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Labor Law Review Atty Manuel

Labor Law Review Atty Manuel

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LABOR LAW REVIEW

ATTY. MARLON MANUEL
I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
CONSTITUTION Art. XIII, §3.The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to selforganizations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth. Art. II, § 18.The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. Art. III, § 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. LABOR CODE Art. 1. Name of Decree. — This Decree shall be known as the “Labor Code of the Philippines.”

Art. 2. Date of effectivity. — This Code shall take effect six (6) months after its promulgation. (P.D. 442 was made effective on November 1, 1974) Art. 3. Declaration of basic policy. The State shall: afford protection to labor, promote full employment, ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex, race or creed, and regulate the relations between workers and employers. The State shall assure the rights of workers to: a) self-organization, b) collective bargaining, c) security of tenure, and d) just and humane conditions of work. Art. 4. Construction in favor of labor. — All doubts in the implementation and interpretation of the provisions of this Code, including its implementing rules and regulations, shall be resolved in favor of labor. Art. 5. Rules and regulations. — The Department of Labor and Employment, and other government agencies charged with the administration and enforcement of this Code or any of its parts shall promulgate the necessary implementing rules and regulations. Such rules and regulations shall become effective fifteen (15) days after announcement of their adoption in newspapers of general circulation. Art. 6. Applicability. — All rights and benefits granted to workers under this Code shall, except as may otherwise be provided herein, apply alike to all workers, whether agricultural or non-agricultural. Art. 211. Declaration of policy. — A. (a) It is the policy of the State: To promote and emphasize: the primacy of free collective bargaining and negotiations, including voluntary arbitration, mediation and conciliation, as modes of settling labor or industrial disputes;

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(b)

To promote: free trade unionism as an instrument for the enhancement of democracy and the promotion of social justice and development; To foster: the free and voluntary organization of a strong and united labor movement; To promote: the enlightenment of workers concerning their rights and obligations as union members and as employees; To provide: an adequate administrative machinery for the expeditious settlement of labor or industrial disputes; To ensure: a stable but dynamic and just industrial peace; and To ensure: the participation of workers in decision and policy-making processes affecting their rights, duties and welfare. To encourage a truly democratic method of regulating the relations between the employers and employees by means of agreements freely entered into through collective bargaining, no court or administrative agency or official shall have the power to set or fix wages, rates of pay, hours of work or other terms and conditions of employment, except as otherwise provided under this Code. Tripartism and tripartite conferences. —

practicable, be represented in decision and policy-making bodies of the government. (b) The Secretary of Labor and Employment or authorized representatives may from time to time his duly

(c)

(d)

(e)

call a national, regional, or industrial tripartite conference of representatives of government, workers and employers for the consideration and adoption of voluntary codes of principles designed to promote industrial peace based on social justice or to align labor movement relations with established priorities in economic and social development. In calling such conference, the Secretary of Labor and Employment may consult with accredited representatives of workers and employers. CIVIL CODE Art. 1700. The relation between capital and labor are not merely contractual. They are co impressed with public interest that labor contracts must yield to the common good. Therefore, such contracts are subject to the special laws on labor unions, collective bargaining, strikes and lockouts, closed shop, wages, working conditions, hours of labor and similar subjects. Art. 1701. Neither capital nor labor shall act oppressively against the other, or impair the interest or convenience of the public. Art. 1702. In case of doubt, all labor legislation and all labor contracts shall be construed in favor of the safety and decent living for the laborer. Art. 1703. No contract which practically amounts to involuntary servitude, under any guise whatsoever, shall be valid. CASES Phil. Blooming Mills Employees Assoc. vs. PBM, 51 SCRA 189

(f) (g)

B.

Art. 275. (a)

Tripartism in labor relations is hereby declared a State policy. Towards this end, workers and employers shall, as far as

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PBMEO wanted to stage a mass demonstration at Malacanang, against alleged police abuses. PBMEO informed the employer PBM, and told PBM that PBMEO did not intend to prejudice PBM. PBM disagreed saying it would prejudice operations, and said that at least one shift should be present on the day of the rally. PBM warned that should they fail to report, they would be dismissed because of the “no lockout-no strike” clause in the CBA. PBMEO went ahead with the rally and was thus charged with violation of the CBA. The CIR ruled in favor of PBM. Held: The CIR as an agency of the State is under obligation at all times to give meaning and substance to these constitutional guarantees in favor of the working man; for otherwise these constitutional safeguards would be merely a lot of “meaningless constitutional patter”. Under the Industrial Peace Act, the CIR is enjoined to effect the policy of the law. “to eliminate the causes of industrial unrest by encouraging and protecting the exercise by employees of their right to self-organization for the purpose of collective bargaining and for the promotion of their moral, social and economic well-being.” The demonstration held by the employees was against alleged abuses of some Pasig policemen, not against their employer. Said demonstration was completely an exercise of their freedom of expression in general and of their right of assembly and petition for redress of grievances in particular before the appropriate government agency. They exercised their civil and political rights for their mutual aid and protection from what they believed were police excesses. It was to the interest of the firm to protect the employees to rally to the defense of and to take up the cudgels for its employees so that they can report to work free from harassment, vexation or peril and as a consequence perform more efficiently their respective tasks to enhance its productivity as well as profits. The primacy of human rights-freedom of expression, of peaceful assembly and of petition for redress of grievances-over property rights, has been sustained. Philippine Airlines vs. NLRC, 225 SCRA 301 In March 1985, PAL completely revised its Code of Discipline, which was circulated, immediately implemented and caused the imposition of disciplinary sanctions on some employees. PALEA filed a complaint with the NLRC for unfair labor practice, because the Code was arbitrarily implemented without prior notice and discussion of

such with the union. PAL posits that it has the prerogative to prescribe rules and regulations regarding employees conduct in carrying out their functions. Labor Arbiter ruled not guilty of ULP, but must provide all employees with the new Code to discuss any objectionable items. On appeal, NLRC said though adopting Rules of Conduct is a mgt. prerogative, it can no longer exclude labor, and so must let them participate in the review of the Code. Held: The exercise of managerial prerogatives is not unlimited. It is circumscribed by limitations found in law, the CBA, or general principles of fair play and justice. Al line must be drawn between management prerogatives regarding business operations per se and those which affect the rights of employees. In treating the latter, mgt. should see to it that its employees are at least properly informed of its decisions and modes of action. PAL says that by signing the CBA, PALEA in effect recognized PAL’s exclusive right to make and enforce company rules and regulations to carry out the functions of management without having to discuss the same with PALEA, and much less, the latter’s conformity thereto. Such provision in the CBA may not be interpreted as a cession of employees’ rights to participate in the deliberation of matters which may affect their right s and the formulation of policies relative thereto. And one such matter is the formulation of a Code of Discipline. Industrial peace cannot be achieved if the employees are denied their just participation in the discussion of matters affecting their rights. The attainment of a harmonious labor-mgt relationship and the then already existing state policy of enlightening workers concerning their rights as employees demand no less than the observance of transparency in managerial moves affecting employee’s rights. Cebu Royal Plant vs. Deputy Minister of Labor, 153 SCRA 38 Ramon Pilones handled ingredients in the processing of soft drinks. Later he was removed due to “pulmonary tuberculosis minimal”. He filed for illegal dismissal. Regional Director found in favor of employer. However on appeal, the Minister ordered reinstatement, as it was found that he was a permanent employee, and that the ailment was not certified as incurable within six months as to justify separation. Also, the Minister said that the employer should have first obtained a clearance for termination of employment, as required by the regulations then in force.

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Employer insists he was a probationary employee at the time he was dismissed. It is also argued that the regional director’s findings should not be disturbed on appeal, since he had direct access to the facts. Held: Employee should be reinstated. It is shown that employee continued working as usual way beyond the six-month period of probation. Hence he was on permanent status at the time he was dismissed. Also, the record does not contain the certification as required by the Rules. The medical certificate offered by the employer came from its own physician who was not a competent public health authority, and merely stated the employee’s disease without more. We may surmise that if the required certification was not presented, it was because the disease was not of such a nature or seriousness that it could not be cured within a period of six months even with proper treatment. The court reaffirms its concern for the lowly worker who, often at the mercy of his employers, must look up to the law for his protection. LECTURE The management and labor relationship is like a bicycle with a third wheel. The third wheel is the government, which does not convert the bicycle into a tricycle, because it does not intervene in the management-labor relationship. The government allows management and labor to negotiate and determine the terms of the contractual relationship – that is, the fixing of wages, et.al. but government sets the minimum standards. This is the only means by which the government intervenes. However, the relationship between management and labor is not merely contractual. Check the Civil Code Arts. 1700-1703. This emphasizes that the relationship is so impressed with public interest. As such, the third wheel only supports and assists the relationship, not to change the relationship but only to balance a relationship that is inherently imbalanced. An example is the government fixes wage rates in order to avoid abuses against the weaker party. Although in some aspects of labor relations, the government has no power of intervention at all. Check the Constitutional provisions on voluntary modes of settling disputes. In this case the government’s policy of regulation is not equivalent to policy of

intervention. An example of this is drawing up the CBA and modes of dispute resolution. In contrast, the government intervenes through issuance of permits to strike, cease and desist orders or return to work orders. II. EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP LABOR CODE [You can skip these provisions as according to Atty. Manuel, they’re stupid definitions, but in case you want to check it: Art. 97 (b, c, e); Art. 167 (f, g) Art. 212 (e, f)*]

*

Art. 97. Definitions. — or indirectly in the and shall include the instrumentalities, all and institutions, or

(b) “Employer” includes any person acting directly interest of an employer in relation to an employee Government and all its branches, subdivision and government-owned or –controlled corporations organizations. (e) “Employ” includes to suffer or permit to work. Art. 167. Definition of terms. —

(c) “Employee” includes any individual employed by an employer.

(f) “Employer” means any person, natural or juridical, employing the services of the employee. (g) “Employee” means any person compulsorily covered by the GSIS under Commonwealth Act numbered one hundred eighty-six, as amended, including members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and any person employed as casual, emergency, temporary, substitute or contractual; or any person compulsorily covered by SSS under Republic Act numbered eleven hundred sixty-one as amended. Art. 212. Definitions. — (e) “Employer” includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer. (f) “Employee” includes any person in the employ of an employer. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer, unless this Code so explicitly states. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment.

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Art. 106. Contractor or sub-contractor. — Whenever an employer enters into a contract with another person for the performance of the former’s work, the employees of the contractor and of the latter’s sub-contractor, if any, shall be paid in accordance with the provisions of this Code. In the event that the contractor or sub-contractor fails to pay the wages of his employees in accordance with this Code, the employer shall be jointly and severally liable with his contractor or sub-contractor to such employees to the extent of the work performed under the contract, in the same manner and extent that he is liable to employees directly employed by him. The Secretary of Labor and Employment may, by appropriate regulations, restrict or prohibit the contracting out of labor to protect the rights of workers established under this Code. In so prohibiting or restricting, he may make appropriate distinctions between labor-only contracting as well as differentiations within these types of contracting, and determine who among the parties involved shall be considered the employer for purposes of this Code, to prevent any violation or circumvention of any provision of this Code. There is “labor-only” contracting where the person supplying workers to an employer does not have substantial capital or investment in the form of tools, equipment, machineries, work premises, among others, and the workers recruited and placed by such person are performing activities which are directly related to the principal business of such employer. In such cases, the person or intermediary shall be considered merely as an agent of the employer who shall be responsible to the workers in the same manner and extent as if the latter were directly employed by him. Art. 107. Indirect employer. — The provisions of the immediately preceding Article shall likewise apply to any person, partnership, association or corporation which, not being an employer, contracts with an independent contractor for the performance of any work, task, job or project. Art. 108. Posting of bond. — An employer or indirect employer may require the contractor or sub-contractor to furnish a bond equal to the cost of labor under contract, on condition that the bond will answer for the wages due the employees should the contractor or sub-contractor, as the case may be, fail to pay the same.

Art. 109. Solidary liability. - The provisions of existing laws to the contrary notwithstanding, every employer or indirect employer shall be held responsible with his contractor or subcontractor for any violation of any provision of this Code. For purposes of determining the extent of their civil liability under this Chapter, they shall be considered as direct employers. DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 3, SERIES OF 2001 Revoked D.O. No. 10 Series of 1997 which liberalizes labor-only contracting in certain situations. CASES Aurora Land Projects Corp. v. NLRC, 266 SCRA 48 Jurisprudence is firmly settled that whenever the existence of an employer-employee relationship is in dispute, four elements constitute the reliable yard stick: (a) selection and engagement of the employee; (b) the payment of wages; (c) power of dismissal; (d) the employer’s power of control over the employee’s conduct. It is the so-called “control test”, that is whether the employer controls or has reserved the right to control the employee, not only as to the result of the work to be done, but the means and methods by which the same is to be accomplished, that is the most important index of the existence of the employer-employee relationship. Algon Engineering v. NLRC, 280 SCRA 188 Employer-Employee relationship question of fact. Liability for loss of materials in employees custody and subsequent transfer is indicative of employer’s power of control. Filipinas Broadcasting v. NLRC, 287 SCRA 348 Power of control — regulate or control employee’s activities or input, subject to employer’s supervision. Insular Life v. NLRC, 287 SCRA 476 It is axiomatic that the existence of an employer-employee relationship cannot be negated by expressly repudiating it in the management contract and providing therein that the “employee” is an independent contractor when the terms of the agreement clearly shows otherwise.

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Caurdanetaan Piece Workers Union v. Laguesma, 286 SCRA 401 (case where the SC uses Art. 280 to prove ‘er-’ee relationship) Paid wages directly to employee, wielded power of dismissal, and members of union did not possess substantial capital which belies claim that they were independent contractors. Maraguinot v. NLRC, 284 SCRA 539 It is settled that contracting out of labor is allowed only in case of job-contracting. For a contactor to be job-contactor, must have tools, equipment, machinery, work premises, and other materials necessary to his business, or substantial capital or investment. As labor-only contracting is prohibited, the law considers the person or entity engaged in the same, a mere agent or intermediary of the direct employer. Coca-Cola v. NLRC, May 17, 1999 Although janitorial services may be deemed directly related to the principal business of employer, as with every business, it is deemed unnecessary in the conduct of the employer’s principal business. But this rests on the presumption that the contractor is a legitimate jobcontractor such that the employer-employee relationship between him and the employee cannot be doubted. Corporal v. NLRC, Oct. 2, 2000; GR 129315 (again SC uses Art. 280 of Labor Code in determining ‘er-’ee relationship) Control- required to report daily and observe definite hours of work, not free to accept employment elsewhere. No longer true that membership in SSS is predicated on the existence of employer-employee relationship as the policy now is to encourage even the self-employed to become members. AFP Mutual Benefit v. NLRC, 267 SCRA 47 “Not all that glitters is control”. In insurance, exclusivity is not indicative of control as the Insurance Commission prohibits serving in more than one insurance company. Also, the mere fact that an employee is subject to company rules is not indicative of control if it is not shown that it relates to the means and methods of service rendered and not merely to the end result. The significant factor in determining the relationship of

parties is the presence or absence of supervisory authority to control the method and details of performance of the service being rendered, and to the degree to which the principal may intervene to exercise such control. Not every form of control that a party reserves to himself over the conduct of the other party in relation to the services being rendered may be accorded the effect of establishing an ‘ee-’er relationship. Neri v. NLRC, 224 SCRA 717 The law does not require both substantial capital and investment in the form of tools, equipment, machineries, etc. This is clear from the use of the conjunction “or.” If the intention was to require the contractor to prove that he has both capital and the requisite investment, then the conjunction “and” should have been used. While these services (These services range from janitorial, security and even technical or other specific services.) may be considered directly related to the principal business of the employer, nevertheless, they are not necessary in the conduct of the principal business of the employer. Phil. Fuji Xerox v. NLRC, 254 SCRA 294 It is wrong to say that if a task is not directly related to the employer’s business, or it falls under what may be considered “housekeeping activities,” the one performing the task is a job contractor. The determination of the existence of an employeremployee relationship is defined by law according to the facts of each case, regardless of the nature of the activities involved. Not substantial capital or investment alone which makes one a job contractor, but also presence of four-fold test in relation to contractor and employee. Also the fact that the contractor was providing specific special services (radio/telex operator and janitor) to the employer. Vinoya v. NLRC, Feb. 2, 2000, GR 126586 From the two aforementioned decisions, it may be inferred that it is not enough to show substantial capitalization or investment in the form of tools, equipment, machineries and work premises, among others, to be considered as an independent contractor. In fact, jurisprudential holdings are to the effect that in determining the existence of an independent contractor relationship, several factors might be considered such as, but not necessarily confined to, whether the contractor is carrying on an independent business; the

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The joint and several liability of the contractor and the principal is mandated by the Labor Code to assure compliance with the provisions therein including the minimum wage. The conclusion that the right of the contractor (as principal debtor) to recover from the principal as solidary co-debtor) arises only if he has paid the amounts for which both of them are jointly and severally liable. 2000. the indirect employers liability to the contractor’s employees extends only to the period during which they were working for the petitioner.nature and extent of the work. jurisprudence is essential and must be resorted to. In cases other than an employment contract. Thus. Jurisprudence provides a FOUR-WAY or FOUR-FOLD TEST to determine the existence of employer-employee relationship: 1) Hiring – a written agreement is not necessary. materials and labor. hiring done by head hunters or transfer of ownership of a company. CA. Control is the primary test. It is clear also from the foregoing that it is only when contractor pays the increases mandated that it can claim an adjustment from the principal to cover the increases payable to the security guards. the right to assign the performance of specified pieces of work. on the other hand. payable by an employer to an employee for work or services to be done or rendered Control - 2) 3) 4) The element of control pertains not only to the result of the work to be done but also control over the manner or method to be employed. Even in the absence of an employer-employee relationship. wages may be done by an entity separate from the entity that controls the employee. in order to determine the existence of such relationship. The same rule applies to back wages and separation pay. Firing – termination and disciplinary measures. and the mode. with the added qualification that to make the indirect employer liable. Jan 31. tools. and the fact that they were reassigned to another principal ends such responsibility. proof must be given reflecting a manifestation of control. NLRC. the control of the premises. as long as he had the opportunity to do so. the duty to supply premises. the fact that an employer has not fired does not negate the existence of employeremployee relationship. There is no need for the employer to have actually exercised control. there must be a finding of fault or conspiracy in the illegal dismissal. appliances. The Labor Code attempts to define who is an employer and an employee. in order to ensure that the employees are paid the wages due them. such as monitoring the work. the term and duration of the relationship. however. This is because hiring. it is not conclusive because the question of employeremployee relationship may arise even before the firing occurs. the power of the employer with respect to the hiring. manner and terms of payment. the control and supervision of the workers.e. 290 SCRA 408 As to wages. The contractor is made liable by virtue of his status as direct employer. as long as the company or employer had the ability or power to intervene in the work. the skill required. 97 (f) of the Labor Code. Rosewood Processing v. LECTURE It is important to determine the employer-employee relationship in order to ascertain what rights and obligations of the parties accrue in such a situation. in determining existence of employer-employee relationship the Code cannot be the basis! As such. The principal. the law itself establishes one between the principal and the employees of the agency for a limited purpose i. GR 112139 It will be seen from the above provisions that the principal (petitioner) and the contractor (respondent) are jointly and severally liable to the employees for their wages. Consequently. Wages – as defined in Art. although the other 7 . such as a managment contract. it must be remuneration capable of being expressed in terms of money. and is not a conclusive test because it can be avoided and confused by the use of subcontracting agreements or other contracts other than employment contracts. is made the indirect employer of the contractor’s employees to secure payment of their wages should the contractor be unable to pay them. firing. For example. letting the employee work in the employer’s premises. but miserably fails to do so! Thus. firing and payment of the workers of the contractor. Lapanday v.

It must be borne in mind however that there are some situations.factors may be absent. There is also such a thing as economic condition test. for control should be over the means and conduct of the work. [ 2nd paragraph of p. Art. the Court emphasized that “not all that glitters is control”! This case was very good in qualifying the principle that rules per se are not equivalent to control all the time. the test to determine whether one is a job or labor only contractor is to look into the elements of a job contractor. Hence. the skill required. the three other indicators may be used to determine that there is an employer-employee rel. “mutations” if you could call it. the nature and extent of the work. exclusivity of service is not conclusive in determining control. but not necessarily confined to.Undertakes to perform the job under its own account and responsibility. because FOUR-FOLD TEST connotes the need for all four elements to be present. 481: From the two aforementioned decisions (referring to the Phil. particularly p. where the employee may successfully establish an employer-employee relationship by showing documents like the SSS list and payroll. equipment. if the first two elements are present (sufficient capital and independent business). and hence it necessarily presupposes that an employer-employee relationship already exists. machineries and work premises. insurance agents are required to maintain exclusive company as required by law. when the employee is prohibited to work. whether the contractor is carrying on an independent business. This case ruled that if the rules pertain only to the end result. the best term to use is the FOUR INDICATORS. How do we determine whether contracting is labor only or job? JOB CONTRACTING . 481. Fuji Xerox and Neri cases).Has no independent business . the primary determination is if one is a Job contractor or not. Now. several factors might be considered such as. For instance. In fact. and machinery/equipment must be directly or intended to be related to the job contracted ) . In many cases the Court looks into the control factor to determine if one is a job contractor or not. free from the principal’s control (principal intervenes only with the end result) investment . Also. Read the Vinoya case to elucidate the matter. AND 8 . Hence. If ALL elements of a job contractor is present AND the contractor qualifies as a job contractor then he is a job contractor. It is used only to determine whether an employee is regular or not. but control is exercised by the principal. Remember that UNOD in UTOB cannot be used to determine the existence of employer-employee relationship. 280 of the Labor Code provides that an employee is deemed regular where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer (“UNOD in UTOB”). this is not tantamount to control. he is not considered a legitimate job contractor and as such is considered labor-only. Not all elements need be present. Labor-only contracting is illegal as compared to job contracting which is allowed. the right to assign the performance of specified pieces of work. Article 106 of the LC defines Labor-only contracting. In the AFP case.Performs activities directly related to the main business of the principal Must all three elements be present in order to be considered a labor-only contractor? According to Court decisions. Otherwise he is a labor-only contractor. That is. for instance. the term and duration of the relationship.Carries on an independent business different from the employer’s . Now let us go to contracting. to be considered as an independent contractor. jurisprudential holdings are to the effect that in determining the existence of an independent contractor relationship. where the control principle is not applicable. second paragraph. in a taxi-operator and taxidriver relationship. not merely over the result. among others. it may be inferred that it is not enough to show substantial capitalization or investment in the form of tools. However.Has sufficient capital OR investment in LABOR ONLY CONTRACTING . Must all 4 be passed? No.Has no substantial capital machinery or equipment (must be substantial. for instance. as long as there is control there is an employer-employee relationship.

176 SCRA 615 De Leon was employed by La Tondena as a painter and on the agreement that he is considered a casual employee. the completion or termination of which 9 . firing and payment of the workers of the contractor. has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee - or where the work or service to be performed is SEASONAL in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. - shall be considered a REGULAR employee with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists. However. After more than a year of service. Rosewood held that monetary awards given in relation to illegal dismissal is the direct liability of the contractor alone unless the principal conspired with the contractor. — Art. Regular and casual employment. and the mode. CASES De Leon V. the control of the premises. unless it is covered by an apprenticeship agreement stipulating a longer period. Probationary employment. whether such service is continuous or broken.] What is the liability of the principal to the employee in cases of illegal dismissal? Joint and several with the employer. NLRC.the control and supervision of the workers. he requested to be included in the payroll of regular workers. the duty to supply premises. Art. the power of the employer with respect to the hiring. only when the principal has some relation to the termination (such as when he conspired to terminate) The ruling in Rosewood Processing is an obiter and made an unjustified interpretation of Art. 281. The services of an employee who has been engaged on a probationary basis may be terminated for a just cause or when he fails to qualify as a regular employee a) in accordance with reasonable standards b) made known by the employer to the employee at the time of his engagement. an employment shall be deemed to be: - where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer REGULAR except where the employment has been fixed for a specific PROJECT or undertaking. manner and terms of payment. 280. 109 makes the principal liable in illegal dismissal whether or not there was fault on his part. but with the right to reimbursement from the employer contractor Wage differentials only to the extent where the employee performed the work under the principal Separation pay and backwages. CLASSES OF EMPLOYEES LABOR CODE Art. provided. - Probationary employment shall not exceed six months from the date the employee started working. — The provisions of written agreement to the contrary notwithstanding and regardless of the oral agreements of the parties. III. He was made to clean and oil machines and other odd jobs when he had no painting job. 109 of the LC. materials and labor. An employment shall be deemed to be CASUAL if it is not covered by the preceding paragraph. An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period shall be considered a regular employee. tools. that any employee who has rendered at least one year of service. La Tondena responded by dismissing him. appliances.

and by no stretch of the imagination can Dagui qualify as a job contractor. Book III of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Labor Code provide the essential requisites before one is considered a job contractor. he was paid accordingly. On June 8. is considered a regular employee. An employer-employee relationship exists where the person for whom the services are performed reserves the 10 . employer must reinstate De Leon as a regular maintenance man. therefore. Held: An employer-employee relationship exists. • the power of dismissal (firing). The primary standard. 266 SCRA 48 Honorio Dagui was hired by Dona Aurora Suntay Tanjangco in 1953 to take charge of the maintenance and repair of the Tanjangco apartments and residential buildings. It is the nature of the activities performed in relation to the particular business or trade considering all circumstances. in light of the facts. any employee who has rendered at least one year of service. RuleVIII. Also.00 a day (latest salary). of determining a regular employment is the reasonable connection between the particular activity performed by the employee in relation to the usual business or trade of the employer.The Labor Arbiter found that de Leon was illegally dismissed and. took over the administration of all the Tanjangco properties. Ostensibly. whether the employer controls or has reserved the right to control the employee not only as to the result of the work to be done but also as to the means and methods by which the same is to be accomplished. Whenever the existence of an employment relationship is in dispute. electrical and masonry work. Dagui served therein only as a job contractor. Dagui had control and supervision of whoever he would take to perform a contracted job. four elements constitute the reliable yardstick: • the selection and engagement of the employee (hiring). Held: Petition granted. Not considered regular are the so-called “project employment” the completion or termination of which is more or less determinable at the time of employment. Contrary agreements notwithstanding. Dagui was hired only as a “tubero” or plumber as the need arises in order to unclog sewerage pipes. the employment is also considered regular. and seasonal employment which by its nature is only desirable for a limited period of time. even if the performance is not continuous or merely intermittent. • the payment of wages (wages). petitioners would like the Court to believe that Dagui was an independent contractor. He was to perform carpentry. plumbing. Aurora Land vs. Petition for review with the Supreme Court. Petitioners insist that Dagui had never been their employee. to which the desperate worker often accedes. if the employee has been performing the job for at least one year. The test is whether the former is usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. whether continuous or intermittent. is deemed regular with respect to the activity he performed and while such activity actually exists. and • the employer’s power to control the employee’s conduct (control). However. It was understood that his job was limited to the specific undertaking of unclogging the pipes. He filed a complaint for illegal dismissal with the Labor Arbiter. NLRC reversed. NLRC. but only with respect to such activity and while such activity exists. the law deems the repeated and continuing need for its performance as sufficient evidence of the necessity if not indispensability of that activity to the business. her daughter. particularly a job contractor. which constitute the most important index of the existence of the employeremployee relationship. his services was terminated. Since the establishment of Aurora Plaza. 1991. Hence. The connection can be determined by considering the nature of the work performed and its relation to the scheme of the particular business or trade in its entirety. much less the procedure of hiring the employee or the manner of paying his salary. and in some cases the length of time of its performance and its continued existence. What determines whether a certain employment is regular or casual is not the will and word of the employer. an employment is deemed regular when the activities performed by the employee are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. Every time his services were needed. In effect. Section 8. petitioner Teresita Tanjangco Quazon. such as those employed in connection with a particular construction project. and not an employee of Aurora Plaza. It is the so-called “control test”. Honorio Dagui earns a measly sum of P180. On occasion. Upon the death of Dona Aurora Tanjangco in 1982.

A probationary employment is made to afford the employer an opportunity to observe the fitness of a probationer while at work. Held: Since the entire purpose behind the development of legislation culminating in the present Art. 20 April 1976. 3 subsequent subsidiary agreements reiterated the same terms and conditions stipulated in the original contract. DA’s employment was terminated upon the expiration of his last contract with BS on 16 July 1976 without necessity of any notice. as used to describe the period of employment. Unless thus limited in its purview. While the employer observes the 11 . The word “probationary”. There was a valid fixed term employment contract. but awarded payment for the unexpired portion of the agreed period. The length of time is immaterial to determining correlative rights of both in dealing with each other during said period. Inc. unfair labor practice and unpaid wages against petitioner with the then Ministry of Labor and Employment. the essence of a probationary period of employment fundamentally lies in the purpose or objective sought to be attained by both the employer and the employee during said period. Secretary of Labor sustained. arguing that he had acquired regular employment status and could not be removed except for valid cause because his services were UNOD in UTOB and his employment had lasted for 5 years. during which the employer determines whether or not he is qualified for permanent employment. Brent School vs. expiration of the definite period of employment. DA received copy of report filed by BS with DOLE advising of the termination of his services effective 16 July1976. Zamora. Three months thereafter. The labor arbiter dismissed the complaint. Being in the nature of a “trial period”. as already observed.right to control not only the end to be achieved but also the means to be used in reaching such end. Alegre (“DA”) as athletic director. as understood under Art 281 of the Labor Code. she was informed. unjust in its effects and apt to lead to absurd and unintended consequences. NLRC.” DA protested. the law would be made to apply to purposes other than those explicitly stated by its framers. without any force. Concurring and dissenting opinion (J. A probationary employee. She subsequently filed a complaint for illegal dismissal. 280 of the Labor Code clearly appears to have been. The employment contract fixed a specific term for its existence: 5 years (18 July 1971 to 17 July 1976). Sarmiento): “I cannot liken employment contracts to ordinary civil contracts in which the relationship is established by stipulations agreed upon. 169 SCRA 606 Petitioner engaged the services of private respondent Galang as a probationary cultural orientation teacher for a probationary period of 6 months. it thus becomes pointless and arbitrary. (“BS”) employed Doroteo R. The ground: “completion of contract. the clause in said article indiscriminately and completely ruling out all written or oral agreements conflicting with the concept of regular employment as defined therein should be construed to refer to the substantive evil that the Code itself has singled out: agreements entered into precisely to circumvent security of tenure. duress or improper pressure being brought to bear upon the employee and absent any circumstances vitiating his consent. Petitioner questions the award. that her services were being terminated for her failure to meet the prescribed standards of petitioner as reflected in the performance evaluation of her supervisors during the teacher evaluation program she underwent along with other newly-hired personnel. Office of the President dismissed BS’ appeal and affirmed SOL decision. to prevent circumvention of the employee’s right to be secure in his tenure. but not its length. or where it satisfactorily appears that the employer and employee dealt with each other on more or less equal terms with no moral dominance whatever being exercised by the former over the latter. Held: For the petitioner. 181 SCRA 702 Brent School. praying for reinstatement with backwages. NLRC affirmed. exemplary and moral damages. It should have no application to instances where a fixed period of employment was agreed upon knowingly and voluntarily by the parties. orally and in writing . implies the PURPOSE of the term or period. is one who is on trial by an employer.” International Catholic Migration Commission v. DOLE Regional Director ruled in favor of DA. and to ascertain whether he will become a proper and efficient employee.

Mercado vs. etc. First. propriety and efficiency of a probationer to ascertain whether he is qualified for permanent employment. There is nothing under Art 281 of the LC that would preclude the employer from extending a regular or permanent appointment to an employee once the employer finds that the employee is qualified for regular employment even before the expiration of the probationary period. holiday pay. The dissatisfaction of the petitioner over the performance of private respondent Galang is a legitimate exercise of its prerogative to select whom to hire or refuse employment for the success of its program or undertaking. which has been abused by many employers to prevent so-called casuals from enjoying the benefits of regular employees or to prevent casuals from joining unions. The employer has the right or is at liberty to choose who will be hired and who will be denied employment. all other employees who do not fall under the definition of the preceding paragraph. A project employee has been defined to be one whose employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking. seeks to prove to the employer that he has the qualifications to meet the reasonable standards for permanent employment. 13th month pay. an employee is deemed regular where he is engaged in necessary or desirable activities in the usual business or trade of the employer. or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. the probationer. their job of 12 . What it seeks to eliminate are abuses of employers against their employees and not. Policy Instruction No 12 discloses that the concept of regular and casual employees was designed to put an end to casual employment in regular jobs. on the other. Petitioners contend that the proviso in the second paragraph of Art. 290 SCRA 509 Three factors lead the Court to conclude that petitioners. They claim that they have been working for 12 hours a day the whole year round for almost 19 years (others. except for project employees. Held: They are seasonal workers. 201 SCRA 332 Petitioners are farm workers who are contending that they are regular farm workers of Cruz and other respondents and thus. as petitioners would have us believe. ECOLA. Art 281 does not likewise preclude the employer from terminating the probationary employment on justifiable causes. it is within the exercise of the right to select his employees that the employer may set or fix a probationary period within which the latter may test and observe the conduct of the former before hiring him permanently. The second paragraph demarcates as “casual” employees. were regular employees of respondent Empire Foods Corp. Respondents deny that petitioners are regular workers since they are only hired to work for six months (during the harvesting of sugar canes) a year and for the rest of the year. More importantly. petitioners are allowed to seek employment elsewhere.fitness. are entitled to benefits like overtime pay. and that the Labor Arbiter should have considered them regular by virtue of said proviso. for 30 years). Galang failed to show that there was unlawful discrimination in the dismissal. NLRC. whether agricultural or industrial. if the purpose sought by the employer is neither attained nor attainable within the said period. The same instructions show that the proviso in the second paragraph was not designed to stifle small scale businesses nor to oppress agricultural land owners to further the interests of laborers. Art 281 of the LC gives ample authority to the employer to terminate a probationary employee for a just cause or when he fails to qualify as a regular employee in accordance with reasonable standards made known by the employer to the employee at the time of his engagement. to prevent small scale businesses from engaging in legitimate methods to realize profits. as to the nature of petitioner’s tasks. Conversely. 280 is applicable to their case. The first paragraph of Art 280 answers the question of who are regular employees. service incentive leave. NLRC. although piece-rate workers. In that sense. It states that regardless of any written or oral agreement to the contrary. Hence the proviso is applicable only to the employees who are deemed casuals but not to the project employees nor the regular employees treated in paragraph one of Art 280. Labor Congress vs. the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee.

