basic services such as water, sanitation, electricity and solid waste disposal may be absent or limited. The lack of social facilities and basic services is particularly apparent in the informal settlements where approximately 42% of the population live. Due to lack of land for public facilities, markets, social halls and recreational centres are limited or non-existent; traders use the roadsides to set up businesses and tree-shaded areas are used as venues for seminars and meeting groups. 2.2.2.3. Land Ownership i) Land Use The current major land uses in Kisumu are for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The industrial area is situated close to Lake Victoria and runs parallel to the lakeshore. The industrial area is separated from other land uses by Makasembo road and extends towards the airport in the northwest. In 1969, the industrial zone covered 6.5% of all land uses in Kisumu (Kenya Government, 2004) but it has since expanded in two directions; along the road to Maseno in the northwest and along the road to Chemelil in the north east.

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ii) Land Tenure Land tenure in Kisumu Municipality tends to be either on a freehold and leasehold basis. The original inhabitants of the area, the Luo community, controlled the distribution of land in the peri-urban areas of Kisumu. Traditionally, Luo considered land to be the property of the community, usually the clan, but each member of the clan would be allocated a parcel of land to farm. Grazing land and watering places are common utilities and everyone is obliged to provide access to such common land. iii) Residential Land Use Kisumus residential land use falls into three main categories namely: The high class residential areas including Milimani, Robert Ouko, Tom Mboya and Okore in the northern suburbs of the city; Low and middle income / public housing areas including the municipal houses, railway houses, Kenya Post, Kenya Power etc. most of which dominate the eastern side of the city; and The peri-urban, informal settlements and the rural extended boundary areas.

Surrounding the central part of the city is a belt of unplanned formal and informal settlements that has developed to form a semi circle around the old city. The residential zone covers the greatest portion of urban land in Kisumu. iv) Kisumu Informal Belt In the informal belt, land has gone through the process of adjudication and a large portion has been registered by individuals for freehold tenure. The principal reason for this is that neither the municipal council nor the central government has been able to acquire any interest on this land due to the cost of compensation that would need to be paid to the residents. v) Peri-Urban Land The peri-urban area features a number of quality structures that Kisumu Council cannot afford to acquire with a view to gaining full control over their development. The result of this is that the Council has not been able to purchase land in these areas to use for public facility developments. vi) Commercialisation of Land Commercialisation of land has become so common that in the absence of proper planning controls, there is virtually no land left for public facilities. The land value in the area has increased steadily over the last two decades. Those who have bought land acquire title deeds to their property on a leasehold tenure. For instance, in Nyalenda, Nyamasaria and Pandpieri the original inhabitants are selling land to newcomers who are constructing quality residential houses. The suburban fringe areas border the existing informal settlements and could potentially degenerate into informal areas if sufficient over-crowding and pressure develop on existing resources.

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2.2.2.4.

Education Of the residents interviewed1, 96% had been formally educated. A majority (52%) had completed secondary or high school education while 20% had completed university education.

2.2.2.5.

Economy, Livelihoods and Labour i) Industries Kisumu has four main industries: agriculture, fisheries, general business and manufacturing (drinks, concrete products, paper, foam products and the African Radio Manufacturing Company). Agriculture is the main source of income for majority of the people in the hinterland. ii) Dependency and Job Security The economically active population is estimated to be 53% of the total population and the dependency ratio in the city is 1:1.18; this is very high (every 100 people who are working have to support 118 dependants). Low income and job insecurity are significant challenges for the poor of Kisumu city and its peripheral areas; in the formal sector, workers may be laid off as they approach three months employment as beyond this point employers are required by Kenyan law to employ the workers on a permanent basis. iii) Employment the Informal Sector The bulk of the population in the informal settlements work in the informal sector with monthly incomes of Ksh 3,000 to Ksh 4,000; 62% of household heads interviewed worked in the informal sector; 37% worked in the formal sector and 1% being retired. The migration of unskilled people from the rural areas makes cost of labour very cheap2.A number of support organisations are working with low-income groups to improve their financial position through savings and credit initiatives. Other related reforms for poverty alleviation include the availability of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) resources.

2.2.2.6.

Household Incomes and Expenditures In approximately 79% of households the male is the main source of income. The table below summarises monthly income data for males and females. More males than females earn Ksh 4,000 and over.3 Monthly Income Over Ksh 10,000 4,000 10,000 2,500 4,000 Less than 2,500
1

Males % 33 43 21 3

Females % 29 39 29 3

Kisumu Water Supply and Sanitation Project, STAP Final Design Report, Ministry of Water &Irrigation/ Lake Victoria South WSB. Kisumu Water Supply and Sanitation Project, STAP Final Design Report, Ministry of Water & Irrigation/ Lake Victoria South WSB. Kisumu Water Supply and Sanitation Project, STAP Final Design Report, Ministry of Water &Irrigation/ Lake Victoria South WSB.

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The STAP study identifies household expenditure priorities as rent, water, food, electricity, clothing, school fees, cooking energy and sanitary facilities. The majority of households, particularly in the low-income areas, spend Ksh 150-1,000 on water per month, Ksh 3005,000 on rent and Ksh 300-5,000 on food. No respondent indicated spending more than Ksh 5,000 on water and sanitary facilities. 2.2.2.7. Gender Equity i) Heads of Households by Gender The female/male ratio is 100:97 and approximately 25% of the female population is of childbearing age. The majority of household heads (81%) are male. Female headed households tend to be poorer than male headed households. ii) Gender Provision of Labour Gender disparity in Kisumu is characterised by women bearing a disproportionately large share of both domestic and agricultural work. The 1999 Census report indicated that women constituted the majority of the labour force in Kisumu, providing mostly unskilled labour. This trend is predicted to remain unchanged over the next five years as more women join the local labour force while men migrate outside Kisumu in search of better employment opportunities. iii) Inhibitive Cultural Traditions Despite their considerable contributions to both family income and rural economy, women in Kisumu continue to face inhibitive cultural traditions relating to the division of labour, lack of access to land and property, exclusion from decision making processes and restrictions on family inheritance. As a result, the majority of women concentrate on activities that relate to domestic matters rather than income generating activities. iv) Workload The study established that women and girls are subject to increased workload and time wastage in searching for water. It was also noted that women and girls suffered from poor hygienic conditions in the home when clean water and sanitation facilities are not available. v) Expenditure on Disease by Gender Female children are vulnerable to disease when they are required to fetch water. For men, the main issue relating to inadequate facilities is the cost associated with both treating unclean water and the cost of medication for treating waterborne diseases. vi) Gender Disparity Traditionally, in the Luo Community, women are still regarded as second class citizens relative to men. Women are not represented in most decision making processes and thus have limited influence over their own lives. Many women succumb to HIV infection due to this anomaly. During inheritance, a widows estate management is executed by the clan; this violates their right to own property and leads to:

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Increased numbers of orphans; Increased dependency ratio; Malnutrition in both widows and orphans; and Low income per capita per affected family.

The weak integration and participation of women in decision making is disadvantageous to the community, it contributes greatly to endemic poverty, particularly in informal settlements. 2.2.2.8. HIV/AIDS In 1999, HIV/AIDS was estimated to have affected approximately 30% of the population of Kisumu. This has had a negative impact in economic and social terms through impacts on the working population and increased numbers of orphans and homeless children. Cultural factors increase the prevalence of HIV/ AIDS in Kisumu; the Luo Community treat sex as a sacred act which is used to mark all important cultural practices and activities.4 2.2.2.9. Waterborne Diseases Residents interviewed observed that a number of prevalent diseases were associated with unsafe water or inadequate sanitation, including diarrhoea, dysentery, stomach infections and discomfort, cholera, typhoid, vomiting, tape worms, amoeba and skin diseases. 2.2.2.10. Roads Kisumus high-income residential areas and formal public housing areas are well served by road infrastructure. However, poor road networks are a common feature in low income areas, partly as a result of limited input from the council in terms of planning and capital outlay. Municipal rental areas are also characterised by limited and poor quality infrastructure. Road reserves, which are primarily intended for the provision of service corridors for sewerage, storm drainage and piped water networks, are almost non-existent in informal areas. This is partly because the road networks are unplanned and also that the few existing road reserves have been encroached upon by developers. The roads are generally impassable due to poor drainage, inadequate spacing of houses and widespread sewers. Manyatta A and Kaloleni are the only informal settlements with well designed road networks that have been gradually improved to increase accessibility to more than 60% of the area. The suburban fringe areas of Kisumu such as Kibos, Usoma and Kanyakwar lack infrastructure services and the roads are similar to those in informal settlements. 2.2.2.11. Health Facilities Government health facilities are limited or absent in some areas and residents are required to travel long distances to government district hospitals, or municipal health centres. Consequently, alternative or traditional medicines are common substitutes.

Atinga Kwame JM; International Conference on AIDS (15th : 2004 : Bangkok, Thailand).

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2.2.3.
2.2.3.1.

Water Supply Context


Introduction Lake Victoria is the main water source for Kisumu. The system supplies water to the main city and informal settlements. However, the existing water supply facilities provided by KIWASCO are in poor condition and a significant proportion of the population has no access to the service. The principal concerns raised by survey respondents relating to water supply included were poor quality (36%), high cost (23%), unreliability (21%), inadequacy (9%), lack of billing (9%) and interruptions (2%).

2.2.3.2.

Water Sources From the results of the survey over half (52%) of households in Kisumu use water from piped connections, either through individual household connections, yard tap or residential resale. This is not reflected in KIWASCOs own figures which indicate some 11,000 formal connections (sufficient for a quarter of the population). A further 26% rely on water vendors who deliver water to the consumers using handcarts, bicycles and other modes of transportation. Water vendors remain a major alternative water source for both the poor and middle-class /wealthier sections of society in Kisumu. The remaining 21% of use water from shallow wells, springs, boreholes, streams/rivers, Lake Victoria and rainwater harvesting. However, most of these sources are of poor quality and likely to be contaminated due to over-flowing pit latrines, poor wastewater management, and inadequate solid waste and drainage systems. Use of unprotected sources such as streams or rivers is particularly prevalent in Obunga and Nyamasaria.

2.2.3.3.

Water Availability Approximately 50% of the residents surveyed reported that they have water available to them at all times, 41% indicated that they obtained water periodically either at night and/or at the weekend, two to three times a week, or only on particular days. Another 5% reported water was only available to them during the night whilst 3% said they never had water available from any kind of supplier.

2.2.3.4.

Water Supply in Low-income Areas The peri-urban areas are also affected by inadequate infrastructure facilities with most residents acquiring water from contaminated sources. Few properties have connections to piped water, and roof catchments are a common method of water collection. Shallow wells, streams and springs also serve a large proportion of the population in the peri-urban areas. Approximately 45% of residents preferred to be connected to a shared yard tap. Of the respondents with a piped water connection, approximately 74% had water meters. However, only 20% reported receiving regular bills; most of the respondents indicated that their water bills were included in the rent and thus their landlord was responsible for paying the bill.

2.2.3.5.

Safe Water Overall 59% of the respondents considered the water with which they are supplied to be unsafe, 34% considered it safe and 5% were unsure. Some of those surveyed commented that raw sewage was frequently discharged into Lake Victoria and they

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were concerned about potential impacts upon the quality of water originating from the lake. Most respondents said that they treat the water before drinking it: 32% used chemicals, 24% and 7% boiled or settled the water respectively and 0.5% used filters. Just 2% of respondents used untreated water. 2.2.3.6. Willingness to be Connected to, and Pay for, Water Supply The residents of Kisumu reported that with the improvement of water supply services, 68% of respondents would be willing to be connected to the main water supply, with residents of Nyamasaria, Bandani, Kibos, Manyatta, Nyawita and Obunga the most willing. Residents of Nyalenda and Migosi were the most unwilling to pay. Just over half (51%) of the survey respondents were willing to pay Ksh 5,000 or less for connection to the water supply and 45% would pay Ksh 500-5,000 monthly for water consumed. Approximately 64% of the respondents were willing to pay not more than Ksh 1,500 for connection, and 53% were as willing to pay Ksh 150 per month for a shared yard tap. For individual connections, most respondents were willing to pay Ksh 0.50 per 20 L. 2.2.3.7. Illegal Connections Illegal connections are a general problem in Kenya; significant effort will be required to identify and reduce these connections. However, the practice is likely to continue at some level until adequate, reliable and affordable water supplies are available. 2.2.3.8. Water Kiosks in Informal Settlements There is resistance from existing water vendors to the development of water kiosks by KIWASCO and currently none of the planned water kiosks are operational. Given that water vendors may feel that their business is threatened by the water kiosks, it may be necessary to engage them as agents in the resale of water to minimise resistance. The planned distribution of water kiosks is summarised in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Water kiosks in informal settlements Estate Metered Nyalenda Manyatta Obunga 60 58 19 Number of Water Kiosks Non-Metered Under Construction 15 8 Total 75 66 19

2.2.3.9.

Suggested Improvements to Water Supply Based on surveys, suggestions for improvement of the existing water supply were: Network extension and maintenance (37%); Increased water supply and reliability (40%); Affordably priced water (7%);

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NGOs to be contracted to manage water (1%); Water kiosks to be distributed to low affordability areas (2%); Elimination of corruption (2%); Regulation of water kiosk operators (2%); and Health officers to enforce law (1%).

2.2.4.
2.2.4.1.

Health and Sanitation Context


Introduction The principal challenges facing the existing sanitation facilities in the project area were perceived by survey respondents to be lack of access to sanitation facilities (69%), corruption (14%), poor waste management systems (6%), identified inadequate drainage systems (1%) and negligence by health officers (1%). Residents in Manyatta seem to be the most dissatisfied with solid waste management. In Obunga, inadequate drainage systems seem to be the principal sanitation issue.

2.2.4.2.

Sanitation Facilities in Informal Settlements In informal settlements 11% of residents have no latrines and rely on visiting a neighbours toilets, wrapping and throwing waste and other unspecified alternatives. The Obunga settlement is noted as one of the most affected with almost 40% of the residents lacking access to proper latrines partly due to the negative impact of loose soils and high water tables on the construction of proper latrines. Manyatta, Nyalenda and Obunga, had the highest proportion of respondents (22%) who relied on the use of a neighbours toilet.

2.2.4.3.

Sanitation Facilities in Peri-Urban Areas The construction of pit latrines and septic tanks is more readily achieved in the periurban areas of Kibos, Usoma and Kanyakwar with lower densities of population and buildings. Here 54% of the population use pit latrines, 7% use VIP latrines, 14% use a flush toilet connected to a septic tank, 16% use flush toilets connected to the public sewer system, 4% use a neighbours toilet, 1% use public toilets and 1% indicated that they have no access to any form of toilet facility. High-income residential areas and the formal public housing areas are well served with sanitation facilities.

2.2.4.4.

Sanitation Costs In Kisumu the cost of pit latrine exhaustion is approximately Ksh 3,000 whilst connecting to public sewer network costs approximately Ksh 400. The cost of using a sanitation block costs about Ksh 2, with 48% of those interviewed indicating that they are comfortable with this charge for the service.

2.2.4.5.

Gender Concerns and Preference With respect to any future toilet facilities, 84% of respondents identified private toilets as the preferred choice and 14% identified public toilets (2% did not respond). The preference for private toilets may be attributed in part to the actual / perceived

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challenges faced by women and girls using public and shared toilet facilities: 40% of women and girls felt that they were at risk of contracting diseases, 12% felt that prevailing conditions were unhygienic, 7% felt that toilet facilities were inadequate, 3% disliked the lack of privacy, 2% were uncomfortable with the limited options for disposal of sanitary towels and 1% were not happy with sharing toilet facilities with men. 2.2.4.6. Suggested Improvements to Sanitation Based on surveys, suggestions for improvement of existing sanitation were: Proper solid waste management (36%); Increased access to sewer network and drainage facilities (24%); Maintenance of sewers (10%); Elimination of corruption within service providers (1%); Improved and higher visibility law enforcement by health officers (1%); Privatisation of public toilets (2%); Improvement of pit latrine exhaustion services (1%); and NGO involvement in the provision of toilets/latrines (3%).

2.2.5.
2.2.5.1.

Institutional Governance
Water Act 2002 The Water Act 2002 is the major regulatory tool for the water and sanitation sector. It introduced comprehensive reforms to the legal framework for the management of the water sector in Kenya. These reforms had four themes: the separation of the management of water resources from provision of water services; the separation of policy making from day to day administration and regulation; the decentralization of functions to lower level state organs; and the involvement of non-government entities in the management of water resources and in the provision of water services. Under this Act new institutions were created including Water Service Boards (WSBs) and Water Service Providers (WSPs). For Kisumu Municipality, Lake Victoria South WSB and Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) were created. Note the institutional arrangements are likely to change as a new Water Act is going through parliament (Aug 2011).

2.2.5.2.

Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) When established, KIWASCO was not customer orientated and did not have good relationships with its customers. As a consequence, vandalism of water structures, delayed or non-payment of water bills and low collection efficiency were all significant issues, further reducing the capacity for delivery of satisfactory services to customers. Since then KIWASCO has taken measures to improve public and customer relations through the recent employment of a Public Relations Officer and a Customer Relations Officer.

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2.2.6.
2.2.6.1.

Stakeholder Analysis and Stakeholder Roles in Water and Sanitation


Stakeholders There are numerous organisations, parastatals, organised groups and individuals that have an interest or stake in water and sanitation service delivery in Kisumu Municipality. Gauging their attitude toward, and acceptance of, WATSAN activities is difficult. Identifying the role of different stakeholders is key to defining their level of involvement, influence and interest in water and sanitation management and accommodating them appropriately in the decision making process. Two broad categories of stakeholders were identified: Promoters: Stakeholders who attach a high priority to the project and whose actions can have an impact on its implementation. Examples include the Municipal Council, industries, hoteliers, Water Resources Management Authority, LVEMP, Maseno University and the Water Services Board. Latents: Stakeholders whose actions can affect the implementation of the project but who attach a low priority to it. Examples include Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and some customers.

2.2.6.2.

Enablers Enablers within the public sector include municipal, regional, national multilateral or donor institutions and independent individuals. Their role is to analyse the constraints on effective service delivery, to identify impediments and to build strategies to cope with them and allow the partnership to function effectively. The Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) is one of the most important local enablers and can work with others to take advantage of opportunities arising from the interest and capacity of multiple stakeholders. LVSWSB should focus on developing local stakeholder capacity, promoting national/international stakeholder partnerships and support, technical know-how exchange, and developing and implementing the correct policies.

2.2.6.3.

Users Users within the public sector include households, institutions, and the formal and informal private sector. They pay fees to obtain the services, or render the services to obtain profit and earn a livelihood. Policy development and implementation should address the concerns of the end users; this approach will engender improved cooperation. Users, customers and CBOs can exert pressure on their neighbours or fellow users to comply with the responsibilities as a user; they are also the primary source of information with respect to how the system is working.

2.2.6.4.

Providers Providers within the public sector include regional and national institutions and the formal and informal private sector. They are typically focused on technical aspects and the functioning of the system rather than public concerns. KIWASCO falls into this category.

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2.2.6.5.

Overseers Overseers within the public sector include municipal, regional and national institutions, as well as local and international organisations. They monitor and ensure service quality and price. UNHABITAT and the LVWATSAN capacity building program fall into this category.

2.2.6.6.

Improvement of Stakeholders Participation The role of each stakeholder category in the project should be clearly defined and communicated. There is also the need to recognise and empower the grassroots (e.g. CBOs) as partners in WATSAN and involve them in the framework implementation. Roles are summarised in Table 2.2.

2.2.6.7.

Civil Society Organisations Operating in Informal Settlements The following civil society organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and microfinance organisations operate programs in informal settlements: KADET; WEDCO; and KWFT.

In addition, a number of local CBOs also exist that undertake programs on the improvement of water and sanitation conditions in informal settlements: Sustainable Aid in Africa (SANA); World Vision; and Undugu Society.

Of these, only SANA has a fully comprehensive hygiene promotion focus. World Vision and the Undugu Society use organised community groups as partners in the implementation of their programs. There are many other civil society groups in Kisumu which require further analysis and coordination to maximise their contribution to addressing water and sanitation issues.

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Table 2.2 Key stakeholders and their roles Key Stakeholders The Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) Water Resources Management Authority Kisumu Water Supply and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) Roles MWI is responsible for policy development and implementation, sourcing of financing, sector coordination and supervision of water sector institutions to ensure equitable and effective water and sanitation services in the country. WRMA is responsible for the regulation of Water Resources issues such as water allocation, source protection and conservation, water quality management and pollution control and international waters. Abstraction, treatment, transmission and distribution of water and the collection, transmission, treatment and disposal of sewage to the prescribed service and quality standards and the handling and disposal of sludge and screenings originating from such processes; Maintenance and repair of assets; Development and management of programmes for the advancement of the skills and competencies of persons employed within the water and sewage sector within the area; Establishment of mechanisms for promoting customer relations including the development of agreements with customers and the publication of each code as provided for in such agreements; Provision and replacement of operating and small equipment; First time connections; and Provision, maintenance and routine upgrading of any proprietary software or systems required. LVSWSB is licensed by the WSRB and is responsible for the efficient and economical provision of water and sewerage services within its area of jurisdiction. It undertakes the following activities in order to deliver on this mandate: Plan and develop water service infrastructure in the area; Own and manage water related assets in the area; Develop and enter into Service Provision Agreements with water service providers as agents of the board; and Build capacity of community based organisations to access funding from Water Services Trust fund. Provision of required infrastructure. KADET, WEDCO, KWFT and the Undugu Society offer low interest credit to residents to enable investment in and development of income-generating schemes. Undugu Society supports the construction of six public latrines in Manyatta A. This project is financed by a German NGO that has established an office in Manyatta A. Community groups as partners in the implementation of programs for NGOs and other stakeholders. Paying maintenance fees for water and sanitation services ranging from Ksh 50 to Ksh 10,000. Poverty alleviation and addressing the social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS.

The functions of KIWASCO include (but are not limited to), the following:

Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB)

Municipal Council of Kisumu Non-Governmental Organisations

Community Based Organisations Community of the city and its peri-urban areas

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2.3.
2.3.1.

The Urban Development Context


Baseline Population 2009
The urban population of Kisumu town is currently in the order of 400,000. Table 2.3 gives three definitions of the baseline population, all based on the 2009 national Census data. Kisumu East Urban 390,164: Table 3.1b of the Census gives urban population distribution by sex, number of households, area and density for each district in the country. Kisumu city is located in Kisumu East District. No definition of urban is given for this data set, but it is reasonable to assume that this figure broadly represents the urban population of Kisumu city , since all urban settlements within the district form part of the Kisumu city functional urban area. Kisumu Municipal Council (KMC) 404,160: Table 3.2 of the Census gives total population distribution by sex, number of households, area and density, broken down by district, division, location and sub-location. The KMC area comprises 11 locations and 32 sub-locations within the Winam Division (Miwani Location is the only part of Winam Division outside the KMC) this includes areas of peri-urban and rural character which are definitely non-urban, which explains the higher figure than the Census urban figure above. Proposed LTAP coverage 351,355: Table 3.2 of the Mouchel Parkman Report 2007 lists the sub-locations to be covered under the piped water supply LTAP (LongTerm Action Plan) and uses 1999 Census data, projected forward. The figure of 351,355 is derived by applying the 2009 Census data to the listed sub-locations. Note that Mouchel Parkman Table 3.2 omits two sub-locations (Kaloleni and Bandani) without explanation these are clearly within the intended service area and so have been added by us, giving a total of 23 sub-locations.
Table 2.3 Baseline population 2009 Pop H/holds Area km 275 290 Density (pop/ ha) 14 14 Ave h/hold size 4.0 4.0 Notes

1 2

Kisumu East District Urban Kisumu Municipal Council Proposed LTAP coverage

390,164 404,160

97,461 100,523

2009 Census, Table 1b KMC sub-locations, using 2009 Census data LTAP sub-location coverage as per Mouchel Parkman 2007 report, Table 3.2 Using 2009 Census data

351,355

88,945

175

20

4.0

Table 2.4 gives 2009 Census data for Winam Division, broken down by location and sub-location, showing the sub-locations that contribute to the KMC population figures, and those used by Mouchel Parkman in their Long Term Action Plan. Figure 2.2 shows the boundary of the KMC area and proposed coverage of the LTAP.

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Table 2.4

Comparison of Winam Division, KMC & Mouchel Parkman population data


Location Sub-Location Kaloleni Southern Northern Bandani Manyatta A Nyawita Migosi Kasule Nyalunya Nyalenda B Nyalenda A Manyatta B Buoye Mayenya Chiga Ojola Osiri Kanyawegi Korando A Korando B Kogony Dago Mkwenda Kanyakwar Bar A Bar B Nyahera Kadero Got Nyabondo Okok Konya Wathorego Miwani E Miwani W Miwani N Miwani C Winam Div 14,806 9,163 9,739 7,623 48,004 14,747 19,826 19,252 12,487 32,430 28,269 27,952 5,789 5,623 9,876 8,323 7,274 6,529 12,057 6,446 19,625 5,724 1,032 12,554 4,319 4,065 9,750 6,790 4,050 3,938 14,275 11,823 1,560 4,731 1,005 867 412,323 KMC 14,806 9,163 9,739 7,623 48,004 14,747 19,826 19,252 12,487 32,430 28,269 27,952 5,789 5,623 9,876 8,323 7,274 6,529 12,057 6,446 19,625 5,724 1,032 12,554 4,319 4,065 9,750 6,790 4,050 3,938 14,275 11,823 Mouchel /Parkman 14,806 9,163 9,739 7,623 48,004 14,747 19,826 19,252 12,487 32,430 28,269 27,952 5,623 9,876 Households 3,658 2,476 2,107 1,921 12,525 4,099 4,795 4,880 2,731 8,561 8,070 7,808 1,230 1,205 2,168 1,823 1,681 1,454 2,406 1,367 5,164 1,275 219 3,553 957 898 2,041 1,505 853 887 3,357 2,849 390 1,016 275 304 102,508 Hh Size 4.0 3.7 4.6 4.0 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.6 3.8 3.5 3.6 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.5 5.0 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.7 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.7 3.7 2.9 4.0 Area (Km) 2.1 5.2 1.3 7.2 2.4 1.3 1.9 17.5 16.6 4.7 3.2 2.5 23.7 11.9 22.1 16.7 16.3 17.4 10.5 8.1 11.8 9.8 1.3 6.6 6.4 6.7 16.4 7.3 4.7 3.6 13.7 9.0 32.9 26.7 16.3 28.7 395 Density (Ppha) 71 18 75 11 200 113 104 11 8 69 88 112 2 5 4 5 4 4 11 8 17 6 8 19 7 6 6 9 9 11 10 13 0 2 1 0 10

1 Town

2 Kondele

3 Kolwa Central 4 Kolwa West

5 Kolwa East

6 Kisumu South West

7 Kisumu Central 8 Kisumu East

12,057 6,446 19,625

12,554

9 Kisumu North

1.

10 Kajulu East

11 Kajulu West 12 Miwani

6,790 4,050 3,938 14,275 11,823

Total

404,160

351,355

2.3.2.

Urban Structure
Figure 2.3 illustrates the broad structure of the city at present. Four distinct elements can be defined: The Old Town: The former colonial town comprising mostly planned formal development, this area is characterised by a regular street layout with formal plot development. The area contains two small unplanned informal settlements, Kaloleni and Manyatta Arab. Informal settlements: These have developed over many decades in a ring around the Old Town, providing affordable housing to low-income groups who work in the commercial and industrial areas within the Old Town. These are recognised as being an essential part of the urban structure, and it is accepted policy to proceed with upgrading of these areas through granting security of tenure and delivery of basic utilities so as to improve living conditions for residents.

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LEGEND

Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT185BW ENGLAND

OKOK NYAHERA MKENDWA DAGO

Sub Locations in Winam Division B LTAP Coverage


KADERO

BAR

KONYA

L.VICTORIA
MUHORONI

MASENO
KORANDO OJOLLA

WINAM
KOGONY KANYAKWAR

WATHOREGO

MANYATTA 'A' KIBUYE MANYATTA 'B'

CHIGA

MILIMANI KANYAGWEGI NYALENDA 'B'

NYALENDA 'A' KASULE

MAYENYA NYALUNYA

BUOYE

L.VICTORIA
KANYAGWEGI

NYANDO

PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Figure 2.2 - KMC sub locations with LTAP coverage
DATE

FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

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CLIENT

GOT NYABONDO

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LEGEND

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OKOK NYAHERA

Sub Locations in Winam Division B L.VICTORIA


KADERO

BAR

MKENDWA DAGO

KONYA

Old town Informal settlements

WATHOREGO KOGONY KORANDO OJOLLA KIBUYE MANYATTA 'B' KANYAKWAR

Hill developments Peri urban developments Direction of peri urban expansion


CHIGA

MANYATTA 'A'

MILIMANI KANYAGWEGI NYALENDA 'B'

NYALENDA 'A' KASULE

MAYENYA NYALUNYA

BUOYE

KANYAGWEGI

PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Figure 2.3 Basic Urban Structure
DATE

FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

September 2011 European Investment Bank

CLIENT

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Peri-urban development: Beyond the ring of informal settlements is a large area characterised by small-scale cultivation and burgeoning residential development. This area is gradually becoming urbanised, through individual plot development combined with sub-division and sale of plots, all in a largely unplanned manner. This area is expected to accommodate the bulk of future population increase a key issue is whether some form of systematic planning control/guidance can be exercised that will assist cost-effective planning and delivery of utilities infrastructure. Development on hills: Low density high-cost housing has recently extended up onto the band of hills that runs east-west to the north of the city. This development has prompted serious concerns about the environmental and ecological impact of deforestation and increased surface water run-off, causing flooding in lower areas. It also poses problems for the delivery of piped water due to elevation and distance. Table 2.5 is an indicative breakdown of the KMC population between the three elements. The high-cost hill development is combined into the peri-urban category. Each sub-location has been allocated to one of the three elements, according to the dominant character of development. Four sub-locations with mixed characteristics of several categories were subjectively distributed between elements. The detailed allocation by ward is given in Table 2.8 at end of this chapter.
Table 2.5 KMC Breakdown by Type of Development Population % Households Area km 18 26 246 290 Density (ppha) 34 66 7 14 Ave h/hold size 4.0 3.7 4.4 4.0

1 2 3

Formal planned area Informal settlements Peri-urban Total*

63,000 170,000 172,000 404,000

16 42 42 100

16,000 46,000 39,000 101,000

* Totals may not add due to rounding

This breakdown highlights the variation behind the Kisumu-wide averages for density and household size. The average density of 14 persons per hectare (ppha) disguises significant differences, specifically between high density (66 ppha) in the informal settlements areas and low density (7 ppha) in the peri-urban areas. Moreover, Table 2.4 shows that even these figures disguise even more significant differences e.g. high densities above 100 ppha in Manyatta A & B, Nyawita and Migosi; and low densities below 5 ppha in Buoye, Chiga and Kanyawegi. The average household size data is lower than typically found in African urban areas. It is interesting to note the low figure of 3.7 p/hh (persons per household) for informal settlements, and the correspondingly higher figure of 4.4 p/hh in peri-urban areas. This may well reflect the fact that households living in the town leave some family members at their home rural area while living in the town to exploit cash employment opportunities.

2.3.3.

Population Projections
Table 2.6 shows population projections to 2031, based on the 2009 Census KMC figure. This indicates a 2011 baseline population of around 412,000, and a 2031 urban population of 700-800,000, representing an increase over 20 years of 300400,000.

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The medium growth average AGR (annual growth rate) of 2.85% corresponds to the rate used in the draft Kisumu Structure Plan. In order to provide a range, we have added low growth (AGR 2.5%) and high growth (AGR 3.5%) projections. The target year of 2031 is used to give a 20-year planning horizon from 2011 (this is consistent with the approach used for Mwanza). Note that the Central Bureau of Statistics uses an average AGR 2.6% to project to 2031. The UN Global Report on Human Settlements 2009 gives country-specific estimates of urban population AGRs for 10-year bands: 2000-10, 2010-20 and 201030 (Table B.2, p.238). The respective figures for Kenya are 3.80%, 4.21% and 4.12%, which are significantly higher than those used by the CBS and those incorporated in the draft Structure Plan. The GRHS AGR estimates would result in a 2031 population of about 950,000, 31% higher than the corresponding NBS figure with commensurate implications for the planning and delivery of infrastructure and other urban services.
Table 2.6 Population Projections 2011-31, Based on 2009 Census Annual growth 2009 2011 2016 rate Low growth Medium growth High growth 2.50% 2.85% 3.50% 390,164 390,164 390,164 409,916 412,720 417,953 463,782 474,982 496,398

2021 524,727 546,637 589,565

2026 593,681 629,101 700,218

2031 671,695 724,005 831,639

Increase 2011-31 261,779 311,285 413,686

2.3.4.

Kisumu Structure Plan 2010-30


The draft Structure Plan was prepared by the Ministry of Lands, Department of Physical Planning, the central government department responsible for strategic planning. The document is subtitled a Strategic Concept Plan, and is described as a precursor to the eventual Integrated Structure Plan. However, it does not yet contain specific detailed policies and programmes for implementation. It concentrates on analysis of existing conditions and setting out broad principles that will be further developed for the Integrated Structure Plan. Population The Structure Plan was drafted before publication of the 2009 Census data, and so based its projections (Table 2, p. 30) on the 1999 figure (322,734) by applying historic growth rates over previous decades, giving a 2030 population of 768,797. We understand that the Structure Plan population sections are to be revised to incorporate the 2009 Census data. Housing The Plan reports that 75% of the urban population lives in poor housing conditions, increased from 30% in 1962, due to the supply of new housing and development plots failing to keep pace with growing demand. KMC holds no records on housing stock. The Plan says that 10,000 housing units are needed per year. This seems excessively high, representing a population of 40,000 (at 4 p/hh). It is far more than the projected annual population increase, which suggests a demand for 4,000 additional units/plots. It is possible that this figure incorporates an assessment of the backlog that has built up through supply not meeting demand. Low investment in housing is put down to high land costs, the lack of serviced plots for self-build and complications arising from traditional freehold tenure (especially in the

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peri-urban areas). It is estimated that about 50% of housing is self-owned, with the rest rented through various Government and institutional providers. The Plan reports on the densification of low density formal planned areas e.g. Milimani where numerous large plots are being redeveloped to increase the number of dwellings per plot. Similar densification is happening in the informal settlements, reflecting the continued lack of affordable housing options for low income groups. Utilities Piped water supply (through individual connections and standpipes) is reported to reach 40% of the population of Kisumu Municipality, concentrated in the Old Town and some informal settlements (Nyalenda, Manyatta and Obunga). The peri-urban areas are served by shallow wells, boreholes, water vendors, roof catchment and water pans. The sewerage network is reported to serve either 60,000 people (which we consider too high) or 10% of the Municipal area (considered more likely). It covers the CBD, Municipal housing estates, parts of Milimani formal area and Manyatta informal settlement. Solid waste collection is estimated to have a collection efficiency of 20%, concentrated in the high income areas, with the vast bulk of generated waste being uncollected. Institutional capability The Plan describes the limitations to effective planning of the KMC and critically assesses KMC performance. It states that KMC is empowered by legislation to control development and deliver services yet fails to do so effectively due to various factors: Bottlenecks in development control; Failure of elected leaders to appreciate the difference between strategic planning and plot allocation; Ineffective and outdated development control mechanisms leading to haphazard development; Lack of qualified/experienced staff in key technical departments; High staff turnover preventing continuity; Nepotism in recruitment and appointments; and Political interference in routine management.

Structure Plan Concepts The Plan sets out five Plan Concepts which are to be developed in the eventual Structure Plan: the Lake Front, Housing & Residential Development, Economic Zone, the CBD and Transportation. The Housing & Residential Concept Plan illustrated in Map 18 of the Plan, gives the clearest indication of a possible spatial development strategy (see Figure 2.4). It sets out the main issues to be addressed: Continued growth in unplanned settlements; Fringe peri-urban development occurring without a clear planning framework, creating problems for infrastructure delivery and environmental impact; Uncontrolled change of use in the Old Town; Need for increased provision of low-cost housing; and

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Dilapidated institutional housing stock.

The recommended strategies to address these issues are very generalised, and do not provide a clear steer on policy or action. It is assumed that these will be elaborated on in the eventual Integrated Structure Plan. Large areas are designated for low/medium density housing, but none for high density, which means that the needs of low income households (the vast majority of households) are simply ignored. In addition, the text contains much negative talk about the slums, referring to the informal settlements, without offering any practical solutions. The buffer zone for compact urban development in the south east is a sound principle but is probably unrealistic, given that development is already spreading out in this direction. It is not clear how this buffer zone would be enforced. Large areas to the north, east and west remain blank. These areas have major urban expansion potential, and yet the Plan gives no indication of what is to happen here. Overall, there is the impression that the Structure Plan still requires a significant amount of work to develop truly coherent direction and guidance for future development. 2.3.4.1. Residential Plot Size It is noted that plot sizes under current practice are very large for an urban context, even by generous African standards. They are inconsistent with the objective of sustainable urban development, as represented by the concept of the compact city. There are two major problems: Availability of suitable land: there is not an infinite supply, and these large plot sizes will mean a given area of land will accommodate a relatively small population; and Infrastructure costs: large plots mean long runs of infrastructure networks which add significantly to the cost of service delivery, which ultimately have to be borne by individual households.

The land requirement calculations carried out for this study therefore propose significantly smaller average plot sizes.

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Figure 2.4 Housing / Residential Concept Plan (from Kisumu Structure Plan 2010-30)

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2.3.4.2. Planning Culture The planning culture in Kisumu is very weak. KMC is legally empowered to deal with planning issues but lacks the technical resources to generate sound and effective policy, as the Structure Plan assessment makes clear. The KMC does not have true ownership of the Structure Plan, as this is prepared by Department of Physical Planning in the Ministry of Lands. Moreover, both KMC and the local Department of Physical Planning are answerable to line managers in Nairobi (the KMC through the Ministry of Local Government, and the Department of Physical Planning through the Ministry of Lands). This fosters public perception that they represent agencies of central government trying to influence local affairs, an attitude given special force by the recent political troubles. This suggests that even if they were able to develop sensible policies, it would be very difficult to implement them because of public resistance to what is perceived as outside interference. The resulting development mechanisms and associated development pattern reflects a strong laisser faire culture, where individuals develop land with almost no control or guidance by the statutory authorities. This system works well enough for the higher income groups that can get access to land and buy in services (water, electricity etc); but it clearly works against the interests of low-income groups who lack financial leverage. There is current debate about how things might change under the proposed new constitution, due to be implemented in 2012, which aims to increase decentralisation and localisation. Greater powers to local government and reduced influence from Nairobi should in theory strengthen the power and influence of local institutions such as the KMC. But there remain concerns about how this governance structure will cope with the increased possibilities for the exercising of local power and patronage. 2.3.4.3. Development Planning The main concern is the lack of a clear strategic plan for urban development, covering the scale and pace of growth, and spatial organisation, which are the essential components of an urban structure plan. It is hoped that the eventual Integrated Structure Plan will provide this. A particular concern is that there is no mechanism for the planned provision of serviced plots for low-income households. Unless provision is made, this is certain to result in the continued growth of informal settlements; and at ever higher densities on increasingly marginal sites as pressure increases on land availability. In the absence of a clear plan, urban population increase is expected to be accommodated in two ways: Densification of the existing urban area: Continued development within the Old Town and informal settlements that will absorb additional population - through subdivision of plots and increased multi-storey development; and Gradual transformation of peri-urban areas: Another form of densification, but involving the gradual change from predominantly non-urban to urban character. Under a stronger planning culture, this would be controlled, guided and phased for the cost-effective delivery of associated infrastructure. But in the absence of firm planning direction, it is assumed that development will be spread out across the peri-urban areas, resulting in a gradual and general increase in densities over the period to 2031, and beyond. This form of unplanned development militates against rational and efficient planning and implementation of utilities networks. This will inevitably mean high cost of delivery for all households which will particularly affect low-income households; and It is desirable to limit development expansion on the hills to the north of the city so as to avoid continued environmental degradation and high cost of infrastructure delivery to elevated sites.
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Two important points are:

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Neither of these can be adequately addressed without a degree of public acceptance of development control that will allow strategic decisions about the scale and form of urban development to be taken in the public interest described by a former staff member of the City Council as the need for negotiated compliance. 2.3.4.4. Land Requirements 2011-31 Tables 2.7 a & b gives estimated land requirements for the period 2011-31, based on the projected population increase (see Table 2.6). Table 2.7a shows the projected absorption of additional population in the existing urban area (the Old Town and informal settlements). It is assumed that each will accommodate an additional 20% through subdivision and multi-storey redevelopment. This is considered a fairly conservative estimate, and actual population increase will need to be regularly reviewed (more frequently than the 10-year census interval) to make appropriate revision of land requirements. Of the estimated 311,000 increase 2011-31, 47,000 is assumed to be absorbed in the existing urban area, and a notional 5,000 is accommodated in developments in progress, leaving just under 260,000 to be accommodated in the peri-urban area. Table 2.7b converts this into physical land requirements.
Table 2.7a Potential Absorption in Existing Urban Area 2011-31 Urban category Formal planned area Informal settlements Peri-urban Total Pop growth 2011-31 (from Table 3.4) Development in progress (notional) Balance accommodated in periurban areas 2011 pop 64,132 173,271 175,317 412,720 Share 15.5% 42.0% 42.5% 100% Absorption factor 1.2 1.2 -Potential population 76,959 207,925 -284,884 Additional pop 2011-31 12,826 34,654 -47,481 311,285 5,000 258,804

Table 2.7b Additional Land Requirements 2031 for Population in Peri-Urban Areas Average area (m) 250 400 1,000 Pop increase 2011-31 155,283 77,641 25,880 258,804 Households = plots(@ 4pph) 38,821 19,410 6,470 64,701 Net res area (ha) 971 776 647 2,394 Gross res area (ha) 1,941 1,438 1,116 4,494

Plot category - High density - Medium density - Low density

Share 60% 30% 10%

Table 2.7b assumes three broad categories of demand (high, medium and low density which equate directly to low, medium and high income groups) in the ratio 6:3:1. Average plot areas are low compared with current practice, but these are considered essential to promote the concept of the compact city, so as to ensure efficient use of land and cost-effective delivery of infrastructure networks. Household size uses the current figure of 4 p/hh. If this increases over time as families become more settled in the urban area, it will reduce the demand for plots and so reduce the overall land requirements.

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The last two columns give net and gross residential areas. Net residential area is the land required for housing plots alone. Gross residential area allows for local roads, shops, community facilities, open space, schools, clinics etc. The efficiency factor varies from 0.5 for high density housing to 0.58 for low density. This excludes major infrastructure (e.g. trunk/main roads, major institutional and employment development etc).

In the absence of an effective planning system, the absorption of additional population in peri-urban areas is expected to occur by gradual physical transformation through densification, rather than through discrete planned development schemes. So the land requirement estimates in Table 2.7.b will not be manifest as blocks of land allocated for residential purposes, developed in a phased sequence. They represent the total area of land required to accommodate the given population at assumed densities, spread out over an undefined extent of the peri-urban area. It is important to restate that this unplanned form of development militates against the rational planning and implementation of utilities infrastructure networks. The failure to embrace the systematic and effective planning of land development will result in increasing problems for infrastructure delivery as the city continues to expand, which will almost certainly have particularly severe impacts on low-income households.

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Table 2.8 Breakdown of 2009 KMC Ward Population into Formal, Informal and Peri-Urban Categories
KMC Sub-locations Population Kaloleni Southern Northern Bandani Manyatta A Nyawita Migosi Kasule Nyalunya Nyalenda B Nyalenda A Manyatta B Buoye Mayenya Chiga Ojola Osiri Kanyawegi Korando A Korando B Kogony Dago Mkwenda Kanyakwar Bar A Bar B Nyahera Kadero Got Nyabondo Okok Konya Wathorego Miwani E Miwani W Miwani N Miwani C 404,160 100,523 4.0 290 14 62,802 15,793 4.0 18 34 169,677 45,523 3.7 26 66 171,680 39,206 4.4 246 7 14,806 9,163 9,739 7,623 48,004 14,747 19,826 19,252 12,487 32,430 28,269 27,952 5,789 5,623 9,876 8,323 7,274 6,529 12,057 6,446 19,625 5,724 1,032 12,554 4,319 4,065 9,750 6,790 4,050 3,938 14,275 11,823 H/holds 3,658 2,476 2,107 1,921 12,525 4,099 4,795 4,880 2,731 8,561 8,070 7,808 1,230 1,205 2,168 1,823 1,681 1,454 2,406 1,367 5,164 1,275 219 3,553 957 898 2,041 1,505 853 887 3,357 2,849 Hh size 4.0 3.7 4.6 4.0 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.9 4.6 3.8 3.5 3.6 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.5 5.0 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.7 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1 Area (km) 2.1 5.2 1.3 7.2 2.4 1.3 1.9 17.5 16.6 4.7 3.2 2.5 23.7 11.9 22.1 16.7 16.3 17.4 10.5 8.1 11.8 9.8 1.3 6.6 6.4 6.7 16.4 7.3 4.7 3.6 13.7 9.0 Density (ppha) 71 18 75 11 200 113 104 11 8 69 88 112 2 5 4 5 4 4 11 8 17 6 8 19 7 6 6 9 9 11 10 13 4,185 1,184 3.5 1.0 42 4,185 1,184 3.5 1.0 42 32,430 28,269 27,952 8,561 8,070 7,808 3.8 3.5 3.6 4.7 3.2 2.5 69 88 112 5,789 5,623 9,876 8,323 7,274 6,529 12,057 6,446 19,625 5,724 1,032 4,185 4,319 4,065 9,750 6,790 4,050 3,938 14,275 11,823 1,230 1,205 2,168 1,823 1,681 1,454 2,406 1,367 5,164 1,275 219 1,184 957 898 2,041 1,505 853 887 3,357 2,849 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.5 5.0 4.7 3.8 4.5 4.7 3.5 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1 23.7 11.9 22.1 16.7 16.3 17.4 10.5 8.1 11.8 9.8 1.3 4.6 6.4 6.7 16.4 7.3 4.7 3.6 13.7 9.0 2 5 4 5 4 4 11 8 17 6 8 9 7 6 6 9 9 11 10 13 7,374 9,913 2,050 2,398 3.6 4.1 0.7 1.0 113 104 Pop 14,806 9,163 9,739 7,623 H/holds 3,658 2,476 2,107 1,921 FORMAL Hh size 4.0 3.7 4.6 4.0 Area (km) 2.1 5.2 1.3 7.2 Density (ppha) 71 18 75 11 48,004 7,374 9,913 11,551 12,525 2,050 2,398 2,928 3.8 3.6 4.1 3.9 2.4 0.7 1.0 10.5 200 113 104 11 7,701 12,487 1,952 2,731 3.9 4.6 7.0 16.6 11 8 Pop INFORMAL H/holds Hh size Area (km) Density (ppha) Pop PERI-URBAN H/holds Hh size Area (km) Density (ppha)

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2.4.
2.4.1.

Water Demand Projection


Development Scenario for Water & Sanitation Planning
It is not possible to state with any certainty which particular estimated AGR or resulting population projections will be correct. This study therefore uses the draft Structure Plan projections as the basis for its subsequent review and analysis of proposed WATSAN facilities, but the variation from the GRHS data is noted. It is therefore essential that population growth is monitored regularly over the coming years and the true rate of population increase ascertained, so that the planning and delivery of urban facilities matches actual population growth and avoids significant over or under-supply. Table 2.9 sets out the estimated 2031 urban water demand, based on a projected population of 724,000 from the draft Structure Plan. Three customer categories are given (low, medium and high income) in the same 6:3:1 proportions used to calculate land requirements, with corresponding average daily consumption rates, defined in terms of litres per capita per day (lcd). This indicates a total 2031 demand of 64,400 m/day, or an additional 28,000 m/day to meet population growth 2011-31. The shaded rows illustrate the impact of the higher GRHS population growth rates on water demand. Total demand would increase by about 31%, and demand generated by population increase 2011-31 would increase by 70%.
Table 2.9 Domestic Water Demand - 2031 Total pop @ 2031 Demand category Low income Medium income High income Low income Medium income High income Share 60% 30% 10% 60% 30% 10% Consumption (lcd) 60 110 200 60 110 200 Population 434,400 217,200 72,400 724,000 569,972 284,986 94,995 949,953 Water demand (m/day) 28,960 23,892 14,480 64,436 34,198 31,348 18,999 84,546 Pop increase 2011-31 Population 186,771 93,385 31,128 311,285 317,744 158,872 52,957 529,573 Water demand (m/day) 11,206 10,272 6,226 27,704 19,065 17,476 10,591 47,132

2.4.2.

