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The Holy Song of God
Arranged for singing by Swami Nirmalananda Giri
Copyright 2004 Atma Jyoti Ashram
The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna
Dhritarashtra said: Assembled there on dharma’s field– Kurukshetra–desiring war, What did my sons and the Pandus? Do tell me now, O Sanjaya. Sanjaya said: There then the King Duryodhana, Seeing the Pandav forces ranged– Ready for battle–did approach His teacher, Drona, and did say: “Behold, O Teacher! here arrayed This great army of Pandu’s sons, Assembled by Drupada’s son1 Who is thine own gifted pupil. “Here are heroes, mighty archers, Bhima and Arjuna’s equals, The great warriors Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, too. “Drishtaketu, Chekitana, And the valiant king of Kashi, Purujit and Kuntibhoja, And Shaibya–all the best of men. “And courageous Yudhamanyu, And valorous Uttamaujas– Shubhadra’s and Draupadi’s sons– All who are mighty car warriors.2
Arjuna A great-car-warrior (maharatha) was a commander of eleven thousand bowmen as he rode in his chariot.
“Hear, too, O best of the twice-born, Those distinguished among ourselves. The leaders of my army here: These now I recount unto you. “Yourself and Bhishma and Karna And Kripa, victorious in war; Ashwattama, Vikarna, and Somadatta’s son: all are mine. “Also many other heroes, Who now risk their lives for my sake, Discharging various weapons, All very skilled in waging war. “Impossible to count is this Army defended by Bhishma, But that army led by Bhima Is very easy to number. “Stationed in your proper places, Whatever be your positions, Do you now all give your support And protection unto Bhishma.” That powerful, oldest Kuru, Bhishma, the grandsire, blew his conch And sounded loud a lion-roar That he might cheer Duryodhana. Following Bhishma, suddenly Conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums And trumpets were sounded aloud, So the uproar was tremendous.
Then Madhava3 and Pandava,4 In the great chariot standing That was yoked with the white horses, Sounded forth their divine conches. Sri Krishna blew Panchajanya, Arjuna blew Devadatta, And Bhima of ferocious deeds, Blew upon his great conch, Paundra. King Yudhishthira, Kunti’s son, Blew on Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva: Sughosha, Manipushpaka. The supreme bowman, Kashi’s king, And the great warrior Shikhandi, Dhristadyumna and Virata, And invincible Satyaki. O Lord of Earth! then Drupada, All the sons of Draupadi, and Subhadra’s son, the mighty-armed, Each one blew upon his own conch. Then throughout heaven and the earth Resounded the terrific noise Which rent asunder all the hearts Of those in Dhritarashtra’s ranks. Then seeing Dhritarashtra’s ranks Standing marshalled, about to fight, The monkey-ensigned5 Pandava, Was impelled to take up his bow
3 4 5
Krishna Arjuna Arjuna’s standard was a flag with Hanuman, the monkey-devotee of Rama, depicted on it.
And speak unto Hrishikesha,6 O Lord of earth, these fateful words: Arjuna said: Achutya,7 place my chariot In the midst between the armies So from that place I may observe Those who are here prepared for war– Desiring to begin battle– And know with whom I have to fight. For I desire to observe those Who are assembled here for fight, Wishing to please Duryodhana By taking his side in this war. Sanjaya said: Commanded thus by Arjuna, O Bharata, then Krishna drove That grandest of all chariots Between the two hosts, and there stopped. Thus facing Bhishma, Drona, and The rulers of the whole vast earth, “Behold, O Partha,”8 then He said, “All the Kurus assembled here!” Then Pritha saw assembled there Fathers, grandfathers, teachers, sons, Maternal uncles, brothers, and Grandsons as well as friends of his. The son of Kunti, seeing there In both the armies relatives, Fathers-in-law, and companions, Stood and contemplated them all.
6 7 8
Bushy-haired One–Krishna Imperishable One–Krishna The Son of Pritha–Arjuna
brothers-in-law. Nor can I even stand upright. My skin is burning as with fire. O Keshava. sons. My mouth is parched with grief and woe. My body now is shivering.9 if I destroy My own kinsmen in this battle. Teachers. Maternal uncles. and pleasures. enjoyments surely mean Nothing to us.Then filled with infinite pity. My mind is reeling and confused. too. he spoke: Arjuna said: Krishna. not kingship nor yet pleasures– Kingship. Abandoning life and riches. enjoyments. My hair is standing up on end. I see my own kinfolk Desiring to fight approaching. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 9 Beautiful-haired one–Krishna. fathers. Inauspicious omens I mark. O Govinda. And not good fortune do I see. Nor do I desire victory– No. Fathers-in-law. grandfathers. Cowherd–Krishna 10 7 . Array before us in battle. and grandsons. And many other kinsmen.10 Those for whose sake we should desire Kingship. My bow is slipping from my hand. Through sorrow my limbs now fail me. And filled with despondence.
Janardana. Yet why should we. From caste confusion families And their destroyers fall to hell. 11 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Agitator of Men (an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 8 . Adharma overwhelms them all. Their rites of dharma then die out. So how much less for rule of earth? Indeed. what pleasure could be ours. From the destruction of dharma. I never could wish to kill them– Not even to rule the three worlds. From killing Dhritarashtra’s sons? Sin only could take hold of us If we should slay these aggressors. Overpowered by adharma The family’s women then are Corrupted. They see no wrong in destruction Of family or even in Wreaking treachery upon friends. Madhava? Their thoughts overpowered by greed. Could we be happy. We are not justified to kill Our kinsmen–Dhritarashtra’s sons– How. and from corruption The confusion of castes arise. Ancestors also fall without Offerings of rice and water.Even if they wish to kill me.11 Who clearly see the evil caused By such destruction of our kin. having killed our own people. Not turn away from this fell sin? On destruction of families.
Then observance of caste duties And family laws are destroyed. Sanjaya said: In the midst of the battlefield Thus speaking. His mind overcome with sorrow. If the sons of Dhritarashtra With weapons armed should now slay me Though unarmed.The family’s destroyers’ wrongs Produce the confusion of caste. 43 44 45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 9 . That indefinite time in hell Accrues to those whose fam’ly laws Have been wiped out. Janardana? Ah! Alas! we are now resolved To do great evil with our greed For royal pleasures for whose sake We intend to kill our own kin. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. repeatedly. Have we not heard. the science of the Eternal. yet that still would be A greater happiness for me. Arjun’ cast away His bow and arrows and sank down. the scripture of Yoga. ends the first discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna.
too. and whose eyes were filled With tears.5 Indeed. The sons of Dhritarashtra stand facing us– After whose slaying we would not wish to live.Chapter Two Sankhya Yoga Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity. O Scorcher of Foes! Arjuna said: But how can I in battle fight With arrows. Madhusudana12 spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: Whence has come this faintheartedness Of yours in the time of danger Ignoble. If I kill them my enjoyments in this world Of wealth and desires will all be stained with blood. Against Bhishma and Drona. That we should conquer them or they conquer us. 6 12 Destroyer of the Demon Madhu (properly an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 10 . O Arjuna? At no time should you entertain Such cowardice–unsuitable. Madhusudana. Who are worthy of reverence? 1 2 3 4 Better that I eat the food of beggary Instead of my slaying these great-souled gurus. Abandon this faintheartedness And stand up. But to disgrace. not leading to heav’n. I cannot tell which will be better. downcast and despairing.