The premises. associate producers must have tools. Union filed a petition for certification election. and that there is only a contractual relationship. Their tasks were essential in the usual business of Corfarm. and third. The employer-employee relationship between petitioners and VIVA can be further established by the “control test” i. failed to show by clear and convincing proof that the union has the substantial capital or investment to qualify as an independent contractor under the law. As such to be a job contractor under the preceding description. but rather whether the work of the laborer is part of the regular business or occupation of the employer. 284 SCRA 539 VIVA insists that the petitioners. work premises and other necessary materials to make motion pictures. NLRC. 286 SCRA 401 Petitioner union has 92 members working as cargadores of Corfarm. the most important element is the employer’s control of the employee’s conduct. equipment.repacking snack food was necessary or desirable in the usual business of respondents. vs. (4) the power of control—the last being the most important element. However the associate producers have none of these. Not only did petitioners labor under the control of the respondents as their employer. It is only the manpower or labor force which the alleged contractor supplies. materials and laborers. They are paid on a piece rate basis. (8) the control of premises. (4) the term and duration of the relationship. International Pharmaceuticals. (7) the payment of the contractor’s workers. recruit nor hire the workers. (2) payment of wages. not only as the result of the work to be done. tools and appliances. (3) the skill required. 13 . who are cameramen. and paraphernalia are all supplied by Corfarm. in turn. Thus. machinery. Held: The workers are regular employees. the employer’s power to control the employee’s conduct. their employment not having been dependent on a specific project or season. who were engaged in the manufacture and selling of such food products. likewise did petitioners toil throughout the year with the fulfillment of their quota as supposed basis for compensation. It is settled that the contracting out of labor is allowed only in the case of job contracting. while petitioner’s mode of compensation was on a “per piece basis”. The four fold test is to be applied: (1) the power to hire. (2) the nature and extent of the work. are project employees of associate producers who. VIVA’s control is evident in its mandate that the end result must be “quality acceptable to the company. The continuity of employment is not the determining factor. suggesting the existence of a “labor only” contracting scheme. load and pile sacks of palay from the warehouse to the cargo trucks and from the truck to the place delivered. 287 SCRA 213 Quinta was employed as Medical Director for the development of the company’s herbal medicine department. Their contract had a period of one year. which is prohibited by law. Laguesma. After the contract. To determine the existence of an e-e relation. (6) the control and supervision over the workers. act as independent contractors. The associate producers of VIVA cannot be considered labor-only contractors as they did not supply. (3) the power to dismiss. NLRC. and the mode and manner and terms of payment. Prior to his ruling on Corfarms motion for reconsideration. (9) the duty to supply the premises. Assuming that the associate producers are job contractors. the status and nature of their employment was that of regular employees. Maraguinot vs. Laguesma ruled as follows: “the existence of an independent contractor relationship is generally established criteria: (1) whether the contractor is carrying on an independent business. necessary and vital to the operations of Corfarm. which Corfarm opposed on the ground that there is no e-e relationship. petitioners worked for respondents throughout the year.e. second. they then must be engaged in the business of making motion pictures. The lack of control or the existence of waiting time (for the next batch of sacks to load/unload) does not denigrate the regular employment of these workers. Inc. Corfarm. (5) the right to assign the performance of a specified piece of work.” The means and methods to accomplish the result are likewise controlled by VIVA. she was allowed to continue work until she was terminated. but also as to the means and methods to accomplish the same. which is directly related. The petitioner’s members worked as cargadores. the length of time that petitioners worked. Caurdanetaan Piece Workers Union v. They unload. equipment.

an exception to the exception is made: any employee who has rendered at least one year of service whether continuous or intermittent with respect to the activity he performed and while such activity actually exists. and seasonal employment which by its nature is only for one season of the year the employment is limited for the duration of the season. Upon completion of such second undertaking. Romares vs. Project employment contracts are not lopsided agreements in favor of one party. but by the nature of the work and by the length of time one has been in that particular job. The argument of the respondent was only engaged for a specific task. two other furnaces required draining/cooling down and emergency repair. The SC held that although their contract was valid. Dec. an employee is deemed to understand that his employment is coterminous with the project. such employee is already regular. Whether one’s employment is regular is not determined by the number of hours one works. petitioner decided to continue her services. must be deemed regular. Villa vs. Clearly.Held: Quinta became a regular employee. she is now entitled to security of tenure. NLRC. As petitioner itself. The nature of his work as a general utility man was definitely necessary and desirable to petitioner’s business of trading copra and charcoal and regardless of the length of time. he was terminated. shall be considered a regular employee. Moreover the SC agreed with the labor arbiter that the fact the employee was not required to report at a fixed hour or to keep fixed hours of work does not detract from her status as a regular employee. But considered not regular are the “project employment” the termination of which is more or less determinable at the time of employment. The scheme of rehiring him for a two to three month contract on a temporary job as a mason is a clear circumvention of the employee’s right to security of tenure and to other benefits. the fact that after its expiration. NLRC. he was hired for a specific project that was not within the regular business of the corporation. the completion of which is resulted in the cessation of his employment is untenable. 297 SCRA 277 An employment is deemed regular when the activities performed by the employee are usually necessary or desirable in the usual trade or business of the employer even if the parties enter into an agreement stating otherwise. Highway Copra Traders vs. Thus. NLRC. the fact that workers work under different project employment contracts for several years cannot be made a basis to consider them as regular employees. Thus he was hired again. 284 SCRA 105 By entering into such contract of project employment. as long as the activities are UNOD in UTOB. 14 . he was likewise terminated. 293 SCRA 350 “…[A]n employment is deemed regular when the activities performed by the employee are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. admits. Quinta was a managerial employee and therefore not covered by the Labor Code provisions on hours of work. A few days after. Article 280 of the Labor Code contemplates an activity which is not commonly or habitually performed or such type of work which is not done on a daily basis but only for a specific duration of time or until completion in which case the services of an employee are necessary and desirable in the employer’s usual business only for the period of time it takes to complete the project. San Miguel Corporation vs. upon completion of such . Nevertheless. Length of service is not the controlling determinant of the employment tenure of a project employee. He was not hired for a third time and his two engagements taken together did not total one full year. for they remain project employees regardless of the number of projects in which they have worked. 294 SCRA 411 There are two kinds of regular employees: those who are engaged to perform activities which are UNOD in UTOB. First he was employed for repair and upgrading of furnaces. By specific project or undertaking. whether continuous or broken. It must be noted that the respondent was employed only for seven months. Philippine Federation of Credit Cooperatives vs. Despite the provisions of the contract of employment. NLRC. with respect to the activity in which they are employed. 1998 A probationary employee who is engaged to work beyond the probationary period of 6 months or for any length of time set forth by the employer. NLRC. and those casual employees who have rendered at least one year of service. 11.

and during such periods they could work for others. 15 . NLRC. spanning over fifteen years. 300 SCRA 37 They are entitled to separation pay. Otherwise no employee can become regular by the simple expedient of incorporating this condition in the contract of employment. Seasonal workers who work from time to time and are temporarily laid off during off-season are not separated from service in said period. or apply the security of tenure provisions (illegal termination). Rather. There is labor only contracting where the person supplying workers to an employer does not have substantial capital or investment in the form of tools. machinery. GR 114734. Thus PAL is not the employer of the janitors. 1999 Those who have worked beyond worked beyond 6 months and whose contracts have been renewed are already regularized. the seasonal employees were not in the employer’s regular employ. NLRC. due to his repeated rehiring every season. where the Court likewise ruled that Gaco was a regular employee. Philippine Tobacco Flue-Curing Corp. the case at bar is pretty much similar to the case of Gaco vs.” LECTURE (PART ONE) It is important to distinguish the classes in order to apply the proper rules in labor standards. like vacuum cleaners. and is equated to a regular employee. They performed different phases of agricultural work in a given year. we held that “[a] project employee or a member of a work pool may acquire the status of a regular employee when the following concur: 1) There is a continuous rehiring of project employees even after [the] cessation of a project. STELLAR even has other clients like San Miguel Corporation and etc. when an employee is rehired every year but may work with another. On the contrary. NLRC. 329 SCRA 357 The principal test for determining whether an employee is a project employee or a regular employee is whether the project employee was assigned to carry out a specific project or undertaking. one is not seasonal but a project employee and would naturally end upon the completion of each project. In the recent case of Maraguinot. and substantial capitalization as proven by its financial statements. vs. The doctrine in Mercado vs. 298 SCRA 430 The janitorial service agreement is not a labor-only contracting. Jr. The accommodation argument does not change the nature of their employment. An employee is regular because of the nature of work and the length of service. the definition of a bargaining unit depends on the classes of employee agreed upon by the parties allowed to join. the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. NLRC. Stellar was not engaged in labor only contracting because it has sufficient capital form of tools and equipment. such is sufficient evidence of the necessity and indispensability of services. polishers. A project employee is one whose employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking. because in a certification election. July 12. work premises. Imbuido vs. among others and the workers recruited and placed by such persons are performing activities that are directly related to the principal business of such employer. equipment. not because of the mode or even the reason for hiring them. and 2) The tasks performed by the alleged “project” employee are vital. The character of employment is determined not by stipulations in the contract but by the nature of the work performed. NLRC. necessary and indispensable to the usual business or trade of the emplyer.PAL vs. NLRC is inapplicable to the case at bar because in Mercado. such employee is deemed a regular employee and is entitled to security of tenure notwithstanding the contrary provisions of his contract of employment. the duration and scope of which were specified at the time the employee was engaged for that project. which they did. They were free to contract with others even if they were presently working for the employer. Since they are repeatedly rehired. v. It is also important in labor relations. NLRC. Where an employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business of the employer. but are merely considered on leave until re-employed. Bernardo vs.

and the word “usually” is used because it does not mean they always have to perform tasks which are necessary or desirable. e. 3. not oppressive The employee entered into it voluntarily There is no intent to circumvent labor laws Usually apply to teachers. Probationary or term employees are also considered regular once they are allowed to work beyond the term or duration of the project. Performs tasks which are UNOD in UTOB. Regular employee: 1. except 16 . or capacity as a regular employee. or else. Employment terminates with the project.g. whether continuous or broken. ee has become regular if there is continuous rehiring. Project employee who has been continuously rehired (Maraguinot case) – becomes regular for the specific job continuously rehired for a. Seasonal Employee: Hired for a specific period of time during the year. 4. or else the project ee is considered only a casual ee Rehired for the same task or nature of task. d. 2. farmworkers) At the arrival of the season must be rehired. But the employer is required to hire him when the next project requires he particular job he does. and may be UNOD in UTOB Rehired whenever their services are required (e. it is used in other types of jobs and has been subject of abuse 2. Two kinds: 1. b. c. Project employee: Those employed for a fixed project or specific task. regardless of the period A Workpool is not necessary in order to convert the project ee into regular. Brent School ruling: requirements for a valid FT employment: a. the completion of which has been determined and made known to the ee at the time of engagement. The standard test is that there must be a reasonable connection between the job and the employer’s business. A project employee converted to regular employee is still not paid for the period he does not work. The important aspect is that the job is time bound. The parties dealt on equal footing (bargaining position) The contract is reasonable. b. not merely giving document) General rule is that it is limited to 6 months. c. The job must be distinct from the totality of the er’s business The project must be definite as to its completion Probationary Employee: Hired for 6 months to determine qualification. though an ee can become regular right away without going through probation The employee is given the standards at the time of engagement (employer must explain. Fixed Term: The job is assigned a specific date of expiration even if the job is considered UNOD in UTOB. with respect to the activity they are employed. the employer is guilty of illegal termination. The employee is continuously rehired from project to project even with gaps of time in between Task is UNOD in UTOB. c.The general rule is that all employees are regular employees. But its existence may signify that the proj. b. or else the er is guilty of illegal termination Allowed to seek work elsewhere while off-season (Mercado case is clarified by the Phil Tobacco case). sadly. It also refers to casual employees who have rendered at least one year of service. Tasks which are UNOD in UTOB Tasks which are not UNOD in UTOB a.

It shows the employee’s work is needed not only in the specific project. It shows again the need of his services is not limited to the project. he is converted to a regular employee. It may be shown that one is not a regular employee. This is because the employee has no knowledge of what standards he or she must meet. 2.g. The employees hired to do such are project employees. the Ateneo Law School wants to computerize its records. b. but proof must be given to show this. There is a pattern showing that UNOD in UTOB. But it is considered a project because it is distinguishable as separate from the main business. If a project employee is converted to a regular employee. can you have gaps between each project. and before the completion of the project. not to project nor seasonal employees. There are three instances when the project employee is converted into a regular employee. A project employee may be converted to regular status when he was employed for a specific project. the standards are not clear then the employee is deemed a regular employee.a. Probationary employment: probe period is 6 months for the employer to determine the eligibility of the employee. Remember that the one year rule in the Code applies only to casual employment. and if a casual is employed for more than one year. But only when the project employee is rehired continuously.Any doubts must be resolved in favor of regular employment (PFCCI case) Lecture (Part Two) Types of employment Remember that the presumption is in favor of regular employment. 1. the employee is given tasks not related at all to the project. the completion of which is determined. because it can be analogous to the ground of “psychological incapacity” under the Family Code. as part of company policy When the ee is the one who asked for the extension Project employment: Project employee is one who works for a specific project or undertaking which is separate and distinct from the main business of the employer. he is still made to work. seasonal or fixed employee The job is not UNOD in UTOB Casual converted to regular after rendering more than a year of service with respect to that activity employed. project. It negates the essence of project employment. if the terms and conditions of employment are not clearly provided by the employer. That is. Theoretically it 17 . The case of Maraguinot. When the qualifications cannot be determined during the 6 months. but not during the times the er needs him. and so this should not work to his or her prejudice. E. Even if the extra work is not UNOD in UTOB to the main business. there is no clear answer to that. and the employee still be converted to regular status? YES. Casual Employee: One who does not fall under the definition of a regular. 3. he can look for another job. Two possible options: One is to say that regular employment starts from day one. But remember the project or undertaking MAY be within the regular business of the employer. during the intervals he does not have work due to temporary lay-off. - . it may be necessary or desirable to the main business. and the employee continues to work. Probe converts to regular after the period imposed has lapsed. but despite the termination of the project. when can he reckon his conversion to regular employment? At the start of the project? According to Sir. But the period may be shortened or extended. he is considered an employee. It implies that the employee has passed and is eligible for regular employment. Giving the employee additional work negates again the essence of project employment. Within the project itself. whether continuous or broken If broken but has served more than one year already. and for the same nature of task. Also. How to determine regular employment? The nature of the work is UNOD in UTOB of the employer. Under multiple succeeding projects.

But there is still that pattern showing his services are UNOD in UTOB. Conversely. thus regular employee from day one. they are temporarily laid off. conversion occurs similar to project employees. etc. “Regular seasonal employees”. one theory is that from day one. When they are continuously rehired for the same task/nature of task. The cases are interpretations of the provisions. If not. then it is 18 . He must complete the one year period for the SAME tasks/nature of tasks. Such employee can demand that he be rehired for the next casual work. there is no clear-cut formula. no pay” rule. the Court considers this a temporary lay-off without pay. DOES NOT apply to hired again casual employment. Hence he is deemed a regular employee. under the second undertaking. If the company hires someone else. The Principle in project or seasonal employment that once a project/seasonal employee is made to do tasks other than or outside of the work for which he was hired makes him a regular employee. management can demand and compel the employee to report for work for the next undertaking. If the employee is working elsewhere. The second option is after showing a series of rehiring. unlike a project ee. only then will conversion occur. whether continuous or broken. So let’s say for the second undertaking he was hired as a driver. they become regular employees. not the same nature of task. Obviously. Hence he is still a regular employee who follows the “no work. During the period that he is temporarily laid off. that is. then the employer can deem the employee as refusing to work. the employee becomes regular after one year. he still works for the employer. Sir uses this term only because the Court used it. During off-season. During the second vacancy. So during off-season. without pay. but they are still considered regular employees. A casual converts to regular ee if after one year of service. the employee is still considered a regular employee. Again. who acquires regular employment. and so he may demand to be rehired when there is another available undertaking. The same principle “temporary lay off” applies to a project and seasonal employee/employment. You must know the provisions first before the cases. but since there is no job to do. * The codal provisions are very important especially for bar purposes. Hence. REMEMBER: A casual employee becomes regular after completion of service of one year for the SAME task or nature of tasks. but in the first undertaking he was hired as a waiter. a ground for disciplinary action and termination. the worker may seek work elsewhere. But it is hard to determine what exact date the regular employment will be counted – should it be counted from the start of the third project? Or from the second project? Etc. Except in cases where the employer hires an “all around” person. a pattern. The length of time is an indication that his job is UNOD in UTOB. Now what if this scenario happens: hired 6 months vacancy hired again 7 months 6 months regular guilty of illegal termination – illegally terminating the employee converted to regular employee. the work done is UNOD in UTOB. Seasonal Employment: In this case. After the one year. So he vacancy In this case.should have existed from the very start. Anyway. the hiring must be for the same task/nature of task. the relationship is still continuous. then there is no conversion. But the correct term should be “seasonal employees converted to regular employees. even though the intervals between jobs may stretch to months. but his term of employment is not made known at the time of the employment. there is no pattern for UNOD in UTOB. Casual Employment: A casual employee is one whose employment is not UNOD in UTOB. even if it manifests much later. This will not negate his conversion to a regular employee in the first company. the employee has the right to demand that he be rehired for succeeding undertakings.

243. regarding project employees. Use the principle of resolving all doubts in favor of labor. Remember that it is not a general rule that you can fix the term of employment. Remember that once an employee is converted to a regular employee. CONCEPT LABOR CODE Art. in Fixed Term. look at the codal provision. the PERIOD of employment is fixed. Yes the CC contains the provisions recognizing the parties’ rights to fix the terms of a contract. ALL persons employed in: . Second. But the CC itself says that for employment relationship it is not the CC that applies but rather the Labor Code. It lacks one of the conditions under the Brent doctrine that the fixed term employment must be done in good faith. is repeatedly rehiring the fixed term employee through fixed term employment contracts. Remember the rule in statutory construction – that exceptions to the general rule must be construed strictly. charitable. Is this correct? Partly yes. Remember our discussion awhile ago.commercial. medical or educational institutions. that one must respect the terms of a contract entered into by the parties. The general rule is one is a regular employee. he is casual. where what is fixed is the term of completion of the project. The Court upheld this pursuant to provisions on the Civil Code.becomes regular as well. a fixed term employee made to work beyond the fixed term should be considered regular. because it negates the essence of fixed term employment. In effect. it says that if one is not regular. and agricultural enterprises. It will NOT apply to a factory and a factory worker. IV. There is also no clear-cut answer to seasonal employees. But it is easier to defend the first scenario that from day one they were regular. Tobacco case. whether operating for profit or not shall have the right to . So if you are not sure whether the employee falls under one of the exceptional circumstances. Remember that the people involved in Brent were the school and an athletic director. as to when to reckon an employee to be regular once there is conversion? The same two scenarios apply to seasonal employees. So obviously they were regular employees. Otherwise it will be difficult to defend the time of conversion. If he is not project/seasonal. he is project/seasonal. Similar to a probationary/project/seasonal employee being made to work beyond the period/project/season. The element of circumvention in this case is clearly shown.in religious. 19 . and . In the Phil. essentially no. it became manifest only after some time. then he should be deemed regular. For a contract of employment is not an ordinary contract-it is so vested with public interest that it should be covered by special provisions.self organization and to AND SCOPE This is the Brent ruling. Even the CC points us back to special laws. Even if the parties bargained on equal footing. he should enjoy or derive all benefits covered by the CBA that is given to regular employees. It is an exceptional case that must be applied in exceptional circumstances. industrial. Now. the workers were hired season after season after season. not entered into by the employer to circumvent the law on regular employment Is the Brent doctrine applicable to any situation? No. Hence in the second situation the employee should be deemed regular as well. The Court clarified that Fixed term is allowed only if: • • • • it was entered into by both parties negotiating on a more-orless equal bargaining position the worker should not be coerced the worker should not be deprived of his workers rights as an employee it must be a good faith agreement. RIGHT TO SELF-ORGANIZATION A. But there is another type of employment created by jurisprudential rule: Fixed Term employment: Unlike project. Coverage and employees’ right to selforganization. Is there a problem with that? There is none because an employer can hire an employee as regular starting from day one.

restrain. unless the Code so explicitly states.discriminate against or . . subject to the provisions of Art. IT shall be unlawful to .unduly interfere with employees and workers in their exercise of the right to self-organization. ANY employee. and . Definition of terms. Art.form.any person .any person .Ambulant.as a result of or in connection with .for purposes of membership in any labor union. Art. Such right shall include the right to . beginning on his first day of service. join. .acting in the interest of an employer. The term shall not include .O. SERIES OF 2003. 264 of this Code. or assist labor organization for the purpose of collective bargaining through representatives of their own choosing.any labor organization .or any of its officers or agents EXCEPT when acting as employer.coerce. (f) “Employee” includes . .any individual whose work has ceased .any current labor dispute . and .Those without any definite employers MAY form labor organizations for their mutual aid and protection. (e) “Employer” includes .in the employ of an employer.be considered an employee . 277(c). RULE I Definition of Terms SECTION 1. . . "Employees" includes any person in the employ of a particular employer. It shall include . Definitions. . The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer. 20 . Miscellaneous provisions. 212.Self-employed people. OMNIBUS RULES. 246.directly or indirectly.IF he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment. — (r) AS AMENDED BY D. unless this Code so explicitly states.form. . or for their mutual aid and protection. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer. BOOK V RULE I-RULE II. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment. . join.whether employed for a definite period or not. or assist labor organizations of their own choosing for purposes of collective bargaining.to engage in lawful concerted activities for the same purpose.Rural workers. Non-abridgement of right to selforganization. Art. 40. intermittent and itinerant workers.or because of any unfair labor practice .shall. .

Only legitimate or registered labor unions shall have the right to represent their members for collective bargaining and other purposes. as certified by the Department of Foreign Affairs. Alien employees with valid working B. be eligible for membership in any labor organization. 212. join or assist labor unions for purposes of collective bargaining: provided.All persons employed in commercial. permits issued by the Department may exercise the right to self-organization and join or assist labor unions for purposes of collective bargaining if they are nationals of a country which grants the same or similar rights to Filipino workers. Managerial employees shall not be eligible to form. that supervisory employees shall not be eligible for membership in a labor union of the rank-and-file employees but may form. All other workers. Workers' associations shall have the right to represent their members for purposes other than collective bargaining. (m) “Managerial employee” is one who is vested with the powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies 21 . assist or form . Who may join labor unions and workers' associations. intermittent and other workers. the self-employed. . including employees of government owned or controlled corporations without original charters established under the Corporation Code. industrial and agricultural enterprises. SPECIAL GROUPS LABOR CODE OF EMPLOYEES 245.It is the policy of the State to promote the free and responsible exercise of the right to selforganization through the establishment of a simplified mechanism for the speedy registration of labor unions and workers associations. Ineligibility of managerial employees to join any labor organization. Managerial employees are not eligible . Section 2. however. directly or indirectly. shall beginning on the first day of his/her service. For purposes of this section. shall have the right to self-organization and to form. join or assist any labor unions for purposes of collective bargaining.to join. medical or educational institutions whether operating for profit or not. right of supervisory employees. including ambulant. rural workers and those without any definite employers may form labor organizations for their mutual aid and protection and other legitimate purposes except collective bargaining. determination of representation status and resolution of inter/intra-union and other related labor relations disputes. charitable.any labor organization. RULE II COVERAGE OF THE RIGHT TO SELF-ORGANIZATION Section 1. as well as employees of religious. any employee. join or assist separate labor unions of their own. Policy. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer.but may join. whether employed for a definite period or not. .for membership in a labor organization of the rank-andfile employees . Definitions. Supervisory employees shall not be eligible . assist or form separate labor organizations of their own.(s) "Employer" includes any person acting in the interest of an employer.

discharge. assign or discipline employees.O. but requires the use of independent judgment. refers to an employee who is prerogatives to lay down and policies or to hire. they do not participate in policy making but are given ready policies to execute and standard practices to observe. the fact remains that none of them discharge said functions. review and final action by the department heads and other higher executives of the company. recall. 40 RULE I Definition of Terms SECTION 1. effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgement. 22 . Thus. CASES MANAGERIAL AND SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES: Franklin Baker vs. Ferrer-Calleja. SEC. — (hh) "Managerial Employee" vested with powers or execute management suspend. Subject employees are not managerial employees because as borne by the records. layoff. The company opposed saying that 76 of the workers were managerial employees. suspend. are subject to evaluation. in the interest of the employer. in the interest of the employer. AS AMENDED BY D. the same. RULE 1. (xx) "Supervisory Employee" refers to an employee who. discharge. effectively recommends managerial actions and the exercise of such authority Pagkakaisa ng mga Mangagawa vs. 181 SCRA 449 While the functions and the titles of the personnel sought to be organized appear on paper to involve an apparent exercise of managerial authority. 157 SCRA 416 (1988) A union representing 90 workers of the company filed for a certification election. Trajano. although present. Definition of terms. lay off. 1 (hh). Held: The test of “supervisory” or “managerial status” depends on whether a person possesses authority to act in the interest of his employer in the matter specified in Article 212 (k) of the Labor Code and Section 1 (m) of its Implementing Rules and whether such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature. employees. OMNIBUS RULES. assign or discipline (nn) "Rank-and-File Employee" refers to an employee whose functions are neither managerial nor supervisory in nature. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book. citing instances wherein these workers recommended the dismissal and hiring of several workers. where such recommendatory powers as in the case at bar. transfer. recall. are not effective and not an exercise of independent judgment as required by law.and/or to hire. (xx). (nn). is not merely routinary or clerical but requires the use of independent judgment. BOOK V. “Supervisory employees” are those who. transfer. thus having little freedom of action.

transfer. And this is so because the basic test of an asserted bargaining unit’s acceptability is whether or not it is fundamentally the combination which will best assure to all employees the exercise of their collective bargaining rights.) They do not have the power to recommend any managerial actions as their recommendations have to pass through the department manager for review. assign or discipline employees but only to recommend such actions. 211 SCRA 451 UP protested the inclusion of the academic staff in a labor union composed of other non-academic rank and file.) They do not have the power to lay down and execute management policies. What distinguishes them from the rank-and-file employees is that they act in the interest of the employer in supervising such rank-and-file employees. Held: A labor organization composed of both rank-and-file and supervisory employees is no labor organization at all. implement and control strategic and operational policies (top and middle managers) and those whose task is simply to ensure that such policies are carried out by the rank-and-file employees of an organization (first-level managers/supervisors). United Pepsi-Cola Supervisory Union vs. and 3. Laguesma. ‘Policy-determining’ refers to policydetermination in university matters that affect those same matters that may be the subject of negotiation between public sector management and labor. recall. they are ipso facto supervisors. Held: A distinction exists between those who have the authority to devise.) They do not have power to hire. mutual interests in wages. working conditions and other subjects of collective bargaining. claiming that they are high level-employees or at the least. Adequate control methods which require a delineation of the functions and responsibilities of managers by means of ready reference cards as here. should comprise a separate collective bargaining unit.. Ferrer-Calleja. vs. It is thus evident that no conflict of interest results in the professors being members of the University Council and being classified as rank-and-file employees. The policy-determining functions of the University Council refer to academic matters. The basic test in determining the appropriate bargaining unit is that a unit. Held: Even assuming arguendo that UP professors discharge policydetermining function through the University Council. 268 SCRA 573 The company opposed the holding of a certification election because the union has both rank and file employees and supervisory employees. vs. for any guise or purpose. have long been recognized in management as effective tools for keeping businesses competitive. Not being 23 . still such exercise would not qualify them as high-level employees within the context of E. Toyota Motor Philippines Labor Union. Toyota Motor Philippines Corp. It cannot.O. University of the Philippines Corp. to be appropriate. And neither should it be presumed that just because they are given set benchmarks to observe. must affect a grouping of employees who have substantial. discharge. hours. 2. be a legitimate labor organization.Rules in determining rank-and-file employees: 1. Designations or titles of positions are not controlling.e. 180. lay-off. i. The reason why ‘policy-determining’ has been laid down as a test in segregating rank-and-file from management is to ensure that those who lay down policies in areas that are still negotiable in public sector collective bargaining do not themselves become part of those employees who seek to change these policies for their collective welfare. and not the University as an employer and the professors as employees. The test of the grouping is community or mutuality of interests. those governing the relationship between the University and its students. suspend. 288 SCRA 15 The company opposed the inclusion of its route managers in the list of members of the union claiming said employees are managerial employees and should be excluded.

March 8. it continues to be possessed with legal personality of a legitimate labor organization. The peculiar role of supervisors is such that while they are not managers. Toyota Motor Philippines. Under prevailing rules. 2003. Moreover. they identify with the interests of the employer and may act contrary to the interests of the rank-and-file. in the event of a strikes the national federation might influence the supervisors’ union to conduct a sympathy strike on the sole basis of affiliation. In the absence of any independent petition for cancellation of registration filed against the respondent labor union. prior to purging itself of its supervisory employee members.) Atlas Lithographic Services vs. which upholds the SPI Doctrine. Not being one. DOLE (Minute Resolution).) Toyota Motor Philippines Labor Union vs. (The Court held that the union cannot. A conflict of interest nay arise in the areas of discipline. The needs of one are different from those of the other. their interests cannot be considered identical. Laguesma. 205 SCRA 12 A local union comprised of supervisory employees filed a petition for certification election which was opposed by the company because such union was affiliated with a national federation which has as one of its members the union of the company’s rank-and-file employees. Held: The reason for the segregation of supervisory and rank-andfile employees of a company with respect to the exercise of the right 24 . it was held that if a labor organization’s application for registration is vitiated by falsification and serious irregularities. anterior to the granting of an order allowing a certification election. reconciles the conflict in the two cases. including the right to file a petition for certification election for the purpose of collective bargaining. attain the status of a legitimate labor organization. De La Salle University Medical Center vs. once a union acquires legitimate status as a labor organization. Laguesma. a labor organization should be denied recognition as a legitimate labor organization. (Note: The SPI and Toyota ruling are two irreconcilable decisions. when they recommend action implementing management policy or ask for the discipline or dismissal of subordinates. 294 SCRA 141 The company opposed the petition for certification election on the ground that the federation representing the supervisors’ union also represents its rank-and-file employees’ union. and submitting the names of 19 alleged supervisory employees. Held: The record shows that the union is a legitimate labor organization having been issued a certificate of registration. January 22. collective bargaining and strikes. SPI Technologies vs. Held: These supervisory employees are allowed to form their own union but they are not allowed to join the rank-and-file union because of conflict of interest. to inquire into the composition of any labor organization whenever the status of the labor organization is challenged on the basis of Article 245 of the Labor Code. The case Tagaytay Highlands vs. It becomes necessary. GR 135806 August 8.one. it cannot possess the requisite personality to file a petition for certification election. In the area of bargaining. 1999 The company opposed the petition for certification filed by the union alleging that the union is not a legitimate labor organization as it represents both supervisory and rank and file employees. Tagaytay Highlands Union. Members of the supervisory union might refuse to carry out disciplinary measure against their co-member rank-and-file employees. it continues as such until its certificate of registration is cancelled or revoked in an independent action for cancellation Article 245 merely prescribes the requirements for eligibility in joining a union and does not prescribe the grounds for the cancellation of union registration. an organization which carries a mixture of rank-and-file and supervisory employees cannot possess any of the rights of a legitimate labor organization. 2002 In this case. therefore.

or (b) one who is vested with both powers or prerogatives. which determines whether he has rank and file. 245 of the Labor Code singles out managerial employees as ineligible to join. It is the nature of the employee’s functions. The affiliation of two local unions in a company with the same national federation is not by itself a negation of their independence since in relation to the employer. Workers should be allowed the practice of this freedom to the extent recognized in the fundamental law. The grave abuse of discretion committed by public respondent is at once apparent. and not the nomenclature or title given to his job. NLRC. or care and protection of the employer’s property. Second. It is the same reason that impelled this Court to consider the position of confidential employees as included in the disqualification found in Art. or managerial status. the local unions are considered as the principals. in the interest of the employer. A confidential employee is one entrusted with confidence on delicate matters. the rank-and-file employees are directly under the authority of supervisory employees. 239 SCRA 546 The petition for certification election of the union was opposed by the company on the ground that some of the employees included in the list of members were either managerial or confidential employees. discharge. and strikes. while the federation is deemed to be merely their agent. handling. par. While Art. and not the nomenclature or title given to his job. the national federation is actively involved in union activities in the company. This conclusion is in accord with the policy that any limitation on the exercise by employees of the right to selforganization guaranteed in the Constitution must be construed strictly. Art. assist or form any labor organization. (m). A managerial employee is (a) one who is vested with powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies. A supervisory employee is different from a managerial employee in the sense that the supervisory employee. to act as its representatives. which determines whether he has rank and file. under the doctrine of necessary implication. Collective bargaining in such a situation can become one-sided. Supervisory employees are more closely identified with the employer than with the rank-and-file employees. unionization of confidential employees for the purpose of collective bargaining would mean the extension of the law to persons or individuals who are supposed to act “in the interest of” the employers. supervisory. or managerial status. Moreover. and to see to it that its interests are well protected. transfer. The employer is not assured of such protection if these employees themselves are union members. the conflicting interests of these groups impair their relationship and adversely affect discipline. assign or discipline employees. lay off. such a situation would obtain only where two conditions concur: First. or with the custody. These consequences can obtain not only in cases where supervisory and rank-and-file employees in the same company belong to a single union but also where unions formed independently by supervisory and rank-and-file employees of a company are allowed to affiliate with the same national federation. 245 as if the disqualification of confidential employees were written in the provision. However. confidential employees are similarly disqualified.to self-organization is the difference in their interests. It is not farfetched that in the course of collective 25 . suspend. collective bargaining. if the exercise of such managerial authority is not routinary in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. recall. If confidential employees could unionize in order to bargain for advantages for themselves. of the Labor Code is explicit. Held: It is the nature of the employee’s functions. then they could be governed by their own motives rather than the interest of the employers. effectively recommends such managerial actions. managerial employees are supposed to be on the side of the employer. CONFIDENTIAL EMPLOYEES: National Association of Trade Unions (NATU) vs. supervisory. 212. In the collective bargaining process. If supervisory and rank-and-file employees in a company are allowed to form a single union. or to hire.

Excluding confidential employees from the rank and file bargaining unit. Confesor. Metrolab Industries vs. and the supervisor must handle the prescribed responsibilities relating to labor relations. form and assist any labor organization to managerial employees. determine. will not render an employee a confidential employee. 254 SCRA 182 The company asked for the exclusion from the closed shop provision and bargaining unit of the rank and file employees of the executive secretaries of its managers since such secretaries are confidential employees having access to “vital labor information”. is not tantamount to discrimination. Thus. thus. Held: Confidential employees are those who (1) assist or act in a confidential capacity. Finally. product standards and product specifications. thus. warranting a separate category. the confidential relationship must exist between the employee and his supervisor. and effectuate management policies in the field of labor relations. Granting arguendo that an employee has access to confidential labor relations information but such is merely incidental to his duties and knowledge thereof is not necessary in the performance of such duties. a key question frequently considered is the employees’ necessary access to confidential labor relations information. said access does not render the employee a confidential employee. in determining the confidentiality of certain employees. such as financial information or technical trade secrets. Thus. Laguesma. are not eliminated by nonmembership of Metrolab’s executive secretaries or confidential employees in the Union. confidential employees cannot be classified as rank and file. to be regarded a confidential employee. (2) to persons who formulate. such information must relate to the employer’s labor relations policies. and both must be met if an employee is to be considered a confidential employee — that is. therefore. or of a management association. they might jeopardize that interest which they are dutybound to protect. As previously discussed. the executive secretaries stand to benefit from any agreement executed between the Union and Metrolab. 26 . They do not have to be union members to affect or influence either side. an employee of a labor union. gives rise to a potential conflict between personal interests and their duty as confidential employees to act for and in behalf of Metrolab. are likewise privy to sensitive and highly confidential records. An important element of the “confidential employee rule” is the employee’s need to use labor relations information. or which the association represents. If access to confidential labor relations information is to be a factor in the determination of an employee’s confidential status. the nature of employment of confidential employees is quite distinct from the rank and file. The dangers sought to be prevented. These employees handle confidential information which relate to product formulation. particularly the threat of conflict of interest and espionage. jurisprudence has extended this prohibition to confidential employees or those who by reason of their positions or nature of work are required to assist or act in a fiduciary manner to managerial employees and hence. Held: Although Article 245 of the Labor Code 20 limits the ineligibility to join. Access to information which is regarded by the employer to be confidential from the business standpoint. will not cause an employee to be excluded from the bargaining unit representing employees of the union or association. San Miguel Corp. and knowledge of labor relations information pertaining to the companies with which the union deals. 277 SCRA 370 The company petitioned for the exclusion of several supervisors from the bargaining unit on the ground that they were confidential employees. Supervisors and Exempt Union vs. Forming part of the bargaining unit. The two criteria are cumulative.bargaining. Such a scenario. must have access to confidential labor relations information with respect to his employer. the union. or the association.

The possible consequence is divided loyalties in the faithful performance of their duties. However. Held: As regards the right to strike. SECURITY GUARDS: Manila Electric Co. and the maintenance of order in the even of emergencies and untoward incidents. the Constitution itself qualifies its exercise with the proviso “in accordance with law. 197 SCRA 275 The issue in this case is whether security guards have the right to join either the rank-and-file or supervisory union. MEMBERS OF COOPERATIVES: Benguet Electric Cooperative vs. Since the employees are not classifiable under the confidential type. in dismissing the case. The information they handle are properly classifiable as technical and internal business operations data which. only the supervisory employees are prohibited and not security guards (Art. vs. However. CA. 180 SCRA 740 The right to collective bargaining is not available to an employee of a cooperative who at the same time is a member and co-owner thereof. The teachers claimed they were merely exercising their right to peaceful assembly and petition for redress of grievances. TEACHERS: Jacinto vs. Thus. 324 SCRA 425 The company opposed the union’s petition for certification election on the ground that the members of the union were confidential employees. however.In the case at bar. 281 SCRA 657 Several public school teachers incurred unauthorized absences when they participated in mass actions. in the event of a strike declared by their union. has no relevance to negotiations and settlement of grievances wherein the interests of a union and the management are invariably adversarial. the control of access to employer’s premises. Under the new rules. It must be stressed. Held: Under the new rules. collective bargaining and negotiations. the security guards are not barred from membership in a labor organization of the rank-and-file employees. They were preventively suspended and later on dismissed by the DECS Secretary. employees who are neither members nor coowners of the cooperative are entitiled to exercise the rights to selforganization. Ferrer-Calleja. the disqualification of managerial employees usually applies to confidential employees.” This is a clear 27 . Secretary of Labor and Employment. The rationale is that as cooperative members they are co-owners of cooperative even if they don’t exercise the actual management of cooperative. the employees in question may not be considered confidential employees merely because they handle “confidential data” as such must first be strictly classified as pertaining to labor relations for them to fall under said restrictions. under the doctrine of necessary implication. there is no legal prohibition against confidential employees from forming. Laguesma. this Court rules that they may appropriately form a bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining. However. that when the employee does not have access to confidential labor relations information. Furthermore. Sugbuanon Rural Bank vs. or joining a union. even assuming that they are confidential employees. such as protection of the properties of their employer. assisting. 245). security personnel may neglect or abandon their duties. The confidential employee rule justifies exclusion of confidential employees because in the normal course of their duties they become aware of management policies relating to labor relations. the SC also express its concern on the consequence of this decision. jurisprudence has established that there is no legal prohibition against confidential employees who are not performing managerial functions to form and join a union. to our mind. Held: Article 245 of the Labor Code does not directly prohibit confidential employees from engaging in union activities.

walkouts and other forms of mass action which will result in temporary stoppage or disruption of public service. 334 SCRA 486 Teachers from different public schools in Metro Manila were administratively charged with grave misconduct and gross neglect of duty when they did not report for work and instead. demonstrations. . and the employees must continue to be members of the union for the duration of the contract in order to keep their jobs. the members of said religious sects prefer to sign up with the labor union. or absence from. It does prohibit the members of said religious sects from affiliating with labor unions. and neither may the employer or labor union compel them to join. by filing a timely petition for certification election on October 13. Ferrer-Calleja. 59 SCRA 54. As 28 . participated in mass actions. all government officers and employees from staging strikes. Elizalde Rope Workers’ Union. implicitly endorsed an earlier CSC circular which “enjoins under pain of administrative sanctions. the law does not coerce them to join. It still leaves to said members the liberty and the power to affiliate. The legal protection granted to such right to refrain from joining is withdrawn by operation of law. by law. that the assailed Act. NEW ULO. 1987 and before it signed a new CBA with the company on December 3. work which it was the teachers’ sworn duty to perform. upholds and reinforces it. Elizalde Rope Workers Union. undertaken for essentially economic reasons. MEMBERS OF THE IGLESIA NI CRISTO: Victoriano vs. 1987 before TUPAS’ old CBA expired on November 15. far from infringing the constitutional provision on freedom of association. notwithstanding their religious beliefs. does not bar the members of that sect from forming their own union. Where a labor union and an employer have agreed on a closed shop. It is also settled in jurisprudence that. Held: The character and legality of the mass actions which they participated in have been passed upon by this Court as early as 1990 wherein it held that these mass actions were to all intents and purposes a strike. to challenge TUPAS’ claim to majority status.” The fact that TUPAS was able to negotiate a new CBA with ROBINA within the 60-day freedom period of the existing CBA. workers in the public sector do not enjoy the right to strike. 59 SCRA 54 It is clear that the right to join a union includes the right to abstain from joining any union. neither does the law prohibit them from joining. regulate the use of this right. therefore. mass leaves. Executive Order 180 which provides guidelines for the exercise of the right of government workers to organize. they can do so. or not to affiliate. Kapatiran sa Meat and Canning Division vs. does not foreclose the right of the rival union. 1987. they refuse to sign up. 162 SCRA 367 This Court’s decision in Victoriano vs. Acosta vs. It is clear. in general. for instance. . regardless of religious affiliation. or even deny certain sectors such right. they constituted a concerted and unauthorized stoppage of. they can do so. If. The public respondent correctly observed that the “recognition of the tenets of the sect .manifestation that the state may. They claimed that they never went on strike because they never sought to secure changes or modification of the terms and conditions of their employment. upholding the right of members of the IGLESIA NI KRISTO sect not to join a labor union for being contrary to their religious beliefs. It is the employee who should decide for himself whether to join such union or not but the law does not prohibit anyone from joining unions or it does not favor anuy religion. should not infringe on the basic right of self-organization granted by the constitution to workers. with labor unions. If in deference and fealty to their religious faith. CA.” by stating that the Civil Service law and rules governing concerted activities and strikes in the government service shall be observed. by virtue of which the employer may employ only members of the collective bargaining union.