Water Demand
Table 2.10 sets out the estimated 2031 urban water demand, based on a projected population of 724,000 (Table 2.6 medium growth scenario). When considered with historical data for the other categories of demand, the total 2031 requirement is projected to be approximately 87,500 m3/day.

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Table 2.10 Water Demand (Structure plan) Demand category Low income without connection Low income with connection Medium income High income Commercial Institutional Industrial Supply Requirement (add. 10%) Share 36% 24% 30% 10% 100% 10% 3.5% 10% Consumption (lcd) 50 75 110 200 89 Total pop @ 2031 260,640 173,760 217,200 72,400 724,000 Water demand (m/day) 13,032 13,032 23,892 14,480 64,436 6,444 2,255 6,444 79,578 87,536

120000 110000 100000 90000

m3/d

80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 2011 2016 2021 2026 2031 DemandProjection WorksCapacity DemandProjection(UN)

Figure 2.5 Water Demand Projection

Figure 2.5 plots the demand projection against the works capacity. The figure assumes that the total capacity of the existing sources is 84,000 m3/day (48,000 m3/day at Dunga and 36,000 m3/day at Kajulu). This indicates that LVSWSB will need to provide further water sources by 2028. If Kajulu is only developed to 24,000 m3/day then the new source capacity will be required in 2023. (Refer to Section 2.5.11.2 for discussion on the safe yield of Kajulu source).

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

2.5.
2.5.1.

Water Supply
Background
The first water supply for Kisumu was taken from the Kibos River at Kajulu in 1922. Stream flow was captured, treated and gravitated to a reservoir at Kibuye. The source produced around 1,500 m3/day. Subsequently this source was augmented by an intake on Lake Victoria at Hippo Point and treatment plant at nearby Dunga, which was developed into the principal source of water for the city. Prior to the start of the current water system upgrades, the lake source yielded some 17,000 m3/day, 4,500 m3/day below its design capacity of 21,500 m3/day. The water system for Kisumu is currently undergoing expansion and upgrading with financial support from AFD. The works are being undertaken in 3 phases: iv) Short Term Action Plan (STAP) intended to restore the capacity of the existing system to near design covering rehabilitation of the Dunga sourceworks (Lake Victoria) to deliver 21,000 m3/day and expansion of the pipe distribution system. v) Emergency Plan an additional phase introduced to bridge the time gap between the Short and Long Term Plans which increases the capacity of the Dunga source to 45,500 m3/day. vi) Long Term Action Plan covering the major expansion of the Kibos River source at Kajulu, intended to increase the overall supply by a further 36,000 m3/day, further expansion of the distribution network and improvements to the sewerage coverage and treatment. (Note the hydrological analysis for this report has cast doubt on the ability of the source to achieve this capacity reliably). The total investment from AFD is in the region of 35 million with the commitment to the LTAP programme being 19.0 million.
Table 2.11 Breakdown of AFD Financial Support Items Support to the Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) in order to improve water supply and sanitation services in Kisumu LTAP Kisumu Phase II Improving access to water supply and sanitation in informal settlements LTAP Kisumu Phase II other water supply components LTAP Kisumu Phase II sanitation components TA for improving performance of KIWASCO including water demand management Additional consulting services (complementary supervision and detailed design for sanitation) Contingencies Total Source: AFD Aide Memoire, Oct 2009 Cost in million 17.7 1.7 3.5 11.4 0.5 0.6 1.3 19.0

In addition, work funded from a number of sources is underway to improve supplies in the informal settlements that ring the city. Funding sources include AFD, SUWASA and WSTF although it appears that the majority of the investment will be in sanitation.

2.5.2.

Institutional Structure
Water and sewerage services within the Kisumu metropolitan area are the responsibilities of the regional water management board and asset holding company, Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB). The assets are operated on their behalf by the Kisumu

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PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Figure 2.6 - Existing KIWASCO Clean Water Service Area September 2011 European Investment Bank

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FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

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European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) under a lease contract. KIWASCO is wholly owned by Kisumu City Council. Major capital projects will be implemented by LVSWSB.

2.5.3.

System Performance
The water available for sale averages around 15,000 m3/day, which is adequate for a population of about 200,000 people. A large proportion of the population must therefore rely on alternative sources or consume well below accepted norms. This supply figure is also below the design capacity of the Dunga works of 21,000 m3/day reportedly because of water quality, operational and power supply problems. Actual sales amount to about 7,700 m3/day; just over one third of the installed capacity.
Table 2.12 Performance Data from KIWASCO quarterly reports Quarter - 2010 Produced for Sale Available for Sale Water Sales Non-Revenue Water % No. Consumers Metered Consumers % m m m m
3 3 3 3

3rd Jan -Mar

4th Apr-Jun 1,592,697 1,278,791 655,788

1st Jul-Sep 1,637,156 1,306,970 715,288 591,682 45.3 10,990 96.2

2nd Oct-Dec 1,640,453 1,293,751 736,314 557,437 43.1 10,727 100

Year 6,493,741 5,172,682 2,809,853 2,362,869 45.7

No data available

623,003 48.7 10,668 -

Note: Records for 3rd Quarter were not available

Following an internal campaign, KIWASCOs efforts have seen a significant reduction in reported levels of Non-Revenue Water to a reported level of 39% (source: discussions with Managing Director and Technical Manager). This has been achieved by engaging the whole staff in the reduction exercise including setting targets in staff performance contracts. 2.5.3.1. Hours of Supply Because the water supply system is wholly dependent upon pumping and there are limitations in the distribution network, supplies tend to be intermittent. Significant improvement is expected with the commissioning of the extended works at Dunga scheduled for April 2011, which is intended to more than double the capacity of the works. This should result in 24 hour coverage within most of the network subject to the reliability of the power supply. 2.5.3.2. Pressures Supply pressures in the network are reported as generally low. This is greatly influenced by the topography of the city. Service reservoirs are sited at high points in the city centre but these are not particularly high relative to the surrounding ground levels. As a result supply pressures are reportedly to be in the 5-10 m range with particularly low pressures at the top of the city. Low pressure will, however, assist in the control of physical losses. The soon to be commissioned expanded facilities at Dunga will see significantly more water available at the service reservoirs but it is unlikely that there will be a large increase in supply pressures due the topography and limitations of the existing pipe network. Some increase in physical losses should be expected however, as distribution pipes should now remain fully charged throughout the day. 2.5.3.3. Coverage KIWASCO records show some 11,000 connections which should supply some 60-70,000 people based upon accepted occupancy data, so many connections must supply several households. This number of connections does include bulk connections for the locally managed supplies in informal areas and large consumers such as industries. This will
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Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


increase the number of people supplied, KIWASCO believe that some 200,000 people receive their water. 2.5.3.4. Service to Customers Developed Areas The developed areas in the centre of the city are well covered, although some of the pipes are old and undersized. Most properties have individual connections. Informal Areas Getting reliable water supplies to the many informal areas of the city has proved a challenge to the water utility because of the numerous problems associated with managing networks and consumer arrangements in such areas. However, one model introduced with reasonable success in Nyalenda B is the World Bank WSP developed Delegated Management Model (DMM) described in the box below. Under this arrangement, the Water Utility supplies water in bulk to a mini-network managed locally by an individual or organisation acceptable to the community, the Master Operator. Basic connection chambers are provided to allow connections to be made to individual properties, kiosks or stand-post as suits local community needs.
Delegated Management Model WSP have produced a Field Note describing a technical and management approach for providing safe and affordable water to the informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenyas third largest city. This approach has proved successful in Nyalenda and LVSWSB/KIWASCO are poised to roll out a similar approach throughout all of the informal settlements. In the delegated management model approach, the water utility sells bulk water to community contractors, called master operators (MOs), who then sell it to households or kiosk vendors. The main water service provider offers the MOs a bulk supply tariff. In turn, the MOs are responsible for minor maintenance, such as the repair of small leaks, and managing customer interfaces. The advantages to the utility and consumers of such partnerships are described and explored in the Field Note. The main advantage is improved technical and financial performance of water utilities, such as outsourcing of distribution and customer care to private operators or community based organisations. This allows utilities to focus on supplying high quality potable water as their core business. For informal settlement residents, the advantages are that water is brought closer to their homes and made more affordable, with a number of service options being provided. The Field Note includes a description of a pilot project in Nyalenda, the largest informal settlement in Kisumu, and concludes with recommendations for scaling up the model in Kisumu and replicating it in Kenya and other countries.

Stand-post Supervisor Nyalenda DMM

Each connection is metered (provided by KIWASCO) but the connection pipework is provided by the customer themselves. KIWASCO only read and bill from the main meter, individual meters are for the Master Operators use. There are still a few minor technical

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Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


issues to resolve, principally related to asset ownership, ensuring adequate technical and operational support to the Managing Operator, and safeguards in the case of major leakage, but these should be overcome. The proposals under the LTAP programme are to deliver adequate water supplies to all of the informal areas. Since these proposals have not yet been developed it is impossible to confirm this. LTAP requires the appointment of a Technical Advisor to LVSWSB who, amongst other tasks, will prepare a ToR for the recruitment of an NGO to manage the implementation within the informal areas. 2.5.3.5. Tariffs The current water tariff structure is given below.
Table 2.13 KIWASCO Water Tariff Structure Customer category Domestic / Residential Consumption block (m3) 06 > 6 20 > 20 40 > 40 60 > 60 100 > 100 300 > 300 Commercial / Industrial / Government / Institutional 06 > 6 20 > 20 40 > 40 60 > 60 100 > 100 300 > 300 Water Kiosks / Stand Pipes Public Boarding Schools all 0 600 > 600 1,200 >1,200 Approved tariff (Ksh/m3) 200 (fixed) 50 65 80 80 100 130 40 50 65 80 80 100 130 35 40 50 90

2.5.4.
2.5.4.1.

Water Resources
Lake Victoria The main source of water for Kisumu is Lake Victoria through an intake at Hippo Point and water treatment plant nearby at Dunga. Prior to the current AFD funded water project the design capacity of this source was 21,500 m3/day. The intake consisted of two sets of intake pumps. The first set consists of 4 pumps housed in the existing old pump house. These pumps transfer raw water to the treatment works through two rising mains of 225 mm diameter pipe and 300 mm diameter pipe. The second set also consists of 4 pumps mounted above a chamber outside the pump house by the lakeshore delivering water to the treatment works through a 350 mm diameter rising main. All pumps were replaced or refurbished under the STAP. The soon to be commissioned AFD Emergency Plan Works further enhances source capacity by an additional 24,000 m3/day. Water is pumped by 5 new pumps to the appropriately expanded Dunga treatment plant through a new 500 mm diameter steel rising

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main. Additional storage and pumping capacity has been provided at the plant for onward delivery of the water to the city through Kibuye and Watson Service Reservoirs. The plan also includes works to construct a new 600 mm diameter dedicated rising main to the service reservoirs and to convert the old rising main and its numerous consumer connections to a gravity distribution main. 2.5.4.2. Kibos River This (minor) source was first developed in 1922. It is located in the north of Kadero sublocation at an altitude of approximately 1,273 m above sea level. The intake works use two sources of water; the Kibos River, whose total catchment area is 117 km2, and a spring at the foot of the Kajulu Hills. The intake on the river is a rectangular weir constructed across the river. The spring source intake comprises a collection box at the point of emergence. Spring water is conveyed through a100 mm diameter pipe while that from the river is conveyed through a150 mm diameter pipe to a mixing box 50 m downstream of the river intake. From this mixing box water gravitates through a 200 mm diameter pipe to the treatment plant 100 m downstream. The LTAP states that total flow of the river is estimated to be 345,000 m3/day during dry season. This is clearly an error and it is believed that an error was made in the units of measured flows at the weir. 2.5.4.3. Other Sources Other sources available include informal shallow hand-dug wells owned by private individuals or Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). These wells are not well documented so tend to lack technical, construction and operational data. These other sources have arisen due to the unsatisfactory service from the Kisumu Municipal Council (and now KIWASCO) water supply. They are briefly described as follows. Shallow Hand-Dug Wells There are numerous hand-dug wells within the informal settlement areas of Nyalenda, Manyatta, Bondani and Ubonga. The average depth of most wells ranges between 5 to 6 m with water level rising to about 3 m depth (sometimes to ground surface level in the Bandani and Obunga areas). In Manyatta and Nyalenda areas the average depth of wells is between 6 and 7 m. In both areas the well water is of poor chemical quality and frequently contaminated. Deep Wells A few boreholes have been drilled in the peri-urban areas and fitted with hand pumps. The depth range is reportedly from 50-260 m. Springs The springs found in the periphery of the informal areas are shallow well type springs, which flow directly into the swampy areas adjacent to the lakeshores. The majority of springs are found in the Kajulu area to the north east of the city, one of which is used as a source for city water supply. The yield of springs varies considerably from very small to a hundreds of litres per minute. Kisumu Molasses Factory Water Purification Plant This private water treatment plant produces 3,300 m3/day of water, which is used in the plant for processing operations. It is totally independent from the municipal supply. Total Production from the Private Water Supplies In the LTAP it was estimated that private water supplies in the city produce a total amount of 3,380 m3/day; out of this only 60 m3/day is for domestic consumption while the remaining 3,320 m3/day is used in industrial production.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.5.5.


2.5.5.1.

Treatment
Dunga Works Hippo intake is located to the west of the city centre, on the south side of the Gulf of Winan on which Kisumu is located. Water from the intake is pumped to the Dunga water treatment plant from where treated water is pumped into the distribution system. The October 2008 Report Long Term Action Plan: Water Supply Proposals Design Report prepared by Otieno Odongo and Partners and Mouchel Parkman describes the existing assets and the proposed extensions to the water supply system. The details are not reproduced in detail in this report. Prior to the recent contract for extensions to the water supply system under the STAP and Emergency Programme the Dunga Works comprised three treatment streams, constructed in the 1960s, 1980 and 1985. All of these streams involved alum and polymer dosing followed by upflow clarification and rapid gravity filtration. The filters are backwashed from elevated tanks, with air scour also provided. Filtered water is disinfected and pumped into distribution. The nominal design capacity of the three streams was 21,500 m3/day, although it appears that the maximum that could be produced was of the order of 17,000 m3/day due to various operational constraints. The current contract involves the construction of a new raw water pumping station and raw water rising main, and a new extension to the water treatment plant with a capacity of 24,000 m3/day. This extension uses a similar process to the existing treatment streams, but using horizontal flow clarifiers rather than upward flow clarifiers. The extension was expected to be commissioned in April 2011. This will increase nominal capacity of the works to approximately 45,500 m3/day. The Appendix Kisumu Water Treatment provides more details of the Dunga Water Treatment based on what was seen during our visits. There are a number of significant concerns identified over the extension to the treatment plant: Commissioning of the new extension is being planned prior to providing adequate backwash facilities. It seems probable that there will be problems with the initial cleaning/backwashing of the new filters as backwash flows maybe inadequate5. The use of high speed mixers in the flocculation chambers prior to the horizontal settlement tanks will lead to breakdown of flocs. This has been recognised and we were told that low speed paddle mixers will be provided. The grading and cleanliness of the support media and filter media being used in the rapid gravity filters appeared inadequate. No analyses of the media were available so no definitive judgement could be made upon its adequacy. De-sludging of the clarifiers will involve draining down a clarifier, taking it out of service for a day or so. Sludge will discharge into a surface water drainage ditch and flow to Lake Victoria. Filter backwash water will also be discharged to the Lake. LVSWSB advised that they had plans for small sludge lagoons on the site to prevent further contamination of the lake waters. The new treated water pump station was designed to take three treated water pumps but there is only sufficient space to install two. It is understood the third will be installed in the 1985 treated water pump station. Generally the impression was formed that there are some shortcomings with the design and construction of the current extension - these are covered more fully in the Appendices.

Following commissioning, the new filters are to be backwashed using water from the existing elevated tank until such time as the new backwash facilities are available. Additionally a new backwash main (approximately 600 mm diameter) is to be connected to the existing elevated tank to convey backwash water to the new filters. However again this will not be completed for some time and as a temporary measure it appears that a small pipe of approximately 225 mm will be laid as a temporary measure.

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The three existing streams also have a number of problems; again more detail is provided in the Appendices. The more significant issues are: The water supply works at Dunga produce water of relatively high turbidity. The process used would be expected to produce water with a turbidity of around 1 NTU. Based on the water quality data seen in the quarterly reports, where the average treated water turbidity is approximately 4.5 NTU, and the discussions on site, where the clarifiers were said to produce water with a turbidity of around 2.5 NTU, the filters would appear to be providing little treatment. However it was reported that there were regular occasions of poor clarifier performance, and the treated water quality includes for this. It was also reported that because of the problems with the elevated tank, backwashing of the Block 1 and 2 filters was not always very effective. The air scour to the filters in Streams 1 and 2 is supplied by a single air blower located in the Stream 1 filters. This blower appeared to be in poor condition. The replacement of this blower, ideally with a duty/standby arrangement would appear appropriate. It is understood that the Stream 3 blowers will also serve Stream 4 and that they are becoming less reliable. If this is correct then the Block 3 blowers should also be replaced. The chemical preparation and dosing facilities to the three existing streams are very basic, with poor provision for making up solutions and poor control of dosing rates.

There are several areas where the existing process could be improved. How much improvement to water quality is possible is not clear without additional water quality data. Potential areas of improvement to water quality include: Improving the dosing and mixing of alum ideally this should be flow proportioned and dosed and mixed at the same time, to maximise coagulation, and minimise alum use. Improving the dosing of polyelectrolyte at present it dribbles from a pipe into the flow over the inlet weir. It would be better to distribute the dose across the weir. Again flow proportioning and the use of a chemical dosing pump appears desirable. It would also appear appropriate to use a carrier water system. There was stated to be a problem with the elevated backwash water tank serving Blocks 1 and 2. Apparently there is leakage in the backwash valves which means that water is always flowing from the tank, meaning it takes a long time to fill the tank, limiting the rate at which filters can be backwashed. The defective valves should be replaced. The chlorination system requires replacement and upgrading, with flow proportioned dosing of hypochlorite. Provision of a system to settle sludge and backwash water, recycle settled water, and dry the sludge on drying beds. This would prevent waste from entering Lake Victoria but would require only good quality water to be recycled to prevent organisms such as cryptosporidium being recycled. The EIA for the ADF project recognised sludge discharge as an issue and identified mitigation as sludge dewatering but failed to take this forward; this should be done. The commissioning of the new extension and the new high lift pumps should offer an opportunity to rationalise the existing high lift pumps, scrapping some of the older ones and if necessary purchasing new more efficient pumps. The existing pumps are a collection of different makes and sizes and standardisation would help KIWASCO to efficiently maintain the pumps.

Based on hearsay it appears that the quality of the raw water extracted from Lake Victoria has deteriorated considerably over the past 30 years. The current intakes take water from very close to the lake shore, near to the zone disturbed by the effects of waves on the lake bed. It may be that if the intakes were extended further into the lake, as at other locations the quality of the raw water would improve. However the Gulf of Winan is relatively shallow, approximately 5 metres deep, and is fully mixed due to the effects of winds. Thus it is

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possible that there would be little benefit in extending the intakes further into the lake, and any likely benefit would need to be confirmed before doing this. The impact upon the intake of the water hyacinths would also need to be considered before re-siting of the intake pipes is undertaken. Overall it is clear that there are a number of ways in which the existing works could be improved but these are generally relatively small work items. There are concerns that the new extension may not perform as well as planned, but any shortcomings will become evident once the works are commissioned. 2.5.5.2. Kajulu The treatment plant dates from 1922 and comprises a weir intake across the river near the plant. The water is mixed with that from a small spring intake before being taken for processing. The water is dosed at the inlet to the plant with aluminium sulphate and mixing occurs at a V-Notch before the flocculation basins. From the flocculation basins the water is passed into a circular sedimentation basin. After sedimentation the water is chlorinated and then passed into the pressure filtration units. The filtration units consist of five pressure filters of each of volume 2.88 m3. However the pressure units are not currently in working condition. The water from the Kajulu Works is transmitted by gravity to the city distribution system via a 150 mm diameter galvanised iron pipe eventually discharging at Kibuye old reservoir. Since this Works will be totally rebuilt under LTAP no rehabilitation measures are proposed.

2.5.6.
2.5.6.1.

Water Quality
Hippo Point / Dunga Three quarterly reports covering 9 months of 2010 include a summary of treated water quality at the Dunga works. Further data was provided by KIWASCO as hard copy. These show treated water to have relatively high turbidity, typically of 4.5 NTU but low colour and a good concentration of residual chlorine. However the results presented appear to be monthly averages and no indication is given of the variability of water quality. The quarterly report for the period October to December 2010 includes monthly summaries of End Point Samples sampled and analysed. This data shows approximately 90% compliance. However no indication is given as to which parameters failed. Some bacteriological data was also seen for January 2011. This indicated that of 15 samples taken from public taps and household taps, three had coliforms present, which is a concern. Overall quality appeared lower than would be hoped but without a full examination of the data behind the results seen it is not possible to draw detailed conclusions. KIWASCO stated that the intermittent nature of supply was responsible for the contamination and that once the system was fully pressurised it is expected to reduce or eliminate failures. As noted above, the turbidity of the treated water produced by the Dunga works is disappointing, as it would be expected that the turbidity of the water produced by Dunga would be around 1 NTU.

2.5.6.2.

Kajulu The water quality data in the quarterly reports indicate that the treated water quality is similar to that from Dunga; slightly disappointing but adequate.

2.5.6.3.

Other Sources Informal and private sources are mostly untreated. Results of tests undertaken by UNHABITAT in support of this project raised concerns over the quality of the water from informal sources both improved and unimproved. The conclusion drawn is that the best way to improve the safety of water supplies is to extend the municipal network to as many people as feasible.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.5.7. Pumping


There are two major pumping locations within the Kisumu water supply system: the raw water intake and the treated water pumps at the Dunga water treatment works. Both of these locations have a long history and complex arrangements of pumps and pumping mains. At the raw water intake a new pump station has been constructed together with a new raw water main. KIWASCO hope to use only the pumps in the new pump station. There are five new pumps in the new pump station, and when these are all commissioned it is reported that there will be adequate pumping capacity to supply raw water to the Dunga water treatment plant. At the Dunga water treatment plant there is also a new pump station under construction, together with new rising mains. The new pump station was designed to have three new pumps installed but space limitations mean that only two can be installed. The third is to be installed in the 1985 high lift station. In the 1985 station the operations staff asked that consideration be given to motorising the valves on the delivery side of the three large pumps. This is because the pumps should be started against a partially closed valve, but operating the valves is difficult. In the old high lift pump station operations staff reported that there were some problems with cavitation of the treated water pumps. This is severe enough to mean that spherical cast iron impellers last less than 6 months. However it seems that this could in part be associated with air entering the suction pipes. When the new stream is operating it is intended to modify inlets to reduce air entrapment. There is currently no surge protection system on the high lift pumping station which should be addressed. At the time of preparing this report the new works still has to be fully commissioned and until this is done and the planned modifications to the distribution system are completed it is not possible to identify any major issues with the pumping facilities. There are some shortcomings with the existing pumping facilities and when the new pumps are commissioned it would be prudent to evaluate how much of the existing pump capacity needs to be retained and to identify any necessary works. Operations staff reported some problems with surge at the highlift pumping station which will have knock-on problems for the distribution system so a properly designed protection system should be implemented.

2.5.8.

Storage
Potable storage is provided within water supply networks for a number of purposes but principally as a safeguard against failures of the upstream supply system and to provide a buffer against fluctuations in demand throughout the day. Recommended norms for storage capacity are 50% (equivalent to 12 hrs of production) of the average daily demand for gravity fed systems or 75% (equivalent to 18 hrs) for pumped systems (ref. Maji Design Manual). Storage provisions in Kisumu do not meet these criteria (note the minimum recommended is 30%). Storage reservoirs are (or will be) provided at the following locations following the implementation of the LTAP. This represents some 41% of the 2031 demand which is also less than the recommended volume.

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Table 2.14 Reservoir Storage Volumes (m3) Site Dunga Treatment Plant Kajulu Treatment Plant Kibuye Reservoirs Watson Reservoir Robert Ouko Est. Nyalenda Mamboleo Kanyamedha Total (37,623) 910, 455, 458, 5000 2273 117 250 5000,5000 1300 Pre - STAP 760, 600 STAP (inc EP) 1400 2100 6000, 6000 LTAP

Note: The proposed new reservoirs to be provided under LTAP are currently under review

Most KIWASCO tanks are reinforced concrete although there are still some sectional steel elevated tanks, including one at Kibuye and a number around the city of which some are privately owned. The tank located in Robert Ouko Estate is made of pressed steel plates but is not in use at the moment due to vandalism of inlet pipes. The increase in total storage proposed under LTAP appears generally adequate although no details are provided to justify locations, so the only additional storage proposed herein will be reservoirs for the schemes to supply the satellite communities.

2.5.9.

Distribution
The old distribution system consists of pipelines of various sizes ranging from 75 mm diameter to 300 mm diameter in various materials. The total length of the distribution network is estimated to be 112 km. Parts of the network are old and dilapidated and approximately 48 km of it is earmarked for replacement under LTAP. In general the system is not performing particularly well and historically there has been a high level of physical losses. This is attributed to the old age of the different components of the system, which vary from 30 to 55 years as well as negligence/malpractices and vandalism of the system. The network has undergone piecemeal rehabilitation and expansion measures such as the rehabilitation works carried out under funding from the KfW (German Government) in 1985-1986. However these measures were not comprehensive nor did they increase the output from the system. Both STAP and LTAP contracts include replacement distribution mains. If real benefits are to be gained for the planned mains replacement it will be important to ensure that the works include not just new mains, but also include for tracing and disconnecting the old pipes and service connections.

2.5.9.1.

Consumer Connections KIWASCO report that they have around 11,000 registered consumer connections. This includes individual properties and bulk supplies to groups of customers (counting as one) either through kiosks, stand-posts or to areas adopting the Delegated Management Model (Section 2.5.3.4). Re-sale prices are regulated to limit exploitation of consumers.

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Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.5.10. Operations and Maintenance


KIWASCO have a Water Demand Management Policy and Strategy as well as a Business Plan for its implementation prepared by Cobeng Consultants. Both are comprehensive documents but have yet to be fully adopted by KIWASCO. There are no doubt numerous reasons for this but it appears that the strategy document covers a multitude of aspects of water operations and with funding limited it has perhaps been too large (and costly) an exercise to tackle simultaneously. KIWASCO are severely hampered by a shortage of management information and tools to support management decisions. Of particular concern to the management is the absence of readily available network records or network modelling on which to base bulk and district metering decisions. The company would benefit greatly from a hydraulic model and network mapping system. Old paper records exist but storage is not centralised and numerous drawings have been borrowed (by consultants) and not returned. Similarly, hydraulic models were prepared by consultants for design purposes but not handed over for subsequent use by the Board or Company. KIWASCOs billing software is a bespoke system which is no longer supported. Errors cannot therefore be corrected if they originate from the source coding. New billing software is required and sought. 2.5.10.1. Non-Revenue Water KIWASCO are making a concerted effort to address non-revenue water. A targeted programme by all staff and supported by NWSC of Uganda has seen a reduction in the level of NRW from 51% to 39% in just over a year. This has been achieved through increased vigilance and quicker response times from the operations staff and a concerted effort to improve the billing and collection processes. More improvements are expected as all staff are encouraged to take action. However, it needs to be recognised that the current configurations of the network means that system pressures are often very low (invariably less than 10 m, and often below 5 m). Low system pressure assists in keeping physical leakage at low levels. It is important to be able to distinguish between physical and commercial losses to be able to really target the principal causes of NRW. Since accurate data is not available, Table 2.17 has been prepared for this study but should be considered as indicative; data is prior to the recent reported improvement.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


Table 2.17 Atkins Water Balance for Kisumu (2010) m3/day

Authorised Consumption System Input Volume

Billed Authorised Consumption 8,554

7,698

Revenue Water

7,698

54.3%

14,176 Unbilled Authorised Consumption Apparent Losses Water Losses 5,622 Real Losses 3,373 855 NonRevenue Water

2,249

6,477

45.7%

Note: Assumes 10% of authorised consumption is unbilled and 40% of losses are apparent

These figures are set to change dramatically when the Emergency Programme works are commissioned with the system input more than doubling.

2.5.11.

Planned Developments
As mentioned previously, works are being constructed under short term and long term action plans which are intended to greatly improve water service delivery in Kisumu.

2.5.11.1.

Short Term Action Plan & Emergency Programme (STAP) This programme was devised to increase the capacity of the source to 45,500 m3/day to meet the current estimated demand of Kisumu. Commissioning of the increased intake capacity and treatment plant is expected in the near future.

2.5.11.2.

Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) Sourceworks Kibos River The Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) was formulated and designed by Mouchel Parkman in association with Otieno Odongo and Partners in December 2007. Seureca have been engaged to undertake a document review and for construction supervision. The LTAP predicts a water demand of 82,000 m3/day by 2031 (93,000 m3/day including seasonal peaking factors) and proposes the expansion of the existing source on the Kibos River at Kijulu in order to meet the additional demand. The current design capacity of this source is only 1,500 m3/day but since the source can supply most of the city by gravity it potentially represents a better option in terms of lower operating costs than Lake Victoria. The selection and development of this source has not been explained or justified (technically or economically) within the LTAP report but its relatively close location to the city indicates that it should prove more economic than further expansion of the Lake Victoria source providing the necessary infrastructure can be built at reasonable cost. The detailed proposals for the development of the Kibos River are unclear as a review of the current designs is underway. The original proposals under the LTAP recommended the expansion of the site to deliver 36,000 m3/day of treated water, which was predicted to be adequate for the citys demand until 2025. A reappraisal of the project has confirmed that the proposed plant will be constructed to this capacity although LVSWSB would have preferred a 48,000 m3/day capacity to meet their 2031 horizon.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


The hydrological assessment undertaken for the original LTAP appears superficial and contains errors. It was based on flow records for the period 1933-1974. The analysis simply subtracted the monthly demand of 36,000 m3/day from mean monthly flows from January to December (recorded at gauging weir RGS 1HA4 located near to the existing plant), and determined the maximum flow deficit predicted during the year. It then calculated the volume of storage necessary (789,840 m3/day + 20% for dead storage = 1 Mm3) to overcome this deficit and recommended a dam height to provide that volume (10m). The calculation does not consider environmental flow requirements in the river downstream (note - it is argued in the AFD aide memoire6 that the confluence with the Awach River is just downstream of the plant and that this river will supply environmental flow). Also the calculation does not account for treatment process losses (i.e. more water would need to be drawn from the dam to actually supply 36,000 m3/day. The use of mean monthly flows simplifies the analysis river flow regime enormously and is not at all appropriate for a major water supply scheme. It is noted that the National Water Master Plan identified a possible dam on the Kibos River sited upstream of the proposed LTAP dam. The earth embankment dam was some 40m high and yielded some 70,000 m3/day. The proposal for the dam was apparently based on an original study carried out by HPGauff in 1984. LVSWSB have also mentioned future plans to develop a dam further afield on the Nyando River but no details of this have been located. They also mentioned the possibility of making inter-basin transfers to enhance the dam yield further but these studies have yet to be located.

Extract from AFD Aide Memoire (May 2009) - Deeper analysis of the impact of Kajulu intake on Kibos River has been held during the appraisal mission. It is understood that hydrological review has been implemented by the 3 Consultant, resulting in recommendation for a 1 million m weir on the river, especially to secure Kajulu abstractions during January and February. It is also interesting to note that 2 km downstream the weir, the river is joined by 3 Awach River with a long term minimum flow of 27,000 m /day. Nevertheless, the guarantee that the minimum environmental flow from the weir will be maintained according Kenyan environmental regulation (especially for the 2 km stem of river) is still to be established and documented further by the Consultant and LVSWSB.

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Figure 2.8 - Kibos Dam Site and Catchment Area Sept 2011

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


The main issues affecting the planned developments appear to be: Storage calculations are based on mean monthly flows and therefore underestimate the potential deficits and hence the occurrence of failure of the source; The demand used is 36,000 m3/day and does not make allowance for losses at the treatment plant so the reliability is reduced further; The resultant dam (mass concrete) will be a substantial structure 10m high and over 60m wide (stated by Seureca) and represents a major investment and yet is not adequately sized for the proposed treatment plant; The analysis takes no consideration of environmental flows; and The case for a 10m high dam is not proven and its reliable yield will be less than the 36,000 m3/day originally anticipated. Further storage will be required to be able to produce 48,000 m3/day.

LVSWSB tabled the following information, which is based on the sizing approach described above.
Table 2.18 LVWSB Analysis of Kibos River Weir Height and Storage Supply m3/day Required Storage Capacity m3 789,840 1,643,840 2,253,840 Allowance for Dead Storage (10%) m3 78,984 164,384 225,384 Total Storage Requirement m3 868,824 1,808,224 2,479,224 Weir (Dam) Height m 10 16 21

36,000 48,000 60,000

Note original LTAP calculations allowed 20% for dead storage

However, this information repeats the same simplistic approach to yield assessment used in the LTAP and is not a methodology recommended for a scheme of this size or importance. Because of the uncertainties listed above this study has reviewed the hydrology of the proposed scheme (using the same flow records) and the results are shown in Table 2.18. Note: we have limited our consideration of the dam to a maximum height of 30m because this is the highest crest for which height storage curves were presented in the LTAP Design Report which have not been reviewed. We have also limited our consideration to the current proposed weir site due to limitations of time. It should be noted that data is only available until 1974, and therefore will not reflect catchment changes since then, or any climatic variations. The analysis defines the safe yield as the flow that can be abstracted with a failure rate of 95% (or 2 years of the 40 year flow record).

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


Table 2.19 Hydrological Review of Options of Kibos River Case Weir Height m 10m high embankment 1 2 10 10 36,000 36,000 124977 0 12.3% 4.8% 60% 35% Production m3/day Environmental Compensation Flow m3/day Days without full abstraction % Years without full abstraction %

3 4

10 10

2,900 18,000

12497 0

0.1% 0.2%

5% 5%

Safe Yield Safe Yield

30m high embankment 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 30 30 30 30 30 36,000 36,000 23,500 38,000 48,000 60,000 12497 0 12497 0 0 0 4.7% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 3.7% 8.6% 22.5% 2.5% 5% 5% 22.5% 47.5% Safe Yield Safe Yield

The results show how dependent the safe yield is upon WRMAs consideration of the required environmental flow. If they insist upon the full Q95 flow as defined in the Water Act of 2002 then the yield of the proposed 10m high dam is only 2,900 m3/day. If WRMA can be persuaded to allow full abstraction without releases, then the yield rises to 18,000 m3/day, still considerably less than the 36,000 m3/day requirement. It has been argued that a lower reliability can be accepted for the Kajulu source because there is always the back-up of Lake Victoria in times of shortage. However, accepting a lower source reliability at Kajulu will reduce the reliable output of the whole water supply system unless additional facilities are provided at Dunga which rather defeats the object of developing the gravity source. A better approach to this issue would have been to determine the ultimate yield of the catchment (with a large dam) and then to devise a phased plan to take advantage of the ultimate potential in line with the water demand projections. It should be noted that LVSWSB need to engage WRMA in the planning of this source development and they will require a detailed hydrological assessment. Decisions on the level of environmental compensation flow required would be taken by WRMA when considering the abstraction licence application. The two cases above show the extreme conditions for the proposed concrete dam, i.e. full compensation and no compensation. WRMA will require a full hydrological assessment report and environmental assessment before approving the abstraction licence. The scheme was reportedly initiated and given approval before NEMA was fully active. Apparently, approval for the scheme to proceed was given on the basis of the environmental chapter in the LTAP Water Design Report of October 2005 (despite NEMA being in existence since 2003). The environmental chapter hardly mentions the proposed dam and certainly gives no consideration to the impacts from a 10m high concrete structure storing almost 1 million cubic metres of water. There is no discussion on catchment protection in order to safeguard the source which could have a significant impact upon the residents of the Kibos valley. It is considered likely that NEMA would require a full EIA for this development.

Q96 flow as required by MoWI Design Manual

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Treatment The Dunga treatment plant and the associated Lake Victoria intake are currently planned not to be expanded further, with the next stage of supply expansion coming from development of the Kajulu source planned at 36,000 m3/day. However, due to concerns over the reliability of the proposed Kajulu source it is suggested that the Dunga plant be examined to ascertain the possibility of it being used in overload mode for short durations at times of shortage from Kajulu. Distribution The LTAP includes for expansion of the water distribution network including the construction of new reservoirs. The works were planned to be implemented under current AFD financing and a contract for their construction has already been in early 2011 (Package 1 Water Supply Distribution System and Reservoirs). However, as a result of the issues raised in the draft version of this report, the works were re-engineered by the supervision consultants, Seureca. Although the new proposeals have not been examined in detail, the issues raised previously appear to have been addressed. The distribution expansion covers the central areas of the city and extends to the peri-urban areas closest to the city but not the satellite communities further from the city which LVSWSB would also like to supply. KIWASCO have also expressed concern over the supply pressures within parts of the city centre due to the relatively low elevation of the service reservoirs at Kibuye. The uncertainty concerning the precise scope of the LTAP distribution works at the time of preparing this report makes it impossible to comment further on their coverage and appropriateness. However, LVSWSB have confirmed their understanding that the LTAP works will cover the central areas of the city and the peri-urban areas immediately to the north, east and west and that there is no requirement for the EIB project to include any works in these areas. This project therefore concentrates on supplies to the satellite communities of Kiboswa, Maseno and Ahero. The LTAP proposals are also intended to fully service the informal settlements although, again, no definite proposals are in place.

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LEGEND

Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT185BW ENGLAND

Note: This figure is taken from a drawing in the Kisumu water supply and sanitation LTAP, package two (produced by Mouchel Parkman).
PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Figure 2.9 - Layout of Works after Kajula Treatment Plant September 2011 European Investment Bank

FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

DATE

CLIENT

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.5.12.


2.5.12.1.

Further Development Needs


Introduction LVSWSB have indicated that their major development concerns are: The capacity of their sources (compounded by the uncertainties around the proposed development of the Kibos River / Kajulu source); and The absence of a municipal piped distribution system in the fast developing periurban areas including the satellite communities of Kiboswa, Maseno and Ahero.

The works under the LTAP propose to increase the quantity of water available to 93,000 m3/day to meet a predicted 2032 demand of 82,000 m3/day (allowing for seasonal variations). The initial investigations under this study, using the available flow data and the outline design, suggest that the required yield of the Kajulu source of 36,000 m3/day will not be reliably achieved, and deficits will be regularly experienced. The concept of using a 10m high dam (reportedly with a crest approx 65m wide) seems questionable and the hydrology highlights the poor reliability of this option. LVSWSB have expressed their aim for supplies to be extended into the new development areas beyond the informal settlements. To achieve this they plan to extend the proposed network served by the new Kajulu source. Unfortunately, the LTAP report does not describe such an extended network and LVSWSB are in the process of appointing technical advisors one of their roles will be to finalise interventions within the informal areas. Due to the lack of detailed information about the proposed LTAP developments certain assumptions have been made for this analysis. These are described in the text. 2.5.12.2. Water Resources The hydrological analysis of the Kibos River demonstrates that, if water is to be abstracted in the quantities envisaged in the LTAP then a dam structure much higher than the 10m currently envisaged is required. Without this the yields from the source are small. Clearly the assessment of the safe yield is very dependent upon WRMAs consideration of the environmental flow to be left in the river and LVSWSB should attempt to resolve this issue with haste. The 1984 study by HP Gauff introduced the possibility of gravity transfers from neighbouring catchments into the Kibos to enhance the yield of the Kajulu and any subsequent dam. The report suggests the possible diversion of flows from the Yala River from near to the confluence of the Kimondi and Sirua tributaries into the Kibos valley to supplement natural flows. The flow characteristics of the Yala River in terms of dry season minimum flows were felt to be better than the Kibos because its tributaries originate in the South Nandi Forest which has better natural storage characteristics. Since 1984 things have moved on and the Lake Basin Development Authority are now proposing a 60m high mulit-purpose dam at the confluence between the two tributaries. Although the proposals are controversial from an environmental viewpoint, the dam could provide an alternative source of water for Kisumu without the construction of a large dam in the Kibos valley. If transfers can be made from this source downstream of the turbines then most concerns related to the reliability of the Kibos valley will vanish because the turbines will deliver constant flows all year round eliminating the need for a dam on the Kibos. A further consideration as a source of water for Kisumu is the proposed Kora Dam some 60 km away from the city. This dam is intended as an irrigation dam but it may be possible to also use it for water supply. However, if the KIbos is to be developed in isolation then a full hydrological study of the catchment will be required with a view to: Confirming the water resource potential of the catchment; Identifying options to enhance the yield through inter-catchment transfers and the like; Confirm the suitability of the site for a large dam;

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


Engage WRMA in meaningful discussions on environmental flows for the river; and Assess the impacts of a large dam on the local environment and residents of the valley.

Failure to successfully develop the Kibos gravity source or one of the other proposed dams will put the focus back onto Lake Victoria to supply the necessary water to meet the increasing demand. 2.5.12.3. Water Supply Works under LTAP Package 1 have been completely re-scoped and hopefully, now address the needs of the city. LVSWSBs desire to extend the network to areas outside the informal settlements is logical and should be achievable. The uncertainty surrounding the exact locations of the proposed LTAP facilities makes it difficult to identify any potential gaps under this study. 2.5.12.4. Treatment The medium to long term need is to develop the Kajulu source, providing sufficient storage to give a reliable resource and appropriate treatment. The LTAP proposes conventional full chemical treatment of initial capacity 36,000 m3/day (ultimate capacity 48,000 m3/day). We have identified some additional work required on the Dunga water treatment works as outlined earlier. These are mainly relatively small scale. For ease of reference we repeat these below: Improving the dosing and mixing of alum ideally this should be flow proportioned and dosed and mixed at the same time, to maximise coagulation, and minimise alum use; Improving the dosing of polyelectrolyte at present it dribbles from a pipe into the flow over the inlet weir. It would be better to distribute the dose across the weir. Again flow proportioning and the use of a chemical dosing pump appears desirable. It would also appear appropriate to use a carrier water system. There was stated to be a problem with the elevated backwash water tank serving Blocks 1 and 2. Apparently there is leakage in the backwash valves which means that water is always flowing from the tank, meaning it takes a long time to fill the tank, limiting the rate at which filters can be backwashed. The chlorination system requires replacement and upgrading, with flow proportioned dosing of hypochlorite. Provision of a system to settle sludge and backwash water, recycle settled water, and dry the sludge on drying beds. This would prevent waste from entering Lake Victoria but would require only good quality water to be recycled to prevent organisms such as cryptosporidium being recycled. The EIA for the ADF project recognised sludge discharge as an issue and identified mitigation as sludge dewatering but failed to take this forward. The commissioning of the new extension and the new high lift pumps should offer an opportunity to rationalise the existing high lift pumps, scrapping some of the older ones and if necessary purchasing new more efficient pumps. The existing pumps are a real hotchpotch and standardisation would help KIWASCO to efficiently maintain the pumps.

Based on anecdotal evidence from the operators, it appears that the quality of the raw water extracted from Lake Victoria has deteriorated over the past 30 years. The current intakes abstract water from very close to the lake shore, near to the zone disturbed by the effects of waves on the lake bed. It may be that if the intakes were extended further into the lake, the quality of the raw water would improve. However the Gulf of Winan is relatively shallow, approximately 5 metres deep, and is fully mixed due to the effects of winds. Thus it is possible that there would be little benefit in extending the intakes further into the lake, and any likely benefit would need to be confirmed before doing this.
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It is recommended that a detailed hydraulic analysis of the Dunga plant is undertaken to determine the overload capacity of the treatment plant to provide additional backup during times of shortage from Kajulu. 2.5.12.5. Supplies to Satellite Towns LVSWSB have expressed their desire to connect the satellite towns of Kiboswa, Maseno and Ahero to the Kisumu supply system. Kiboswa and Maseno are sited high in the hills to the north and northwest of Kisumu whereas Ahero is to the south east on the road to Nairobi. All three settlements are essentially in rural settings but are developing quickly with increasing populations. Any pipelines proposed would be sited along main roads with extension networks into the rural communities if they are to prove cost effective. The large elevation changes will require a number of service tanks to enable communities to be served at acceptable pressures. A rapid investigation did not identify any obvious alternative sources of water for the satellite towns apart from the municipal system. Currently they rely on boreholes, small streams and rainwater for supplies. The Nyando River flows through Ahero but the quality is very poor and extensive treatment would be required. The National Water Master Plan makes reference to a new dam on the Edwasa River as a potential source for Maseno but this will require another treatment plant and considerable pumping so is unlikely to be particularly cost effective and the scheme would either require pumping or a long gravity main. Supplies to Kiboswa and Maseno will require pumping since their general elevations are some 350 m above the general level of Kisumu City. This is a large difference in elevation and pumping costs are potentially significant. Both schemes will probably need at least two stage pumping because of the elevations involved. Ahero can be fed by gravity from Kisumu. It should also be noted that supplies to Kiboswa and possibly Maseno would best originate at Kajulu and place an extra demand upon the limited resource capacity of this site. Kiboswa Kiboswa is located on the Kakamega Road about 6 km beyond the junction with Nandi Hills Road. The general elevation of the settlement is around 1,550 mASL. It is proposed that water should be pumped from the new Kajulu schemes clear water reservoir, through a dedicated rising main to a new tank located above the settlement. From this elevated position water will not only supply the settlement but will gravitate westwards through the settlements of Ogada, Nyahera, Dago and all the way to Sianda and Darajambili, if required. This would involve a loss of elevation of some 200 m so a number of break pressure tanks will be advisable. It is hoped that the proposed pumping station at Kajulu will be able to take advantage of energy generated through a small hydropower installation on the inlet to the Kajulu treatment plant to power the pumps at no cost to the Operator, although the decision to develop hydropower has not yet been confirmed. Initial calculations indicated that it should be possible to generate power at a small hydropower installation for the pumping application but it is unclear whether there is sufficient capacity to power the treatment plant as well. This is subject to confirmation of the yield/flows from this source. Maseno Maseno is located to the north west of Kisumu on the road to Busia and Kampala. The elevation of the centre is similar to Kiboswa at 1,550 masl, but the eastern side of the settlement rises to 1,600+ mASL. This analysis considers pumping to the general elevation of the town centre. Further localised pumping will be required to supply the whole town. Two options exist for supplying Maseno from Kisumu: i. ii. i Pumping from the citys network; or Boosting from the Kiboswa supply proposed above.