With mind in confusion I supplicate You. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 11 . To him who thus was despondent In the midst of the two armies. Arjuna. nor you. as though smiling Hrishikesha then spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: You have been mourning for those who Should not be mourned for. though I should attain The unrivalled and prosperous dominion Over the earth. O say decidedly what is my duty. Then further said “I shall not fight. I see nothing that can remove this sorrow That dries up my senses. Sanjaya said: Having said this to Govinda. So he gets another body– The wise are not confused by this. scorcher of his foes. and mast’ry over the gods. O Bharata. I am Your disciple. nor these Lords of men–nor in the future A time when we shall cease to be.” And fell into a silence deep. Truly there never was a time When I was not. though you speak Words of wisdom–for the wise grieve Not for the living or the dead. do You direct me. Youth and old age arise in turn.Weakness and pity overcome my being. As to the embodied childhood.
Therefore fight. These bodies inhabited by The eternal embodied Self Are declared to come to an end. Bharata!” 13 12 . Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. Therefore now fight. Birthless. heat.Truly material contacts Produce cold. It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. and pain. immeasurable. Is fit for immortality. Learn to endure them. The same in pain or in pleasure. There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. Bharata. O Leader of Men. Neither is the Self slain. embodied Self are said to come to an end. perpetu’l. The real does never cease to be. pleasure. nor is it slain. He whom these things do not afflict. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Literally: “These bodies inhabited by the eternal. That wise one. That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. indestructible. primeval. they come and go. The unreal never comes to be. O Bharata. nor yet does it die. eternal. Impermanent. The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth.13 He who thinks the Self is slayer And he who thinks the Self is slain– Neither of the two understands. The Self slays not.
Of that which is dead. Manifest in their middle state. Birthless and imperishable– Slay or cause another to slay? 21 Even as a man casts off his worn-out clothes And then clothes himself in others which are new So the embodied casts off worn-out bodies And then enters into others which are new. birth is sure.14 14 23 24 25 26 27 28 To maintain the meter. And if you think this self to have Constant birth and death–even then. Nor wetted. eternal self. nor dried: ’tis changeless. nor burnt. Unmanifest. Therefore. This self cannot be cut. Unmanifest then in their end. This self by fire is burnt not. All beings are unmanifest In their beginning.In what way can he who knows this– Indestructible. Therefore you never should lament. O mighty-armed. Immovable. 22 This self by weapons is cut not. This self by water is wet not. This Self is called unchangeable. you should not be Impelled for this reason to grieve. eternal. Of that which is born. knowing this to be such. there was no room for the final phrase: “What lamentation can there be over this?” 13 . death is sure. Over the unavoidable. You surely ought never to mourn. All-pervading and unmoving. And this self is by wind dried not. Bharata. unthinkable.
But if you refuse to engage In righteous warfare. What could be greater pain than this? 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 14 . Fortunate are those Kshatriyas. To the honored such disrepute Is surely worse even than death. Your enemies.Someone perceives this self as being wondrous. Another speaks of it as being wondrous. then will say Of you things not to be uttered. Ever mourn for any creature. For there is nothing better than A righteous war for Kshatriyas. The great car-warriors will believe You shrink back from battle through fear. And another. To fight in a battle like this. Then forfeiting your own dharma And honor you shall incur sin. You surely ought never waver. hearing. The world will also ever hold You as a craven reprobate. O Arjuna. And looking at your own dharma. This indweller in all bodies Is ever indestructible. And you will be lightly esteemed By those who have thought much of you. Therefore you should not. Arjuna. That comes to them as heaven’s gate. then cavilling At your great prowess. Another hears of it as being wondrous. does not understand. Bharata. Who thus are called.
You shall be rid of karma’s bonds.By dying you attain heaven. gain and loss.). 3:3. Then engage now in this battle.5. proclaim Their flow’ry speech. E’en a little of this dharma Protects you from the greatest fear. The thoughts of the irresolute Are many-branched. Addicted to so many rites. Sankhya: One of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy whose originator was the sage Kapila.19. Nor are adverse results produced. Yoga is based on the Sankhya philosophy. resolute Understanding here. In strength of heart resolved to fight. intent on heav’n. the Yoga of Knowledge. Sankhya teaches that liberation and true knowledge are attained in the supreme consciousness. the second chapter of the Gita is entitled: Sankhya Yoga. rise. There is a single. Delighting in the Veda’s word. Sankhya is the original Vedic philosophy. 15 16 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Buddhi Yoga is the Yoga of Intelligence which later came to be called Jnana Yoga. victory and defeat the same. Purusha and Prakriti. Declaring that the cause of suffering is man’s identification of Purusha with Prakriti and its products. you enjoy the earth. And saying: “There is nothing else. Arjuna. 18:13. Conquering. truly endless. then. Make pain and pleasure.” Not surprisingly.” Filled with desires. the ignorant ones. 15 . (Gita 2:39. Whose goal is enjoyment and pow’r. In this no effort is wasted. Therefore. Also. The Ramakrishna-Vedanta Wordbook says: “Sankhya postulates two ultimate realities. This way you shall incur no sin. O son of Kunti. endorsed by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita. where such identification ceases and Purusha is realized as existing independently in its transcendental nature. They. Off’ring rebirth as actions’ fruit. This buddhi yoga15 by Sankhya16 Is now declared to you–so heed! Joining this insight to your will. O Pritha’s son.
ever-balanced. free from [the thought of] getting and keeping. O Arjuna.18 Seek refuge in enlightenment. The Vedas deal with the gunas.” 18 17 Buddhi yoga 16 . Be free. and to them is not granted The insight from meditation. Not to its fruits at any time. Then being steadfast in yoga. Your right is to action alone. free from the pairs of opposites. Abhor action done from desire. Never should they move you to act. Or be attached to inaction. Joined to enlightenment. Free yourself from them. cast off In this world good and evil deeds. Action’s inferior by far To Yoga of Intelligence. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 “The Vedas deal with the three gunas.17 For the Brahmin who knows the self The Vedas are of no more use Than a reservoir of water When there is a flood ev’rywhere. and be free From the pairs of opposites. Without attachment do actions Heedless of success and failure– Evenness of mind is yoga.Attached to pleasure and power Their minds are drawn away by this Speech. from the triad of the gunas. and established in the Self. Therefore to yoga yoke yourself! For skill in action is yoga. and Eternally fixed in the self.
Disregarding Vedic doctrine. In the pleasant or unpleasant Not rejoicing or disliking.Those whose minds are joined to wisdom. fixed in Deep meditation. fear. or sit. Steadfast in deep meditation– How does he speak. or walk? The Holy Lord said: When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. unmoving. When your intellect stands. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 17 . Having abandoned action’s fruit. Free from passion. Then you shall be indifferent To the heard and the to-be-heard. His wisdom is seen to stand firm. He is called “of steady wisdom. And freed from desire for pleasures. Steady in thought–such is a sage.” Unshaken by adversity. Krishna. is the description Of the man of steady wisdom. and anger. Are freed from bondage to rebirth And go to the place free from pain. Arjuna said: What. When your intelligence crosses Beyond delusion’s confusion. You’ll attain self-realization. Without attachment on all sides. His self satisfied by the self.