But insofar as the right to self-organization is concerned. civil and administrative proceedings. 245. and again evaluate the evidence submitted by the supervisor. and he exercised discretion and recommended termination after deciding the case. then the recommendation was effective recommendation. and in this case. What is the right to self-organization? It does not only cover the right to organize for purposes of collective bargaining and for mutual aid and protection. the principle of nonsuability of states or diplomatic immunity. then the supervisor’s recommendation is not effective. Now as for supervisory employees. So when can a recommendation be considered effective? In the case of a disciplinary action. it can be said it will always be subject to review. Who are managerial employees? Look at Art. not just rankand-file or supervisory but even managerial employees. and determine if the supervisor exercised due discretion.” Since it has not been shown that this order is tainted with unfairness. Because they lay down policies. However it must be effective recommendation. concerted means. The SC held that although the “certificate of election” is not a “suit” against ICMC. one can be considered a managerial employee excluding him from such benefits. and it is beyond the jurisdiction of the regular courts. this Court will not thwart the holding of a certification election.. but also pursuant to Art.pointed out by Med-Arbiter Abdullah. 245. There’s a prohibition against managerial employees joining or assisting in union organizing activities. of Foreign Affairs granted ICMC the status of a specialized agency with corresponding diplomatic privileges and immunities. If one is a member of a managerial staff by virtue of Art. if the manager conducts another investigation. It is the right to organization for purposes of collective bargaining which is limited by the Labor Code. only rank and file and supervisory employees may join. a supervisor conducted an investigation. Now a supervisor cannot join the organization of rank-andfile employees. It extends to the employee’s right to assert peaceful. On the other hand. Hence. 246. 82. a “certification election is the best forum in ascertaining the majority status of the contending unions wherein the workers themselves can freely choose their bargaining representative thru secret ballot. 190 SCRA 130 ICMC employees applied for a certification of election which was opposed by ICMC on the fround that the Dept. they are allowed to form or join labor organizations because their power is recommendatory. The right to self organization per se is a right of ALL employees. managerial employee as defined by Art. 82.” LECTURE Is the right to self organization a constitutional right? Can it be taken away by statute? The right to self organization is a constitutional right. EMPLOYEES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: International Catholic Migration Commission vs. or form labor organizations for purposes of collective bargaining. 243 cannot be read in isolation. concerted means. Look at Art. it would nonetheless trigger a series of events in the collective bargaining process which could inevitably lead to “legal process” which includes any “penal. It must be read in conjunction with Art. What does that mean? Since all recommendations of supervisors go up to the manager for a final signature at the very least. it defines what is the right of self-organization. and vice versa. Because the definition of a managerial employee should be applied strictly. because it is considered interference by management.file. And it cannot be taken away by statute. The supervisor holds a supervisory position. Hence. he may be considered NOT a managerial employee because of the other definition of a managerial employee under Art. He should be considered rank-and. There is a prohibition on 29 . to picket peacefully is part of the right to self-organization through peaceful. thus. if the manager merely reviews the supervisor’s findings and recommendations. Calleja. 82 you are a managerial employee? Insofar as one is entitled to certain benefits. 246. assist. Art.

Such issue will come up in a petition for certification election proceeding. 245. cite Toyota. For instance. will this affect the federation’s legitimacy? Yes. In fact. SPI Technologies is a clarification of the Toyota case. Three elements that must be applied strictly: • The confidential employee’s necessary or primary function entails he must have access to vital confidential information or matter related to labor relations. Now in the Atlas case. He also must have fiduciary relationship of a confidential nature with the management employee. and results in the nullification of a union’s registration. and the effect of the violation is for the member to be expelled. prior to the dispositive portion. Remember the case of Toyota. 245 bars an employee . Hence it extends the prohibition to the federation or conglomerate level. the employee is excluded from voting through inclusion/exclusion proceedings. The company withdrew its opposition to the commingling in the federation. They are akin to managerial employees. 245 relates to the eligibility of the employees to join. Toyota places a burden on labor unions to determine with exactness who are supervisory or rank-and-file employees. SPI is a more reasonable interpretation of Art. Applying Toyota again. You can divide them into as many bargaining units as possible depending on the rules in determining the appropriate bargaining unit. 245. In the case of a petition for certification election. They are irreconcilable. the Labor Code does not include as one of the grounds for cancellation of a union’s registration the commingling of employees in such union. What is the legal basis for this ruling? Art. Now in the succeeding case of De La Salle. It does not relate to the issue of illegitimacy. Or a union can be organized in such a way where not all rank-and-file employees comprise only one union. There was no genuine issue left! That is how doctrines in labor are made year in and year out. the commingling per se is not disallowed. • • 30 . 245? But Art. 245 of the Code. This is again not provided in Art.commingling. Does it matter how many prohibited employees happened to join the union? No. The Court said the legitimacy of a union is nullified the moment there is commingling. I suggest for the bar purposes. 245. The Toyota doctrine says that commingling is a violation of Art. Go to the last paragraph of the decision. says that a supervisory union cannot join the federation of the company’s rankand-file union. Art. So I suggest cite both Toyota then say that there is a recent contrary decision in the case of SPI. It said the Atlas doctrine is applicable only when: • • The rank-and-file union members are directly under the supervisors comprising the supervisory union The federation is actively involved in the negotiations for CBA (which is stupid because this is the primary purpose of a federation) It is possible that there are supervisors in the union who are not supervising the rank-and-file members of the union in the same federation. then cite SPI. Confidential employees. Remember the Toyota case and Justice Kapunan . Instead of Toyota. We will not know why the examiner asks the question-if he is relying on Toyota or is testing if you know SPI. We do not know how the Court will reconcile Toyota and SPI. 245 does not mention the effect of nullification in case of commingling. It says that Art. This fatally affects a pending petition for certification election because it can be filed only by a legitimate labor organization. They are not really working with each other. The legitimacy of the union is invalidated by even a single employee who commingles with that certain union. they belong to different departments. And the manager must have the power to lay down policies relating to labor relations. using Art.are those who assist managerial employees and by the doctrine of necessary implication are not allowed to join or assist labor organizations.

Inc. C. The compulsion to join the union applies to those who are not yet members of another union and are not religious objectors. beginning his first day of service. c) and other terms and conditions of employment in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. OF - whether employed for a definite period or not. 248 (e). You can find that in any book. “Religious Objectors” – applies to people who claim that it is prohibited by their religious belief. A union security agreement is a valid compulsion as a condition for employment. It is done for collective action for labor. he does not enjoy the fiduciary relation. This is exemplified in the Kapatiran case. They can maintain their employment despite the union security clause. This is an exception to the right to association. The workers were allowed to form their own union if they wanted to. I suggest you try to know the rules on public sector unionism. 1989 31 . of this Code shall not apply to the non-members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. paragraph (o). ~ except of those employees who are already members of another union at the time of the signing of the collective bargaining agreement. the State would still not prohibit them from doing the same. and even if it would be against their religious belief.. No state policy or law prohibits this. ANY employee. Unfair Labor Practices of Employers. it is only usually an internal prohibition by the religious group. Nothing in this Code or in any other law ~ shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognized collective bargaining agent as a condition for employment. c) if such non-union members accept the benefits under the collective agreement: d) Provided. be considered an employee for purposes of membership in any labor union. Employees of an appropriate collective bargaining unit a) who are not members of the recognized collective bargaining agent b) may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. because although he may photocopy vital labor relations documents. December 29. But who cannot be compelled to be members of the labor union? Those who are already members of another union. 242. Miscellaneous Provisions. ACQUISITION AND RETENTION AGREEMENTS LABOR CODE Art. . b) hours of work.Hence a Xerox operator cannot be considered a confidential employee. 277 (c). shall. In compelling him to join a labor organization you are working for his own good. such as lawyers are compelled to join the IBP. UNION SECURITY CASES Liberty Flour Mills Employees vs. - MEMBERSHIP.To discriminate in regard to a) wages. It is good for labor. I’m not sure if it is included in the bar exams though. That the individual authorization required under Art. nor are they prohibited from forming their own union. But religious objectors are not prohibited from joining if they want to . Liberty Flou Mills. Art.

Similar to a “Union Shop Clause” (see Liberty) 32 . and peaceful assembly including the right to strike in accordance with the law will not work if every worker were to choose his own separate way instead of joining hi co-employees. Elizalde Rope Workers Union. If. 15 SCRA 391 Petitioner charged respondent company of Unfair Labor Practice because he was suspended after he refused to join a labor union. Thus. The legal protection granted to such right to refrain from joining is withdrawn by operation of law. by virtue of which the employer may employ only members of the collective bargaining union. CIR. vs. It still leaves to said members the liberty and the power to affiliate. does not bar the members of that sect from forming their own union. collective bargaining. Ferrer-Calleja. Where a labor union and an employer have agreed on a closed shop. Manila Cordage Co. the members of said religious sects prefer to sign up with the labor union. The SC affirmed the decision that such dismissal was valid since the purpose of self-organization.The petitioners. with labor unions. CIR. If in deference and fealty to their religious faith. The public respondent correctly observed that the “recognition of the tenets of the sect . Santos-Juat vs. after organizing another union filed a certification election among the rank-in-file employees. and the employees must continue to be members of the union for the duration of the contract in order to keep their jobs. upholding the right of members of the IGLESIA NI KRISTO sect not to join a labor union for being contrary to their religious beliefs. they can do so. The main contention of the petitioner is that he is an old employee of the company even before the union was formed. . The issue will be resolved if the question of whether or no Juanito Tabuyan and he others who signed the agreements relied upo the petitioner as officers of respondent union. notwithstanding their religious beliefs. 78 SCRA 398 The respondent union declared a strike. and neither may the employer or labor union compel them to join.” The fact that TUPAS was able to negotiate a new CBA with ROBINA within the 60-day freedom period of the existing CBA. Kapatiran sa Meat and Canning Division vs. 59 SCRA 54. far from infringing the constitutional provision on freedom of association. neither does the law prohibit them from joining. he is not included in the requirement. 2 A “Union Shop Claus” in CBA is a clause that requires union membership in good standing as a requirement for continued employment. therefore. It is clear. .”2 He was suspended but later ordered to report to work. The SC held that it is an established doctrine that the CBA entered into by the employer and a duly authorizewd labor union applies also to old employees or workers who are non-0members of any labor union at the time of the CBA. It does prohibit the members of said religious sects from affiliating with labor unions. 59 SCRA 54 It is clear that the right to join a union includes the right to abstain from joining any union. However. that the assailed Act. the law does not coerce them to join. The 1 CBA contains a “closed shop proviso. thus. he did not go to work. they refuse to sign up. the certificate of strike was cancelled and a return to work order was given. 162 SCRA 367 This Court’s decision in Victoriano vs. negotiation. are terminated because o a “union shop clause”1 in the CBA. Victoriano vs. the basis for his dismissal is valid. The pivotoal issue in this case is due representation of the Union in the CBA in question. Thus. upholds and reinforces it. regardless of religious affiliation. should not infringe on the basic right of self-organization granted by the constitution to workers. or not to affiliate. the case is remanded to respondent court. Elizalde Rope Workers’ Union. they can do so. however.

and reported to the Regional Office in accordance with Rule III. (l) "Consolidation" refers to the creation or formation of a new union arising from the unification of two or more unions. NEW ULO.does not foreclose the right of the rival union. (n) "Department" refers to the Department of Labor and Employment. and all other terms and conditions of employment in a bargaining unit. including the promotion and encouragement of voluntary approaches to labor disputes prevention and settlement. Definitions. by filing a timely petition for certification election on October 13. this Court will not thwart the holding of a certification election. (j) "Collective Bargaining Agreement" or "CBA" refers to the contract between a legitimate labor union and the employer concerning wages. Sections 6 and 7 of these Rules. (m) "Deregistration of Agreement" refers to the legal process leading to the revocation of CBA registration. 1987 and before it signed a new CBA with the company on December 3.O. AS (h) "Certification Election" or "Consent Election" refers to the process of determining through secret ballot the sole and exclusive representative of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining or negotiation. to challenge TUPAS’ claim to majority status. (g) “Labor organization” means any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment. A certification election is ordered by the Department. 1987 before TUPAS’ old CBA expired on November 15. “Legitimate labor organization” means any labor organization duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment and includes any branch or local thereof. (i) "Chartered Local" refers to a labor organization in the private sector operating at the enterprise level that acquired legal personality through the issuance of a charter certificate by a duly registered federation or national union. while a consent election is voluntarily agreed upon by the parties. As pointed out by Med-Arbiter Abdullah. 40. D. national union or a chartered local which was subsequently granted independent registration but did not disaffiliate from its federation. SEC. 1987. 212. (h) OMNIBUS RULES BOOK V AMENDED BY D. LABOR ORGANIZATIONS LABOR CODE Art. hours of work.” Since it has not been shown that this order is tainted with unfairness. 33 . 1 (a) "Affiliate" refers to an independent union affiliated with a federation. a “certification election is the best forum in ascertaining the majority status of the contending unions wherein the workers themselves can freely choose their bargaining representative thru secret ballot. (k) "Conciliator Mediator" refers to an officer of the Board whose principal function is to assist in the settlement and disposition of labor-management disputes through conciliation and preventive mediation. with or without the intervention by the Department. Section 2-E of these Rules. RULE I. reported to the Regional Office and the Bureau in accordance with Rule III.

including the counting. (ccc) "Workers' Association" refers to an association of workers organized for the mutual aid and protection of its members or for any legitimate purpose other than collective bargaining. (ee) "Legitimate Labor Organization" refers to any labor organization in the private sector registered or reported with the Department in accordance with Rules III and IV of these Rules. Section 2-A of these Rules. Registry of unions and file of collective agreements. tabulation and consolidation of votes. and decisions of voluntary arbitrators. The Bureau shall also maintain a file of . (ff) "Legitimate Workers' Association" refers to an association of workers organized for mutual aid and protection of its members or for any legitimate purpose other than collective bargaining registered with the Department in accordance with Rule III. starting from the opening to the closing of the polls.all collective bargaining agreements . Section 2-B of these Rules. mutual aid. protection. . election of union officers and other forms of elections and referenda in accordance with Rule XII.authorized by the Secretary. (c) provided that no specific information submitted in confidence shall be disclosed unless: . cooperation. registered with the Bureau in accordance with Rule III. .legitimate labor organizations.and records of settlement of labor disputes.and other related agreements . Sections 2-5 of these Rules. (zz) "Union" refers to any labor organization in the private sector organized for collective bargaining and for other legitimate purposes. The file shall be open and accessible (a) to interested parties (b) under conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. (kk) "National Union" or "Federation" refers to a group of legitimate labor unions in a private establishment organized for collective bargaining or for dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment for their member unions or for participating in the formulation of social and employment policies.or when it is at issue in any judicial litigation 34 . Sections 2-C and 2-D of these Rules.and copies of orders. (w) "Independent Union" refers to a labor organization operating at the enterprise level that acquired legal personality through independent registration under Article 234 of the Labor Code and Rule III. standards and programs. 231. ART. — The Bureau shall keep a registry of . or other lawful purposes. interest. (p) "Election Proceedings" refer to the period during a certification election. (cc) "Labor Organization" refers to any union or association of employees in the private sector which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining. consent or run-off election and election of union officers. but excluding the period for the final determination of the challenged votes and the canvass thereof.(o) "Election Officer" refers to an officer of the Bureau or Labor Relations Division in the Regional Office authorized to conduct certification elections.

00) or in any other amount as may be deemed appropriate and necessary by the Secretary of Labor and Employment for the effective and efficient administration of the voluntary arbitration program.and shall be entitled to the rights and privileges granted by law to legitimate labor organizations .upon issuance of the certificate of registration . .00) registration fee.certified under oath by the Secretary or the treasurer of the organization. Action on application. b. Requirements of registration. The names of all its members comprising at least twenty 20% percent of all the employees in the bargaining unit where it seeks to operate. Denial of registration. association or group of unions or workers .1. copies of its annual financial reports. (b) The Regional Offices shall furnish the Bureau with a copy of the collective bargaining agreement within five (5) days from its submission. ART.based on the following requirements: a. The Bureau or Regional Offices shall (a) act upon the application for registration of such collective bargaining agreement within five (5) calendar days from receipt thereof. 235. The names of its officers. — The decision of the Labor Relations Division in the regional office denying registration may be appealed by the applicant union to the Bureau within ten days from receipt of notice thereof. Any amount collected under this provision shall accrue to the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund.shall acquire legal personality . their addresses. ART. Four copies of the constitution and by-laws of the applicant union. ART.and attested to by its president. Regional Directors and the Commission. 35 . 234. and shall undertake or assist in the publication. (b) the parties shall submit copies of the same directly to the Bureau or the Regional Offices of the Department of Labor and Employment for registration . — Any applicant labor organization. (c) accompanied with verified proofs of its posting in two conspicuous places in the place of work and ratification by the majority of all the workers in the bargaining unit. (a) -or when public interest or national security so requires. The Bureau shall also maintain a file. of all final decisions. and e. (c) The Bureau or Regional Office shall assess the employer for every collective bargaining agreement a registration fee of not less than one thousand pesos (P1. as the case may be. Within thirty (30) days from the execution of a collective bargaining agreement. appeal. If the applicant has been in existence for one or more years. orders and awards of the Secretary of Labor and Employment. c. d. the principal address of the labor organization.000. the minutes of the organizational meetings and the list of the workers who participated in such meetings. All requisite documents and papers shall be . — The Bureau shall act on all applications for registration within thirty (30) days from filing. Fifty-pesos (P50. 2. the minutes of its adoption or ratification and the list of the members who participated in it. 236.

. 238. — Subject to Art. submit the following: (a) Proof of the affiliation of at least ten locals or chapters. appeal. Additional requirements for federations or national unions. false entries or fraud in the preparation of the financial report itself.the minutes of ratification. Cancellation of registration. Failure to submit the annual financial report to the Bureau within thirty (30) days after the closing of every fiscal year and misrepresentation. 239. The names and addresses of the companies where the locals or chapters operate and the list of all the members in each company involved. Acting as a labor contractor or engaging in the “cabo” system. 238.adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto. each of which must be a duly recognized collective bargaining agent in the establishment or industry in which it operates.after due hearing.and the list of members who took part in the ratification. . Entering into collective bargaining agreements which provide terms and conditions of employment below minimum standard established by law.if it has reason to believe.ART. supporting the registration of such applicant federation or national union. if the applicant for registration is a federation or a national union. 237. or otherwise engaging in any activity prohibited by law. minutes of the election of officers and the list of voters. (b) Failure to submit the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph within thirty (30) days from (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 36 . . — The certificate of registration of any legitimate labor organization. Grounds for cancellation of union registration.shall be cancelled by the Bureau . Other than for mandatory activities under this Code.that the said labor organization no longer meets one or more of the requirements herein prescribed. . in addition to the requirements of the preceding Articles. (c) Misrepresentation. false statement or fraud in connection with the election of officers. . whether national or local. — The following shall constitute grounds for cancellation of union registration: (a) Misrepresentation. false statement or fraud in connection with the . it shall. Asking for or accepting attorney’s fees or negotiation fees from employers. (b) ART. or failure to submit these documents together with the list of the newly elected/appointed officers and their postal addresses within thirty (30) days from election. ART. checking off special assessments or any other fees without duly signed individual written authorizations of the members. adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto.

The application for registration of federations and national unions shall be accompanied by the following documents: (j) ART.and none of the grounds for cancellation shall continue to maintain their existing affiliates regardless of the nature of the industry and the location of the affiliates. but shall be processed by the Bureau in accordance with Sections 2-B and 2-D of this Rule.O. The application for registration of an independent labor union shall be accompanied by the following documents: 1) the name of the applicant labor union. and Failure to comply with requirements under Articles 237 and 238. and 2-E of this Rule. The list of ratifying members shall be dispensed with where the constitution and by-laws was ratified or adopted during the organizational meeting. Equity of the incumbent. Requirements for application.Applications for registration of independent labor unions. Where to file. chartered locals. In such a case. in which case a statement to this effect shall be included in the application. It shall be processed by the Labor Relations Division at the Regional Office in accordance with Sections 2-A. with a statement that it is not reported as a chartered local of any federation or national union. Section 2. the factual circumstances of the ratification shall be recorded in the minutes of the organizational meeting(s). 3) the name of all its members comprising at least 20% of the employees in the bargaining unit. OMNIBUS RULES BOOK V AS AMENDED BY D. 240. B. unless it has not collected any amount from the members. approximate number of employees in the bargaining unit where it seeks to operate. minutes of its adoption or ratification. and the list of the members who participated in it. 37 . the name of its officers and their respective addresses. workers' associations shall be filed with the Regional Office where the applicant principally operates.A. 5) the applicant's constitution and by-laws. national unions or workers' associations operating in more than one region shall be filed with the Bureau or the Regional Offices. — All existing federations and national unions .(i) Failure to submit a list of individual members to the Bureau once a year or whenever required by the Bureau. its principal address. 2) the minutes of the organizational meeting(s) and the list of employees who participated in the said meeting(s).which meet the qualifications of a legitimate labor organization . 2-C. Applications for registration of federations. 4) the annual financial reports if the applicant has been in existence for one or more years. . 40 RULE III REGISTRATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS Section 1. .

unless it has not collected any amount from the members. duly approved by its board of directors. The application for registration of a workers' association shall be accompanied by the following documents: 1) the name of the applicant association. The list of ratifying members shall be dispensed with where the constitution and by-laws was ratified or adopted during the organizational meeting(s). in which case a statement to this effect shall be included in the application. Application for registration of a workers' association operating in more than one region shall be accompanied. whether independent unions or chartered locals. 2) the minutes of the organizational meeting(s) and the list of employees who participated in the said meeting(s).1) a statement indicating the name of the applicant labor union. 2) the minutes of the organizational meeting(s) and the list of members who participated therein. its principal address. 4) the applicant union's constitution and by-laws. unless ratification was done in the organizational meeting(s). in which case a statement to this effect shall be included in the application. Labor organizations operating within an identified industry may also apply for registration as a federation or national union within the specified industry by submitting to the Bureau the same set of documents. 5) the resolution of affiliation of at least ten (10) legitimate labor organizations. 4) the applicant's constitution and by-laws to which must be attached the names of ratifying members. . The report of creation of a chartered local shall be accompanied by a charter certificate issued by the federation or national union indicating the creation or establishment of the chartered local. and 6) the name and addresses of the companies where the affiliates operate and the list of all the members in each company involved. 3) the financial reports of the applicant association if it has been in existence for one or more years. Where to file. 3) the annual financial reports if the applicant union has been in existence for one or more years. its principal address. the name of its officers and their respective addresses. in which case such fact shall be reflected in the minutes of the organizational meeting(s). unless it has not collected any amount from the members. E. Notice of change of name of labor organizations.The notice for change of 38 . the minutes of adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws and the date when ratification was made. the name of its officers and their respective addresses. each of which must be a duly certified or recognized bargaining agent in the establishment where it seeks to operate. D. In such a case. by a resolution of membership of each member association. minutes of its adoption or ratification. in addition to the requirements in the preceding subsection. and the list of the members who participated in it. C. Section 3. the factual circumstances of the ratification shall be recorded in the minutes of the organizational meeting(s).

Notice of merger or consolidation of federations or national unions shall be filed with and recorded by the Bureau. Section 7.name of a registered labor organization shall be filed with the Bureau or the Regional Office where the concerned labor organization's certificate of registration or certificate of creation of a chartered local was issued. which fact shall be indicated accordingly. Certificate of Registration/Certificate of Creation of Chartered Local for change of name. Requirements of affiliation. (d) the certificate of affiliation issued by the federation in favor of the independently registered labor union. . and (b) the amended constitution and by-laws. Notice of Merger/Consolidation of labor organizations. and (d) the date when the labor organization acquired legitimate personality as stated in its original certificate of registration/certificate of creation of chartered local. with the list of their respective members who approved the same. Where to file.The notice of merger of labor organizations shall be accompanied by the following documents: (a) the minutes of merger convention or general membership meeting(s) of all the merging labor organizations. (b) minutes of the general membership meeting approving the affiliation. . .The notice for change of name of a labor organization shall be accompanied by the following documents: (a) proof of approval or ratification of change of name. Section 9. Requirements of notice of merger.The report of affiliation of independently registered labor unions with a federation or national union shall be accompanied by the following documents: (a) resolution of the labor union's board of directors approving the affiliation. unless ratification transpired in the merger convention.Notice of merger or consolidation of independent labor unions. . 39 . Section 6. Where to file. Requirements for notice of change of name. Section 4. (c) the total number of members comprising the labor union and the names of members who approved the affiliation. .The certificate of registration and the certificate of creation of a chartered local issued to the labor organization for change of name shall bear the same registration number as the original certificate issued in its favor and shall indicate the following: (a) the new name of the labor organization. Section 5. Report of Affiliation with federations or national unions. (b) its former name. chartered locals and workers' associations shall be filed with and recorded by the Regional Office that issued the certificate of registration/certificate of creation of chartered local of either the merging or consolidating labor organization.The report of affiliation of an independently registered labor union with a federation or national union shall be filed with the Regional Office that issued its certificate of registration. . and (e) written notice to the employer concerned if the affiliating union is the incumbent bargaining agent. Section 8. (c) its office or business address. and (b) the amended constitution and by-laws and minutes of its ratification.

The application for registration of labor unions and workers' associations. . Section 3.The Regional Office or the Bureau. and each of the consolidating labor legitimate personality as stated in certificates of registration. Accompanying documents.The certificate of registration issued to merged labor organizations shall bear the registration number of one of the merging labor organizations as agreed upon by the parties to the merger. and attested to by its President. shall act on all applications for registration or notice of change of name. Action on the application/notice. The certificate of registration shall indicate the following (a) the new name of the consolidated labor organization. The certificate of registration shall indicate the following: (a) the new name of the merged labor organization. notice for change of name. Attestation requirements. or (b) denying the application/notice for failure of the applicant to comply with the requirements for registration/notice. shall be certified under oath by its Secretary or Treasurer.One (1) original copy and two (2) duplicate copies of all documents accompanying the application or notice shall be submitted to the Regional Office or the Bureau. . minutes of its ratification transpired in the consolidation convention or in the same general membership meeting(s). PROVISIONS COMMON TO THE REGISTRATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND WORKERS ASSOCIATION Section 1. Section 11. . Section 2. which fact shall be indicated accordingly. The notice of consolidation of labor organizations shall be accompanied by the following documents: (a) the minutes of consolidation convention of all the consolidating labor organizations. Certificate of Registration. Section 4. affiliation. as the case may be. as the case may be.Section 10. (b) the fact that it is a merger of two or more labor organizations. Section 12. with the list of their respective members who approved the same. (d) (e) the date when organizations acquired their respective original RULE IV its office or business address. . (d) its office or business address. (b) the fact that it is a consolidation of two or more labor organizations. Payment of registration fee. Certificate of Registration. Requirements of notice of consolidation. 40 .A labor union and workers' association shall be issued a certificate of registration upon payment of the prescribed registration fee. consolidation and affiliation including all the accompanying documents. merger and consolidation within ten (10) days from receipt either by: (a) approving the application and issuing the certificate of registration/acknowledging the notice/report. and (e) the date when each of the merging labor organizations acquired legitimate personality as stated in their respective original certificate of registration. and (b) the amended constitution and by-laws. . . (c) the name of the labor organizations that were merged.The certificate of registration issued to a consolidated labor organization shall bear the registration number of one of the consolidating labor organizations as agreed upon by the parties to the consolidation. (c) the name of the labor organizations that were consolidated. merger.

interests and obligations of the absorbed labor organizations are transferred to the absorbing organization. merger or consolidation. affiliation. Where there is consolidation. All the rights and obligations of a labor organization under its old name shall continue to be exercised by the labor organization under its new name. . or the notice of change of name. . interests and obligations of the consolidating labor organizations.The memorandum of appeal shall be filed with the Regional Office or the Bureau that issued the denial/return of notice. affiliation. . The Bureau or the Office of the Secretary shall decide the appeal within twenty (20) days from receipt of the records of the case. notify the applicant/labor organization concerned in writing of the necessary requirements and complete the same within thirty (30) days from receipt of notice. without prejudice to filing a new application or notice. the Regional Office or the Bureau shall. . Effect of merger or consolidation. Where the applicant/labor organization concerned fails to complete the requirements within the time prescribed. Section 6. All the rights. and not by way of collateral attack in petition for certification election proceedings under Rule VIII. affiliation. Effect of registration. The newly created labor organization shall acquire all the rights. Section 10. Section 7. shall be transmitted by the Regional Office to the Bureau or by the Bureau to the Office of the Secretary. the legal existence of the consolidating labor organizations shall cease and a new labor organization is created.Section 5.The notice of the Regional Office or the Bureau denying the application for registration/returning the notice of change of name. affiliation. the application for registration shall be denied. while the legal existence of the absorbing labor organization subsists. Procedure on appeal. Effect of change of name.The labor union or workers' association shall be deemed registered and vested with legal personality on the date of issuance of its certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local. merger and consolidation are incomplete or do not contain the required certification and attestation. The memorandum of appeal together with the complete records of the application for registration/notice of change of name. RULE V 41 . within ten (10) days from receipt of such notice. Denial of Application/Return of Notice. within five (5) days from receipt of the application/notice.Where there is a merger of labor organizations. Section 8. the legal existence of the absorbed labor organization(s) ceases. merger or consolidation shall be in writing stating in clear terms the reasons for the denial or return. . The denial may be appealed to the Bureau if denial is made by the Regional Office or to the Secretary if denial is made by the Bureau. Appeal. within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the memorandum of appeal.The change of name of a labor organization shall not affect its legal personality. on the ground of grave abuse of discretion or violation of these Rules. Such legal personality may be questioned only through an independent petition for cancellation of union registration in accordance with Rule XIV of these Rules. Where the documents supporting the application for registration/notice of change of name. Form of Denial of Application/Return of Notice. merger and consolidation returned. Section 9.

Inc. independent unions and workers' associations within thirty (30) days after the close of each fiscal year.It shall be the duty of every legitimate labor unions and workers associations to submit to the Regional Office or the Bureau which issued its certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local. Although the federation with which the Union is affiliated submitted documents purporting to show that the latter had offered books of account to support its (the Union’s) application for registration as a legitimate labor organization. The Med-Arbiter should look into the merits of the petition for cancellation of a union’s registration before issuing an order calling for certification elections. Where the legal personality of a union is seriously challenged. as well as the updated list of their authorized representatives. unless a different period is prescribed in the constitution and bylaws. within thirty (30) days after the close of each fiscal year.. collective bargaining agreements executed and their effectivity period. as the case may be. Protection Technology. (c) updated list of newly-elected officers. CASES Registration of Unions: Progressive Development Corp. 242 SCRA 99 Non-submission of such books of account certified by and attested to by the appropriate officer is a ground which the employer can invoke legitimately to oppose a petition for certification election filed by the local or chapter concerned. . it would be more prudent for the Med-Arbiter to grant the request for suspension of the proceedings in the certification election case until the issue of legality of the union’s registration shall have been resolved. (d) updated list of individual members of chartered locals. (b) annual financial reports within thirty (30) days after the close of each fiscal year or calendar year. the fiscal year of a labor organization shall coincide with the calendar year. v Secretary of Labor. and (e) updated list of its chartered locals and affiliates or member organizations. Sec. 2. within thirty (30) days after each regular or special election of officers. or from the occurrence of any change in the officers of agents of the labor organization or workers association. As understood in these Rules. The propriety of a labor organization’s registration could be assailed directly through cancellation proceedings in accordance with Articles 238 ad 239 of the Labor Code. 271 SCRA 593 1. vs. within thirty (30) days from its adoption or ratification. what had been actually submitted to the BLR by the Union was a mere “financial 42 .REPORTING REQUIREMENTS OF AND WORKERS ASSOCIATIONS LABOR UNIONS Section 1. Reporting requirements. in the case of federations or national unions. agents or signatories in the different regions of the country. or indirectly by challenging its petition for the issuance of an order for certification election. two (2) copies of each of the following documents: (a) any amendment to its constitution and by-laws and the minutes of adoption or ratification of such amendments. together with the appointive officers or agents who are entrusted with the handling of funds.

reduced the requirements needed to be submitted. a labor organization must still maintain books of account.e. the former consist of journals. much less informative sources of cash flow information. The controlling intention is to minimize the risk of fraud and diversion in the course of the subsequent formation and growth of the Union fund.. It is immaterial that the Union. Statements of accounts or financial reports. having been organized for less than a year before its application for registration with the BLR. the individual transactions) on which they are based and are. Pagpalain Haulers vs. 181 SCRA 173 The right of a local union to disaffiliate from its mother federation is well-settled.” a generous description considering the sheet of paper in fact submitted by the Union. prepared by external independent auditors (certified public accountants). Department Order No. is free to serve the interest of all its members including 43 .. But as provided by Arts. Thus the fact that KAMAPI was particularly mentioned as the bargaining party without specifying the local union cannot strip it of its authority to participate in the bargaining process. 253 SCRA 96 It is further argued that the CBA has no binding force since it was entered into by KAMAPI as a federation and not by the local union. Tropical Hut. commonly corresponding to the fiscal year of the establishment or entity concerned. Books of account are quite different in their essential nature from financial statements. i. being a separate and voluntary association. 9. 310 SCRA 354 The Labor Code does not require the submission of books of account on order for a labor organization to be registered as a legitimate labor organization. Secretary of Labor. but it need not submit them as a requisite for registration. and has done away with the submission of books of account as a requisite of registration. 241 (h) and (j). Books of account are kept and handled by bookkeepers (employees) of the company or agency.e. which subsequently was amended by DO9. The doctrine laid down in Progressive Development Corporation 21 is a mere clarification of the principle enunciated in Liberty Cotton Mills Workers Union v. In generally accepted accounting practice. Perusal of the agreement proves the signatories for KAMAPI consisted of its national president and of the duly elected officers of the local union. ledgers and other accounting books (which are registered with the Bureau of Internal Revenue) containing a record of individual transactions wherein monies are received and disbursed by an establishment or entity. Inc.statement. A local union. The point to be stressed is that the applicant local or chapter must demonstrate to the BLR that it is entitled to registered status because it has in place a system for accounting for members’ contributions to its fund even before it actually receives dues or fees from its members. Liberty Cotton Mills. 22 Both cases have provided that “the mother union acting for and in behalf of its affiliate ha(s) the status of an agent while the local union remained the basic unit of the association free to serve the common interest of all its members subject only to the restraints imposed by the Constitution and By-Laws of the association. upon the other hand. entries are made on such books on a day-to-day basis (or as close thereto as is possible).” Tropical Hut Employees Union vs. even if they contain no detailed or extensive entries as yet. merely summarize such individual transactions as have been set out in the books of account and are usually prepared at the end of an accounting period. Trajano. financial statements may be audited statements. The local union maintains its separate personality despite affiliation with a larger national federation. Statements of account and financial reports do not set out or repeat the basic data (i. would have had no real opportunity to levy and collect dues and fees from its members which need to be recorded in the books of account. Series of 1997. therefore. Such accounting books can and must be submitted to the BLR. This requirement is found only in the Omnibus Rules (Book V) implementing the Labor Code. Local Unions and Federations: Pambansang Kapatiran vs.

the legal personality to enforce its constitution and laws. a majority of petitioner’s members decided to disaffiliate from respondent federation in order to operate on its own as an independent labor group. 137 SCRA 42 [1985] Petitioner was affiliated with ALUMETAL. In the absence of enforceable provisions in the federation’s constitution preventing disaffiliation of a local union. it appearing that it was not registered at that time with the Department of Labor. Yet the locals remained the basic units of association. Both unions. Accordingly. and therefore did not possess and acquire. We have always adopted the liberal approach which favors the exercise of labor rights. jointly entered into a CBA with respondent companies. The essential purpose was the affiliation of the local unions into a common enterprise to increase by collective action the common bargaining power in respect of the terms and conditions of labor. The alleged noncompliance of the local union with the provision in the NATU Constitution requiring the service of three months notice of intention to withdraw did not produce the effect of nullifying the disaffiliation for the following grounds: firstly. In interpreting the protection to labor and social justice provisions of the Constitution and the labor laws or rules or regulations. One of the subjects dealt with was the payment of union dues (made through check-off). on the other hand. All employees enjoy the right to self-organization and to form and join labor organizations of their own choosing for the purpose of collective bargaining and to engage in concerted activities for their mutual aid or protection. recognized the continued affiliation of Volkschel with ALUMETAL and the NLRC Sheriff enforced the implemented Order. These associations are consensual entities capable of entering into such legal relations with their members. This is a fundamental light of labor that derives its existence from the Constitution. It does not mean that the said local union cannot stand on its own. This right is consistent with the constitutional guarantee of freedom of association. in the first place. A local union owes its creation and continued existence to the will of its members and not to the federation to which it belongs. Later on. using the name Volkschel Labor Union-ALUMETAL. The Bureau. it was merely exercising its primary right to labor organization for the effective enhancement and protection of common interests. as a result of which respondent 44 . free to serve their own and the common interest of all. a resolution was adopted and signed by petitioner’s members revoking their check-off authorization in favor of ALUMETAL and notices thereof were served on ALUMETAL and respondent companies. the act of non-compliance with the procedure on withdrawal is premised on purely technical grounds which cannot rise above the fundamental right of self-organization. When the local union withdrew from the old federation to join a new federation. and free also to renounce the affiliation for mutual welfare upon the terms laid down in the agreement which brought it into existence. The locals are separate and distinct units primarily designed to secure and maintain an equality of bargaining power between the employer and their employee-members in the economic struggle for the fruits of the joint productive effort of labor and capital.” The inclusion of the word NATU after the name of the local union THEU in the registration with the Department of Labor is merely to stress that the THEU is NATU’s affiliate at the time of the registration. subject to the restraints imposed by the Constitution and By Laws of the Association. There is nothing in the constitution of the NATU or in the constitution of the THEU-NATU that the THEU was expressly forbidden to disaffiliate from the federation.the freedom to disaffiliate when circumstances warrant. BLR. much less the right and privilege under the Labor Code to organize and affiliate chapters or locals within its group. Neither can it be interpreted to mean that it cannot pursue its own interests independently of the federation. and the association of the locals into the national union (PAFLU) was in furtherance of the same end. NATU was not even a legitimate labor organization. Volkschel Labor Union vs. and secondly. a local may sever its relationship with its parent.