Pumping from the Network

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The capacity of the network to supply demands in the west of Kisumu is limited. Under the original LTAP design, a new 250 mm diameter pipe is proposed to feed the west and Kanyamedha Reservoir but this will have a capacity of about 5,000 m3/day which will be needed for the city demands (although the sizing is currently under revision and maybe increased to 400 mm diameter). A dedicated scheme would need to pump from Kibuye (or Kanyamedha) to Maseno. Such a pipe will also pass through a number of settlements along the road to Busia that are at too high an elevation to receive supplies from the network, so these communities could also be included and fed through service tanks. The advantage of supplies from Kibuye is that water could come from either Kajulu or Dunga increasing operational flexibility. A dedicated scheme would involve pump lifts in excess of 300m so pumping would need to be staged with two or more booster stations for comparison purposes a second relift (booster) station is assumed to be sited around Darajambili. ii Pumping from the Kiboswa Supply The proposals for the supply to Kiboswa allows for gravity flow to the east as far as Sianda and Darajambili. It is possible that the scheme could be increased in size to allow additional flows sufficient for Maseno to be transferred for onward boosting to Maseno from a relift (booster) station again assumed to be sited around Darajambili. Ahero There is only a 30m difference in elevation between Kisumu city and Ahero settlement so the hydraulics of a gravity scheme need to be considered carefully. A dedicated main will be required from the city network to Ahero. Ideally the main should originate close to Kibuye (to minimise distribution losses at that end), and should not connect to other pipes nor should there be any connections within Kisumu, otherwise flows to Ahero will be jeopardised. It is suggested that an elevated tank be constructed in Ahero to provide additional balance storage during times of peak demand. Options comparison The table below clearly demonstrates that economically it is preferable to pump from Kibuye (or Kanyamedha) rather than to enlarge the Kiboswa scheme. However, the optimum scheme could incorporate both options with pumped supplies from both Kibuye and Kajulu, via Kiboswa reaching a tank at Darajambili for onward boosting to Maseno in this way optimum use can be made of pumping to Kiboswa with hydropower energy.

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LEGEND

Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT185BW ENGLAND

PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative Figure 2.10 - Supplies to Satellite Communities
DATE

FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

September 2011 European Investment Bank

CLIENT

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


Table 2.20 Summary Comparison of Schemes
Scheme 1 Pumping to Kiboswa / gravity to Darajambili 20,000 Rising Main Kajulu to Kiboswa 200 10 68 682 Gravity Main Kiboswa to Darajambili 250 12 87 1041 2a Pumping to Maseno from Kibuye double lift 40,000 Rising Main Kibuye to Darajambili 250 25 87 2168 2b Pumping to Kiboswa and Relift to Maseno 60,000 Rising Main Kajulu to Kiboswa 300 10 124 1238 Gravity Main Kiboswa to Darajambili 250 12 87 1041 Rising Main Darajambili to Maseno 250 8 87 694 2972 2100 250 525 400 400 160 1400 300 420 1105 3 Gravity to Ahero

Population

20,000 Gravity Main to Ahero 250 25 87 2168

Pipes 1 Dia Length Unit Cost mm km /m '000

Dia Length Unit Cost

mm km /m '000

Rising Main Darajambili to Maseno 250 8 87 694 2862 1400 300 420 400 400 160 580

Reservoirs

Dia Length Unit Cost Total CAPEX Capacity Unit Cost Capacity Unit Cost Capacity Unit Cost Total CAPEX

mm km /m '000 '000 3 m 3 /m '000 3 m 3 /m '000 3 m 3 /m '000 '000

1722 700 350 245 245

0 2168 200 400 80

0 80

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Scheme 1 Pumping to Kiboswa / gravity to Darajambili 1 Capacity Unit Cost Unit Cost Capacity Unit Cost Unit Cost Total CAPEX Total OPEX Annual Cost Annual Cost 40 yrs 8% kW /kW '000 /kW '000/yr kW /kW '000 /kW '000 '000 '000/yr /yr /yr 86 1000 86 600 52 86 52 62,846 62,846 749 2a Pumping to Maseno from Kibuye double lift 108 1000 108 600 65 133.67 1000 134 600 80 241 145 176,220 176,220 2,101 3,683 2,101 5,784 2b Pumping to Kiboswa and Relift to Maseno 260 1000 260 600 156 133.67 1000 134 600 80 393 236 287,070 287,070 3,423 4,470 3,423 7,893 3 Gravity to Ahero

Pump Station

0 0

0 0 0 0

OPEX NPV Total Cost NPV NPV 2,054 749 Total '000 2,803 Note: prices are for comparison purposes and not for scheme estimates Capex Opex 2,248 0 2,248 0

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Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.5.13. Summary of Interventions


The following table summarises the possible interventions to improve the water supply situation in Kisumu.
Table 2.21 Summary of Possible Interventions Item Operational problems Extend intake pipes at Dunga WTW further out into the lake Needs investigation but could improve the incoming water quality and hence treatment process 0.10 Remarks Estimated Cost million

Chemical dosing at Dunga WTW is in need of improvement and upgrading Problems with the filter backwash system at Dunga WTW need resolving Remodelling of the highlift pumps at Dunga WTW would lead to a more efficient pumping regime Install functioning flowmeters in all key locations and consider introduction of basic telemetry system for capture and processing of data Maintenance Supply of materials, replacement valves, etc pipes, fittings, KIWASCO have inadequate stocks of materials and the stores need to be stocked if maintenance issue to be addressed KIWASCOs stock of consumer meters is old, many over 10 years old; a large stock is required to enable a sensible meter replacement policy to be adopted

0.10 0.10 0.10

1.40

1.40

Supply of consumer meters

0.20

Capital Projects Construction of a dam in the Kibos Valley to provide reliable gravity supplies for the city including treatment plant and distribution pipelines Dam is an alternative to the proposed LTAP concrete weir not in addition. Treatment works also proposed under Package 2 of LTAP Pumped from Kajulu Pumped from Kibuye Gravity from Ahero

tba

Expansion of supplies to Kiboswa Expansion of supplies to Maseno Expansion of supplies to Ahero Water Supplies in Informal Areas Capacity KIWASCO need Waste Control Unit

5.0 7.0 3.0 2.0

KIWASCO need expertise, equipment, etc to establish an effective WCU and for the design of appropriate DMAs etc

0.3

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Item Remarks Estimated Cost million

KIWASCO need to develop / obtain / upgrade its asset records onto a suitable GIS and a suitable network model KIWASCO would benefit from an upgrade of its office facilities (and potentially stores and maintenance facilities) Technical Assistance Feasibility Study for a high dam on the Kibos River and reassessment of the capacity of the Dunga source

Should be incorporated into plans for previous item

1.40

0.5

Review of hydrology using additional rainfall data, ground conditions, possibility of inter-basin transfers to improve yield 2 years programme of TA

0.5

Assistant with set-up of WCU including undertaking network modelling, GIS database records, waste control DMAs etc, and billing system upgrade

1.0

24.10 Note: Prices are indicative; they include engineering, supervision and contingencies ex. VAT.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu

2.6.
2.6.1.

Wastewater
General
The sewerage system in Kisumu is limited, with a little over 6,000 connections, mainly in the older central part of the city. The total sewered area is reported in the LTAP as 600 ha. There are two sewage treatment plants, Kisat and Nyalenda. Kisat is a conventional sewage treatment works located at the head of the Gulf of Winan, between the old industrial area and the airport. It was reportedly commissioned in 1958 and later extended. It uses trickling filters as the biological treatment stage. The nominal capacity is reported as 6,800 m3/day. This plant receives flows from the lower elevation commercial and industrial areas. Nyalenda is a newer plant commissioned in 1978 located to the south of the city and using lagoon treatment. The plant has a nominal capacity of 11,000 m3/day and serves the south western part of the city. Very little development of the sewerage system has occurred since the mid 1980s. However there is now a recently awarded contract, under LTAP Package 3, to greatly expand the network. The package will construct approximately 55 km of new sewer and replace a further 7 km. This will greatly increase the potential area of coverage. We note that the contract does not include for any house connections. The basic scope of the works in the recently awarded contract is: Rehabilitation of the Kisat works and some sewers; Rehabilitation of Nyalenda Waste Stabilisation Ponds including construction of anaerobic ponds and new pump station; Construction of new pump station (Tom Mboya College); Rehabilitation of pump stations Mumias Road, Sunset Hotel, and Kendu; Sewerage in Manyatta, Central, and Milimani areas.

2.6.2.

Sewerage
Kisumu Municipality is currently served by two existing sewage treatment plants and a network of sewer lines. The sewers were laid in three phases between 1955 and 1965, 1965 to 1975 and 1975 to1985. The total length of sewage collection network is reported to be approximately 18.5 km. The total area sewered is reported in the LTAP to be about 600 ha (approximately 8% of the total area supplied with water) and the number of house connections at slightly over 6,400. There are three pumping stations on the network namely, the Sunset pumping station, the Kendu Lane Pumping Station and the Mumias Road Pumping Station. All these pumping stations are located in the Central wastewater treatment district (WTD).

2.6.2.1.

Existing Sewer Network The sewerage system in Kisumu falls into three distinct wastewater treatment areas, as follows: Central WTD; Eastern WTD; and Western WTD.

Central Wastewater Treatment District The Central WTD covers an area of approximately 390 ha. It collects wastewater generated in the north west of the Old Town by gravity, and from the low lying areas
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along the shores of Lake Victoria through pumping. Discharges are to the conventional sewage treatment plant at Kisat. The reticulation and trunk sewer network in the Central WTD comprises sewers in various pipe sizes and materials ranging from 150 mm to 600 mm diameter pipe. The total trunk sewer length for the entire district is reported to be approximately 9.5 km. The average age of the sewers, which form the first sewer network developed in Kisumu, is reported to be approximately 45 years. Most of the sewers in the district are reported to be in good condition except for approximately 80 dilapidated manholes and approximately 1,960 m of Asbestos Cement sewers, which are reported to be highly corroded. Most of the sewage generated flows to sewage pumping stations. Three pumping stations have been constructed namely the Sunset Hotel pumping station, whose catchment is the neighbourhood of the Sunset Hotel, Nyanza Club and some parts of lower Milimani residential area. The second pumping station is the Kendu Lane Pumping Station whose catchment is the area around the Railway Station and the adjacent houses and the lower elevation commercial establishments. The third pumping station is the Mumias Road Pumping station whose catchment is the area around the Airport and the adjacent industrial establishments. Eastern Wastewater Treatment District The Eastern WTD covers the area from the lake around Dunga, the Sunset Hotel, the un-sewered Milimani area and all the areas east of the Jomo Kenyatta-Kakamega road, extending to the areas north of Mamboleo market. The district covers an area of approximately 214 ha and collects wastewater generated in the southeast of the Old Town. There are no sewage pumping stations in the area. Wastewater generated from the district is mainly domestic in nature apart from the heavy institutional flow from the new Nyanza General Hospital. This district discharges into the Nyalenda Waste Stabilisation Ponds. The reticulation and trunk sewer network in the Eastern WTD comprises sewers in various pipe sizes and materials ranging from 175 mm to 675 mm diameter pipe. The total trunk sewer length for the district is reported to be approximately 8.5 km. It is reported that sewers in this area are heavily infiltrated with water through many open and vandalized manholes due to the high water table manifested by the swampy and marshy conditions in the area. Most of the sewers in the district are in very poor conditions mainly due to neglect. It is reported that from this area only about 1,500 m3/day of sewage is received at the treatment plant. There are also reportedly hydraulic issues affecting the trunk sewer to the Nyalenda works which will need further investigation. Western Wastewater Treatment District The Western WTD covers the areas to the south west of the airport but currently contains very little sewerage infrastructure. It is reported that the only existing system in the area belongs to Kisumu Molasses Plant, and is strictly for private use. 2.6.2.2. Recent Interventions Under STAP Following discussions with Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB), it was revealed that many of the interventions proposed under STAP were not fully implemented. LVSWSB pointed out that the scale of the project was reduced from KSh 1.1 billion to approximately KSh 400 million. The sewerage component within STAP suffered most from this scaling down. Table 2.22 is a status summary of works implementation under STAP.

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Table 2.22 Status Summary of Works Implementation Under STAP Item Central Wastewater Treatment District 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Repair of approximately 1935 m of damaged sewers Repair of approximately 13 broken manholes Raising of approximately 45 low-level manholes Replacement of missing manhole covers on approximately 55 manholes Replacement of step irons in approximately 32 manholes Opening up of approximately 35 tight/ sealed manholes Replacing of small diameter sewers with large capacity sewers ranging from 300 to 450 mm diameter. The total affected length was estimated at 2,200 m. Works were also to include improvement of the affected sewer slopes by laying the new sewers at a steeper gradient Rehabilitation works at the Kisat conventional sewage treatment plant Eastern Wastewater Treatment District 9. 10. 11. 12. Laying of new sewers and reconstruction of existing Sekou-Toure sewers Reconstruction of sewers along the Nairobi road to divert flow from the Central WTD to the Eastern WTD to relieve the load on the Kisat STW Upgrading of the ring road sewer to diameter 450mm, approximate length 800 m Replacement of the existing Kibos trunk sewer as follows; 450 mm diameter concrete pipe at the upstream section from Car Wash for an approximate distance of 400m, followed by 600 mm diameter PCC sewer, approximate length 2,689 m and the existing aerial steel pipe with 800mm diameter epoxy-lined steel both internally and externally for an approximate distance of 962 m Rehabilitation of approximately 2,890 m of the slaughterhouse sewer line by rodding and flushing to unblock the sewers. Works to also include replacing of missing manholes with heavy duty concrete manhole covers Cleaning of approximately 400 m of Kenya Re sewer and replacement of missing manhole covers Cleaning of approximately 3,400 m of KPA sewer line and construction of 1 collapsed manhole Rehabilitation works at the Nyalenda wastewater treatment plant Not Done Not Done Not Done Not Done Done Done Done Done Done Remark

Not Done

8.

Partially done

Only 50 m length of sewers were replaced

13.

Not done

14. 15. 16.

Done Done Partially done

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2.6.2.3. Planned Developments Under LTAP The Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) for Kisumu sewerage was prepared by Mouchel Parkman/Otieno Odongo Joint Venture (2008). It proposed to increase sewerage coverage in the central WTD from 385 ha to 437 ha. In the Eastern WTD, the area to be covered will increase from 214 ha to 1,358 ha, primarily through expansion of the network to un-served low income areas. The proposed Western WTD will cover an area of approximately 5,140 ha. Figure 2.11 shows the proposed extension of KIWASCO wastewater network. The following works are planned in the LTAP: Construction of a full sewerage system in the Western WTD including a new treatment plant at Otonglo. New sewer 225 mm to 450 mm diameter will serve developing areas in the Western WTD between Kombedu and Anti Malaria Research station including some of the areas currently served by Mumias Road pumping station, near the airport. The new treatment plant (proposed as waste stabilization ponds) will have a capacity of 23,550 m3/day; Realignment of the sewer network in the Central WTD to reduce the load going to Kisat. This will involve diversion of flow from the Sunset pumping station into the Eastern WTD to be treated at Nyalenda WSP. The intervention will also involve diverting flow from areas between Kisumu Girls High School and the Lake Nursing Home (including Kibuye Catholic Mission) to the Eastern WTD; Expansion of the sewerage collection network to areas of Milimani, Lower Migosi, Manyatta and Nyalenda. Works proposed here include construction of trunk and branch sewers in Migosi and Manyatta, and construction of a complete sewerage system covering a total area of 260 ha in Milimani with the main trunk sewer passing through the Nyalenda settlements; Upgrading of the sewer lines located in the following areas to enable them carry additional load as a result of diverting flow from the Central to the Eastern WTD: Kisumu-Nairobi main road; Omino road, going through Kodhek and Railway House Estates; Makasembo area; Shauri Moyo primary school; The Ring road sewer emanating from the LVSWSB offices; Kibos trunk sewer; The slaughter house line; Kenya Re sewer; and Kenya Ports Authority line.

Rehabilitation of the sewage pumping stations at Sunset, Kendu Lane, and Mumias Road; Construction of Tom Mboya pumping station below Tom Mboya Labour college to serve areas around the college and extending towards the lake; Construction of Nyalenda WSP pumping station to lift sewage from the proposed anaerobic pond to the existing inlet works (to be modified); Rehabilitation of Kisat conventional wastewater treatment plant to enable it to operate at its original design capacity; Rehabilitation of 2 series of Nyalenda Wastewater Treatment works and construction of 1 series of oxidation ponds to increase the plant capacity.
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The ponds will be rehabilitated and expanded. The design capacity of the ponds in the year 2030 is anticipated to be approximately 25,000 m3/day. All the proposed interventions once implemented would see collection and treatment of approximately 52,000 m3/day of wastewater. Some of the works proposed under LTAP are scheduled for implementation under the recently awarded sewage contract but additional funding will be required to cover all of the above proposals. 2.6.2.4. Works Proposed for Implementation Under Package 3 Contract The recently awarded Package 3 contract includes the following sewerage works: Sewerage in Milimani area. The works to be undertaken in this area include construction of approximately 25 km of new concrete sewers of 225, 300, 375, 450 and 600 mm diameter; Construction of approximately 3.7 km of 300mm diameter and 21.3 km of 375 mm diameter sewers in the Manyatta area; Construction of approximately 2.3 km of 225, 375 and 450 mm diameter in the central area; Construction of Tom Mboya pumping station; Rehabilitation of Mumias Road, Kendu Lane and Sunset pumping stations; and Constructions of Nyalenda Sewage Treatment Works pump station.

The works being implemented under Package 3 will greatly increase the area of coverage. It should be noted that the contract does not include house connections. This is considered critical as it may impact on the income arising from sewerage and consequently the financial viability of the project.

2.6.3.
2.6.3.1.

Sewage Treatment
Kisat This is a conventional sewage treatment works using screening, grit removal, primary settlement, biological filters, and secondary settlement. The site also has a unit providing fine screening and oil removal, but this facility is currently out of use and is by-passed. Sludge is thickened and then flows to sludge drying beds. The works has a nominal capacity of 6,800 m3/day. The works is to be rehabilitated under the Package 3 contract. This covers: Replacing some of the existing incoming siphon pipes with larger pipes; Rehabilitation of the civil works including de-sludging; Removing all media from the sludge drying beds and replacing it; Comprehensive rehabilitation of electrical plant; and Comprehensive replacement of mechanical plant. This includes rehabilitation of the fine 2-D screen in the oil separator. The maximum flow to the plant appears to be 95 l/s (8,200 m3/day), a surprisingly low peak flow for a plant designed to treat 6,800 m3/day. The Bill of Quantities (BoQ) includes a chlorination plant, which may be for the effluent.

The scope appears comprehensive but poorly detailed. The work will be difficult and will need to be properly supervised. Rehabilitating the screen in the oil separation unit should remove all significant solids and should greatly reduce operational problems.

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! .

Pump Station (approximate location) Kisat Waste Water Outfall ! . Kisat Waste Water Treatment Works
Drain

Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT185BW ENGLAND Fax + 44 (0) 01372 740055 Tel. + 44 (01372) 726140
LEGEND

! .

Lake Victoria Kisumu Airport

! .

Airport Pump Station (approximate location)

! .

! .

Sunset Hotel Pump Station

! .

Tom Mboya Pump Station (proposed)

sa Ki

Kendu Lane Pump Station

Railway Main Rivers

! .

KIWASCO Waste Water Assets Nyalenda Waste Stabilisation Ponds

Proposed Waste
Water Network Zones:
Northern North west, Airport Western Central 1 Central 2 Eastern Kondele drain Southern 1 Southern 2 WSP Outfall
Note - The proposed network layout shown in this figure is based on drawngs presented in Mouchel Parkmans LTAP, package 3. The network zones have no operational significance, they are shown only for visual clarity.
SCALE BAR

0.25

0.5 Kilometers

0.75

! .

Nyalenda Waste Stabilisation Ponds


N ya r ia sa ma

PROJECT TITLE

Project formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative
FIGURE NUMBER & TITLE

Figure 2.11 - Proposed Extension of Figure 3.7 - Proposed extension of KIWASCO Waste Water Network

KIWASCO waste water network 6HSWHPEHU 2011 European Investment Bank

DATE

CLIENT

European Investment Bank

Project Formulation for scaling up the Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative

Project Formulation Report - Kisumu


2.6.3.2. Nyalenda This is a treatment plant which comprises screening and flow measurement followed by treatment in a lagoon system. Three streams each consist of a facultative pond and two maturation ponds. The works was commissioned in 1978. When constructed the lagoons were unlined, but the banks were lined at top water level with concrete slabs. It appears that little maintenance was done for many years and the facultative ponds largely silted up. However, one of the streams has recently been de-sludged as part of the STAP works. At the time of our visit the middle stream appeared to be operating. The works is to be essentially demolished and re-constructed under the recentlyawarded contract. This covers: Constructing a new pump station to lift flows into the new anaerobic ponds. The additional head provides opportunities to improve operational flexibility of the works; and Five new streams to replace the existing three streams. Each stream will comprise an anaerobic pond followed by a facultative pond and four maturation ponds. We note that whilst there will be improvements associated with providing the ponds, the works proposed seem to be out of all proportion to the benefits that will be derived. A simpler and more cost effective approach would be to add anaerobic ponds but rehabilitate the existing ponds, changing the flow paths through the works to ensure better treatment. However, there is a proposal to move the ponds to a new site further from the city, in which case the new configuration is appropriate.

2.6.3.3.

Proposed New Treatment Plant The 2008 LTAP for sewerage anticipates a new sewage treatment works to the north west of Kisumu, in Otonglo, to serve development to the north and west of the airport. As yet the details and precise location of this plant still have to be finalised. KIWASCO stated that there was a need arising for such a plant, and the associated sewer network, to serve development in this area. As for water treatment it is not possible to identify any short term needs pending completion of the works to be constructed under the recently-awarded sewerage contract. A detailed Master Plan / Feasibility Study is required to adequate define the proposed works.

2.6.4.
2.6.4.1.

Development Needs
Development Needs The immediate need for Kisumu sewerage system would be to produce a clear master plan. The plan should provide for coordination of the sewerage system, ensuring that sewer network development and upgrading aligns with the planned and available sewage treatment capacities. The plan should clearly identify the existing system and the gaps in the system in order to draw up workable proposals for expansion. It should also consider proposals by earlier studies and review these based on how practical they are. Proposals should be based on the following: Population to be served by the system in the future year. The proposed interventions are expected to increase the area of sewerage coverage from the current 600 ha to approximately 6,900 ha; Capacity and condition of the existing systems to carry future flow; Upgrade requirements for the system to cope with future flow;

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Availability and feasibility of land for further expansion; Possible diversion of flows between the existing catchments to maximise efficiency; Minimisation of operation and maintenance requirements to ensure sustainability; Location of new treatment works for sewage with considerations of land requirements and treatment technology. This should look at the most feasible treatment method on basis of operation and maintenance requirements; and Financial and economic viability.

In addition to the above, the proposed master plan study should determine in detail the necessity, viability and feasibility of the development needs stipulated above. It is not immediately possible to categorically identify short term investment needs pending completion of the works to be constructed under Package 3. However, following discussions with the key stakeholders and through gap analysis from the recently implemented or awarded contracts, some probable investment needs have been identified and are presented below. There are operational problems in the sewerage system for Kisumu City that need to be addressed as part of the ongoing interventions. These will ensure proper operation of the system as well, and require increased maintenance. There are also capital investment needs arising from the part implementation of LTAP proposals under Package 3 contract. Ambiguities were noted in sewerage proposals mainly due to lack of a proper sewerage master plan for the city. It was also noted during the discussions with LVSWSB and KIWASCO that the extent and coverage of Package 3 contracts was not very clear to them. This leaves a big question as to the validity of proposals and/or plans by both entities to increase sewerage coverage in the city. However, based on the review of Package 3 contract works, site data collection exercise and the proposed interventions by LTAP, some investment needs are clear. These are summarised in Table 2.23 below.
Table 2.23 Possible Interventions in Kisumu Sewerage Item Sewer realignment / reconstruction in the Central WTD to relieve load on Kisat. Remarks No land is available for expansion of Kisat treatment works. More connections to the system will see the capacity of the plant exceeded. Further investigations need to be undertaken to come up with a solution. This may result in diversion of flow from the city area to the ponds and connection of Kanyakwar and Bandani areas to Kisat by gravity. The affected trunk lines which may require upgrading to carry the additional load are; - Kibos trunk line - Slaughterhouse line - KPA line Additional load will result from new sewered areas including Lolwe, Mamboleo and extension of network in already sewered areas. A separate sewage treatment plant can be constructed to serve these areas. This has been proposed to be constructed at areas around Otonglo. However some of these areas can drain to Kisat by gravity following diversion of flow from the Central WTD to create spare capacity for the new Estimated Cost million

0.5

Upgrade the main trunk sewers in Eastern WTD to carry additional load. The cost also includes for construction of new sewers in Mamboleo and Lolwe areas.

3.3

Construction of a full sewerage system in Kanyakwar, Bandani, areas adjacent to the airport including a treatment plant at Otonglo area.

12.1

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Item Remarks connections. The Mouchel Parkman report (LTAP) recommends construction of a new treatment plant at Otonglo. The site for this plant had however not been identified. Further investigations and studies are required to establish the viability and location of such a plant. The study should also identify all the areas to be served by the plant and the operation mechanism. Visual inspections conducted during the data collection exercise revealed that the area is adjacent to Kisumu airport and is inhabited. Capacity check of Nyalenda WTP Increased flows from sewerage system extensions to diverted flow from the Central WTD and the extension of the sewerage system in the Eastern WTD will necessitate this. Nominal cost is allowed for any extensions that may arise out of the check. Needed to adequately define the requirements of the proposed Otonglo plant TOTAL COST Note: Prices are indicative; they include engineering, supervision and contingencies ex. VAT. Estimated Cost million

0.9

Prepare a sewerage Master plan

0.3 17.1

The estimated total cost of the proposed intervention for Kisumu Sewerage improvements is 17.1 million. Costs are based on the LTAP cost proposals with adjustments for inflation and price escalations. Unit costs used in working out some of the cost figures are derived from the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF) report titled assessing Unit Costs for water supply and sanitation facilities in Kenya, Dec 2005 prepared by PEM/Frame Consultants Ltd JV with adjustments to take account of inflation and price escalations. Some mark-up for engineering costs and provision for contingencies have been allowed in the costing.

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2.7.

Sanitation
This section provides findings and proposes measures on sanitation provision in Kisumu. It is based on discussions held with KIWASCO and Kisumu City Council. This is presented separately to conventional sewerage measures.

2.7.1.
2.7.1.1.

Existing Situation
Networks Sewer network drawings provided show the areas of city currently serviced by off site sanitation. KIWASCO seemed very sceptical that there could be any illegal connections, apparently because they would know about it. The unserved population use various forms of on-site sanitation; latrines, septic tanks and soakaways, eco-san, public toilets or the bush. Some eco-sans have been constructed by NGOs and aid agencies, but these are very rare.

2.7.1.2.

Public Toilets Public latrines have been constructed in places, but Atkins impression is that these have either subsided or collapsed (in Manyatta) or are not popular with residents. Paying public toilets do work in some parts of Kisumu, namely the bus interchange, market and Jomo Kenyatta Park. In 2007 these places charged between 2 and 5 KSh, the Kenyatta park toilets offering showers as well. These locations have a few key aspects in common: There are no other discreet, free options; The places are frequented by people who have disposable income (travellers, shoppers, park visitors); and They are not places which the users frequent often (i.e. for their daily needs).

The Technical Manager from LVSWSB reported that attempts to build commercial public toilets and bathhouses in low income areas failed. The idea behind the bathhouses was to prevent sexual violence to women who would only shower (in their yard) at night for fear of being seen in the daytime. Night time showering raised other security issues. Apparently they did not take up the secure option of showering in the bathhouses during the daytime, perhaps because of the cost. 2.7.1.3. Latrines and Septic tanks The norm is therefore latrines, septic tanks and the bush. There are no data available to determine the split between these options. The Council and KIWASCO do not know the number of septic tanks, and neither do the sludge truckers who service them. Showering (and clothes washing) is done mainly on the plot. Atkins held discussions with the sludge truckers. There are two private operators in the city who do this job, with one truck each. A third truck (belonging to one of the operators) is out of service. The trucks are very old but serviceable and carefully maintained, since they provide the family income. However maintenance of the truck is expensive and the sludge trucker appears to have very little disposable income. He supplied the following information. Assets: Payment method: Cost of a typical trip: 1 x vacuum truck x 5-10,000 litres Per trip 3,000 KSh - more for longer journeys

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Discharge point: Cost of discharge: Staff: Trips per month: Nyalenda treatment ponds (final manhole) 0 KSh 3 full time 26

Apart from the other sludge trucker, apparently the main competition for his services are manual exhausters; teams who empty latrines or septic tanks by hand. Given the small number of customers he appears to serve, it is likely that most people get their latrines dug out by this traditional method. Manual exhausters, (none were met), reportedly charge per bucket for the liquid component, usually taking just the supernatant of latrines or tanks (which are in a high water table area of low permeability). Business is best in the rainy season, which confirms the soil infiltration capacity as the determining factor for frequency of emptying latrines (rather than solid build up). The cost of a complete manual job can amount to 10,000 KSh, according to the sludge truckers. However, during the rainy season the sludge trucks find it difficult to access the septic tanks in informal areas. Therefore, in the time of greatest need, service is the least reliable (and probably, most costly). Note that manual exhaustion might not be legal and can result in enforcement from NEMA. The liquids and solids removed are typically put into a nearby hole dug for the purpose, or sometimes, such as on larger plots, are just left in a pile. High income households are also known to use manual diggers, perhaps because they are cheaper than several truck trips. It is worth noting that residents in un-sewered areas apparently already pay the sewerage charge as part of their water bill, which they do not agree with. For example, at Aga Khan Hospital, interviewees contested paying the sewer charge on the grounds that KIWASCO do not perform any treatment at their defunct works. It is interesting that during the post-election violence the entire offices of the LVSWSB which are opposite the Nyalenda slum were looted, gutted and burnt. A recycling scheme next door which involved Nyalenda residents (and contained very valuable equipment) was left untouched. This suggests the Board has some way to go in improving customer relations. Eco-san A number of eco-sans have been built in Manyatta B, which is a very low density settlement, by the CBO Wandiege, financed by international NGO Sana. Sana is an intermediary implementing partner for donor organisations such as SIDA, USAID, the French Embassy, etc. Plastic bins and bags are used to separate the waste, with old cooking containers for urine. Apparently many people misuse them, and eco-san were not a success at the nearby school due to misuse by students (they have traditional concrete slab san-plat latrines). Encouragingly, the residents contributed 50% to the cost of the eco-san project. Only the brick parts were built by the NGO, the superstructure had to be built by residents themselves. The dried sludge, which is mixed with ash from the eco-san are stored for 6 months in plastic bags which cost 250 KSh for 100, with each bag lasting approximately one month). They are kept out of the sun, and then used to plant trees. Apart from eco-san, the sludge from the Nyalenda ponds is reportedly re-used. KIWASCO sells it for 70 KSh a tonne to farmers who take it away in trucks. 2.7.1.4. Future Plans This is the area of greatest uncertainty, because although we know that the LTAP plans to upgrade some of the informal settlements, it is not known what the exact
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budget is, or what the precise plans are. The LVSWSB spoke of condominium sewers that the LTAP will install, however the scope of these was unclear. There are plans for the future conventional sewer network and locations of the treatment plants. This (in combination with some good topographical maps) gives some indication of what levels of service will be possible, and where. If the planned budget available for condominium sewers can be ascertained, then the unit costs, the potential number of houses connected to off site under the LTAP can be estimated. However, it was also indicated that the condominiums may only be a pilot, to check their viability. A pilot could have been implemented very early in the LTAP so as to inform the potential for serious investment, but this has not happened. It appears likely that extensive condominiums will not materialise under the LTAP. There are no details of plans for off site sanitation under the LTAP. NGOs may continue with their eco-san activities, but the impact of these appears to be fairly minor for the moment.

2.7.2.
2.7.2.1.

Potential Measures
Simplified (Condominium) Sewers The LTAP idea to install simplified or condominium sewers appears to be a good one, given the high density of some informal settlements, high water table, low permeability during the rains, proximity to the conventional networks and spare capacity at the soon-to-be refurbished treatment ponds. A 110 mm condominium sewer can connect up to 200 households of 5 people (1,000 users) with a gradient of 1 in 200 m (this assumes a peaking factor of 4, which is reasonable). Note that condominium sewers rely on frequent waves of high flows to push solids along, rather than constant scouring as in conventional sewers. This type of technology is suitable for the unsewered parts of Kisumu. Depending on the extent of LTAP investment in the informal area, there may be significant potential for condominium sewers in this EIB project. An idea for the condominium sewers could be to piggy back onto the existing master operator water management model. Under this model, bulk meters are installed at the mains which run past Nyalenda, and CBOs (or individuals) collect revenue from their customers inside the informal area. KIWASCO like this model, which vastly simplifies their revenue collection and transfers a substantial amount of risk to the master operators. The contracts between the master operators and KIWASCO are very inadequate. The level of detail is inappropriate and appears to be copied from other contracts by third parties, without consideration of what is achievable. For example, they assume that the master operators will report on the number of written complaints responded to within two days, and that KIWASCO will unfailingly supply water 24 hours per day. Therefore the relationship is in the informal domain, rather than in a contractual one by default. That aside, the master operator model seems to work despite the risks their businesses are exposed to in the event of a leak or theft. These problems could be quite easily solved by simplifying the contracts to one page of relevant information and changing the bulk or retail price to better reflect the risk. The master operator lines run in the approximate direction that a condominium sewer might run (perpendicularly away from the road), and they form a potentially symbiotic relationship. Customers paying for water (or with a water connection) are both wealthier than the indigent and relatively high consumers of water. They are the ideal customers to target for network sewerage. Communal clothes washing (or car washing) facilities, which consume a lot of water that can pool and stagnate when done haphazardly, could be constructed on or near the network, also operated by the master operator (see communal facilities below).

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The sewer tariffs can be collected through the water rate (as they currently are) and remitted to the master operator, who will be responsible for keeping the line clear of blockages and penalising or sanctioning customers who reject unsuitable waste (for example, by inspecting their connection grease traps in the event of a blockage to trace the culprit). Should LVSWSB become the asset owner for the condominium sewers, some part of the tariff should still be remitted to KIWASCO (and thence to LVSWSB) to repay the loan and cover capital maintenance. Note that the master operators could also be the asset owners responsible for capital maintenance. However given it is unlikely they will take on the loan (particularly with their 1-year rolling contracts), the asset will probably be on LVSWSBs books until the loan is paid off by the master operators through the tariffs collected (at which point the asset could be transferred). In Atkins experience, as informal settlements become more established, wealthier, and denser, the inhabitants get tired of walking through their own excrement and build their own sewers. These can be very variable, blocking and collapsing often and discharging where the money ran out (or just out of nose shot). A better approach under this project would be to anticipate this and provide a reasonable solution. 2.7.2.2. Septic Tanks and Soakaways / Effluent-Only Networks EIB (via LVSWSB / KIWASCO) could subsidise the installation of septic tanks in areas which are far from the existing and planned networks and likely to be so for some time. These could be individual or communal (with a shallow sewer attached). If infiltration capacity were not available, the septics would need to be combined with an effluent network, either to the treatment works or to local, decentralised treatment (e.g. reed beds), if residents made the land available. Areas proposed for septic tanks would therefore generally be of low enough density for construction, but perhaps not sufficiently low density to allow the easy installation of evaporation / infiltration / reed beds. If space is a constraint, an effluent-only network can be constructed. Properly constructed septic tanks could avoid many of the pitfalls of the informally constructed ones (water ingress, an inability to infiltrate much water, grease build up and blockages etc). The frequency of emptying should be able to be reduced and therefore the operating costs could become quite reasonable. Note that some of the existing septic tanks in Nyalenda are effectively communal, shared between 4-5 households. In the event that customers are served by network water (directly, or though kiosks / standpipes), the sewer tariff collected by KIWASCO could be used to repay the initial investment. The customers themselves would be responsible for de-sludging using truckers. 2.7.2.3. Decentralised Treatment An extension of the septic tank idea is to fund decentralised wastewater treatment tanks (DEWATs), which could be run by KIWASCO or master operators along the water model. These are effectively septic tanks with aeration or reed beds attached, and might be suitable in some lower density areas where there is room for reed beds. Aeration may be required but would probably increase operating costs to unaffordable levels. Natural aeration methods (such as reed beds) would probably be the best option. These can be procured locally within Kenya and can protect ground and surface water. Bio-gas production from decentralised digesters could also be an option, if detailed economic analysis suggests it would be viable and a suitable market could be found for the gas. Ideally, the gas should be used very close to the digester directly, rather than converting it to power, which would need more capital investment (and maintenance).

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2.7.2.4. Household Latrines and Washing Areas For the poorest customers who cannot afford a septic tank, the EIB project could finance the construction of improved latrines. This could take the form of a san-plat, a reinforced pit (to prevent the common occurrence of subsidence), elevated bricks (for eco-san) or a cess which can be accessed by a sludge truck. The project could also consider discreet bathing areas at the household level (providing a good slab and soakaway). Costs could be recovered through labour participation and the sewer tariff. This is the most basic form of improved sanitation and should have economic benefits in terms of reduced morbidity and open defecation. It also offers a level of dignity. Domestic sanitation should reduce the risk of gender based violence. Improved latrines could be used in combination with network sewer to avoid the use of manual de-sludging (and associated environmental health risks). However, this option is unlikely to be financially viable as water use in the poorest households (and therefore sewer tariffs paid) is likely to be low. Space could be an issue in the denser parts of Nyalenda / Manyatta. The problem of waste disposal is not necessarily resolved, as manual diggers may still be required (except for eco-san). 2.7.2.5. Communal Facilities Despite the poor track record of communal sanitation facilities reported in the lowincome areas of Kisumu, there might be some scope for these if sewers are introduced. The main obstacles will be land, and how to obtain it, and neighbours accepting these near their house. In our opinion, communal latrines will not succeed, as these are not used on a day-to-day basis. However there might be some scope for communal clothes washing (and perhaps bathroom) facilities if there is a drainage problem and these can be situated on the piped water and network sewer services. People like to wash near a ready source of water and it removes the necessity of carrying jerry cans / buckets home for water-intensive activities such as washing. Also, washing clothes (and to some extent, bathing) are activities that are suitable to be done communally. Communal washing facilities could be grant-funded, since there are no operating costs, and maintenance could perhaps be entrusted to the master operators and paid for through the water tariff. Note that maintenance would only consist of ensuring taps are not leaking, any doors or screens to bathing areas were kept maintained, and the facility was mopped / scrubbed occasionally. The structures would be not much more than cement slabs connected to the sewer and water supplies. An option could be to include a small amount of solar power (or biogas from nearby septics) for heating water, which could be used for clothes washing or bathing, and charging mobile phones, and district lighting (i.e. the area near the facilities could be lit at night). Power would be a source of revenue (mobile charging and charging extra for hot water). Lighting the area is a public good which increases security in the informal area, and may allow women to use the facilities in the evening. Obviously, the solar panel would need to be protected, perhaps with an alarm system attached. In summary, communal washing facilities could help solve a drainage problem, and decrease the amount of time people (women) spend fetching water. They may also provide opportunities for income generation such as mobile phone charging, or commercial clothes washing (and with power, ironing). They are likely to be socially acceptable (people wash clothes together), and could in some circumstances facilitate communal bathing. Land acquisition could be a problem, and they might require some level of sewer network being installed to avoid concentrating a drainage problem. Someone will need to take ownership of the small amount of maintenance, which means they will need to make money out of it. Revenues could be low.

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2.7.2.6. Expanding the Sludge Trucking Business Potentially, new sludge trucks could be purchased, which can be used to service the existing (and new) septic tanks, including potential decentralised wastewater treatment tanks (DEWATS). The tankers and their crews can also serve (indeed, do) as plumbers who clear sewer blockages. Atkins met and discussed this idea with one of the existing sludge truckers. He claimed that he could use three extra trucks, which he would position close to different settlements to serve their customers. It was questioned why he hadnt already done this, by obtaining a loan, for example. He mentioned that he didnt have enough collateral for a loan, as their entire surplus cash is consumed by eating and the truck (suggesting that they dont actually have a bank account). He also cited paperwork difficulties with the banks, but when pressed admitted that he had never actually asked about a loan. Confusingly, he also said that he only serviced about 26 customers per month, which does not suggest an overwhelming demand. The recycling service providers that were met (Bamato) expressed interest in running a sludge truck, and this is a viable option as they already operate and maintain heavy equipment and they have access to credit through K-rep and run an effective business. Also, they are a CBO with excellent relations / links with the low-income areas. In this case, the idea could be to extend credit to a microfinance organisation such as K-rep, who would then on-lend to the purchaser of the sludge truck. Alternatively, sludge trucks could be grant funded as part of a septic tank construction programme, but this could have negative effects on the existing sludge trucking businesses, as it represents a massive subsidy to a competitor. Note that it was stated by Bamato that their existing loan was arranged with a donor using K-Rep as an intermediary, however K-rep did not respect the interest rate agreed in the MoU (8%?) and are instead charging 15%. If expanded septic tanks or latrines are implemented in the project, more sludge trucks may be needed. More sludge trucks will allow different areas to be serviced more efficiently (lower transport costs and average distances). Sludge trucks should also reduce the dangerous and unsanitary practice of manual de-sludging, and cost customers less. Since manual de-sludgers would lose a source of income, they could be partially recruited to run the new trucks. Buying new trucks will have an uncertain (and possibly negative) effect on the existing sludge trucking businesses. Finally, the underlying / latent demand is not certain.

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Table 2.24 Possible Interventions in Kisumu Sewerage Sanitation Status Housing Density Dense (no vehicle access) Dense (vehicle possible) Near sewer Medium Convenient (connections) n/a Inconvenient (few / no connections) n/a Convenient Household no. 0 Inconvenient Household no. 0 Estimated Cost million -

Simplified Sewers Simplified Sewers or Effluent Sewers (if septics exist already) If less than 5 houses per 100m, septics

Simplified Sewers

3,500

300

0.35

If less than 5 houses per 100m, septics

700

250

0.1

Low

Latrines / Eco-san

10,000

150

1.0

Dense (no vehicle access) Dense (vehicle possible) Far from sewer Medium

n/a Simplified Sewers & Decentralised Treatment Simplified Sewers or Effluent Sewers (if septics exist already) & decentralised treatment If less than 5 houses per 100m, septics

n/a Simplified Sewers & Communal Septic

1,600

100

0.25

If less than 5 houses per 100m, septics

200

750

0.1

Low

Latrines / Eco-san

14,250 TOTAL

1.8 3.6

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2.7.3.

Summary of Costs
(Assuming Mwanza / Kisumu have the same costs).
Table 2.25 Estimated Costs for Sanitation Approximate Base Costs (excluding overheads) Capital Cost ( / Household) 60 95 70 Operating Cost ( / HH / month) 3.5 0 2

Technology

Latrine (excluding superstructure) Eco-san (excluding superstructure) Septic - individual, 5 people (excluding pour-flush toilet) Septic - shared, 100 people (excluding pour-flush toilet) Effluent-only Sewer network (excluding cost of septic) Simplified Sewer (excluding pourflush toilet) Decentralised Treatment (excluding reed bed) Note the following assumptions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

52 25 (high density) 40 (med-density) 30 (high density) 50 (med-density) 30

2 + Wastewater bill

Wastewater bill only

Prices are indicative; they include engineering, supervision and contingencies ex. VAT. The cost of any effluent pumping stations is excluded (if these are required). The cost of bio-gas adapted septics has not yet been estimated. Superstructures were excluded from latrine costs as these can be constructed by the beneficiaries. Other beneficiary contributions (such as trench digging etc), have not been included, but could reduce costs slightly. Note that labour generally makes up less than 25% of the estimated costs (but is around 30% for the network options due to trench digging). These could be required as in kind contributions from residents, although the difficulties and inefficiencies of trying to organise residents could outweigh the benefits. House connection costs have not been included prior to the connection inspection box (i.e. interior plumbing and the connection to the inspection box). network. We have assumed 15 HH per 100m for high density areas, but this could be higher if longer house connections are used.

6.

7. The prices above (for network options) are dependent on the numbers of houses per length of

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2.8.
2.8.1.

Urban Drainage
Kisumu Urban Drainage
This section details storm water drainage findings during the site visit in Kisumu. It is worth noting that few or no studies have been done regarding storm water drainage in Kisumu. No documents were available for review and thus the documented findings are based on discussions held with Kisumu City Council. Discussions were held with the Town Planner and Town Engineer. It is also noted that AFD have committed funding of some 40 million to a project aimed at renewing the urban infrastructure of Kisumu. This project is still in the planning stage and the technical consultants / advisors had not yet been appointed (Oct 2011) so the detailed scope is yet to be finalised.

2.8.2.

General
Kisumu city does not have extensive urban drainage facilities. Anecdotal evidence confirms that flooding affects the city during heavy rains and increases pollution levels in the lake by washing out the accumulated filth from the natural drainage channels. The storm water challenges faced by the city are closely linked to the city topography. The city is curved into a trough with the walls of Nandi escarpments to the East dropping into the Kano flood plains and gently flowing to Dunga wetlands at the shore of Lake Victoria. In addition, the destruction of vegetative cover has resulted in an increase in surface runoff in the city. Storm runoff has increased algal bloom in the lake, with intense blooms occurring during the rainy season. Fertiliser and pesticide use has been amplified by the growing population in the peri-urban areas of Kisumu, and these are washed off by surface runoff to the lakes and rivers. The major algae blooming zone on the Kenyan side of the lake is in the Gulf of Winan that encompasses Kisumu municipality and is mainly dominated by the blue and green algae. The algae bloom deoxygenates the water making it unsuitable for domestic and recreational purposes. Some algae blooms are known to produce harmful toxins. They also clog filters in water treatment facilities thereby reducing their lifespan and increasing treatment costs.

2.8.3.

Existing Urban Drainage Network


The current storm water infrastructure is inadequate, covering less than 20% of the municipality, and is generally blocked with solid waste and soil rendering the drains ineffective. Two main cut off drains, Auji and Bandani, drain stormwater from the hills surrounding Lake Victoria. The Auji drain is the main cut off lined drain to River Nyamasaria. The drain has deteriorated with time. Extensive deposition has taken place in the drain. The side slabs and rock pitching on the sides have been dislodged and the drain requires dredging and lining. The Bandani drain is not lined and extensive vegetation has grown in it. The drain is overtopped during heavy rain spells due to reduced carrying capacity. Within the municipality, lined drains and culverts have been constructed along the major roads in the city. However, the majority of these appeared to be in dire need of maintenance, reconstruction, rehabilitation or upgrading.

2.8.4.

Planned Developments
Discussions with Kisumu City Council officials revealed that the council has a wide range of plans aimed at improving storm water collection and drainage in the city. Some proposed development plans are outlined below: Covering of some of the existing drains with pre-cast concrete cover slabs. The affected sections have the drains constructed on either side of the road between the carriageway and the footpaths. The proposed sections include: Jomo Kenyatta Highway and the bus park area. The total length is approximately 3.6 km.
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Rehabilitation of the existing lined drains by dredging to remove accumulated filth and replacing of broken and dislodged side slabs. The proposed sections include: Bus park area and the Jomo Kenyatta Highway, approximately 4.2 km. Construction of lined drains at identified locations complete with pre-cast concrete cover slabs. The proposed sections include: Otieno Oyoo and Ezra Gumbe Road, approximately 6.0 km. Construction of new lined open drains. The proposed sections include: Ondieki Highway, Jomo Kenyatta Highway, Nyerere road, Butere and Oginga Odinga road. The approximate length is 12 km. Construction of culverts. The proposals are to install 600 and 900 mm diameter concrete culverts at some identified low lying sections on the roads. The approximate lengths are 300 m and 90m respectively.

It should be noted that funds for the proposed developments have not been sourced. The Council is in the process of identifying suitable agencies to fund the projects to initiate negotiations as necessary.

2.8.5.

Development Needs
Kisumu municipality needs an integrated storm water management system. Storm water pollution challenges are integrated with other waste management and development issues such as solid waste disposal, poverty and sanitation practices. The municipality should have a comprehensive and sustainable storm water collection and disposal framework that should encompass citizen awareness, sensitisation and participation. This will ensure that storm water collection and disposal is managed properly thereby reducing the impact on the lake. The storm water collection and disposal infrastructure required will be costly and to ensure its success, adequate resources are required which the City Council of Kisumu does not have. The city needs to develop and enforce policies and legislation to deal with storm water management. It was noted during discussions with the Kisumu City Council that even after implementing the works detailed above, major gaps will still exist. The Council pointed out that the works highlighted above had been arrived at on basis of severity and optimisation for the purpose of securing funding. It was reiterated that the problems are more extensive than those addressed above. The actual gaps were made clear through the discussions and it is these that have been used to come up with draft development needs. The development needs are summarised in Table 2.26.
Table 2.26 Possible Interventions in Kisumu Urban Drainage Item Covering existing lined drains with pre-cast concrete cover slabs Rehabilitation of existing lined drains through dredging to remove accumulated filth and replacement of damaged and dislodged side slabs Construction of lined drains complete with cover slabs. Construction of new lined open drains Remark Sections affected include Jomo Kenyatta Highway, Ogada, Odera, Accra, Paul Mboya roads and the bus park area. Approx 8.1 km Affected sections include; Bus park area and the Jomo Kenyatta Highway. Approx 8.7 km 0.6 Estimated Cost million 0.4

Affected sections include Otieno Oyoo, Ezra Gumbe Road. Approx 6.0 km Affected sections include; Ondieki Highway, Jomo Kenyatta Highway, Nyerere road, Butere, Oginga Odinga, Sabuni and Agoi roads. Approx 16 km Affected sections are Karume road, Nyalenda Ring road and Omino crescent.