Desire and loathing banishing. Know this indeed. He whose senses are thus controlled– His wisdom stands steadfast and firm. Dwelling on objects of senses Engenders attachment to them. the self-controlled Thus attains to tranquility. intent on Me. Restraining all senses. From delusion. destruction Of intelligence: All is lost. For the tranquil-minded at once The intellect becomes steady. indeed. 18 . As the tortoise draws in its limbs. From attachment desire is born.And when he withdraws completely The senses from the sense-objects. In tranquility all sorrows Cease to arise for him. Sense-objects turn away from the Abstinent. 19 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 That is. thwarted desire. too. From anger ’rises delusion. turns away From him who has seen the Supreme. Moving amongst objects of sense. but the taste for them Remains. Son of Kunti: The turbulent senses carry Away forcibly the mind of E’en the striving man of wisdom. His wisdom is established firm. And from desire19 anger is born. By self-restraint. he should Sit disciplined. loss of mem’ry. but that. From loss of mem’ry.
As the ocean. he whom all desires enter and who remains unmoved attains peace. He in whom all desires enter And yet remains.20 He who abandons all desires Attains peace.21 This is the divine state–having Attained this. Nirvana is the state of liberation from the bondage of karma and the wheel of birth and death that comes from knowing Brahman. O mighty-armed one. it carries Away the understanding. unmoved. acts free from longing. Yet remains unmoving and still. The man of restraint is awake In what is night for all beings. Will be found firmly established.For the undisciplined there is No wisdom. Fixed in it at the time of death. as The wind a ship on the waters. He attains Brahmanirvana. has peace. no meditation.22 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 The literal translation is: “Like the ocean. becoming full. the Absolute Consciousness that is God. 19 . he’s not deluded. Brahman is the Supreme Reality. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. which becomes filled yet remains unmoved and stands still as the waters enter it. When the mind is guided by the Wandering senses. For him who does not meditate There is no peace or happiness. not so the man who is full of desire. That in which all beings awake Is night for the wise one who sees. The wisdom of him whose senses Are withdrawn from objects of sense On all sides.” 21 22 20 Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m.
20 . the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the science of the Eternal. ends the second discourse entitled: Sankhya Yoga.
Each is forced to perform action– E’en against his will–by gunas. undifferentiated matter.” Prakriti: Causal matter. Tell me surely this one thing: How Should I attain the highest good? The Holy Lord said: In this world there is a two-fold Basis taught by Me long ago: Knowledge: the yoga of Sankhyas.23 He who restrains action’s organs While yet revolving in his mind Thoughts of objects of the senses. Is deluded. And action: yoga of yogins.Chapter Three The Yoga of Action Arjuna said: If you believe that knowledge is Better than action. a hypocrite. 21 . Not by abstention from actions Does a man pass beyond action. the root base of all elements. the fundamental power (shakti) of God from which the entire cosmos is formed. 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 “By the gunas born of prakriti. And not by renunciation Alone approach to perfection. Then how is it you urge me to Engage in terrible action? With speech that seems equivocal You confuse my intelligence. Also known as Pradhana. Keshava. the material cause of the world. No one for even a moment Exists without doing action.
22 . In the beginning with mankind Prajapati24 made 25 sacrifice. Will give you desired enjoyments.26 The wicked eat their own evil Who cook food only for themselves. Perform your duty.He who by the mind controls the Senses. a title of Brahma the Creator. the Creator. The good are freed from all evils. created I. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 24 25 26 Prajapati: Progenitor. You shall attain highest welfare. Then. and yet is unattached While engaging action’s organs In action. is superior. The world is bound by the actions Not done for sake of sacrifice. wrongdoings. Arjuna. You should act without attachment. “The gods. “May you foster the gods by this. But he who enjoys the gods’ gifts Without offering is a thief. Hence for sacrifice. i.e.. Said: “By this shall you multiply: This shall be granter of desires.e. each the others fostering. fostered by sacrifice. for action Is far better than non-action. Even maintaining your body Cannot be done without action..” Eating sacrificial remains. And may the gods then foster you.
Hence the all-pervading Brahma Is established in sacrifice.From food all beings are produced: And from rain all food is produced: From sacrifice there comes down rain. He has nothing to gain by acts. lives full of sense delights.28 He who here on the earth does not Set in motion. Maliciously and uselessly. From action is born sacrifice. Therefore. He who is content in the Self. perfection was attained Through action by King Janaka. For the maintenance of the world. Indeed. As an example you should act. Who is satisfied in the Self. it is positively believed by all Hindus that Brahma attained his position specifically through the performance of sacrifice (yajna). Hiranyagarbha or cosmic intelligence. angels. Who is pleased only in the Self: For him there is no need to act. 28 Many translators feel that “Brahma” in this verse can legitimately be rendered “Veda”–Veda in the sense of divine wisdom. Vidya. Indeed by unattached action Man surely attains the Supreme. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Brahma: The Creator (Prajapati) of the three worlds of men.27 Brahma from th’ Imperishable. the first of the created beings. Nothing to gain by inaction. On the other hand. 27 23 . This wheel. and Swah). And no need of any being For any purpose soever. So “Brahma” is quite logical here. Action arises from Brahma. and archangels (Bhur. constantly unattached Perform that which is your duty. Bhuwah. O Arjuna.
Yea. The wise should cause them to enjoy All acts–himself showing the way. Are done by Prakriti’s gunas. Then all mankind would. Indeed. if I should not engage– Tirelessly–at all in action. everywhere. Pritha’s son. Nor anything that must be gained– Yet still I continue to act. For maintaining the world’s welfare. Follow the path set forth by Me. these worlds would perish if I Should fail to engage in action. in all instances.Whatever the best of men does– This and that–thus other men do. As the unwise ones act. unattached. I have no duty. O Descendant of Bharata. attached. And I would destroy these people. Those with ego-deluded mind Imagine: “I am the doer.” 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 24 . Whatsoever in the three worlds. All actions. One should not unsettle the minds Of the unwise attached to works. So the wise should act. Whate’er the standard that he sets– That is what the world shall follow. I would be confusion’s maker.
But those despising My teaching. full of faith. fight! Those men who constantly practice This teaching of Mine. Turn wisdom into confusion. Intent on the Supreme Spirit. they are released From the bondage of their actions. Not contemning. Even the wise acts according To his own nature: prakriti. Who thus refuse to practice it. Know them to be lost and mindless. the gunas as the senses move among and act within the gunas manifesting as the sense-objects. Free from desire and selfishness. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 29 30 That is. Entrusting all actions to Me. Let not the wise Upset these of partial knowledge. Those deluded by the gunas Of prakriti become attached To their actions. With your fever30 departed. the man who knows the truth About the gunas’ actions thinks: “The gunas act in the gunas.”29 And thinking thus is not attached. They are indeed his enemies. All follow their own prakriti. So what will restraint accomplish? Attraction and aversion rule When senses contact sense-objects.And yet. One should not come under their pow’r. 25 . The “fever” of delusion and grief.