This right is consistent with the Constitution guarantee of freedom of association. Cancellation of registration. Several officers were dismissed from the union for acts of disloyalty and inimical to the interest and violative of the constitution and by-laws of the union. it does not occasion a change in administrators of the contract nor even an amendment to the provisions thereof.after due hearing. Held: Pursuant to the right to self-organization. Held: YES. Also. GR 127374. the company terminated the ousted union members. IS FREE TO SERVE THE INTEREST OF ALL ITS MEMBERS INCLUDING THE FREEDOM TO DISAFFILIATE WHEN CIRCUMSTANCES WARRANT. Held: While a company may validly dismiss employees expelled by the union for disloyalty under the union security clause of the CBA. Ramos. Samahan ng mga Manggagawa. ANGLO-KMU vs. self-organization and security of tenure. . Employees grievances were allegedly left unattended to by the federation. the dismissal should not be done hastily and summarily thereby eroding the employees’ right to due process. As regards the check-off dues. MSMG-UWP vs. Since the union has a closedshop agreement in the CBA. 45 . 238. NLRC. respondent is not entitled to union dues payments from petitioner’s members. GR 113907. 258 SCRA 371 ANGLO’s local chapter disaffiliated from ANGLO on the ground that the latter has committed acts inimical to the interests of the chapter. The enforcement of union-security clauses is authorized by law provided such enforcement is not characterized by arbitrariness and always with due process.companies turned over and handed to respondent federation the union dues and other assessments in accordance with the check-off provisions of the CBA. BEING A SEPARATE AND VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATION. . whether national or local. Phil. The charge that ANGLO is guilty of acts inimical to the chapter’s interests is not rebutted.shall be cancelled by the Bureau . There must always be a separate hearing conducted by the company before the expelled union members are dismissed by the company. the chapter may disaffiliate any time from the mother union. — The certificate of registration of any legitimate labor organization. and the freedom period had not yet set in. A LOCAL UNION. 31 January 2002 CANCELLATION OF REGISTRATION ART. To the detriment of the employee’s rights and interests. The right of a local union to disaffiliate from its mother union is well-settled. NOTE: A disaffiliation does not disturb the enforceability and administration of a collective agreement. it was clearly shown that majority of the union members in the chapter supported such decision. This right may not be defeated on the ground that there was noncompliance with the procedural rules to disaffiliate. appeal. 2000 An intra-union dispute arose out of disputes from the election of union officers. ANGLO refused to honor the disaffiliation on the ground that the CBA is still existing.if it has reason to believe. Issue: whether or not petitioner’s disaffiliation from the federation is valid. “A local union which has validly withdrawn from its affiliation with the parent association and which continued to represent the employees of an employer is entitled to the check-off dues under a CBA. Petitioner contends that he disaffiliation was prompted by the federation’s deliberate and habitual dereliction of duties as mother federation. February 28. Skylanders vs.

- that the said labor organization no longer meets one or more of the requirements herein prescribed. (f) (g) (h) (i) (c) OMNIBUS RULES. or failure to submit these documents together with the list of the newly elected/appointed officers and their postal addresses within thirty (30) days from election. false statement or fraud in connection with the election of officers. Entering into collective bargaining agreements which provide terms and conditions of employment below minimum standard established by law. or otherwise engaging in any activity prohibited by law. Where to file. . and (j) Failure to comply with requirements under Articles 237 and 238. . Asking for or accepting attorney’s fees or negotiation fees from employers. minutes of the election of officers and the list of voters. upon the filing of an independent complaint or petition for cancellation. the registration of any legitimate independent labor union. national or industry unions and trade union centers. Other than for mandatory activities under this Code. chartered local and workers' association may be cancelled by the Regional Director.Subject to the requirements of notice and due process. checking off special assessments or any other fees without duly signed individual written authorizations of the members. as AMENDED BY D. 46 . .and the list of members who took part in the ratification. Failure to submit a list of individual members to the Bureau once a year or whenever required by the Bureau. 40 RULE XIV CANCELLATION OF ORGANIZATIONS REGISTRATION OF LABOR (d) Section 1. 239. (e) Acting as a labor contractor or engaging in the “cabo” system. Grounds for cancellation of union registration. (b) Failure to submit the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph within thirty (30) days from adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto.O.the minutes of ratification. Failure to submit the annual financial report to the Bureau within thirty (30) days after the closing of every fiscal year and misrepresentation.adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto. Misrepresentation. false entries or fraud in the preparation of the financial report itself. — The following shall constitute grounds for cancellation of union registration: (b) Misrepresentation. ART. by the Bureau Director. false statement or fraud in connection with the . or in the case of federations.

or otherwise engaging in any activity prohibited by law. (j) failure to submit list of individual members to the Bureau once a year or whenever required by the Bureau. the list of voters. Grounds for cancellation. (e) acting as a labor contractor or engaging in the "cabo" system. except in actions involving violations of Article 241. unless the petition is based on paragraphs (d) and (j) of the foregoing section or non-compliance with the labor organization's reportorial obligations. . upon its own initiative or upon complaint filed by any party-in-interest. . (g) commission of any of the acts enumerated under Article 241 of the Labor Code. Section 4. false entries or fraud in the preparation of the financial report. Who may file. Procedure. the latter may cause the institution of the administrative process for cancellation of its registration. provided that no petition for cancellation based on this ground may be granted unless supported by at least thirty (30%) percent of all the members of the respondent labor organization.Any party-in-interest may commence a petition for cancellation of registration. (i) other than for mandatory activities under the Labor Code.Where a registered labor organization in the private sector failed to submit the reports required under Rule V for five (5) consecutive years despite notices for compliance sent by the Labor Relations Division or the Bureau. failure to submit these documents together with the list of the newly elected or appointed officers and their postal address within thirty (30) days from election. Section 3.Section 2. (d) failure to submit the annual financial report to the Bureau within thirty (30) days after the close of every fiscal year and misrepresentation. which can only be commenced by members of the labor organization concerned. the list of members who took part in the ratification. minutes of the election of officers. (c) misrepresentation. false statements or fraud in connection with the election of officers. .The following shall constitute grounds for cancellation of registration of labor organizations: (a) misrepresentation. false statement or fraud in connection with the adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto. (f) entering into collective bargaining agreements which provide for terms and conditions of employment below minimum standards established by law. (h) asking for or accepting attorney's fees or negotiation fees from the employer. . Section 2. RULE XV CANCELLATION OF REGISTRATION OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS DUE TO NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE REPORTORIAL REQUIREMENTS Section 1. the minutes of ratification. Action on the petition.The petition shall be resolved by the Regional Director in accordance with Rule XI. . the list of members who took part in the ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto. the minutes of ratification.The Labor Relations Division of the 47 . When proper. (b) failure to submit the documents mentioned in the preceding paragraph within thirty (30) days from adoption or ratification of the constitution and by-laws or amendments thereto. (k) failure to comply with the requirements of registration prescribed under Rules III and IV. checking off special assessments or any other fees without duly signed individual written authorizations of the members. in which case the petition shall be acted upon pursuant to the following Rule.

another notice for compliance shall be made by the Bureau. or where the Bureau has verified the dissolution of the labor organization. Rights of Labor Organization: Art. A legitimate labor organization shall have the right: a) to act as representative of its members for the purpose of collective bargaining. The Bureau may conduct an investigation within the employer's premises and at the labor organization's last known address to verify the latter's existence. Cancellation of registration.Where no response is again received by the Bureau within thirty (30) days from release of the second notice. (b) the procedures laid down in this Rule were complied with. 271 SCRA 593 3. The Bureau shall send by registered mail with return card to the labor organization concerned. . Where no response is received by the Bureau within thirty (30) days from the release of the first notice. Section 3.Where no response is received by the Bureau within thirty (30) days from date of publication. Rights of Legitimate Labor Organizations. Publication of notice of cancellation of registration . The Med-Arbiter should look into the merits of the petition for cancellation of a union’s registration before issuing an order calling for certification elections. No registration of labor organization shall be cancelled administratively by the Bureau due to non-compliance with the reportorial requirements unless: (a) non-compliance is for a continuous period of five (5) years. v Secretary of Labor. Section 4. . a notice for compliance indicating the documents it failed to submit and the corresponding period in which they were required. and (c) the labor organization concerned has not responded to any of the notices sent by the Bureau. or indirectly by challenging its petition for the issuance of an order for certification election. 48 . The propriety of a labor organization’s registration could be assailed directly through cancellation proceedings in accordance with Articles 238 ad 239 of the Labor Code. Conditions for administrative cancellation of certificate of registration. Where the legal personality of a union is seriously challenged. the Bureau shall cause the publication of the notice of cancellation of registration of the labor organization in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. Cases: Progressive Development Corp.Regional Office shall make a report of the labor organization's non-compliance and submit the same to the Bureau for verification with its records. with warning that failure on its part to comply with the reportorial requirements within the time specified shall cause the continuation of the proceedings for the administrative cancellation of its registration. 242. it shall order the cancellation of registration of the labor organization and cause its de-listing from the roster of legitimate labor organizations. it would be more prudent for the Med-Arbiter to grant the request for suspension of the proceedings in the certification election case until the issue of legality of the union’s registration shall have been resolved. 4. or its notices were returned unclaimed. with notice to comply with the said reportorial requirements and to submit proof thereof to the Bureau within ten (10) days from receipt thereof. Section 5.

Article 234 says that it acquires rights once it is issued a certificate of registration. (a) All unions are authorized to collect reasonable membership fees. union dues. Now. and credit and cooperative undertakings. including grants. It is the federation who submits the documents to the Bureau. including the balance sheet and the profit and loss statement. Article 212 it is one which is registered with the Department. Hence. or within sixty (60) calendar days before the expiration of the existing collective bargaining agreement. How about a local or chapter? Under the Omnibus Rules. gifts. assessments and fines and other contributions for labor education and research. endowments. So we have workers association on the one hand. Art. without 49 . d) to own property. mutual death and hospitalization benefits.b) to be certified as exclusive representative of all the employees in an appropriate collective bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining. f) to undertake all other activities designed to benefit the organization and its members including cooperative. upon written request. Only for mutual aid and protection. within thirty (30) calendar days from the date of receipt of the request. with the annual audited financial statements. e) to sue and be sued in its registered name. donations and contributions they may receive from fraternal and similar organizations. LECTURE Labor Organizations: Workers associations are a type of organization for the purpose of self-organization but not for the purpose of collective bargaining. directly and exclusively used for their lawful purposes. real or personal. or during the collective bargaining negotiation. after the union has been duly recognized by the employer or certified as the sole and exclusive bargaining representatives of the employees in the bargaining unit. an independent union becomes an LLO and acquires legal personality once it is issued a certificate of registration with the Bureau of Labor Relations. local or foreign. welfare fund. c) to be furnished by the employer. Notwithstanding any provision of a general or special law to the contrary. the income and properties of legitimate labor organization. for the use and benefit or the labor organization and its members. 277. which are actually. strike fund. Miscellaneous Provisions. Now we concentrate on labor organizations. and labor organizations on the other hand. What are the different types? Plant level organizations: • • • Independent unions Affiliates Local/Chapters Conglomerate of plant level organizations: • • • National Unions/Federations Trade Union Centers Industry Unions How does one become a legitimate labor organization? Under the law. The exemptions provided herein may be withdrawn only by a special law expressly repealing this provision. duties and other assessments. such acquires legal personality upon issuance of a charter by the federation. housing welfare and other projects not contrary to law. shall be free from taxes.

If the DOLE erroneously submits a certificate to an organization that has not submitted all the required documents. no federation can become a federation without locals or chapters. as long as the CBA exists. but a federation may usually stipulate against that and would cause revocation of the local/chapter’s charter. the independent labor organization still retains its legal personality. The only way to interpret this provision is it refers to independently registered unions who decide to form a federation as affiliates. the local or chapter becomes an LLO. The nunc pro tunc doctrine was applied in the Liberty case because of the peculiarity of the case. Obviously. it does not affect the local or chapter if the chapter has an existing CBA with the company. Article 237 requires proof of affiliation of at least ten chapters for a federation. Does this violate the codal provisions Arts. But books of Account are still subject to inspection by the Department when warranted. The two are different. It expires only upon expiration of the CBA. You 50 . The Court ruled as such because of the special circumstances.O. When an independent union affiliates. a person in interest (such as management) can file a petition for cancellation of the certificate. Only in the Rules are Books of Account required to be submitted. it informs the Bureau of such through submission of resolutions of affiliation and acceptance. A local or chapter is not covered by the registration requirement. 9. Only in this case did the Court rule that the union acquired legal personality upon the submission of the required documents and so the issuance of certificate of registration should retroact to the filing of the petition of a certification election. The local or chapter is not barred from doing that. Why is it required to submit all these documents? To protect the workers from “fly-by-night” unions. This decision was crucial because a petition for certification election can only be filed by an LLO. The Code does not require it. Noticeably the number of required documents to be submitted by independent unions is much more than those required by a chapter. because a local does acquire legal personality and does become an LLO through the issuance of a charter. That’s why all the documents must be attested to by the Secretary and President and must be notarized. 212 and 234? No. Books of Account are the day to day expenses. or unions that are purely moneymaking unions. However. It encourages affiliations for more productivity or greater protection in the workers’ action. Books of Account were not required to be submitted anymore. a chapter does not have to repeat the process of submitting the required documents. remember the exception that when the federation’s registration is cancelled. when an independent labor organization becomes an affiliate of a federation. What’s wrong with this? In the first place.need of registration or issuance of a certificate by the Bureau. what has to be submitted are Financial Statements. not Books of Account. They are given the chance to register as an independent union and if this is not done. There is no conflict between the Code and Rules. This is done to protect the employees of the collective bargaining unit. Management can also oppose the petition for certification election because of the lack of required documents. A local or chapter may independently register as an organization subsequent to its becoming a local or chapter. because the federation has already done so. the chapter’s legitimacy exists. ledgers. Now remember the Liberty case is one decided under very peculiar circumstances. because it acquired such through registration with the Bureau. because its legal personality is hinged on the federation’s. It does not apply as a general rule. and the federation loses its legal personality (through cancellation of its registration). But by virtue of D. the local or chapter loses its legal personality as well. And also. Remember the general rule that it is only upon issuance of a certificate when the union acquires legal personality. So. Financial statements are prepared by an accountant and embody detailed financial transactions. It does not violate the definition of a legitimate labor organization. journals. This converts the chapter into an independent union. the State favors the creation of locals/chapters. but once the federation loses its legal personality. Remember.

cannot have locals/chapters that create a federation, you can only have a federation creating a local/chapter. The only situation also where a federation can be created by a local/chapter is when two federations merge or form one federation. E. CONDITIONS LABOR CODE
ART. 241. Rights and conditions of membership in a labor organization. — The following are the rights and conditions of membership in a labor organization: (a) - No arbitrary or excessive initiation fees - shall be required of the members of a legitimate labor organization nor - shall arbitrary, excessive or oppressive fine and forfeiture be imposed; (c) The members shall be entitled: to full and detailed reports from their officers and representatives of all financial transactions as provided for in the constitution and bylaws of the organization; (d) The members shall: directly elect their officers, including those of the national union or federation, trade center or any similar aggrupation to which their union is affiliated, by secret ballot at intervals of five (5) years. No qualification requirement for candidacy to any position shall be imposed other than membership in good standing in subject labor organization.
OF

MEMBERSHIP

AND

RIGHTS

OF

MEMBERS

The secretary or any other responsible union officer shall furnish the Secretary of Labor and Employment with a list of the newly-elected officers, together with the appointive officers or agents who are entrusted with the handling of funds within thirty (30) calendar days after the election of officers or from the occurrence of any change in the list of officers of the labor organization. (e) The members shall determine by secret ballot, after due deliberation, any question of major policy affecting the entire membership of the organization, unless the nature of the organization or force majeure renders such secret ballot impractical, in which case the board of directors of the organization may make the decision in behalf of the general membership. (e) No labor organization shall knowingly admit as member or continue in membership any individual who: belongs to a subversive organization or who is engaged directly or indirectly in any subversive activity;

(d) No person who has been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude shall be eligible for election as a union officer or for appointment to any position in the union; (g) No officer, agent or member of a labor organization shall

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collect any fees, dues, or other contributions in its behalf or make any disbursement of its moneys or funds unless he is duly authorized pursuant to its constitution and by-laws; (h) Every payment of fees, dues or other contributions by a member shall be evidenced by a receipt signed by the officer or agent making the collection and entered into the record of the organization to be kept and maintained for the purpose; The funds of the organization shall not be applied for any purpose or object other than those: expressly provided by its constitution and bylaws or those expressly authorized by - written resolution, - adopted by the majority of the members, - at a general meeting duly called for the purpose; Every income or revenue of the organization shall be evidenced by a record showing its source, and every expenditure of its funds shall be evidenced by a receipt from the person to whom the payment is made, which shall state the date, place and purpose of such payment. Such record or receipt shall form part of the financial records of the organization. Any action involving the funds of the organization shall prescribe after three (3) years from the

(i)

date of submission of the annual financial report to the Department of Labor and Employment or from the date the same should have been submitted as required by law, whichever comes earlier: Provided, That this provision shall apply only to a legitimate labor organization which has submitted the financial report requirements under this Code: Provided, further, That failure of any labor organization to comply with the periodic financial reports required by law and such rules and regulations promulgated thereunder six (6) months after the effectivity of this Act shall automatically result in the cancellation of union registration of such labor organization. (k) The officers of any labor organization shall not be paid any compensation other than the salaries and expenses due to their positions as specifically provided for in its constitution and by-laws or in a written resolution duly authorized by a majority of all the members at a general membership meeting duly called for the purpose. The minutes of the meeting and the list of participants and ballots cast shall be subject to inspection by the Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representatives. Any irregularities in the approval of the resolutions shall be a ground for impeachment or expulsion from the organization; The treasurer of any labor organization and every officer thereof who is responsible for the accounts of such organization or for the collection, management, disbursement, custody or control of the funds, moneys

(j)

(l)

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and other properties of the organization, shall render to the organization and to its members a true and correct account of all moneys received and paid by him since he assumed office or since the last date on which he rendered such account and of the balance remaining in his hands at the time of rendering such account, and of all bonds, securities and other properties of the organization entrusted to his custody or under his control. The rendering of such account shall be made: (1) (2) At least once a year within thirty (30) days after the close of its fiscal year; At such other times as may be required by a resolution of the majority of the members of the organization; and Upon vacating his office.

The record shall president. (o)

be attested to by the

Other than for mandatory activities under the Code, no special assessment, attorney’s fees, negotiation fees or any other extraordinary fees may be checked off from any amount due an employee without an individual written authorization duly signed by the employee. The authorization should specifically state the amount, purpose and beneficiary of the deduction. It shall be the duty of any labor organization and its officers to inform its members on the provisions of its constitution and by-laws, collective bargaining agreement, the prevailing labor relations system and all their rights and obligations under existing labor laws. For this purpose, registered labor organizations may assess reasonable dues to finance labor relations seminars and other labor education activities. Any violation of the above rights and conditions of membership shall be a ground for cancellation of union registration or expulsion of an officer from office, whichever is appropriate. At least thirty (30%) per cent of all the members of a union or any member or members specifically concerned may report such violation to the Bureau. The Bureau shall have the power to hear and decide any reported violation and to mete appropriate penalty.

(p)

(3)

The account shall be duly audited and verified by affidavit and a copy thereof shall be furnished the Secretary of Labor and Employment; (m) The books of accounts and other records of the financial activities of any labor organization shall be opened to inspection by any officer or member thereof during office hours. (n) No special assessment or other extraordinary fees may be levied upon the members of a labor organization unless: authorized by a written resolution of a majority of all the members at a general membership meeting duly called for the purpose. The secretary of the organization shall record the minutes of the meeting including the list of all members present, the votes cast, the purpose of the special assessment or fees and the recipient of such assessment or fees.

Art. 274. Visitorial power. — The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative is hereby empowered a) to inquire into the financial activities of legitimate labor organizations upon the filing of a complainant under oath

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however. (n) such other disputes or conflicts involving the rights to self-organization. Section 2. officers/nullification of election of union and workers' association officers.O. union membership and collective bargaining (1) between and among legitimate labor organizations. (e) validity/invalidity of union affiliation or disaffiliation. That attorney’s fees may be charged against union funds in an amount to be agreed upon by the parties. . . (2) between and among members of a union or workers' association. Coverage. Any contract. (g) validity/invalidity of impeachment/expulsion of union and workers association officers and members.The rights. 222. and (2) a petition for interpleader. That such inquiry or examination shall not be conducted during the . Effects of the filing/pendency of inter/intraunion and other related labor relations disputes. entity or group that is not a labor organization or workers' association. (f) validity/invalidity of acceptance/non-acceptance for union membership.sixty (60) day freedom period .Inter/intra-union disputes shall include: (a) cancellation of registration of a labor organization filed by its members or by another labor organization. Appearances and fees. Section 3. negotiation fees or similar charges of any kind arising from any collective bargaining negotiations or conclusion of the collective agreement shall be imposed on any individual member of the contracting union: Provided. 40: RULE XI INTER/INTRA-UNION DISPUTES AND OTHER RELATED LABOR RELATIONS DISPUTES Section 1. relationships and obligations of the parties litigants against each other and other parties-in-interest prior to the OMNIBUS RULES AS AMENDED BY D. (j) violations of or disagreements over any provision in a union or workers' association constitution and by-laws. Coverage.and duly supported by the written consent of at least twenty percent (20%) of the total membership of the labor organization concerned and b) to examine their books of accounts and other records to determine compliance or non-compliance with the law c) to prosecute any violations of the law and the union constitution and by-laws: Provided. (k) disagreements over chartering or registration of labor organizations and collective bargaining agreements. Art.nor within thirty (30) days immediately preceding the date of election of union officials. (h) validity/invalidity of voluntary recognition.Other related labor relations disputes shall include any conflict between a labor union and the employer or any individual. (l) violations of the rights and conditions of union or workers' association membership. — (b) No attorney’s fees. (b) conduct of election of union and workers' association 54 . (i) opposition to application for union and CBA registration. (c) audit/accounts examination of union or workers' association funds. agreement or arrangement of any sort to the contrary shall be null and void. . (d) deregistration of collective bargaining agreements. This includes: (1) cancellation of registration of unions and workers associations. (m) violations of the rights of legitimate labor organizations. except interpretation of collective bargaining agreements.

Complaints or petitions involving labor unions with independent registrations. the rights. verified under oath and shall. address and other personal circumstances of the respondent(s) or person(s) charged. Other inter/intra-union disputes and related labor relations disputes shall be heard and resolved by the Med-Arbiter in the Regional Office. its officers or members shall be filed with the Regional Office that issued its certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local. Where to file. national unions. the same shall be automatically consolidated. (e) cause(s) of action or specific violation(s) committed. Any party-in-interest may file a complaint or petition involving disputes or issues enumerated in Section 2 hereof. contain the following: (a) name. (d) facts and circumstances surrounding the complaint or petition. Thereafter. chartered locals. The filing or pendency of any inter/intra-union dispute and other related labor relations dispute is not a prejudicial question to any petition for certification election and shall not be a ground for the dismissal of a petition for certification election or suspension of proceedings for certification election. He/She may appoint a Hearing Officer from the Labor Relations Division. . address and other personal circumstances of the complainant(s) or petitioner(s). Section 4. (c) nature of the complaint or petition.institution of the petition shall continue to remain during the pendency of the petition and until the date of finality of the decision rendered therein. Formal requirements of the complaint or petition. and (i) other relevant matters. among others. Who may file. affiliates or member organizations shall be filed either with the Regional Office or the Bureau. Raffle of the case. (g) relief(s) prayed for. the complaint or petition shall be supported by at least thirty percent (30%) of its members. When two or more petitions involving the same parties and the same causes of action are filed. (b) name. -Upon the filing of the complaint or petition. relationships and obligations of the parties litigants against each other and other parties-in-interest shall be governed by the decision so ordered. its officers or member organizations shall be filed with the Bureau. Complaints or petitions involving federations. (f) a statement that the administrative remedies provided for in the constitution and by-laws have been exhausted or such remedies are not readily available to the complainant(s) or petitioner(s) through no fault of his/her/their own. (h) certificate of non-forum shopping. or compliance with such administrative remedies does not apply to complainant(s) or petitioner(s). Complaints involving federations. chartered locals and workers association and petitions for deregistration of collective bargaining agreements shall be resolved by the Regional Director. national or industry unions. workers' associations. The complaint or petition shall be heard and resolved by the Bureau.The complaint or petition shall be in writing. Section 7. Where the issue involves the entire membership of the labor organization. Petitions for cancellation of registration of labor unions with independent registration. the Regional Director or any of his/her authorized representative in the Regional Office and the 55 . . Section 5. Section 6. . trade union centers and their chartered locals. industry unions.Any legitimate labor organization or member(s) thereof specially concerned may file a complaint or petition involving disputes or issues enumerated in Section 1 hereof.

shall cause the service of summons upon the respondent(s) named therein. Conduct of preliminary conference. .Docket Section of the Bureau shall allow the party filing the complaint or petition to determine the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer assigned to the case by means of a raffle.The parties may file his/her pleadings. who shall in the same instance prepare the notice for preliminary conference and cause the service thereof upon the party filing the petition. The complaint or petition shall be considered submitted for decision after the date of the last hearing or upon expiration of twenty-five (25) days from date of preliminary conference.The Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. shall conduct a preliminary conference and hearing within ten (10) days from receipt of the complaint or petition. Section 12. Where no amicable settlement is reached. shall proceed with the stipulation of facts. as the case may be. within the twenty-five (25) day period prescribed for the conduct of hearing(s). Section 11. as the case may be. Section 10. directing him/her to file his/her answer/comment on the complaint or petition on or before the scheduled preliminary conference and to appear before the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer on the scheduled preliminary conference. he/she shall require the parties to submit the affidavits of their witnesses and such documentary evidence material to prove each other's claims and defenses. Conduct of Hearing(s). Where the parties agree to settle amicably. as the case may be. within five (5) days from the date of the mandatory conference. as the case may be. their agreements shall be specified in the minutes of the conference and a decision based on compromise shall be issued by the Med-Arbiter or the Regional Director. . the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. Where there is only one Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer in the region. clarificatory questioning and submission of laws and jurisprudence relied upon in support of each other's claims and defenses. He/She shall exert every effort to effect an amicable settlement of the dispute. Where the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. The preliminary conference shall be scheduled within ten (10) days from receipt of the complaint or petition. Affirmation of testimonial evidence. Within three (3) days from receipt of the complaint or petition. shall determine whether to call further hearing(s) on the complaint or petition.The Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. Notice of preliminary conference. The hearing(s) shall be limited to clarificatory questions by the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer and must be completed within twenty-five (25) days from the date of preliminary conference. except when the party against whom the affidavit is being offered admits all allegations therein and waives the examination of the affiant. decides to conduct further hearing(s). . as the case may be. the same shall be transmitted to the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. as the case may be.Any affidavit submitted by a party to prove his/her claims or defenses shall be re-affirmed by the presentation of the affiant before the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. including their respective position papers. as the case may be. Any affidavit submitted without the reaffirmation of the affiant during a scheduled hearing shall not be admitted in evidence. No other pleading shall be considered 56 . limitation or definition of the issues. Section 9. . whichever comes first. Immediately after the raffle of the case or receipt of the complaint or petition. the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer. Section 8. the raffle shall be dispensed with and the complaint or petition shall be assigned to him/her. as the case may be. Filing of pleadings.

. .The decision of the Bureau or the Office of the Secretary shall become final and executory after ten (10) days from receipt thereof by the parties. as the case may be. shall enter the finality of the decision in the records of the case and cause the immediate implementation thereof. . as the case may be.Where no appeal is filed within the ten-day period. Only one (1) motion for reconsideration of the decision of the Bureau or the Office of the Secretary in the exercise of their appellate jurisdiction shall be allowed. The decision of the Bureau in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction shall be 57 . copy furnished the opposing party. Period to reply. The Bureau or Office of the Secretary may call the parties to a clarificatory hearing in aid of its appellate jurisdiction. as the case may be. Finality of Decision of Bureau/Office of the Secretary. The appeal shall be verified under oath and shall consist of a memorandum of appeal specifically stating the grounds relied upon by the appellant. Decision of the Bureau/Office of the Secretary. copy furnished the opposing party. Finality of Decision. and reliefs granted. The decision shall state the facts. as the case may be.The Bureau shall observe the same process and have the same period within which to hear and resolve the complaints or petitions filed before it. Section 21. The filing of the memorandum of appeal from the decision of the Med-Arbiter or Regional Director and Bureau Director stays the implementation of the assailed decision. the Bureau or Regional Director shall cause the transmittal thereof together with the entire records of the case to the Office of the Secretary or the Bureau.A reply to the appeal may be filed by any party to the complaint or petition within ten (10) days from receipt of the memorandum of appeal. as the case may be. Decision. Section 20. . Section 17. Section 13.The Bureau Director or the Secretary. unless a motion for its reconsideration is filed by any party therein within the same period. with supporting arguments and evidence.The decision of the Med-Arbiter and Regional Director may be appealed to the Bureau by any of the parties within ten (10) days from receipt thereof. Section 16. Release of Decision. Section 19. conclusion. shall have twenty (20) days from receipt of the entire records of the case within which to decide the appeal. . Section 14.The memorandum of appeal shall be filed in the Regional Office or Bureau where the complaint or petition originated. findings.or entertained after the case is considered submitted for decision. Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the memorandum of appeal. The decision of the Bureau Director in the exercise of his/her original jurisdiction may be appealed to the Office of the Secretary by any party within the same period. . Execution of decision. Hearing and resolution of the complaint or petition in the Bureau. . The reply shall be filed directly with the Bureau or the Office of the Secretary.The notice of decision shall be signed by the Records Officer in the Bureau and by the Med-Arbiter or Hearing Officer in the Regional Office. Appeal. . . Section 18. the decision shall be released to the parties personally on a date and time agreed upon during the last hearing. shall have twenty (20) days from the date of the last hearing within which to decide the complaint or petition. .The Bureau and the Med-Arbiter or Regional Director.The decision of the Med-Arbiter and Regional Director shall automatically be stayed pending appeal with the Bureau. Within twenty (20) days from date of last hearing. Where to file appeal. Section 15. Section 22. the Bureau and Regional Director or Med-Arbiter.

and 9) prescribe such other rules as may facilitate the orderly conduct of election. RULE XII ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF LABOR UNIONS AND WORKERS ASSOCIATIONS Section 1. The implementation of the decision shall not be stayed unless restrained by the appropriate court. 7) be the final arbiter of all election protests. time and venue of the election. procedure in the absence of provisions in the constitution and by-laws. at least thirty percent (30%) of the members of the labor organization may file a petition for the conduct of election of their officers with the Regional Office that issued its certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local. 5) supervise the actual conduct of the election and canvass the votes to ensure the sanctity of the ballot. (a) within sixty (60) days before the expiration of the term of the incumbent officers. and case of disagreement.Within forty-eight (48) hours from notice of receipt of decision by the parties and finality of the decision. the committee shall. among others. Section 2. 58 . The decision of the Office of the Secretary shall be immediately executory upon issuance of entry of final judgment. Section 23. the petition shall be filed with the Bureau or the Regional Office but shall be heard and resolved by the Bureau. 3) prepare and post the voters' list and the list of qualified candidates.immediately executory upon issuance of entry of final judgment. Conduct of election of union officers. 4) accredit the authorized representatives of the contending parties. the president of the labor organization shall constitute a committee on election to be composed of at least three (3) members who are not running for any position in the election. the president shall designate the chairman.Where the terms of the officers of a labor organization have expired and its officers failed or neglected to do so call for an election of new officers. 6) keep minutes of the proceedings. The decision of the Bureau in the exercise of its original jurisdiction shall automatically be stayed pending appeal with the Office of the Secretary. the entire records of the case shall be remanded to the Bureau or Regional Office of origin for implementation. or where the labor organization's constitution and by-laws do not provide for the manner by which the said election can be called or conducted and the intervention of the Department is necessary. 2) prescribe the rules on the qualification and eligibility of candidates and voters. In the case of federations. . .In the absence of any agreement among the members or any provision in the constitution and by-laws of a labor union or workers' association. provided that if there are identifiable parties within the labor organization. Dispute over conduct of election of officers. (c) within ten (10) days from its constitution. Transmittal of records to the Regional Office/Bureau. the members shall elect the chairman of the committee from among themselves. the following guidelines may be adopted in the election of officers. each party shall have equal representation in the committee. national or industry unions and trade union centers. . (b) upon constitution. exercise the following powers and duties: 1) set the date. 8) proclaim the winners.

impeachment/expulsion of officers.The Regional or Bureau Director may inquire into the financial activities of any legitimate labor organization and examine their books of accounts and other records to determine compliance with the law and the organization's constitution and by-laws. 59 .The formal requirements. Section 2. . Such examination shall be made upon the filing of a request or complaint for the conduct of an accounts examination by any member of the labor organization. . Such request or complaint.This rule shall also apply where a conduct of election of officers is an alternative relief or necessary consequence of a petition for nullification of election of officers. other inter/intra-union disputes or related labor relations disputes. the Bureau or Office of the Secretary.The incumbent bargaining agent shall continue to be entitled to check-off and collect dues and agency fees despite the pendency of a representation case.A request for examination of books of accounts of independent labor unions. the rules and regulations governing the filing of candidacies and conduct of election under the constitution and by-laws of the labor organization may be applied in the implementation of the decision. supported by the written consent of at least twenty (20%) percent of its total membership. Pre-election conference and conduct of election. Formal requirements and proceedings. . . A request for examination of books of accounts of federations or national unions and trade union centers pursuant to Article 274 shall be filed with the Bureau. He/She shall act as the COMELEC referred to in the labor organization's constitution and bylaws and obligate himself/herself to comply with his/her mandate under the decision to be implemented and the constitution and by-laws. .Any complaint or petition with allegations of mishandling. or such other petitions. Section 3. processes and periods of disposition of this petition stated in Rule XI shall be followed in the determination of the merits of the petition and appeal. The entire proceedings shall be presided by the Election Officer from the Labor Relations Division of the Regional Office or the Bureau. misappropriation or non-accounting of funds in violation of Article 241 shall be treated as an intra-union dispute. Where to file. . Section 4. Actions arising from Article 241. RULE XIII ADMINISTRATION OF TRADE ACTIONS ARISING THEREFROM UNION FUNDS AND Section 1. It shall be heard and resolved by the Med-Arbiter pursuant to the provisions of Rule XI. Visitorial power under Article 274. Applicability of the provisions of the labor organization's constitution and by-laws. or new and additional rules may be adopted as agreed upon by the parties.The appointment of an election officer and the procedures and periods in the conduct of the pre-election conference and election proceedings prescribed in Rule IX shall also apply in the conduct of a pre-election conference and election of officers in any labor organization. Right of union to collect dues and agency fees. . Section 4. chartered locals and workers associations pursuant to Article 274 shall be filed with the Regional Office that issued its certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local.Where the conduct of election of officers is ordered by the Med-Arbiter. Section 3. Section 5. in the absence of allegations pertaining to a violation of Article 241. shall not be treated as an intra-union dispute and the appointment of an Audit Examiner by the Regional or Bureau Director shall not be appealable.

. . (d) record observations or findings of all financial transactions. Section 6. (b) determine the validity of the supporting documents attached to the vouchers consistent with the union's constitution and by-laws. the Regional Director shall summon the parties to a pre-audit conference conducted by the Audit Examiner to determine and obtain the following: (a) sources of funds covered by the audit. and on the basis of his/her findings prepare his/her audited 60 . (h) other relevant matters and documents.Where book of accounts are submitted by the parties.The Regional Director may compel any party to appear or bring the required financial documents in a conference or hearing through the issuance of a subpoena ad testificandum or subpoena duces tecum. Issuance of subpoena. (b) the banks and financial institutions where the labor organization maintains its account. Section 8. (e) income and revenue receipts. (g) minutes of general membership meeting and board meetings.The complaint or petition for audit or examination of funds and book of accounts shall prescribe within three (3) years from the date of submission of the annual financial report to the Department or from the date the same should have been submitted as required by law.A decision granting the conduct of audit shall include the appointment of the Audit Examiner and a directive upon him/her to submit his/her report and recommendations within ten (10) days from termination of audit. (d) disbursement vouchers with supporting receipts. invoices and other documents. whichever comes earlier. the Audit Examiner shall: (a) examine the transactions reflected in the disbursement vouchers. Conduct of audit examination. if any. The decision granting the conduct of audit is interlocutory and shall not be appealable. The first pre-audit conference shall be scheduled within ten (10) days from receipt by the Audit Examiner of the decision granting the conduct of an audit. (c) prepare working papers or worksheet/s. He/She may also require the employer concerned to issue certifications of union dues and other assessments remitted to the union during the period of audit. .Section 5. Section 9. (b) determine the validity of the supporting documents attached to the vouchers consistent with the labor organization's constitution and by-laws. relevant resolutions of the union and the Labor Code.Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the decision granting the conduct of audit. (d) record and post all financial transactions reflected in the cash vouchers in the working papers or worksheet/s. . the Audit Examiner shall: (a) examine the transactions reflected in the disbursement vouchers. Where no book of accounts are maintained by the officers of the labor organization. Pre-audit conference. Prescription. . and (e) record observations or findings of all financial transactions. (c) trace recording and posting in the disbursement book. The Audit Examiner shall conduct an inventory of all physical assets acquired by the labor organization. The decision denying or dismissing the complaint or petition for audit may be appealed within ten (10) days from receipt thereof pursuant to the provisions prescribed in Rule XI. relevant board resolutions. Decision. and the Labor Code. Section 7. (f) cash books. (c) union books of accounts and financial statements.

