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MECH3005 – Building g Services http://www.hku.

hk/bse/mech3005/

Lift and Escalators: Basic Principles and Design
Dr. Sam C M Hui
Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: E mail: cmhui@hku.hk cmhui@hku hk
Sep 2010

Contents
• Basic Principles • Planning & Design Factors • System Types

Tall buildings are not possible without lifts and escalators
484 m ( (2010) ) 367 m (1990) 374 m (1992) 415 m (2003)

296 m (1993)

Landmark L d k Tower, T Yokohama, Japan (max. lift speed 750 m/min or 12.5 m/s)

Bank of China Building, Hong Kong

Central C t l Plaza, Pl Hong Kong

International I t ti l Finance Centre Two (IFC-2), Hong Kong

International I t ti l Commerce Centre (ICC), Hong Kong

Basic Principles • Terminology • Lifts [UK] = Elevators [US] • Escalators (= moving staircases) • Conveyors (or moving walkways) .

Hoists (early form of lift system) .

Power elevator (steam) .

Basic Principles • “Escalator” Escalator = “Elevator” Elevator + “Scala” Scala (steps) • First escalator: designed by Jesse Reno in 1892 Ocean Park (longest outdoor escalator. total 790 m . total 220 m) Central-Mid-Levels Escalator.

howstuffworks.com/elevator. .Basic Principles • Principles of operation • How Elevators Work h // http://www.htm * Please find out how they work from these websites.htm h ff k / l h • How Escalators Work http://www.howstuffworks.com/escalator.

mit.Power flow through a typical elevator [Source: How an elevator works http://web.972/www/reports/elevator/elevator.html] .edu/2.

[Source: http://www.howstuffworks.com/] .

disabled access.Planning & Design Factors • Circulation/Movement of p people p in buildings g • Mode (horizontal or vertical) • Movement M t type t (natural ( t l or mechanically h i ll assisted) i t d) • Human behaviour (complex. etc. . unpredictable) • Design objectives • • • • Free flow of people & goods Safe operation. comfort & service Occupy minimum space & require less costs Aesthetics.

g. door. gate) Stairways Ramps Lifts Escalators Moving walkways * Try to identify them in a building Physical or architectural elements Mechanical or engineering elements .Planning & Design Factors • Circulation elements in buildings include: • • • • • • • Corridors Portals (e. entrance.

G/F plan of a commercial building Can you find out all the circulation elements? [Source: Hongkong Land] .

4 person/m2 Comfortable: 1.21 (0 21 m2) • Personal space (buffer zone) • Female: 0.5 0 5 m2 (0.0 1 0 person/m2 Dense: 2.0 person/m2 .8 m2 (1.Planning & Design Factors • Human factors • Physical dimensions • Occupancy ellipse 600 mm by 450 mm (0.0 m diameter circle) • Density of occupation • • • • • Desirable: 0.0 3 0 person/m2 Crowded: 4.0 person/m2 ‘Crowding’: Crowding : 3.8 (0 8 m diameter circle) • Male: 0.

Typical occupancy ellipse (male subject) [Source: CIBSE Guide D] .

2 m (far).1 m (near) Personal distance: 0.75-1.5 m (near) Social distance: 2.75 m (near) Intimate distance: < 0 0.6-7.45 45 m .1-3.Planning & Design Factors • Human factors • Interpersonal distances • • • • Public distance: > 7. 0.5 m (far). 3.45-0.6 m (far).2-2. 1.

[Source: CIBSE Guide D] .

G R G. 1998 1998. R.[Source: Strakosch.. The Vertical Transportation Handbook] .

Planning & Design Factors • Major design concerns • Circulation efficiency • Location & arrangement (prevent bottlenecks) • Coordination with lobby. shuttle. stairway & corridor • Fire & safety regulations • Handling H dli capacity it (quantity ( tit of f service) i ) • Interval or waiting g time (quality (q y of service) ) • Consideration by lift functions • Passenger. observation . goods. firemen.

Typical design of “protected” lift lobby Fire door (one hour rated) (shall be free of smoke) [Source: CIBSE Guide D] Staircase (escape route) .

up to 0. min. .33 2 33 flat steps .5 m/s • Boarding and alighting areas • Safe boarding. .5 and 0.9-1. 800 & 1000 mm.Planning & Design Factors • Escalator – typical design • Speed: 0.65 m/s. step p or • Step tread length = 400 mm • Inclination: usually at angle 30o • 35o if rise < 6 m & speed < 0. boarding 1.0 m/s on deep systems like lik subway b p widths: 600.33 1 33 – 2.

Typical escalator design [Source: Building Services Handbook] .

airports. shopping pp g malls department • Escalator arrangements • • • • Parallel Multiple parallel Cross-over or criss-cross Walkaround . of people e.g. p stores.to medium-rise buildings • Large no. .Planning & Design Factors • Escalator – typical applications • Low. subway stations.

Planning & Design Factors • Escalator: handling g capacity p y • N = (3600 x P x V x cos θ) / L • • • • • N = no no. of persons per step V = escalator l t speed d (m/s) ( /) L = length of step (m) θ = angle l of f incline i li • Ce = 60 V k s (persons/minutes) • V = speed along the incline (m/s) g density y of people p p (people/step) (p p p) • k = average • s = number of escalator steps per metre . of persons moved per hour P = no.

hotels. hospitals.System Types • Passenger lifts • Different requirements in various building types • Like commercial. residential • Grouping p g of passenger p g lifts • Position & layout • Machine M hi room/space / • Hydraulic lifts: ideally at the lowest level • Electric traction lifts: directly above the lift well • Machine room-less lifts .

glass. scenic. panoramic or bubble b bbl lifts lift • Within an atrium or external to the building • Design considerations • Visual impact (attracting sightseers) • Lift speed & handling capacity • Space requirements & maintenance .System Types • Observation lifts • Glazed or partially glazed lift car within a glazed or open open-sided sided lift well • Also called wallclimber.

g. payloads well dimensions • • • • Dumbwaiter ( (e. g in restaurants) ) Stair lifts Inclined lifts Scissor lifts . sizes payloads.System Types • Lifts for the aged & disabled • Provision for wheelchair • Good lifts & service lifts • Car sizes.

[Source: CIBSE Guide D] Scissor lifts .

5 m/s) • Materials must be flexible or elastic (e. autowalks.g. moving walkway moving pavement walkway.System Types • Passenger g conveyors y • Other names: travelators. reinforced rubber bb or i interlaced l d steel l plates) l ) . • Practical limit about 300 m distance • Useful U f l in i large l airport i t terminals t i l • Design factors • May be inclined up to about 15o • Speed between 0.3 m/s (combined with walking.6 to 1. the overall pace is 2.

http://www.mitsubishi-elevator.com/] .Moving walkway [Source: Mitsubishi Elevator and Escalator.

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