31 Seemingly against his own will. Kill it–the sinful. So is it enveloped by that. and of great sin. know it as Desire’s unappeasable fire. O Bharata. Know that to be the enemy. Varshneya. and intellect Are said to here be its abode: These things delude the embodied By veiling his innate wisdom. Arjuna said: Then by what is a man impelled To commit evil. though imperfect. As fire is enveloped by smoke. For the dharma Of another invites danger. The constant foe of all the wise. That’s born of the rajo-guna: Of great craving. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 31 Clansman of the Vrishnis–Krishna 26 . The senses. As wombs cover the embryos. it is anger. Therefore. controlling the senses At the outset. And knowledge is covered by this.One’s own dharma. destroyer Of knowledge and realization. As if urged thereunto by force? The Holy Lord said: It is desire. mind. O son of Kunti. Is better than another’s done To perfection. As mirrors are obscured by dust.
Above the intellect: the self. that foe: desire. ends the third discourse entitled: The Yoga of Action. Above the senses is the mind. the science of the Eternal. then destroy That enemy. 42 43 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. knowing Him Who is above The intellect. the scripture of Yoga. Above the mind is intellect.Above the body are senses. Thus. 27 . the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. and restraining The self by the Self.
Arjuna. How then should I understand that You taught this in the beginning? The Holy Lord said: Many the births that I have passed– Many passed by you. I manifest by my own pow’r. then he In turn taught it to Manu. 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 . The royal sages knew of it. Arjuna. Thus. Was lost here on earth. Although the Lord of all beings. who Then taught it unto Ikshwaku. Scorcher of Foes. by long lapse of time. And Vivaswat’s was earlier. handed down in succession. Though birthless.Chapter Four The Yoga of Wisdom The Holy Lord said: This imperishable yoga I taught to Vivaswat. Arjuna said: O Krishna. imperishable. I have full knowledge of them all. This secret is supreme indeed. Controlling my own Prakriti. This yoga. While you do not. later was Your birth. This ancient yoga is today Declared by Me to you because You are my devotee and friend.
Leaving the body. is not born Again–but he attains to Me. Purified by fire of knowledge. It is My path which ev’rywhere All men follow. Many have attained My Being.Whenever dharma decreases. For protection of the righteous And destruction of the wicked. fear. I manifest from age to age. anger– Absorbed. nor Do I thirst for action’s result. And whosoever knows Me thus Is not fettered by his actions. O Arjuna. changeless. In this world men worship the gods. Though I am the Maker thereof. My divine birth and My action. The fourfold caste was made by Me. taking refuge in Me. Freed from attachment. Then do I manifest Myself. For establishing of dharma. Based on guna and on karma. Because success from such action Is quickly attained in this world. In whatever way they resort To Me do I thus reward them. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 29 . Never do actions taint Me. He who thus knows in its true light. and then there is The arising of adharma. Longing for success in action. O Bharata. Know Me as non-doer.
He truly does nothing at all. perform action. As did the ancients in past times. Abandoning all thoughts of gain. always content.Knowing thus. therefore. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 . Acting with the body alone. Not dependent e’en when acting. Content with what comes unbidden. Without wish. The same in success or failure. the ancient seekers After freedom performed action. Do you. Though acting he incurs no fault. inaction. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. Even sages are bewildered As what is action. prohibited. E’en though acting. Seeing inaction in action. I shall tell you what action is: This knowledge frees you from evil. As well as that of inaction– All this is hard to understand. envy. Beyond duality. For you should know the nature of Actions enjoined. Seeing action in inaction– Such a man is wise among men: A yogi–doing all action. thought and self restrained. Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. Having abandoned attachment For action’s fruit. he is not bound.
” “Others offer inhalation into exhalation. Who sees Thus. while some others Offer the self as sacrifice Unto the self in Brahman’s fire.34 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 “Brahman is the offering. Some. Offer knowledge as sacrifice. sound and other sense objects Into the fire of the senses. Some offer wealth. Brahman is the oblation poured out by Brahman into the fire of Brahman. Brahman is to be attained by him who always sees Brahman in action. of restraint and stringent vows. Some. and Then stop the course of both the breaths– Their breath-control their sacrifice. restraining the path of inhalation and exhalation. Some offer senses like hearing Into the fires33 of restraint. by him Brahman is attained. That is enkindled by knowledge.” 31 .” 33 34 32 Pronounced as two syllables: “fi-yers. and exhalation into inhalation. austerity. Who acts only as sacrifice: His whole karma dissolves away. And yoga as their sacrifice. Some offer the senses’ actions And the functions of life force in The yoga-fire of self-control.Having gone beyond attachment. Some offer the outgoing breath Into the incoming breath. His mind established in knowledge. intent on control of the vital breath (prana). Brahman is the off’ring and the Oblation made by Brahman in The fire that is Brahman.32 Some yogis offer sacrifice To gods alone.
All action without exception Is comprehended35 in knowledge. contained (encompassed) or completed in knowledge (jnana). In the same way. Thus knowing you shall be released. Know this.While those of regulated food Offer it to digestive fires. By questioning and by serving. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this. All these. They go to the Primal Brahman. 35 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 That is. Arjuna. As fire reduces wood to ash. Know that by prostrating yourself. knowers of sacrifice. Better than mere material Sacrifice is that of knowledge. and you shall not again Become deluded. Sacrifices of many kinds Are spread out before Brahman’s face. Even if you should be the most Sinful among all the sinful. Yet you would cross over all sin By the raft of knowledge alone. 32 . The wise who realized the truth Will instruct you in that knowledge. Eating sacrificial remains. All of them are born from action. By this you shall come to see all Creation in your self and Me. Destroy their sins by sacrifice. O Arjuna. Neither this world nor the others Are for the non-sacrificing.
The doubter has neither this world. With work renounced by yoga and Doubts rent asunder by knowledge. The ignorant man. ends the fourth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom. without faith. Take refuge in yoga: arise! 38 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 36 Conqueror of Wealth–Arjuna 33 . Nor yet the next. Actions do not. goes to destruction. The man of faith. The doubting. nor happiness.Within this world there is nothing So purifying as knowledge. the scripture of Yoga. and devoted.36 Bind him who is poised in the self. Dhananjaya. Cutting with the sword of knowledge This doubt about the self which is Born of ignorance in your heart. and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace. the science of the Eternal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Attains this knowledge. In time. the perfect in yoga Finds that knowledge within his heart. And the master of his senses.
Chapter Five The Yoga of Renunciation of Action Arjuna said: Renunciation of action And yoga37–You praise both of these. Sankhya and yoga are one. Without yoga. the yoga of detached action. O Mighty-Armed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 37 That is: Karma Yoga. Which is the better of these two? Tell this to me decisively. He easily is freed from bonds. however. If one is practiced correctly. The sage disciplined in yoga Quickly attains unto Brahman.” The childish declare–not the wise. He is a constant renouncer Who neither likes nor dislikes: for Free from the pairs of opposites. The Holy Lord said: Renunciation and yoga Both lead to highest happiness. Of the two. That person finds the fruit of both. yoga Excels mere renunciation. He Who perceives this truly perceives. Renunciation’s hard to gain. “Sankhya and yoga are diff’rent. 34 . The place attained by the Sankhyas Is also attained by yogis.