RULE XVIII CENTRAL REGISTRY OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS Section 1. Completion of audit. unless the volume of financial records. Audit Report. Any complaint or petition so filed shall be dismissed. All issues raised by the parties during the conduct of the audit shall be resolved by the Med-Arbiter.No complaint for inquiry or examination of the financial and book of accounts as well as other records of any legitimate labor organization shall be entertained during the sixty (60) day freedom period or within thirty (30) days immediately preceding the date of election of union officers. Decision after audit. as the case may be. In such a case.The Audit Examiner shall make a report of his/her findings to the parties involved and the same shall include the following: (a) name of the labor organization.Appeal from the decision of the MedArbiter denying the conduct of audit and from the results of the audit may be filed by any of the parties with the Bureau. . 61 . Rule XI. Section 11. central registry. as the case may be. Period of inquiry or examination. . . Section 13.Consistent with the policy of the State to promote unionism. Appeal. the Med-Arbiter or Bureau Director shall order the restitution of union funds by the responsible officer(s) in the same decision. When warranted.The Audit Examiner shall have sixty (60) days from the date of first pre-audit conference within which to complete the conduct of audit. (c) name of officers of the labor organization during the period covered by the audit report. The Labor Relations Division of the Regional Offices shall. Rule XI. Transmittal of records. . Period of audit. Section 10. Both shall be resolved in accordance with the provisions of Section 16. within ten (10) days from termination of the audit. together with the entire records of the case and all documents relative to the conduct of the audit. the period covered by the audit and other circumstances warrant the extension thereof. Section 12. (b) name of complainant(s) or petitioner(s) and respondent(s). .financial report or statement reflecting the true and correct financial accounts and balances of the labor organization with relevant annexes attached. and (g) findings and recommendations. of such fact at least ten (10) days before the expiration of the sixty (60) day period. Section 2. the Bureau shall devise or prescribe such forms as are necessary to facilitate the process of registration of labor organizations and collective bargaining agreements or of compliance with all documentary or reporting requirements prescribed in these Rules. The decision shall be released in the same manner prescribed in Section 15. .The Med-Arbiter or the Bureau Director shall render a decision within twenty (20) days from receipt of the audit report. (f) audit methods and procedures adopted. (e) list of documents examined. . the Audit Examiner shall notify the Med-Arbiter or the Bureau Director. Section 14. Section 15. (d) scope of the audit.A copy of the audit report shall be forwarded by the Audit Examiner to the MedArbiter or the Bureau Director. Decisions rendered by the Bureau after the conduct of audit in the exercise of its original jurisdiction may be appealed to the Office of the Secretary. Forms for registration.

. The Labor Relations Division of the Regional Office shall also transmit to the Bureau a copy of every final decision canceling or revoking the legitimate status of a labor organization or collective bargaining agreement. the Regional Office shall transmit within two (2) days from receipt thereof the original set of documents to the Bureau. Moreover. be transformed into labor education and research funds. company rules and regulations and other relevant matters. Trajano. indicating therein the date when the decision became final. The union seminars and similar activities may be conducted independently of or in cooperation with the Department and other labor education institutions. Johnny Oca. Mandatory conduct of seminars. RULE XX LABOR EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Section 1. It finds no support in fact and in law.Subject to the provisions of Article 241. . Special fund for labor education and research. Existing strike funds may. are likewise tainted. the April 62 . collective agreements.The Department shall develop. NLRC. matters taken up during said special meeting. promote and implement appropriate labor education and research programs on the rights and responsibilities of workers and employers. Ferrer-Calleja.Every legitimate labor organization shall. "at his own initiative or upon petition of at least one fourth (1/4) of the Board members. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF MEMBERS: Ferrer vs. The call for "a special Board meeting to fix the special convention" made by the National Secretary. retaining one set of documents for its file. Section 2. in whole or in part. The presence of a quorum during petitioner Oca's and respondent Dinglasan's respective Board meetings is questionable. such as the calling of a national convention. 224 SCRA 410 Tancinco vs. for the above purpose. transmit to the Bureau a copy of such certificates accompanied by a copy of the documents supporting registration. In cases of chartering and affiliation or compliance with the reporting requirements under Rule V. . 200 SCRA 399 It is a rule that the Constitution and By-laws of an organization serve as a contract that binds its members. The labor organization may also periodically assess and collect reasonable amounts from its members for such funds. Labor education of workers and employees. Section 3. GOVERNING LAW Oca vs. petitioner Oca's Board Meeting and subsequent Convention were tainted with invalidity. maintain a special fund for labor education and research. 157 SCRA 203 Submission of the employees names with the BLR as qualified members of the union is not a condition sine qua non to enable said members to vote in the election of union’s officers. Per public respondent’s findings. it shall be mandatory for every legitimate labor organization to conduct seminars and similar activities on existing labor laws. It shall be the duty of every legitimate labor organization to implement a labor education program for its members on their rights and obligations as unionists and as employees.within forty-eight (48) hours from issuance of a certificate of creation of chartered locals or certificate of registration of labor organizations and collective bargaining. was anomalous since only the National President of the Union was empowered to call a special Board Meeting." Considering the anomalous "call" for a special meeting made by the National Secretary.

63 . members of said union. Section 2. and the time consumed on minor repairs of the engine and other parts of the bus. considering that the petition to impeach had to be addressed to the Chairman of the Executive Board of the Union. their act of joining the election by casting their votes on May 26. and to order Halili to pay the drivers and conductors the compensable hours of work previously rendered by them from October 1. right after he failed to appear before the first and only investigation scheduled on 27 August 1986 in the Litton Canteen. the interval for waiting for passengers. In the case before Us. 167 SCRA 804 As to the impeachment of a union officer. according to the provisions of Commonwealth Act No. as amended. only members of the union can participate in the election of union officers. Adopting however a rough estimate of a total number of union members who cast their votes of some 333 and excluding therefrom the 56 challenged votes. there was difficulty on the part of the petitioners in complying with the required procedure for impeachment. and the repair of the engine and other parts of the bus in case of breakdown. as contrasted to an outright impeachment. in the case at bar. REMEDIES FOR VIOLATION OF RIGHTS Litton Mills Employees vs. Ferrer-Calleja. CIR.24. The question however of eligibility to vote may be determined through the use of the applicable payroll period and employee’s status during the applicable payroll period. charging violation by Halili of Commonwealth Act No. 444 (the Eight-Hour Law) in that he deducted from. 1986 list consists of 158 union members only wherein 51 of the 56 challenged voters’ names do not appear. 1099-V. 1958. They must therefore be considered ipso facto members thereof Halili vs. 1958. 1986 after the May 10. despite the practical difficulties in complying with the said procedure. members of respondent union. The payroll of the month next preceding the labor dispute in case of regular employees and the payroll period at or near the peak of operations in case of employees in seasonal industries. It clearly appears that the procedure was not followed by the petitioners when they impeached Umali. oil or water. It therefore prayed the court to fix the compensable hours of work of the drivers and conductors. It is true that under Article 242(c) of the Labor Code. which it subsequently amended on December 9. Nevertheless. petitioners should have shown substantial compliance with said impeachment procedure. Article XV of the petitioner-union's Constitution and By-Laws provides the procedures to be followed. happened to be respondent Umali himself. The SC held that there can be no disagreement here that what the members of the respondent union claim is the payment of overtime wages for work rendered by them during the hours deducted by the predecessor of herein petitioner from their daily compensable working time in the company's payrolls. 1986 agreement is a clear manifestation of their intention to join the union. the union filed with the Court of Industrial Relations a petition docketed as Case No. 1956 up to the filing of the petition. 136 SCRA 112 On August 20. 444. and that the majority membership which would decide on the impeachment had to be convened only upon call of the Chairman of the Executive Board who. the time for trip intervals when the bus is waiting for passengers. if the list is to be the basis as to who the union members are then public respondent should have also disqualified some 175 of the 333 voters. the hours of work of the drivers and conductors the time consumed for filling gas or for taking the bus from the 'carbarn' and vice-versa. To be sure. the time spent for taking the buses from the carbarn and filling it with gas. considering that none of the parties insisted on the use of the payroll period-list as voting list and considering further that the 51 remaining employees were correctly ruled to be qualified for membership. in violation of the Eight-Hour Labor Law he deducted from the working hours of the drivers and conductors. by giving Umali ample opportunity to defend himself. and did not include in.

before it can be resolved elsewhere (doctrine of exhaustion). the members of the union. The union submits a document to management. Special election could be resorted to when some members of a union are deprived of their right to vote. Villaor vs. (n) and (o).and hinder the promotion of healthy and stable labormanagement relations. i. the basic rule is that internal matters should be resolved first by the internal rules. F. levied. 1984 elections. LECTURE Remember in terms and conditions of membership. who won by only 145 and 44 votes respectively. then comes in the collection. and collected following certain requirements. Collection may be done in two ways: direct collection from each member. It cannot be imposed by the officers. there is no justification for special election because the union members were not deprived of their right to vote. Requirements of a valid levy: general membership resolution. approving the special assessment. and enable them to overcome the winning margin of winning candidates therein. hence it cannot be imposed without the required resolution. Concept of unfair labor practice and procedure for prosecution thereof . Obviously. the best and most appropriate means of ascertaining the will of the union members is through a certification election. Check-off is not a matter of right. You can levy only upon resolution. UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES LABOR CODE Art 247.e. As aptly observed by the Solicitor General. and each member’s authorization to collect. such move was resorted by the PALEA Comelec to accommodate defeated candidates for president and vice-president in the February 20. . It is something that must be embodied in the CBA in order to obligate management to cooperate. Trajano. reflecting the list of collection. And.are inimical to the legitimate interests of both labor and management. Mgt. The other way is by check-off. 241. Only after a valid levy. There cannot be a valid collection without a valid levy. — Unfair labor practices: .. whether they still want respondent Umali as their Union President. Under Art. 1984 election. Mario and Carlos Bandalan (respondent herein).The union-members themselves know what is best for them. In this case. and you can collect via check-off only upon individual valid authorization from each member. including their right to bargain collectively and otherwise deal with each other in an atmosphere of freedom and mutual respect. Remember also that levy is different from collection. Villaor and Bautista (herein petitioners). will deduct such amounts from each salary and remit the same to the union. in a general meeting called for the purpose. 144 SCRA 245 The May 4. following certain requirements. .violate the constitutional right of workers and employees to self-organization. A levy is a special assessment. but that is a tedious process. special assessment can be 64 . the same was resorted to only to accommodate the herein other private respondents — "There is absolutely no justification for calling the said May 4. 1984 special election in Cebu and Mactan is without factual and legal justification. Management’s cooperation is needed here. even if it is approved by management. the by-laws.disrupt industrial peace . and whether they wish to affiliate their union with GATCORD.

moral. the civil aspects of all cases involving unfair labor practices. finding that an unfair labor practice was committed. That the individual authorization required under Article 242. They shall resolve such cases within thirty (30) calendar days from the time they are submitted for decision. To discriminate in regard to wages. 65 .During the pendency of such administrative proceeding. except of those employees who are already members of another union at the time of the signing of the collective bargaining agreement.without a final judgment. of this - (c) - (d) (e) Recovery of civil liability in the administrative proceedings shall bar recovery under the Civil Code. dominate.Provided. however. No criminal prosecution under this Title may be instituted: . assist or otherwise interfere with the formation or administration of any labor organization. — It shall be unlawful for an employer to commit any of the following unfair labor practices: (a) (b) To interfere with. the running of the period of prescription of the criminal offense herein penalized shall be considered interrupted: . attorney’s fees and other affirmative relief.Consequently. and other terms and conditions of employment in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. including the giving of financial or other support to it or its organizers or officers. exemplary and other forms of damages. . That the final judgment in the administrative proceedings shall not be binding in the criminal case nor be considered as evidence of guilt but merely as proof of compliance with the requirements herein set forth. Unfair labor practices of employers. hours of work. having been first obtained in the administrative proceeding referred to in the preceding paragraph. To require as a condition of employment that a person or an employee shall not join a labor organization or shall withdraw from one to which he belongs. restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization. Nothing in this Code or in any other law shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognized collective bargaining agent as a condition for employment. shall be under the jurisdiction of the Labor Arbiters. To contract out services or functions being performed by union members when such will interfere with. To initiate. Employees of an appropriate collective bargaining unit who are not members of the recognized collective bargaining agent: may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. if such non-union members accept the benefits under the collective agreement: Provided. unfair labor practices are not only violations of the civil rights of both labor and management but are also criminal offenses against the State which shall be subject to prosecution and punishment as herein provided. which may include claims for actual. The Labor Arbiters shall give utmost priority to the hearing and resolution of all cases involving unfair labor practices. restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization. Subject to the exercise by the President or by the Secretary of Labor and Employment of the powers vested in them by Articles 263 and 264 of this Code. paragraph (o). 248. Art.

gross violations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement (b) 66 . in the nature of an exaction. except those which are gross in character. members of governing boards. only the officers and agents of corporations. only the officers. However.and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies referred to in the immediately preceding Article. or representatives: (a) To restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-organization. To cause or attempt to cause an employer to pay or deliver or agree to pay or deliver any money or other things of value. violations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement. or To violate a collective bargaining agreement. shall no longer be treated as unfair labor practice and shall be resolved as grievances under the Collective Bargaining Agreement. To violate the duty to bargain collectively as prescribed by this Code. To ask for or accept negotiation or attorney’s fees from employers as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute.Accordingly. . (f) The provisions of the preceding paragraph notwithstanding.arising from the interpretation or implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement . — The Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators shall have . 261. authorized or ratified unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable. representatives or agents or members of labor associations or organizations who have actually participated in. including discrimination against an employee with respect to whom membership in such organization has been denied. Jurisdiction of voluntary arbitrators and panel of voluntary arbitrators. (f) To dismiss. or to terminate an employee on any ground other than the usual terms and conditions under which membership or continuation of membership is made available to other members. To pay negotiation or attorney’s fees to the union or its officers or agents as part of the settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute. or partnerships who have actually participated in. for services which are not performed or not to be performed.Code shall not apply to the non-members of the recognized collective bargaining agent. 249. including the demand for a fee for union negotiations. Art. (d) (g) (h) (e) (i) The provisions of the preceding paragraph notwithstanding. a labor organization shall have the right to prescribe its own rules with respect to the acquisition or retention of membership. For purposes of this Article. Unfair labor practices of labor organizations. provided that it is the representative of the employees. or To violate a collective bargaining agreement. authorized or ratified unfair labor practices shall be held criminally liable.original and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide all unresolved grievances . Art. To cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against an employee. (c) To violate the duty or refuse to bargain collectively with the employer. discharge or otherwise prejudice or discriminate against an employee for having given or being about to give testimony under this Code. its officers. associations. agents. — It shall be unfair labor practice for a labor organization.

15 SCRA 174 The SC held that the subjection by the company of its employees to a series of questioning regarding their membership in the union or their union activities. constitutes unfair labor practice Visayan Bicyle Manufacturig Co. its Regional Offices and the Regional Directors of the Department of Labor and Employment shall not entertain disputes. however. were provoked into a prearranged fight by two recently hired employees pursuant to a strategy of the company designed to provide an apparently lawful cause for their dismissal. vs. Philippine Steam Navigation vs. It appears. The test applied to determine whether the individual acts constitute ULP was totality of conduct. Some were persuaded by the letter. The seemingly innocent letters. Factors to be taken into consideration are: . Employees Association vs. Thus. There were also occasions where management personnel tried to break through the picket lines. Manila Hotel Co. the same should have been divided equally as it has been done before. they may do so. Inciong. Judric Canning Corp. 37 SCRA 244 The company sent letters to each striker stating its recognition of the employees right to strike. Philippine Marine Officers Guild. The fact that management granted Christmas bonus to its employees. in such a way as to hamper the exercise of free choice on their part.. the company is guilty of unfair labor practice. The company also offered free coffee as bribe to abandon the strike. National Labor Union.shall mean flagrant and/or malicious refusal to comply with the economic provisions of such agreement. . vs. 115 SCRA 887 CASES Insular Life Assurance Co. 47 SCRA 88 Whether or not the Pines Hotel incurred losses is of no moment. vs. grievances or matters under the exclusive and original jurisdiction of the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators and shall immediately dispose and refer the same to the grievance machinery or voluntary arbitration provided in the collective bargaining agreement. some of them were granted year-end bonus 67 . The Commission. Aside from the Christmas bonus of 50% that was allocated to the Manila Hotel employees. that said employees. The incentives in the letters as well as threats of reprisals upon failure to comply cannot be read otherwise than union busting.history of relations between employees and employer. 14 SCRA 5 Two employees were dismissed for violation of a company rule against fights in the premises or during working hours. when taken together with all the other acts clearly show the intent to interfere with the right to collective bargaining. - any other plan of coercion and interference. who were union officers. The employers are guilty of ULP. Such acts undermine all that the union wishes to do for the benefit of the employees. but others continued with the strike. There was also discrimination in selecting which employees were rehired. and said dismissed employees had not figured in similar incidents before or violated company rules in their many years with the company. The letter listed benefits for those who wished to work. but should the latter wish to return to work. Insular Life Assurance Co.anti-union bias. Pines Hotel Employees.

Management is free to regulate. while Pines Hotel employees. management was at fault. all aspects of employment. Circumstances showing unfair discrimination of union members – where a company contrary to previous practice of dividing equally to all employees a certain percentage of its net profits as Christmas bonus.while the Pines Hotel employees did not receive any. Hence. legitimate business reasons as explained in said pleading. and was ordered by the Court to reinstate the workers and pay backwages. allocated 50% only to its Manila Hotel employees. Inc. discipline. this Court will uphold such exercise. and 68 . The petitioner refuses to comply with the said order (which has never been executed) on the ground that it “made innovations in some of the working organizations formerly under the Alhambra Cigar & Cigarette Manufacturing Co. working methods. and petitioner. 35 SCRA 550 The petitioner is the successor-in-interest of the old company Alhambra Cigar & Cigarette Manufacturing Co. work assignments. Further.. That has not been complied with. To discourage each party from committing such unfair labor practices. the petitioner be declared exempted from reinstating and paying the back wages of the aforesaid employees. So long as such prerogative is exercised in good faith and for the advancement of the employer’s interest and not for the purpose of defeating or circumventing the rights of employees under special laws or under valid agreements.. Wise and Co. it cannot be said that the new scheme adopted by management prejudices the right of respondent to self-organization. 289 SCRA 86 The change effected by management with regard to working time is made to apply to all factory employees engaged in the same line of work whether or not they are members of a union. as the successor. that was found guilty of ULP. October 13. 1989 vs. This is a clear case of discrimination it appearing that there is no union at the Manila Hotel of Taal Vista Hotel and considering further that lately respondents had always been beset with demands for better living conditions from the complainant union as well as strikes being staged by the union. management retains the prerogative whenever exigencies of the service so require. according to its own discretion and judgment. did not receive any year end bonus. NLRC. dismissal and recall of workers. The sooner then an inquiry is made into alleged unfair labor practices and the sooner it is stopped. and that after such hearings. Inc. lay off of workers.” Held: The basic theory of the Industrial Peace Act is to recognize the right of self-organization to enable labor unions to bargain collectively and to avoid unfair labor practices on the part of labor and management in order to attain industrial democracy. Wise and Co. where there exists a labor union. sanctions are provided for. can be compelled to reinstate and to pay back wages. to change the working hours of its employees. supervision. Employees Union. and praying that the Honorable Court conduct hearings at which the petitioner will introduce evidence in support of these allegations. the better for harmonious labor-management relations. place and manner of work. processes to be followed. CIR. which affected the former positions by abolishing them for. Here. Annex ‘L’ hereof.. vs. If we reopen the case to allow petitioner to introduce evidence with respondent Court to show why it has not complied with the order of Sime Darby Pilipinas Inc. Alhambra Industries vs. and there are no substantially equivalent positions for them to occupy. time. including hiring.

In the case at bar. CIR. Jur. It was reluctant-if not unwilling-to discharge petitioner. insisted on petitioner's discharge. thereafter. Without doubt. 2001 Salunga v. we cannot and should not do so. the company still demurred and explained it was not taking sides and that its stand was prompted merely by "humane" considerations. invoke the rights of those who seek admission for the first time. in the form of restraint. the company advised petitioner of its provisions. with more reason may the law and the courts exercise the coercive power when the employee involved is a long standing union member who. against his employee’s right to institute concerted action for better terms and conditions of employment. which he forthwith withdrew or revoked. we shall in effect be rendering futile the rights of labor and frustrating the policies of the Industrial Peace Act. and dismissed him 69 Mabeza vs. 271 SCRA 670 cooperate with the employer’s scheme constitutes ULP. May 30. 21 SCRA 216 It is well settled that such unions are not entitled to arbitrarily exclude qualified applicants for membership. he may at least. thereby intimating that he had to withdraw his resignation in order to keep his employment. UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS: De Leon vs. 271 SCRA 670 A pivotal question in any case where ULP on the part of the employer is alleged. and a closed -shop provision would not justify the employer in discharging. Surely. an employee whom the union thus refuses to admit to membership. Considering the circumstances disclosed. When the latter. NLRC. was impelled to tender his resignation. And. as the union reiterated its demand. if said unions may be compelled to admit new members. when the union first informed it of petitioner's resignation and urged implementation of Section 3 of the bargaining contract.reinstatement. interference or coercion. the company notified the union that it would not take any action on the case and would consider petitioner still a member of the union. Besides. together with the act of terminating or coercing those who refuse to . or a union in insisting upon the discharge of. the act of compelling employees to sign an instrument indicating that the employer observed labor standards provisions of law when he might have not. without any reasonable ground therefor (31 Am. the company notified petitioner that it had no other alternative but to terminate his employment. The first act clearly preempts the right of the hotel’s workers to seek better terms and conditions of employment through concerted action. owing to provocations of union officers. who have the requisite qualifications. Needless to say. 432). is whether or not the employer has exerted pressure. NLRC. springing from the belief that petitioner had resigned from the union without realizing its effect upon his employment. Balmar Farms vs. the company was not guilty of unfair labor practice. NLRC. and cannot arbitrarily be denied readmission.

restrain or coerce the right to self-organization. Does that mean we can do away with subparagraphs (b) to (i)? Are all discriminations ULP? How can discrimination refer to the right to self-organization? ULP may be done whether one is a union member or is not a union member. In order to show management’s intention.. in the absence of any clear case of actual interference. For management to be guilty of ULP it is not necessary that the interference. But what if management was really in good faith in doing such act? The good faith defense is available to mgt. too. The act is ULP. restrain or coerce. Item (a) of Art. is guilty of ULP even if the attempt was unsuccessful. Torres. So. 248 is an all-encompassing provisionto interfere. What is the test of ULP? Some acts may in fact be innocent in nature." Under the circumstances. So in many cases it is difficult to prove that the act is intended by management to R/I/C. although with "regret". Remember the Insular case. October 4. That management intended to R/I/C. not just the single act. 1965.from the service. hours of employment or other conditions of employment. wages. The SC held that the Union which has become a minority union can no longer demand collective bargaining. Said right properly belongs to SELU. Management was not successful. Look at the acts and circumstances as a whole. shortly after this case was filed on September 18. Remember the doctrine TOTALITY OF CONDUCT. United Restauror’s Employees and Labor Union vs. voice out and seek remedies for the grievances of all Sulo employees. one must establish that there is a tendency to restrain. If the act has a tendency to R/I/C. It may seem that the test is quite subjective. and it is LECTURE 70 . But remember violation of a CBA is ULP only if it is a gross violation of the economic provisions. By law. Because of this SELU was certified to the Sulo management as the "collective bargaining representative of the employees . it may be shown that ULP is committed. . including employees who are members of petitioner Union. under such circumstances. hours of work. applying the totality of conduct doctrine it may be shown that mgt. Under the circumstances. is the fact that. But it is not disputed that on. the issue as to the propriety of the injunction issued to restrain picketing has become moot and academic. SELU has the right as well as the obligation to hear. for collective bargaining purposes as regards wages. 1965. rates of pay and/or such other terms and conditions of employment allowed them by law. a consent election was held. coercion or restraint be a successful attempt. the right to be exclusive representative of all the employees in an appropriate collective bargaining unit is vested in the labor union "designated or selected" for such purpose "by the majority of the employees" in the unit concerned. What is ULP? It is a violation of the right to selforganization. the company was not "unfair" to petitioner. petitioner herein. considering all the circumstances. in that consent election. . then in all probability. show the totality of the situation and show the link between the act itself and the employee’s right to self-organization. coerce or interfere with the right to self-organization. i. Not controverted. 26 SCRA 435 When the Union struck and picketed on January 16. Without need of certification. which commands the majority. 1965. Like in the Insular case. regarding the rates of pay. conclude a collective bargaining agreement with Sulo. SELU defeated the Union. in order to establish ULP. it might have been true that the Union commanded a majority of Sulo's employees. This is because ULP must be intended to R/I/C and is deliberate. So the Court has said that. it could. By looking at the totality of the situation and the circumstances.e. management wanted to R/I/C.

248 aims to cover any threat of preventing the start of self-organizing activities. then apply the theory . The Mabeza case harmonizes/relates Art. The Court considered these ULP. Can (a) then be left alone as a definition of ULP? Yes! The other subparagraphs are illustrations of (a). Hence. Art 248 (f) applies only when the employee testifies against the employer. there is a declaration of strike. (f). it is considered an act of ULP. because these were acts of “nipping the bud”. the other subparagraphs are good illustrations. There is no doubt about that. 248 (f) with 248 (a). Also. the employer CAN commit ULP. 248. The provision in the Omnibus Rules must be followed strictly. The legal personality of the unionexclusive bargaining agent has nothing to do with the effectivity of the CBA. is when an employee is dismissed because he asserts his rights. that’s why it is usually subjective. For example. But looking at the subparagraphs of Art. Now. even though the opposite is what happens in reality. For instance. the good faith defense is available whether or not the act created an adverse effect. the theoretical principle of resolving all doubts in favor of labor is a good theory to be applied. if the closure of a company is questioned whether it is done in good faith or bad faith. Now. For instance. The act of releasing the bonus will produce an “evil” effect – many employees will not go to the strike. Then management announces an across the board wage increase to be released a day before the strike. So. That’s why we must consider all possible aspects. Hence. the issue is usually resolved in favor of labor. specifically when the employees are on the start of a consciousness as to their rights and take initial steps to assert these rights. and even go into management’s mind to determine whether ULP or not. (a) is too broad. they must do so through a class suit with each employee in the bargaining unit made a party. the employees must take into their own hands the necessary measures to enact the CBA provisions. when they seek to file a ULP case against the employer for nonobservance of the CBA’s economic provisions. since there is no exclusive bargaining agent/representative to act in behalf of the employees. to give us a basis for conclusion that the specifically stated act is ULP. Is the enumeration under Art.incumbent upon management to establish this. the good faith or bad faith of the employer should be considered. A happy employee will not do such a thing! On the outset it seems that management is guilty of ULP. 71 . that the bonus was actually approved and specific date for release was set in a Board Resolution a year ago. which is hard to determine looking at (a) alone. ULP is a violation of the right to self-organization. They cannot use the employer’s act as a ground for strike either. can it apply to non-union members? Can it apply when it is not related to union activity issues? The case of Mabeza clarifies that. in this case. But management may show that it is in good faith. unless he is dismissed for refusing to testify in favor of management. (a) also encompasses (f) = ULP. 248 exclusive? Actually.. because only a legitimate labor union may conduct a strike. but may still fall under (a). For purposes of the bar. no management employee will do it blatantly. For instance. it is immaterial to say so. Art. Because of the all-encompassing proviso of 248 (a). even without any union or union-organizing activity. and that it was coincidental that the intended date of release was the day before the strike. But since the bar is a theoretical exam. specifically subpar. POST-MIDTERMS REVIEW OF THE MIDTERMS QUESTIONS: Last question The CBA is not registered hence the legal personality of the union is extinguished. But the CBA is effective even without the exclusive bargaining agent. As the Court held there. Since ULP is illegal. However. So if the act does not fall under (b) – (i).

the union has no legitimate personality. So the labor-only contracting issue will make a case for ULP. Is the question of labor-only contracting material to order payment of wages in a case for illegal dismissal? No because the principal is always liable for nonpayment of wages. The only question at this point is should the employer be punished for the correction of a wrong situation. In this question. Can you take it to punish the employer for that? The intention may have been clear that employer wanted to avoid the formation of a union. That’s why the Rules give that leeway period for the local/chapter to register as an independent union when the mother union loses its legal personality. The rehiring is not for another project but for a regular position under a probationary contract. nothing wrong was done against the employees. the employer excludes them from the coverage of the CBA on such pretext. Question 1 My intended answer is it’s not ULP. In Mabeza. It is merely a correction of an unjust situation. The project ee turned into an accounting clerk under a prob. She is not considered a regular employee. hence she should be considered a regular employee. Contract – There is no rehiring. It is not a clear interference of the right to selforganization. Maraguinot does not apply. It’s an entirely different factual situation. that makes a case for ULP. CIR. the employer committed something wrong against the employee. That’s Alhambra Industries vs. even though the deepest intent was to avoid any possibility of formation of a union. thus the control of the contractor should be considered as exercising control in behalf of the principal. In this question. which is most often the sentiment of any employer. What is looked into is the act complained of as ULP. there is still labor-only contracting. there is no clear cut case for ULP if what is used is the act in question. 72 . The contractor is merely an agent of the principal. So I am not saying that Mabeza is not applicable. the formation of a union is costly. From a business perspective. Question 4 The Vanessa case – The contract is an ambiguous contract. Essentially ULP is a factual question.What can the local/chapter do once the mother union loses its personality? They can register as an independent union to acquire legitimate personality. But prior to issuance of the certificate of registration. not the general business desire not to have a union. The more defensible position in this case is that the employer’s act was an act done in good faith. Question 3 By denying the employee the existence of the er-ee relationship. Even if the contractor exercises full control but it does not have enough capital or equipment.

The Board shall have the power to issue subpoenas requiring the attendance of the parties to such meetings. — The duty to bargain collectively means: • the performance of a mutual obligation • to meet and convene promptly and expeditiously in good faith • for the purpose of negotiating an agreement with respect to wages. it shall serve a written notice upon the other party with a statement of its proposals. Should differences arise on the basis of such notice and reply. either party may request for a conference which shall begin not later than ten (10) calendar days from the date of request. — In the absence of 73 . it shall be the duty of the employer and the representatives of the employees to bargain collectively in accordance with the provisions of this Code. 252. Duty to bargain collectively when there exists a collective bargaining agreement. • but such duty does not compel any party to agree to a proposal or to make any concession. the parties are prohibited from doing any act which may disrupt or impede the early settlement of the disputes. hours of work and all other terms and conditions of employment • including proposals for adjusting any grievances or questions arising under such agreement and executing a contract incorporating such agreements if requested by either party.V. During the conciliation proceedings in the Board. the Board shall intervene upon request of either or both parties or at its own initiative and immediately call the parties to conciliation meetings. — Any collective bargaining agreement that the parties may enter into shall. ART. However. RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING A. It shall be the duty of the parties to participate fully and promptly in the conciliation meetings the Board may call. insofar as the (c) (d) (e) ART. Meaning of duty to bargain collectively. 251. Duty to bargain collectively in the absence of collective bargaining agreements. (b) an agreement or other voluntary arrangement providing for a more expeditious manner of collective bargaining. Procedure in collective bargaining. — When there is a collective bargaining agreement. and The Board shall exert all efforts to settle disputes amicably and encourage the parties to submit their case to a voluntary arbitrator. the duty to bargain collectively shall also mean that neither party shall terminate or modify such agreement during its lifetime. ART. DUTY TO BARGAIN COLLECTIVELY LABOR CODE ART. ART. 253. 250. The other party shall make a reply thereto not later than ten (10) calendar days from receipt of such notice. — The following procedures shall be observed in collective bargaining: (a) When a party desires to negotiate an agreement. Terms of a collective bargaining agreement. 253-A. either party can serve a written notice to terminate or modify the agreement at least sixty (60) days prior to its expiration date. It shall be the duty of both parties to keep the status quo and to continue in full force and effect the term and conditions of the existing agreement during the 60-day period and/or until a new agreement is reached by the parties. If the dispute is not settled.

• accompanied with .all collective bargaining agreements .or in any other amount as may be deemed appropriate and necessary by the Secretary of Labor and Employment . The file shall be open and accessible • to interested parties • under conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.and other related agreements .verified proofs of its posting in two conspicuous places in the place of work . Regional Directors and the Commission.registration fee of not less than one thousand pesos (P1.and records of settlement of labor disputes. No petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agewhall agree on the duration of retroactivity thereof. 74 . .authorized by the Secretary. of all final decisions.s 218 and 264 of this Code. LABOR CODE ART. • The Regional Offices shall furnish the Bureau with a copy of the collective bargaining agreement within five (5) days from its submission. In case of a deadlock in the renegotiation of the collective bargaining agreement. be for a term of five (5) years.legitimate labor organizations.or when it is at issue in any judicial litigation -or when public int\erest or national security so requires. 254. orders and awards of the Secretary of Labor and Employment.representation aspect is concerned. except as otherwise provided in Art. The Bureau or Regional Offices shall • act upon the application for registration of such collective bargaining agreement within five (5) calendar days from receipt thereof. the parties may exercise their rights under this Code. Within thirty (30) days from the execution of a collective bargaining agreement.00) . The Bureau shall also maintain a file of . and decisions of voluntary arbitrators. Injunction prohibited.Any amount collected under this provision shall accrue to the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund. Registry of unions and file of collective agreements. • The Bureau or Regional Office shall assess the employer for every collective bargaining agreement a . — The Bureau shall keep a registry of . and shall undertake or assist in the publication.and copies of orders.000. 231. — No temporary or permanent injunction or restraining order in any case involving or growing out of labor disputes shall be issued by any court or other entity. ART. The Bureau shall also maintain a file. • provided that no specific information submitted in confidence shall be disclosed unless: .for the effective and efficient administration of the voluntary arbitration program.and ratification by the majority of all the workers in the bargaining unit. • the parties shall submit copies of the same directly to the Bureau or the Regional Offices of the Department of Labor and Employment for registration . . .