1.1

2.2

Construction of new stone pitched open drains

0.8

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Item Approx 12 km Upgrading of existing lined open drains These drains are reported to suffer extensive flooding due to their small size. They need to be upgraded to carry more storm water flow. Affected sections are; Gumbi, Obote, Gormahia and Makasembo roads. Approx 10 km The affected drain is mainly Bandani, approx 16 km This will involve widening of the drain at some sections, dredging of drains to remove accumulated filth, improving the slopes at some sections and replacement of dislodged side slabs with stone pitches. Approx 9.5 km The total length of the proposed intervention is approx 300 m The total length of the proposed intervention is 90 m TOTAL COST (EUROS) Note: Prices are indicative; they include engineering, supervision and contingencies ex. VAT. Remark Estimated Cost million

1.0

Reconstruction of existing open earth drains by expanding the drains and lining them Rehabilitation of Auji drain

1.6

1.1

Construction of 900 mm diameter concrete culverts in some selected problematic areas Construction of 600 mm diameter culverts in some low lying areas that are problematic

0.1

0.1 9.0

The total cost of the proposed interventions for Kisumu Storm water drainage improvements is 9.0 million. Cost estimates have been derived from the LTAP, with checks.

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2.9.
2.9.1.

Solid Waste
Introduction
Much work and investment has been applied in recent years to promote and enhance solid waste management in Kisumu. Since around 2006 UNHABITAT, International Labour Organisation (ILO) and Kisumu Municipal Council (KMC) have been working on the Kisumu Integrated Sustainable Waste Management Programme (KISWAMP). Solid Waste also forms part of the scope of the upcoming AFD funded urban infrastructure project. KISWAMP was essentially broken down into six key objectives and tasks: To undertake an urban scan to establish the baseline situation; To undertake ward level consultation (e.g. willingness to pay, service provision, etc); Promotion of reuse, recycling, recovery (3Rs); To develop and implement an Integrated Waste Management Strategy; To establish networking links with other towns best practice, replication roll-out, etc; and To establish and develop a new dumpsite.

UNHABITAT, ILO, KMC and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) jointly developed a Ten Year Integrated Solid Waste Management Strategy for Kisumu which was started in 2009/10. In conjunction with the Waste Strategy implementation, UNHABITAT was tasked with acquiring equipment and providing capacity building for Kisumu Municipality. In total the following was provided: 24 no. open skip containers; 1 skip-loader truck; Equipment for KMC offices; and Staff training.

The Waste Strategy is inconsistent with respect to the daily amount of waste generated by Kisumu on a daily basis. The strategy quotes daily generation figures of both 150 and 350 tonnes of waste with only a fraction of this (~25%) ending up at the municipal dumpsite, around 37 to 86 tonnes per day. However, there are no weighing facilities in Kisumu and as such waste quantities are based on a volumetric estimation. In addition, data on waste composition is also limited and predominantly based upon the findings of the KISWAMP studies.

2.9.2.

Collection Systems
All private collectors are required to register with the KMC for an annual permit to collect waste. The permit costs KSh 4,000. This charge is used to regulate the service and minimise illegal dumping of waste. It is likely that not all the waste collectors are formally registered. CBOs undertake the majority of waste collections. In March 2011 there were 62 private waste collectors registered with KMC, of which only fourteen operated waste collection trucks. The CBOs use handcarts. The CBOs transfer waste from the point of generation to local Waste Transfer Stations where open skips are located. When filled, these skips are collected by KMC for transfer and emptying at the dumpsite. Currently, KMC is limited in the number of skips it can empty per day due to only having one skip loader truck. On average it is understood that between 8 and 10 skips are collected and emptied per day. It is currently not known what the residents are charged by the CBOs per month for collection of their waste.

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The Waste Strategy identifies that of the ~25% of waste collected in Kisumu approximately 9% is collected by the KMC, 8% by private companies and 7% by SMEs. The CBOs are believed to cover both the private company and Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) categories. The CBOs often undertake some recycling of materials such as plastics and metals (ferrous and non-ferrous) before disposal to the dumpsite and delivery to the local plastic recycling merchants Bamato, Tufoam Company and Minoki Company. There are also rural wards where no formal waste collection takes place and waste is either buried, burnt or composted. KMC are also responsible for the collection of waste from some larger institutions such as hospitals and government buildings. In some cases, hospitals and clinics compost their waste on site but dispose of the bottom ash from the incinerator/ burners in the Council skips for transfer and disposal to the dumpsite.

2.9.3.

Collection infrastructure
KMC operates a fleet of collection vehicles comprising of: 2 open back Isuzu Canter trucks; 1 skip loader; 1 REL compaction collection vehicle; 1 landfill compactor; and 1 tractor and trailer.

In addition, they have 24 open skips (used at waste collection points) although an increasing number of these are becoming damaged. A considerable amount of waste is dumped in storm drains and open areas. In addition, a significant amount of waste is burnt in open fires on the roadside, especially in the rural areas.

2.9.4.

Disposal Systems
The current dumpsite is located between the Nakumatt shopping centre and the Moi Stadium adjacent to the Kisumu Polytechnic. The site occupies a small L-shaped land area of around 2.5 to 3 hectares and is surrounded by a steel hoarding. There is no weighbridge at the site and there does not appear to be any means of vehicle logging or recording of the number and type of vehicles that enter the site.

Plate: Kisumu Dumpsite

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The dumpsite has no basal lining or leachate and gas collection and management systems in place. Material is deposited directly onto natural ground (soil). To the east of the site is a drainage channel which collects leachate and runoff during periods of heavy rain. A number of scavengers sort through the waste extracting plastics, metals and polystyrene for sale to the recyclate market. A significant number of animals and scavenging birds are also on the site. The dumpsite has been poorly developed and does not appear to be constructed in cells, instead the waste seems to be just deposited in an ad hoc fashion. The waste is placed to a fairly shallow depth. It is understood that the landfill is unlikely to be more than 5 m deep with around 2 m of that being above ground level. The Council has two tariffs for disposal of waste at the dumpsite: For loads >7 tonnes For loads <7 tonnes - KSh 200 - KSh 100

The waste compactor is used approximately once per week to compact the waste.

2.9.5.

Recycling and Composting


The Waste Strategy identified that around 63% of the waste generated in Kisumu is organic and just under 21% is recyclable. Recycling of plastics, and to a lesser degree metals, is undertaken in Kisumu. Two private companies collect and reprocess plastics (Tufoam Company and Minoki Company) and also a CBO in Nyalenda called Bamato. Bamato has secured various start up grants and donations from international development agencies (including USAid) to develop a successful recycling business that manages around 3,500 kg of plastics and 1,500 kg of metals per week. Currently Bamato shred and bulk plastics for onward transfer and haulage to Nairobi where the material is reprocessed. However, the organisation is in the process of installing a mould and pelletizer plant so that they can reprocess plastics themselves on site and make saleable products for the Kisumu community.

Plate: Bamato Community Recycling Facility

Bamato encourages community involvement by paying KSh 15 per kg of plastic and KSh 25 per kg of metals. The plastics, after shredding, are sold at KSh 35 per kg (April 2011) and metals at KSh 30 per kg. We understand that some community composting takes place at the main market in Kisumu although the quantities and scale of operation are unknown.

2.9.6.

Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste arisings are reported to be relatively low in Kisumu. In general hazardous wastes are only produced by hospitals and healthcare related functions. Under Law, it is a requirement of all hospitals to have on-site incinerators for burning the sharps and

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pathological waste and placenta pits (if necessary). Often the public hospitals and clinics use small scale burners (e.g. De Montford) whilst the private hospitals have diesel fired incinerators. The ash from the incinerators/ burners is usually buried or stockpiled on site although occasionally it seems that some of this is taken to the dumpsite. The following images (from top left to bottom right) show the medical waste incinerators at the Kisumu District Hospital, the Blood Bank, the Aga Khan Hospital and the Milimani Hospital.

Plate: Examples of Medical Waste Incinerators in Kisumu

Expired medicines and pills are managed by a centralised government body that arrange and oversees their destruction. It should be noted though that, as elsewhere in the world, the levels of electrical waste (ewaste) generated is on the increase in Kisumu. At present there are no formal channels for e-waste recycling and as a result most e-waste ends up at the dumpsite. E-waste can be a valuable waste stream as electronic goods often contain many precious metals (gold, silver, etc) as well as many recyclable plastic components. However, they can also contain many toxic and harmful chemicals such as cadmium and lead that can cause significant environmental damage if not disposed of in a controlled manner.

2.9.7.

Planned Developments
AFD is looking into development of a new dumpsite to the west of the city towards the airport. Although a suitable site has not been located and agreed, KMC is confident that a location will be found shortly. We understand from KMC that the AFD funded urban infrastructure project includes sourcing the new landfill site. Once a new dumpsite is found, the existing dumpsite will be rehabilitated. Current proposals include removing the above ground waste and placing this material in redundant quarries. The remaining waste material will then be capped and the land will be used as a car park. Whilst it is acknowledged that the upcoming project is providing funding towards the development of their new dumpsite, it is not clear whether the project includes remediation of the existing dumpsite and the engineering of the redundant quarries prior to infill with above

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ground waste from the dumpsite. It is highly unlikely that KSh 10 million will cover the costs for all these works. As such, there are opportunities for investment and perhaps joint working with AFD to design and develop engineered repositories to receive the dumpsite waste such as installing liners and leachate and/ or gas management systems. The quantity of waste to be removed from the existing dumpsite is not that great (perhaps 50,000 m3 assuming a landfill area of 25,000m2 and a waste depth of 2 m) and as the waste will be moved in a single phase, the opportunities for sustained revenue are minimal. The only potential revenues may arise from sale of landfill gas and carbon credits (through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)) but on such a relatively small volume of waste the gas generated will be low and the revenues may not come close to the capital cost of installing the plant.

2.9.8.
2.9.8.1.

Proposals for Improvements to Existing Solid Waste Management Systems


Waste Collection It is apparent from the KISWAMP urban scan that city clean-ups and improved waste collection are high priorities for improved waste management. An increase in the number of skips (transfer stations) will assist people in managing waste. It will be easier for them to dispose of waste as travel distances will be lower. However, with an increase in skips would come a need for additional collection vehicles. KMCs existing fleet of waste collection vehicles evidently needs upgrading and replacement. An additional skip-loader would allow collections to be made when the current vehicle is being serviced and allow a greater number of skips to be emptied per day. The current collection system with a mix of private collectors and KMC appears to be working well although there is a constant need to entice people to set up a waste collection business. Providing micro-loans to help people buy hand-carts, etc would help increase take-up of waste collectors. A coherent strategy regarding the use of skips or hand carts is needed. Using skips as transfer stations creates less littering and waste spread around the collection area than open dumping but the skips are comparatively expensive to buy and maintain. In addition, only one skip can be carried at a time by the collection vehicle. It is also harder to put the collected waste into the skip as the carts/ wheelbarrows cannot empty directly. Instead the waste is lifted or shovelled into the skip container.

2.9.8.2.

Waste Collection Improvement Options A number of improvement options exist for waste collection. These include the following: Procure new/ additional skip containers with nominal capacity 10.7 m3 (14 yd3). These should be located at places where high waste generation occurs, near markets, in/ around Manyatta and Nyalenda, etc; Procure and deploy 4.6 m3 (6 yd3) dumpsters instead of skips. These are smaller and manoeuvrable by hand and can be collected by a compaction bodied collection vehicle, thus increasing the payload and enabling more than one central waste collection area to be serviced before needing to go to the dumpsite. Additionally, dumpsters would facilitate the segregation of materials at source and due to their relatively small land take (~3 m2) additional units can be easily deployed if necessary; Procure new collection vehicles, to improve collection efficiency and reliability. The possibility of procuring a fleet of Japanese trucks (e.g. Nissan Diesel/ UD Trucks or Mitsubishi) should be explored as maintenance and spare parts will be cheaper and easier to find than for European trucks. The specific number and type of truck will be dependent on the type of waste storage systems selected (i.e. either continued use of skips and open stockpile areas or dumpsters). Procuring trucks can be expensive and leads to a requirement to maintain and operate a fleet which also needs to be considered at the financing stage;

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As an alternative means of increasing collection capacity, it is possible to contract the private sector to supply (and potentially operate) waste collection vehicles to work for, or in conjunction with, the City Council fleet. This reduces the need for the Council to have a significant capital outlay and can be undertaken quickly by drawing up a simple contract of works and identifying funding.

2.9.8.3.

Disposal The existing dumpsite needs significant improvements to reduce the environmental impact that disposal of waste has at the site. Some are operational improvements whilst others require investment. Security and access to the site are not well controlled and scavengers operate on the site alongside grazing animals. Currently the Council have no means of accurately measuring and recording waste arisings. Waste that arrives at the dumpsite is logged by observation of the vehicle type and nominal volume capacity and a weight attributed to that. At present no landfill gas management systems are in place at the site and as a result landfill gas vents passively. Installation of landfill gas systems is not possible in existing cells as the relatively shallow nature of the waste (and the proposed plans to remove the above ground waste) means that vertical gas wells will not be effective and lateral systems should have been installed prior to waste deposition. As stated previously, AFD is providing finance for improvements to the waste management services however, precise details of what support will be available has not been provided or confirmed. The following provides an overview of some of the potential investment opportunities.

2.9.8.4.

Waste Disposal Improvement Options A number of improvement options exist for waste disposal. As discussed above, these comprise operational improvements and both minor and major capital works improvements including the following: Operational Improvements Scavenging on the dumpsite should be formalised and managed. The act of scavenging not only creates employment and income for the community but also prolongs the life of the dumpsite by reducing the void space utilised by waste. However, animal and bird scavengers should be discouraged. A shovel loader should be kept on site to enable daily cover to be applied and the compactor should be used daily to compact and spread waste in the cells. In addition, the loader can be used to put out fires. Budget funds will need to be allocated to cover operational and maintenance costs of the loader. The security fencing around the site perimeter should be checked daily to ensure its integrity. Material choice for the fence will be important. Whilst the practice of recording waste quantities by volume estimations (and subsequent conversion to weight) is proven and well established, it is hard for any Council or contractor to develop a waste management strategy and system without a robust knowledge and understanding of waste quantities managed. Therefore, the installation of a weighbridge at the entrance to the existing dumpsite would enable better data recording and future decision making in waste management systems. This weighbridge could then be moved to the new landfill once that site is identified and constructed. A lined cell (with leachate and gas management systems) should be constructed for containment of hospital and industrial wastes. This would contain and manage potential contamination and chemicals in the waste stream reducing risk to soil and
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groundwater contamination and also the risks posed to the scavengers. Waste deposited in this cell should be covered immediately. If, as proposed by KMC, the existing dumpsite is rehabilitated; the following works should be undertaken to ensure that the dumpsite does not cause significant legacy environmental impacts. The first phase proposed to remove the above ground waste. It is currently unclear whether new proposals will install liners and leachate management systems in the alternative quarry sites. If not, then it is crucial that these are designed and installed. A couple of options exist with regards to the remaining waste. Either a liner should also be installed into the existing dumpsite to mitigate migration of leachate and contamination of soil and ground water and the site then capped off, or the site should just be capped. In both cases consideration needs to be given to the slumping effect of waste as it decomposes and as such any future land use for the site should take this into account. Construction of a new engineered sanitary dumpsite is also proposed. The dumpsite should be engineered from the outset with basal and wall linings and leachate and gas management control systems in place. In addition, detailed site selection should be done to ensure the landfill is not located near any environmentally sensitive receptors, has good vehicular access and is a suitable size to manage the waste quantities proposed. Proximity to the International Airport should also be considered when selecting the site location.

2.9.8.5.

Hazardous Waste Disposal Currently there are no hazardous waste management collection or disposal methods in place. However, some recovery of metals takes place on an ad hoc basis. For example, lead from vehicle batteries is extracted and recycled. However, the quantities recovered are small and the practices used primitive and unregulated. Bottom ash from the hospital and clinic burners/ incinerators is often deposited in the municipal waste skips and dumped at the dumpsite. It is possible that this material contains heavy metals and potentially unsterilized sharps and medical waste, both of which pose a significant risk to the environment and public health. Poorly managed hazardous waste and e-waste can cause significant environmental damage. Hazardous Waste Disposal Improvement Options Improvement options for hazardous waste disposal include the following: Constructing a suitably engineered hazardous waste dumpsite cell at the proposed new dumpsite; and Constructing an e-waste recycling facility within Kisumu City to recover plastics and precious metals and ensure that remaining hazardous materials are properly segregated and managed. This would help to create a market for recyclates in Kisumu, Kenya and the wider East Africa region.

2.9.9.

Further Studies and Pilot Projects


New or additional centralised waste collection areas/ waste transfer stations should be located so as to reduce the distances that waste is transferred from point of generation to point of storage. This will increase collection efficiency and facilitate better general site management. Further studies may need to be done to investigate the possibilities of contracting private companies to undertake some or all of KMCs collection services. This will help to reduce KMCs financial burden relating to vehicles, equipment and crew. Currently there is little formalised composting undertaken in Kisumu. Composting is undertaken on an ad hoc basis in the rural wards and communities but it is understood that significant levels of organic waste are produced at the markets. If this were collected separately it may be possible to undertake some form of windrow composting operation to

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produce a soil conditioner for resale and use by the agricultural industry. It is possible that a small composting pad could be constructed at the dumpsite. The composition of the waste stream should be further assessed to ensure a suitable feedstock is provided for the plant. Composting would require source segregation which would create more employment opportunities for waste collectors. It appears that KMC is keen to engage with private companies and contractors to improve waste management in the city through developing waste management facilities and technology installation. Two private companies are currently in discussion with KMC about two different projects. KMCs intentions are unclear with regard to the municipality as both technologies appear to compete with each other. Atkins has had discussions with both parties to determine what it is that they are proposing to do and what they require to proceed to next stages of development. Staff capacity within the Council is limited so additional capacity may be required to monitor and manage performance of contractors. 2.9.9.1. Recycling Equipment Africa Ltd An agent for Recycling Equipment Africa Ltd working for a company acting as an agent/ broker called HEMNet has been liaising with KMC to get approval for a site on the existing dumpsite to construct a plastics bulking station. The proposal is for a plant to be constructed to bulk up plastics prior to haulage to a reprocessing facility in Nairobi. It is not clear whether KMC has considered the implications of this, as it may have a detrimental impact on existing local plastic recycling operations such as BAMATO. It is also unclear whether the bulking facility would remain on the site after the new dumpsite has been approved. It appears that no financial modelling or business plan has been developed for the proposed facility and it is unclear who will pay for the development of the facility and its operation, etc. The agent stated that they would need financial support for transport of plastic (both locally around Kisumu in small 7.5 tonne trucks and also hauling to Nairobi with large articulated trucks) and capacity building. It is not clear whether the facility would be operated by KMC or Recycling Equipment Africa Ltd and what fees waste collectors would be paid for delivery of plastics to the facility. This proposed project needs to clarify exactly what it is aiming to do and what benefit it would bring to Kisumu. 2.9.9.2. Diatom International Ltd Diatom is a broker for a high temperature conversion of waste technology supplied by a German company called Waste to Energy Solutions. The technology is essentially a high temperature gasification process that produces a syngas that can potentially be converted into a number of different materials (e.g. bio-diesel, power, etc). Diatom is in advanced discussions with KMC to develop a 500 tonne per day plant to handle all wastes from Kisumu. Currently Diatom is considering doing a detailed feasibility study to inform the development of a detailed business plan. They are looking at sources to fund this feasibility study which they anticipate to cost around KSh 40 million and take between 6-12 months to deliver. Diatom stated that the initial financial forecasts suggest the plant will pay for itself in five years (based on current market conditions) although it is not certain how this will happen as another 150 tonnes of waste per day will need to be sourced from Kisumu to meet the stated plant throughput capacity. In addition, little consideration appears to have been undertaken to date as to the proposed procurement method of the plant (i.e. Build-Own-Transfer or Design-Build-Operate, etc) and the proposed contract duration. Currently Diatom has requested exclusivity of all of Kisumus waste stream for 60 years. This seems an unrealistic timescale if the payback period of the plant is five years.

2.9.10.

Overview of Possible Interventions


Table 2.27 below provides an overview of the possible interventions that could be undertaken in Kisumu. They have been split, in broad terms, into Operational, Supply, Capital Projects, Grants and Capacity Building. There is uncertainty over what the proposed urban project covers in terms of provision of funding and support for waste management

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infrastructure and it is recommended that further discussions and investigations are held to determine what will be covered.
Table 2.27 Possible Interventions in Kisumu Solid Waste Item Operational Study into potential to let a contract for waste collection services Develop working plans to improve landfill operation Skiploader and skip containers to increase waste collection capacity Alternative option of compactor trucks and dumpsters to increase collection capacity Install a weighbridge to record data Construction of lined landfill cell to manage industrial and hospital wastes Rehabilitate existing dumpsite and engineer quarries to receive waste from existing dumpsite Remarks Municipality has insufficient number of trucks to undertake waste collection Estimated Cost ( million) 0.3 0.3 Number of additional skips and/ or dumpsters to be determined based on further studies of waste generation

Supply

0.8

Capital Projects

Requires design and engineering Would help to reduce contamination into groundwater and contain leachate produced Unclear whether AFD is proposing to engineer and install liners, etc into the redundant quarries that will receive the above ground waste from the rehabilitation of the existing dumpsite

0.7* 4.0**

7.0**

Development of a WEEE recycling and reprocessing facility Construct a dedicated lined hazardous waste landfill cell at the proposed new landfill facility Provide micro-loans or grants to assist locals in procuring handcarts Alternatively could provide grants to the Council to procure new vehicles and containers Undertake a feasibility study into development of formalised composting plant KMC will require additional technical and project management support to assist in implementing KISWAMP

3.0 Uncertain whether a hazardous cell is included in the design of the proposed AFD funded landfill

4.0**

Grants

0.7

0.3

Capacity Building

1.4 22.5

TOTAL million Note: Prices are indicative; they include engineering, supervision and contingencies ex. VAT.

*These costs include provisions for design and civil engineering works and assume a surface mounted weighbridge **These costs are estimates as precise waste quantities are not known and therefore the precise size of cell cannot be determined and no ground investigation work has been undertaken

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2.10.
2.10.1.

Institutional Assessment
Introduction
This section describes the mandates and functions of LVSWSB and KIWASCO, and summarises the challenges faced in Kisumu. It presents a Training Needs Assessment for KIWASCO, and proposed low regret measures for capacity building for the current situation. After the preparation of this report KIWASCO signed a partnership agreement with Dutch Water Company Vitens, a five year agreement to provide specified support in operational areas. Recommendations contained herein need to be considered in the context of this agreement, details of which are provided in Appendix 2.5.

2.10.2.
2.10.2.1.

Lake Victoria South Water Services Board


The Mandate This is one of the seven Water Services Boards that were established under the Water Act 2002 through gazette notice No 1714 of 12th March 2004. It is a state corporation reporting to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation. It was launched on 7th December 2004. The mandate of Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (the Board), as stated in its revised Strategic Plan 2005-2010 is to: Ensure efficient and economical provision of water and sanitation services in its area of jurisdiction in line with the Water Act 2002 The service of the Board is spread to cover rural WSPs in the following districts in Nyanza and Rift Valley Provinces: 14 WSPs in Nyanza Central and South which include: Kisumu West, Kisumu East, Siaya, Bondo, Rarieda, Nyando, Rachuonyo, Homa Bay, Ndhiwa, Suba, Migori, Nyakach, Rongo and Ugenya; 13 WSPs in Nyanza East which include: Kisii Central, Nyamira, South Kisii, Masaba, Gucha, Borabu, Manga, Gucha South, Kenyenya, Nyamarambe, Marani, Ekerenyo, Masaba South; and 11 WSPs in Rift Valley and Kuria which include the following: Transmara, Kuria East, Kuria West, Bomet, Bureti, Sotik, Kipkelion, Kericho, Nandi East, Nandi South, Tinderet. Kisumu Water and Sanitation Company; Gusii Township Water and Sanitation Company; South Nyanza Water and Sanitation Company; Mikutra Water and Sanitation Company; Sibo Water and Sanitation Company; Chemosit Water and Sanitation Company; Nyanas Water and Sanitation Company; Gulf Water and Sanitation Company; and Kericho Water and Sanitation Company.

The following Urban WSPs are included in the jurisdiction of the Board: 2.10.2.2.

Core Functions The functions are generic and cover the whole area of LVSWSB jurisdiction. They include the following:

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Plan and develop water service infrastructure in the area to increase access to water and sanitation services; Own and manage water related assets in the area; Develop infrastructure for the supply of potable water in the right quantity to the residents of the Municipality of Kisumu. The infrastructure so developed remains the property of the Board; Contract an experienced Water Service Provider to be in charge of production of potable water in sufficient quantities and distributing the same to customers both currently connected and potential ones in view of dynamic physical development of the city; Oversee the management of water treatment works to ensure that standards set by Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) and supervised by Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) for potable water supply are maintained; and Licensing all private boreholes within urban areas and major water abstraction works from rivers in the rural areas on behalf of WASREB.

In addition to the above mandate, LVSWSB has the responsibility to ensure mainstreaming of cross cutting issues such as gender, governance, HIV/AIDS and corporate social responsibilities in its own institution and among all the WSPs. In addition to providing infrastructural development support to Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) the Board also supports other nine Urban WSPs and 30 Rural WSPs. The Board is obliged to sign an annual performance contract with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in which targets for the year are set. The performance contract is supposed to cascade down to all the WSPs both urban and rural which calls for the Board to monitor the functions of the WSPs to ensure they meet their targets; failure of which would affect the Boards overall performance. 2.10.2.3. Staff Capacity LVSWSB has enough technical staff with competence to backstop the 9 urban and 30 rural water service providers where the WSPs do not have their own staff. The following technically qualified personnel are available at LVSWSB: 3 Registered Engineers; 11 Graduate Engineers; and 6 Technicians. Water Resource Engineering; Structural Engineering; Civil Engineering and Project Administration; Water Quality Management; and Public Procurement.

These grades of personnel are qualified in the following technical disciplines:

In addition to backstopping the rural and urban water services providers, the technical personnel of LVSWSB also support some independent small scale water service providers, such as SONY Sugar Company especially in cases of major breakdowns. 2.10.2.4. Institutional Arrangements The Water Act 2002 set up a long chain of institutional linkages. This chain spells out hierarchical lines of authority cascading from the Ministry of Water and Irrigation to Water and Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) to regional Water Services Boards and finally the WSPs. The WSPs are all private entities registered either as companies or CBOs. The Water Services Boards develop water production and distribution infrastructure. They lease these
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to the WSPs under contract to supply potable water of sufficient quantities to the customers. The service contracts for management of the water and sewerage signed between the Board and the WSPs incorporate the performance standards to which the Board commits itself annually. It is these individual water service agreements which the Board signs with the WSPs that inform the overall performance contract signed between LVSWSB and the Ministry of Water and Irrigation. Therefore, the Board has the responsibility to ensure that the WSPs provide the services in accordance with and up to standards set by the Board. To ensure that WSPs maintain the required level of service delivery standards set out in the service agreements and to address certain broad issues affecting the Water Sector, LVSWSB has deployed the following technical personnel to give constant backstopping support to the rural and urban Water Service Providers under arrangements determined by the Water Service Agreement: 2 Registered Engineers; and 4 Graduate Engineers.

In addition there is at least one Water Officer in each District to work hand in hand with the local WSPs. There are cases where the infrastructure has been developed to abstract, treat and supply water to meet the private needs of the developers like in the case of SONY referred to above. These private firms do undertake to supply water to the communities living within close proximity to their plants. The law requires that the firms obtain licenses from the Board to facilitate abstraction of water. In this regard, it is the responsibility of the Water Services Board to ensure that the quality and quantity of water so abstracted meet the required national standards. Once the realignment of the Water Act and Policy issues has been finalised, the content of a suitable training program can be developed so that officers and engineers are aware of the requirements of the new constitution. 2.10.2.5. Operational Challenges The water and sewerage sector faces some major institutional challenges. These are described in the section on KIWASCO below. The change of governance structure nationally from three tiers to two tiers upon devolution, as stipulated in the new constitution, will impact on the composition and functionality of LVSWSB. Appropriate changes to the institutional arrangements for the Water Boards are currently under review. Whereas it was possible to create regional utilities to serve large areas, this will not be allowable under the new constitution and new groupings will emerge as a result of the formation of Counties that will require new realignments. Large institutions such as LVSWSB will probably be disbanded to be replaced with organisations that comprise clusters of service providers within the new Counties. Although not yet finalised, in the opinion of a senior Director in the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, it is considered that the Counties should not each form a water department. Instead it is suggested to create large institution(s) covering more Counties whose functions will include developing water production infrastructure and distribution systems. It is unclear how the county administrative boundaries will impact upon catchment based water resource decision making. Such institution(s) will in turn license Water Service Providers to manage the water supply systems, collect payments and amortize the cost of investment in the infrastructure and employ suitable staff. Emphasis will continue to be on providing water to the customers as a commercial service even post devolution.

2.10.3.

Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO)


KIWASCO was founded in 2001 and registered under CAP 46 of the Laws of Kenya as a subsidiary company of the Municipal Council. Operations started in 2003. KIWASCO was established through the reforms that took place in the water sector nationally and based on the decision to privatise essential services. It was established through transformation of

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what used to be the water and sewerage department of Kisumu Municipal Council. The main objective then as now is to make the water and sewerage service provision a commercial activity driven by motives to generate enough funds to support itself in the long run and if possible generate reasonable income for the Municipality. Basically therefore, KIWASCO has operated mainly with staff inherited from the defunct department of water and sewerage. This posed major problems initially because of attitudes to work which the staff had gained over years as result of dependence and reliance on patronage from the civic leaders. 2.10.3.1. Situation Analysis Currently c11,000 customers are connected to the water distribution systems in Kisumu. This number may be higher than the recorded 11,000 since the figure given does not include connections in the informal settlements supplied with water in bulk. KIWASCO management estimates that the customers on record for connection may only be 68% of the target and potential consumers. The number of customers connected to the central sewerage system are lower than those connected to water because there are individual septic tanks or pit latrines especially in the informal settlements. KIWASCO acknowledges major water losses before taking over from the Municipal Council: About 78% of the water pumped into the main distribution reservoir was lost or unaccounted for water (UFW). The distribution systems were dilapidated and inefficient. Theft of water was rampant and it was not possible to detect leakages and bursts. In addition: Water quality was poor; Customer service was neglected; Meters were not read in time and bills issued late; and Because of poor services in supply of water, private vendors sprung up to fill in the gap.

Major steps taken to rehabilitate, expand and improve distribution network have reduced UFW to about 39% currently8. KIWASCO now reads the meters regularly and bills all the connected customers by 24th of every month.

2.10.4.

KIWASCO Mandate
KIWASCO is the main water supplier in Kisumu providing services to the residents of the city on behalf of KMC. The contract with the Board is to: Abstract and treat water for safe consumption; Provide safe and efficient storage for the treated water; Manage the distribution of water to customers; and Manage wastewater disposal and treat sewage.

Although KIWASCO is contracted by the Water Board to provide services to manage water supply and sewage disposal, these functions are delegated to it by KMC whose by-laws include responsibility for providing these service to the residents. The delegated authority under the Local Authorities Act allows KIWASCO to enforce its management role and ensure compliance by the city residents benefiting from the services. 2.10.4.1. Organisation Structure KIWASCO is owned by Municipal Council of Kisumu. Its Board of Directors is nevertheless selected in very close consultation with the Ministry of Water and Irrigation through LVSWSB.
8

Other documents like the Business Plan for KIWASCO prepared in 2009 indicate that the UFW stood at plus 50%. Other studies have reported NRW/UFW at 68%. This and other discrepancies need to be rectified.

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Currently the Board of Directors comprises eleven members reflecting a wider cross section of major stakeholders in Kisumu directly affected by the water and sewerage services. Four functional committees of the Board oversee different departments and are chaired by members of the Board. These are: Finance and Commercial Services; Audit and Risks; Technical Operations; and Human Resources.

The daily affairs of KIWASCO are managed by a Managing Director who is support by an Executive Management Committee comprising technical experts in different field of operations. Organisation structures should be established on functions rather than reflecting the realities of the existing personnel. There was a concern that from the KIWASCO organisation structure one gets the impression that the structure depicts the existing persons especially as the relative positions in the structure are linked to salary scales. This approach can lead to mismatch where because of salary, a person can be placed in a position they are not suited for technically. The impression is that the organisation has been fit to the staff available and this causes some anomalies and potential stresses where staff occupy positions to which they are not technically suited or have no experience of. KIWASCOs MD does not support this conclusion and states that the structure had recently be subject to review by Ernst and Young and found to be adequate. We propose an alternative structure is developed based purely on functions. To address the salary differences that may be in the structure for people at the same level of responsibility, we propose a review of salary structure to have an elastic scale. 2.10.4.2. Challenges in KIWASCO Kisumu water and sewerage sector faces some major institutional challenges as set out below: Unaccounted for water (UFW)/non-revenue water. For many years this has been the biggest concern. When the Board was established, Kisumu reported more than 70% UFW. This was attributed to: Old distribution networks; Numerous leaks and bursts; Possible illegal and undetected connections; and Questions on the integrity and technical competence of the staff managing the network.

Low production capacity. Section 2.5 describes how this has been historically addressed, and current plans for future exansion. Supply and distribution management capacity. The Board meters bulk water from the supply connection as the water leaves the treatment storage. The challenge for the WSP in Kisumu will be to track and account for the water from that point. LVSWSB expressed a concern that KIWASCO may lack the necessary hands-on technical capacity to manage the wide range of processes required for effective distribution and collection systems management. The following areas of concern were highlighted by LVSWSB but were not supported by the MD of KIWASCO: Financial management: billing and collection; Customer care and consumer education: reinforcing that water is an expensive but essential commodity. Establish a support desk at KIWASCO for customer complaints especially from the rural and informal settlements; Maintenance procedures: Leak and burst detections, illegal and undetected connections. Improved mapping of the distribution network is vital here, and is also
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necessary for effective planning. There is also need to replace maps destroyed during the PEV skirmishes; Water quality surveillance; and Managing the Delegated Management Model: KIWASCO has allowed bulk water supply to some self help CBOs especially in the high density informal settlements. The bulk supply is metered by KIWASCO at the point of entry into the settlement. The CBO takes responsibility for managing the supply. This includes connections within the settlement, sale from kiosks and surveillance of network. The CBO is charged for the bulk supply according to metered reading at the connection. In turn the CBO collects revenue and pays as required. Failure to pay results in disconnection at the bulk meter point. Although this arrangement works well and has eliminated illegal and unauthorised connections, it needs technical skills such as managing leaks and bursts. The CBOs managers need training in general management, customer care including interpersonal relations, meter reading, billing and revenue collection to make them more effective.

2.10.4.3.

Training Needs Assessment A questionnaire was given to 23 staff members selected at random and representing a cross section of KIWASCO in order to carry out training needs assessment, for the purpose of this project. This represented 17.5% of the staff members. The following is the outcome of the training needs assessment: Duration of employment 30% of the staff members have been in the services of KIWASCO for between 6 and 10 years while the same number have been in the services of then utility for more than 10 years. This reflects a fairly stable work force. We nevertheless note that most of these long serving staff members were redeployed from the Municipal Council Department of Water and Sewerage when KIWASCO was established and such stability may not be desirable. Positions held in KIWASCO According to the assessment, 83% of the staff members are deployed as supervisors, technicians and artisans. This reflects a pyramid with more operational staff at the bottom relatively fewer staff in the middle and just a handful at the top of the organisation. This facilitates cascading of authority and holding everyone responsible for actions down to the operators and support staff level. In line with Board policy the senior management personnel of KIWASCO are on contract. This arrangement does not allow for staff development as the company is not incentivised to spend money for professional growth of staff under contract. Staff below those under contract may also not see the opportunities for growth as the positions above them are occupied by contracted staff. The staff development policy should include provisions that senior staff on contract will only get contract renewals if there are no qualified personnel to succeed them from within the organisation. There should be deliberate efforts to encourage technical and other professional staff to achieve higher professional qualifications in the assurance that they will have an opportunity to fill in positions above them based on competition. Levels of education The majority of staff have obtained professional artisan certificates (21.7%) or diplomas (47.8%). Only 13% are graduates while none has post graduate qualification. Most of the undergraduates are senior engineers on term contracts which could be renewed depending on performance. Technical staff members have the basic levels of education and professional qualifications but lack on training to adapt to the current knowledge and skills (see the list of training priorities below). Job descriptions 91% of the staff members who responded to the questionnaire indicated that they have been issued with job descriptions. It was nevertheless not established how well the jobs and functions they currently perform relate to the job descriptions.

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Indicated area of training needs The following table illustrates the areas of training needs as captured from statement by the staff members who responded to the needs assessment questionnaire.
Table 2.28 List of Identified Training Needs - KIWASCO Staff
Areas of Training Need Priority Ranking Responses in Percentages Need Much 30.4 34.8 Need Some 34.8 34.8 Need Little 21.7 17.4 Need None Dont Know 13.1% did not respond 13.1% did not respond Remarks

Budget Preparation Skills Budget management and Monitoring Techniques Plant Operation Skills Static Plant/Assest Managet Skills Quality Control Skills Leak Detection and Correction Techniques Network Operation and Management Skills Unaccounted for Water/Non Revenue Water Management Meter Management Skills Network Survey Skills Customers Care Techniques Billing and Data Base Management Skills

7 4

43.5 17.4 6 3 21.7 34.8 17.4 7 43.5

8.7 30.4 47.8 39.1 43.5 21.7

21.7 13.0 8.7 17.4 17.4

4.3 8.7 8.7 4.3 4.3 4.3

4.3 8.7 4.3 4.3 8.7 -

17.5% did not respond 21.8% did not respond 17.5% did not respond 8.8% did not respond. Ranks high as need 8.7% did not respond 13.1% did not respond

7 5 5

43.5 43.5 43.5 17.4

21.7 26.0 26.0 39.1

21.7 17.4 26.0 17.4

4.3 8.7

13.1% did not respond 8.8% did not respond 4.5% did not respond 17.4% did not respond. Although does not rank high, it is one of the areas that need focus 17.5% did not respond 17.5% did not respond 13.1% did not respond 26.2% did not respond 26.1% did not respond 17.4% did not respond. Ranks very high as a need 17.4% did not respond. Ranks very high as a need

Accounting Procedures Procurement Procedures Inventory Management and Control Techniques Tariff Setting Revenue Management Skills Strategic Planning Techniques Business Plan Preparation and Management Techniques Monitoring and Evaluation Change Management Skills Basic Computer Application Skills 2 2 5

4.3 21.7 21.7 39.1 17.4 47.8 30.4

43.5 34.8 47.8 17.4 43.5 34.8 52.2

26.0 26.0 17.4 4.3 13.0 -

8.7 8.7 -

4.3 4.3 -

1 3

39.1 43.5 26.0

52.2 30.4 21.7

21.7 30.4

8.7

8.7% did not respond. Ranks highest as a need 4.4% did not respond. Ranks high as a need 17.2% did not respond. Although did not rank high, it is an essential area of training

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Skills in Monitoring and Evaluation of implementation and work processes stands out as the highest ranked area. This may illustrate concern among staff about the general performance of the institution and should be taken positively and seriously. Coming close second to M&E are two very important topics: Strategic Planning Skills; and Business Plan Knowledge. These go hand in hand with Monitoring and Evaluation.

We recommend that all senior staff members be exposed to Strategic Planning Skills which, if designed properly, will incorporate M&E and Business Plan Development Skills as well. The third areas of training need are Change Management; and Leak detection.

The fourth area of training needs expressed is on Budget Preparation and Management. Again this links up to some extent with the Strategic Planning Skills. But a separate Budgeting Course is necessary to cater for all staff. It is advisable to separate this into Budgeting for Non Financial Managers; and Budgeting for Financial Managers which can further be segregated into basic and advanced levels courses.

Most technical areas of training needs come in fifth position in the priority ranking. These include; Network Survey; Customer care; and Inventory Management and Control.

In the sixth position is Water Quality Control while Unaccounted for Water and Meter Management come in at seventh position. Other topics have been listed but not ranked very high. These can be provided to staff according to their needs. 2.10.4.4. Suggested Areas for Quick/Fast and Low Risk Actions at KIWASCO Change management. This course is necessary to get the staff to accept changes in the whole philosophy of water management. The change of emphasis on water and sewerage provision as a commercial service requires a major attitude change, particularly for staff redeployed from the Municipal Council Department of Water and Sewerage. Other sub topics such as meter reading approaches, billing, network policing and customer relations can be included in the package. Leak detection. With proper technology now in place, the operations staff should all be trained in leak detection techniques. This function should thereafter be included in the job description of all meter readers and network scouts. Other sub topics such as Impact of Unaccounted for Water on Revenue can be included in this course. Management information systems. This training should be offered under a Computer Appreciation topic and can be designed to include billing and statement preparation. Information on water distribution systems includes detection of unlawful connections. Unmetered consumers can also be included under this topic. Training of line patrollers. This course can be offered by Kenya Water Institute (KEWI) to all existing meter readers including staff of the CBOs managing bulk supplies. The topics will include but not limited to: Skills in mapping of service lines; Skills in detection of leakages ad burst pipes and general patrolling; and Skills in meter reading procedures for accuracy both in reading and reporting for billing.
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Customer care and client relations. This course will benefit all the workers at KIWASCO. The importance of customers needs to be emphasised. Without goodwill from the customers the institution cannot meet its objectives and performance targets. Billing and debt management. Both LVSWSB and KIWASCO confirm that not all water going through the distribution system is billed. There is urgent need to improve the billing processes starting with meter reading to cover all customers and bills issued to all customers. Once the bills are issued, it is imperative that collection processes ensure that no payments remain outstanding for more than an agreed period. LVSWSB suggested that meter reading and collection of outstanding payments be contracted out as these are not continuous activities, and load the payroll unnecessarily. Redefining the functions of meter readers. Instead of outsourcing meter reading services because of the limited time the meter readers take to do the job, we suggest the functions of this grade to be redefined to include Surveillance and scouting of networks; Meter servicing and maintenance; and Manual distribution of monthly water bills to premises where they read the meters.

These recommendations support the proposals within the technical section of this report for additional assistance in some of the higher skilled areas of water operations, particularly on network mapping and modelling, leakage control and management and through the provision of management information systems; all vital areas to improve if KIWASCO are to develop into a high performance organisation. Although they are not directly involved with managing water and sewerage networks the engineering staff of LVSWSB are involved in specifying and procuring the engineering works. It is considered appropriate therefore that LVSWSB staff are also invited to attend any relevant training activities along with KIWASCO. This would have the added benefit of encouraging interaction between the two organisation and building relationships between the individuals involved.

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2.11.
2.11.1.

Financial Analysis
Introduction
This section uses ratio analysis as a tool to analyse LVSWSB and KIWASCOs operational and financial positions. The ratio indicators presented here provide information on efficiency and operational performance, credit-worthiness, liquidity and profitability of the utilities and the Board and hence provides some insight into the financial conditions of the utilities. The ratios reflect respective financial year (FY) performance based on the latest information provided to the Study Team.

2.11.2.
2.11.2.1.

Kisumu LVSWSB and KIWASCO


Cost of Providing WATSAN Services The latest FY 2009/10 for KIWASCO and 2008/99 FY audited LVSWSB water and sanitation costs are shown in Table 2.29 below.
Table 2.29 KIWASCO and LVSWSB Costs

Source: WASREB and Kenya National Audit Office

Working Ratio (WR) and Operating Ratio (OR) WR is the ratio of operating costs to operating revenues. Operating costs in this ratio exclude depreciation and interest payments (but no debt service payments); a key difference with the OR, which includes these costs. Operating revenues are the same for both ratios and include revenues from water and sewerage tariffs, connection fees, well abstraction fees and re-connection fees. A working ratio of more than 1 means that a utility fails to recover even its operating costs from annual revenue, while a ratio of less than 1 means that it covers all operating costs plus some or all of its capital costs. An ideal target working ratio

Despite reminders both by telephone and through UNHABITAT Office in Kisumu, LVSWSB FY 2009/10 figures were not availed to the Study Team by the LVSWSB Finance and Administration Manager (presumably since the Audited figures by the Kenya Audit Office had not been released?). It is noted, in its latest Impact Report 3, WASREB reports that LVSWSB is in the Worst category with regard to ranking of WSBs on the basis of information submission (WASREB, 2010:6).

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for developing country utilities is 0.68, the performance achievable by many utilities in developing countries10. For KIWASCO in 2009/10 FY, the WR was 0.86 was slightly higher than the ideal and the OR was a respectable 0.88. Given the recent efforts by KIWASCO to rationalize staffing levels, it would be possible to reduce WR further. For LVSWSB the high figures of 5.40 and 7.51 are due to the high operating costs relative to low operating income. Hence it is not surprising that operations have to be supplemented by grants to even cover operating and maintenance costs (see further discussion on profitability in section 2.11.2.2 below). Presently, GOK support is essential for the operations of the Board but is expected that eventually, GoK will decrease its source of grants as the Board increases its revenues from water service providers licensee fees, water meter rent revenue, new lease fees, etc., to make the board financially sustainable. Unit Operational Cost (UOC) Analysis of the unit operational cost (defined as operational costs/m3 supplied) provides an indication of the magnitude of operating expenditures of utility suppliers and hence an idea of the quality of service provided by the utility. For KIWASCO in 2009/10 it sold 2.64 m3 million units of water and with operating expenditures of 1.99 million UOC was a rather high 0.75. Personnel Costs per Unit of Water Personnel costs expressed as a ratio to total operating costs (depreciation and debt service excluded) indicate the magnitude of personnel costs in operating expenditures. Depreciation and debt service are excluded due to lack of uniformity in treating revaluation of fixed assets. For KIWASCO at the end of FY 2009/10 in June 2010 it had the following members of Staff; 14 graduates, 10 with Diplomas, 99 with Certificate-level qualifications and 14 unskilled workers totaling 137. With personnel costs at 0.72 million, the ratio was 0.36 which is rather high. Staff Productivity Index (SPI) One ratio for gauging staff efficiency is the staff per 1,000 connections. A high ratio may indicate inefficient use of staff. This ratio is an important measure of the efficiency of a water and/or sewerage utility. KIWASCO reports that as of end of June 2010 they had 10,171 registered consumer connections, which include individual properties and bulk supplies to groups of customers (counted as one) either through kiosks, stand-posts or to areas adopting the Delegated Management Model (DMM). According to WASREB, the national average SPI for WSPs improved from 11 to 8 staff per 1000 connections for the period 2006/7 and 2008/9 respectively. Hence, the national average moved to the acceptable sector benchmark (of 8) for all sizes of WSPs in 2008/9 (WASREB, 2010:48). In 2009/10 KIWASCO had a figure of 13.3, which is still much higher than the acceptable benchmark a year before. 2.11.2.2. Financial Performance Indicators Accounts Receivable/Collection Period (CP) This indicator, expressed in months equivalent of sales, is the ratio between the year-end accounts receivable and operating revenues, multiplied by 12. Hence the lower the collection period the better in terms of the enterprises cash flow. This is especially of concern in countries like Kenya and Tanzania where inflation is relatively high. Moreover, WSPs in the two countries do not normally charge levies against late payment. As shown in Table 2.30 below, KIWASCO has a relatively good CP of only 0.73.