Renouncing all acts with the mind. hearing. Opening and closing his eyes– Convinced that it is the senses That move among the sense-objects. senses conquered. Neither agency. The embodied sits happily38 Within the city of nine gates. Speaking. Mind. intellect. releasing. with self purified. Well-poised. “I do not do anything. 35 . For purifying of their heart. With self subdued. They attain peace of steadfastness. Nor union with the fruit of deeds– Inherent nature does the deeds. Yogis act only with body. forsaking action’s fruit. nor actions Does the Lord create for the world. Eating. Offering actions to Brahman. Not acting or causing actions. sleeping. But those led by desire are bound By attachment to action’s fruit. walking. Seeing.” thus Thinks the steadfast knower of truth. Having abandoned attachment.Yoga-yoked. Forsaking attachment to deeds. He is not tainted when acting. smelling. or the senses. He acts untainted by evil As lotus leaf is not wetted. His self the self of all beings. 38 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 “As the ruler” omitted here to fit the meter. breathing. touching. and holding.
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 “They whose minds are absorbed in That. steadfast in That. are freed from rebirth. Whose self is That.39 The wise see the same atman in: A wise Brahmin who’s disciplined. Purified.” 40 39 Dogs in India are wild animals related to jackals and hyenas. undeluded. Finding happiness in the Self. whose selves are fixed on That. Unattached to external things. and steady In intellect. whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. With intellect absorbed in That. And one with Brahman through yoga. By it people are deluded. Brahman is even and perfect– So they indeed rest in Brahman. He gains unchanging happiness. The pleasant does not rejoice him Nor does the unpleasant grieve him. whose basis is That. Resting in Brahman. a dog– Even in an eater of dogs.40 Those whose minds rest in evenness. an elephant. Ignorance envelops knowledge. But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. like the sun. A cow. go to the end of rebirth. Conquer existence in this world. who hold That as the highest object. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. 36 .The Omnipresent takes note of Neither merit nor demerit. And whose consummation is That.
Balancing both inhaling and Exhaling within the nostrils. The wise does not delight in them. Excluding all outside contacts. Whose light is within–that yogi. and anger: Such a sage is for ever free. indeed. fear. They have beginning and an end. before Liberation from the body. Mighty Lord of all the world and Friend of all creatures. a happy man. Released from desire and anger.Pleasures born of contact. Knowing Me. Controlling sense. He who can endure here. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana. Whose delectation is within. With imperfections exhausted. gains nirvana. Is a yogi. Doubts dispelled and senses controlled. intellect. One with Brahman. Are wombs of pain. Desire and anger’s impetus. the Enjoyer of Sacrificial austerities. With moksha as the supreme goal. Son of Kunti. mind. Freed from desire. those ascetics Who know the Self. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 37 . Fixing awareness ’tween the brows. Engaged in good for all beings– The seer gains Brahma-nirvana. he gains peace. He whose happiness is within. With thoughts restrained.
38 . the scripture of Yoga.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. ends the fifth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Renunciation of Action. the science of the Eternal.
Know that to be karma yoga Which also is called renouncement. The wise use action as the means.Chapter Six The Yoga of Meditation The Holy Lord said: He who performs bounden duty Without desiring action’s fruit– He is a renouncer. yogi. 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . Tranquility becomes the means. He should never degrade himself. But for him who has not conquered Himself. Is steadfast in cold. the Self remains a foe. And the self’s only enemy. the Self is a friend. For him who has conquered himself By the Self. None becomes a karma yogi Without renouncing inner deeds. The Self is indeed the self’s friend. For him who has attained yoga. Pain. heat. He’s said to have attained yoga. Not he without fire or action. He should lift himself by the Self. The highest Self of him who has Conquered himself and is peaceful. pleasure. When he is attached neither to The sense objects nor to actions. And has renounced all purposing. Desiring to attain yoga. and honor and dishonor.
With mind controlled. Firm in the brahmachari’s vow. stone. He should sit. motionless and steady. thoughts fixed on Me. And attains to union with Me. Holding his body. He attains eminence who looks The same on well-wishers. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 40 . let him sit there On that seat and practice yoga For his self-purification. Looking t’ward the tip of his nose Steadfastly. Senses subdued. with thought and self controlled. Covered with a cloth and with a Antelope skin and kusha grass. the yogi should remain Alone. fear banished. and neck Erect. foes.The yogi who is content in Knowledge and discrimination. and gold are all the same. Without desires or possessions. not looking around. not too high or low. supreme peace. The yogi whose mind is subdued Goes to nirvana. thought controlled. With mind one-pointed. head. The righteous and the unrighteous. Always disciplining himself. With senses conquered–unto him Earth. friends. Constantly concentrating on The Self. With mind quieted. Neutral to enemies and kin. devoted to Me. Establishing for himself in A clean place.
He is satisfied in the Self.Yoga is not eating too much. from all desires. Steadfast in yoga of the Self. who is moderate in sleep and waking. disciplined.41 When he is absorbed in the Self Alone. By the practicing of yoga. Not the habit of too much sleep. yoga destroys all sorrow. For the moderate in eating And in diversion. restrained. Arjuna. Free from longing. As a lamp in a windless place Flickers not–to such is compared The yogi with his mind controlled. he regards No other gain better than that. Moderate in sleep and waking. then set In his true state he is steadfast. Nor keeping awake. whose actions are disciplined. Yoga destroys all his sorrow. When the mind comes to rest. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “For him who is moderate in food and diversion. Nor is it not eating at all. Beholding the Self by the self. Then he is known to be steadfast. and with his mind controlled. Having obtained this.” 41 41 . When he feels that infinite bliss– Through his purified intellect– Which transcends the senses. And established therein he is Not moved by heaviest sorrow.
Whenever the unsteady mind. Having become one with Brahman. and which should be practiced With perseverance. The yogi whose mind is tranquil With passions calmed. And who sees all things within Me. Abandoning wilful desires– All of them without exception– Also completely restraining The many senses by the mind. Moving here and there. Thus constantly disciplining Himself. sees The Self present in all beings. and freed from all evil. Nor is he ever lost to Me. I am never lost unto him. He. undisturbed. The one who sees Me ev’rywhere. disciplined by yoga.Let that which is called yoga be Known as the state of severance From pain. He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing. And all beings within the Self. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 42 . He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. free of evil. He sees the same Self at all times. Attains the supreme happiness. With intellect set in patience. Easily contacting Brahman. With the mind fastened on the self. wanders off. He attains boundless happiness.
What is the end of him who fails To gain perfection in yoga? 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 43 . That he applies unto himself. Worships Me dwelling in all things. Arjuna said: This yoga which is taught by You Characterized by evenness. Kunti’s son. and unyielding. O Krishna. turbulent. But through practice and dispassion It may be governed. Yoga is hard to be attained By one whose self is uncontrolled. but uncontrolled. established in unity. The mind is restless. But that one who is self-controlled. Owing to the mind’s restlessness. I do not see how it endures. Strong. With mind wandering from yoga. The Holy Lord said: Without doubt the mind is restless And is difficult to control. Whatever be his mode of life. He who judges pleasure or pain By the same standard ev’rywhere. That yogi e’er abides in Me. I deem it is hard to control– As hard as to control the wind. Striving by right means. attains it.He. Arjuna said: Possessed of faith. That yogi is deemed the highest.