Held: Management did not ignore the demand for collective bargaining although it did not submit a counter proposal. Held: Where there exists a legitimate issue as to which of several unions is the legitimate representative of employees. and all other terms and conditions of employment in a bargaining unit. There exists in this case a real issue as to representation and management’s suggestion that the unions file the necessary complaint in view of the fact that there are several unions claiming to represent the employees does not constitute failure or refusal to bargain. comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees in the employer unit or any specific occupational or geographical grouping within such employer unit. Definition of Terms. The company. while a consent election is voluntarily agreed upon by the parties. RULE I DEFINITION OF TERMS Section 1.OMNIBUS RULES. reported with the Regional Office in accordance with Rule VII. it is ULP for one of the contending unions to stage a strike and demand that the employer sit down with it for collective bargaining.O. (j) "Collective Bargaining Agreement" or "CBA" refers to the contract between a legitimate labor union and the employer concerning wages. informed the union of the existence of the conflicting demands from the other unions and suggested that the unions file the necessary complaint in court to finally determine who is the authorized representative. 118 SCRA 422 This case involves several issues: When the CBA was about to reach its expiration date. 75 . with or without the intervention by the Department. It turns out however that several unions were likewise demanding for renegotiation. CASES Duty to Bargain Collectively: (d) "Bargaining Unit" refers to a group of employees sharing mutual interests within a given employer unit. instead of submitting a counter proposal to LAKAS. (bbb) "Voluntary Recognition" refers to the process by which a legitimate labor union is recognized by the employer as the exclusive bargaining representative or Lakas ng Manggagawang Makabayan v Marcelo Enterprises. hours of work. BOOK V AS AMENDED BY D. Because of the company’s alleged refusal to bargain. A certification election is ordered by the Department. 40 agent in a bargaining unit. Section 2 of these Rules. (h) "Certification Election" or "Consent Election" refers to the process of determining through secret ballot the sole and exclusive representative of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining or negotiation. (t) "Exclusive Bargaining Representative" refers to a legitimate labor union duly recognized or certified as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative or agent of all the employees in a bargaining unit. LAKAS staged a strike. LAKAS requested for renegotiation with the company and submitted its proposal. LAKAS claims that management refused to bargain with it when it did not submit a counter proposal.

and a circle regarding those demands which were left open for discussion on some future occasion that the parties may deem convenient. Held: It should be noted that only those who refused to fill up the questionnaire were not readmitted. 1960. Held: An employer may be justified in requiring a reasonable scheduling of working hours of returning striking employees and inquiring into their time availabilities. 76 . LAKAS brought this action in behalf of all employees who were not allowed to return to work. Not all the striking workers were allowed to return to work. was separated from the service because he was found to be the organizer and adviser of the complaining union. respondents made a counter-proposal in the sense that they would bargain with said union and would accept its demands if the same would become a company union. National Union of Restaurant Workers (PTUC) vs. The fact is that respondents did not ignore the letter sent by the union so much so that they called a meeting to discuss its demands.The company asked the striking workers to fill up forms on when they are available for work. Held: A labor union cannot bring an action I behalf of employees who are members of another union even if said employees signed the complaint. Liberty Flour Mills Employees vs. Herrera. The letter sent by the union to respondents contains certain marks. The stoppage of the employees’ work was not the direct consequence of the company’s act. and one Martin Briones. 1960 at their restaurant in Quezon City. among others. such as a check for those demands to which Mrs. CIR. negotiation. The inference that respondents did not refuse to bargain collectively with the complaining union because they accepted some of the demands while they refused the others even leaving open other demands for future discussion is correct. All those who filled up their respective forms were scheduled for work and were readmitted. Inc. Such markings were made during the discussion of the demands in the meeting called by respondents on May 3. The Court took judicial cognizance of the fact that companies whose businesses were completely paralyzed by major strikes cannot resume full operation at once. and peaceful assembly including the right to strike in 3 A “Union Shop Claus” in CBA is a clause that requires union membership in good standing as a requirement for continued employment. 1989 The petitioners. whether or not they are members of LAKAS. a complaint for unfair labor practice was lodged against the owners of Tres Hermanas Restaurant. after organizing another union filed a certification election among the rank-in-file employees. as already stated elsewhere. Felisa Herrera was agreeable. and employee.. The union says this is ULP. The court a quo concluded that the fact that respondent Herrera had agreed to some of the demands shows that she did not refuse to bargain collectively with the complaining union. It reasons that the two strikes staged by the employees resulted in the complete paralysis of the company’s business and it cannot just readmit all returning workers in one big force or as each demanded readmission. December 29. are terminated because o a “union shop clause”3 in the CBA. The SC affirmed the decision that such dismissal was valid since the purpose of self-organization. particularly Mrs. The company says it merely wanted to know when the workers would show up for work so it can come up with a reasonable working schedule. The proper remedy is to drop the union as party to the action and place the individual names of the employees instead. 10 SCRA 843 On June 9. opposite each demand. Felisa Herrera. Liberty Flou Mills. Held: There was no refusal to bargain collectively. on the ground. a cross signifying the disapproval of Mrs. collective bargaining. Their economic loss should not be shifted to the employer. that respondents refused to bargain collectively with the complaining union.

wages. If there is no agreement reached within 6 months from the expiry of the 3 years that follow the execution of the CBA. the parties must maintain the status quo and must continue in full force 77 . The Secretary resolved the issue through an order setting forth the approved economic demands. Employees Union-PTGWO v Confesor. and not anybody else. 255. 302 SCRA 173 Nearing the 3rd year of the effectivity of the CBA. hours of work and other conditions of employment. The remaining 2 years of the CBA. MERALCO v Quisumbing. 1996. the Secretary of Labor assumed jurisdiction over the labor dispute.accordance with the law will not work if every worker were to choose his own separate way instead of joining hi co-employees. The members of a bargaining unit must have mutual interests. which is the subject of the renegotiation in this case. The Court ruled that the employees from the new corporations constituted separate bargaining units for the following reasons: 1. the discretion to fix the effectivity of the agreement. Petitioner could only offer a feeble explanation that the Board of Trustees had not yet convened to discuss the matter as its excuse for failing to file its reply. MERALCO Cases Facts: A CBA was entered into with a term of 5 years. The union insists on uniting the employees of the 2 new corporations into one bargaining unit. The workers are employed by two different employers as a consequence of incorporation (separate juridical personality) 2. This inaction on the part of petitioner prompted the union to file its second notice of strike on March 13. the parties met to renegotiate. the parties met to renegotiate. was for the period 1 December 1995 to 30 November 1997. petitioner still had not made any counterproposals. This is a clear violation of Article 250 of the Labor Code governing the procedure in collective bargaining San Miguel Corp. Nearing its 3rd year of effectivity. Undoubtedly. the law expressly gives the parties. it is required that both parties of the performance of the mutual obligation to meet and convene promptly and expeditiously in good faith for the purpose of negotiating an agreement. Petitioner's utter lack of interest in bargaining with the union is obvious in its failure to make a timely reply to the proposals presented by the latter. More than a month after the proposals were submitted by the union. "union") lived up to this requisite when it presented its proposals for the CBA to petitioner. Two of its divisions were turned into separate distinct corporations. Held: It is noteworthy in Art. The law requires that a CBA be renegotiated within 3 years from its execution. The issue in this case is whether petitioner is guilty of unfair labor practice by refusing to bargain with the union when it unilaterally suspended the ongoing negotiations for a new Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) upon mere information that a petition for certification has been filed by another legitimate labor organization. respondent Association of Employees and Faculty of Letran (AEFL) (hereinafter. Held: The date of effectivity shall be as agreed upon by the parties. Colegio de San Juan de Letran vs. Unable to come to an agreement during the renegotiation. Associatio of Employees and Faculty of Letran. petitioner devised ways and means in order to prevent the negotiation. In the absence of a new CBA. the companies will consequently have their respective and distinctive concerns in terms of nature of work. The effective date of the Secretary’s order is in question. 340 SCRA 587 Petitioner accused the union officers of bargaining in bad faith before the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC). On the other hand. and there existing the imminence of a strike. Considering the spin-off. 262 SCRA 81 SMC was restructured.

326 SCRA 172 This is a Motion for Reconsideration of the decision in the immediately preceding case. Further. when a CBA is entered into by a union representing the employees and the employer. The point of reckoning is the meeting of the minds. Mindanao Terminal and Brokerage Service Inc. The law does not provide for any exception or qualification as to which of the economic provisions of the existing agreement are to retain force and effect.and effect the terms and conditions of the existing agreement until a new agreement is reached. As to what was particularly agreed upon. MERALCO v Quisumbing. 7 September 1998 The union claims the benefits of an agreement allegedly entered into during the negotiation. it is the CBA as written which shall control. should there be one. v NLRC. MERALCO v Quisumbing. Inc. v Roldan-Confesor. The CBA in this case expired on 1 December 1997. Jurisdictional Requirements: Kiok Loy vs. Note: The minutes is determinative only of the moment when there was a meeting of the minds. the Secretary’s determination of the date of retroactivity as part of his discretionary powers over arbitral awards shall control. it must be understood as encompassing all the terms and conditions in said agreement. In the absence of such agreement. Held: CBA arbitral awards granted after six months from the expiration of the last CBA shall retroact to such time agreed upon by both employer and the employees or their union. (Marlon: prove meeting of the minds through the minutes) Samahang Manggagawa sa Top Form Manufacturing-UWP vs. Held: The arbitral award shall retroact to the first day after the 6month period following the expiration of the last day of the CBA. Held: The union may not validly claim that the proposal embodied in the minutes of the negotiation forms part of the CBA. the award shall retroact to the first day after the 6month period following the last day of the CBA. 141 SCRA 179 78 . Rivera vs. The first day after the 6-month period is 1 June 1996. 328 SCRA 404 Until a new CBA has been executed by and between the parties. 326 SCRA 172 This is a Motion for Partial Modification of the decision in the immediately preceding case. NLRC. even non-member employees are entitled to the benefits of the agreement. The CBA shall be effective from 1 June 1996 to 31 May 1998 (effective for 2 years). as per the minutes. The CBA is the law between the parties and compliance therewith is mandated by the law. 272 SCRA 161 The signing of the agreement is not determinative of the question whether the agreement was entered into within the 6 months from the expiry of the previous agreement. but was not incorporated in the CBA as written. Espiritu. NLRC. Therefore. or. they are duty bound to keep the status quo and to continue in full force and effect the terms and conditions of the existing agreement. 374 SCRA 351 B. in the absence of a CBA. New Pacific Timber & Supply Co.

but not in good faith. the court found the company guilty of ULP where it was shown that it refused to make a counter proposal. namely: (1) possession of the status of majority representation by the employees' representative in accordance with any of the means of selection and/or designation provided for by the Labor Code. Possession of status of majority representation of the employees’ representative in accordance with any means of selection or designation as provided in the Labor Code.While it is the mutual obligation of labor and management to bargain collectively. LECTURE It is the mutual obligation both of the employer and employee to: meet and convene promptly and expeditiously in good faith negotiate the TACOE/ grievance machinery execute a written document (CBA) respect the CBA—not to terminate or modify the CBA during its lifetime. management submits a counter-proposal. What does that mean? Meet in person and face-to-face. When these requisites are present and the company still refuses to submit a counter-proposal. Now. it may be a violation. may indicate bad faith and be regarded as ULP. For instance. Ferrer-Calleja. 2. if considered in relation to the entire bargaining process. it manifests bad faith DUTY TO BARGAIN COLLECTIVELY You must know the elements of the duty to bargain collectively by heart! What is the duty to bargain collectively? 79 . paragraph (a). Each side is represented by a panel. or meet on time. Aside from that. The bargaining representative has the primary obligation to start the bargaining process. and then they meet and bargain at the bargaining table. If not. ALU vs. the employer is not under any legal duty to initiate negotiation. Also. That starts the bargaining process. 173 SCRA 178 Collective bargaining are set in motion only when the following jurisdictional preconditions are present. contract bar rule It is an obligation because it is mandatory-it must be done. such refusal. management may be found guilty of ULP. one for the bargaining agent. and for management. and has no good reason to do so. and 3. of the New Labor Code. Management replies usually by giving a letter saying labor’s request cannot be granted. If they fail to meet within ten days. and unduly delayed the submission of its financial statements. If management failed to submit a counter-proposal on time. the LLO may exercise its right to strike. Proof of majority representation. (2) proof of majority representation. it will be a violation of the duty. is that a violation of the right? The law says to meet promptly and expeditiously. How does a proposal look like? It is in the form of a draft CBA containing all the provisions labor wants in the CBA. otherwise. In this case. How is it started? The bargaining representative submits a proposal. It depends on the circumstances for delay. then it may be a violation. A CBA made by labor may be imposed on management even without negotiations. nonperformance will merit a sanction. if they have met promptly and expeditiously. Demand to bargain. The mechanics of collective bargaining is set in motion only when the following jurisdictional pre-conditions are present: 1. and (3) a demand to bargain under Article 251. Meet and convene. to bargain collectively. stalled the negotiation by a series of postponements and non-appearance at the hearings conducted.

they may do so . So. there is no prohibition. because it will ensure industrial peace for at least five years. who pays the filing fees. But if the parties choose to renegotiate one year after. 80 . Also. the CBA may say the economic provisions shall be valid for 5 years. because they get into a position which is better than the minimum demand they were willing to settle on. 2004. It is also for mgt. On the first day.’s protection. management itself may ask for registration for the CBA. it is to protect the status of the union as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent which status cannot be challenged until after the lapse of 4 years and 300 days. The obligation to negotiate is merely an obligation to be flexible and not to give in always to the demand of the other parties. It is difficult to peg a cut-off point. that will ensure the union that whatever the panel says will bind management. 2007 (representation) and January 24. Assuming they renegotiated the non-representation CBA provisions on Jan. Then each panel adjusts its demands and try to meet in the middle. Hence. anytime within the three year period. but the union has to demand renegotiation within the three years. For example: CBA entered into on January 25. not the usual people who represent management in collective bargaining. It would be reasonable however to demand renegotiation when nearing the end of the third year. There is no ULP at this point. Registration is necessary to protect the local/chapter’s legal personality. Now.there is no prohibition. 2005 (non-representation provisions). That’s why the union usually asks for authorization from the management. oftentimes they don’t-which leads to a deadlock. unlike the representation status which the law says it must be for a term of five years. The Code states the negotiations must be as to the TACOE and grievance machinery. Management usually digs deep deep down. 2002. However. It may be challenged only within the 60-day freedom period. it is mgt. A lot has to do with psychological warfare. That’s how negotiations happen. then they are not forced to negotiate earlier than three years. Negotiations must end with a written agreement which should be registered. rival unions may file a petition for certification election anytime. What is the practical implication of that? If the union makes a demand one year after CBA’s effectivity. as long as management can comply with the three-year deadline. But can the parties renegotiate one year after the effectivity of the CBA? Yes. There is no prohibition. the parties may validly agree that the non-representation provisions be negotiated on January 24. but neither is it a duty. 24. they may negotiate on the second year. Hopefully they end up both happy. Matters over and above that is no longer an obligation but the parties may negotiate on such matters if they wish to do so. *Keep in mind that the duty to renegotiate is different from the effectivity of the economic provisions of the CBA. Can they renegotiate every year after that? Yes. though it wouldn’t be a violation of the duty if not tackled. In fact. These are the mandatory negotiable provisions. Example of bad faith – management comes to the bargaining table and announces deadlock na tayo on the first day of negotiations. Convening promptly and expeditiously in good faith to negotiate. It will be effective until January 24. Remember the Labor Code states that there is no compulsion to agree to a proposal or submit to a concession. management can ignore that and such act is not ULP. or any number of years. Sometimes they do. the union usually asks for the moon. Written agreement. Actually. What is the term of a CBA? Five years as to representation and three years as to non-representation provisions are concerned.when the management sends as panel people who don’t know anything about bargaining. The three-year period may be shortened by agreement of the parties. The law does not limit its effectivity. It depends on the circumstances and the possible reasons of management. Otherwise. These two factors are the coverage of the obligations. The law says the other provisions shall be renegotiated not later than three years. can opt not to renegotiate at that point. Management still has the remaining two years to comply and mgt.

year 1=P100. Ginagawang parehong 5 years. The three year period lapses the union loses the right to demand renegotiation. I doubt the CBA can ever be adjusted to something lower than what labor is already receiving. and if the rival union wins as the new bargaining agent. The reckoning point for the three year period for renegotiation is the last day of the last negotiations. they entered into negotiations. not diminished in the CBA. if one of the parties refuse to meet one year later as originally agreed upon. that is a valid renegotiation. It is something the workers do not yet enjoy. The three years to next renegotiate shall be reckoned from the execution of the CBA agreeing not to change anything in the old CBA.the first year of the CBA. The new representative must respect the non-representation provisions. Many CBAs have annual wage increase plans. That makes a need to revisit the positions of the parties. That’s why unions/bargaining agents seek to avoid this scenario-sinasabay nila ang effectivity ng non-representation provisions sa representation aspect ng CBA. The new agent can demand renegotiation but it may take effect only after 2009. an adjustment period. Because when you renegotiate. By the third year. 2006 – within three years from the last renegotiation and execution of the CBA. 2007? Since it is a renegotiation. The overlapping according to jurisprudence is to promote industrial peace. BUT despite whatever term they agree upon. If there is no renegotiation within the three years. It does not go against the non-diminution of benefits rule because it has not yet been given to the workers. 2007. It is entirely up to them to decide the term of effectivity of the CBA’s non-representation provisions. it is a new agreement. It will be up to the parties if they choose to make the new agreement subsist up to January 24. The new agent of course is a rival union and won’t be happy with the CBA entered into between management and the old agent who is a rival union. Will that be good until January 24. they have to renegotiate in by January 25. year 2=P200. Such CBA will still be effective. when the parties renegotiate. So. but both mutually agree to defer it to another year. The overlapping of the terms in representation and nonrepresentation is quite complicated. On the other hand. and to fix the CBA to favor labor. The new agent cannot demand negotiations kasi may one year pa. year 4=P400 and year 5=P500. When the parties enter into a binding agreement to renegotiate one year after. year 3=P300. Now. For instance. But this scenario does not promote industrial peace. In the end of the fifth year. My interpretation of renegotiation is that the parties have to reopen negotiations within three years. In fact the CBA is always an issue in certification elections—”Palpak naman ang CBA na yan”. In fact I have not seen a CBA that has extended its nonrepresentation aspects beyond five years. it is considered the trial period.2003. they have to respect the CBA. then they agree not to change anything. you are executing new provisions. That would be a violation of the non-diminution rule. Then the bargaining agent’s status is challenged by a rival union. that would be a valid agreement. the company was hit with the economic recession. not that they have to agree on new provisions within three years. there is no duty to negotiate anymore. the other party may declare deadlock. Mgt. What is the reason for the three year rule? Many economic developments can occur within three years. This is much like the rule in 81 . That should be the interpretiation of “execution of the CBA”. and so the parties agree year four and five=P100 and P200 instead of the original agreement. So for instance. from 1997 to 1998. On management’s side. they can modify the agreement as to the fourth and fifth year since it has not yet been given. Such benefits already enjoyed can only be improved. won’t negotiate as well. there may be a new bargaining representative. why will they agree to extend the term of the CBA beyond the authority of the bargaining agent? Now. but the non-representation provisions may have been extended beyond the fifth year. the parties may agree that the modified provisions take effect until 2009-even beyond the period of representation. It’s a valid agreement.

If the meeting of the minds happened beyond 6 months. This is automatically operative by law. No agreement between the parties is needed.O. The union/bargaining agent was not changed. there is no duty to negotiate anymore. comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees in the employer unit or any specific occupational or geographical grouping within such employer unit. 2. Remember too that only the written provisions of the CBA may be enforced. so the Secretary cannot decree retroactivity if the parties do not as well. 2002. 2. In the absence of formal signing. on the parties. In this case the law automatically operates so the new CBA retroacts to the date of the old CBA’s expiry. there is no delay. This case has no basis to say that the decision retroacts automatically to the end of the six month period. 2002. BOOK V AS AMENDED BY D. As soon as one party demands. the other incurs in delay. 40 (d) "Bargaining Unit" refers to a group of employees sharing mutual interests within a given employer unit. So if they entered into the agreement by July 24. The Sec. will retroact to January 25. But what usually happens is minamadali ang signing para makuha agad ng union ang signing bonus. So the Secretary can decree retroactivity but his freedom to choose the period when it retroacts is limited by the decision. The hard part is an arbitral award can supplant the parties’ agreement insofar as retroactivity is concerned. If the decision became final beyond the six month period. Erroneous! “Such date” refers to the date of expiry of the old CBA. not at the time of signing. C. nag-deadlock. But this was reversed in the second Meralco case. If the meeting of the minds happened within 6 months from expiration of the old CBA. The first decision was the good decision-it was congruent with the codal provision stating that only the parties can agree to retroactivity. Of Labor assumed jurisdiction and imposed a decision-a CBA. negotiations started. Meeting of the minds is when the parties come to an agreement. Management takes advantage of that by removing some provisions in the CBA formerly agreed upon. This ruling of the Court misinterpreted Art. and ended September 1. For instance. this is proven by the very provisions of the CBA. then the parties will determine when the new CBA will take effect. Hence if there is no demand. 253-A. 2002-within the 6 month period. When is the agreement of the parties reckoned? From the meeting of the minds. sorry na lang!! So the panel must read the written CBA before agreeing to be bound by it. There is no automatic retroactivity. 2002 the new CBA will take effect. And such act is not ULP Now for example January 24. So I believe there is no reason for the Court to limit the Secretary’s power. thinking that when the law talks of “such date” in the last phrase of the Code. like the above scenario. refers to the six month period. For example the decision became final June 12. 2002. As ruled in the three Meralco cases: 1. and the three year period lapsed. He did not state a date when the new CBA shall be effective. 2002 or beyond such date. Generally. there is no duty If it is not demanded.Obligations and Contracts. Now. BARGAINING UNIT OMNIBUS RULES. So the Secretary can make it retroact only starting July 25. expiration of the CBA. Management is not incurring in delay if Labor does not demand. But the Court said the retroactivity should only operate the day after the six month period. If the agreed provisions (while at the negotiating table) are not in the written CBA. Nag-strike. 82 . Starting February 1. it retroacts automatically to the end of the six month period. Such will happen only if the parties agree to it. the Secretary of Labor can decree retroactivity. in the absence of any agreement. When is the effectivity of the new CBA? Two scenarios: 1.

(t) "Exclusive Bargaining Representative" refers to a legitimate labor union duly recognized or certified as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative or agent of all the employees in a bargaining unit. The company insists that each of the sales offices in should be considered as a separate bargaining unit so that negotiations would be more expeditious. working conditions and other subjects of collective bargaining. The basic test in determining the appropriate bargaining unit is that a unit. The will of the employees (Globe Doctrine) 2. Affinity and unity of the employees’ interest (Substantial Mutual Interest Rule) 3. the evidence established that the monthly paid rank-and-file employees of petitioner primarily perform administrative or clerical work. The Court further explained that "(t)he test of the grouping is community or mutuality of interests. 4. And this is so because the basic test of an asserted bargaining unit's acceptability is whether or not it is fundamentally the combination which will best assure to all employees the exercise of their collective bargaining rights. Apart from the single descriptive word "appropriate. Without the shield of an organization. employed in different sales offices in the North Luzon Area. The test of grouping is commonality or mutuality of interest. CASES San Miguel Corporation v Laguesma. no specific guide for determining the proper collective bargaining unit can be found in the statutes. working conditions. Golden Farms vs. hours. Ferrer-Calleja. the petitioner's daily paid rank-and-file employees mainly work in the cultivation of bananas in the fields. Held: The Court allowed all the employees to be part of a single bargaining unit saying that it is not the convenience of the employer that constituted the determinative factor in forming an appropriate bargaining unit (and 55 na nga lang sila)." in Section 12 of the Industrial Peace Act which was subsequently incorporated into the Labor Code with minor changes. salary rates. to be appropriate. University of the Philippines vs. 83 . 236 SCRA 595 The regular sales personnel (55 in all) of Magnolia Dairy Products. which the collective interest of all the employees. To be sure. The fundamental factors in determining the appropriate collective bargaining unit are: 1. Our labor laws do not however provide the criteria for determining the proper collective bargaining unit. wish to form one bargaining unit. This dissimilarity of interests warrants the formation of a separate and distinct bargaining unit for the monthly paid rank-and-file employees of the petitioner. 211 SCRA 451 A "bargaining unit" has been defined as a group of employees of a given employer. 234 SCRA 517 In the case at bench. Secretary. To rule otherwise would deny this distinct class of employees the right to self-organization for purposes of collective bargaining. It is crystal clear the monthly paid rank-andfile employees of petitioner have very little in common with its daily paid rank-and-file employees in terms of duties and obligations. In contradistinction. it will also expose However. the court has ruled that prior collective bargaining history is neither decisive nor conclusive in the determination of what constitutes an appropriate bargaining unit. indicate to be the best suited to serve the reciprocal rights and duties of the parties under the collective bargaining provisions of the law. must affect a grouping of employees who have substantial. the said monthly paid rank-and-file employees have even been excluded from the bargaining unit of the daily paid rank-and-file employees. and skills. Prior collective bargaining history Similarity of employment status consistent with equity to the employer. mutual interests in wages. comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees. Case law fortunately furnishes some guidelines.

But can he avail himself of this provision considering that it took effect subsequent to his filing of the complaint? This brings to mind the principle reiterated in Allied that police power legislation intended to promote public welfare applies to existing contracts and can therefore be given retroactive effect. 28 February 1958. of the rank-and-file academic employees. 224 SCRA 682 Under the amendment of Art. at the time they stopped working for petitioner. So we held in University of the Philippines vs. (b) the claimant was in compliance with the requirements for eligibility under the statute for such retirement benefits. 7641 on 7 January 1993. the first consisting of the rank-and-file nonacademic employees.A. Actually. Philippine Scout Veterans Security and Investigation Agency vs. of a new bargaining representative. Cebu Stevedoring Co. the dissimilarity in the nature of the work and duties as well as in the compensation and working conditions of the academic and non-academic personal dictate the separation of these two categories of employees for purposes of collective bargaining. It was quite clear in CJC. based on Oro.” Mechanical Department Labor Union Sa PNR vs. This question is primarily one of fact. they had not yet reached the age of sixty (60) years. 287 by R. In addition. 24 SCRA 925 Under the "Globe doctrine" (Globe Machine & Stamping Co. Held: Appellant contends that the application of the "Globe doctrine" is not warranted because the workers of the Caloocan Shops (one of the four main divisions or units of the Mechanical Department of the PNR) do not require different skills from the rest of the workers in the Mechanical Department of the Railway Company. hence. and the second. therefore.. that private respondents had ceased to be employees of petitioner by reason of their voluntary resignation before the statute went into effect. viz: "[T]he dichotomy of interests. It is easy to understand. Moreover. that must concur before the law could be given retroactive effect: (a) the claimant for retirement benefits was still the employee of the employer at the time the statute took effect. by proper elections. in which event. L-10321. Secretary. the appeal of the Mechanical Department Labor Union. as held by the Labor Arbiter and the NLRC. 3 NLRB 294) applied in Democratic Labor Union vs. using heavy equipment and machineries found in said ships.them to the exploitations of management. 287 as amended by R. since the result of the ordered plebiscite among the workers of the Caloocan Shops (who desire to form a new bargaining unit) may be adverse to the formation of a separate unit. bargaining units may be formed through separation of new units from existing ones whenever plebiscites had shown the workers' desire to have their own representatives. in that those in the Caloocan shops not only have a community of interest and working conditions but perform major repairs of railway rolling stock. The end result was that they were neither entitled to retirement benefits. In the case at bar. The issue that had to be resolved next was whether to grant retirement benefits by applying retroactively Art. that the workers in the Caloocan shops require special skill in the use of heavy equipment and machinery sufficient to set them apart from the rest of the workers. the 84 . CIR. questioning the applicability under the circumstances of the Globe doctrine of considering the will of the employees in determining what union should represent them. where we sanctioned the formation of two (2) separate bargaining units within the establishment. while the others only perform minor repairs. The Industrial Court has found that there is a basic difference. all questions raised in this case would be rendered moot and academic. is the set-up that will best assure to all the employees the exercise of their collective bargaining rights. and. 7641.A. Ferrer-Calleja. the case at bench no longer presents a novel issue.. respondent Federico appears to be entitled to retirement pay. The formation of two separate bargaining units. is premature. Nevertheless. such agreements can not constitute a bar to the determination. the record shows that the collective bargaining agreements negotiated by the appellant union have been in existence for more than two (2) years. At this point we emphasized the circumstances.

000. workers and employers may form labor-management councils: Provided. De La Salle University v De La Salle University Employees Association. On the authority of CJC. BARGAINING UNIT. considering the cessation of his service. For this purpose. That the representatives of the workers in such labor-management councils shall be elected by at least the majority of all employees in said establishment. Foreign hires have limited tenure. Although foreign hires perform similar functions under the same working conditions as the local hires. benefits and welfare. — The labor organization designated or selected by the majority of the employees in an appropriate collective bargaining unit shall be the exclusive representative of the employee in such unit for the purpose of collective bargaining. whether he was entitled to monetary awards. 255. The employees of the two schools are effectively employees of two different employers and thus cannot form one bargaining unit. workers shall have the right. taxes and home leave travel allowance. The foreign hires enjoy greater benefits than local hires. 333 SCRA 13 The International School employs 2 kinds of teachers: foreign hires and local hires.A. an individual employee or group of employees shall have the right at any time to present grievances to their employer. Benilde wish to form one bargaining unit. It does not appear that foreign hires have indicated their intention to be grouped with local hires. D. Held: Foreign hires do not belong to the same bargaining unit as local hires. However. and justify their exclusion from the bargaining unit. they are accorded certain benefits not accorded to local hires. Returning to the present case. local hires have security of tenure. 330 SCRA 363 The employees of DLSU and the College of St. BARGAINING AGENT ELECTION PROCEEDINGS LABOR CODE ART. AND CERTIFICATION 85 .00 offered by petitioners and directed to be released to him by the Labor Arbiter. respondent Federico severed his employment relationship with petitioners when he tendered his "letter of resignation" on 16 September 1991 or prior to the effectivity of R. the issue before public respondents was not the existence of employee-employer relationship between the parties. are reasonably related to their status as foreign hires. subject to such rules and regulations as the Secretary of Labor and Employment may promulgate. Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding. In fact. Exclusive bargaining representation and workers’ participation in policy and decision-making. Held: DLSU and CSB. transportation. The collective bargaining history of the school also shows that these groups were always treated separately. 7641. although affiliated. 7641 and must settle for the financial assistance of P10. are two separate juridical personalities. such as housing. These benefits. to participate in policy and decision-making processes of the establishment where they are employed insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights. International School Alliance of Educators v Quisumbing.A.Court stressed that there was nothing to prevent the employer from voluntarily giving the employees some financial assistance on an ex gratia basis. The issue is whether local hires and foreign hires could be part of a single bargaining unit. rather. private respondent therefore cannot seek the beneficial provision of R. shipping costs. There is no evidence in this case to justify the piercing of the veil of corporate fiction. although the second circumstance exists.

O. — In organized establishments. ART. when a verified petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent is filed before the Department of Labor and Employment within the sixty-day period before the expiration of a collective bargaining agreement: the Med-Arbiter shall automatically order an election by secret ballot when the verified petition is supported by: 1) the written consent 2) of at least twenty-five percent (25%) 3) of all the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit. — In any establishment where there is no certified bargaining agent. — Any party to an election may appeal the order or results of the election as determined by the Med-Arbiter directly to the Secretary of Labor and Employment on the ground that the rules and regulations or parts thereof established by the Secretary of Labor and Employment for the conduct of the election have been violated. the employer shall continue to recognize the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent where no petition for certification is filed. ART. The labor union receiving the majority of the valid votes cast shall be certified as the exclusive bargaining agent of all the workers in the unit. 1. If there is no existing certified collective bargaining agreement in the unit. after hearing. 259. Such appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) calendar days. Definition of Terms (d) "Bargaining Unit" refers to a group of employees sharing mutual interests within a given employer unit. (h) "Certification Election" or "Consent Election" refers to the process of determining through secret ballot the sole and exclusive representative of the employees in an 86 . 40 RULE 1 SEC. 256. At the expiration of the freedom period. ART.ART. All certification cases shall be decided within 20 working days. a certification election shall automatically be conducted by the Med-Arbiter upon the filing of a petition by a legitimate labor organization. Representation issue in organized establishments. The Bureau shall conduct a certification election within 20 days in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Labor and Employment. the Bureau shall. order a certification election. 4) To have a valid election. 258. When an employer may file petition. — When requested to bargain collectively. comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees in the employer unit or any specific occupational or geographical grouping within such employer unit. BOOK V AS AMENDED BY D. Appeal from certification election orders. Petitions in unorganized establishments. an employer may petition the Bureau for an election. OMNIBUS RULES. 257. When an election 1) which provides for three or more choices 2) results in no choice receiving a majority of the valid votes cast. That the total number of votes for all contending unions is at least fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast. at least a majority of all eligible voters in the unit must have cast their votes. to ascertain the will of the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit. 3) a run-off election shall be conducted between the labor unions receiving the two highest number of votes: 4) Provided.

Section 2. (j) "Collective Bargaining Agreement" or "CBA" refers to the contract between a legitimate labor union and the employer concerning wages. modes. The determination of such exclusive bargaining agent is a non-litigious proceeding and. (bbb) "Voluntary Recognition" refers to the process by which a legitimate labor union is recognized by the employer as the exclusive bargaining representative or agent in a bargaining unit. tabulation and consolidation of votes. . A certification election is ordered by the Department. Policy. (p) "Election Proceedings" refer to the period during a certification election. . shall be free from technicalities of law and procedure. (o) "Election Officer" refers to an officer of the Bureau or Labor Relations Division in the Regional Office authorized to conduct certification elections. (q) "Eligible Voter" refers to a voter belonging to the appropriate bargaining unit that is the subject of a petition for certification election. the exclusive bargaining agent enjoys the majority support of all the employees in the bargaining unit. provided that the total number of votes for all contending unions is at least fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast. reported with the Regional Office in accordance with Rule VII. (ll) "Organized Establishment" refers to an enterprise where there exists a recognized or certified sole and exclusive bargaining agent. or through certification. and all other terms and conditions of employment in a bargaining unit. Determination of representation status. (ss) "Run-off Election" refers to an election between the labor unions receiving the two (2) highest number of votes in a certification or consent election with three (3) or more choices. RULE VI DETERMINATION OF REPRESENTATION STATUS Section 1. including the counting. Sections 2-5 of these Rules. (t) "Exclusive Bargaining Representative" refers to a legitimate labor union duly recognized or certified as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative or agent of all the employees in a bargaining unit. RULE VII 87 . where such a certified or consent results in none of the three (3) or more choices receiving the majority of the valid votes cast. provided only that in every case.appropriate bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining or negotiation. as far as practicable.The determination of an exclusive bargaining agent shall be through voluntary recognition in cases where there is only one legitimate labor organization operating within the bargaining unit. with or without the intervention by the Department. run-off or consent election as provided in these Rules. while a consent election is voluntarily agreed upon by the parties. starting from the opening to the closing of the polls.It is the policy of the State to promote free trade unionism through expeditious procedures governing the choice of an exclusive bargaining agent. but excluding the period for the final determination of the challenged votes and the canvass thereof. Section 2 of these Rules. consent or run-off election and election of union officers. election of union officers and other forms of elections and referenda in accordance with Rule XII. hours of work.

Where the notice of voluntary recognition is sufficient in form. . Entry of voluntary recognition shall bar the filing of a petition for certification election by any labor organization for a period of one (1) year from the date of entry of voluntary recognition. Requirements for voluntary recognition. Section 4. . Section 2. . the Regional Office shall return the notice for voluntary recognition together with all its accompanying documents without prejudice to its re-submission. All accompanying documents of the notice for voluntary recognition shall be certified under oath by the employer representative and president of the recognized labor union. the Regional Office.In unorganized establishments with only one legitimate labor organization. number and substance. RULE VIII CERTIFICATION ELECTION Section 1. accompanied by the names of those who support the voluntary recognition comprising at least a majority of the members of the bargaining unit. -Any legitimate labor organization may file a petition for certification election. Effect of recording of fact of voluntary recognition. Where the notice of voluntary recognition is insufficient in form. within the same period. 88 . within ten (10) days from receipt of the notice. Who may file. the employer may voluntarily recognize the representation status of such a union. From the time of recording of voluntary recognition. through the Labor Relations Division shall. notify the labor union of its findings and advise it to comply with the necessary requirements. unless a collective bargaining agreement between the employer and voluntarily recognized labor union was executed and registered with the Regional Office in accordance with Rule XVII of these Rules. When and where to file. privileges and obligations of an existing bargaining agent of all the employees in the bargaining unit. Action on the Notice. Within thirty (30) days from such recognition. Upon expiration of this one-year period. number and substance and where there is no other registered labor union operating within the bargaining unit concerned. Section 3. any legitimate labor organization may file a petition for certification election in the same bargaining unit represented by the voluntarily recognized union. (b) certificate of posting of the joint statement of voluntary recognition for fifteen (15) consecutive days in at least two (2) conspicuous places in the establishment or bargaining unit where the union seeks to operate.The notice of voluntary recognition shall be accompanied by the original copy and two (2) duplicate copies of the following documents: (a) a joint statement under oath of voluntary recognition attesting to the fact of voluntary recognition. (c) the approximate number of employees in the bargaining unit. the employer and union shall submit a notice of voluntary recognition with the Regional Office which issued the recognized labor union's certificate of registration or certificate of creation of a chartered local. record the fact of voluntary recognition in its roster of legitimate labor unions and notify the labor union concerned. the recognized labor union shall enjoy the rights. Where neither the employer nor the labor union failed to complete the requirements for voluntary recognition under Section 2 of this Rule within thirty (30) days from receipt of the advisory.VOLUNTARY RECOGNITION Section 1. the Regional Office shall. and (d) a statement that the labor union is the only legitimate labor organization operating within the bargaining unit.

Section 4. the date and number of its certificate of registration. If the petition is filed by a federation or national union. order the conduct of a certification election. verified under oath by the president of petitioning labor organization.When requested to bargain collectively. and affiliation if appropriate. except: (a) when a fact of voluntary recognition has been entered or a valid certification. . Form and contents of petition. The petition shall be heard and resolved by the Med-Arbiter. Section 3. Where such collective bargaining agreement is registered. the running of the one year period shall be suspended until the decision on the appeal has become final and executory. Where to file. Where two or more petitions involving the same bargaining unit are filed in one Regional Office.The petition shall be in writing. or 89 . (b) the name. the Regional Office in which the petition was first filed shall exclude all others. address and nature of employer's business. (c) when a bargaining deadlock to which an incumbent or certified bargaining agent is a party had been submitted to conciliation or arbitration or had become the subject of a valid notice of strike or lockout. after hearing. its address. the same shall be automatically consolidated with the Med-Arbiter who first acquired jurisdiction.A petition for certification election may be filed anytime. Where an appeal has been filed from the order of the Med-Arbiter certifying the results of the election. Where the petitions are filed in different Regional Offices. consent or run-off election has been conducted within the bargaining unit within one (1) year prior to the filing of the petition for certification election. (c) the description of the bargaining unit. (d) when a collective bargaining agreement between the employer and a duly recognized or certified bargaining agent has been registered in accordance with Article 231 of the Labor Code. . (f) a statement indicating any of the following circumstances: 1) that the bargaining unit is unorganized or that there is no registered collective bargaining agreement covering the employees in the bargaining unit. that the petition is filed within the sixty-day freedom period of such agreement. (b) when the duly certified union has commenced and sustained negotiations in good faith with the employer in accordance with Article 250 of the Labor Code within the one year period referred to in the immediately preceding paragraph. an employer may file a petition for certification election with the Regional Office. . it shall verified under oath by the president or its duly authorized representative. Where the petition is filed by a federation or national union. The petition shall contain the following: (a) the name of petitioner. the date and number of the certificate of registration or certificate of creation of chartered local. in which case. 2) if there exists a duly registered collective bargaining agreement. Section 2. (e) the names and addresses of other legitimate labor unions in the bargaining unit. When to file. the petition may be filed only within sixty (60) days prior to its expiry. the latter shall indorse the petition to the former for consolidation. If there is no existing registered collective bargaining agreement in the bargaining unit. (d) the approximate number of employees in the bargaining unit.A petition for certification election shall be filed with the Regional Office which issued the petitioning union's certificate of registration/certificate of creation of chartered local. the Regional Office shall.