10

See e.g. World Bank (1996)

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Table 2.30 KIWASCO and LVSWSB Revenues and Financial Ratios
KIWASCO 2009/10 FY Ksh. million 275.84 272.92 2.5 270.42 16.38 465.6 0.75 18.3 572.38 328.45 5.1 46.5 000 2,523.70 2,496.98 22.87 2,474.11 149.86 4,259.84 6.86 167.43 5,236.78 3,005.03 46.66 425.43 0.73 26.41 3.93 92.40 0.01 7.06 14.88 11.98 LVSWSB 2008/9 FY Ksh. million 114.15 206.32 173.41 32.91 57.21 2,979.30 0.15 75.05 3,229.48 292.80 42.62 000 1,029.31 1,860.41 1,563.66 296.75 515.87 26,864.74 1.35 676.74 29,120.65 2,640.22 384.31 20.86 (695.23) 2.52 193.24 0 6.87 0.97 0.89

Billed Revenues Total Income Of which Grants Operating Income Accounts Receivable Total Fixed Assets Debt Service Charges New Capital Expenses Total Shareholders Equity Current Assets Debt Current Liabilities Ratios CP (months) CTI (%) New Investments/Fixed Assets (%) DSC DER CR RR (%) RE

Source: WASREB and Kenya National Audit Office

For KIWASCO, the overall collection efficiency was a good 94% in 2009/10. However a closer look at collections by type of connection reveals several shortcomings. Firstly, collection from domestic connections is at a high 91% and provides 28% of all revenues to the company. Commercial institutions bring in 55% of all revenues and the collection efficiency was even higher at 98%. Institutional consumers brought in only 7% of the total revenues but had a much lower collection efficiency of 87%. The much-touted kiosk connections brought in only 5.3% of total revenues. It is worrying that bulk sales of water and collection from industrial connections are not reported. This is likely to be the main source of non-revenue water. It is remarkable that no revenues are reported from connection fees, reconnection fees, and meter installation fees though what are presumably fines for illegal connections is reported at Ksh 4.6 million ( 42,000). Hence whereas poor collection efficiency amongst institutions can be blamed on consumers, particularly public sector institutions, KIWASCO is clearly also to blame for apparent lack of recovering connection fees. For LVSWSB a CP of 21 indicates the sorry state in collecting debts owed to the Board. An organisation that has 1.74 times accounts receivable compared to its operating income is not sustainable and it would be interesting to see whether the situation improved in 2009/10. Percentage Contribution to Investment (CTI) The percentage contribution to investment shows the proportion of capital expenditures financed by the net internal cash generated by the WSP. To provide a sense of the magnitude of investments, this ratio is often contrasted with the relative value of new investments to fixed assets over the same period. In general, one would expect that the utilities with relatively large investments have lower CTI ratios. For KIWASCO, CTI was 26% and the investment over net fixed assets is 28%. It is clear that KIWASCO is able to add to fixed assets from its own operations. LVSWSB exhibited negative net operating income and hence CTI was a negative 695% indicating that the Board is unable to invest from net income. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSC) The debt-service-coverage ratio measures the extent to which internal cash generation covers total debt service. For both KIWASCO and LVSWSB their financial position clearly
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does not enable them to attract commercial debt with token amounts paid to commercial banks mainly as small overdraft and bank charges and hence the figures of DSC at 192 and 193 does not mean anything. Debt Equity Ratio (DER) This ratio is defined as Total Debt/Equity. As mentioned above, there are no commercial debts and similarly to DSC the DER for the two organisations does not mean anything. Current Ratio (CR) This ratio is computed by dividing the current assets by current liabilities. Current assets include cash, accounts receivable and inventories. The CR measures the short-run paying ability of the utility and hence if higher than 1 then there would be no short-term liquidity problems. However, CR should be observed in conjunction with CP above. For both KIWASCO and LVSWSB CR is a respectably high 7.1 and 6.9 showing the reliance of both organisations on own sources of income to cover current liabilities which also explains the inability/unwillingness of both organisations to attract short term commercial debt. Return on Net Fixed Assets (RR) This indicator measures the productivity of fixed assets in use, expressed as the ratio between net operating income and net fixed assets. However for both organisations, the exercise of asset valuation has been long overdue. In 2008/9 LVSWSB reported a sum of Ksh 5 million for asset valuation and hence one would expect the 2009/10 figures to contain respectably valued asset position. It is not clear whether a similar exercise has been done for KIWASCO. For KIWASCO the RR of 15% is of course reasonable while LVSWSBs RR of less than 1% is quite low and certainly not value for use of assets. Return on Equity (RE) Return on equity shows the return to the owners, expressed as the relationship between net income (net income after interest payments) and equity (total assets minus liabilities). The RE suffers from the problems associated with the revaluation of fixed assets, which would lower the value of equity, which in turn would increase the RE. For KIWASCO the apparent RR of 12% is quite reasonable while LVSWSBs RR of less than 1% is of course quite low and certainly not value for the owners of the Board. Current Levels of Grants and Government Budget Support Given the dismal financial performance and potential debt service situation as discussed above, particularly for LVSWSB, it is clear that the latter organisation has been relying on government grants for its operational expenses. For KIWASCO it can be pointed out that net operating income can comfortably finance additional assets leased from the Board. Currently KIWASCO pays 5% and 4% of revenues to the Board and Municipality in respect of levy and asset lease fee respectively. At current revenue streams this amounts to a total of 23,000 monthly ( 276,000 annually). The net operating income for KIWASCO was 634,000 in 2009/10. Hence increased lease fees and levies arising from current additions to assets for water supply to Kisumu would easily be absorbed by KIWASCO which in turn would be able to greatly increase its revenues from water and sanitation services. For the Board as the owner of main WATSAN assets used by KIWASCO the dismal operating performance is of course only supported by grants both from GoK and development partners. In 2008/9 such grants comprised 84% of its total income. All capital developments will continue in the foreseeable future to be met through GoK-backed loans and similar grants as currently provided. 2.11.2.3. Tariffs and Cost Recovery Levels: KIWASCO Current Tariffs The current tariff structure for KIWASCO WATSAN services is in four groups: domestic, commercial, water kiosks and schools. Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs costs
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incurred to operate the WATSAN system and maintain its infrastructure need to be covered to indicate that a WSP has reached short term sustainability. It is the first step towards total cost recovery, which requires investment costs to be covered as well. Through ongoing tariff negotiations, WASREBs objective is that, WSPs reach the second level of sustainability utilizing tariffs that cover not only O&M costs but also investment costs. An indication of sustainability for a WSP would be the attainment of the benchmark O&M Cost Coverage greater than 150%. (WASREB, 2010:51). In 2009, WASREB finalised an Extraordinary Tariff Adjustment (ETA) across the country as a measure meant to temporarily cushion the WSPs as they liaised with WSBs to prepare comprehensive tariff applications based on justified costs and in accordance with the Tariff Guideline. Following the expiry of the ETA, WSBs and WSPs continued submitting applications for the Regular Tariff Adjustment (RRTA) and WASREB has approved 25 tariff applications with new tariffs affected for the majority of medium and large WSPs, including Kisumu. A second RRTA for Kisumu is due but to date has not been submitted. Affordability Constraints and Social Acceptability In 2010 the KIWASCO average water-billing tariff was Ksh. 104.67 ( 0.96) per m3. If 2Om3 per month is taken as a reasonable household consumption in developing countries, the typical Kisumu household payment for this volume would be Ksh. 2094 ( 19.15). This is very high. A higher average tariff does not of course automatically mean that the poor pay more or lose access. The KIWASCO tariff structure endeavours to distribute the cost burden to the different consumer groups. WASREB is paying a lot of attention to ensure that tariff increases do not lead to exclusion of the poor. A critical issue taken into account when assessing changes in tariff levels and structures is of course affordability. According to WASREB, in 2008/9 the poorest 60% of the households that paid for their water nationwide paid more than 5% of their expenditure on water. The situation in 2011 is most likely worse. The very difficult current economic situation for practically all income groups in Kenya would reduce most income groups; willingness to pay for additional tariff increases. Indeed given the current April 2011 inflation rate of 12% and the very high cost of food, it is likely that any tariff increase by KIWASCO in the current period will not be taken kindly by its consumers. Alternatives to Tariff Increase Before making any changes to the tariffs, KIWASCO should first address its low billing and collection efficiencies particularly amongst the industrial consumers. Fixing gaps in the utilities billing and collection systems for this category of consumers will generate additional revenue, while it reduces the pressure to increase tariffs, at least before 2012, to ensure the sustainability of the water supply service.

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2.12.
2.12.1.

Environmental Policy and Legislation


Summary of Environmental Legislation
Environmental management activities are implemented through a variety of instruments such as policy statements and sectoral laws, and through permits and licences. However, the Environmental Management and Coordination Act of 1999 (EMCA) establishes the regulatory and institutional framework for the management of the environment, and supersedes all other environmental legislation. The Act requires environmental assessments to be undertaken for any project falling under its Second Schedule, including dams, rivers and water sources, and sewage and solid waste disposal sites. EMCA provides for standards for the management of lakeshores, and makes it an offence to pollute any aquatic environment. The Act prohibits the disposal/discharge of solid waste which could cause pollution or pose a risk to human health. Several regulations under EMCA also have implications for this project. The Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations, 2003, provide the basis for procedures for carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and Environmental Audits (EA). The Environmental Management & Coordination (Water Quality) Regulations, 2006, prohibit activities that cause direct or indirect pollution of water sources and of water for fisheries, wildlife and recreational purposes and require the protection of lakes, rivers, streams, springs wells and other water sources. Discharges into aquatic and non-aquatic environments must comply with prescribed standards, as must discharges into public sewers, and are subject to discharge licences. Persons discharging effluent under a licence must carry out daily effluent discharge quality and quantity monitoring. The Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations, 2006, state that any person transporting waste or operating a waste disposal or treatment site (including sites reusing and recycling wastes) requires a licence. A number of other laws and regulations are relevant to the proposed project components. The Water Act, 2002 makes provision for the conservation, control, apportionment and use of the water resources of Kenya. The Act regulates the management of water supply and sewerage services, and requires permits to be obtained for use of water from a water resource. Further, it makes it an offence to pollute any water resource, and requires a permit to be obtained for the discharge of a pollutant into any water resource. The Water Rules, 2008, stipulate the need for a permit for the abstraction, diversion, in-stream works and storage of surface water, and requires a reserve flow to be maintained in all rivers. The Energy Act, 2006, among other things, promotes the development and use of renewable energy technologies, including hydropower, biogas and municipal waste. The Wayleaves Act, Cap 292, gives the Government the power to carry sewers, drains, or pipelines into, through, over or under any lands (although they may not interfere with any existing building). The Public Health Act (revised 1986) stipulates that the local authority is required to maintain cleanliness and prevent nuisances. It is responsible for the prevention of any pollution to any water supplies used for human and domestic consumption. The local authority is also required to approve the construction of any septic tank, storage tank, sewage filter installation or other treatment works. The Act also provides guidance for drainage and sewerage. The National Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Policy of July 2007 aims to reduce the burden of environmental sanitation and hygiene-related disease by promoting access to and use of hygienic, affordable, functional, and sustainable improved latrines and hand washing facilities and safe and sound waste management practices. The current Health Sector Strategic Plan (2005-2010) identifies environmental sanitation and hygiene as an important component in the delivery of health care. Other legislation relevant to the construction and operation of infrastructure proposed under this project includes: The Physical Planning Act, 1996

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The Registered Land Act, Cap 300 Trade Licensing Act, Cap 497 Building Code, 1997 Local Government Act, rev. 1998 Forests Act, 2005 Lakes and Rivers Act, rev. 1983 Fisheries Act Occupational Health and Safety Act, 2007 Factories and Other Places of Work (Health and Safety Committee) Rules, 2004 The Factories (First Aid) Rules, 1977 The Factories and Other Places of Work (Fire Risk Reduction) Rules, 2007 Factories and Other Places of Work (Noise Prevention) Rules, 2005 Factories (Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction) Rules, 1984 Workmens Injury Benefits Act, 2007 Local by-laws Various laws relating to expropriation of land and related compensation payments (see Section 2.12.2)

2.12.2.

Provision for Resettlement and Compensation


Kenya does not have a national resettlement policy framework (RPF). However, under the World Bank funded Water Supply and Sanitation Service Improvement Project (Wassip), a resettlement policy framework was developed in 2007. In 2008, a RPF was prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources for the Lake Victoria Environment Management Project Phase II. Both are guided by the World Banks OP 4.12 on Involuntary Resettlement (April 2004), which is based on the following principles: a) Involuntary resettlement should be avoided where feasible, or minimised, exploring all viable alternative project designs. b) Where it is not feasible to avoid resettlement, resettlement activities should be conceived and executed as sustainable development programs, providing sufficient investment resources to enable the persons displaced by the project to share in project benefits. Displaced persons should be meaningfully consulted and should have opportunities to participate in planning and implementing resettlement programs. c) Displaced persons should be assisted in their efforts to improve their livelihoods and standards of living or at least to restore them, in real terms, to pre-displacement levels or to levels prevailing prior to the beginning of project implementation, whichever is higher. The principal legislation regarding expropriation of land is generally provided for in the Constitution of Kenya under section 75 for private land and sections 117 and 118 for unregistered Trust Land. The Land Acquisition Act, Chapter 295 provides for land to be acquired or granted access to for the purpose of a project. Acquisitions or access must be shown to be for the public benefit and compensation must be provided to the landowners whose land is acquired or damaged. The Registered Land Act Chapter 300 provides for absolute proprietorship over land (exclusive rights). Such land can be acquired by the State under the Land Acquisition Act. The Land Adjudication Act Chapter 95 provides for ascertainment of interests prior to land registrations under the Registered Land Act.

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Project Formulation Report - Kisumu 2.12.3. Institutional Structure in the Water and Sanitation Sector
A number of institutions are involved in implementing the different laws and legal instruments noted in Section 2.3.1. The EMCA established the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), which became operational in July 2002. NEMA is mandated to be the principal agency in Kenya for the management of the environment. At district level, responsibility for the management of environmental issues lies with the District Environment Officer, who is the secretary of the District Environment Committee. With regard to public health, the Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation (DEHS) is responsible for coordinating partners that are implementing environmental sanitation and hygiene activities. It is also responsible for monitoring urban and rural sanitation; sanitation of dwellings, markets, public places and informal settlements; and for preventing and controlling unsanitary nuisances. NEMA and DEHS are responsible overall for the coordination of sectoral environmental and sanitation issues. Although the resources and capacity of NEMA are sub-optimal, NEMA does have the mandate to instruct relevant local authorities to implement environmental protection and management measures To this end, in January 2011, LVSWSB initiated the recruitment of an Environmental Expert who will be responsible for: Monitoring and ensuring that EIAs are conducted, and that all mitigation measures and environmental management/action plans are implemented according to NEMA regulations. Periodically reporting on environmental issues and program activities. Carrying out stakeholder consultations on EIA, liaising with relevant authorities such as NEMA, WRMA, MOPH etc on requisite approvals and certification. Supervising outsourced environmental management contracts, and ensuring maintenance of EIA licences, records, certificates, and environmental reports.

The impacts on forests (such as those from the proposed new dam at Kajulu which borders the Kajulu Forest) and wetlands are considered and managed by the Kenya Forest Service and NEMA. With respect to resettlement and compensation, overall responsibility lies with the Ministry of Water. The Ministry of Lands and Settlement is, however, a key player responsible for the valuation of structures and determining the compensation rates passed by the District Lands Boards. The local councils and chiefs are involved in determining ownership, general community mobilization and sensitization, immediate adjudication over ownership and boundaries, and providing guidance for compensation process, receiving complaints on behalf of the compensating agency, and facilitating integration within the new relocation sites.

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2.13.
2.13.1.

Environmental and Social Impact Analysis


Introduction
The Lake Victoria Region Water and Sanitation Initiative, which is spearheaded by UNHABITAT, aims to assist the East African regional governments in achieving the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation through four specific objectives: Promoting pro-poor water and sanitation investments in the secondary urban centres in the Lake Victoria Region; Supporting development of institutional and human resource capacities at local and regional levels for the sustainable delivery of improved water and sanitation services; Facilitating realisation of upstream water sector reforms at the local level in the participating urban centres; and Reducing the environmental impact of urbanisation in the Lake Victoria Basin.11

It is anticipated that the second phase of the LVWATSAN Initiative will have a tangible impact on public health (including improving maternal health and reducing under-five mortality), through the provision of increased access to clean water, improvement of wastewater treatment facilities, provision of adequate sanitation facilities, improved urban drainage and solid waste collection and treatment. Improving sewage treatment facilities and sewage coverage will prevent further pollution of the Lake, and have a direct impact on the quality of its water and therefore the Lake ecosystems. Improved drainage would contribute to reduced incidence of malaria (by eliminating breeding habitats for malariacarrying mosquitoes), as well as other waterborne diseases, while efficient solid waste disposal systems would also have a positive impact on public health by discouraging disease-spreading vermin and preventing entry of toxic leachates into soils and water sources. The combined effects of these interventions are associated with greater productivity and output, and therefore with alleviation of poverty and hunger. Given that poverty and environmental well-being are inversely linked, the implication is that overall environmental conservation and protection will be enhanced. However, the actual interventions proposed under Phase 2 of the LVWATSAN Initiative (see Table 2.31) may themselves pose a number of detrimental environmental and social risks, during construction and/or operation. Potential environmental impacts (negative and positive) and associated mitigation measures are discussed in Section 2.13.2 and potential negative and positive social impacts and mitigation measures are discussed in Section 2.13.3.

11

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2010); Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative - Overview of the Pro-poor Approaches for Improved Access to Affordable Water and Sanitation Initiative of UN-HABITAT.

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Table 2.31 Proposed Kisumu interventions
Discipline Ops / Rehab Item Extend intake pipes at Dunga WTW further out into the lake Chemical dosing at Dunga WTW is in need of improvement and upgrading Problems with the filter backwash system at Dunga WTW need resolving Remodelling of the highlift pumps at Dunga WTW would lead to a more efficient pumping regime Install functioning flowmeters in all key locations and consider introduction of basic telemetry system for capture and processing of data KIWASCO need Waste Control Unit KIWASCO need to develop / obtain / upgrade its asset records onto a suitable GIS and a suitable network model Assistant with set-up of WCU including undertaking network modelling, GIS database records, waste control DMAs etc Supply of materials, pipes, fittings, replacement valves, etc Supply of consumer meters Expansion of supplies to Kiboswa Expansion of supplies to Maseno Expansion of supplies to Ahero Feasibility Study for a high dam on the Kibos River and reassessment of the capacity of the Dunga source Construction of a dam in the Kibos Valley to provide reliable gravity supplies for the city including treatment plant and distribution pipelines KIWASCO would benefit from an upgrade of its office facilities (and potentially stores and maintenance facilities) Water Supplies in informal areas Provision for properties near to a sewer Provision for properties far from sewer Sewer realignment / reconstruction in the Central WTD to relieve load on Kisat. Upgrade the main trunk sewers in Eastern WTD to carry additional load. The cost also includes for construction of new sewers in Mamboleo and Lolwe areas. Capacity check of Nyalenda WTP Construction of a full sewerage system in Kanyakwar, Bandani, areas adjacent to the airport including a treatment plant at Otonglo area. Prepare a sewerage Master plan Covering existing lined drains with pre-cast concrete cover slabs Rehabilitation of existing lined drains through dredging to remove accumulated filth and replacement of damaged and dislodged side slabs Construction of lined drains complete with cover slabs. Construction of new lined open drains Construction of new stone pitched open drains Upgrading of existing lined open drains Reconstruction of existing open earth drains by expanding the drains and lining them Rehabilitation of Auji drain Construction of 900 mm diameter concrete culverts in some selected problematic areas Construction of 600 mm diameter culverts in some low lying areas that are problematic Study into potential to let a contract for waste collection services Develop working plans to improve landfill operation Undertake a feasibility study into development of formalised composting plant KMC will require additional technical and project management support to assist in implementing KISWAMP Skiploader and skip containers to increase waste collection capacity - Alternative option of compactor trucks and dumpsters to increase collection capacity Provide micro-loans or grants to assist locals in procuring hand-carts - Alternatively could provide grants to the Council to procure new vehicles and containers Install a weighbridge to record data Construction of lined landfill cell to manage industrial and hospital wastes Rehabilitate existing dumpsite and engineer quarries to receive waste from existing dumpsite Development of a WEEE recycling and reprocessing facility Construct a dedicated lined hazardous waste landfill cell at the proposed new landfill facility Capacity Building

Ops Water

Ops Capital Project Capital Project Water Water & Sanitation Capital Project Capital Project Ops / Rehab Sewerage

Capital Project Ops / Rehab

Urban Drainage

Capital Project

Capital Project

Solid Waste

OPs

Capital Project Capital Project Capacity Building

All

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2.13.2.1.

Potential environmental impacts and mitigation measures


General negative environmental impacts There may be a number of general environmental impacts associated with construction and operational stages of the proposed project interventions. These include: Erosion in and around excavation areas (in construction areas and also areas where borrow pits for construction materials are established). Sloping and bare land is particularly prone to erosion, which may lead to loss of soil productivity and capability; Siltation downstream from erosion areas, particularly during periods of intense rainfall. Siltation can cause significant ecological impacts by reducing light penetration and growth of important food chain species, and the blanketing of bottom dwelling plant and animal species (leading to mortality); In addition to siltation, chemical pollution of water may also occur (eg derived from spills of petroleum products and cementitious materials), Air pollution (and associated health impacts) may occur due to the presence of airborne dusts (eg from bare areas and the passage of vehicles / plant) and smoke (eg from burning materials and diesel engines); Noise pollution from construction and operational plant; Losses of, or changes in, biodiversity in areas where land is temporarily or permanently cleared (eg pipelines, access roads, construction sites, borrow pit areas, labour camps etc). Land clearance by fire may aggravate the loss of biodiversity due to the increased risk of uncontrolled expansion; Introduction of alien fauna or flora species (eg from the transport of construction plant from one area to another); Ponding and the creation of stagnant water in excavated areas, which may increase the breeding of problematic species (eg mosquitoes) and increase the risk of cholera, typhoid and dysentery for people bathing in or drinking such water; Increased local resource use (eg harvesting of wood and hunting) by workers brought into the area to undertake construction and operational activities; and Discharge of partially or untreated sewage and wastes from temporary labour camps.

It is reasonable to assume that with appropriate planning and implementation of standard mitigation measures the risk and extent of such impacts can be effectively minimised. 2.13.2.2. Water At the Dunga Water Treatment Works, the intake is located on a bay. Generally, the rate of flushing of water (oxygen, sediment, nutrients and other pollutants) in bay areas is rather slow relative to open water. In this context, water abstracted from further out into the lake is expected to be of better quality than water abstracted nearer the lakeshore, implying that the level of treatment required after the proposed extension of the intake pipe will be less than that required presently. However, it is not clear at this point if treatment of water would in fact be made any easier, since this would depend on the general quality of lake water, which is affected by both point and non-point sources of pollution all around the lake and within its basin. For any increase in abstraction from the lake KIWASCO would have to reapply for an abstraction licence to reflect the increased volume of water to be abstracted from the lake, as required under the Water Act of 2002. In accordance with the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999) (EMCA), and the Environmental Management and Coordination (Wetlands, River Banks, Lake Shores and Sea Shore Management) Regulation of 2009, KIWASCO will have to carry out an EIA for any expansion works and

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associated activities along the lake shore. The study will have to address any potential impacts on the lake, its waters and lake ecology, as well as the disposal of filter backwash. The EIA study would also have to address the impacts of the expansion of supplies to Kiboswa, Maseno and Ahero, and other undefined areas, particularly if vegetation is to be cleared for the pipelines and pump stations. For the most part it would appear that the pipelines and distribution pipes would follow existing roads and would lie within the road reserve, so land take and compensation is unlikely to be a major issue. The main concern with regard to the expansion of supplies will be the impacts on the sources of water and the natural environment within or near which they are located. The possible high dam or alternative developments on the Kibos River will require a full EIA study in accordance with EMCA, to determine impacts both upstream and downstream of the interventions. Crucially, an environmental flow (or reserve flow) must be maintained downstream of the dam (or any abstraction point), as stipulated in the Water Act (2002) and the Water Rules. The Water Rules (2007) recommend an environmental flow equivalent to 95% exceedance flow (Q95). This could affect the amount of water that can be abstracted for a high dam, and therefore the economic feasibility of the dam. The EIA study would have to assess the impacts on the Kajulu Forest, grazing land, cultivated fields and housing that may be affected due to inundation and back flow caused by the dam. As inter-basin transfers may be an option to supplement the yield for the dam, the EIA study would have to consider trans-basin impacts, including water uses and users affected in the river basins in question. The main environmental impacts related to the proposed water treatment works will be due to the disposal of solid waste (residuals, sludge, filtration membranes, spent media, etc), wastewater (filter backwash), and storage and use of chemicals used for treatment and disinfection (e.g. aluminium, ammonia and chlorine). Solid waste disposal is guided by the Environmental Management and Coordination (Waste Management) Regulations (2006), while wastewater must comply with national water quality guidelines for discharge of liquid effluents12. Handling and storage of treatment chemicals must comply with manufacturers recommendations, international best practice and standard operating procedures (which should be in place for all treatment facilities), while disposal of expired chemicals must follow NEMAs Waste Management Regulations of 2006. Installing flowmeters will assist in monitoring the amount of water consumed and wasted, and this then comprises an important aspect in conservation of water resources. Moreover, leaks and overflows will be more easily detected (in the former case preventing contamination of water supplied through leaking pipes). However, since the main treatment plant is being constructed under the Package 2 contract of LTAP, it is assumed that the above items are covered by the environmental approvals for that project (although no evidence has been seen to support this conclusion). 2.13.2.3. Sanitation Improving sanitation and access to sanitation is directly linked to improved environmental quality. In addition to connections to a sewer, proposed interventions include construction of latrines, communal facilities and septic tanks. In constructing pit latrines, consideration must be given to soil types in the proposed location, water table fluctuations (particularly during the rains) and proximity to water sources. For example, black cotton soils are not suitable for pit latrines as they do not drain well. Septic tanks must be designed bearing in mind the number of people they will each serve, but also ensuring ease of access for exhausters. Designs must be such that any overflow or effluent will comply with Water Quality Regulations and guidelines. It is assumed that septic tank sludge will be taken to Nyalenda waste stabilization ponds for disposal.
12

Water quality guidelines have been developed by NEMA, the Ministry of Water and various Municipal Authorities. There is some variation in parameters and permissible discharge limits, particularly between NEMAs guidelines and the Ministry of Waters guidelines, and at present it is not clear which set of guidelines takes legal precedence. It would therefore be advisable for the site to follow the more stringent guideline values.

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2.13.2.4. Sewerage Neither the Nyalenda waste stabilisation ponds nor the Kisat sewage treatment plant are functioning efficiently at the moment, and the quality of treated water being discharged into the lake is questionable. This problem is supposed to be addressed by the current LTAP programme. At present Kisumu does not host much heavy industry. Fish processing, tanning and a slaughterhouse are reportedly the main industries feeding into the sewage system. The molasses plant is supposed to treat its own wastewater, but evidently it does not (the plant was seen to dispose of untreated effluent directly into the lake). The existing activities release wastewater having very high levels of BOD and total dissolved solids (TDS) so onsite treatment is required since the Kisat plant is not able to treat such wastes. NEMA need to monitor the situation and take the requisite action. The proposed construction of a full sewerage system in Kanyakwar and Bandani areas adjacent to the airport, and the treatment plant at Otonglo will require the acquisition of land. This will have to be addressed through the preparation of a compensation and resettlement plan (which will have to be done in conjunction with the EIA study), and the subsequent implementation of that plan. It has been proposed that a Sewerage Master Plan be developed. It would be appropriate to carry out an SEA to feed into that Master Plan since proximity to the airport could be a major problem. The main environmental considerations in designing the proposed sewerage interventions would be catering for additional domestic loads, but also addressing current and potential industrial sewage loads, through assessing capacity of existing sewage works and potential sewage loads so that the system can adequately treat all sewage. The urban drainage component proposed under this project will help to ensure that stormwater does not contribute to excessive loading of the sewage system. During operation, the main issues will be: disposal of liquid effluent; disposal of solid waste (for example sludge, and solids and silt accumulating in the sewers and screens); air emissions (e.g. methane gas) and odours. Industries disposing of liquid effluent into the sewer must comply with the water quality guidelines for discharge into sewers, and Municipality by-laws. If this is regulated, then treatment of industrial wastewater will be easier. Currently neither NEMA nor LVSWB have the financial or human resources to monitor effluent discharges; however, LVSWB is in the process of appointing an Environmental Expert who will be able to take on the task of monitoring the quality of effluents discharged. NEMA requires that all facilities discharging into the environment must obtain a discharge licence for every point of discharge (regardless of whether the site complies with its guidelines). The treatment sites will therefore have to obtain discharge licences from NEMA. Directing treated effluent into a natural or constructed wetland before disposal into the lake would also enhance the quality of water finally reaching the lake. Depending on how sludge and other solid waste from septic tanks and sewage works will be stored and disposed of, NEMA may also require a licence for their disposal. Sludge from Nyalenda and Kisat is currently used for land application, but the site should first test the sludge for toxic substances and heavy metals to ensure that it does not pose a risk to public health and the environment. Sewage ponds emit methane gas, which is usually released directly into the atmosphere. It is possible to capture this methane for the purposes of using it as a source of energy (the Plant Manager at Kisat is investigating whether this would work there). Upgrading of the main trunk sewers and constructing new ones would have impacts typical of construction projects such as disturbance to traffic and the public, some soil erosion, dust and noise emissions.

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2.13.2.5. Urban Drainage The upgrading of the drains to accommodate stormwater and runoff will contribute to improved public health, as it will (potentially) eliminate the accumulation of water, which is linked to several waterborne diseases such as malaria, typhoid and cholera. Covering the drains will improve safety and will prevent the drains being clogged up by rubbish. During construction of new drains (lined, earth and stone-pitched, covered or open), and rehabilitation of existing ones, there will be some disturbance to motorised and pedestrian traffic, although this would be temporary. Dredged material and litter from the drains, as well as construction debris (e.g. damaged slabs) will have to be disposed of in an acceptable manner, either through land application or at approved dumpsites. Again, if dredged material is applied to land, it will need to be tested for suitability before application. 2.13.2.6. Solid Waste The proposed interventions for solid waste management will contribute to improved public health. Heaps of garbage are seen throughout the streets of Kisumu, and rubbish frequently blocks the drains. This attracts vermin and thus encourages the spread of disease. More work needs to be undertaken by the council to discourage/prevent the disposal of solid waste into the drainage channels which subsequently gets washed into the lake at times of high rainfall. The Kachok dumpsite in Kisumu is located within Kisumu town, next to Nakumatt Supermarket and the stadium, in close proximity to commercial and residential buildings. It seems that all solid waste that is not dumped on the streets of Kisumu is dumped here. Currently the site poses a major risk to public and animal health. The site falls under the jurisdiction of the Kisumu Municipal Council, but is very poorly managed. There are approximately 80 men and boys who work on the site as garbage collectors, sifters and recyclers, with whom the KMC has a good relationship. KMC has lately been under pressure from NEMA to relocate the dumpsite and to manage it in an environmentally acceptable way. But the people working on the site are concerned that they will become unemployed if the dumpsite is relocated and managed by another entity, and also if waste collection is formalised. Depending on what is ultimately planned for solid waste management, ways to provide employment for these informal waste contractors should be considered. With regard to rehabilitating the existing dumpsite, one of the key issues will be how the waste that is currently on the site will be managed, and whether and where it will be stored or moved to while rehabilitation works are ongoing. The proposal to develop a landfill will have to address a number of issues. Firstly, land will have to be acquired in a suitable area where the landfill can be sited. During site selection, extensive public consultations should be held to identify public concerns that would need to be addressed, and to ensure acceptability of the site. Attention will have to be paid to wind direction (to avoid odour nuisance to neighbouring communities), soil types, natural drainage systems and proximity to water sources, and proximity to residential areas and educational institutions. If the site is privately owned or has people residing on it, a compensation and resettlement plan will have to be drawn up and implemented. Management of the landfill is critical to ensure that leachates do not enter into water sources, that landfill gas emissions are controlled or captured, the site is properly secured and has a buffer zone to improve aesthetics. In addition, employee health and safety needs to be ensured, which means that all employees at the dumpsite must be properly trained in handling the various types of waste. It must be noted that any solid waste operation must be licensed by NEMA in accordance with the Waste Management Regulations of 2006, including dumpsites, composting sites, and collection centres, and transporters. Waste collectors, as well as any solid waste operation that is run as a business or trade, would also require licensing by KMC. There is no site for the disposal of hazardous solid waste in Kenya at present. Industries are asked to store any hazardous waste on site until such time as NEMA-approved waste facilities are established. While Nairobi has a number of facilities that can treat most types of hazardous waste generated by industry, it is unlikely that it would be feasible to do so in
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Kisumu as the volume of such waste will not be large or would not be generated consistently. However, common hazardous waste such as batteries, thermometers, fluorescent light bulbs, etc, is still disposed of at the municipal dumps, and this is the case in Kisumu. This makes it especially important that the landfills are properly managed. While medical waste is incinerated at the hospitals and clinics, it is unlikely that some of the incinerators are effective (particularly where burners are used). Incineration is recommended by NEMA as the means for dealing with medical waste, but management of incinerators (in terms of volume, temperature and calorific value of waste to be incinerated) is critical to ensure their effectiveness. There are a number of issues that also need to be considered for waste collection services and collection centres. Collection services must be scheduled and the public must be aware of collection days and times. Collection centres should provide receptacles for different types of waste. Waste and leachates should not be allowed to enter stormwater drains. Waste collection vehicles must have a licence issued by NEMA. Persons handling waste at the collection points should be provided with appropriate personal protection equipment. Among its other objectives and tasks KISWAMP is promoting the 3Rs philosophy (reuse, recycle, recover). The fourth R, which is not mentioned, is reduce, which also has an effect on resource conservation. However, sensitising the public on waste disposal ethics is perhaps as important as providing waste receptacles and collection centres. It is recommended that a huge media campaign be launched to sensitise the public on waste disposal, through television, radio, posters, and road shows.13

2.13.3.
2.13.3.1.

Potential social impacts and mitigation measures


Positive Social Impacts The proposed project interventions will result in a number of positive social impacts, including: Decreased incidence of waterborne diseases; Reduced cost and time wastage in search of water; Decreased cost of treatment for waterborne diseases by the consumer as well as decreased travel frequency to health facilities; Reduction in household expenditure on water; Improved hygiene standards; Increased access to sanitation facilities; Year round access to water for households; Community involvement in provision and management of water and sanitation services; and Increased number of women working for water sector institutions and involved in decision making.

Potential indicators to track progress in delivering these positive impacts are shown in Table 2.32. 2.13.3.2. Negative Social Impacts Potential negative impacts and proposed mitigation measures are summarised in Table 2.33.

13

In Britain in the 1960s, a huge media campaign was launched to Keep Britain Tidy. It made a significant impact on peoples consciousness to keep the streets and public places clean and litter-free.

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Table 2.32 Potential indicators of positive social impacts Aspect Health Positive Impact Improved health Impact Indicators - Reduced child mortality in children aged 1-5 - Greater life expectancy - Reduction of preventable water borne diseases e.g. cholera, typhoid and diarrhoea - Reduction of child mortality rate - Access to clean, quality and affordable drinking water - Reliable supply - Number of meters connected - Number of yard taps - Number of water kiosks, bathrooms and toilets - Revenue generation from water sales by both men and women - Willingness to pay for new and improved water supply (infrastructure and meters) - Employment generation and increased business opportunities - Poverty reduction - Affordable water prices - Time and cost savings while searching for water, bathing and toilet facilities - Reduction in expenses for medical services - Investments due to trickle effects of water and sanitation - Efficient and effective service delivery by the project - Willingness of the people to participate and share costs, facilities and activities related to water and sanitation services - Social cohesion through daily dialogue on operations and maintenance of the facilities - Security and safety of the infrastructure - Involvement of community (men and women) members in decision making, policy formulation and implementation of the project - Taking into account womens interest in the water and sanitation in the design and choice of technology - Effective participation of women and other vulnerable groups in the project - Gender sensitive development and inclusion in decision making - Degree of personal hygiene at home - Access to toilets and bathing services - Capacity building through awareness creation, seminars and training workshops

Water supply

Safe drinking water

Economic strategy

Improved livelihoods

Social integration

Collaboration and participation

Gender and propoor strategy

Community involvement Gender analysis and mainstreaming

Sanitation

Cleanliness

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Table 2.33 Potential negative social impacts and proposed mitigation measures Aspect Infrastructure development Negative Impact Demolition of private properties on encroached road reserves that are corridors for piped water networks, sewerage and storm drainage; increased land demand Increased water and sanitation demand/supply and facilities Contamination of drinking water through storm water, direct collection drains, surface runoff from roads, sludge spillage Risks of drowning, accidents and injuries to the community through open manholes Interference with local culture and values Increased informal settlements due to improved services Interference with business and relocation of business during development Loss of property and other eventualities, e.g. clashes Mitigation Measure Proper planning by the Council Clear policy on public road reserves Continuous awareness with respect to the public utilities being developed Facilitate contingency funds for expansion Plan and charge user fees Plan designs for water and sanitation appropriately Monitor the system regularly to identify areas of danger and isolate these areas Involve the community in project activities right from inception Adherence to policy and regulatory mechanisms for better control and management of the city Involve the community in project activities through community forums Provide prior information about the design of the project Form community committees to sensitise the affected areas Dialogue with the Council to provide alterative site for affected businesses

Demography Water supply

Occupational health and safety

Encroachment, displacement and resettlement of project affected persons (PAPs)

2.13.3.3.

Gender Mainstreaming in Project Interventions Gender is an integral component in development; to address existing gender inequities, project interventions should focus on womens and mens involvement in the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and management of domestic water supply, irrigation, sanitation or environmental protection. Project interventions should also give due consideration to internal culture and staffing issues, for example recruitment, promotion and training opportunities for female and male staff, sexual discrimination and harassment, and issues such as child care, paternity or maternity leave, and safe travel arrangements. Gender mainstreaming activities for participating institutions are summarised in Table 2.34.

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Table 2.34 Gender Mainstreaming in the Participating Institutions
Category of inquiry Policy and action plans - Gender policies - Attention to gender in all policies Influencing policy Issues to consider Is there a gender policy? When was it developed and who was involved? Does it use sex-disaggregated data? Is its implementation being monitored? What is the attitude of senior management staff to gender issues? Who are formal and informal opinion leaders? Which external agencies or people have an influence on the organisation? Who are the decision making bodies? Is there a designated gender unit/focal person? What do they do? With what resources? Are other staff members gender-aware? Is sensitivity to gender included in job descriptions and assessed at job evaluations? Is there funding for capacity building on gender? Is there funding for gender actions on the ground? Is attention to gender included in routine systems and procedures (information systems, appraisals, planning and monitoring)? Have staff been issued with guidelines on gender mainstreaming? What are the numbers of men and women at each level in the organisation and according to roles and sectors? Check employment and hiring policies Does the organisation create a safe and practical environment for women and men e.g., transport, toilets, childcare, and flexibility of working hours? How does information flow and to what extent are women and men included in the communication chain? What are the main shared values? Do they relate to equality? And specifically to gender? Is decision making centralised or decentralised? What are the attitudes towards female/male staff? What are the male and female staff perceptions towards gender? Does the organisation have equal opportunity polices? What does the policy cover? How is it promoted and implemented? Steps to be taken for organisational change If there is no gender policy but a desire to address inequalities between men and women then the action will be: - Develop a gender policy for all the participating institutions - Assess who are the champions for gender equality and equity - Engage all relevant and potential staff and management - Create a participatory and inclusive environment for policy development - Have clear ToRs for the unit/focal persons - Establish training in gender mainstreaming and advocacy as an on-going process with action targets - Have professional backstopping support - Involve focal units as an integral part of existing processes and programmes - Allocate budgets for staff capacity building and for actions on the ground - Allocate time for actions at the operational level - Develop indicators to monitor progress - Include gender in systems and procedures - Develop sex-disaggregated information systems - Include gender in staff Terms of Reference and interviews - Have indicators for monitoring policy progress in implementing gender - Develop checklists and guidelines - Have gender sensitive recruitment policies that are not discriminatory, even though gender is not about balancing numbers - Provide staff access to decision making processes - Analyse the organisation with respect to its sensitivity to the different needs of women and men - Look at organisational assets such as equipment, furniture, toilet design and accessibility, etc. Are they suitable for women and men? - Adopt an organisational culture that values women and mens perspectives equally - Explicitly state the organisations commitments to gender equality in all policies and programmes - Decentralise decision making to allow both women and men a voice in organisational decision making

Human resources - Gender focal staff - All staff

Financial / time resources - Gender equality initiatives on the ground - Staff capacity building initiatives Systems procedures and tools

Staffing statistics

Women and mens practical and strategic needs

Organisational culture

Staff perceptions

Policy and actions

- Conduct gender capacity building and awareness raising programmes, especially where gender is seen as just one of the donor requirements and not an organisational value - Pay attention to equality within the structure, culture and staffing of organisations as well as in the programmes, policies and procedures - Assess and evaluate continuously using gender-sensitive indicators to enable a comprehensive review

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2.13.3.4.

Improving Governance i) Improved Service Delivery by KIWASCO Training for KIWASCO staff should be supported under the Capacity Building Component to improve institutional efficiency in service delivery and customer relations. ii) Regulation of Providers Service providers in the informal settlements should be brought under regulation with respect to water quality, tariffs, service level etc. iii) Capacity Development Capacity development for managing low cost technology (such as water kiosks) needs to be developed within a business environment that stimulates fair competition. iv) Pro-Poor Strategy KIWASCO KIWASCO does not have any specific policy for water provision to the poor. However, it is piloting the Delegated Management Model in Nyalenda; under this model, KIWASCO sells water in bulk, at a substantially reduced rate, to a master operator who then in turn sells water to the residents and maintains the supply lines. A graduated tariff structure is in place that favours people who consume less.

2.13.3.5.

Improving Stakeholder Analysis and Coordination There is a need for proper stakeholder analysis, and creation of a coordination unit within the main stakeholders i.e. Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Lake Victoria South Water Services Board, Water Service Providers, Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company, Municipal Council, Community Based Organisation, Vendors etc. This will help in harnessing the numerous resources held by the multiple stakeholders in the Municipality. This is being established for the project using the Multi-Stakeholder Forum process promoted by UNHABITAT.

2.13.3.6.

Raising Awareness of the Project Purpose and Stakeholder Roles and Responsibilities Lake Victoria South Water Services Board and Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company needs to champion awareness raising among residents with respect to the project and the role of communities and other service providers. This will help to engender positive attitudes towards new assets and proper protection and maintenance.

2.13.3.7.

Social Risks and Effects on the Project Table 2.35 illustrates the potential impact of social risks on the project.

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Table 2.35 Social risks and potential impacts on the project Component Overall project Social Risks Delay in or abandonment of the project Likelihood Low Severity Severe Mitigation Measures Ensure the project has milestones Track progress of the project Designate responsibility for follow up and evaluation Provide time plan to allow performance evaluation Involve the community in participatory planning Open and transparency sourcing of professional agencies Consult and create awareness to the users right from the start of the project Consult and create awareness to the users right from the start of the project Apply developed pro-poor strategies Create awareness on the operations conditions of the project Facilitate fair competition through regulation Improve service delivery Create awareness and educate the community to own the project and all its components Community capacity building and gender mainstreaming Stakeholders dialogue to plan social facilities i.e. houses, markets

Water and sanitation Economic Infrastructure Gender and propoor groups Demography -

Need for major modifications due to beneficiaries demand or pressure Reputational damage of the implementing agency Lack of users acceptance of the project Consumer boycott of the new developments, requirements and conditions Non participation by the community due to high levels of poverty Exposure to legal action due to non compliance Decreased levels of revenues of the water vendors and new entrants to the economic activity Increased revenue by the Municipal council Insecurity and vandalism Social exclusion Frequent migration of people from one area to another in search of better livelihoods and services

Medium Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Low High Low Low Medium

Moderate High Severe Severe Severe High High Severe High High

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Appendices

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Appendix 2.1 Kibos River Development Hydrology


General The Long Term Action Plan for Kisumu proposes the expansion of the existing source on the Kibos River at Kajulu to meet the growing demand for water. The current design capacity of this source is small at 1,500 m3/day but the source can supply most of the city by gravity so represents a more cost effective option in terms of operating costs than Lake Victoria. The proposals for the development of the Kibos River are unclear as the design work is still being completed. The original LTAP proposals recommended the expansion of the site to deliver 36,000 m3/day of treated water to the city which was predicted to be adequate for the citys demand until 2025. A reappraisal of the project extended the design horizon to 2031 and increased the supply requirement to 48,000 m3/day. Under Package 2 of the AFD funded project LVSWSB it appears that two possible options for the treatment plant of 48,000 and 60,000 m3/day are being considered. However it appears that no steps have been taken to reassess the hydrology for this increased abstraction (or the hydraulics of the pipelines included under Package 1). The hydrology does not appear to have been re-evaluated since the original LTAP report. The original work undertaken for the LTAP was superficial and contains errors. It was based on flow records for the period 1933-1974 (no readings after this date are available). The analysis considers only mean monthly flows (recorded at gauging weir RGS 1HA4 located near to the plant) rather than daily flows. The analysis undertaken then subtracts the average monthly demand (based on 36,000 m3/day) from the mean monthly flows, from which the maximum supply deficit is presented. It then concludes that the volume of storage necessary for reliable supply is the deficit (789,840 m3/day), plus 20% for dead storage, which is approximately 1 Mm3). This, of course, only gives you the storage volume required in the average year. The report goes on to recommend a 10m high weir/dam to provide the required storage volume. The LTAP calculations take no consideration of environmental flows in the river downstream of the dam (note - it is argued in the AFD Aide Memoire14 that because the confluence with the Awach River is downstream of the plant this river can supply environmental flow). Using mean monthly flows for dam sizing is not means standard industry practice, as it grossly oversimplifies the river flow regime and will underestimate the storage required for prolonged dry periods. It is permitted in the Kenyan Water Design Manual for small supplies (>10,000 pop). The LTAP analysis also ignored losses during the treatment process which requires additional water to be drawn off at source (a fact noted in the text but not addressed in the calculations). The LTAP did not consider the option of a high dam in the Kibos valley as originally proposed in the study carried out by HPGauff in 1984 which concluded that a Safe Yield (98% reliability) of 40,000 m3/day could be achieved by a 32 m high dam with a storage volume of 6 Mm3. It also suggests that the Kibos valley could support a high dam storing some 28 Mm3 but give no further details. The main issues affecting the current planned developments are: Storage calculations are based on mean monthly flows and therefore underestimate the potential deficits and hence the occurrence of failure of the source.

Extract from AFD Aide Memoire (May 2009) - Deeper analysis of the impact of Kajulu intake on Kibos River has been held during the appraisal mission. It is understood that hydrological review has been implemented by 3 the Consultant, resulting in recommendation for a 1 million m weir on the river, especially to secure Kajulu abstractions during January and February. It is also interesting to note that 2 km downstream the weir, the river 3 is joined by Awach River with a long term minimum flow of 27,000 m /day. Nevertheless, the guarantee that the minimum environmental flow from the weir will be maintained according Kenyan environmental regulation (especially for the 2 km stem of river) is still to be established and documented further by the Consultant and LVSWSB.