For perfection. for Doers of good ne’er come to grief. Verily. O mighty-armed. fallen from both. You should now completely dispel. It is not possible for aught But You to dispel this my doubt. supportless. O Kuru’s son. There he regains the knowledge which He acquired in his former life. O son of Pritha. Or else he will be born into A family of wise yogis. He gains the worlds of the righteous. a birth such as that Is hard to obtain in this world. There is no destruction for him Neither here nor hereafter. deluded in The path that leads unto Brahman? This doubt of mine. And strives even more than before. And dwells there throughout countless years. Then the fallen yogi takes birth Among the pure and prosperous.Does he not. The Holy Lord said: Verily. earth and heaven. a torn cloud. O Keshava. 44 . His previous practice alone Impels him on the yogic path– He who just asks about yoga Rises above the Vedic rites.42 then Perish. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 42 Both worlds–the here and the hereafter.
The yogi is regarded as Superior to ascetics. And jnanis. or doers of works– Then be a yogi. striving earnestly.That yogi. he who with The inner self merged into Me. 45 . the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. I deem him as the most steadfast. ends the sixth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Meditation. the science of the Eternal. Arjuna! Of all the yogis. Pure from taint. 45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. gradually gains Perfection throughout many births And thus reaches the highest goal. With faith devoted unto Me.
ether. Earth. Intellect. air. 46 . Scarcely any knows Me in truth. fire. Of this whole universe am I The Origin and Dissolver. Taking refuge in Me. O Arjuna.44 Such is my lower prakriti.Chapter Seven The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization The Holy Lord said: With your mind intent upon Me. mind.” I have inserted “Arjuna” in this verse to fill out the meter. now hear How through the practice of yoga You shall fully come to know Me. just as in the first verse of this chapter I had to omit “Son of Pritha” to maintain it. nothing further Remains to be known in this world. being known. Mighty Armed.43 Which. water. Of thousands of human beings. To you I shall explain in full Knowledge and realization. Yet know my higher prakriti Sustains all beings that exist And the whole cosmos. ego-principle: These are the eight divisions of My prakriti. These two Prakritis should be known As the womb of all these beings. Scarcely one strives for perfection. 1 2 3 4 5 6 43 44 Pronounced as five syllables: “Re-a-li-za-tion. And of those adept in striving.
yet I Am not in them. th’intelligence Of the intelligent. I am the strength of the strong. I am the desire in beings That is according to dharma. The radiance of moon and sun. 47 . States of being which are sattwic. but they in Me. There is absolutely nothing. Thus it perceives Me not. free From all desire and from passion. I am Om in all the Vedas. 45 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 These three states will be discussed in Chapter Fourteen. Dhananjaya. And the brilliance within the fire. This divine illusion of Mine Is difficult to go beyond. Only those devoted to Me Shall pass beyond this illusion.Higher than Me. Who am Eternal and higher than these. Know me as the eternal seed Of all beings. Sound in ether. All this world is deluded by The states composed of the gunas. manhood in men. Rajasic and tamasic45–know As proceeding from Me. I am the taste within water. All creation is strung on Me Like strands of jewels on a thread. and the Austerity of ascetics. I am the fragrance within earth. The life in all beings. and the Splendor of the splendid am I.
He. Abides in Me. the wise man. low– Deprived by Maya of good sense. These four kinds of virtuous men Do worship Me. Supremely dear am I to him. Seekers of knowledge. Endowed with faith he then receives His desires from that worshipped form Because I have decreed that those Desires should be granted to him. unwavering. excels. But I see the man of wisdom As My Self. 48 . And he is dear to Me. He knows: “All is Vasudeva. deprived of their good sense.But those not devoted to Me– Evil-doers. O Arjuna: The distressed. Whatever form a devotee May seek to worship with full faith– That faith of his is blessed by Me To be steadfast. and the wise. All these indeed are exalted. At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me. Impelled thus by their own natures. 46 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “He who dwells in all things”–the Universal God.46” How very rare is that great soul! Others. e’er steadfast. as well. By “this or that” desire or rite. with mind steadfast. Follow the way of the demons. Devote themselves to other gods. the Supreme Goal. seekers of welfare. Devoted to the One. Of them. deluded.
though Unmanifest. the Immutable. But those men of virtuous deeds. O Scorcher of Foes. and Know the Self and Karma as well.But temporary is the fruit For those of small understanding. My worshippers come unto Me. To the gods go their worshippers. They whose sin has come to an end. Those men who take refuge in Me Seek freedom from old age and death. Also the living. But none whatsoever knows me. Freed from the pairs of opposites– They worship Me with firm resolve. By desire and hatred rising Through duality’s delusion. Not knowing My supreme state as Unchanging and transcendental. This deluded world knows Me not– The Unborn. Those who know Me. the Primal One. And those who are yet to be born. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 49 . The unintelligent think Me Manifest. I know the departed beings. Arjuna. They truly know Me with steadfast Thought even at the time of death. Veiled by illusion born of the Combinations of the gunas. At birth all beings fall into Delusion. The Primal God. They know Brahman thoroughly. Chief Sacrifice.
the scripture of Yoga.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 50 . the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. ends the seventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization.
The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman
Arjuna said: What is Brahman and Primal Self, And what is Karma, O Krishna, What is the Primal Element, Also, what is the Primal God? Who, and in what way, is Primal Sacrifice here in this body? And how are You known at the time Of death by the self-controlled ones? The Holy Lord said: Deathless is the Supreme Brahman The Primal Self that dwells in all; The sacrificial offering: Karma–causing both birth and life. The Primal Element is the Perishable adjunct of this; The Primal God is Indweller, And I the Primal Sacrifice. And he who at the time of death Meditating on Me alone, Goes forth, and leaving the body, Doubtless attains to My Being. Whatever he remembers when Departing from the body, that Alone is reached by him because Of his constant thinking of that.
Therefore, at all times, constantly Remember Me, and then do fight: With mind and intellect absorbed In Me, you thus shall come to Me. With mind made steadfast by yoga, Which turns not to anything else, To the divine supreme Spirit He goes, meditating on Him. He who meditates on the Seer, the Ruler, The ancient, subtler than the atom, support Of all, Whose form is inconceivable and Radiant like the sun and beyond darkness. At the hour of death with his mind unmoving, Endowed with devotion and with yoga pow’r, With the prana ent’ring between the eyebrows, He goes unto the divine supreme Spirit. That which Veda-knowers call the Eternal,47 Which the ascetics, free from passion, enter; Desiring which they live as brahmacharins, That path I shall explain unto you briefly. Controlling all of the senses, Confining the mind in the heart, Drawing pranas into the head, Doing yogic concentration, Uttering OM, the syllable That is God, and intent on Me, Departing thus from his body, He then attains the Goal Supreme. He who thinks of Me constantly, Whose mind does never go elsewhere, Yogi of constant devotion– For him I am easy to reach.