Where there is only one Med-Arbiter in the region.In case the contending unions agree to a consent election. the same shall be transmitted to the Med-Arbiter.Immediately after the raffle of the case or receipt of the petition. the raffle shall be dispensed with and the petition shall be assigned to him/her. (g) in an organized establishment. .Upon the filing of the petition. the Med-Arbiter shall not issue a formal order calling for the conduct of certification election. Agreement. In an unorganized establishment. Section 8. Section 9. consent or run-off election.The incumbent bargaining agent shall automatically be one of the choices in the certification election as forced intervenor. who shall in the same instance prepare and serve upon the petitioning party a notice for preliminary conference. Forced Intervenor. The form and contents of the motion shall be the same as that of a petition for certification election. Section 5. and (h) other relevant facts. Raffle of the case. . and (e) such other matters as may be relevant for the final disposition of the case. Section 10. The first pre-election conference shall be scheduled within ten (10) days from the date of entry of agreement to conduct consent election. (b) contending labor unions.When a petition for certification election was filed in an organized establishment. Consent Election. The motion for intervention shall be resolved in the same decision issued in the petition for certification election. The Med-Arbiter shall. 90 . the motion shall be filed at any time prior to the decision of the Med-Arbiter. A copy of the notice of preliminary conference and petition for certification election shall be posted in at least two conspicuous places in the establishment. The minutes of the hearing shall be signed by the parties and attested to by the Med-Arbiter. but shall enter the fact of the agreement in the minutes of the hearing. the Regional Director or any of his/her authorized representative shall allow the party filing the petition to personally determine the MedArbiter assigned to the case by means of a raffle. Section 7. The first preliminary conference shall be scheduled within ten (10) days from receipt of the petition. . forward the records of the petition to the Regional Director or his/her authorized representative for the determination of the Election Officer by the contending unions through raffle. Within three (3) days from receipt of the petition. (d) existence of any of the bars to certification election under Section 3 of this Rule. Hearing. that the petition is filed outside the one-year period from entry of voluntary recognition or conduct of certification or run-off election and no appeal is pending thereon. Preliminary Conference. . . time and place specified. immediately thereafter.3) if another union had been previously recognized voluntarily or certified in a valid certification. The form and contents of the motion shall likewise be the same as that of a petition for certification election. the signature of at least twenty-five percent (25%) of all employees in the appropriate bargaining unit shall be attached to the petition at the time of its filing. Notice of preliminary conference. Section 6. the Med-Arbiter shall cause the service of notice for preliminary conference upon the employer and incumbent bargaining agent in the subject bargaining unit directing them to appear before him/her on a date. Motion for Intervention.The Med-Arbiter shall conduct a preliminary conference and hearing within ten (10) days from receipt of the petition to determine the following: (a) the bargaining unit to be represented. (c) possibility of a consent election. . any legitimate labor union other than the incumbent bargaining agent operating within the bargaining unit may file a motion for intervention with the Med-Arbiter during the freedom period of the collective bargaining agreement.

The Med-Arbiter shall have control of the proceedings.Within ten (10) days from the date of the last hearing. Number of Hearings.Section 11. The order granting the conduct of a certification election shall state the following: (a) the name of the employer or establishment. Postponements or continuances shall be discouraged.If the contending unions fail to agree to a consent election during the preliminary conference. All motions shall be resolved by the Med-Arbiter in the same order or decision granting or denying the petition. Grounds. Denial of the petition. however.c of this Rule. or where necessary. Section 14. the certified list of employees in the bargaining unit. and (e) a directive upon the employer and the contending union(s) to submit within ten (10) days from receipt of the order. Pleadings. (e) in case of an organized establishment. (b) the petition was filed before or after the freedom period of a duly registered collective bargaining agreement. Section 15. eligibility or mixture in union membership raised before the Med-Arbiter during the hearing(s) and in the pleadings shall be resolved in the same order or decision granting or denying the petition for certification election. Extensions of time shall not be entertained. when agreed upon by the parties for meritorious reasons may allow the cancellation of scheduled hearing(s). (d) the names of contending labor unions which shall appear as follows: petitioner union/s in the order in which their petitions were filed. (b) the description of the bargaining unit. Failure to appear despite notice. the payrolls covering the members of the bargaining unit for the last three (3) months prior to the issuance of the order. the Med-Arbiter shall issue a formal order granting the petition or a decision denying the same. Any question pertaining to the validity of petitioning union's certificate of registration or its legal personality as a labor organization. (d) a duly certified union has commenced and sustained negotiations with the employer in accordance with Article 250 of the Labor Code within the one-year period referred to in Section 14. provided that the sixty-day period based on the original collective bargaining agreement shall not be affected by any amendment. consent or run-off election is pending. Order/Decision on the petition. consent or run-off election and no appeal on the results of the certification. Section 12. no order or decision shall be issued by the Med-Arbiter during the freedom period. Section 13. . however. . extension or renewal of the collective bargaining agreement. but in no case shall the conduct thereof exceed fifteen (15) days from the date of the scheduled preliminary conference/hearing. The cancellation of any scheduled hearing(s) shall not be used as a basis for extending the 15-day period within which to terminate the same. The Med-Arbiter. .The Med-Arbiter may dismiss the petition on any of the following grounds: (a) the petitioner is not listed in the Department's registry of legitimate labor unions or that its legal personality has been revoked or cancelled with finality in accordance with Rule XIV of these Rules. Within the same 15-day period within which the petition is heard. forced intervenor.The failure of any party to appear in the hearing(s) when notified or to file its pleadings shall be deemed a waiver of its right to be heard. . after which time the petition shall be considered submitted for decision. (c) the petition was filed within one (1) year from entry of voluntary recognition or a valid certification. . validity of registration and execution of collective bargaining agreements shall be heard and resolved by the Regional Director in an independent petition for cancellation of its registration and not by the Med-Arbiter in the petition for certification election. (c) a statement that none of the grounds for dismissal enumerated in the succeeding paragraph exists. or there exists a bargaining deadlock which had been submitted to conciliation or arbitration or had become the subject of a valid notice of strike or lockout to which an incumbent or certified bargaining agent is a party. the Med-Arbiter may conduct as many hearings as he/she may deem necessary. Prohibited grounds for the denial/suspension of the petition.All issues pertaining to the existence of employer-employee relationship. failure to submit the twentyfive percent (25%) support requirement for the filing of the petition for certification election. In organized establishments. 91 . and no union. the contending labor unions may file such pleadings as they may deem necessary for the immediate resolution of the petition.

specifically stating the grounds relied upon by the appellant with the supporting arguments and evidence.unless the petitioning union is not found in the Department's roster of legitimate labor organizations or an existing collective bargaining agreement is unregistered with the Department. as the case may be. the running of the one-year period shall be suspended until the decision on appeal has become final and executory. the results thereof shall constitute a bar to another petition for certification election. Release of Order/Decision within ten (10) days from the last hearing. Implementation of the decision shall not be stayed unless restrained by the appropriate court. Where an appeal has been filed from the results of the consent election. The order granting the conduct of a certification election in an organized establishment and the decision dismissing or denying the petition. . Any issue arising therefrom may be raised by means of protest on the conduct and results of the certification election.Where no appeal is filed within the ten-day period. which shall within forty-eight (48) hours from receipt assign the case to any Med-Arbiter from any of the Regional Offices or from the Bureau. . prolonged absence. Effects of consent election. Non-availability of Med-Arbiter. The filing of the memorandum of appeal from the order or decision of the Med-Arbiter stays the holding of any certification election. Section 24. The appeal shall be verified under oath and shall consist of a memorandum of appeal.The representation case shall not be adversely affected by a collective bargaining agreement registered before or during the last sixty (60) days of a subsisting agreement or during the pendency of the representation case. . Where no petition for certification election was filed but the parties themselves agreed to hold a consent election with the intercession of the Regional Office. Period to Reply. Section 22. Section 21. whether in an organized or unorganized establishment. Section 23. the Med-Arbiter shall enter the finality of the order/decision in the records of the case and cause the transmittal of the records of the petition to the Regional Director. or excessive workload as determined by the Regional Director. Finality of Order/Decision. The reply shall be filed directly with the Office of the Secretary. he/she shall transmit the entire records of the case to the Bureau.Within forty-eight (48) hours from notice of receipt of decision by the parties and finality of the decision.The memorandum of appeal shall be filed in the Regional Office where the petition originated.Where there is no Med-Arbiter available in the Regional Office by reason of vacancy. Section 19. . 92 . . Where to file appeal. may be appealed to the Office of the Secretary within ten (10) days from receipt thereof. Transmittal of records to the Regional Office. the Regional Director shall cause the transmittal thereof together with the entire records of the case to the Office of the Secretary. Section 25. No motion for reconsideration of the decision shall be entertained. Decision of the Secretary. . . Section 18.The Secretary shall have fifteen (15) days from receipt of the entire records of the petition within which to decide the appeal. .The order granting the conduct of a certification election in an unorganized establishment shall not be subject to appeal. the parties agree to hold a consent election. the results thereof shall constitute a bar to the holding of a certification election for one (1) year from the holding of such consent election. and upon the intercession of the Med-Arbiter. Section 16. Section 17. Appeal. copy furnished the contending unions and the employer. the entire records of the case shall be remanded to the Regional Office of origin for implementation. Section 20.The Med-Arbiter shall release his/her order or decision granting or denying the petition personally to the parties on an agreed date and time.A reply to the appeal may be filed by any party to the petition within ten (10) days from receipt of the memorandum of appeal. The decision of the Secretary shall become final and executory after ten (10) days from receipt thereof by the parties. . Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the appeal.Where a petition for certification election had been filed. . Effects of early agreements.

the parties shall be furnished a copy of the minutes. . unless his/her dismissal was declared valid in a final judgment at the time of the conduct of the certification election. the following: (a) date. inclusion-exclusion. considered as a waiver to be present and to question or object to any of the agreements reached in said pre-election conference.Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the assignment for the conduct of a certification election.RULE IX CONDUCT OF CERTIFICATION ELECTION Section 1. (b) names of all contending unions. (e) mechanics and guidelines of the election. time and place of the election. however. . (b) list of eligible and challenged voters. among others.The Election Officer shall keep the minutes of matters raised and agreed upon during the pre-election conference. An employee who has been dismissed from work but has contested the legality of the dismissal in a forum of appropriate jurisdiction at the time of the issuance of the order for the conduct of a certification election shall be considered a qualified voter. which shall be scheduled within ten (10) days from receipt of the assignment. Posting of Notices. Waiver of right to be heard. . Qualification of voters.All employees who are members of the appropriate bargaining unit sought to be represented by the petitioner at the time of the issuance of the order granting the conduct of a certification election shall be eligible to vote. the Regional Director shall cause the raffle of the case to an Election Officer who shall have control of the preelection conference and election proceedings. The notice shall contain: (a) the date and time of the election. . Section 3. The pre-election conference shall set the mechanics for the election and shall determine.The Election Officer shall cause the posting of notice of election at least ten (10) days before the actual date of the election in two (2) most conspicuous places in the company premises. if necessary. which shall not be later than forty-five (45) days from the date of the first pre-election conference. and shall be on a regular working day and within the employer's premises. Nothing herein. . Section 5. Section 2. But their votes shall be segregated and sealed in individual envelopes in accordance with Sections 10 and 11 of this Rule. Where any of the parties refuse to sign the minutes. (c) number and location of polling places or booths and the number of ballots to be prepared with appropriate translations. In all cases. the Election Officer shall note such fact in the minutes. including the reason for refusal to sign the same. Section 6. shall deprive the non-appearing party or the employer of its right to be furnished notices of subsequent pre-election conferences and to attend the same. The parties shall acknowledge the completeness and correctness of the entries in the minutes by affixing their signatures thereon. all contested voters shall be allowed to vote. The pre-election conference shall be completed within thirty (30) days from the date of the first hearing. the Election Officer shall cause the issuance of notice of preelection conference upon the contending unions and the employer. Minutes of pre-election conference. Pre-election conference. Raffle of the case. . unless circumstances require otherwise. Section 4.Failure of any party to appear during the pre-election conference despite notice shall be 93 .Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the notice of entry of final judgment granting the conduct of a certification election. In case of disagreement over the voters' list or over the eligibility of voters. (d) name of watchers or representatives and their alternates for each of the parties during election.

with specific grounds. Section 13. Failure or refusal to sign the ballots shall be considered a waiver thereof and the Election Officer shall enter the fact of such refusal or failure in the records of the case as well as the reason for the refusal or failure to sign. Challenging of votes. Protests not so raised are deemed waived. when perfected. the Election Officer shall give each representative a copy of the minutes of the election proceedings and results of the election.The Election Officer shall prepare the ballots in English and Filipino or the local dialect. If the voter inadvertently spoils a ballot.The Election Officer shall rule on any question relating to and raised during the conduct of the election. The posting of the notice of election.Any party-in-interest may file a protest based on the conduct or mechanics of the election. . Section 8. the information required to be included therein and the duration of posting cannot be waived by the contending unions or the employer. Marking of votes. the Election Officer. Secrecy and sanctity of the ballot. the Election Officer shall place the ballot in an envelope which shall be sealed in the presence of the voter and the representatives of the contending unions and employer. . . shall the election officer rule on any of the grounds for challenge specified in the immediately preceding section. The Election Officer shall indicate on the envelope the voter's name. .The votes shall be counted and tabulated by the Election Officer in the presence of the representatives of the contending unions. Section 12. Procedure in the challenge of votes. All ballots shall be signed at the back by the Election Officer and authorized representative of each of the contending unions and employer.When a vote is properly challenged. he/she shall return it to the Election Officer who shall destroy it and give him/her another ballot. together with the minutes and results 94 . Upon completion of the canvass.An authorized representative of any of the contending unions and employer may challenge a vote before it is deposited in the ballot box only on any of the following grounds: (a) that there is no employer-employee relationship between the voter and the company. defaced or left unfilled in such a manner as to create doubt or confusion or to identify the voter. Such protests shall be recorded in the minutes of the election proceedings. it shall be considered spoiled. arguments and evidence. . together with the authorized representatives of the contending unions and the employer. Preparation of ballots.(c) the description of the bargaining unit and the list of eligible and challenged voters. The Election Officer shall note all challenges in the minutes of the election and shall be responsible for consolidating all envelopes containing the challenged votes. Section 10. Canvassing of votes. and the ground for the challenge. corresponding to the number of voters and a reasonable number of extra ballots. The ballots and the tally sheets shall be sealed in an envelope and signed by the Election Officer and the representatives of the contending unions and transmitted to the Med-Arbiter. however. the ballot boxes and the polling booths. Protest. (b) that the voter is not a member of the appropriate bargaining unit which petitioner seeks to represent. the union or employer challenging the voter. within five (5) days after the close of the election proceedings. . . inspect the polling place. On-the-spot questions. Section 11. If not recorded in the minutes and formalized within the prescribed period. the protest shall be deemed dropped. The protesting party must formalize its protest with the Med-Arbiter. Section 7.To ensure secrecy of the ballot. The envelopes shall be opened and the question of eligibility shall be passed upon only if the number of segregated voters will materially alter the results of the election. . Section 14. In no case.The voter must put a cross ( x ) or check ( ü) mark in the square opposite the name of the union of his choice or "No Union" if he/she does not want to be represented by any union If a ballot is torn. The sealed envelope shall then be signed by the Election Officer and the representatives of the contending unions and employer. shall before the start of the actual voting. Section 9.

. . issue an order proclaiming the results of the election and certifying the union which obtained a majority of the valid votes cast as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent in the subject bargaining unit. the Med-Arbiter shall declare such fact in the order.Where the number of votes cast in a certification or consent election is less than the majority of the number of eligible voters and there are no material challenged votes. Effect of failure of election.Within twenty-four (24) hours from receipt of the motion. 95 . Section 19. the resolution of the same will not materially change the results of the elections. .of the election. RULE X RUN-OFF ELECTIONS Section 1.A failure of election shall not bar the filing of a motion for the immediate holding of another certification or consent election within six (6) months from date of declaration of failure of election. the Election Officer shall immediately schedule the conduct of another certification or consent election within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the motion and cause the posting of the notice of certification election at least ten (10) days prior to the scheduled date of election in two (2) most conspicuous places in the establishment. under any of the following conditions: (a) no protest was filed or.Within twenty-four (24) hours from final canvass of votes. Section 15. When proper. Section 17. that the total number of votes for all contending unions is at least fifty (50%) percent of the number of votes cast. The opening and canvass shall proceed immediately after the precincts have closed. . . Where the election is conducted in more than one region. Certification of Collective Bargaining Agent. .The election precincts shall open and close on the date and time agreed upon during the pre-election conference. privileges and obligations of a duly certified collective bargaining agent from the time the certification is issued. provided no protest is recorded in the minutes of the election. even if one was raised. within the same period from receipt of the minutes and results of election.The union which obtained a majority of the valid votes cast shall be certified as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent of all the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit within five (5) days from the day of the election. provided. even if one was filed. the Election Officer shall transmit the records of the case to the Med-Arbiter who shall. Section 18. the same was not perfected within the five-day period for perfection of the protest. Notice of run-off elections shall be posted by the Election Officer at least five (5) days before the actual date of run-off election. . Section 20. the Election Officer shall declare a failure of election in the minutes of the election proceedings. and there are no objections or challenges which if sustained can materially alter the results. consolidation of results shall be made within fifteen (15) days from the conduct thereof. Failure of any party or the employer or his/her/their representative to appear during the election proceedings shall be considered a waiver to be present and to question the conduct thereof. there being a valid election. Proclamation and certification of the result of the election. Failure of election. "No Union" shall not be a choice in the run-off election. The winning union shall have the rights. The same guidelines and list of voters shall be used in the election. (b) no challenge or eligibility issue was raised or. the Election Officer shall motu propio conduct a run-off election within ten (10) days from the close of the election proceedings between the labor unions receiving the two highest number of votes. Section 16. within twenty-four (24) hours from the completion of the canvass.When an election which provides for three (3) or more choices results in none of the contending unions receiving a majority of the valid votes cast. Action on the motion. Where majority of the valid votes cast results in "No Union" obtaining the majority. Conduct of election and canvass of votes.

otherwise the petition shall be dismissed. 1986 within the freedom period of the existing CBA. to challenge petitioner's claim to majority status.Section 2. The ballots in the run-off election shall provide as choices the unions receiving the highest and second highest number of the votes cast. Rule IX. that is. The fact that petitioner was able to negotiate a new CBA with respondent company on December 4. which in this instant case is the respondent union. 223 SCRA 454 PT&T’s rank and file employees are already represented by a certified bargaining agent. Held: Motion denied. subject to Section 20. CASES Philippine Telegraph and Telephone Corp. Held: The IRR provides that the representation case shall not be adversely affected by a collective agreement submitted before or during the last 60 days of a subsisting agreement or during the pendency of the representation case. a timely petition for certification election before the old CBA expired on December 31. PT&T is deemed an unorganized establishment with respect to such supervisory employees even if the company is already deemed and organized establishment with respect to ots rank and file employees are already organized. The labor union receiving the greater number of valid votes cast shall be certified as the winner. Union 3 submitted its consent signatures 35 days after it filed its own petition. Alu vs. unless the former filed the certification election itself pursuant to Art. The Labor Code does not require the consent signatures to be filed simultaneously with the petition for certification election. Union 1 claims that the overwhelming ratification of the CBA is an affirmation of their membership (?) in the bargaining agent. Trajano. 1986 and before petitioner signed a new CBA with respondent company. v Laguesma. 258 of the Labor Code. The supervisory employees seek to be represented. Held: Since no certified bargaining agent represents the supervisory employees. There should be no obstacle to the right of the employees to petition for a certification election at the proper time. An employer has no standing to question a certification election since it is the sole concern of the workers. as a result of which petitioner union filed a notice of strike. During the freedom period. A new CBA was ratified before any certification election was held. by filing earlier on November 4. not even by a collective agreement submitted during the pendency of a representation case. does not foreclose the right of a rival union. As the new CBA was entered 96 . the petition for certification election was filed during the 60-day freedom period. . rendering the representation issue moot and academic and conclusively barring the holding of a certification election. 172 SCRA 49 The sole issue is whether or not public respondent committed a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction in ordering a certification election considering that at the time the petition for certification election was filed there was a bargaining deadlock between company and the petitioner union. Union 2 submitted the consent signatures (25% of the employees in the bargaining unit) 11 days after it filed its petition. Port Workers Union of the Philippines v Laguesma. Held: Undoubtedly. 207 SCRA 329 Union 1 is the certified bargaining representative. 1986. Union 1 filed a motion to dismiss both petitions for failing to comply with the IRR which states that “(t)he 25% requirement shall be satisfied upon the filing of the petition. Union 2 and Union 3 filed their respective petitions for certification election. within sixty (60) days prior to the expiration of the life of a certified collective bargaining agreement.The same voters' list used in the certification election shall be used in the run-off election. Qualification of voters.

which became effective on March 4.into at the time when the representation case was still pending. Held: The close of election proceedings refers to that period from the closing of the polls to the counting of the ballots and the tabulation of the votes. Employees who were already dismissed. The new rule as amended by the executive order now reads as follows: "ART. Inc. Union 2 filed a petition for certification election during the freedom period." Philippine Fruits and Vegetables Industries. Samahang Manggagawa ng Permex v Secretary of Labor. at least a majority of all eligible voters in the unit must have cast their votes. — In organized establishments. it follows that it cannot be recognized as the final agreement between the employer and its employees. a run-off election shall be conducted between the choices receiving the two highest number of votes. 286 SCRA 692 An employer does not have the power to declare a union as the exclusive representative of its workers for the purpose of collective bargaining. 294 SCRA 640 Union 1 is the certified bargaining representative. To have a valid election. 111. A protest was filed by the employer alleging that some of the 97 . 164 SCRA 12 This rule precisely called for the holding of a certification election whenever there appeared to be a reasonable doubt as to whether or not the union directly certified had really been chosen by the majority of the workers as their exclusive bargaining representative. To determine the timeliness of the filing of the protest. a certification election is a more acceptable method than direct certification. The labor union receiving the majority of the valid votes cast shall be certified as the exclusive bargaining agent of all the workers in the unit. When an election which provides for three or more choices results in no choice receiving a majority of the valid cast. Representation issues on organized establishments. it must be determined when the close of election proceedings occur. took part in the elections. should be resorted to only where there was no doubt that the union so certified had the full or at least the majority support of the workers. the employees concerned are still qualified to vote. By virtue of Executive Order No. Such was the situation in the case at bar. 1987. 211 SCRA 95 A certification election was conducted in the PFVII. 256. Moreover. the Med-Arbiter shall automatically order an election by secret ballot to ascertain the will of the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit. PVFII filed a protest with the Med-Arbiter. v Torres. BLR. assuming it was validly made in favor of the petitioner in 1986. Direct certification (by the employer) has been discontinued as a method of selecting the exclusive bargaining agents of workers. It does not include the period for the final determination of challenged votes and canvass thereof which could take a very long period. This amendment affirms the superiority of the certification election over the direct certification which. Oriental Tin Can Labor Union v Secretary of Labor and Employment. which under the provisions of the aforementioned article. the direct certification originally allowed in this article has apparently been discontinued as a method of selecting the exclusive bargaining agent of the workers. Held: Employees who have been improperly laid off but who have a present. is no longer available to it now under the change in the said provision. albeit illegally. are eligible to vote in the certification elections. It is argued that the protest was filed beyond the reglamentary. if the dismissal is under question. NAFTU vs. unabandoned rights to or expectation of re-employment. when a petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent is filed before the Ministry within the sixty-day period before the expiration of the collective bargaining agreement. Thus.

the employer lacks the legal personality to challenge the same. FWU. FWU won and a CBA was entered into. Held: The failure of an independently registered labor union to prove its affiliation with a labor federation cannot affect its right to file a petition for certification election as an independent union. another union in the company. What the employer is prohibited from doing is to interfere with the conduct of the certification election for the purpose of influencing its outcome. The protest was filed by the employer. 290 SCRA 680 SAMAFIL-NAFLU-KMU is a registered labor union It filed a petition for certification election. The company filed a protest. Held: If a CBA has been registered. etc. Filsystems now claims that the existence of a CBA bars the holding of a certification election. disfranchisement. But certainly. They could not therefore have filed their protests within 5 days for the reason that they did know that an election took place. Samahan ng mga Manggagawa sa Filsystems v Secretary of Labor and Employment. filed it’s own petition for certification election. the petition gives rise to a representation case that must be resolved even though a new CBA has been entered into. Filsystems. flying voters. However. Held: An appeal seasonably filed stays the decision of the medarbiter. orderly and credible. The protests were dismissed for being filed more 5 days after the election was conducted. Meanwhile. there exists an unresolved representation case (SAMAFIL’s petition which was pending appeal) at the time the CBA was entered into between FWU and Filsystem. a petition for certification election or a motion for intervention can only be entertained within 60 days prior to the expiry of the agreement. The petition was granted. peaceful. Held: Certification elections are exclusively the concern of employees. therefore the appeal filed by SAMAFIL stops the holding the any certification election. filed a protest questioning the status of SAMAFIL as a legitimate labor organization for lack of proof of affiliation with NAFLU-KMU. Accordingly. Held: It is not improper for the employer to show interest in the conduct of the election. – parang national elections). the employer. the employees’ withdrawal from union membership taking place after the filing of the petition for certification election does not affect the petition. A new CBA was entered into between the employer and Union 1 during the freedom period and was registered 3 days after the expiration of the old CBA. The manner in which the election was held could make the difference between industrial strife and industrial harmony in the company. hence. 98 . when the CBA was prematurely signed during the freedom period and a petition for certification election was filed during the aforesaid freedom period. an employer has an abiding interest in seeing to it that the election is clean. Held: Once the required percentage requirement is has been reached. Such CBA cannot and will not prejudice SAMAFIL’s pending representation case or render it moot. (independent nga e) The petition for certification election was dismissed by the medarbiter and an appeal was filed.employees who originally signed the petition had already withdrawn in writing their membership from the union. Held: The complaint in this case was that a sufficient number of employees were not able to vote because they were not properly notified of the date of the elections. National Federation of Labor v Secretary of Labor (287 SCRA 599) The company and 3 labor unions filed a protest against the results of a certification election due to irregularities in the conduct of the elections (no notice.

January 22. including the right to file a petition for certification election for the purpose of collective bargaining. be a legitimate labor organization. at the time where motion of intervention was filed. 268 SCRA 573 Under Art. 2002 The issue in this case is whether the petitioner is a legitimate labor organization and was granted a certificate of registration. Labor Union vs. GR 142000. Held: NO. May 9. vs. 245. 245 of the Labor Code.. It becomes necessary. a unin consisting of supervisory and rank-andfile employees. therefore. Secretary.Toyota Motor Philippines Corp. GR 135806. Therefore. Tagaytay Highlands vs. The earlier ruling sustained the factual findings of the med-arbiter which divested legitimacy from the petitioner union. Toyota Motor Phils. 2003 Negros Oriental Electric Cooperative vs. It cannot. Labor Union. 2001 99 . the petitioner-union did not have legitimate status. August 8. in violation of Art. an organization which carries a mixture of rank-and-file and supervisory employees cannot possess any of the rights of a legitimate labor organization. anterior to the granting of an order allowing a certification election. thereby granting it authority to intervene in the petition for certification election. Toyota Motor Philippines Corp. to inquire into the composition of any labor organization whenever the status of the labor organization is challenged on the basis of Article 245 of the Labor Code. Toyota Motor Phils. for any guise or purpose. Not being one. following the earlier rulings. Tagaytay Highlands Employees UnionPTGWO. a labor organization composed of both rank-and-file and supervisory employees is no labor organization at all.

232. BOOK V. OMNIBUS RULES. Any question pertaining to the validity of petitioning union's certificate of registration or its legal personality as a labor organization. unless the petitioning union is not found in the Department's roster of legitimate labor organizations or an existing collective bargaining agreement is unregistered with the Department. validity of registration and execution of collective bargaining agreements shall be heard and resolved by the Regional Director in an independent petition for cancellation of its registration and not by the Med-Arbiter in the petition for certification election. consent or runoff election and no appeal on the results of the certification. Grounds. – The Bureau shall not entertain any petition for certification election or any other action which may disturb the administration of duly registered existing collective bargaining agreements affecting the parties except under aArticles 253. extension or renewal of the collective bargaining agreement. or there exists a bargaining deadlock which had been submitted to conciliation or arbitration or had become the subject of a valid notice of 100 . provided that the sixty-day period based on the original collective bargaining agreement shall not be affected by any amendment. (b) the petition was filed before or after the freedom period of a duly registered collective bargaining agreement. .All issues pertaining to the existence of employer-employee relationship. eligibility or mixture in union membership raised before the Med-Arbiter during the hearing(s) and in the pleadings shall be resolved in the same order or decision granting or denying the petition for certification election. BARS TO CERTIFICATION ELECTION LABOR CODE ART. failure to submit the twenty-five percent (25%) support requirement for the filing of the petition for certification election. 253-A of this Code. (e) in case of an organized establishment. contract bar rule. 40 RULE VIII Section 14. Term of representation status. (d) a duly certified union has commenced and sustained negotiations with the employer in accordance with Article 250 of the Labor Code within the one-year period referred to in Section 14. strike or lockout to which an incumbent or certified bargaining agent is a party.O. AS AMENDED BY D. PROHIBITION ON CERTIFICATION ELECTION. . Prohibited grounds for the denial/suspension of the petition.The MedArbiter may dismiss the petition on any of the following grounds: (a) the petitioner is not listed in the Department's registry of legitimate labor unions or that its legal personality has been revoked or cancelled with finality in accordance with Rule XIV of these Rules.C. RULE XVII REGISTRATION OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS Section 7. (c) the petition was filed within one (1) year from entry of voluntary recognition or a valid certification. Denial of the petition.The representation status of the incumbent exclusive bargaining agent which is a party to a duly registered collective bargaining agreement shall be for a term of five (5) years from the date of the effectivity of the collective bargaining agreement.c of this Rule. . No petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent exclusive bargaining agent or petition for certification election filed outside of the sixtyday period immediately preceding the expiry date of such five-year term shall be entertained by the Department. Section 15. consent or run-off election is pending.

Held: The clear mandate of the rules state that the petition for certification election filed by the petitioner NACUSIP-TUCP should be dismissed outright. 267 SCRA 503 In January 1993. Ferrer-Calleja.The five-year representation status acquired by an incumbent bargaining agent either through single enterprise collective bargaining or multi-employer bargaining shall not be affected by a subsequent collective bargaining agreement executed between the same bargaining agent and the employer during the same five-year period. upon the representation of Union 1 that it is the exclusive bargaining agent. the court found that the ratification of the CBA was irregular for 2 reasons: (1) the failure to post the same in at least 2 conspicuous places. no certification election may be had where the delay in forging a CBA could not be attributed to the fault of the union which won the earlier certification election. ALU v Ferrer-Calleja. in March 1994. Union 1 was the certified as the exclusive bargaining agent of the rank and file employees of Capitol Medical Center (CMC). The law is clear on the matter. Held: Contract bar rule does not apply for the following reasons: 1. Held: NO. The strike was staged after Union 2 failed to convince the employer to recognize it as the real exclusive bargaining agent. CASES NACUSIP-TUCP vs. CMC questioned the validity of Union 1’s certification through a series of petitions and a number of judicial and administrative proceedings. Meanwhile. having been filed outside the 60-day freedom period or a period of more than one (1 ) year after the CBA expired. and (2) the lack of any showing that it was actually ratified by a majority of the employees in the bargaining unit. In the case at bar. This had the effect of delaying the commencement of negotiations for a CBA. NACUSIP-TUCP vs. The SC held that a situation where a CBA could not be concluded due to the failure of one party to willingly perform its duty to bargain collectively is similar in nature to a “bargaining deadlock” for which no certification election could be held. Union 2 then filed a petition for certification election. 101 . Held: Even if one year has already elapsed since the time of declaration of a final certification result. the CBA must not only be registered but also validly ratified. hence the contract bar rule applies. The principal purpose is to ensure stability in the relationship of workers and management. Union 1 opposed on the ground that there is an existing CBA. Union 1 filed a notice of strike and subsequently staged a strike. Union 2 filed a petition for certification election. 205 SCRA 478 The controversy boils down to the sole issue of whether or not a petition for certification election may be filed after the 60-day freedom period. 208 SCRA 18 The issue in this case is whether or not a petition for certification election may be filed during the pendency of a bargining deadlock submitted to arbitration or conciliation. For the contract based rule to apply. The DEADLOCK BAR RULE simply provides that a petition for certification election can only be entertained IF THERE IS NO PENDING BARGAINING DEADLOCK SUBMITTED TO CONCILIATION OR ARBITRATION OR HAD BECOME THE SUBJECT OF A VALID NOTICE OR STRIKE OR LOCKOUT. claiming that Union 1 has not commenced the negotiations for a CBA and 1 year has already elapsed since the last certification election. Capitol Medical Center Alliance of Concerned Employees v Laguesma. entered into negotiations with the said union. Union 2 staged a strike. 173 SCRA 178 The employer. Six days before a CBA was to be signed by Union 1 and the employer. Due to the continued refusal of CMC to negotiate. The law demands that the petition for certification election should fail in the presence of a then pending bargaining deadlock. Trajano.

The issue in this case is whether certification of election could be denied on the ground that there is already a registered collectiuve bargaining agent in the company. Excepted from the contract bar rule are certain types of contracts which do not foster industrial stability. 81 SCRA 49 The three-year collective bargaining agreement between respondents Associated Labor Unions (ALU) and Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. 1976. The employer filed a motion to suspend the holding of the certification election on the ground that there is a pending proceeding for the cancellation of the registration of the Union for allegedly engaging in prohibited and unlawful activities in violation of the Labor Code. for being company-dominated. Held: The pendency of a formal charge of company domination is a prejudicial question that bars proceedings for a certification election. 110 SCRA 274 The med-arbiter granted Union’s petition for certification election. (I think this is merely an obiter ) Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. Estrella. The extension was neither ratified by the covered employees nor submitted to the Department of Labor for its certification. otherwise. Also. Where. with the written consent of 77% of the 400-man bargaining unit. respondents entered in a "Supplemental Agreement" extending its life for another year. a certification election is the most expeditious way of determining which labor organization is to be the exclusive bargaining representative. therefore. Respondent ALU petitioned the Bureau of Labor Relations for the cancellation of petitioner's certificate of registration on the grounds that its collective bargaining agreement was not due to expire until the following year constituted a bar to the holding of a certification election. 128 SCRA 316 The Med-Arbiter granted a petition for certification election filed by Union 2 despite the pendency of a ULP case filed against Union 1. Vassar Industries Employees Uniuon vs. Estrella. The prompt recognition by the employer of Union 1’s standing as the exclusive bargaining agent was misplaced and the failure to properly determine with legal certainty whether the union enjoyed majority representation may be a ground to nullify the certification of that union as the sole bargaining agent. National Union of Bank Employees v Minister of Labor. an amendment extending the life of a collective bargaining agreement must be certified by the Bureau of Labor Relations. Employees Union vs. such as contracts where the identity of the representative is in doubt. but prior to its expiration. United CMC Textile Workers Union v BLR. the certified bargaining agent. Petitioner then filed a petition for direct certification or certification election on the tenth day after the original expiration date of the agreement. of the Philippines (Firestone) was to expire on January 31. Any stability derived from such contracts must be subordinated to the employees' freedom of choice because it does not establish the type of industrial peace contemplated by law. 82 SCRA 280 The petitioner disaffiliated with the old union and formed another union. Held: Basic to the CONTRACT BAR RULE is the proposition that the delay of the right to select representatives can be justified only where stability is deemed paramount. a certificate of registration was issued by the Bureau of Labor Relations in favor of petitioner. Within the sixty-day period before the original expiry date of the agreement and upon request of 276 of the 400 employees of respondent Firestone who disaffiliated from the ALU. The fact that the company already has a recognized bargaining agent does not operate as a bar for new unions to be granted certification election. Held: Motion to suspend denied for the following reasons: 102 . the fact of disaffiliation has been demonstrated beyond doubt. it may not bar the holding of a certification election or the registration of other labor organizations. Held: Certification election should be granted.2.

The issue is whether Laguesma acted with grave abuse of discretion in granting the certification election. Samahang Manggagawa sa Permex v Secretary. Where the legal personality of a union is seriously challenged. During the pendency of the case. it would be more prudent for the Med-Arbiter to grant the request for suspension of the proceedings in the certification election case until the issue of legality of the union’s registration shall have been resolved. It bears stressing that no obstacle must be placed to the holding of certification elections. How should the proper bargaining unit be determined? By mutuality of interests . 286 SCRA 692 An employer does not have the power to declare a union as the exclusive bargaining agent of its workers for the purpose of collective bargaining. the Med-Arbiter shall automatically order a certification election by secret ballot in an organized establishment such as PDIC. The set of employees that have mutual interest should be included in the same bargaining unit. 271 SCRA 593 5. Laguesma. The petition to cancel Union’s registration certificate was evidently intended to delay the holding of the certification election. in the absence of a legal impediment. Certification election has been found to be the most effective method for determining representation in a bargaining unit for the reason that it is not enough that a union has the support of majority of the employees. by the unequivocal vote of the employees themselves. Direct certification previously allowed under the Labor Code had been discontinued as a method of selecting the exclusive bargaining agent of workers. The Med-Arbiter should look into the merits of the petition for cancellation of a union’s registration before issuing an order calling for certification elections. Also. In this case. It is undisputed that all these requirements were met by private respondent NAFLU in its petition.that’s the major consideration to determine the appropriate unit. v Secretary of Labor. or indirectly by challenging its petition for the issuance of an order for certification election. the undersecretary Laguesma granted the certification of election. A certification election may be ordered despite the pendency of a petition to cancel the union’s registration certificate. 233 SCRA 565 In this case. It is equally important that everyone in the bargaining unit be given the opportunity to express himself. Held: No. We have held that whenever there is doubt as to whether a particular union represents the majority of the rank-and-file employees. for it is a statutory policy that should not be circumvented. LECTURE What is a bargaining unit and what is a bargaining agent? You must know the difference. (Doctrine: Registration certificate valid until nullified) 2. provided the following requisites are met: (1) that a petition questioning the majority status of the incumbent bargaining agent is filed before the DOLE within the sixty-day freedom period. TUPAS-WFTU vs. the holding of a certification election is the most democratic method of determining the employees' choice of their bargaining representative. The propriety of a labor organization’s registration could be assailed directly through cancellation proceedings in accordance with Articles 238 ad 239 of the Labor Code. and (3) that the petition is supported by the written consent of at least twenty-five (25%) per cent of all employees in the bargaining unit. Under the law. 103 . It is the set of employees that can be served by bargaining negotiations and can be covered by collective bargaining activities. 6. (2) that such petition is verified. there is doubt as to whether a particular union represents the majority of the rank-and-file employees.1. the petition was filed only after the MedArbiter has granted Union’s petition for certification election. Progressive Development Corp. It is the appropriate means whereby controversies and disputes on representation may be laid to rest.