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The demand analysis is only for the 36,000 m3/day option and doesnt make allowance for losses at the treatment plant. Additional analysis provided by LVSWSB subsequently indicated the following:
Supply m3/day 36,000 48,000 60,000 Required Storage Capacity m3 789,840 1,643,840 2,253,840 Allowance for Dead Storage (10%) m3 78,984 164,384 225,384 Total Storage Requirement m3 868,824 1,808,224 2,479,224 Weir (Dam) Height m 10 16 21

Note original LTAP calculations allowed 20% for dead storage

However this analysis uses the same simplistic approach to yield assessment and is not a methodology recommended for a scheme of this size or importance. Analysis and Results The results of the analysis performed for this study of the proposed Kajulu scheme (using the same flow records) is shown below. With the limited time available, only a few preliminary runs have been completed. However, within the stated assumptions and limitations, it was possible to test a number of different scenarios with respect to the information available and also to check the sensitivity of the results to changes in the input data. The results for these preliminary runs are shown in the table below. The settings for runs were as follows: Daily Demand: up to 60,000 m3/day Treatment plant losses: 5% Dead water storage level: 20% Reservoir starting level: 100% Environmental flow: Varies from 0 m3/d to the Q95 value (this will have a high impact on yield calculations at 15,413 m3/d) Catchment factor: 1 at present river flow data are not adjusted to take account of the small difference between the catchment areas of the gauging station and the proposed intake location Dam heights: 10 m & 30 m Annual evaporation 2192 mm15 Local annual rainfall 1400 mm16 We have limited our consideration of the dam to a maximum height of 30 m because this is the highest crest for which height storage curves were presented in the LTAP Design Report. We have also limited our consideration to the current proposed dam site due to limitations of time. The analysis defines the safe yield as the flow that can be abstracted with a failure rate of 2 years in 40 i.e. 95%. It must also be recognised that the most recent data is from 1933 to 1974 and will not therefore reflect changes to the flow regime due to catchment development over the last 35 years, or any of the effects attributable to climate change.

15 16

(Vol II 1984 Feasibility Study Background Paper 7) (Vol II 1984 Feasibility Study Background Paper 7)

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Table A Results of Hydrological Review of Options on Kibos River
Dam Height m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 30 Treated Water Output m /day 36,000 36,000 2,900 18,000 36,000 36,000 23,500 38,000 48,000 60,000
3

Case

Environmental Compensation Flow m /day 15413 0 15413 0 15413 0 15413 0 0 0


17 3

Days without full abstraction % 12.3% 4.8% 0.1% 0.2% 4.7% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 3.7% 8.6%

Years without full abstraction % 60% 35% 5% 5% 22.5% 2.5% 5% 5% 22.5% 47.5%

Longest duration without full abstraction days 154 120 11 14 160 13 16 15 152 160 Safe Yield Safe Yield Safe Yield Safe Yield

These results indicate that a dam height of 10 m would have a safe yield of around 18,000 m3/day if no compensation flow was required (Case 4). They also demonstrate how dependent the safe yield is upon WRMAs consideration of the required environmental flow. If WRMA insist upon the full Q95 environmental flow as defined in the Water Act of 2002 then the yield of the proposed 10 m high dam reduces to 2,900 m3/day (Case 3). These results demonstrate the sensitivity of the system and the importance for further analysis of the large dam options. Furthermore, for a 30 m high dam, with no environmental flow provision, the safe yield is 38,000 m3/day. The reliability rapidly diminishes for the larger yields anticipated under LTAP for the same height dam. It has been argued that a lower reliability can be accepted for the Kajulu source because there is always the back-up of Lake Victoria in times of shortage. However, accepting a lower source reliability at Kajulu will reduce the reliable output of the whole system unless additional facilities are provided at Dunga to make up for the deficit. A better approach to this issue would have been to determine the ultimate yield of the catchment (with a dam) and then to devise a phased plan to take advantage of the ultimate potential in-line with the water demand projections rather than the current haphazard approach. It should be noted that there is a need to engage WRMA in the planning of this source development and they will likely require a detailed hydrological assessment. The two cases above show the extreme conditions for the proposed concrete dam, i.e. full compensation and no compensation. Decisions on the level of environmental compensation flow required would be taken by WRMA when considering the abstraction licence application. The scheme was apparently initiated and given approval before NEMA was fully active. The approval for the scheme to proceed was reportedly given on the basis of the environmental chapter in the LTAP Water Design Report of October 2005. The environmental chapter doesnt mention the proposed dam and gives no consideration to the impacts a 10 m high concrete dam storing 1 million cubic metres of water it mentions only a river intake. There is no discussion within the LTAP on catchment protection in order to safeguard the source which could have a significant impact upon the residents of the Kibos valley. It is thought likely that NEMA would require a full EIA for this development.

17

Q95 flow as recommended in 2002 Water Act

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Assumptions and Limitations There are a number of assumptions and limitations that apply to this brief study. These are listed in the table below.
Item Input Data Flow data for gauging station 1HA04 Values taken as provided Perform comparisons with rainfall and other flow records; review the rating curve history and accuracy over the full flow range. Investigate the influence of abstractions and discharges upstream (if any) Investigate climatic variability since 1974 and impacts on flows. Also consider land use impacts and impacts of changes in water use (abstractions / discharges) Obtain locally applicable estimates including seasonal variations. Adjust evaporation and other water balance components with actual reservoir storage/levels Assumption or Limitation Suggestions for Future Work

Data only available from 1933 to 1974

Reservoir rainfall, runoff, evaporation, seepage

Indicative values for annual evaporation and rainfall from Info in Vol II 1984 Feasibility Study Background Paper 7. Evaporation based on maximum surface area. Estimated from small-scale graph in LTAP report Chapter 8 Intermediate values estimated by linear interpolation

Elevation / Area / Volume Relationships

Obtain digitised values Use more sophisticated interpolation technique e.g. cubic spline

Calculations Reservoir inflows Assumed to be the flow at gauge 1H4 with an area correction factor (not used) Missing values in 1HA04 record interpolated using linear interpolation Reservoir water balance Reservoir operating rules Constant (maximum) reservoir area assumed Indicative only reservoir assumed to empty at 20% of storage (dead storage value) and to spill when full. No account taken of physical constraints on draw-off (e.g. location of intake, pumping) No account taken of spillway capacity etc or freeboard for flood control No estimates made for environmental flow requirements (placeholder provided only) Constant (year-round) demand assumed with allowance for treatment plant losses Review assumptions including likely incremental runoff and abstractions/discharges Use a more plausible infilling approach e.g. correlation with another station, or rainfallrunoff modelling Allow estimates to vary with reservoir level (and hence area) in a plausible way See Yield entry below

Review and update previous flood estimates and allowances Assess environmental flow requirements further downstream, including inputs from the Awach river Perform a more detailed analysis of seasonal demand requirements, impact of outages etc

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Results Yield The results provide the number of years with a failure in a given period for different assumed demands, losses, dam heights etc. The results are not probability / return period based Perform a more detailed analysis assuming more realistic operating rules, dead storage values, losses, multipurpose use (if applicable), and seasonally varying control rules (e.g. for water supply, flood control etc). Derive estimates in probability/return period terms. Consider stochastic analyses linked to optimisation criteria

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Appendix 2.2 LTAP Designs Package 1


Observations on Design Drawings Package 1 (This is not a comprehensive check of the drawings, but records observations made whilst reviewing the proposals for this project). Checks / reviews and approvals should be the responsibility of the design consultant) Pipes sizing The pipe details given on the drawings for flow and diameter appear incorrect and dont represent the real design flows (except line 1) where is the hydraulic analysis to support this data?
Pipe Design Flow l/s Line 1 Kajulu to Tank 1 Line 2 Tank 1 Tank 2 Line 3 Tank 2 Ontonglo Line 4 Tank 1 to Kibuye Line 5 Wathorego Nyalenda 417 231 156 417 417 36,000 19,960 13,480 36,000 36,000 600 250 100 350 200 1.5 4.7 19.9 4.3 13.3 3.6 85.6 3580.0 49.6 757.5 Flow m3/day Diameter mm Velocity m/s Headloss m/km Nominal Capacity for pipe diameter (v = 1.5 m/s) l/s 420 75 12 140 50

Other comments:Comments on Drawing 2008/DDR/WS/KIBUYE TANKS/01 This drawing would be inadequate in a feasibility report it is totally unsuitable as a design/construction drawing for the following reasons: 1. The site clearly hasnt been surveyed it is schematic only 2. The area designated for the new tanks is not the size shown there is a public road where the second tank is shown it appears unlikely that the two tanks can be fitted on the site as designed. 3. The incoming pipe from Kajulu is indicated as 700 mm diameter steel it is actually 350 mm diameter in Package 1- the point where it is shown entering the site appears to be private land (the old pipe may not have a formal easement). The pipe is shown just ending, not connected to anything. 4. The new tanks appear to have 2 inlets each (presumably one from Kajulu and one from Dunga), no details are provided of the pipework, no sizing, fittings etc (the details drawing /08 is barely more helpful) 5. Two 600 mm diameter rising mains from Dunga are shown there is only one 6. No connections are detailed for the outlets what is the purpose of the tanks and what flows are expected through each outlet? 7. No scour pipes or drains are shown 8. Additional outlets are indicated from both new tanks to the booster station surely a tee off the main outlet would suffice? 9. There are no setting out dimensions

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Space available for new tanks

Kibuye Service Reservoirs Google Earth Image (above) and Package 1 Design Drawing (below)

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Comments on Drawing 2008/DDR/WS/KIBUYE TANKS/08 This drawing is intended to show the details of the tank pipework it is totally unsuitable as a design/construction drawing for the following reasons: 1. Pipes not drawn to scale distorting the details 2. Only single inlets and outlets are shown although two of each are indicated on drawing /01 3. No flexibility is shown on the exposed pipes flexible couplings are needed, other joints not specified 4. Outlet and Scour details are mixed up (section numbers interchanged) there is no indication of their respective alignments on the plan 5. All of the pipes look undersized no design calcs apparent outlets conveniently larger than inlets since velocities need be less (and hence headlosses) 6. No inlet float valves to prevent overflow, no flowmeters shown 7. Floor slab excessively thick at 500 mm (900 mm at columns) excessive cost? 8. Wall floor joint is rigid not allowing and expansion or contraction of 36 m diameter concrete tank is this acceptable with BS8007 Water Retaining Structures (or equivalent standard) Check?

Comments on Drawing Pipeline Profiles Generally The pipe profiles are incomplete and poorly detailed and are unsuitable as construction drawings for the following reasons 1. Ground and Invert Levels are all incorrect show as 2300-2400 rather than 1200-1300 2. There are no clearly defined start or finish points on plans or profiles 3. Very few fittings are indicates i.e. no bends shown or valves 4. All Air Valves are shown as single orifice where many should be double orifice (note billed as double orifice!) 5. No provision for connections or take-offs along the mains are they all intended as dedicated transmission mains?

Other Observations 1. The hydrology for Kajulu doesnt look convincing 2. Where is Mamboleo Tank location given by LVSWSB is different to that indicated in the Package 1 drawings 3. Theres no site layout for Mamboleo Tank the pipework arrangement isnt shown does all Kajulu water pass through the tank? 4. Is there sufficient capacity in the 350 mm diameter pipe (Kibuye) and 250 mm diameter pipe (Kanyamedha) to carry full capacity of Kajulu plant earlier table suggest that the capacity is roughly half. 5. The bills of quantities are more detailed than the drawings how were the BoQs produced if there are no proper design drawings?

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Appendix 2.3 Kisumu Water Treatment


Notes on visit to Dunga WTP and Intake 21st and 23rd February 2011 Attendees: Martin Kimber Atkins George Olouch Odero KIWASCO Water Production Manager and QA Manager George Odhiambo Odero KIWASCO Mechanical technician Samuel Mamusyule Maintenance Engineer Frederick Wangita Electrical Engineer 1. The purpose of the visit was an initial assessment of the intake at Hippo Point on Lake Victoria and the Dunga Water Treatment Works. The site was inspected and most aspects of the treatment process were visited and discussed. 2. The works generally comprise four stages of development: The initial works at both the intake and the treatment plant were reportedly constructed in 1958. (Block 1) In the late 1970s the treatment plant was extended, with work completed in 1981 or thereabouts (the date of 1968 referred to in the recent reports is incorrect). It was intended to construct a new intake but no trace of this appears to remain and it may be that this was dropped from the scope of works.(Block 2) A further extension of the works together with a new intake was reportedly constructed in 1985.(Block 3) A final stage of expansion, including a new intake pump station was constructed in 2009/2011 with commissioning of the complete works expected in March 2011. (The new inlet pump station was commissioned in two phases, with three pumps commissioned in 2010 and two in 2011) (Block 4) 3. Flow to blocks 1 to 3 all arrives at the inlet to Block 3, where it is split to Blocks 1 to 3. 4. In terms of treatment, Blocks 1 to 3 use the same processes: alum dosing to one raw water main followed by polyelectrolyte dosing at the inlet weir; Sodium carbonate can also be dosed for pH control but it seems it is rarely needed. upflow clarification using square pyramidal upflow sludge blanket clarifiers Rapid gravity filters with air and water backwashing, with the water provided from elevated tanks. Chlorination of the filtered water using calcium hypochlorite Most sludge and backwash water flows to Lake Victoria although some enters a tank where after settlement some water is recycled. 5. Block 4, still some weeks from being commissioned at the time of visit, uses a very similar process, the only noteworthy difference being that clarification uses horizontal settling tanks, and there is a flocculation chamber prior to the clarifiers. Blocks 1 to 3 6. The alum solution is prepared on site in two saturation tanks using a large sieve into which the solid alum is placed. The alum is then transferred under gravity to an improvised dosing facility. This comprises a day tank and chemical dosing pumps housed under a makeshift chamber. The reason for this is that alum dosing was moved from the inlet to one of the raw water rising mains, in order to allow some time for coagulation prior to poly dosing and flow splitting at the inlet. The raw water mains are combined into a single main soon after the dosing point. The arrangement has a very temporary air, with cables and pipes looking very insecure. This is an area of possible improvement. A proper chemical dosing building could be provided to replace the temporary structure and the alum dosing could be improved. Dosing to one main is unsatisfactory as if the main is out of service there could be no ability to dose. Ideally the raw water mains would be combined earlier and the alum dosed into some form of static mixer to maximise coagulation. 7. Polyelectrolyte dosing is very makeshift. Dosing is from a drum mounted above the flow splitting weir, with dosing being a gravity pipe, the rate being controlled by a valve. Again this is an area which could be improved. Better control would be provided with a proper dosing system. Improvements to the alum and poly dosing systems should lead to improved floc formation and more effective clarification.

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8. The clarification seemed to be working reasonably effectively. There was some boiling of the sludge in Block 3, and it seems that this is a relatively common problem. It was said that when the blanket becomes unstable it takes some time for it to re-stabilise. All the clarified water collection channels seemed to work well. There was some floc overflow; this appeared to be most in Block 3 and least in Block 1. One of the four clarifiers in Block 2 was out of service. This was reported to be due to a major leak in the lower pyramidal portion. It was hoped that this had been repaired and the clarifier was to be brought back into service shortly. The clarifiers were said to produce water with a turbidity of around 2 to 3 NTU. The Company would like to be able to increase throughput but it is not possible to identify whether this is practicable without a detailed hydraulic analysis, or site tests. There were no obvious rehabilitation/improvement needs for the clarifiers. If the instability in the sludge blanket in Block 3 is associated with solar warming then providing a shade over the clarifiers would reduce this. 9. The filters in Blocks 1 to 3 were said to have been internally rehabilitated around 2009, with media replaced and the underdrains/air system rehabilitated. Locally sourced media was used but it was sieved on site to produce the required grading. 10. There was stated to be a problem with the elevated backwash water tank serving Blocks 1 and 2. Apparently there is leakage in the backwash valves which means that water is always flowing from the tank, meaning it takes a long time to fill it. Any leaking valves should be identified and rehabilitated or replaced. Given the age of the valving in Blocks 1 and 2 it might be more satisfactory to replace all valving with robust high quality modern valves. 11. The filters in block 3 have a relatively small elevated backwash tank, reported to be 32m3. It seems the intent was to provide a 200 m3 tank but that a much smaller tank was provided. The capacity was stated to be adequate to backwash a single filter, and that the filling rate is approximately 1 m3/minute. The tower appears sized for a larger tank. It seems that the Block 4 filters are also to be backwashed using this tank, and that the current construction contract includes for increasing the size of this tank and providing a new outlet pipe to the Block 4 filters. There is a concern that in the short term, before this work is done it will not be possible to properly backwash the new filters. 12. Based on the water quality data seen in the quarterly reports, where the average treated water turbidity is approximately 4.5NTU, and the discussions on site, where the clarifiers were said to produce water with a turbidity of around 2.5NTU, the filters would appear to be providing little treatment. However it was said that there were regular occasions of poor clarifier performance, and the treated water quality includes for this. It was also said that because of the problems with the elevated tank referred to above, backwashing of the Block 1 and 2 filters was not always very effective. 13. Blocks 1 and 2 are serviced by a single air blower located in the Block 1 filters. This appeared to be in poor condition. The replacement of this blower, ideally with a duty/standby arrangement would appear appropriate. It is understood that the Block 3 blowers will also serve Block 4 and that they are becoming less reliable. If this is correct then the Block 3 blowers should also be replaced. A potential complication is that the air requirements at the new filters may be higher as they are larger. 14. The chlorination system for Blocks 1 to 3 comprises saturation tanks for calcium hypochlorite. Dosing is manually controlled using a gravity feed: there is no dosing pump. The dosing line runs to the inlet to the first treated water tank. There is scope to rehabilitate the chlorination system. Block 4 15. Block 4 is currently under construction. The works were not reviewed in detail but the following observations were noted. 16. There is a separate new 500 mm diameter steel raw water main to Block 4. It is apparently proposed to install a magnetic flow meter at the works where the pipe enters the new works. 17. As for the other streams, there is provision for dosing alum, polyelectrolyte, sodium carbonate, and calcium hypochlorite. The chemical house contains three saturation tanks for each chemical. These as inspected have no pipework installed or openings between each tank. Chemical dosing pumps were in the process of being installed on one tank in each set of three. It seems there will only be duty pumps and no stand-by pumps are to be provided. It was difficult to see how the chemical system could work. The best option would be to treat one tank in each set of three (that with the dosing pump) as a day tank and to pump solution into this from the other two saturation tanks. It was unclear if this will be done. 18. Flow arriving at the works will be dosed with alum and flow along two channels to a common square tank. The purpose of this tank is unclear. It looks as though it was designed as a flocculation tank, but no flocculator is provided. Flow then passes through two low-level outlets to
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tanks preceding each of the two horizontal flow settlement tanks. Each of these tanks has what appears to be two mixers. The mixers use small propellers (approx 200 mm diameter) and would appear to be high speed. The first mixer in each tank is sited above the inlet, and the second is nearby. The arrangement appears odd; if the mixers are high speed then operating them will tend to break up flocs. A more conventional arrangement would be to provide adjustable speed paddle flocculators to encourage flocculation. We were told that this issue had been recognised and that it was proposed to modify the mixers, adding a gearbox and paddles to provide low speed flocculation. The two horizontal tanks appear of conventional design with floors sloping both towards a central sludge channel and the inlet. There is no provision for mechanical sludge removal, and the tanks will need to be regularly emptied for sludge removal. The sludge flows to a small chamber with a baffle wall running across it. It appears that the original design anticipated flow passing over this baffle wall before draining to the lake. The intent would appear to have been to retain heavier solids in the tank. However the design was reportedly modified during construction for hydraulic reasons (presumably the baffle wall was too high to permit full emptying of the tanks) and there is now a low level opening in the baffle wall meaning the baffled chamber serves no useful purpose. The standard of construction appears adequate with respect to the main reinforced concrete structure, but the finishing is very poor. The clarified water then flows to four rapid gravity filters. These were having media installed at the time of the visit. The support gravel appeared to be in two levels, both using local stone. The coarse level used a wide range of sizes, including some very large (100 to 150 mm) stones. The sand media was also stated to be local sand. Superficially the quality of the support gravel and sand media appeared poor, with the media apparently dirty and containing fine material, but this comment is based only on what was seen, without any check on the specification or any analyses of the materials. The new block apparently will connect to the air blowers and elevated backwash water tank constructed for Block 3. It appears that the design envisioned replacing the existing 32 m3 elevated tank with a larger tank, and constructing a new outlet to connect to the new filters. However because of time constraints and local pressure to expand capacity as soon as possible, the plant is to be commissioned before these works are done. It is most probable that it will not be possible to properly backwash the new filters, and if, as it appears, there is fine material in the media it will be difficult to remove this. There is a new treated water pump station. This was designed to house three pumps, and three suctions from the new clear water tank have been provided. However the pumps supplied are too large to fit three into the space available, and only two have been installed. The third pump may be installed in the 1985 pump house.

19.

20.

21.

22.

Lake Victoria Hippo Point Intake 23. The intake is largely as described in the Mouchel Parkman reports. However two new pumps have been installed in the new inlet pumping station. 24. The 1985 intake was not being used. It was said that the pumps were inefficient and that the belt driven pumps needed regular belt replacement. 25. The original intake was being used but it was said that KIWASCO would like to stop using it and only use the new inlet pump station. 26. The new pump station had three pumps installed and operational, and two new pumps recently installed and still to be commissioned. The design is unusual in that the motors and the electrical equipment are installed below lake level, allowing the possibility of their being submerged in the event of a pipe failure. 27. The raw water pipework appeared complex and was not looked at in any detail. I was told that only two 9-inch (225mm) pipes ran to the works from the old intakes and that the larger 400 mm main terminated prior to the site. It seems unlikely that I got the entire picture. 28. The water quality at the intake did appear relatively poor. This is supported by water quality data. The raw water inlets are relatively near to the shore and will tend to extract poor quality water. There appears to be an opportunity to modify the intake to extract water from further into the lake. Before doing this a small programme of water quality sampling an analysis should be done to confirm that water quality improves further from the shore. Other Comments 29. The water supply works at Dunga produce water of relatively poor turbidity. Treated water turbidity is typically around 4.5 NTU. The process used at Dunga would be expected to produce

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water with a turbidity of around 1 NTU. Clarified water would normally have a target turbidity of no more than 5 NTU, and it was reported that this is normally achieved. The Operations staff reported that there were some problems with cavitation of the treated water pumps. This is severe enough to mean that spherical cast iron impellers last less than 6 months. However it seems that this could in part be associated with air entering the suction pipes. When the new stream is operating it is hoped to modify inlets to reduce air entrapment. The Operations staff asked that consideration be given to motorising the valves on the delivery side of the three large pumps. This is because the pumps should be started against a partially closed valve, but operating the valves is difficult. There are several areas where the existing process could be improved. How much improvement is possible is unclear without additional water quality data. Potential areas of improvement to water quality include: Modifying the inlet arrangements at Lake Victoria to improve the quality of the raw water. Improving the dosing and mixing of alum ideally this should be flow proportioned and dosed and mixed at the same time, to maximise coagulation, and minimise alum use; Improving the dosing of polyelectrolyte at present it dribbles from a pipe into the flow over the inlet weir. It would be better to distribute the dose across the weir. Again flow proportioning and the use of a chemical dosing pump appears desirable. It would also appear appropriate to use a carrier water system. The chlorination system requires replacement and upgrading, with flow proportioned dosing of hypochlorite. Provision of a system to settle sludge and backwash water, recycle settled water, and dry the sludge on drying beds. This would prevent waste from entering Lake Victoria but would require only good quality water to be recycled to prevent organisms such as cryptosporidium being recycled. The EIA for the ADF project recognised sludge discharge as an issue and identified mitigation as sludge dewatering but failed to take this forward. The commissioning of the new extension and the new high lift pumps should offer an opportunity to rationalise the existing high lift pumps, scrapping some of the older ones and if necessary purchasing new more efficient pumps. The existing pumps are a real hotchpotch and standardisation would help KIWASCO to efficiently maintain the pumps. The new treatment stream at Dunga ought to perform at least as well as the existing streams but there are some concerns over some aspects of the design. I would guess that until the backwash provision is improved it may be necessary to put unfiltered clarified water into supply most undesirable probably just acceptable if the clarified water has a low turbidity and there is good disinfection. It may prove politically unacceptable not to increase the quantity of water entering supply.

30.

31. 32.

33.

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Appendix 2.4 Kisumu Sewerage


Notes on LTAP Package 3 Construction of Sewerage System, Nyalenda Ponds, and Pumping Stations 1. The document reviewed was Volumes 1 and 2, excluding the Technical Specifications but including priced BoQ. The Technical Specification was subsequently obtained and reviewed, comments follow below. 2. A general comment is that a large proportion of the cost of sewerage is in concrete surround to pipes. Is this really necessary to the extent allowed for? 3. The basic scope of works is: Sewerage in Manyatta and central area.(Bill 2) Nyalenda Waste Stabilization Ponds rehabilitation (Bill 3) Rehabilitation of the Kisat works and some sewers (Bills 4A to 4D) Construction of two new pump stations Mumias Road (actually an existing Station) and Nyalenda STW (Bill 5) Rehabilitation of pump stations Sunset and Kendu (Bill 7A) Construction of Tom Mboya pump station (Bill 7B) Milimani area sewerage (Bill 8) Rehabilitation of Nyalenda Waste Stabilization Ponds II (Bill 9) Tom Mboya College Pump Station (Bill 10)

4. Sewerage in Manyatta and central area comprises 25 km of 300 and 375 sewer in Manyatta and 2.3 km of 225 to 450 mm sewer in the central area; 86 million Ksh of the total of 263 million Ksh is accounted for by concrete surround. This appears excessive. 5. Nyalenda Waste Stabilization Ponds rehabilitation involves extensive remodelling of the existing lagoons which effectively will be totally demolished and re-built. Five new streams will replace the existing three streams. Each stream will comprise an anaerobic pond followed by a facultative pond and four maturation ponds. Whilst there will be improvements associated with the provision of additional maturation ponds, the works proposed seem to be out of all proportion to the benefits that will be derived. A simpler and more cost effective approach would be to add anaerobic ponds but rehabilitate the existing ponds. There are two Bills covering work at Nyalenda: Bill 3 covers only de-sludging of the ponds and repair/rehabilitation of the embankments. This seems foolish as effectively the existing ponds will be destroyed by the new ponds. Bill 9 covers the construction of three new anaerobic ponds and six maturation ponds. It does not include any measured work for the new facultative ponds It also covers construction of new inlet works. There is no allowance for flow measurement. There is provision of rock protection to the new ponds. Replacing of 5.6 km of existing pipe replacing with larger pipes, material not specified in BoQ. Rehabilitation of the civil works including de-sludging. Removing all media from the sludge drying beds and replacing it. Comprehensive rehabilitation of electrical plant Comprehensive replacement of mechanical plant. This includes rehabilitation of the fine 2-D screen in the oil separator. The maximum flow to the plant appears to be 95 l/s (8,200 m3/day), a surprisingly low peak flow for a plant designed to treat 6,800 m3/day. The BoQ include a chlorination plant is this for the effluent?

6. Rehabilitation of the Kisat works involves:

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The scope appears comprehensive but poorly detailed. The work will be difficult and will need to be properly supervised. Rehabilitating the screen in the oil separation unit should remove all significant solids and should greatly reduce operational problems. 7. Construction of two new pump stations Mumias Road and Nyalenda STW. The Mumias Road station is actually an existing pump station with three pumps installed, but the BoQ appears to allow for new construction, suggesting the quantities were taken off by someone unfamiliar with Kisumu. The BoQ is inconsistent with the Specifications. Nyalenda STW has three pumps of 300 m3/hr, but no price entered (Item 5.2.39). There are no drawings of the pump station in Volume III of the contract documents. 8. Rehabilitation of pump stations Sunset and Kendu. Appears to base quantities on total rehabilitation again it seems the person preparing the BoQ did not appreciate the stations existed. There appears to be no item for new pumps, and no cost against screens (item 7.3.11). 9. Construction of Tom Mboya pump station. Two Bills relate: Bill7B does not appear to specifically itemise new pump station but includes 265 m3 of blinding, which is where most of money is. There are also no pipework, mechanical or electrical works included in Bill 7B. Bill 10 picks up the main station including the main building, pipework, power, and pumps.

10. Milimani area sewerage. This is mainly the construction of 25 km of new concrete sewer, mainly 225 mm diameter (16.8 km) and 300 and 375 (6.2 km). The balance is 450 mm and 600 mm diameter, the latter being a new steel trunk sewer from Gesoko to the WSPs. The value of the Bill is 265.6 million Ksh of which 102.7 million Ksh is for concrete surround. Items 8.2.48 and 8.2.49 are twice repeated in the subsequent 4 items, presumably in error, accounting for almost 12 million Ksh It appears that the quantity of concrete surround is far higher than should be needed. However no concrete surround is included for the steel sewer.

Comments on Drawings 1. I subsequently reviewed an electronic set of drawings (pdfs). I have some specific comments but have not attempted to fully the drawings. Rather I have put down some issues, looking in particular at the treatment works. Addendum Drawing 05 Dwg 402 Rev 0 Kisat Layout of Site Facilities this is a very old background drawing which does not show the fine screen/oil removal facility. Addendum Drawings 09 and 10 Dwg 406 and 497 Rev 0 Kisat Details of inlet works surely the hand raked screen is existing. It is unclear exactly what is proposed and what exists. The drawings are poor but it should be clear from a site inspection. Addendum Drawing 11 Dwg 408 Rev 0 Kisat details of filters Very poor drawing which appears to be a direct copy of that used for expansion 30 or 40 years ago. Unclear what works are proposed. Addendum Drawing 12 Dwg 409 Rev 0 Kisat details of filters but wrongly titled as Konzi Lane P Stn Again this drawing appears to be a direct copy of that used for original construction. Addendum Drawing 19 Dwg 4016 Rev 0 Nyalenda WSPs Plan Drawing appears inaccurate surely the proportions of the facultative ponds differ from that shown they are far longer than shown. It appears to show part of the modified pond arrangement. Addendum Drawings general comment they appear to be little other than a re-packaging of old drawings covering some elements of Kisat, and an incorrect and incomplete plan of the WSPs. One drawing has completely the wrong title suggesting poor checking. Drawing 621 Rev0 Pumphouse Plan Elevation and Section. This is a pumphouse with two diesel pumps delivering to a backwash tank. No location is given and it appears to be a water pumping station is this a mistake? Mumias Road P Stn Drawings there appear to be no levels on these drawings. There is also no location plan and no indication of the rising main on the sewer plans.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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10. The anaerobic ponds at Nyalenda are all shown as having the same TWL. In practice the first stream will take well over 20% of the flow, because of head losses in the inlet channel. A better arrangement would be to have the pumped main discharge half way along the inlet channel with flow going both ways. This would still lead to unequal flow distribution but not as severe as would result from the design shown. A better design would have the TWLs in the anaerobic ponds at different levels to reflect hydraulic conditions in the distribution channel. The best practicable hydraulic solution would be a flow splitting chamber with weir inlets to each of the anaerobic ponds. Given that there is a pumping station at the inlet there is no technical reason why this should not be done, although it would require the screening to be prior to the pump station. There appears to be no proper plan of the existing ponds showing what will be retained and what will be demolished; There is no proper plan of the new works There is no drawing of the new pump station or new screens There is no plan of the outlet other than at the works There are no details of embankment construction It is very unclear how it will be possible to construct the new plant whilst maintaining flow through the existing. Overall the drawings appear deficient, little detail is provided, and in some areas none. The quality of the drawings suggests that no full review has been done and it would be wise to do this urgently, before construction gets under way. A basic concern is the difficulty in relating the drawings to the BoQ and the Specifications. This is a recipe for all manner of problems.

11. The drawings for Nyalenda appear wholly inadequate.

12. There are no details of the Tom Mboya P Stn. 13.

Comments on Specifications The Specification is detailed in general requirements but very lacking in respect of the Particular Specification (Section 16). The electrical and pumping requirements are comprehensive but the other work is poorly covered in very little detail. There is no mention at all of the works to be done on the filter beds, although the BoQ has significant quantities of pipework to be provided. Section 17 covers a water treatment plant and is wholly irrelevant. Conclusions The quality of the BoQ is poor. In some instances existing structures are treated as new structures. There appear to be major deficiencies in the bill for the two treatment works which will lead to problems. The Specifications and drawings are poor and overall what is required is not adequately defined. Whilst in theory this contract will provide the sewers and sewage treatment in practice the contract documents appear to be most likely to provide nothing but problems over a long period of time. Sewerage Needs It is not practicable to define any large scale potential investments at present. Until the on-going sewerage contract is nearer completion, the needs for additional treatment or sewerage is unclear. There are two potential investment needs that do appear to exist over the next two/three years: Provision of house connections to the sewer system. The present contract does not appear to include for any house connections. These are very important if the new sewerage works are to earn sufficient income to cover the costs of financing any loans taken out. (What is the mix of grant and loan finance for the sewerage works?) Sanitation to unsewered areas.

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Appendix 2.5 Proposal from Vitens for Support to KIWASCO

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ANNEX A

Contracting Authority: European Commission

Partnerships for Capacity Development in the ACP Water & Sanitation Sector
Grant Application Form (Part B)

Partnerships for Capacity Building in Sustainable Development and Maintenance of Water Infrastructure in Kisumu and Nakuru, Kenya 10th European Development Fund ACP- EU Water Facility Reference: EuropeAid/129510/C/ACT/Multi Deadline for submission of the Grant Application Form: 25th May 2011

Dossier No (For official use only)

Table of Contents
I. 1 THE ACTION .................................................................................................................................. 3 DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Title......................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Location(s).............................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 Cost of the action and amount requested from the European Commission .......................... 3 1.4 Summary ................................................................................................................................ 4 1.5 Objectives............................................................................................................................... 5 1.6 Relevance of the Action ......................................................................................................... 6 1.7 Description of the action and its effectiveness ....................................................................... 9 1.8 Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 20 1.9 Duration and indicative action plan for implementing the action.......................................... 22 1.10 Sustainability ........................................................................................................................ 24 1.11 Logical framework ................................................................................................................ 26 BUDGET FOR THE ACTION ....................................................................................................... 27 EXPECTED SOURCES OF FUNDING ........................................................................................ 28 APPLICANT'S EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS .............................................................. 29

2 3 4

II. THE APPLICANT .............................................................................................................................. 45 III PARTNERS OF THE APPLICANT PARTICIPATING IN THE ACTION ..................................... 46 1. Description of the partners ....................................................................................................... 46 2. Partnership statements............................................................................................................. 54 ASSOCIATE(S) OF THE APPLICANT PARTICIPATING IN THE ACTION ............................... 55 DECLARATION BY THE APPLICANT ........................................................................................ 56 DECLARATION OF CO-FINANCING .......................................................................................... 57 CHECKLIST ................................................................................................................................. 58

IV V VI VI

PART B. FULL APPLICATION FORM Reference of the Call for Proposals Title of the Call for Proposals Name of the applicant N of the proposal

EuropeAid/129510/C/ACT/Multi Partnerships for Capacity Development in the ACP Water & Sanitation Sector Vitens-Evides International FED/2010/167 I. THE ACTION

1 1.1

DESCRIPTION Title

Partnerships for Capacity Building in Sustainable Development and Maintenance of Water Infrastructure in Kisumu and Nakuru, Kenya 1.2 Location(s)

Kisumu and Nakuru and 17 secondary towns within the service areas of the Lake Victoria South Water and Rift Valley Water Services Boards, Kenya (see map).
Rift Valley WSB service area

Kisumu

Nakuru

Lake Victoria South WSB service area

1.3

Cost of the action and amount requested from the European Commission Amount requested from the EC (B) 983,445 3 % of total eligible cost of action (B/Ax100) 73%

Total cost of the action (A)

1,338,505

1.4

Summary
48 months Increase access to water supply and sanitation services by the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu (25,000 people in Nakuru and Kisumu) Strengthen NAWASSCO/Rift Valley WSB (Nakuru) and KIWASCO/Lake Victoria North WSB (Kisumu) capacity in sustainable development, operation and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure (25% increase in O&M Cost Coverage levels) Scale-up best practices in NRW reduction to 17 peer WSPs through the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South Water Services Boards (District Metering/Caretaker Approach applied by peer WSPs in designated zones with WSB and DWO investment funding for consumer/district/consumer meters) Name: Vitens-Evides International (VEI) EuropeAid ID nr: NL-2010-BTO-1603224830 Nationality: Dutch Type of actor: Water and sanitation utility Name: Hoogheemraadschap de Stichtse Rijnlanden (HDSR) EuropeAid ID nr: See offline PADOR registration form, PADOR derogation has been granted by PADOR helpdesk Nationality: Dutch Type of actor: Local authority Name: Kisumu Water & Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) EuropeAid ID nr: KE-2011-AWS-2804167839 Nationality: Kenyan Type of actor: ACP water and sanitation utility Name: Nakuru Water & Sanitation Services Company (NAWASSCO) EuropeAid ID nr: KE-2011-BFG-1304125827 Nationality: Kenyan Type of actor: ACP water and sanitation utility Name: Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) EuropeAid ID nr: KE-2010-DTB-1305766689 Nationality: Kenyan Type of actor: ACP local authority Name: Rift Valley Water Services Board (RVWSB) EuropeAid ID nr: KE-2010-BAB-1305763584 Nationality: Kenyan Type of actor: ACP local authority Name: Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) EuropeAid ID nr: NL-2008-GDT-2501697861 Nationality: Dutch Type of actor: Non state actor Name: Sustainable Aid in Africa International (SANA) EuropeAid ID nr: KE-2009-FQJ-1612569080 Nationality: Kenyan Type of actor: Non state actor MR-1: Developed and implemented strategy for expanding water and sanitation access to the peri-urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu MR-2: Improved asset management practices for (waste) water treatment facilities and (collection) distribution networks by NAWASSCO and KIWASCO MR-3: Best practices in NRW reduction adopted by a majority of the 17 'peer' WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South Project delivered within planning and budget Establish a Pro-poor Unit dedicated to the improvement of service delivery to the urban poor Develop and implement a Pro-Poor Strategy and Action Plan based on assessed needs and identified opportunities by local stakeholders Prepare and submit at least four project proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund and implement at least two projects Introduce a GIS for asset mapping and a MIS for monitoring Non Revenue Water Develop and implement a Non Revenue Water (NRW) reduction strategy in one pilot zone Improve the operational efficiency of water and wastewater treatment facilities Note: These activities target NAWASSCO and KIWASCO Develop and implement a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme Incorporate best practices in NRW reduction in the performance contracting and management (monitoring & evaluation) framework for WSPs Note: These activities target 17 peer WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria North Water Services Boards

Total duration of the action Objectives of the action

Applicant

Implementing Partner 1

Beneficiary Partner 1

Beneficiary Partner 2

Beneficiary Partner 3

Beneficiary Partner 4

Supporting Partner 1

Supporting Partner 2

Estimated results

Main activities

1.5

Objectives

The overall objective of the project is to strengthen Water Services Provider (WSP) capacity in sustainable development, operation and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure in the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South Water Services Boards (WSBs) in Kenya. Capacity will be strengthened through a partnership between Dutch and Kenyan (North-North) partners and Kenyan peers (South-South). The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) increase access to water supply and sanitation services by the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu, (2) strengthen NAWASSCO (Nakuru) and KIWASCO (Kisumu) capacity in sustainable development, operation and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure, and (3) scale-up best practices in NRW reduction to 17 'peer' WSPs through the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South WSBs. As their Northern counterparts, Vitens-Evides International (representing two large water utilities) and its Implementing Partner Hoogheemraadschap de Stichtse Rijnlanden (a regional water authority) will enter into a partnership with KIWASCO, NAWASSCO and the two WSBs to achieve the following Mandatory Results (MR): 1. Developed and implemented strategy for expanding water and sanitation access to the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu increased access to safe drinking water, sewerage or basic sanitation for 25,000 residents in underserved areas 2. Improved asset management practices for (waste) water treatment facilities and (collection) distribution networks by NAWASSCO and KIWASCO O&M Cost Coverage levels increased by 25% 3. Best practices in NRW reduction adopted by a majority of the 17 'peer' WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South 'District Metering/Caretaker Approach' applied by peer WSPs in designated zones with WSB and DWO investment funding support (consumer/district/consumer meters) The project components and activities have been identified and prioritized jointly with the Beneficiary Partners. In addressing governance issues hampering the extension, quality (service levels) and efficiency of water and sanitation service provision, the action is strongly aligned to documented priorities in the National Water Services Strategy (Ministry of Water and Irrigation, 2007), Pro-Poor Implementation Plan for Water and Sanitation (MoWI, 2009) and IMPACT Performance Report of Kenyas Water Services Sub-sector (WASREB, 2010). The action will directly contribute to the NRW Standard that is currently being developed by the Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB). Furthermore, the action appreciates the added value of Non State Actors. SANA will play an important role in: (a) strengthening community-WSP dialogue and ownership of a Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plans in Kisumu and Nakuru, and (b) up-scaling of a successfully piloted Delegated Management Model to Nakuru. The Action Plans will enable the 2 WSPs to mobilize investment funding through the Water Services Trust Fund and Water for Life Foundation (see text boxes in paragraph 1.7.1). Based on their working experiences with the WSBs, SNV will support them in scaling-up best practices in Non Revenue Water (NRW) reduction to the 17 peer WSPs. To achieve the Mandatory Results (MR), Partners propose the following Activities: 1. (1) Establishment of Pro-poor Unit dedicated to the improvement of service delivery to the urban poor, (2) develop a Pro-Poor Strategy and Action Plan based on assessed needs and identified opportunities by local stakeholders, (3) identify and prioritize promising WatSan investments and prepare/submit at least four project proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF), and (4) implement at least two pro-poor investment projects.
2.

(1) Introduce a Geographic Information System (GIS) for asset mapping and registration, (2) review and refine the existing NRW reduction (management) strategy, (3) develop and implement a Management Information System (MIS) for NRW monitoring, (4) implement the NRW reduction (management) strategy in 1 pilot 'zone', (5) embed NRW management and control in the organisational structure, and (6) develop and implement an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan. Note: Activities under MR 1 and 2 target NAWASSCO and KIWASCO

3. (1) Develop and implement a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme in NRW reduction, and (2) incorporate best practices in NRW reduction in the performance contracting and management (monitoring & evaluation) framework for WSPs. 5

1.6

Relevance of the Action

1.6.1 Relevance to the specific objective and purpose of the Call for Proposals The specific objectives of the proposed action are to: (1) increase access to water supply and sanitation services by the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu, (2) strengthen NAWASSCO (Nakuru) and KIWASCO (Kisumu) capacity in sustainable development, operation and maintenance of water and sanitation infrastructure, and (3) scale-up best practices in NRW reduction to 17 WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South WSBs. Contribution to the Specific Objectives of the Call. Specific objectives 1 and 2 are directly related to the Specific Objectives, namely the sustainable development (coverage expansion), operation and maintenance (technical and commercial performance) of water infrastructure operated by the two WSPs. Specific objective 3 focuses on improving water governance by: (a) scaling-up development impact to 17 peer WSPs, and (b) mainstreaming NRW reduction in the WSP performance contracting and management framework of the Water Services Boards. Contribution to the Purpose of the Call. The capacity of the Beneficiary Partners will be strengthened through a partnership between NAWASSCO, KIWASCO, Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South WSBs and two water sector organizations from the Netherlands, i.e. Vitens-Evides International (VEI) and Hoogheemraadschap de Stichtse Rijnlanden (HDSR). VEI represents Vitens and Evides, the largest water utilities of The Netherlands. Vitens and Evides are water utilities companies that jointly service almost half of the population in The Netherlands ( 7.7 million consumers; over 2,000 employees) with high quality drinking water. HDSR is a regional water authority responsible for surface water management and treatment of wastewater for 750,000 inhabitants within its area of jurisdiction. The Applicant and Implementing Partner will address the capacity constraints that are emphasized under the Call by transferring state-of-the-art expertise, knowledge and learning to their ACP counterparts. The proposed activities under the 3 Mandatory Results (see paragraph 1.5) are explicitly geared towards achievement of the 3 corresponding Objectives under the Call. Contribution of the project to implementation of national and regional water sanitation strategies and programmes The National Water Services Strategy (MoWI) spells out the strategic goals for the water and sanitation sector in Kenya: 1. Increase sustainable access to safe drinking water from 60% to 80% in the urban setting by 2015 2. Reduce Non Revenue Water from the current average of 60% (now 49%) to 30% by 2015 3. Achieve operation & maintenance cost recovery for all water supply and sanitation by 2010 4. Increase access to sewage collection, treatment and disposal from 30% to 40% in the urban area 5. Effluent discharge shall meet the relevant Kenyan standards 6. Increase, in collaboration with other ministries (particularly the Ministry of Health), the access to basic sanitation from 55% to 77.5% in the urban setting. Activities under Mandatory Results 1 (MR 1) will directly contribute to the achievement of goal 1 and 6 and will be guided by national guidelines that are currently being domesticated by the WSBs and WSPs, namely the Pro-Poor Implementation Plan for Water and Sanitation (MoWI 2007), the Implementation Plan for Sanitation (MoWI 2009), the Toolkit for Urban Water Supply Projects and the Household Sanitation Concept (Water Services Trust Fund). Investment funding will be secured through the sectors pro-poor funding institution, the Water Services Trust Fund - through the Urban Project Cycle (WSTF-UPC) basket fund that the EU is co-financing jointly with KfW. Activities under MR 2 will directly contribute to goals 1, 2, 3, and 5. Reductions in NRW (goal 2) will contribute to improved service (goal 1) and cost recovery levels (goal 3). Efficiency improvements of water and wastewater treatment facilities will result in cost reductions (goal 3) and, indirectly, to improvements in the quality of effluent (goal 5). In the longer-term, improved cost recovery levels will enable the WSPs to invest in the expansion of services to the urban poor (goal 1). In relation to goal 2, 1 the action will directly contribute to: a) the evidence-based refinement of the NRW Standard that the Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) is currently developing (MR 2), and b) its accelerated uptake by other WSPs under MR 3. 1.6.2

By utilizing it in refining the existing NRW strategies of the two WSPs (Activity 2.2) and field-testing it under the proposed pilots (Activity 2.4).

1.6.3 Involvement of local non-state actors SANA is a locally registered NGO with a strong track record in facilitating the expansion of water and sanitation services to the urban poor in Kisumu. SANAs experience in brokering relationships between the local community and the mandated institutions is extremely relevant to the proposed activities under MR 1. SANA will play an important role in: (a) development of a Pro-Poor Strategy and Action Plan for the phased expansion of WatSan services to undeserved communities in Kisumu and Nakuru, and (b) implementing the Delegated Management Model (DMM) on a supply line to one of 2 the urban slums Nakuru . Through an in-built incentive structure, the DMM has proven to be effective in expanding service coverage (MR 1) nd reducing NRW within low-income residential areas (MR 2). Supported by VEI and HDSR, the two WSPs will spearhead the development of project proposals for submission to the Water Services Trust Fund and Water for Life Foundation (see text boxes in paragraph 1.7.1). In relation to MR 1, SNV will facilitate exchange and dialogue between NAWASSCO, KIWASCO, SANA and Nairobi Water in: a) mainstreaming of a pro-poor agenda through the establishment of 3 dedicated Pro-poor Units, and b) formalizing water supply through partnerships with NGOs . In relation to MR 3, SNV will team up with VEI Experts in developing and implementing a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme that will capacitate WSB staff to train 17 peer WSPs in implementing best practices in NRW reduction that emerged from the NAWASSCO and KIWASCO pilots. 1.6.2 Relevance of the action to the needs and constraints of the water and sanitation sector in the country/region of the beneficiary partner(s) The Water Act 2002 established three layers of governance in the water services sub-sector in Kenya. The Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) issues Licenses to Water Services Boards (WSBs) for efficient and economical provision of water and sanitation services within their respective service areas. WSBs are responsible for: (a) asset development, and (b) the appointment of Water Services Providers (WSPs) that deliver water and sanitation services to consumers on the basis of 5-year Service Provision Agreements. These agent WSPs are therefore responsible for the daily operation & maintenance of water production and distribution, waste water collection and treatment, billing & collection, and (ultimately) good service to consumers. All institutions ultimately fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI). Since 2006, WASREB monitors the performance of the WSPs and WSBs by measuring and publishing key performance indicators. WASREB underlines the fact that sustainability of service provision remains th key concern. The annual financial loss through NRW is estimated at Kshs. 6.8 Billion - slightly more than 25% of the sector budget for 2008/2009. Development of strategies to reduce NRW levels has to be the top priority for most WSPs (WASREB IMPACT Report 3). High 4 and stagnating NRW levels for NAWASSCO and KIWASCO (47%, 62%) and low O&M Cost Coverage Levels well below WASREBs 150% benchmark for sustainability (118%, 97%) underline the relevance of the proposed activities under MR 2 and 3. Reductions in technical losses will reduce the operating costs while reductions in commercial losses will boost revenues. The fast growing urban population underlines the relevance of the proposed activities under MR 1. While the WSTF-UPC will continue to provide an avenue for WSPs to mobilize the required investment funds, the establishment of (dedicated) pro-poor unit and/or recruitment of a focal person will ensure that a coherent strategy and approach for the extension of WatSan services to the urban poor is institutionalized within the WSPs. The results of a country-wide assessment of all (150+) informal settlements and the 2009 Census will enable the WSPs to: a) develop an evidence-based Strategy and Action Plan to expand service coverage to the most needy areas, and b) secure investment by 5 using survey results that WSTF will use in the evaluation of future proposals. Selection of the mandatory results and synergies with past and ongoing capacity development initiatives The Mandatory Results (MR) are selected on the basis of Beneficiary Partners needs, insights from Supporting Partners, prioritized sector needs (see paragraph 1.6.2) and various rounds of consultations and workshops: In September 2010, VEI, HDSR and SNV consulted all partners to assess and prioritize the needs, objectives and actions in preparation of the Concept Note
2 3 4 5

1.6.3

Successfully piloted and up-scaled in Kisumu. With a focus on the successful collaboration with the Pamoja Trust in the Mathare-Kosovo slums. IMPACT Report 3 figures for FY 08/09. NRW levels for KIWASCO have since reduced to an average of 45%. Commonly referred to as MajiData, an initiative funded by UN-Habitat, KfW and Google.org.