Reaching the highest perfection, Having attained Me, those great souls Are no more subject to rebirth– The evanescent home of pain. All worlds, including Brahma’s realm, Are subject to rebirth’s return, But for him who attains to Me There is no rebirth, Kunti’s Son. The knowers of true “day” and “night” Know Brahma’s Day and Brahma’s Night Are each a thousand yugas48 long– And each one comes unto an end. At the approach of Brahma’s Day, All manifested things come forth From the unmanifest, and then Return to that at Brahma’s Night. Helpless, the same host of beings Being born again and again, Merge at the approach of the Night And emerge at the dawn of Day. But beyond this unmanifest There is the Unmanifested, Eternal Existence, Which is Not destroyed when all beings merge. The unmanifest, eternal, Is declared as the Supreme Goal, Attaining Which they return not. This is My supreme dwelling place. Yea, this is the Supreme Being, Attained by devotion alone, Within Which all beings do dwell, By which all this is pervaded.
One thousand yugas–one “day” (or “night”) of Brahma–is 4,320,000,000 years long.
light. returns again. The six months of the sun’s North Path– Knowers of Brahman take this path And thereby go unto Brahman. and thus returns. shall not return. daytime. Fire. be steadfast in yoga Throughout all times. Whatever merit is declared As gained from Vedas. No yogi who knows these two paths. Truly these two light and dark paths The world thinks to be eternal. By one he goes to non-return. The six months of the sun’s South Path– Taking this path the yogi gains The lunar light. Austerity and gifts–yogis Surpass and gain the Great Abode. Therefore. departing. the science of the Eternal. The yogis shall once more return Or. Smoke. is deluded. and the dark fortnight. 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the scripture of Yoga. Of the times in which. nighttime. the bright fortnight. O Arjuna. ends the eighth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman. By the other. 54 . departing. sacrifice. O Pritha’s son.Now I shall tell you. Arjuna.
This the supreme purifier. Know. Yet always dwell in the ether. Royal knowledge. Those without faith in this dharma. when joined with realization.49 As mighty winds move ev’rywhere. eternal. Readily learned by the righteous. God does not draw His being from us. He is not contained in us. Return.Chapter Nine The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret The Holy Lord said: To you who argue not shall I Declare this most secret knowledge Which. that even so Do all beings dwell within Me. All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form: All beings do dwell within Me. We are contained in Him. Nor do beings dwell within Me– Behold this. 49 55 . O Arjuna. But I do not dwell within them. To the path of birth in this world– The realm of death. Shall free you from impurity. without attaining Me. Arjuna. My Divine Yoga! Bringing forth and supporting them. royal secret. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea of these two verses is that we draw our being from God. My Self yet does not dwell in them. Easy to practice.
000. The world revolves because of this.At the end of a kalpa. The deluded disregard Me Dwelling within a human form. Sitting as one indifferent And fully unattached to them: This is the truth. Unaware of My higher state As the Great Lord of all beings.320. The moving and the unmoving. or 2) cannibal demons or goblins. 51 Rakshasa: There are two kinds of rakshasas: 1) semidivine. Meat-eating human beings are sometimes classed as rakshasas.52 But those great souls that abide in Their divine nature. Without sense–truly they abide In the delusive nature of The rakshasas51 and asuras. Helpless under Prakriti’s sway. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A kalpa is a Day of Brahma–4.50 all Beings merge in My Prakriti: At dawn of another kalpa. Because of My proximity. benevolent beings. Dhananjaya. It alternates with a Night of Brahma of the same length.000 years. As their eternal Origin. 52 50 Asura: Demon. vain deeds. And yet these acts do not bind Me. Arjuna. I Myself send them forth again. Animating My Prakriti. I project again and again This whole multitude of beings. enemies of the gods. 56 . In the Day of Brahma creation is manifest and in the Night of Brahma is it resolved into its causal state. Worship Me single-mindedly. vain knowledge. evil being (a-sura: without the light). Prakriti produces all this. Of vain hopes.
Bowing to Me in devotion. Being and non-being am I! The knowers of the three Vedas worship Me By sacrifice. as one. Father and Mother of this world. Storehouse. Yajur Vedas. they worship Me. Sustainer. the sacrifice. Worship Me. Witness. by drinking Soma. Refuge. and as manifold. the Known. I am the rite. the Pranava. and thus Made pure from sin pray for passage to heaven. And others. The fire. The Rig.” the object of knowledge. I am the mantra and the ghee. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 53 54 The “to be known. 57 . the All-Formed.54 Gain worlds and enjoy pleasures of the Devas. Goal. This is a comparatively lower realm of development in the cosmos. Dissolution. the Lord. Abode. and act of oblation. The offering. and Substratum. As distinct. Origin. king of the “gods” who control the forces of nature. Seed Imperishable.Glorifying Me always and Striving ever with firm resolve. Always steadfast. the offered things. Grandfather. Surendralokam–the world of Indra. sacrificing by The sacrifice of pure knowledge. Friend. Supporter.53 Purifier. As the sun I give heat and I Withhold and send forth rain. I am Both immortality and death. Sama.
“Fathers” (pitris) are ancestors or other departed human beings. 21 Those who direct their thoughts to Me. Thus. they constantly come and go. or water. Son of Kunti. also worship Me. To fathers go their devotees. inappropriately. All of these may be either positive or negative. But because they do not know Me They return. 56 55 58 . fruit. Other possible terms–ignorantly. subject to rebirth. haphazardly. “Gods” (devas) are the demigods presiding over various powers of material and psychic nature. “Spirits” (bhutas) are non-human nature spirits. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind. flower. ineptly. 22 23 24 25 26 The words “with a mistaken approach” is the best I can do with avidhipurvakam. with merit Exhausted. mistakenly. keeping the injunctions of the Vedas. they re-enter the mortal world. inaptly. inappositely.56 Whoe’er with devotion offers A leaf. To the gods go their devotees. To spirits go their devotees. some of them subhuman (“elementals”). That I accept–the devout gift Offered by the pure-minded one.” The idea seems to be that these people do not know or understand how to worship God because they do not know or understand the nature of God. but this classification can also include earthbound human spirits. irregularly–either express a value judgment or add an extra meaning or attitude the Sanskrit does not include. incorrectly. Filled with desires. improperly.Having enjoyed the heaven-world. And Lord of all sacrifices. Even those who with faith worship Other gods. It literally means “not according to the rules” or even “without/outside the rules. For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess. Though with a mistaken approach55– This is the truth. And to Me go My devotees. Truly I am the Enjoyer.
understand: My devotee is never lost. claim that only Brahmin and Kshatriya males can attain liberation–and they have to be from “good” backgrounds. devout. O Son of Kunti. and even today in India. He should be considered righteous. 58 57 Kshatriya 59 . Women. Vaishyas. Steadfast in renunciation And freed. Whate’er you sacrifice or give. Whate’er austerity you do. and I am in them. All those who take refuge in Me Also go to the Supreme Goal. Do that as offering to Me. Quickly he becomes virtuous And goes to everlasting peace. If even an evildoer Worships me single-heartedly. holy Brahmins And devoted royal58 sages! Having obtained this transient And joyless world. whate’er you eat. you shall come unto Me.57 How much more. Are in Me. then worship Me. denying the truth of the Self. Even those born of evil wombs. But those worshipping Me.Whate’er you do. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 At the time of Krishna. then. also Shudras. Krishna denies this. I am the same to all beings: To me none is disliked or dear. Truly having rightly resolved. Thus shall you be freed from the bonds Of actions–both good and evil. some ignorant people.