Who can file the petition? The legitimate labor organization. Why. we have two modes of selecting the sole and exclusive bargaining representative. You have to make the determination of the bargaining unit that the union intends to represent in the future. having the same skills. he is merely a bystander to the certification election proceedings. Quisumbing said that giving foreign employees a salary rate higher than or different from the basic salary rate of Filipino employees doing the same job. What’s the basic problem with that? It’s very transparent insofar as the decision of the employees are concerned. through the Regional Office where the bargaining unit is located. by openly asking employees to sign the document of voluntary recognition which is initiated by the union and the employer. that such person is not a member of the bargaining unit. one has to determine first if for purposes of collective bargaining. The most democratic way. Certification Election 1. having the same seniority level. the Court said they should belong to different bargaining units! Why is that odd? After saying that it is discriminatory. Petition for Certification Election How is a certification election proceeding started? By filing a petition for certification election with the Med-Arbiter. And that is a variation of the principle laid down by the SC itself against undue intervention by the employer in certification election proceedings. It is only provided in the rules. As far as I’m concerned. Is voluntary recognition in the law? It is not found in the law. If it is a big company. when he is asked to bargain collectively. the bargaining unit wants to represent a particular geographical unit. So it is totally different from the certification election provided in the law and rules. not only by the Med-Arbiter or by the Secretary of Labor but even by the Supreme Court. to say the least. It is done by signature campaign. in organizing the union. That is not the case in direct certification where the decision is done not by the employees themselves but by the DOLE. It is not done by secret ballot. however. After saying that. is discriminatory. His intervention is usually honored. He cannot participate in the conferences leading to the decision of the Med-Arbiter. the Court allowed the company or the union to commit discriminatory acts by saying that the foreigners should not be included in the same bargaining unit as the Filipino employees. That decision on direct certification can be applied to voluntary recognition mode now contained in the rules. and when is that determination made? It is made by the employees themselves at the time of organization of a labor organization. as amended in 1997. is to select the bargaining agent through secret ballot in a certification election supervised by the DOLE. and the union is not the exclusive bargaining agent. then management in effect is given the permission to give a set of benefits to the foreign employees different from the benefits given to the Filipino employees covered in the bargaining unit. HE cannot oppose the petition. It is of doubtful validity. or a particular group of employees belonging to the same geographical unit because it will be needed in the registration procedure. because it is akin to a direct certification made by the DOLE. The Court said that it is not the democratic way of selecting the representative for purposes of collective bargaining in the bargaining unit. When the employer is not the petitioner. meaning that he cannot intervene in the proceedings. The Supreme Court in the case of International School vs. Also the employer. But the principle that he is merely a bystander is more theoretical than practical.Who makes the initial determination as to who shall comprise the bargaining unit. You have read many cases where the Court allowed the employer to question all sorts of things. We have cases saying that direct certification cannot be done even if there is only one union and there is no rival union asking for direct certification. according to the Court. It was only in 1997 that that mode was introduced. But as far as the RULES are concerned. I will challenge the validity of that mode of selecting the bargaining agent. He can only intervene in the inclusion/exclusion of voters. What is the reason for the rule or principle that the employer be regarded as a mere bystander? Because the certification election is a 104 . Voluntary Recognition How is the bargaining agent determined? Through certification election and voluntary recognition.

there is no mention of the 25% signature support requirement. description of the union. There cannot be a case where the Med-Arbiter will not decide the petition. except in consent elections. its members. The Rules will now give us two types of consent election – one with the supervision of the DOLE and without the supervision of the DOLE. This is according to jurisprudence. Just because there is a union that is a certified bargaining agent in that company then the company is organized. It cannot be advanced or changed by the parties. In unorganized establishments. On the surface the LC and the Rules do not seem conflicting. The rules however now give us a confused definition of consent election. We don’t know how the SC will later on rule on this definition. which has a categorical provision that the representation aspect shall be good for 5 years. there was a clear difference between a certification election and a consent election. Now a company may be organized with respect to its rank-and-file employees. If there is a union in a company is the company automatically organized? No because what makes a company unorganized is the absence of a certified bargaining agent. The Rules do not give the Med-Arbiter the discretion. And the LC view is the one supported by jurisprudence. So we follow the LC of course. because of the difference in procedure and the treatment of organized and unorganized establishments. a consent election. Before. Who is an intervenor? ORGANIZED ESTABLISHMENTS UNORGANIZED ESTABLISHMENTS 105 . But if there is an existing CBA. the Med-Arbiter’s role becomes discretionary-he may choose to grant the petition or not.procedure for the employees alone and it is pursuant to the rule that favors establishments to be unionized. statement of jurisdictional facts to show that the petition is not barred by anything that will effectively bar a petition for certification election. Remember that the representation issue has a set period pegged/fixed by law at 5 years. Any attempt to do so will be a direct violation of the Labor Code. Is there a conflict between the LC and the Rules? The Rules make it mandatory to dismiss the petition lacking requirements. it must be filed within 60 days prior to the expiration of such CBA. It will call an election conducted because of the parties agreement to the conduct of the election. description of the bargaining unit which is done by stating the set of employees (r&f/supervisory). Procedure. called the freedom period. addresses of the union. What are the requirements for filing the petition? Names. In one case the Court said (and this was asked in the bar exams a few years ago) that in a certification election. the Med-Arbiter may either grant or deny the petition. the consent election as per the rules call it should not be consent election. Does this have a basis in law? The Labor Code in Art. following the distinction earlier made by the Court. again it is another innovation of the 1997 Department Order. Is it material to determine if the company is organized? Yes. the 25% signature requirement. In short. and will be equivalent to a certification election. Meaning that when it is not complete such as when there is no 25% signature. This is one of the defects of the 1997 Department Order. the number of members. Which should not be the case because that election will still be for the sole purpose of determining the sole and exclusive bargaining representative. An organized establishment must respect the freedom period. From the moment of the petition there is already a difference. The 25% signature support is NOT mandatory in the sense that the Med-Arbiter may hold the election even without such. but the labor organization must submit it later. After the petition is filed. 256 makes the role of the Med-Arbiter merely ministerial when the petition is complete-he must grant the petition. But the tenor of the LC the law gives the Med-Arbiter the discretion to still grant the petition despite the lack of requirement. When can a petition be filed? At any time if there is no existing CBA. for example. what is being decided is the issue of who among the contending unions will be the sole and exclusive bargaining representative of the employees covered in the bargaining unit while in the consent election the only issue is majority representation-who has majority support. and at the same time be unorganized with respect to its supervisory employees.

but not if management is in bad faith. CA and SC. is eligible to vote. There are other possibilities of delaying the process before the Med-Arbiter decides the case. Bars to Certification Election A petition for certification election may be filed anytime except when there exists the following: 1. such votes which will be segregated may materially alter the results of the election. In my experience if there is an issue on the list of voters. counting the steps before the decision is final. By that time you have a new set of 106 . 231. Contract bar – when a CBA has been registered in accordance with Art. they will still be allowed to vote but their votes shall be segregated. Hearing and Conference employees. will give you an idea of how management can delay the proceedings. One-Year bar – a petition may not be filed within one year from the date of a valid certification. the procedure provided by the law solves the problem only if management is in good faith. Each vote shall be placed in a separate envelope. going through the same vicious cycle over again. Secretary. then it goes to the SC and is given to the Med-Arbiter. and he would give the case back to the Med-Arbiter. If management questions the eligibility of a substantial number of employees. It will be hard to determine which vote was cast by which voter. who will rule on the issue. and it goes to the Secretary of Labor. Assuming that each step takes one year. then management validly prevents the finality of the elections. That happened in one case I handled. but the issue of eligibility will takes 3-5 years to be resolved by the M-A. there are at least 3 years before the decision is given back to the Med-Arbiter before the election proceedings can start. and this would be used to attack the eligibility of voters. But how is a list of voters finalized? The Med-Arbiter shall order the employer to get a list of voters and usually it is based on the payroll three months prior to the order granting the certification election. 2. consent or run-off election or voluntary recognition. If management challenges practically all active union members’ votes. a petition for certification election can be entertained only within 60 days before expiration of such CBA. Why is there a need for them in a separate envelope? Because it may be necessary to determine if each challenged voter. And that decision can take years. for instance – 80 employees. The challenge of voters may be done in pre-election and even during election day itself. even in the Rules. in order to determine the will of the bargaining unit. When there is a disagreement on the exclusion or inclusion of voters. What should be resolved in the pre-election proceedings? A determination/stipulation of facts to determine who the parties are. then to the CA and the SC. They are honesty proceedings. It may be appealed to the Secretary. and back again to the Med-Arbiter. then up to the CA and then to the SC. And it cannot be done if all the segregated votes are placed in one ballot box and are mixed or collected in only one box. the representation officer is not a lawyer. clarificatory questions and a final list of voters. not to the incumbent representative who is considered a forced intervenor) 2. And when the Med-Arbiter does. and if the Med-Arbiter could get the parties to agree to a consent election.The incumbent bargaining Any LLO in the bargaining unit agent or any other LLO in the BU Motion for intervention must Anytime before finality of the be filed within freedom period decision (this only applies to other LLOs. Now as to the issue of inclusion/exclusion of voters. The one-year period shall be suspended Certification election proceedings are not supposed to be adversarial in nature. This issue of eligibility is one that will delay the case for years.

because it should be filed. It is an absurd situation. the Rules do not say that the challenge is in the nature of an election protest. How is a protest made? If it pertains to the conduct of the elections. Thus. In the nature of a challenge. 4. What if negotiations are delayed? For instance. Negotiation bar – may not be filed if before such petition is filed. It does not include the time the challenged votes are resolved. 250) A CBA is valid even if it is not registered with the DOLE. does not act upon it. When there is a challenge on the inclusion of a voter. But before this may be done it must be in the minutes. I need not formalize the challenge in five days – it is not considered an election protest. it is placed in the minutes. It’s so frustrating to see the Department not following the very rules it issues!!! What is meant by termination of election proceedings? This is important for purposes of protest. Under the Rules. But in reality that is not done. But there is a protest. it should be formalized within five days from the termination of the election. Deadlock bar – when there occurs a bargaining deadlock wherein the certified bargaining has become the subject of a strike or lockout. But what deprives it of its right to file a petition for certification election is a final decision canceling its registration not the filing. 107 . Now. the right of an exclusive bargaining agent to file a petition for certification election. it cannot be a bar for a certification election. negotiations have already commenced between the employer and the duly registered/certified union in accordance with Art. If a deadlock occurs but the union does not do anything. to immediately certify the winner as the sole and exclusive bargaining representative. It says that as long as negotiations started. But it is required to protect the union from a challenge. not the pendency of the petition for cancellation. the challenge is merely formalized. before whom the preelection conference and election proceedings were conducted. You are not covered by the one-year bar to certification election. Eh wala ngang nagprotesta eh. Basta nagsimula ang negotiations within the first year that serves as a bar. the election are conducted. It still serves as a bar because negotiations commenced on the first year. if there are no protests in the minutes. the existence of a CBA does not necessarily mean a bar unless such CBA is registered. The Rules authorize the representation officer. that right is suspended by a third party in a petition for cancellation. meaning walang notice of strike submitted. which happens end of election day itself. For instance. The periods given in the Rules for the Med-Arbiter to follow when an issue is decided upon are hardly followed. This goes against many Supreme Court decisions which say that the union retains its legitimate personality unless there is a final decision canceling its registration. three years have passed they are still negotiating. Unless the CBA is registered with the DOLE. Not the end of the decision on the segregated votes that will alter the results of the election. and in the nature of an election protest. A petition for certification election can be filed if the union has not acted upon the deadlock.when an appeal has been filed with the Med-Arbiter regarding the results of the election. or has not been submitted to compulsory arbitration proceedings. because there is no CBA yet. there is nothing that will prevent the certification of the winner. then that bars a petition for certification election. a winner emerges. What is the reckoning point of termination? IT is the end of canvassing of votes. Kasi daw baka may magprotesta. They let the Med-Arbiter issue the certification. So it is ascertained in the minutes if a protest was filed. and formalized by filing a protest with the Med-Arbiter. This is a problematic provision. or which has been submitted to conciliation or arbitration. 3. instead binabalik sa Med-Arbiter. What are the other bars to a certification election? The negotiation bar. other rival unions are not barred from challenging the bargaining agent-union anytime. the head of the election committee.

The contending unions collectively got at least 50% of the total votes cast *Keep in mind. the basis is that the unions must collectively get AT LEAST 50% of ALL VOTES CAST. 3 contending unions SCENARIO 1: Union A – 5 Union B – 20 Union C – 35 No Union – 0 Union C got majority of valid votes cast. The second petition for certification election should be considered as a motion for intervention which is filed out of time. Are there grounds to suspend a petition for certification election? The Progressive Development case. when is there a run-off election? 1. In order to have a RUN-OFF election on the other hand. An election bar presumes there was a valid election. The first sentence of Section 17 must be ignored!!! It’s a totally erroneous statement!! The issue of the validity of votes cast is NOT material in the failure of election. “No choice” got majority of the valid votes cast – hence no winner emerged 4. Failure of election happens when the votes cast are less than majority of the number of eligible voters in the bargaining unit. For example: 100 eligible voters. there is NO failure of elections. include the spoiled votes in the tally. The Rules does not say who should file the petition for immediate holding. the union must get MAJORITY OF THE VALID VOTES cast. Must be on a regular business day 2. To my mind. because the first certification election has not yet been resolved with finality. outside the premises of the company and near a picket line. “Immediate” should be construed to mean a reasonable time. no run-off election 108 . Only the number of votes cast is material it does not matter whether these are valid or not. 60 cast their votes but only 30 are valid. And the Med-Arbiter does not have discretion to deny the petition for immediate holding. That is if the legal personality of a labor union is questioned. Within company premises *There is no prohibition to conducting a certification election during a strike. minus the spoiled votes. I think this should not extend beyond six months. It is a valid election.Now the Certification Election Day itself. There are at least 2 contending unions – the Rules state there must be at least 3 choices. Does it go through the same process of the original petition for certification election again? The Rules state that they can ask an immediate holding of another election. meaning one of the choices is no union 3. so that means even an intervenor can be the one to file it. Look at Rule 11 Section 17. The problem is the Rules do not bar the filing of a petition for certification election prior to filing of a petition for immediate holding. What are the requirements? 1. So all they have to do is file a petition for immediate holding of another election. A failure of election can prompt a petition for another election. so C wins. since he already previously ruled in favor of conducting an election. Hence the basis is the votes cast. Run-Off Election Now. This will not bar another petition for certification election. that in order to WIN the election. There is a valid election – meaning at least majority of the eligible voters must have cast their votes 2. Personally. For instance out of one hundred eligible voters. the petition for certification election should not be entertained. which does not go through the steps followed in a petition for certification election. it is a prejudicial question which warrants suspension of the election. Hence.

No union got majority of the valid votes cast. and the unions got only 40. there was a valid election! This is a valid certification election which bars a petition for certification for one year. *What if there are segregated votes? The determination of result may be affected by the segregated votes. which in this case is A and B. get an immediate holding for run-off again. Keep that in mind!!! SCENARIO 4: Union A – 4 Union B – 1 Union C – 35 No Union – 40 Spoiled – 0 SCENARIO 5: A=20 B=10 C=10 No Union=40 Run-off will happen between A. the objective is to get the 2 highest unions. No union wins. B and C. ** “No choice” is not tantamount to “No Union”. According to Atty. Manuel. No winner. because no one got 41 votes. It explains Benguet – substitutionality doctrine. since it did not win anyway. *The objective of the run-off election is to eliminate no union as a choice. Run-off will happen between A anc C because the total votes for the union is at least 50% of the votes cast 109 . *But in this scenario.40 SCENARIO 2: Union A – 5 Union B – 0 Union C – 34 No Union – 41 spoiled – 20 SCENARIO 3: Union A – 4 Union B – 1 Union C – 35 No Union – 40 Spoiled – 20 Not one of the choices won because none got majority of the valid votes cast. Total votes cast = 80 out of 100. *If there is failure of run-off election. whether to have a run-off or not. No run-off because 100 votes were cast.spoiled . Spoiled=0 SCENARIO 6 A=15 B=15 C=10 No Union=40 Run-off election between A and B only. Take note of the Sanyo case. and there is favored partiality towards organization and having a bargaining agent.

261. For this purpose. Accordingly. (As added by RA 6715) Art. preferably from the listing of qualified Voluntary Arbitrators duly accredited by the Board. shall no longer be treated as unfair labor practice and shall be resolved as grievances under the Collective Bargaining Agreement. its Regional Offices and the Regional Directors of the Department of Labor and Employment shall not entertain disputes. or any person named or designated in the Collective Bargaining Agreement by the parties to act as their Voluntary Arbitrator or one chosen. the Board shall designate the Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. In case the parties fail to select a Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. The Commission. They shall establish a machinery for the adjustment and resolution of grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of their collective bargaining agreement and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. or any official that may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to act as Voluntary Arbitrator upon the written request and agreement of the parties to a labor dispute. 212. parties to a collective bargaining agreement shall name and designate in advance a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. pursuant to the selection procedure agreed upon in the collective bargaining agreement. which shall act with the same force and effect as if the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators have been selected by the parties as described above. except those which are gross in character. For purposes of this Article. All grievances submitted to the grievance machinery which are not settled within seven (7) calendar days from the date of its submission shall automatically be referred to voluntary arbitration prescribed in the collective bargaining agreement. — The parties to a collective bargaining agreement shall include therein provisions that will ensure the mutual observance of its terms and conditions. GRIEVANCE AND VOLUNTARY Art. Definitions. or include in the agreement a procedure for the selection of such voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. TITLE VII-A Grievance Machinery and Voluntary Arbitration Art. violations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement. Grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration. ADMINISTRATION ARBITRATION LABOR CODE OF AGREEMENT. 260. as may be necessary. purauant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the Collective Bargaining Agreement. Jurisdiction of voluntary arbitrators and panel of voluntary arbitrators. — The Voluntary Arbitrator or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide all unresolved grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies referred to in the immediately preceding Article. (n) “Voluntary Arbitrator” means any person accredited by the Board as such. with or without the assistance of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board. grievances or matters under the exclusive and original jurisdiction of the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators and shall immediately dispose and refer the same to the grievance machinery or voluntary arbitration provided in the collective bargaining agreement. gross violations of a Collective Bargaining Agreement shall mean flagrant and/or malicious refusal to comply with the economic provisions of such agreement. (As added by RA 6715) 110 .D.

Jurisdiction over other labor disputes . (As added by RA 6715) labor-management cooperation programs at appropriate levels of the enterprise baed on shared responsibility and mutual respect in order to ensure industrial peace and improvement in productively. including the Arbitrator’s fees. parties to a collective bargaining agreement shall name and designate in advance a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. shall take into account the following factors: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Nature of the case. 277. and Fees provided for in the Revised Rules of Court. preferably from the listing of qualified voluntary arbitrators duly accredited by the Board. or include in the agreement a procedure for the selection of such voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. (g) The Ministry shall help promote and gradually develop. . — (f) A special Voluntary Fund is hereby established in the Board to so subsidize the cost of voluntary arbitration in cases involving the interpretation and implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement. Capacity to pay of the parties. The representatives from Art. 262-B. OMNIBUS RULES. upon agreement of the parties.The parties to a collective bargaining agreement shall establish a machinery for the expeditious resolution of grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of the collective bargaining agreement and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. Unresolved grievances will be referred to voluntary arbitration and for this purpose. with the agreement of labor organizations and employers. Cost of Voluntary Arbitration and Voluntary Arbitrator’s fee. The committee shall be composed of at least two (2) representatives each from the members of the bargaining unit and the employer. unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties. shall also hear and decide all other labor disputes including unfair labor practices and bargaining deadlocks. whether shouldered wholly by the parties or subsidized by the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund. which guidelines shall be subject ti the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment. The fixing of fee of Voluntary Arbitrators or panel of Voluntary Arbitrators. 111 . a grievance committee shall be created within ten (10) days from signing of the collective bargaining agreement.Art. — The voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. working conditions and the quality of working life. The Board shall administer the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund in accordance with the guidelines it may adopt upon the recommendation of the Council. 262. Professional standing of the voluntary arbitrator. AS AMENED BY DO 40 RULE XIX GRIEVANCE MACHINERY AND VOLUNTARY ARBITRATION Section 1. The Department of Labor and employment shall endeavor to enlighten and educate the workers and employers on their rights and responsibilities through labor education with emphasis on the policiy thrusts of this Code. Time consumed in hearing the case. In the absence of applicable provision in the collective bargaining agreement. Establishment of grievance machinery. (As added by RA 6715) Art. labor-management committees may be formed voluntarily by workes and employers for the purpose of promoting industrial peace. — The parties to a Collective Bargaining Agreement shall provide therein a proportionate sharing scheme on the cost of Voluntary Arbitration including the Voluntary Arbitrator’s fee. Miscellaneous Provisions. and for such other related purposes to promote and develop voluntary arbitration. (h) In establishments where no labor organization exists.

who shall thereafter commence arbitration proceedings in accordance with the proceeding paragraph. copy thereof furnished the board or the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators named or designated in the collective bargaining agreement. the following shall apply: (a) An employee shall present this grievance or complaint orally or in writing to the shop steward. (b) If the grievance is valid. its regional branches and Regional Directors of the Department of Labor and Employment shall not entertain disputes. In instances where parties fail to select a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. the employee and his immediate supervisor shall exert efforts to settle the grievance at their level. either party may serve notice upon the other of its decision to submit the issue to voluntary arbitration. the regional branch of the Board shall designate the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. If the party upon whom the notice is served fails or refuses to respond favorably within seven (7) days from receipt thereof. The voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators may conciliate 112 .Where grievance remains unresolved. Section 2. the same may be referred immediately to the grievance committee.In the absence of a specific provision in the collective bargaining agreement or existing company practice prescribing for the procedures in handling grievance. Before or at any stage of the compulsory arbitration process. Section 4. the shop steward shall verify the facts and determine whether or not the grievance is valid.The voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators shall have the power to hold hearings. The notice shall state the issue or issues to be arbitrated. The shop steward. the board shall call the parties and appoint a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. . the grievance shall be referred to the grievance committee which shall have ten (10) days to decide the case. The National Labor Relations Commission. receive evidence and take whatever action is necessary to resolve the issue/s subject of the dispute. the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators designated in the collective bargaining agreement shall commence voluntary arbitration proceedings. any other labor dispute may be submitted to a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. to hear and decide wage distortion issues arising from the application of any wage orders in organized establishments. Jurisdiction of voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. Section 3.The voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators shall have exclusive and original jurisdiction to hear and decide all grievances arising from the implementation or interpretation of the collective bargaining agreements and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies which remain unresolved after exhaustion of the grievance procedure. . circular or assignment issued by the appropriate authority in the establishment. memorandum. Upon agreement of the parties. or from any order. Procedure in handling grievances. and such issue cannot be resolved at the level of the shop steward or the supervisor. Where the issue involves or arises from the interpretation or implementation of a provision in the collective bargaining agreement. the parties may opt to submit their dispute to voluntary arbitration. (c) If no settlement is reached. . . Submission to voluntary arbitration. as may be necessary.among the members of the bargaining unit shall be designated by the union. Where the collective bargaining agreement does not so designate. the shop steward shall immediately bring the complaint to the employee's immediate supervisor. Powers of voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. which shall have the same force and effect as if the parties have selected the arbitrator. Section 5. grievances or matters under the exclusive and original jurisdiction of the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators and shall immediately dispose and refer the same to the appropriate grievance machinery or voluntary arbitration provided in the collective bargaining agreement. Upon receipt thereof. They shall also have exclusive and original jurisdiction. as well as unresolved grievances arising from the interpretation and implementation of the productivity incentive programs under RA 6971.

Section 6. resolution. . Section 9. Cost of voluntary arbitration and voluntary arbitrator's fee. . the records of the case within ten (10) calendar days from demand thereof. it shall be unlawful for the voluntary arbitrator to refuse or fail to turn over to the board. shall take into account the following factors: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Nature of the case. order or award. it shall be mandatory for the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators to render an award or decision within twenty (20) calendar days from the date of submission for resolution. the Board shall be furnished a copy of all pleadings and submitted to the voluntary arbitrator as well as the orders. be sufficient ground for the Board to discipline said voluntary arbitrator. The attendance of any third party or the exclusion of any witness from the proceedings shall be determined by the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. Section 7.Upon motion of any interested party. shall upon complaint of a party. Capacity to pay of the parties. Execution of Award/Decision.The parties to a collective bargaining agreement shall provide therein a proportionate sharing scheme on the cost of voluntary arbitration including the voluntary arbitrator's fee. In all cases. Failure on the part of the voluntary arbitrator to render a decision. may issue a writ of execution requiring either the Sheriff of the Commission or regular courts or any public official whom the parties may designate in the submission agreement to execute the final decision. . . Time consumed in hearing the case. an amount by way of subsidy taken out of the Special Voluntary Arbitration fund may be availed of by either or both parties subject to the guidelines on voluntary arbitration to be issued by the Secretary. order or award within the prescribed period. The fixing of fee of voluntary arbitrators or panel of voluntary arbitrators. and Fees provided for in the Revised Rules of Court. Unless the parties agree otherwise. In cases that the recommended sanction is de-listing. Maintenance of case records by the Board. Hearing may be adjourned for cause or upon agreement by the parties. pursuant to the guidelines issued by the Secretary.The decision.The Board shall maintain all records pertaining to a voluntary arbitration case. In the event the said funds are not sufficient to cover such expenses. whether shouldered wholly by the parties or subsidized by the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund.or mediate to aid the parties in reaching a voluntary settlement of the dispute. Section 10. Unless the parties agree otherwise. the cost of voluntary arbitration proceedings and voluntary arbitrator's fee shall be shared equally by the parties Parties are encouraged to set aside funds to answer for the cost of voluntary arbitration proceedings including voluntary arbitrator's fee. RULE XXI LABOR-MANAGEMENT AND OTHER COUNCILS 113 . in case of the absence or incapacity for any reason of the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators who issued the award or decision. Procedure. Professional standing of the voluntary arbitrator. Finality of Award/Decision. for its further disposition. resolution or award of the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators shall be final and executory after ten (10) calendar days from receipt of the copy of the award or decision by the parties and it shall not be subject of a motion for reconsideration. The records of a case shall be turned over by the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators to the concerned regional branch of the Board within ten (10) days upon satisfaction of the final arbitral award/order/decision. the voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators or the Labor Arbiter in the region where the movant resides. order. .All parties to the dispute shall be entitled to attend the arbitration proceedings. awards and decisions issued by the voluntary arbitrator. Section 8.

occupational safety and health. In line with the foregoing. except those which are covered by collective bargaining agreements or are traditional areas of bargaining. nolockout” clause. Although the substitutionary doctrine provides that the employees cannot revoke a validly executed CBA by the simple expedient of changing their bargaining agent. Union 2 was certified as the new bargaining agent. It is a well-settled doctrine that the benefits of a collective bargaining agreement extend to the laborers and employees in the collective bargaining unit. benefits and welfare. upon its own initiative or upon the request of both parties. To negotiate with management for the shortening of the CBA 2. (c) Provide process facilitators upon request of the parties. 23 SCRA 465 Union 1 forged a CBA with the employer with a “no-strike. but during the effectivity of the CBA. In establishments where no legitimate labor organization exists. Personal undertakings The undertaking of Union 1 not to strike is personal in nature and does not bind any union other than Union 1. and other similar scheme. the aggrieved party has the right to go to court for redress. Creation of labor-management and other councils. Held: The clause does not bind Union 2 on the basis of the substitutionary doctrine. The Department shall promote the formation of labor-management councils in organized and unorganized establishments to enable the workers to participate in policy and decision-making processes in the establishment. including those who do not belong to the chosen collective bargaining labor organization. If the benefits of a collective bargaining agreement would not extend to the nonmembers of a chosen collective bargaining labor union. (b) Assist the parties in setting up labor-management structures. the highly salutary purpose and objective of the collective bargaining scheme to enable labor to secure better terms in employment condition as well as rates of pay would be frustrated insofar as non-members are concerned. It represents all the employees in such bargaining unit. may assist in the formulation and development of programs and projects on productivity. and (d) Monitor the activities of labor-management structures as may be necessary and conduct studies on best practices aimed at promoting harmonious labor-management relations. The Department shall promote other labor-management cooperation schemes and. In the event that an obligation therein imposed is not fulfilled. Section 2. the workers' representatives to the council shall be nominated by the exclusive bargaining representative. Selection of representatives. to wit: 1. Subsequently. the following services: (a) Conduct awareness campaigns. the workers representative shall be elected directly by the employees at large. the Department shall render. among others. It is not to be indulged in any attempt on its part to disregard the rights of non-members. 45 SCRA 577 The terms and conditions of a collective bargaining contract constitute the law between the parties. deprived as they are of participation in whatever advantages could thereby be gained. product quality improvement. The employer invokes the “nostrike” clause in the CBA against Union 2. 114 .In organized establishments. insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights. Those who are entitled to its benefits can invoke its provisions. Union 2 filed a notice of strike and did stage a strike. Aboitiz. Any other view would be a discrimination on which the law frowns. The labor union that gets the majority vote as the exclusive bargaining representative does not act for its members alone. functions and procedures. improvement of quality of work life. A new collective CASES Mactan Workers Union vs. Benguet Consolodated v BCI Employees and Workers Union.Section 1. . this is subject to certain exceptions.

continues to bind the employees up to its expiration date Held: NLRC has jurisdiction.bargaining agent does not automatically assume the personal undertakings of the deposed union. In this case. Held: Article. Sanyo Philippines Workers Union-PSSLU Local Chapter No. Union cancelled the membership of a number of employees for various reasons. The employees in this case filed the complaint for illegal dismissal with the NLRC. the termination of petitioner is not an unresolved grievance. but the CBA." In the case at bar. 290 SCRA 603 The issue is whether illegal dismissal cases are within the jurisdiction of labor arbiters. the employees may change their agent. only disputes involving the union and the company against each other shall be referred to the grievance machinery or voluntary arbitrators. PRINCIPLE OF HOLD OVER In the absence of a new CBA. to a voluntary arbitrator or panel of voluntary arbitrators. the union does not come into the picture. which is still subsisting. 211 SCRA 361 The CBA between Union and Sanyo contained a union security clause. SUBSTITUTIONARY DOCTRINE Where there occurs a shift in the employees’ union allegiance after the execution of a CBA. Sanyo ordered the preventive suspension of the employees following this recommendation. Union claims that the NLRC has no jurisdiction because the dispute relates to implementation of the CBA (specifically the union security clause) and is subject to grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration. Note the phrase "unresolved grievances. 217 (c) should be read in conjunction with Article 261 of the Labor Code which grants to voluntary arbitrators original and exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide all unresolved grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of the collective bargaining agreement and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. the parties must maintain the status quo and must continue in full force and effect the terms and conditions of the existing agreement until a new agreement is reached. hence. Subsequently. claiming that the said employees refused to submit themselves to the union’s grievance investigation committee." the jurisdiction of which pertains to the grievance machinery or thereafter. the dismissal of petitioner does not fall within the phrase "grievances arising from the interpretation or implementation of collective bargaining agreement and those arising from the interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies. Held: There is illegal dismissal. Maneja vs. The law authorizes the enforcement of a union security clause in the CBA provided that such enforcement is not characterized by arbitrariness and always with due process. The parties to the CBA are the union and the company. There exists no grievance between them that could be brought to a grievance machinery. The dismissed employees filed a complaint for illegal dismissal. The company received no further information on whether or not said employees appealed the cancellation of their respective memberships. 115 . The union then submitted the names these employees to the employer recommending their dismissal. not having objected or voiced any dissent to the dismissal of the herein petitioner. NLRC. 109 v Cazinares. In the case at bar. the union and the employer are united as to the dismissal of the employees. Hence it considered them dismissed. Sanyo failed in these two aspects.

. it cannot be applied to a case in which the decision had become final before the new provision took effect.A. to exercise jurisdiction over other labor disputes. for a final and binding resolution. executory and unappealable. Luzon Development Bank vs. The jurisdiction conferred by law on a voluntary arbitrator or a panel of such arbitrators is quite limited compared to the original jurisdiction of the labor arbiter and the appellate jurisdiction of the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) for that matter. and whose decision is final and binding on the parties. Sampang. 180 SCRA 177 The award of a Voluntary Arbitrator is final and executory after ten (10) calendar days from receipt of the award by the parties and the decision can only be challenge based on the ground of grave abuse of discretion only. which provided that: Voluntary arbitration awards or decisions shall be final. they expressly agreed that the decision of the Voluntary Arbitrator would be final. Under voluntary arbitration. became effective on March 21. Such a provision. 1989. 249 SCRA 162 Arbitration may be classified as either compulsory or voluntary. Article 262 authorizes them. In fact. . 6715. R. The Voluntary Arbitrator lost jurisdiction over the case submitted to him the moment he rendered his decision. the first decision had already become so by virtue of Article 263 of the Labor Code making voluntary arbitration awards or decisions final and executory. Continental Marble Corporation vs. violation of due process. shall be final and executory after ten (10) 116 . the decision may still be reconsidered by the Voluntary Arbitrator on the basis of a motion for reconsideration duly filed during that period. A voluntary arbitrator by the nature of her functions acts in a quasijudicial capacity. when the law in force was Article 263 of the Labor Code.Sime Darby Pilipinas vs. 161 SCRA 151 The Supreme Court can review the decisions of voluntary arbitrators inspite of statutory provisions making 'final' the decisions of certain administrative agencies. The state of our present law relating to voluntary arbitration provides that "(t)he award or decision of the Voluntary Arbitrator . referral of a dispute by the parties is made. It is true that the present rule makes the voluntary arbitration award final and executory after ten calendar days from receipt of the copy of the award or decision by the parties. Imperial Textile Mills vs. a labor arbiter has jurisdiction on cases enumerated under Article 217 of the Labor Code. Association of Luzon Development Bank Employees. we have taken cognizance of petitions questioning these decisions where want of jurisdiction. There is no reason why her decisions involving interpretation of law should be beyond this Court's review. being procedural. unappealable. 219 SCRA 651 When the parties submitted their grievance to arbitration. Presumably. Magsalin. even without this stipulation. which introduced amended Article 262-A of the Labor Code. The first decision of the Voluntary Arbitrator was rendered on July 12. and executory. 1988. Article 261 of the Labor Code provides for exclusive original jurisdiction of voluntary arbitrator or panel of arbitrators. Therefore. Compulsory arbitration is a system whereby the parties to a dispute are compelled by the government to forego their right to strike and are compelled to accept the resolution of their dispute through arbitration by a disinterested third party normally appointed by the government. he could no longer entertain a motion for reconsideration of the decision for its reversal or modification. pursuant to a voluntary arbitration clause in their collective agreement. Administrative officials are presumed to act in accordance with law and yet we do not hesitate to pass upon their work where a question of law is involved or where a showing of abuse of authority or discretion in their official acts is properly raised in petitions for certiorari. grave abuse of discretion. to an impartial third person who is mutually acceptable. as in the case at bar. denial of substantial justice. NLRC. may be applied retroactively to pending actions as we have held in a number of cases. or erroneous interpretation of the law were brought to our attention. on the other hand. On the other hand. However. but only upon agreement of the parties.

277 (h) In establishments where no legitimate labor organization exists. complaint. this is illogical and imposes an unnecessary burden upon it. In the view of the Court. in effect equating the voluntary arbitrator with the NLRC or the Court of Appeals. benefits and welfare. there is no law requiring a bona fide purchaser of assets of an ongoing concern to absorb in its employ the employees of the latter. Inc. sold all its assets and personal properties to Sundowner. past practice shows that a decision or award of a voluntary arbitrator is. functions and procedures. among others. Held: NO. more often than not. and (d) Monitor the activities of labor-management structures as may be necessary and conduct studies on best practices aimed at promoting harmonious labor-management relations. the Department shall render. Sundowner Development Corp. strike. or orders. The Department shall promote other labor-management cooperation schemes and. awards. and other similar scheme. In 117 . while there is an express mode of appeal from the decision of a labor arbiter. 180 SCRA 14 Hotel Mabuhay. due to financial difficulties. The Department shall promote the formation of labor-management councils in organized and unorganized establishments to enable the workers to participate in policy and decision-making processes in the establishment." while the "(d)ecision. labor-management committees may be formed voluntarily by workers and employers for the purpose of promoting industrial peace. strike. insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights. 6715 is silent with respect to an appeal from the decision of a voluntary arbitrator. . AS AMENED RULE XXI BY DO 40 LABOR-MANAGEMENT AND OTHER COUNCILS Section 1. elevated to the Supreme Court itself on a petition for certiorari. Selection of representatives. the workers' representatives to the council shall be nominated by the exclusive bargaining representative. Yet." Hence.) Art.. As a general rule. or orders of the Labor Arbiter are final and executory unless appealed to the Commission by any or both parties within ten (10) calendar days from receipt of such decisions. (Implied from the obiter in the last sentence that when there is a bone fide transfer of interest over an enterprise the CBA entered into with the transferor does not bind the transferee: there exists no contract bar to the filing of a petition for certification election since there is actually no CBA with respect to the transferee/new employer. Republic Act No. v Drilon. product quality improvement. Section 2.calendar days from receipt of the copy of the award or decision by the parties. In line with the foregoing. (blablabla. except those which are covered by collective bargaining agreements or are traditional areas of bargaining. awards. upon its own initiative or upon the request of both parties. (b) Assist the parties in setting up labor-management structures. unless expressly assumed. OMNIBUS RULES. Creation of labor-management and other councils. occupational safety and health. (c) Provide process facilitators upon request of the parties. This case involves several issues. may assist in the formulation and development of programs and projects on productivity. improvement of quality of work life. the following services: (a) Conduct awareness campaigns. labor contracts such as employment contracts and CBAs are not enforceable against the transferee of an enterprise. The rule is that. all of which revolve about the singular issue of whether or not Sundowner may be compelled to absorb the employees of Mabuhay. labor contracts being in personam and thus binding only the parties thereto. dispute – a lot of events immaterial to the issue) This case was subsequently filed by the Union representing the rank and file employees of Mabuhay.In organized establishments. The Department of Labor and Employment shall endeavor to enlighten and educate the workers and employers on their rights and responsibilities through labor education with emphasis on the policy thrusts of this Code.

118 . the workers representative shall be elected directly by the employees at large.establishments where no legitimate labor organization exists.

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