On April 20 , the RVWSB hosted a one day workshop in Nakuru to detail the project scope with Beneficiary Partners. th On May 17 , LVWSB hosted a one day meeting in Kisumu to finalize the proposal. Mandatory Result 1: Developed and implemented strategy for expanding water and sanitation access to the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu In relation to MR 1, partners identified the expansion of service coverage a as high priority. The coverage levels in Nakuru and Kisumu currently stand at 70% and 29% for water services and 73% 6 and 6% for sanitation services. Much lower coverage levels and a fast growing population in the urban slums underline the importance of developing a systematic approach to plan, expand and sustain services to the urban poor. The Bill of Rights in the new Constitution reiterates the need for utilities to be the primary drivers of service provision to all segments of the population, including the poor. Utilities simply cannot rely on non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private sector alone to reach a fast growing urban (poor) population. Mandatory Result 2: Improved asset management practices for (waste) water treatment facilities and (collection) distribution networks by NAWASSCO and KIWASCO The two WSPs identified improved (asset) management practices as a second priority for capacity development support. High and stagnating NRW levels ( 45%) and operational inefficiencies currently undermine the WSPs ability to achieve full cost recovery levels and invest in the expansion of services to the poor. To enable WSPs to sustain their operations and increasingly cover investment costs (to reach out to the undeserved), WASREB stipulates that sustainability requires a O&M Cost Coverage level that is greater than 150%. This is significantly higher than the current O&M Cost Coverage levels for NAWASSCO and KIWASCO - 118% and 97% respectively. Mandatory Result 3: Best practices in NRW reduction adopted by a majority of the 17 'peer' WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South As holders of their (5-yearly) Service Provision Agreement and (yearly) Performance Contracts, the WSBs are mandated and best positioned to stimulate, monitor and enforce performance improvements and scale-up best practices to other urban WSPs: 11 in Rift Valley and 6 in Lake Victoria South. One the one hand, strategies to reduce NRW are considered a top priority for most WSPs (see paragraph 1.6.2). On the other hand, many of the smaller WSPs are excluded from mainstream development funding and Technical Assistance in NRW reduction. Activities will therefore focus on transferring best practices from the two WSPs to their peers. The three Mandatory Results have strong synergies with past and ongoing capacity development initiatives: In relation to all MRs: Over the last 4-5 years, VEI and HDSR have accumulated a wealth of experience in capacity development of ACP counterparts through North-South partnerships. VEI has established Water Operators Partnerships (WOPs) with approximately 30 urban water utilities in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mongolia, Mozambique, Philippines and Vietnam - focusing a.o. on utility performance enhancement and NRW reduction. HDSR has is currently supporting counterparts in Matagalpa (Nicaragua) in extending drinking water sanitation and sanitation services to low-income areas. In relation to MR 2: The project will field-test and contribute to the refinement of the NRW Standard (Guidelines for WSBs and Manual for WSPs) that is currently being developed by WASREB under the JICA-funded Project on Non Revenue Water Management in Kenya. LVSWSB, for example, requested support in their ongoing efforts to support the WSPs in internalizing and operationalizing the NRW Standard, based on ground work under the EU-funded Good Governance Project that comes to an end in November 2011. In relation to MR 2: The VEI/HDSR team will support NAWASSCO and KIWASCO in developing and operationalizing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the (waste) water treatment plants (collection) distribution networks. While some Manuals and SOPs have been developed with AfDB (Rift Valley Water and Sanitation Project) and EU (Good Water Governance Project) support, the Technical Managers expressed the relevance of on-the-job support -e.g. by VEI/HDSR treatment plant operators- to develop the required skills to internalize and implement the guidelines. In relation to MR 2: In Kisumu, Lake Victoria South WSB will leverage Agence Franaise de Dveloppement (AFD) resources towards the procurement of the bulk/district meters for the KIWASCO NRW pilot.
6

th

WASREB IMPACT Report figures for FY 08/09. Note: 6% for KIWASCO is very low because it excludes on-site sanitation.

1.7 1.7.1

Description of the action and its effectiveness Description of the action

Mandatory Result 1: Developed and implemented strategy for expanding water and sanitation access to the urban poor in Nakuru and Kisumu Activities under MR-1 focus on: Institutionalizing a pro-poor focus and agenda within NAWASSCO and KIWASCO through the establishment of Pro-Poor Unit (Activity 1.1) Developing Pro-poor Strategies and Action Plans and scale-up demonstrated approaches (Activity 1.2) Mobilizing resources (Activity 1.3) to expand WatSan service coverage levels to at least 25,000 underserved people in Kisumu and in Nakuru (Activity 1.4). The Pro-Poor Focal Person will ensure that a coherent strategy and approach towards the extension of WatSan services to the urban poor is institutionalized within the WSPs. While SANA, VEI and HDSR will support the WSPs in developing a needs-based Strategy and Action Plan to reach the urban poor, the Focal Person plays a key role in ensuring that it is implemented with: a) mobilized investment funding, and b) recurrent funding of low-cost but effective interventions within the urban slums - see example from Eldoret on the previous page. The project will mobilize resources to expand service coverage levels resulting in access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation for (at least) 25,000 people - through the Water Services Trust Fund and Water for Life Foundation (see text boxes below). Water for Life Foundation www.waterforlife.nl
Vitens and Evides have established a charity foundation named Water for Life. Through this foundation, the utilities enable 3.1 million clients to voluntarily contribute towards water and sanitation projects in developing countries. The foundation provides grant financing for investments in water and/or sanitation infrastructure targeting the urban poor in underserved areas. The projects are identified and supervised by VEI staff and implemented by the local water utilities. Project funding ranges from 75,000 to 150,000. Water for Life currently raises around 1.0 million annually with the Foundations revenues steadily increasing.

Inspired by the Pro-Poor Implementation Plan for Water Supply and Sanitation, the Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company (ELDOWAS) embarked on a mission to reach a growing number of underserved residents with safe drinking water and basic sanitation with support from SNV. In close collaboration with local WaSH stakeholders, including the municipal Public Health and Education departments, owners associations and area development committees, trained youth groups spearheaded a WaSH Campaign particularly aimed at increasing the utilization of the existing sewer system in two undeserved areas - Huruma and Kamakunji. In a 3-month time period, the average monthly connection rate quadrupled from a maximum of 10 to approximately 40, resulting in 115 new connections (25% increase). Stimulated by growing demands from prospective tenants, local champions started converting traditional pit latrines to water borne toilets at minimal costs. The pro-poor team is exploring how they can support other plot owners and neighborhood schools in following their example.

Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF) http://www.wstfkenya.org/ (click on Programme

Urban Programme)

The WSTF is a State Corporation established under the Water Act, 2002 with the mandate to assist in financing the provision of water services to areas of Kenya which are without adequate water services. WSTF initiated an Urban program aimed at funding water and sanitation in the low income urban areas. The Urban programme has three main programmes: Urban Projects Concept (UPC), funded by the EU, KfW and GIZ Ecosan programme, funded by GTZ and SIDA MajiData pro-poor programme, funded by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, and UN-Habitat, KfW and Google

Partners will also monitor the piloting of an innovative citizen feedback mechanism, titled HUDUMA (meaning service in Kiswahili), that will be scaled-up country wide in the second half of 2011. The platform enables citizens e.g. to report leakages, dry taps or water kiosks (in the underserved areas), sewer blockages to an SMS number (3018) or other social media (website, Facebook, Twitter). The voice or concern is then amplified to the respective authority via web, email and sms while simultaneously being visualized on a web platform. The conversation (reporting and feedback) are mainly managed through the huduma channels ensuring a historical thread of the conversation until the problem is resolved or deferred. The resolution is primarily based on the timelines ascribed to by the respective service charters. Partners will assess the extent in which this platform: a) can complement the existing complaint reporting and tracking system within the WSPs, b) and is recognized as such by the Water Services Regulatory Board. Mandatory result 2: Improved asset management practices for (waste) water treatment facilities and (collection) distribution networks by NAWASSCO and KIWASCO MR-2 aims to develop staff and utility capacity for improved (asset) management of (waste) water treatment plants and (collection) distribution networks. In a nutshell, the Activities aim to assist: NAWASSCO and KIWASCO in shaping of a caretaker approach (see text box overleaf) -within a Designated Metering Area- (Activity 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4) that can be replicated in other supply areas after is embedded in the organizational structure and staff performance management framework (Activity 2.5) The WSBs in scaling-up the approach to other WSPs (Activities 3.1 and 3.2) VEI has introduced the caretaker approach to water companies in Ho Chi Minh City (8 million inhabitants) and Danang (800,000 inhabitants) in Vietnam and to Lilongwe (1 million inhabitants) and Blantyre (700,000 inhabitants) in Malawi. Over the last 2 years NRW levels have dropped by over 50% in pilot branches in Ho Chi Minh City. In Danang, NRW levels have dropped from 39% to 26% in the entire service area within the last 2 years. The gains from achieving a 25-50% reduction in NRW levels within the pilot areas are evident when considering the impact that the replication will have on the current NRW levels ( 45%). Reductions in: a) commercial losses will boost the revenue base, while b) technical losses (leakages) will result in cost reductions (pumping and treatment costs) and improved service levels. In turn, improved service levels will improve collection efficiencies if the commitment of staff is sustained through performance-based incentives.
Experience of Vitens-Evides International in capacity development in NRW reduction VEI provides management and technical support in organizing and running NRW reduction programs within its partnership programs and projects in Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia, Mozambique and Vietnam. All programs include support in improving operations management (network mapping by GIS, water balancing and leakage detection) and commercial management (water meter calibration and replacement, detection of unauthorized consumption, improving billing & collection, improving customer relations & service). We also advise our partner utilities on how to institutionalize NRW management in their organizations. Caretaker approach Within a number of our water utility support programs, VEI has successfully introduced the so-called caretaker approach. The principle of this approach is that a designated area manager (a caretaker) is made responsible and accountable for the condition of the secondary & tertiary distribution lines and the water meters in a particular area (typically for 10 to 20,000 households). The caretaker is the first one to be present in case of problems and is mandated to take appropriate action and has the means to do so. The actual performance of the area is reported on a regular basis to higher management based on relevant key performance indicators. NRW monitoring tool VEI experts have developed a balanced score card for NRW monitoring based on the principle of the Plan-DoCheck-Act cycle. The model can be used to monitor the implementation status of NRW measures and evidence-based improvements.

In Kisumu, Nairobi, Muranga and Bungoma Counties.

10

NON REVENUE WATER MONITOR


English

Month: Real losses

February

Year

2011 Apparent losses


(Customer) meter accuracy

Pressure management Speed and quality of repairs

NRW %

19
Unauthorised consumption

Real losses

Apparent losses

Pipeline management and maintenance

Active leak detection Data errors in billing process

Data handling customer accountability

NAWASSCO and KIWASCO also requested support in addressing emerging challenges in operationalizing standard manuals and operating procedures for the (waste) water treatment plants and (collection) distribution network. Since NAWASSCO and KIWASCO largely rely on groundwater for production (90% and 80% respectively), efficiency gains in pumping, filtration (e.g. backwashing) and dosage of chemicals will result in significant cost reductions. While the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan will document proposed refinements to existing manuals and operating procedures, the activities focus on providing on-the-job training. VEI and HDSR staff experience in operating and managing similar (waste) water treatment facilities in The Netherlands enables them to coach their counterparts in translating theory into improved asset management practices. The combined interventions are expected to raise the Cost Coverage levels by 25% with the 48 month duration of the project. Mandatory result 3: Best practices in NRW reduction adopted by a majority of the 17 'peer' WSPs within the service areas of the Rift Valley and Lake Victoria South As holders of their (5-yearly) Service Provision Agreement and (yearly) Performance Contracts, WSBs are best positioned and mandated to stimulate, monitor and enforce performance improvements and by scaling-up best practices from: a) NAWASSCO to 11 other urban WSPs, and b) KIWASCO to 6 urban WSPs. Activities will focus on the transfer of best practices in NRW reduction through a Training of (WSB) Trainers, who in turn will train, stimulate and coach the WSP teams in replicating the demonstrated approach. SNV will support the WSBs in embedding the approach within the existing performance contracting and management framework for WSPs. Existing Performance Contracts require WSPs to report on quarterly progress, including NRW reduction. In Rift Valley, for example, WSPs were expected to prepare and submit a UFW reduction plan by a specified date and reduce UfW by a few percentage points at the end of the year. Experience has shown that there is a need for a mentoring type of relationship whereby the WSP team within the WSB supports and coaches WSPs in implementing elements of the NRW reduction plan, one step at a time. To enable the WSPs to reliably assess current NRW levels, for example, the WSBs need to assist the smaller WSPs by: (a) ensuring that the 8 District Water Offices prioritize investment in bulk/district/consumer meters, and (b) facilitating the bulk procurement of these meters on behalf of all the DWOs. Without these deliberate efforts to assist WSPs establishing current NRW levels, (monitoring) reduction of NRW reduction remains a pipe dream.

Most of the smaller WSPs rely on the DWOs for limited development funds ( 30,000 per year).

11

1.7.2

Description and costs of activities to achieve mandatory results

Activity 1.1 Establish a Pro-poor Unit dedicated to the improvement of service delivery to the urban poor
Start: month 3 Lead partner: VEI, HDSR, SNV Time inputs: VEI/HDSR Pro-Poor Water/Sanitation Experts Supporting partner: SANA (13 days combined), SANA WatSan Expert (19 days), Target group: Technical, Commercial, HR SNV ToT Specialist (30 days), PM (28 days) Department heads and staff Total costs: 33,598 (incl. 2,500 for activity costs) (5 persons) Deliverable: ToR prepared for the Pro-Poor Unit and Focal Person, Pro-poor Focal Persons recruited Based on documented experiences in setting up of pro-poor units to improve service delivery to the underserved, partners: (a) will facilitate an exposure visit to WSPs with experience in establishment of Pro-poor Units and partnerships with local NGOs (Nairobi Water Company and Pamoja Trust), and (b) support KIWASCO/NAWASCO in developing a Terms of Reference for the Pro-poor Unit (PPU) and Focal Person (PPFP) who will spearhead the pro-poor agenda within the WSPs. To demonstrate the added value of the FP, the project will fund a low (EUR 600/month) basic salary of two FPs for the first 24 months of the project.

Activity 1.2 Develop a Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan based on assessed needs and identified opportunities by local stakeholders
Start: month 5 Lead partner: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO, SANA Time inputs: PPFPs (24 months), SANA WatSan Supporting partner: VEI, HDSR Expert (57 days), VEI Pro-poor Water (14 days)/HDSR Target group: Pro-poor Focal Persons, Sanitation (23 days) Expert, PM (28 days) Technical and Commercial Department staff Total costs: 53,950 (incl. 5,000 for activity costs) (10 persons), Customer Service Officer, Zonal Deliverable: Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan Managers, beneficiary communities, local developed and implemented, Delegated Management stakeholders (e.g. municipal council, owner Model piloted in one underserved area in Nakuru associations, NGOs, CBOs) Where utility staff members are often trained in traditional top-down planning paradigm and unaccustomed or unwilling to: (a) engage with kiosks/public toilet operators, (b) facilitate dialogue with communities, or (c) broker complex neighborhood agreements, the PPFP will do just that. He/she will strengthen utility understanding of poor 9 consumer needs and identify an appropriate range of services that the utility can provide e.g. public taps, (shared) yard taps, private connections, public toilets and household level sanitation (exhausting services). Guided by the Pro-Poor Plan for Water and Sanitation (MoWI, 2007), SANA, VEI and HDSR will support KIWASCO and NAWASSCO in developing a Pro-Poor Strategy and Action Plan that will serve as a guide for the Focal Person in spearheading interventions aimed expanding and sustaining service improvements to prioritized underserved areas. By utilizing the findings of country-wide survey of all (150+) informal settlements (see footnote 5 and Census (2009) data, the Plan will be responsive to the realities on the ground. Based on successful experiences in Kisumu, SANA will support the PPFP within NAWASSCO in implementing the Delegated Management Model on a prioritized water supply line to an underserved area. Prioritized needs will serve as a basis for investment proposals (Activity 1.3).

Activity 1.3 Identify and prioritize promising WatSan investments and prepare/submit at least four project proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund
Start: month 8 Lead partner: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO Time inputs: PPFPs (12 months), SANA WatSan Specialist (19 Supporting partner: VEI, HDSR, SANA, days), VEI Pro-poor Water (9 days)/HDSR Sanitation (15 days) WSBs Target group: PPFPs, Experts, PM (61 days) Technical Department staff (5 persons), Total costs: 43,231 Deliverable: Four proposals submitted by the two WSPs to the beneficiary communities Water Services Trust Fund and Water for Life Foundation On the basis of the completed Strategy and Action Plan, NAWASSCO and KIWASCO will develop at least 4 WatSan proposals for submission to the Water Services Trust Fund and VEIs Water for Life Foundation. The SANA, VEI/HDSR (Pro-Poor) WatSan team will provide backstopping support in proposal development with the latter focusing on applications to the Water for Life Foundation. Proposed interventions will focus, among others, on improving the utilization of the existing water distribution and sewer collection system. Despite the evident sanitation needs (and few sanitation projects funded), for example, the sewer lines and waste water treatment plants of NAWASSCO and KIWASCO are underutilized. KIWASCO estimates that its 2 treatment plants operate at 35% of the maximum capacity (combined). HDSR and SANA will therefore support KIWASCO and NAWASSCO in the identification of sanitation project proposals that will enable beneficiary communities to properly dispose of human waste while simultaneously improving the utilization of the sewer system and treatment works.

In consultation with local WaSH stakeholders e.g. the Municipal Council i.r.t. improvement of on-site sanitation.

12

Activity 1.4 Implement at least two pro-poor investment projects


Start: subject to project approval and funding Lead partner: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO Time inputs: PPFPs (12 months), PM (28 days) Supporting partner: VEI, HDSR Total costs: 16,997 Target group: Technical Department Deliverable: At least two pro-poor investment projects staff (5 persons), PPFPs, beneficiary implemented successfully by NAWASSCO & KIWASCO communities As a result of two successfully completed projects, (at least) 25,000 people are expected to access safe drinking water and/or basic sanitation. This is a very conservative estimate when considering the fact: a) that 2 WSBs have securing funding for 23 projects targeting 18 WSPs in the last 2 years, and b) the Water for Life Foundation (VEI) will also consider project proposals.

Activity 2.1 Introduce a Geographic Information System (GIS) for asset mapping and registration
Start: month 3 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI GIS Expert (84 days), PM (28 days) Supporting partner: WSBs Total costs: 66,337 (incl. 14,400 for GIS software, hardware) Target group: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO Deliverable: GIS-based asset registration system in place and GIS team (10 people: 5 mid-level populated with data on the water production facilities and 25% Management, 5 operational) of the distribution line assets (100% for the pilot area) While a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based asset registry visualizes the location of production facilities, distribution lines and other assets, information on existing assets is currently based on (a limited number of) printed AutoCAD drawings and the institutional memory of staff members. VEIs GIS Expert will support the two WSPs in the formation of a GIS team that will spearhead the data collection and entry process. Team members will be trained in: a) GIS database design, b) the conversion of (existing) AutoCad drawings to the GIS, and c) the use of GPS technology to collect missing- or validate existing data on (waste) water infrastructure - starting with the NRW pilot zones, and d) implementing updating procedures to ensure that information remains up-to-date. VEIs GIS Expert will demonstrate how the data on history of repairs and replacements can be used e.g. in leak detection and asset maintenance and replacement programs. Interdepartmental consultations will culminate in job descriptions and line management responsibilities for the GIS team. As the mandated asset development institution, the WSBs will play an important role in facilitating access to 10 AutoCAD drawings (soft copies in the possession of Consultants) and the recently completed asset valuation . VEI has successfully planned and implemented GIS-based asset databases in a number of water utilities including Accra & Kumasi (Ghana), Danang (Vietnam), Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) and Blantyre & Lilongwe (Malawi) and will facilitate inputs by staff members who have been involved in these related capacity development efforts.

Activity 2.2 Review and refine the existing NRW reduction (management) strategy
Start: month 4 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI NRW (84 days) and MIS (11 days) Experts, Supporting partner: WSB PM (28 days) Target group: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO NRW Total costs: 57,205 team (30 people: 5 top-level/5 mid-level Deliverable: Refined NRW strategy developed & implemented management and 20 operational) The NRW Expert will initially support the two WSPs in establishing current NRW levels using IWA Water Balance methodology and (related) stipulations in the NRW Manual (for WSPs) and Guideline (for WSBs). After establishing the contributions of unbilled consumption, commercial (apparent) losses and physical (real) losses within the supply zones, a roadmap will be developed for the phased implementation of NRW reduction measures - starting with the designated pilot zones. The weight of VEI support will be concentrated in supporting the implementation of these pilots (Activity 2.4) whereby the developed MIS (Activity 2.3) will facilitate progress monitoring. The NRW Manual/Guideline, for example, stipulate that WSPs with NRW levels of 30% or higher should focus on first stage measures aimed at: (a) reducing commercial losses resulting from illegal connections, metering inaccuracies, estimations and data handling errors, and (b) decreasing surface leakage through: public awareness (reporting of surface leakage) installation of bulk/district/consumer meters; and improved (computerized) billing and revenue collection systems NRW levels for KIWASCO and NAWASSCO are still well above 30% (for the system as a whole) with computerized billing and revenue collection systems in place and deliberate efforts to improve public awareness and response to reported leakages. This underlines the importance of a 100% (bulk/district/consumer) metering policy that will enable the WSPs to: quantify NRW losses in all the supply zones through water balancing (District Metering Approach) prioritize zones on the basis of NRW levels, zoom in, plan and prioritize the phased implementation of NRW reduction measures to: (a) reduce commercial losses, decrease (visible) surface leakage, (b) decrease underground leakage, (c) stop recurrence of leakage, and (d) maintain minimum NRW levels.
10

Prepared by the Ministries of Water and Irrigation & Finance, awaiting a Cabinet decision on the (long-awaited) transfer of assets from the municipalities -under the Ministry of Local Government- to the WSBs.

13

Activity 2.3 Develop and implement a Management Information System (MIS) for NRW monitoring
Start: month 4 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI MIS (32 days) and NRW (42 days) Experts, Supporting partner: none PM (28 days) Target group: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO Total costs: 46,670 NRW team (30 people: 5 top-level/5 midDeliverable: Implemented Management Information System level management and 20 operational) (MIS) for NRW monitoring Based the Balanced Score Card Methodology for NRW (see text box on page 12), a Management Information System will be developed on the basis of key NRW indicators. Based on the Plan-Do-Check approach (learning cycle), VEIs MIS Expert will support the NRW team in using the performance management tool to monitor achievements in reduction of unbilled consumption, commercial and technical losses and make evidence-based adjustments to the prioritized NRW measures in the pilot area and (other) supply zones.

Activity 2.4 Implement the NRW reduction (management) strategy in 1 pilot 'zone'
Start: month 11 Time inputs: VEI NRW (42 days) and MIS (11 days) Experts, PM (28 days) Total costs: 236,135 (incl. 100,000 by WSBs for district meters
and 100,000 by project for meter testing & calibration equipment)

Lead partner: VEI Supporting partner: none Target group: NAWASSCO/KIWASCO NRW team (25 people: 5 mid-level management and 20 operational)

Deliverable: NRW levels reduced by 50% within the pilot zones and the learning process documented

The NRW strategies will be tested in designated pilot areas within the service area of each WSP. Key activities include: a) mapping of the distribution network assets and consumer connections (Output Activity 2.1), and b) water balance calculations to quantify real and apparent losses using district and consumer meter readings. On the basis of the established losses, appropriate response measures will be implemented e.g. pertaining to billing, meter reading errors (commercial losses), illegal connections and leakages (technical losses). The effectiveness of the implemented measures will be established -using the MIS- through periodic updates of the water balance. By training operational staff in achievement of NRW reductions, the NRW team -with management support- will be empowered to scale up the approach to the entire service area. The Nakuru pilot will target Southern zone, serving approximately 6,000 households. The Kisumu pilot will target the Milimani zone, serving close to 2,000 consumers. Contrary to the Southern zone in Nakuru, a Designated Metering Area (DMA) still need to be established in the Milimani zone to facilitate water balance calculations. Both WSB have committed EUR 50,000 (over the 4-year project period) to purchase the required district and consumers meters. A separate budget has been included under the project for a consumer meter test pitch (NAWASSCO) and meter testing/calibration equipment (KIWASCO).
Projections of the water distribution network (GIS Shape files) in Google Earth serving as a visual aid to staff in the NRW pilots and planning of network extensions and repairs

(Source: Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company under SNV support)

14

Activity 2.5 Embed NRW management and control in the organizational structure
Start: month 18 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI NRW (42 days) and GIS (42 days) Experts, Supporting partner: PM (28 days) Target group: KIWASCO/NAWASSCO topTotal costs: 64,987 level management including HR and zonal Deliverable: Output-based (NRW reduction) performance managers/caretakers (15 people), GIS team management of zonal managers and sub-zonal (plumber/meter (10 people) reader) teams, GIS team spearheading system-wide data collection and utilization in asset performance monitoring This Activity aims to implement the caretaker approach (see page 12) within the organizational structure and staff performance management framework of the WSPs. Comparative analyses of the district supply (water volume) and consumer sales (water volume and billed/collected revenue) will enable the zonal managers (caretakers) to hold field staff accountable for identifying and addressing losses emanating from leakages, meter reading/dis-functionality and theft. Performance (NRW reduction) based remuneration will create incentive for the zonal managers/caretakers to hold meter readers and plumbers accountable for reductions in commercial and technical losses. NAWASSCO, for example, intends to appoint one plumber and one meter reader to spearhead repairs metering districts consisting of 600 connections. Comprehensive documentation of the learning process and achievements under Activities 2.2 to 2.5 will enable the WSPs to up-scale the approach to other supply zones. With VEI and SNV support, the WSBs will scale-up the field-tested approach to the 17 other WSPs within their respective service areas (Activity 3.1).

Activity 2.6 Develop and implement an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan
Start: month 3 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI Asset Management Expert (189 days), HDSR Supporting partner: none Wastewater Treatment (O&M) Expert (105 days), PM (28 days) Target group: KIWASCO/NAWASSCO Total costs: 157,287 (waste) water treatment plant and Deliverable: Refined and operationalized O&M Manuals and (collection) distribution network operators Standard Operating Procedures; O&M Improvement Plan (20 people) developed and implemented for one (waste) water treatment plant resulting in electricity and chemical dosage efficiency improvements A comparative analysis of best and current practices by VEI and HDSR will culminate in concrete recommendations pertaining to chemical dosage, water conservation and electricity saving measures (e.g. in backwashing of filters), biogas production & utilization, and opportunities to improve the utilization of the (design) capacity- of the sewer system and waste water treatment plants. Based on a review of the current operational performance and Operation & Maintenance (O&M) protocols, the team will: a) refining the existing O&M 11 12 Manuals and Standard Operating Procedures , b) develop and an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan, and c) and assist the operators of the (waste) water treatment plants in operationalizing them through on the on-the-job training. The Operation & Maintenance Improvement Plan will also address the organizational needs (structure, systems, staff) of the WSPs. A holistic training programme that will target operational and managerial staff will enable the WSPs to sustain the asset management improvements.

Activity 3.1 Develop and implement a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme in NRW reduction
Start: month 24 Time inputs: WSB Training of Trainers Specialist (60 days), VEI NRW Expert (42 days), PM (28 days) Total costs: 91,367 (incl. 34,400 for bi-yearly 2-day seminars
with 19 WSPs, 2 staff per WSP)

Lead partner: SNV, VEI Supporting partner: WSBs Target group: 4 WSB trainers (WSP team members), 38 representatives from the 19 WSPs (1 technical, 1 commercial)

Deliverable: Field-tested NRW reduction strategy/approach initiated by all 19 peer WSPs Documentation on the learning process and achievements in NRW reduction (Activities 2.1 to 2.5) will serve as a basis for the Training of (WSB) Trainers programme that will target the WSP team members within the WSBs. Through interactive training sessions, the WSB trainers will: a) identify and prioritize the pertinent issues that are hampering progress in NRW reduction, and b) develop action plans to train, facilitate (e.g. funding of district meters) and enforce adherence - Through the existing performance contracting/management framework- to a streamlined approach that is based on the NRW pilot findings.

11 12

Currently being developed under the EU-funded Good Water Governance Project in Lake Victoria South (KIWASCO). Developed under the AfDB-funded Rift Valley Water and Sanitation Project (NAWASSCO).

15

16

Activity 3.2 Incorporate best practices in NRW reduction in the performance contracting and management (monitoring & evaluation) framework for WSPs
Start: month 18 Time inputs: WSB Training of Trainers Specialist (60 days), PM (28 days), VEI MIS Expert (11 days) Total costs: 41,165 Deliverable: NRW reduction approach embedded in WSP Performance contracts, facilitated by funding (meters) and supported through coaching by the WSP team within the WSBs Lead partner: SNV, VEI Supporting partner: WSBs Target group: 4 WSB trainers (WSP team members), 60 representatives from the 19 WSPs (1 technical, 1 commercial, 1 management)

Experience has shown that there is a need for a mentoring type of relationship whereby the WSP team (within the WSB) supports and coaches WSPs in implementing elements of streamlined NRW reduction plans. The NRW Guidelines, for example, stipulate that WSPs with NRW levels of 30% or higher should focus on first stage measures aimed at: (a) reducing commercial losses resulting from illegal connections, metering inaccuracies, estimations and data handling errors, and (b) decreasing surface leakage through: a) public awareness (reporting of surface leakage) b) installation of bulk/district/consumer meters; and c) improved (computerized) billing and revenue collection system Considering the importance of bulk/district/consumer meters in quantifying technical and commercial 13 losses for smaller WSPs, SNV will support the WSBs in the: (a) development of a 100% metering plan, and (b) dissemination a performance management tool that enables WSPs to report on NRW levels in a consistent manner. Funds for the metering plan will be secured through WSB and DWO (see footnote 7) budgets. Activity 4.1 Project Management, Monitoring and Evaluation
Start: month 1 Lead partner: VEI Time inputs: VEI Project Manager (365 days), Project Supporting partner: Beneficiary Partners Assistants (24 months each for NAWASSCO and KIWASCO) Target group: short-term Experts, Total costs: 212,875 (time inputs & per diems) Implementing and Supporting Partners Deliverable: ToRs for short-term Experts, on-the-job training, (internal), EU (external) internal and external (EU) progress reporting Note: total cost excludes purchase or rent of vehicle ( 58,400), office equipment and supplies ( 14,700), 14 other costs and services ( 23,600 ), contingency reserve ( 25,000) and administrative costs ( 75,000).

VEIs Project Manager, assisted by a Project Assistance (one for KIWASCO and one for NAWASSCO) will ensure that the activities are implemented within the designated time with the allocated budgets to achieve the Mandatory Results. Activities during the Inception Phase (first two months) will focus on: establishment of project office (in Nakuru and Kisumu), recruitment of the Project Assistants, initiating the procurement of equipment under the project, WSBs (district meters for the pilot zones) and WSPs (consumer meters for the pilot zones). The Work Plan will be refined with inputs from the EU and new insights of Implementing, Beneficiary and Supporting Partners and endorsed during the Inception workshop. VEIs Project Manager will report on progress in achievement of the Mandatory Results in line with EU stipulations. Activity 4.2 Communications and visibility actions
Start: 6 Time inputs: VEI Project Manager, Project Assistants Total costs: 20,000 Deliverable: Fact Sheets summarizing achievements and lessons learned under the 3 Management Results, joint seminars with other Development Partners Lead partner: VEI Supporting partner: Beneficiary Partners Target group: Implementing and Supporting Partners (internal), EU and other Development Partners (external)

13 14

With significantly lower consumer metering ratios and (often) unmetered production volumes (bulk meters).

Excludes: a) budget lines 5.7, 5.8 and 5.9 as these activity costs are included under Activities 1.1 (5.7) and 1.2 (5.8 and 5.9), and b) budget line 5.12 (visibility actions) included under Activity 4.2.

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Communication and visibility actions (see paragraph 1.8.3) will raise awareness on Project achievements and wider contributions to the development of the sector. Under MR-1, SANA and SNV will prepare a fact sheet summarizing the achievements and emerging lessons in: a) establishing the Pro-poor Unit, b) development of the Pro-poor Strategies and Action Plans, and b) scaling-up of the Delegated Management Model in Nakuru. Under MR-2, the VEI/HDSR team will document the success factors leading to NRW reduction and (waste) water treatment plant efficiency improvements. A bi-yearly newsletter will further improve EU and project visibility to a wider audience including water sector institutions and Development Partners. Joint seminars with other Development Partners supporting the development of the NRW Standard (GIZ, JICA, WB) will further improve the visibility and contribute to the sector-wide impact.

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1.7.3

Role of each partner in achieving the mandatory results

Table 4. Role of each partner in achieving the mandatory results


Total costs Financial Role in the project contributions

Applicant: VEI

Implementing partner:HDSR Beneficiary Partners: KIWASCO, NAWASSCO Beneficiary Partners: RVWSB, LVSWSB

Supporting partner: SANA

VEI will manage the project and facilitate short-term inputs by Vitens and Evides staff and Supporting Partners. Through workshops and on-the-job training, VEI staff will transfer knowledge and experience in improving Beneficiary Partner (staff and organizational) capacity to pilot and scale-up approaches to: a) extend service provision to the underserved, and b) reduce NRW, and c) improve the operational efficiency of the water treatment facilities. HDSR will support NAWASSCO and KIWASCO in improving pro-poor access and the efficiency of the waste water treatment facilities. NAWASSCO, KIWASCO and the WSBs will provide office space and appoint focal persons under each result area to coordinate and plan the capacity development interventions and achieve the Mandatory Results. The WSBs will support KIWASCO and NAWASSCO: a) in the preparation and submission of proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund (MR-1), b) co-invest 50,000 each in the required equipment (e.g. district meters) under the NRW pilots (MR-2). The WSBs will also spearhead the up-scaling of best practices to other WSPs (MR-3). SANA, will support recruited Pro-poor Focal Persons in developing and implementing a Propoor Strategy and Action Plan. SNV will provide capacity development support to the WSBs in scaling-up best practices in NRW reduction to 17 peer WSPs within their respective service areas. Includes project management (0.1) and communication and visibility (0.2)

Supporting partner: SNV Project management Subtotal direct eligible costs of the action Contingency reserve Total direct eligible costs of the action Administrative costs Total eligible costs of the action

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1.8 1.8.1

Methodology Organizational structure and proposed team

The chart below depicts the project organisation structure: The Project Directorate (PD) will provide strategic direction to the project. The PD will carry the primary responsibility for project implementation and communication with the EU. The PD consists of Project Director from VEI, an authorized representative of HDSR, and representatives from the two WSPs and WSBs. The Project Manager (PM) will be responsible for the day-to-day management of the project activities, finance and progress reporting. The PMT reports to the PD A small Support Team, consisting of two Project Assistants, a secretary (logistics) and a financial administrator, will support the PM and Activity Teams The Activity Teams will consist of Beneficiary Partner staff and short-term Experts of VEI, HDSR, SANA and SNV - see table below. Under each Mandatory Result, an Activity Team will implement the planned activities and be responsible for the timely achievement of the deliverables and milestones.
Project Directorate Project director VEI, authorized representatives HSR, KIWASCO, NAWASSCO, LVS- and RV-WSBs Project Management Team RPM VEI, project managers KIWASCO, NAWASSCO, LVS- and RV-WSBs Support Staff Project assistant, secretary, accountant, etc Activity team MR-1
Team Project Directorate Project Management Team Support Team Activity Team MR-1 VEI Project Director Project Manager (2) Project Assistant Pro-poor Water Expert (1)GIS, (2)MIS / Planning & Control, (3) NRW, (4)Asset Management Expert Trainer Pro-poor Sanitatio n Expert Wastewater Treatment (O&M) Expert Trainer Train er Training of Trainers Specialist Pro-Poor Focal Person Pro-Poor Focal Person WatSan Specialist

Donor European Commission 10th European Development Fund ACPEU Water Facility

Activity team MR-2


HDSR AR1 KIWASCO AR

Activity team MR-3


NAWASSCO AR RV WSB AR LVS WSB AR SANA AR SNV AR

Activity Team MR-2

Activity Team MR-3


1

Authorized Representative

1.8.2

Procedures for follow up and internal/external evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) will be conducted in line with EC stipulations. A comprehensive M&E procedure will be drafted and submitted for approval to the EC after the contract is awarded. Project M&E will be based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, resulting in evidence-based adjustments in project Activities within the scope of the established Mandatory Results. With reference

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to the Guidelines for Grant Applicants (Reference: EuropeAid/129510/ACT/Multi) and the General Conditions of EC, the following reports will be submitted to the EU for approval: 1. Yearly interim (financial and narrative) report, accompanied with a request for payment, budget forecast and expenditure verification (external audit); 2. Final (financial and narrative) report, 3 months after implementation period. In addition to the general conditions of EC (and special conditions to be provided), the Applicant proposes to use following procedures for M&E: 1. A yearly self-assessment of Beneficiary Partners progress in organizational capacity development and asset management. Based on experience in other Water Operator Partnerships, VEI has developed a tool that is used for this assessment; 2. M&E by the Project Management Team documented in quarterly progress reports. This part of the M&E also contains information about management of factors and actors that can be seen as risks for achieving objectives and mandatory results (risk management). These reports will be assessed by the project directory and advisory board; 3. Bi-yearly monitoring meeting between the Project Directorate, Advisory Board and Project Management Team to decide on required adjustments to the Activities achieve the project objectives and Mandatory Results; 4. Internal review by experts on the implementation of introduced methodologies and technologies; 5. External mid-term and final review to assess whether the the project is on track in achieving the objectives and Mandatory Results using the indicators presented in the logical framework of the proposal (paragraph 1.11). 1.8.3 Communication and visibility plan

The objective of the communication is to raise awareness on project objectives and achievements resulting from EU support. A comprehensive communication and visibility plan will be prepared using the stipulated Communication and Visibility Manual (2010) and the presented draft below.
Kenya Target group Ministry of Water and Irrigation, WASREB, other WSBs Nakuru and Kisumu Municipal councils NAWASSCO and KIWASCO consumers EU and other Development Partners project results, upscaling potential, implications of/for sector reforms (enabling environment) Europe Vitens-Evides employees and consumers, EU citizens Dutch and European water sector

Main objective: Report on project results, upscaling potential, input sector reforms Activity Press release at the start, major achievements and end of the project Billboards at WSP office, mobile text message, info enclosed with bill Bi-yearly newsletter (on paper and digital) summarizing project progress and achievements Publications in journals/ presentations at seminars and conferences, etc. Website information (VEI, WSPs, WSBs)

project results, lessons learned, shareholder value addition

service coverage/ service level increments and efficiency improvements

EU/Dutch value addition in North-South partnership project (MDGs, efficiency gains)

North-South complementarities, project achievements and lessons learned

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1.9 Duration and indicative action plan for implementing the action The planning and phasing of activities during the first are the remaining 3 years are shown in the Tables 6 and 7 below
YEAR 1 No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 Activity description Establish a Pro-poor Unit dedicated to the improvement of service delivery to the urban poor Develop a Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan based on assessed needs and identified opportunities by local stakeholders Identify and prioritize promising WatSan investments and prepare/submit at least four project proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund Implement at least two pro-poor investment projects Introduce a Geographic Information System (GIS) for asset mapping and registration Review and refine the existing NRW reduction (management) strategy Develop and implement a Management Information System (MIS) for NRW monitoring Implement the NRW reduction (management) strategy in 1 pilot 'zone' Embed NRW management and control in the organisational structure Develop and implement an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan Develop and implement a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme in NRW reduction Incorporate best practices in NRW reduction in the performance contracting and management (monitoring & evaluation) framework for WSPs Project Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Project Visibility 5 7 8b 9 4 8a Semester 1 Month 1 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 6 6 7 Semester 2 8 9 10 11 12 Implementing body VEI, HDSR, SNV, SANA WSPs, SANA, VEI, HDSR P1 WSPs, SANA, VEI, HDSR, WSBs WSPs, VEI (Water for Life Foundation) VEI, WSPs, WSBs VEI, WSPs, WSBs VEI, WSPs VEI, WSPs VEI, WSPs VEI, HDSR SNV, VEI, WSBs SNV, VEI, WSBs VEI, Benefciary Partners 10 VEI, Benefciary Partners

Note: Activities 1.1 to 2.6 target NAWASSCO and KIWASCO, Activities 3.1 and 3.2 target 17 'peer' WSPs through the WSBs Milestones 1 Exposure visit to peer WSPs (Nairobi Water Company) 2 ToR established for the Pro-poor Unit and Focal Person 3 Pro-poor focal person recruited 4 GIS-based asset registry in place 5 Assessment and review of the current operational performance and operation & maintenance (O&M) protocols completed 6 Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan developed, Delegated Management Model pilot initiated 7 MIS for NRW monitoring in place 8a Pilot zone GIS (distribution network, other assets, consumer connections) completed for the NRW pilot zones 8b Bulk/district metering of the pilot zone completed by the WSPs with co-funding support from the WSBs 9 NRW pilots initiated in designated zones 10 Bi-yearly newsletter on project progress P1 First proposals submitted on the basis of the Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan

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YEAR 2-4 No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 Activity description Establish a Pro-poor Unit dedicated to the improvement of service delivery to the urban poor Develop a Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan based on assessed needs and identified opportunities by local stakeholders Identify and prioritize promising WatSan investments and prepare/submit at least four project proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund Implement at least two pro-poor investment projects Introduce a Geographic Information System (GIS) for asset mapping and registration Review and refine the existing NRW reduction (management) strategy Develop and implement a Management Information System (MIS) for NRW monitoring Implement the NRW reduction (management) strategy in 1 pilot 'zone' Embed NRW management and control in the organisational structure Develop and implement an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan Develop and implement a Training of (WSB) Trainers programme in NRW reduction Incorporate best practices in NRW reduction in the performance contracting and management (monitoring & evaluation) framework for WSPs Project Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Project Visibility 17 10a 11 13 14 10b 10c 16a 16c X1 Semester 3 Semester 4 Semester 5 Semester 6 Semester 7 Semester 8 Implementing body VEI, HDSR, SNV, SANA 12a P2 X2 P3 X3 15 16b P4 X4 12b P5 X5 P6 X6 12c WSPs, SANA, VEI, HDSR P7 WSPs, SANA, VEI, HDSR, WSBs WSPs, VEI (Water for Life Foundation) VEI, WSPs, WSBs VEI, WSPs, WSBs VEI, WSPs VEI, WSPs VEI, WSPs VEI, HDSR SNV, VEI, WSBs SNV, VEI, WSBs VEI, Benefciary Partners VEI, Benefciary Partners

Note: Activities 1.1 to 2.6 target NAWASSCO and KIWASCO, Activities 3.1 and 3.2 target 17 'peer' WSPs through the WSBs Milestones 10abc Best practices in NRW reduction (emerging from the NRW pilot) incorporated in the Performance Contract for the coming year 11 Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan developed 12abc Pro-poor Strategy and Action Plan refined and updated by the Pro-poor Focal Person on on the basis of emerging evidence from underserved areas and implemented WatSan projects 13 Training of WSB Trainers programme prepared 14 Training of WSB Trainers programme implemented ahead of the new Performance Contract cycle (Financial Year starting in semester 6) 15 GIS asset registry completed (25% of system infrastructure) 16 Documentation of the learning process and achievements in the pilots completed (16a), NRW strategy refined and up-scaling plan prepared (16b), Output-based incentives incorporated in Performance Contracts of zonal 'caretakers' and sub-zonal teams P1P6 (16c) Project proposals prepared and submitted to WSTF-UPC, Water Life Foundation and other funding sources (on a continuous basis) X1X6 Projects implemented on a continuous basis (subject to funding availability) 16 Seminar with JICA, GIZ and other Development Partners on NRW: 'Towards a NRW Standard - Progress and lessons learned in the application of the NRW Guidelines (WSBs) and Manual (WSPs)

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1.10 1.10.1

Sustainability Tangible impact of the action on the operations of the beneficiary partners

The result chain logic of the proposed Action: b) is based on risk analysis that is summarized in the table below, and b) focuses on translating activity outputs into outcomes i.e. commercial/technical/propoor performance improvements and impact (expansion of WatSan coverage).
Pre-conditions and assumptions Top-level management commitment to a propoor agenda (affirmative action) Risks Ad-hoc/projectbased approach without a vision and roadmap Risk mitigation measures Institutionalizing a Pro-poor approach through an establish Unit and recruited Focal Person Focus on implementing Pro-Poor Implementation Plan guidelines pertaining to WSPs Alignment to the existing sector funding mechanisms (Water Services Trust Fund) On-the-job training in piloting NRW reduction measures resulting in a scalable model with in-built incentives for staff performance Commitment by the WSBs to co-fund ( 50,000 each) essential meters and equipment to reliably establish and monitor NRW progress NRW embedded in the staff performance contracting/management framework within the WSP Focus on skills transfer to operationalize existing maintenance manuals, protocols and procedures Documentation of achievements and success factors Training of WSB Trainers approach to strengthen and sustain the up-scaling capacity Coaching, funding (essential equipment e.g. district meters) and enforcement (inclusion in the performance contracting/management framework) by the WSBs Focus of interventions on commercialized urban WSPs which the GoK Task Force proposes to be retained Up-scaling through the: a) WSBs if they are retained, b) envisaged clustering of smaller WSPs with their larger sisters (NAWASSCO and KIWASCO will undoubtedly form the nucleus of these County-oriented clusters), or c) the national Water Services Development Board

WSP/WSB capacity to tackle issues hampering (stagnating) NRW levels

More strategies and board room training without NRW reductions

WSP staff and organizational capacity to sustain operational efficiency improvements after project completion Proven practices are replicated by the WSPs and scaled-up by the WSBs Decentralized WSBs are retained under the ongoing alignment of the Water Act to the new Constitution (National and 47 County Governments) GoK Task Force proposes to merge 8 (decentralized) WSBs in 1 (national) Water Services Development Board

Under MR-1, for example, the development of a Pro-Poor Strategy and Action Plan is a tangible output that will not necessarily translate into the desired outcomes and impact unless the WSPs decide to recruit a Pro-poor Focal Person who will spearhead inter-departmental efforts to drive the pro-poor agenda. By strengthening organizational capacity to mobilize available investment finance from the (GoK/EU/KFW-supported) Water Services Trust, long-term sustainability is further enhanced. Under MR-2, the proposed activities are explicitly geared towards achievement of tangible reductions in NRW and improvements in operational efficiencies of the (waste) water treatment plants. By facilitating on-the-job training of (waste) water utility staff in Kenya through their counterparts from The Netherlands, the transfer of knowledge is based on practical experience as to what works and what does not. Tangible impact in NRW reduction will be achieved by piloting and shaping a scalable approach that is firmly embedded in the organizational structure. Comparative analyses of the district supply (water volume) and consumer sales (water volume and billed/collected revenue) in a caretaker approach (see text box on page 12) will enable top-level management to shape a performance management framework that awards good performers and holds non-performers to account. Similar Water Operators Partnerships (WOPs) with 30 urban water utilities in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mongolia, Mozambique, Philippines and Vietnam underline the Applicants technical know-how and project management experience required to achieve the Mandatory Results.

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1.10.2

Prospects for the project to be replicated and/or scaled-up within the country/region

By testing and contributing to the refinement of the NRW Standard (Manual for WSPs and Guideline for WSBs) that is currently being developed by WASREB with JICA support, the Action support ongoing efforts by WASREB -through the WSBs- to scale-up of best practices in NRW reduction to other WSPs. Under the EU-funded Good Water Governance Project, for example, LVSWSB is currently supporting all 9 WSPs in internalizing and operationalizing the Manual. Documented achievements (fact sheets), success factors and emerging lessons will serve illustrate how a Plan-Do-Check-Act (learning) approach was applied in translating the Manual into good practice. At the WSB level, these experiences will be incorporated in the Training of Trainers programme and rolled-out through WSBWSP seminars. Since the WSP and WSB offices are based in the same cities (Nakuru and Kisumu), seminar participants from the 17 secondary towns will have an opportunity to hear and see -through exposure visits to NAWASSCO and KIWASSCO- how the efficiency achievements were obtained. The same holds for activities aimed at improving the operational efficiency of the (waste) water treatment plants. A comprehensive assessment of existing Manuals and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) -in development of an Operation and Maintenance Improvement Plan- ensures that: a) the project builds on achievements of other programmes instead of re-inventing the wheel, and b) contributes to the refinement of existing manuals and guidelines that can be disseminated to other WSPs through the WSBs.

1.10.3

Maintaining the achievements (mandatory results) as a permanent asset to the beneficiary partners

Vitens-Evides International and its partners recognize that capacity development of water utilities should focus on the: individual, organization and sector (inter-organizational collaboration and enabling environment). The proposed action addresses these three levels by: a) transferring knowledge and practical skills to KIWASCO and NAWASSCO staff, b) facilitating organizational development and change that harnesses these skills in improving utility performance, and c) strengthening WSB capacity to improve the enabling environment (e.g. investment in bulk and district meters) for the Beneficiary Partners to sustain the NRW reduction and efficiency improvement trends. In relation to b), for example, the Pro-poor Unit and NRW performance-based evaluation and remuneration of utility ensures that the achievements are retained as permanent assets to the Beneficiary Partners.

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1.11

Logical framework

The logical framework is depicted on separate (loose-leaf) printout that is based on the prescribed template (Annex C).

26

BUDGET FOR THE ACTION

The budget for the action is depicted on separate (loose-leaf) printout that is based on the prescribed template (Annex B).

27

EXPECTED SOURCES OF FUNDING

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APPLICANT'S EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS

Vitens-Evides International is the international joint venture of the two largest water companies in the Netherlands: Vitens and Evides. VEIs mission is to contribute to UN Millennium Development Goal 7: Halving the number of people in the world without access to clean drinking-water and improved sanitation by 2015. We offer water companies in developing countries technical and management support and help them to improve service quality and coverage to the urban poor, reduce nonrevenue water and improve their financial position. Financial and operational capacity of VEI VEI has due experience in project management. We are currently running international Water Operators Partnership programmes and Project Contracts ranging from 100,000 to 10 million in Africa and Asia. In addition, we coordinate and supervise projects that are granted by the Water for Life Foundation, the customer charity fund of Vitens and Evides, with a total value of over 800,000 per year. Through VEI, Vitens and Evides make their technical expertise available for international partnerships and projects. Vitens and Evides have more than 100 years of experience in water supply and are ranked among the worlds leading water utilities. The expertise and time inputs of over 2,000 staff members of both companies are available for VEI to utilize within partnerships and projects. VEI has sufficient management capacity to handle ACP-EU Water Facility projects. VEI is an integrated part of Vitens and Evides and in practice functions as a department of both water companies. It draws upon the resources and infrastructure of the mother companies including the ICT infrastructure, finance and accounting systems, office space, etc. All VEI staff is seconded from Vitens or Evides. This makes the VEI team very flexible for extension when new projects are acquired. The VEI team currently consists of 24 people, a CEO, a CFO, five experienced project directors, twelve excellent project managers and four financial and administrative support staff. VEI has stable and sufficient financial sources. Vitens and Evides jointly provide an annual base-fee of 2.5 million to VEI to acquire and co-fund new projects. They will increase this base-fee in steps to 4.0 million per year by 2015. In addition, VEI is running projects financed by Dutch development cooperation and International Financing Institutions of approximately 7.5 million per year. Company information Vitens www.vitens.nl Annual turnover: 475 million Number of staff: 1500 Connections: 2,3 million Water supplied: 330 million m3/year Treatment works: 100 (mainly groundwater) Distribution network: 47,500 km Non-revenue water: 6% Average consumption: 125 lcd 3 Average tariff: 1.34 per m (including VAT)

Evides www.evides.nl Annual turnover: 273 million Number of staff: 550 Connections: 1 million 3 Water supplied: 170 million m /year to domestic 3 customers and 80 million m /year to industrial customers Treatment works: 10 (surface water) Distribution network: 12,500 km Non-revenue water: 7% Average domestic consumption: 125 lcd 3 Average tariff: 1.60 per m (including VAT)

Vitens-Evides International www.vitensevidesinternational.com Annual turnover: 10 million Number of staff: 24 Involved with water supply to 20 million people

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Project title: Drinking water supply services within Vitens' supply area Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) The 475 million per Lead manager Vitens customers (5.4 475 million per year The origins of Vitens N.V. data back more Netherlands year million) than 100 years Objectives and results of the action Vitens NV, the largest water company in The Netherlands, serves 5.4 million people, through 2.3 million (metered) connections. Vitens is a technologically advanced water company with over 100 years of experience in the abstraction, production and distribution of drinking water. Vitens main source of water is ground water. The company operates more than 100 abstraction and treatment stations. Through continuous monitoring, and preventive maintenance programs NRW-levels are below 6%. Vitens has fully mapped its network in a GIS asset management system. Due to its economy-of-scale, Vitens operational costs are amongst the lowest in The Netherlands. The processes of design and implementation of installations and production, treatment and distribution, and the supporting services are 9001 and 14001 ISO certified. Due to its economy-of-scale, Vitens operational costs are amongst the lowest in The Netherlands. Vitens specialists (e.g. water treatment and asset management) play a key role in the Dutch water sector. As a limited liability company, Vitens is (in)directly owned by 2 provincial and municipal authorities. Vitens service area is approximately 10,000 km , comprising rural and urban areas in the Provinces of Friesland, Gelderland, Overijssel, Utrecht and Flevoland. Vitens exists to serve the interest of four key stakeholder groups: its customers, the (general) public, its employees and its shareholders. Project title: Drinking water supply and wastewater services within Evides supply area and beyond Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) The 273 million per Lead manager Evides customers (2.3 273 million per year The origins of Evides data back more than Netherlands year million) 100 years Objectives and results of the action Evides NV, the second largest water company in The Netherlands, serves 2.3 million people, through 1 million (metered) connections, and companies within its service areas. As a limited liability company, Evides is (in)directly owned by provincial and municipal authorities. Evides service area includes the following regions in the Netherlands: the Provinces of Zeeland and a major part of the Province of South-Holland, including the harbour city of Rotterdam. Evides is a technologically advanced water company with over 100 years of experience. Evides main source of water is surface water. The company operates more 10 surface water treatment stations. The processes of design and implementation of installations and production, treatment and distribution, and the supporting services are 9001 and 14001 ISO certified. Evides also has a strong record in supplying water to and treating water of industries through its subsidiary Evides Industrial Water. Evides Industrial Water 3 supplies 80 million m industry water in various specifications to some 60 major clients in the home market and in Germany (Hamburg). In addition, the organisation is responsible for treatment waste water from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and industrial complexes in Vlissingen (Sloe) and in Delfzijl (under construction). It also provides sewage treatment services to the wider The Hague agglomeration using treatment plants at Houtrust (0.4 million p.e. = population equivalent) and the Harnaschpolder (1.3 million p.e., under construction).

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Project title: Management contract aimed at improving the supply of drinking-water Ghanas cities Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed the action action () partner (name) donor) Ghana 10.5 million Lead manager World Bank 10.5 million Objectives and results of the action

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) From June 2006 to June 2011

to

Vitens-Evides International BV (The Netherlands) and Rand Water) have created a 51/49 joint venture named Vitens Rand Water Services Limited (VRWS). VRWS is registered in The Netherlands. VRWS was selected as the successful bidder for a Management Contract issued by the World Bank for Urban Water with the Ghana Water Company Ltd (GWCL). The joint-venture has established a local company, named Aqua Vitens Rand Water Ltd (AVRL) to which some 3,200 staff members from GWCL are seconded. The operations of AVRL cover some 8 million customers of the major cities and towns of Ghana, including Accra and Kumasi. Vitens-Evides International BV holds and has held several positions in the management team of AVRL, including the positions of General manager, Finance manager, Operations director, Commercial director and Human Resources director. Apart from running the daily operations in production, distribution and the billing & collection of water, AVRL has worked on several organisational and managerial improvements towards improved customer focus and service: A programme to improve customer services and customer satisfaction Introduction of a GIS asset database, setting up a GIS department, including capacity building in GIS applications for customer registration and network mapping Building of a hydraulic model for the metropolitan Accra, with 3 million customers Programme for registering illegal customers with GPS and supplying them with water meters and payment arrangements A programme to create District Metering Areas and a leakage detection programme in Accra and other cities to reduce physical water losses Capacity building in business planning, project management, procurement and human resources management Introduction of IT instruments for customer registration, billing & collection and financial management A programme for Interruptions and Emergency Response

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Project title: Utility support programme Nakuru Water and Sewerage Corporation Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed the action action () partner (name) donor) Kenya 420,000 Vitens-Evides African Development 420,000 International (VEI) Bank Objectives and results of the action

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) April 2007 September 2009

to

The Institutional Support to Nakuru Water and Sanitation Company Ltd (NAWASSCO) involved technical assistance in technical and commercial operations, maintenance and accounting/financial management, and putting in place robust Management Information Systems. It also entailed support to improve NAWASSCOs billing and collection efficiency, and training for staff members of the Company. The indicators of achieving the project objectives were: water availability improved from 6 to 24 hours and sanitation services improved in urban areas for 290,000 people in Nakuru with regular billing and collection efficiency increased from 60% to 90% and cost recovery tariffs in place by project completion in 2009. Technical assistance was provided in the fields of: Provision of technical assistance in operations and maintenance to improve operations, billing and collection performance; to meet the reporting obligations to the asset holder (the Rift Valley Water Service Board) and to include consumer survey, block mapping, billing and storage management; Provision of training and on-the-job coaching to complement the rehabilitation works, as part of the measures aimed at reduction of NRW (leak detection and registration, repair works, preparation of maintenance plans, detection and reconciliation of unauthorized consumption); Arrange short term training for key staff of the water utility in the fields mentioned above

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Project title: Private Sector Service Contract (PSSC) to improve the supply of affordable, sustainable and reliable drinking water to the cities Lilongwe and Blantyre. Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Malawi 3.85 million Lead manager The European Union 1.85 million by EU water November 2009 November 2013. facility and the European Investment Bank (EIB), a 48% grant from the Service Contract Malawi ACP-EU Water PSSC 030709 BWB Facility, a 50% loan PSSC 030709 LWB from the EIB and a 2% contribution from the Water Boards. Objectives and results of the action Vitens-Evides International is cooperating with the local drinking water companies of the capital city Lilongwe and Blantyre, the largest cities of Malawi. The objective is to improve the supply of affordable, sustainable and reliable drinking water to the population of both cities (approx. 1.5 million inhabitants). The project also involves the expansion of the drinking water supply to 700,000 people in the poorer areas of the cities. The PSSC project aims to ensure and sustain the provision of reliable 24-hour water supply services to the people of Lilongwe and Blantyre, and to improve living conditions for people in low-income areas by extending safe water supply and basic sanitation services. The PSSC project objectives are to be achieved through a combination of (a) physical investments in upgrading infrastructures, (b) organisational development and efficiency improvement of the Water Boards, (c) reduction of non-revenue water (NRW), and (d) close cooperation with local organisations (NGOs and CBOs) to improve water supply services in low-income areas. Vitens-Evides International and it project partners DHV and Simavi are developing the capacity of both water utilities in the areas of organisation, finances, planning, HRM, water loss control, network modelling, customer administration, delegated management and efficient operation and maintenance. The consortium is involved in the supervision of the 22 million investment fund for extension and replacement of the existing water infrastructure and the establishment of sustainable water services within the low-income communities surrounding Lilongwe and Blantyre. By improving and extending the existing water infrastructure and the managerial capacity of the water boards, the reliability and cost effectiveness of water services may improve, allowing the boards to embark on financially sound operations. This will allow further investments in improved and extended water service provision for the long term. The contract is performance based and includes a base remuneration and incentive scheme according to achievement of specific performance criteria.

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between Ulaanbaatar Water and Sewerage Corporation (USUG) and Vitens-Evides International Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Mongolia 1,4 million Vitens-Evides Royal Netherlands 0,95 million November 2007 October 2010 International (VEI) Embassy, Beijing (China) Objectives and results of the action

to

Ulaanbaatar (the capital of Mongolia) has grown exponentially over the last ten years to approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The project aims to improve the operations and maintenance of water services in order to be able to provide water to more citizens and to become an autonomous, cost-recovery water company. Moreover, it introduces new management concepts and novel operational instruments. The water losses (25%) and the energy use are high, while substantial parts of the city are not connected to the network at all. The municipal wastewater treatment plant is at the edge of its capacity. 60% of the population live in informal areas and are served by water kiosks. One of the main targets is to improve water services to these people. Technical assistance is provided in the fields of: Introduction of GIS asset database, conversion of AutoCAD network drawings Introduction of hydraulic modelling, hydraulic model for the city; various recommendations for improved network management, including pressure management Implementation of an operational department for overall flow and control management pressure including IT and SCADA systems Capacity enhancement of staff and middle management of USUG. Capacity building in GIS, hydraulic modelling, financial management, SCADA, billing & collection, customer surveying and customer care A programme to improve customer services and customer satisfaction Advise on the institutional framework to improve the financial and operational autonomy Improvements of water services to the urban poor in terms of water quality and service deliver, some 30,000 poor people have been connected to the water supply network with funding from the Water for Life Foundation

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between FIPAG and Vitens-Evides International (VEI). Water Supply in Chkw, Inhambane, Maxixe and XaiXai Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Mozambique 8.5 million (1st Lead manager FIPAG; Royal 7.2 million October 2004 - December 2012 phase 3.7 Netherlands Embassy, million; 2nd phase Maputo; and VEI 5.3 million) Objectives and results of the action Vitens-Evides International provides technical assistance and management support to the FIPAG, the national organisation responsible for water supply and asset management in Mozambique. The aim is to improve the management and operations of the water supply operators in the towns Chkw, Inhambane, Maxixe and Xai-Xai (together over 450,000 inhabitants). The overall objective is to create autonomous water companies that provide safe and reliable water services to their customers and that are able to sustain these services, based on efficient use of water and affordable tariffs, related to the level of services and that cover at least the cost of operation and maintenance. The services can be summarised as follows: Financial Management and Customer Services: General Plans and Programs, Customer Service and Financial Management Services Asset and Repair and Rehabilitation Services: Asset Management Improvement Programs, Capital Investment, Small Works and Delegated Works Planning and Implementation, Network Improvement Support and capacity building in general plans and programs: Base Year Data Report, Management Information Systems Plan, Procurement Guidelines, Strategic Business Plan, Annual Business Plans and Annual Operations and Maintenance Budgets, Annual Capital Investment Program Plan, Emergency Response Plan, Staff Training and Development Plan and Merit Payment Program, Environmental Management Plan Daily Management, Operations and Maintenance: Procurement, Service Area Expansion, Tariff Advice and Assistance, New Technologies and Corporate Communications, Financial, Administrative and Regulatory Management, Urban Development and Planning Control Water Operations: General Water Operations Improvement Programs, General Water Operations Services

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between FIPAG (National Asset Holding and Investment Fund) and Vitens-Evides International aimed at improving the supply of water in the cities of Tete, Moatize, Chimoio, Manica and Gondola Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Mozambique 2.4 million; 2nd Lead manager FIPAG; Royal 4.5 million October 2006 September 2012. phase 2.8 Netherlands Embassy, million) Maputo; and VEI Objectives and results of the action Vitens-Evides International provides management and operation support to FIPAG (National Asset Holding and Investment Fund) within the framework of a Water Operators Partnership. The aim is to improve the management and operations of the water supply operators in the towns Tete, Moatize, Chimoio, Manica and Gondola (together over 500,000 inhabitants). The overall objective is to create autonomous water companies that provide safe and reliable water services to their customers and that are able to sustain these services, based on efficient use of water and affordable tariffs, related to the level of services and that cover at least the cost of operation and maintenance. The services can be summarised as follows: Financial Management and Customer Services: General Plans and Programs, Customer Service and Financial Management Services Asset and Repair and Rehabilitation Services: Asset Management Improvement Programs, Capital Investment, Small Works and Delegated Works Planning and Implementation, Network Improvement Support and capacity building in general Plans and programs: Base Year Data Report, Management Information Systems Plan, Procurement Guidelines, Strategic Business Plan, Annual Business Plans and Annual Operations and Maintenance Budgets, Annual Capital Investment Program Plan, Emergency Response Plan, Staff Training and Development Plan and Merit Payment Program, Environmental Management Plan Daily Management, Operations and Maintenance: Procurement, Service Area Expansion, Tariff Advice and Assistance, New Technologies and Corporate Communications, Financial, Administrative and Regulatory Management, Urban Development and Planning Control - Water Operations: General Water Operations Improvement Programs, General Water Operations Services

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Project title: Partnership for improving Urban Sanitation in Mozambique Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action the action action () partner (name) Mozambique 3.4 million Partner Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Objectives and results of the action

Amount contributed donor) 2 million

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) 01/03/2010 28/02/2012

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Vitens-Evides International is cooperating in a consortium with the Frysian Water Alliance (Province of Friesland, the Water Board of the Friesland (Wetterskip Fryslan) and the Union of Friesian Municipalities) on Management Development on Urban Sanitation and Water Services in Mozambique. This project will in its initial two year stage focus on the provision of sanitation facilities in four southern cities in Mozambique, Chkw, Inhambane, Maxixe and Xai-Xai, thereby defining responsibilities and establish local capacities of the four municipalities in the interlinked services in urban drainage, sanitation and solid waste management. The overall goal of this partnership project is to contribute towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7 on poverty eradication and environmental sustainability in Mozambique by realization and proper management of improved water and sanitation services for residents of urban (fringe) areas. The project aims to develop and strengthen the four southern municipalities sanitation departments with human and investments resources, build up capacity and therefore enable them to provide efficient en effective sanitation services towards its population. provide institutional support to organize and sustain responsibilities for public sanitation services at local level, for ca. 400.000 people , provide new facilities (sanitation and solid waste) to over 200.000 people, and ensure functioning of existing facilities for another 200.000 people contribute to capacity building (within the sector and at university level) to develop, manage and operate services and share and disseminate useful management modalities and approaches within Mozambique This will be done in phase two of the overall program. In this later phase the program aims in contributing its services to 1.8 million people.

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Project title: MobiSan (mobile sanitation systems) for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) South Africa 380,000 Partner Partners for Water, 460,000 September 2007 August 2009 Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Netherlands Objectives and results of the action Under this project a mobile sanitation system was developed and piloted for an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. MobiSan consists of a standalone (no water supply, sewerage and/or electricity needed) sanitation unit equipped with 13 toilets and 12 urinals as well as hand washing facilities and a night soil disposal access to serve a community of about 500 people. Toilets are based on urine diversion and faecal matter dehydration. Urine is collected in storage tanks for potential reuse. Faecal matter is dehydrated within the MobiSan resulting in reusable product. The MobiSan unit is continuously staffed with local (community) caretakers (2 per unit), previously trained, responsible for the cleansing, operation and maintenance of the system. It also provides a small caretaker room and the facility is open from 5 am until 9 pm. MobiSan is based on a double-vault system to avoid contact with fresh faeces in the final phase of the treatment process. Urine is diverted from the toilet pan and collected with the urinal flow in a separate storage tank. The faecal matter end up in the first collection chamber and is mixed manually through a mechanical device. When the vault is full its content is transferred to the second chamber with the help of the mixing device while the first one remains in use. In the second chamber the faecal matter is stored for further hygienisation and improvement of the end product quality. Mixing devices in both vaults and over-dimensioned ventilation pipes are supplied in order to remove the moisture content of the faecal matter The pilot project was an experiment to show that communal toilets with a caretaker service are preferred above toilets shared by 5 families. The results show that the service indeed was much better with very high satisfaction rates under the population of the Pooksebos Settlement. A second innovation is the separation of urine and faeces which significantly reduces the emptying frequency. The conventional bucket toilet has to be emptied at least once per week, while the Mobisan only needs emptying every 1-2 months for the urine and 3-6 months for the faecal matter. The project was conducted by a consortium consisting of the Water & Sanitation Services Department of Cape Town, Vitens-Evides International, Landustrie Sneek BV and Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF).This innovative pilot project was started with the support of the Dutch government through Partners for Water funding.

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Project title: Technical assistance in investment programme in drinking-water projects in Great-Paramaribo Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Suriname 1 million Vitens-Evides the Netherlands 1 million January 2005 May 2009. International (VEI) Ministry of Development Cooperation Objectives and results of the action Improvement of the production, quality and availability of drinking water for large groups of the Surinam population in the Paramaribo, Wanica, Para and Commewijne districts. The programme consists of the following: - a drilling programme: rehabilitation and expansion of 30 boreholes; - a treatment programme: upgrading treatment capacity and construction of six new drinking water treatment plants; - rehabilitation of parts of the transport and distribution network; - installation of some 30,000 water meters; - project management.

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between the Evides International Location of Cost of the Lead manager or the action action () partner Vietnam 4.3 million Vitens-Evides International (VEI) Objectives and results of the action

Saigon Water Supply Corporation, the municipal government of Ho Chi Minh City and VitensDonors to the action (name) Royal Netherlands Embassy, Hanoi, SAWACO Amount contributed donor) 2,3 million (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) January 2008 January 2010. to

Vitens-Evides International is assisting SAWACO in Ho Chi Minh City (8 million inhabitants) to reduce NRW and improve the management and maintenance of water services and to provide water services in a sustainable manner. The utility of Ho Chi Minh City produces about 435 million m3 drinking water per annum. NRW is high, 42% of that is lost and therefore generates no income. A related problem is the poor construction and management of the distribution network. There are occurrences of brown and black tap water in the city. In addition to this, the water company has been commissioned to drastically expand the distribution network. Poverty reduction is also high on the citys agenda. Many residents below the poverty line have no house connection or a tap point near their homes. During the project running since 2008, major achievements have been realized in reducing Non-Revenue Water (for a number of branches a reduction of more than 50% to approximately 20% have been achieved). The technical assistance provided includes: Introduce the caretakers approach to reduce NRW Introduce measures and revisions of the organisation to reduce and manage water losses Introduce hydraulic modelling for pressure management (EPA net) Introduce network management based on sustainable asset management principles Capacity building and on the job coaching in NRW reduction measures including introduction of DMAs, active leak detection, water meter replacement and calibration and pressure management, illegal customers reconciliation Advise on the institutional framework to improve the financial and operational autonomy Capacity building of staff and middle management of SAWACO.

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between Da Nang City Drinking Water Company (DWSC), the municipal government of Da Nang and VitensEvides International Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy to the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Vietnam 2.7 million Vitens-Evides Royal Netherlands 2,3 million November 2007 June 2011 International (VEI) Embassy, Hanoi, SAWACO Objectives and results of the action The project aims to reduce NRW and improve the management and maintenance of water services in order to become a professional company supplying water in a sustainable manner. In the end, DWSC should have a much stronger financial position. A better-performing DWSC will also be able to provide sustainable water services to the urban poor. An important success factor for this project is the realisation of a cultural shift at DWSC. In the last 2 years (2009 and 2010) major achievements have been realized in reducing Non-Revenue Water. Overall NRW has reduced from 39% to 26% for the entire company. DWSC is now independently running the introduced NRW programme and is targeting for a more reductions. The technical assistance provided includes: Introduce the caretakers approach to reduce NRW Introduce hydraulic modelling for pressure management (EPA net) Implementation of an operational department for overall flow and control management pressure including IT and SCADA system Introduce network management based on sustainable asset management principles Introduction of IT based support systems for customer care, billing & collection and financial management Capacity building in NRW reduction measures including active leak detection, water meter replacement and calibration and pressure management Capacity building in billing & collection, customer care and financial management Introduce other measures and revisions of the organisation to reduce and manage water losses Advise on the institutional framework to improve the financial and operational autonomy Introduce a program to provide house connections to the urban poor

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Project title: Water Operators Partnership between Taiz Water and Sewerage Corporation (TWSC) and Vitens-Evides International Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action Amount contributed (by Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy the action action () partner (name) donor) dd/mm/yyyy) Yemen 1,25 million Vitens-Evides Royal Netherlands 0,9 million March 2006 February 2009 International (VEI) Embassy, Sana (Yemen) Objectives and results of the action The project encompassed a utility support programme that is consistent with the National Water Sector Strategy and Investment Programme of the Republic of Yemen. TWSLC is providing drinking water and sanitation services to 800,000 people. Taiz suffers from severe water shortages. Insufficient drinking water is available in Taiz. Depending on the season, TWSLC is sometimes only able to supply drinking water once every three weeks per district. Technical assistance was provided in the fields of: Improving the GIS asset database of TWCL Setting up a maintenance protocol including feedback of leakages and repairs to the GIS office Development of a maintenance programme. Improving water distribution rationing in order to improve service delivery Improved management of drinking water supply and sanitation services. Staff training and capacity building. Improved customer service, billing and collection. Support for the implementation of investment programmes

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Project title: Water and sanitation investments by Water for Life Foundation Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action the action action () partner (name) Ghana 491,000 Lead manager Water for Life Foundation Objectives and results of the action

Amount contributed donor) 491,000

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) August 2005 December 2010

to

Vitens-Evides International defines, coordinates, procures, supervises and commissions projects that are granted by the Water for Life Foundation, the customer charity fund of Vitens and Evides. In Bawku & Navrongo existing drinking water pits, tanks and boosters are improved, benefitting 6,500 people In Teshie 8 water kiosks equipped with water storage tanks are established, benefitting 4,000 people In Nsuatre, the water production of the local water utility is increased, benefitting 4,600 people In Zaare, 2 public water taps and 1000 m of connection pipes are established benefitting 2,000 people In Central Region, 45 public water taps and 17,000 m of connection pipes are established benefitting 13,500 people

Project title: Water investments by Water for Life Foundation Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action the action action () partner (name) Mongolia, 480,000 Lead manager Water for Life Ulaanbaatar Foundation Objectives and results of the action

Amount contributed donor) 480,000

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) December 2007 December 2010

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Vitens-Evides International defines, coordinates, procures, supervises and commissions projects that are granted by the Water for Life Foundation, the customer charity fund of Vitens and Evides. The projects in Ulaanbaatar benefitted 28,000 people 28 water kiosks have been connected to the central water supply network (previously truck supplied) and have gained access to continuous supply of safe water

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Project title: Water and sanitation investments by Water for Life Foundation Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action the action action () partner (name) Mozambique 917,500 Lead manager Water for Life Foundation Objectives and results of the action

Amount contributed donor) 917,500

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) August 2005 December 2010

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Vitens-Evides International defines, coordinates, procures, supervises and commissions projects that are granted by the Water for Life Foundation, the customer charity fund of Vitens and Evides. In Xai-Xai, Chkwe, Inhambane, Maxixe, 170 public water taps and a large part of the pipe network were rehabilitated; 8 (chlorine) disinfection units are established; in total benefitting 175,700 people In Chimoio, 10 public water taps and 24 km of network were constructed, benefitting 14,500 people In Gondola, a drinking water production facility and a distribution network were established, benefitting 17,000 people In Tete, a distribution network and 8 public water taps were constructed, benefitting 7,500 people School Sanitation at 6 schools in Xai Xai and Chokwe, benefitting 6,000 pupils

Project title: Water and sanitation investments by Water for Life Foundation Location of Cost of the Lead manager or Donors to the action the action action () partner (name) Vietnam, Da 305,000 Lead manager Water for Life Nang Foundation Objectives and results of the action

Amount contributed donor) 305,000

(by

Dates (from dd/mm/yyyy dd/mm/yyyy) December 2007 December 2010

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Vitens-Evides International defines, coordinates, procures, supervises and commissions projects that are granted by the Water for Life Foundation, the customer charity fund of Vitens and Evides. The projects in Danang have benefitted some 20,000 people In Danang - Can Giouc the water distribution network is rehabilitated In Danang - Khue My 500 household w connected to the water supply network and will have septic tanks In Danang - Tho Quang Ward 500 household are connected to the water supply network and will have septic tanks In Danang - School Sanitation and waste management at 4 schools

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II. THE APPLICANT


15

EuropeAid ID number

NL-2010-BTO-1603224830 Vitens-Evides International (VEI)

Name of the organisation

1.

IDENTITY
16

Legal Entity File number Applicant's Acronym (if applicable) Registration Number (or equivalent) Date of Registration Place of Registration

Not applicable VEI

KvK 081.34.161

06/04/2005 Apeldoorn Reactorweg 47, 3542 AD Utrecht The Netherlands internationaal@vitens.nl +31 (0) 610468841 Ir. Adriaan Mels, PhD Adriaan.Mels@vitens.nl

Official address of Registration Country of Registration E-mail address of the Organisation Telephone number: Country code + number Contact person for this action : Contact persons email address :

15

This number is available to an organisation which registers its data in PADOR. For more information and to register, please visit http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/work/onlineservices/pador/index_en.htm. Leave blank in case Derogation to PADOR has been granted. This applies only to those applicants that have already signed a contract with the European Commission
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16

III

PARTNERS OF THE APPLICANT PARTICIPATING IN THE ACTION

1.

Description of the partners

Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number

Implementing Partner 1 See offline PADOR registration form, PADOR derogation has been granted by PADOR helpdesk Hoogheemraadschap de Stichtse Rijnlanden (HDSR)

Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address E-mail address Number of employees

12 of December 1994 The Hague Local authority Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (Ministry of Infrastructure) The Netherlands Mr. M.J.M. Anten +31306345838

th

+31627090517 +31306345997 P.O. Box 550 3990GJ Houten anten.mjm@hdsr.nl

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Water operator partnership for supporting and reinforcing Experience of similar operation, maintenance and management of waste water actions, in relation to the treatment plants in Fayoum, Egypt from 2009 to date; role in the implementation Implementation of a project for drinking water supply, sanitation, of the proposed action IWRM in Matagalpa, Nicaragua from 2007 to date; Participation in the Urban Matters programme in Kisumu initiated by Cordaid (2009 to date): implementing a one-year advisory project on sanitation and storm water management History of cooperation with the applicant

Participation in the Urban Matters programme in Kisumu initiated by Cordaid since 2009, and implementing a one-year advisory project on sanitation and storm water management, are both done in close cooperation with the applicant.

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address

Beneficiary Partner 1 KE-2011-AWS-2804167839 Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company Limited

1 of July 2003 Kisumu Limited Company; ACP water and sanitation utility P. O. Box 3210, Kisumu, Kenya Kenya Eng. David Oyango +254 (0)57 2024100

st

+254 (0)57 2021604

Nafaka House Opp. Swan Centre, Oginga Odinga Str. P. O. Box 3210, Kisumu, Kenya

E-mail address Number of employees

mdkiwasco@africaonline.co.ke 110

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Direct beneficiary of the AFD-funded Kisumu Water and Experience of similar Sanitation Project (Long-term Action Plan, includes procurement actions, in relation to the of consumer meters) role in the implementation Indirect beneficiary of the EU-funded Good Water Governance of the proposed action Project in efforts by the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board to support WSPs in implementing the NRW Standard (Manual) Participation in the Urban Matters programme in Kisumu initiated by Cordaid (2009 to date): implementation of quick wins in the improving access to safe water, basic sanitation and the promotion of hygiene History of cooperation with the applicant In the last two of the above mentioned projects, VEI, SANA and HDSR are involved as partners.

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address

Beneficiary Partner 2 KE-2011-BFG-1304125827 Nakuru Water and Sanitation Services Company Limited

1 of July 2003 Nakuru Private Law Body; ACP water and sanitation utility P.O. Box 16314 - Nakuru, Kenya Kenya Eng. John Cheruiyot, Managing Director +254 512214148

st

+254 512213532 AFC Bldg, Ground Floor Geoffrey Kamau Way P.O. Box 16314 Nakuru, Kenya mdnawassco@nawassco.co.ke 130

E-mail address Number of employees

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Experience of similar actions, in relation to the role in the implementation of the proposed action

Grant from the African Development Fund (ADF) for implementation of the Rift Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Project (2007-2009) including procurement of consumer meters and limited TA in development of Standard Operating Procedures for water treatment plants and general (limited) training in NRW management Institutional Support for Nakuru Water and Sanitation Company TA in technical and commercial operations, maintenance and accounting/financial management, Management Information System development, support in improvement of billing and collection

History of cooperation with the applicant

VEI was in the consortium (PANAFCON Ltd/Vitens/HHEA/NWSC/ Matrix) of the ADF project

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address

Beneficiary Partner 3 KE-2010-DTB-1305766689 Lake Victory South Water Services Board

12 of March 2004 Nairobi Public Law Body; ACP local authority Ministry of Water and Irrigation, P. O. Box 49720 - Nairobi Kenya Eng. M.O. Ochieng, Chief Executive Officer +254 57 2025128

th

+254 57 2025127 Lavictors House, Off Ring Road Milimani P.O. Box 3325 - Kisumu Kenya

E-mail address Number of employees

info@lvswaterboard.com 45

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Experience of similar actions, in relation to the role in the implementation of the proposed action

Capacity Building under the GIZ-funded Water Sector Reform Programme Agency Franois De Development (AFD) funding of Kisumu Water and Sanitation Project (Long-term Action Plan, includes procurement of consumer meters) Beneficiary of the EU-funded Good Water Governance Project including relevant: a) TA in development of a Pro-Poor Implementation Plan for the WSB and ground work in supporting WSPs in implementing the NRW Standard (Manual), b) procurement (leak detection equipment)

History of cooperation with the applicant

No direct cooperation with the LVSWSB, indirectly by other partners SNV and SANA

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address

Beneficiary Partner 4 KE-2010-BAB-1305763584 Rift Valley Water Services Board

12 of March 2004 Nairobi Public Law Body; ACP local authority Ministry of Water and Irrigation, P.O. Box 49720 - Nairobi

th

Kenya Eng. Japheth Mutai, Chief Executive Officer +254 (051) 2213557

+254 (051) 2214915

Maji Plaza, Prisons Road, off Eldama Ravine Highway, Nakuru P.O Box 2451 - Nakuru

E-mail address Number of employees

info@rvwsb.go.ke 45

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Experience of similar actions, in relation to the role in the implementation of the proposed action

Grant from the African Development Fund (ADF) for implementation of the Rift Valley Water Supply and Sanitation Project (2007-2009) including procurement of consumer meters and limited TA support to NAWASSCO in development of Standard Operating Procedures for water treatment plants and general (limited) training in NRW management

History of cooperation with the applicant

VEI was in the consortium (PANAFCON Ltd/Vitens/HHEA/NWSC/ Matrix) of the ADF project

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration

Supporting Partner 1 NL-2008-GDT-2501697861 SNV - Netherlands Development Organization

1965 The Netherlands Dutch foundation, not for profit, non-governmental SNV HEAD OFFICE Dr. Kuyperstraat 5 2514 BA The Hague The Netherlands The Netherlands Harm Duiker +254 (0)20-3873656

Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address E-mail address Number of employees

+254 (0)20-3873650 P.O Box 30776, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya hduiker@snvworld.org 50

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) SNV is currently supporting: a) Northern, Rift Valley and Tanathi Experience of similar Water Services Boards in strengthening the capacity of 18 periactions, in relation to the urban and 3 rural Water Service Providers to supply sustainable role in the implementation water and sanitation services to 180,000 additional people each of the proposed action year. SNV has supported over 10 WSPs in a process of socially responsive commercialisation, and) Lake Victoria South Water Services Board in implementation of the UNICEF WaSH Programme targeting 5 rural districts. History of cooperation with the applicant Support to VEI in development of two (approved) Concept Notes in response to this EU Call.

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Type of Partner EuropeAid ID number Full legal name PARTNER DETAILS Date of Registration Place of Registration Legal status Official address of Registration Country of Registration Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number Address

Supporting Partner 2 KE-2009-FQJ-1612569080 Sustainable Aid in Africa International (SANA)

2/11/2000 Kisumu, Kenya Non State Actor (NSA) P.O. Box 1137 - 40100 Kisumu Kenya Alfred Okeyo Adongo +254 (57) 2023409

+254 (57) 2026267 Milimani Area Off Ring Road/Tom Mboya Drive P.O. Box 1137 - 40100 Kisumu, Kenya info@sanainternational.co.ke 20

E-mail address Number of employees

PARTNER EXPERIENCE OF SIMILAR ACTIONS (IF ANY) Project Title: Kisumu Situation Analysis for the Cities Without Experience of similar Slums Programme. Budget: Euros 8,000. Donor: UN-HABITAT. actions, in relation to the Key Results: Situation Analysis Report on Conditions of Slums in role in the implementation Kisumu. The report included a Governance Structure with inbuilt of the proposed action mechanism for inclusive programme development approach Project Title: Wandiege Water Supply and Sanitation Project (Manyatta B) Budget: Euros 100,000. Donor: CORDAID, French Embassy, CDF, Community. Results: Established a model for affordable safe water service and proper sanitation for low income residents of informal settlements through construction and reticulation of borehole-supplied water system currently supplying improved water to 5,000 residents of Manyatta B Informal Settlement of Kisumu City 2. 20No Institutional and 100No household latrines and VIP latrines constructed 3. Competent community based Management Board operating the scheme; 4. Construction of 2 No waste and storm water drainage channels ; 6. Promotion of hygiene and sanitation initiatives by the target community; 7. Use of water as an entry point to improve neighbourhood governance leading to formation of Manyatta Resident Association. Time Frame: June 2003 to June 2009

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Project title: Microcredit for sanitation. Target: 3 municipalities of Bondo, Kisii and Homabay in Nyanza province Donor: UNHABITAT: Budget: Euros 134,318.18 Objective: to Improve Environmental Sanitation for low Income Populace through a revolving fund for construction of 900 HH latrines and provide health and hygiene education Results: 592 HH latrines constructed through credit scheme; 788 Households mobilized for sanitation credit savings: 59 HH already started repayments into revolving fund pool. Timeframe: November 2008 to June 2011 Project title: Paga Water Project Budget: 100000Donor: CORDAID/ CDF Objective: Increased access to safe water supply for poverty alleviation; Results: 1. 1No Water Supply system with lake intake treatment constructed and serving 3,500 people through an 8KM distribution system, 8No water kiosks and individual connections. Timeframe: April 2005 to 2009 Project title: Lake Victoria Poverty Alleviation Program Phase II Budget: 50,000 Donor: CORDAID Results: Construction of Obunga water supply project serving 5,000 people; Construction of 10No demonstration Ecosan Units at household levels; Constructed a pay-per-use public latrine at Obunga Infromal settlement serving 1000 residents. In collaboration with KIWASCO, the local residents have had their capacity built and organized as Master Operators under the Delegated Management Model promoted by French Embassy and WSP/Worlbank in Kisumu City as a as a measure for improved pro-poor water coverage and management of Non Revenue Water. Time Frame:: 2007-2009 Project title: SWASH+ (Kisumu, Nyando, Rachuonyo, Suba) Budget: 802368 Donor: Nyando/Kisumu/ Rachuonyo/ Suba Objective: To contribute to the improvement in access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene education in Kisumu, Nyando, Rachuonyo, Suba targeting 1500 schools in Nyanza province Timeframe: August 2006 - May 2008 Project title: Kisumu Urban Water and Sanitation Project Budget: 105,840 Donor: CORDAID Objective: To improve access to safe water supply and basic sanitation in slum and peri-urban areas of Kisumu Municipality; Results: 1. 7No shallow wells protected and installed with hand pumps and serving 3,500 people; 2.10No shallow boreholes drilled/rehabilitated and installed with pumps serving 7,000 people; 3.10No household Ecosans constructed as demonstration latrines 4. Advocated for neighbourhoods service delivery; 5. 45No beneficiaries trained on water supplies management; 6. 24No community members trained on water quality adherence; 7. 40No beneficiaries trained on water resources protection; 8. Health and Hygiene promotion through PHAST History of cooperation with the applicant VEI, HDSR are collaborating with SANA in two relevant projects in Kisumu: a) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Program (Cordaid-funded) and b) Improving Sanitation, Drainage and Water Services in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu (funded by the Bank of Dutch Regional Water Authorities).

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2.

Partnership statements

This form must be completed for each partner organisation within the meaning of section 2.1.2 of the Guidelines for Applicants. You must make as many copies of this sheet as necessary to create entries for more partners. A partnership is a relationship of substance between two or more organisations involving shared responsibilities in undertaking the action funded by the European Commission. To ensure that the action runs smoothly, the European Commission requires all partners to acknowledge this by agreeing to the principles of good partnership practice set out below. 1. All partners must have read the application form and understood what their role in the action will be before the application is submitted to the European Commission. All partners must have read the standard grant contract and understood what their respective obligations under the contract will be if the grant is awarded. They authorise the lead applicant to sign the contract with the European Commission and represent them in all dealings with the European Commission in the context of the action's implementation. The applicant must consult with its partners regularly and keep them fully informed of the progress of the action. All partners must receive copies of the reports - narrative and financial - made to the European Commission. Proposals for substantial changes to the action (e.g. activities, partners, etc.) should be agreed by the partners before being submitted to the European Commission. Where no such agreement can be reached, the applicant must indicate this when submitting changes for approval to the European Commission.

2.

3.

4.

5.

I have read and approved the contents of the proposal submitted to the EC. I undertake to comply with the principles of good partnership practice. Name Organisation Position Signature Date and place

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IV

ASSOCIATE(S) OF THE APPLICANT PARTICIPATING IN THE ACTION

Associate 1 Full legal name EuropeAid ID number


17

Water Services Regulatory Board N/A (Associate Partner) Kenya Public Law Body (Non-commercial State Corporation) NHIF Building, 5th floor Ngong road P.O. Box 4162,0010-GPO Nairobi, Kenya Eng. Gakubia, Chief Executive Officer + 254(0)202733559/61

Country of Registration Legal status


18

Official address

Contact person Telephone number: country code + city code + number Fax number: country code + city code + number E-mail address Number of employees Experience of similar actions in relation to role in the implementation of the proposed action

+ 254(0)202733558 info@wasreb.go.ke 23 WASREB is the mandated to oversee the implementation of policies and strategies relating to provision of water and sewerage services. WASREB sets rules and enforces standards that guide the sector towards ensuring that consumers are protected and have access to efficient, adequate, affordable and sustainable services. A NRW Standard is currently being developed with JICA-support under the Project of Non Revenue Water Management in Kenya None

History of any cooperation with the applicant

17 18

If existing. Associates do not need to register in PADOR. E.g. non profit making, governmental body, international organisation
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DECLARATION BY THE APPLICANT

The applicant, represented by the undersigned, being the authorised signatory of the applicant, in the context of the present call for proposals, representing any partners in the proposed action, hereby declares that

the applicant has the sources of financing and professional competence and qualifications specified in Annex B, worksheet 2: Source of Funding and in Section 4 "Applicant's Experience of similar actions"; the applicant undertakes to comply with the obligations foreseen in the partnership statement of the grant application form and with the principles of good partnership practice; the applicant is directly responsible for the preparation, management and implementation of the action with its partners and is not acting as an intermediary; the applicant and its partners are not in any of the situations excluding them from participating in contracts which are listed in Section 2.3.3 of the Practical Guide to contract procedures for European Commission external actions (available from the following Internet address: http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/work/procedures/implementation/index_en.htm). Furthermore, it is recognised and accepted that if we participate in spite of being in any of these situations, we may be excluded from other procedures in accordance with section 2.3.5 of the Practical Guide; the applicant and each partner is in a position to deliver the supporting documents stipulated under section 2.4 of the Guidelines for Applicants; the applicant and each partner are eligible in accordance with the criteria set out under sections 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 of the Guidelines for Applicants; if recommended to be awarded a grant, the applicant accepts the contractual conditions as laid down in the Standard Contract annexed to the Guidelines for Applicants (Annex G); the applicant and its partners are aware that, for the purposes of safeguarding the financial interests of the Communities, their personal data may be transferred to internal audit services, to the European Court of Auditors, to the Financial Irregularities Panel or to the European Anti-Fraud Office.

The applicant is fully aware of the obligation to inform without delay the European Commission department to which this application is submitted if the same application for funding made to other European Commission departments or Community institutions has been approved by them after the submission of this grant application. Signed on behalf of the applicant Name Signature Position Date CEO 23 May 2011 Dr.Ir. Gerhard van den Top

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VI

DECLARATION OF CO-FINANCING

19

We have read and approved the contents of the proposal submitted to the European Commission. We confirm that if the project is selected for funding by the European Commission, we will co-finance the action for an amount of ... This co-financing declaration is subject to the financial, budgetary and programming rules of our organisation.

Title of the Action Name

Partnership for Performance enhancement of Water and Sanitation Utilities in Kenya through Benchmarking and Collective Learning

Organisation

Position

Signature

Date and place

To be provided by each contributor (not including the applicant) mentioned in Annex B (2: Sources of Funding).
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19

VII

CHECKLIST

BEFORE SENDING YOUR PROPOSAL, PLEASE CHECK THAT EACH OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS IS COMPLETE AND RESPECTS THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: Title of the Proposal: 1. The correct grant application form, published for this call for proposals, has been used 2. The Declaration by the applicant has been filled in and has been signed 3. The proposal is typed and is in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese 4. One original and 3 copy(ies) are included 5. An electronic version of the proposal (CD-Rom) is enclosed 6. Each partner has completed and signed a partnership statement and the statements are included. 7. The budget (Annex B) has been completed, is presented in the format requested, is expressed in and is enclosed 8. The logical framework (Annex C) has been completed, is presented in the format requested and is enclosed 9. The Co-financing Declaration by has been filled in and has been signed by all the organisations contributing to funding the project 10. The duration of the action is equal to or lower than 60 months (the maximum allowed) 11. The duration of the action is equal to or higher than 24 months (the minimum allowed) 12. The requested grant is equal to or higher than 250,000 (the minimum allowed) 13. The requested grant is equal to or lower than 1,000,000 (the maximum allowed) 14. The requested grant is equal to or lower than 75% of the total eligible costs (maximum percentage allowed) 15. Partners (with the exception of local NSAs who are supporting partners without legal personality) are registered in PADOR and all supporting documents have been uploaded. In case a derogation request has been made, Annex K-B and all supporting documents were sent by the applicant 21 days before the deadline for submission of the Full Application Form.

To be filled in by the applicant Yes No

To be filled in by the European Commission Yes No

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Phil Sutherland W S Atkins International Ltd Woodcote Grove Ashley Road Epsom Surrey KT18 5BW England

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