Worshipping. 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the science of the Eternal. with Me as your Supreme aim–you shall come to Me. Thus made steadfast. devoted. 60 . the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. bowing down to Me.With mind fixed on Me. ends the ninth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret. the scripture of Yoga.
Chapter Ten The Yoga of Divine glories The Holy Lord said: Now hear from Me the supreme word Which I speak to you. as well as of the great seers. misery. Both good repute and ill repute– All these arise from Me alone. The Seven Rishis are great Beings who exist at the top of creation and supervise it. death.59 Austerity. 1 2 3 4 5 6 59 60 61 I had to leave out “impartiality” in this line to keep the meter. Calmness. I speak desiring your welfare. restraint of sense. Forbearance. 61 . Birth. and contentment. Were born of My mind. the world’s Great Lord– He alone among mortals is Undeluded and freed from sins. The Manus were the progenitors of the human race. Reason. Neither the multitude of gods Or great seers know My origin. The ancient Seven Great Rishis60 And Four Manus. benevolence. For you are beloved to Me. happiness. He who knows Me as birthless and Beginningless. fear. knowledge. Non-injury. Mighty-Armed.61 with pow’rs like Me. also fearlessness. In truth I am the source of the Gods. and from them Are all the creatures in this world. truth. non-delusion.
the wise worship Me With consciousness all filled with love. Divine. Enlightening62 one another. Narada: A primeval sage to whom some of the verses of the Rig Veda are attributed. And speaking of Me constantly.64 And Vyasa65–and now do You. Out of compassion for them. the Brahma Sutras. 62 . Supreme Abode. I. composer of some of the hymns of the Rig Veda.63 Asita Devala. too. Abiding in their hearts. They are content and do rejoice.He who knows all these manifold Manifestations of My pow’r And glory. Eternal Person. To them. 62 63 64 65 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 This can also mean “awakening” spiritually. author of the Mahabharata (which includes the Bhagavad Gita). Vyasa: One of the greatest sages of India. Arjuna said: Supreme Brahman. I am the origin of all. Yourself declare it unto me. Worshipping Me with affection. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me. the constantly steadfast. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge. With minds and lives intent on Me. And from Me ev’rything evolves– Thinking thus. The Birthless and All-pervading– Thus all the sages declare You: Narad’. and the codifier of the Vedas. Another ancient sage. the First God. commentator on the Yoga Sutras. Supreme Purifier. becomes established In yoga–there can be no doubt.
O You. pervading all these worlds. In truth. 67 Amrita: That which makes one immortal. Always meditating on You? In what aspects of Your Being Are You to be thought of by me? Explain to me in more detail Your pow’rs and manifestations. Lord of beings. 63 . the Supreme Purusha:66 Source of beings. neither gods nor demons Know of Your manifestation. Archetypal) Purusha. Both God and the individual spirits are purushas. and the Purushottama (Best of the Purushas). Purusha means “person” in the sense of a conscious spirit. You do abide within all things. Ruler of the world. O Yogi. because There is no end to My expanse. and Also the end of all beings. The Holy Lord said: Listen! I shall tell you of My Divine Self-manifestations. How may I know You. I am never satiated In hearing Your amrit-like67 words. God of gods. I am The beginning. O Keshava. You should now describe completely Your divine manifestations By which. But only the chief ones.I regard all this that You say To me as true. For You know Yourself by Yourself. I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. Parama (Highest) Purusha. the middle. but God is the Adi (Original. 66 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Purushottama.
the god of wealth.78 And of mountains Meru79 am I. O son of Pritha. Vittesha: Kubera. Agni: The Vedic god of fire. Intelligence in all beings. or the mountain on which Shiva is ever seated in meditation. 64 . Vasava: Indra. Among the Rudras. Yaksha: There are two kinds of yakshas: 1) semidivine beings whose king is Kubera.” God as the Preserver.81 Among the waters.71 I am Indra72 among the gods. Said to be the center of the world. of supreme height.80 Of generals I am Skanda. Brihaspati. Of the senses I am the mind. the Sama Veda. I am Marichi of Maruts. 21 22 23 24 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 Vishnu: “The all-pervading. the ocean. on which the gods dwell.70 Among the stars I am the Moon. The Maruts are the presiding deities of winds and storms. The Sama Veda is a compilation of Rig Veda hymns that have been pointed for singing. or 2) a kind of ghost.I am Vishnu68 of Adityas. The Rudras are Vedic deities of destruction for renewal. the king of the lesser “gods” (demigods).76 rakshasas.73 Shankara. Adityas: Solar deities. 74 Kuber75 of yakshas. supporting heaven itself. Of Vasus77 I am Pavaka. Know Me the chief. or demon. “The Auspicious One.” A title of Shiva. 77 78 79 The Vasus are eight Vedic deities characterized by radiance. Obviously a yogic symbol. goblin. Meru: The mountain. Of Vedas. and Marichi is their chief. And of priests. Also known as Subramanya or Karttikeya. the lord of wealth. 80 81 Brihaspati: The guru–priest and teacher–of the gods.69 The Sun among luminaries. the god of war and son of Shiva and Parvati.
93 94 95 96 97 92 Airavata: The white elephant of Indra that was produced by the churning of the ocean. Of trees I am the Ashwattha. Of elephants. Kandarpa. Airavata. usually the fire sacrifice known as agnihotra or havan.94 Among cows I am Kamadhuk. so illustrious that he mediated quarrels among the gods. a ritual sacrifice. The name means “high-sounding” and refers to the power of mantra. The king of the serpents. A name of Kamadeva. sacrificial ceremony.84 the Japa85 Yajña. Of Gandharvas. king of the gods. an adept. Uchchaishravas92 Who was born of the Amrita. seer of the Truth.83 Of words.90 Sage Kapila. offering. Of Yajñas.96 Of serpents I am Vasuki.86 Of immovables: Himalayas.89 Among siddhas.97 25 26 27 28 82 83 84 85 86 87 Rishi: Sage.87 Of Deva-rishis. Japa: Repetition of a mantra. Ashwattha: The pipal (sacred fig) tree. the god of beauty and love. that was born of the amrita that was churned from the ocean by the gods. Narada.93 And among men I am the king. The “world tree” in the sense of the axis of the earth and even of the cosmos. Chitraratha: The chief of the gandharvas. Uchchaishravas: The name of Indra’s horse (or the horse of the Sun god. In the context of this verse.Of great Rishis82 I am Bhrigu.88 Chitraratha. 88 89 90 91 Gandharva: A demigod–a celestial musician and singer. the one-syllabled OM.91 Among horses. a perfect yogi. He assisted at the churning of the milk ocean. Vajra: the special weapon of Indra. a seer. the eternal tree of life whose roots are in heaven. Yajna: Sacrifice. Siddha: A perfected being. 65 . Surya). the Thunderbolt.95 The cause of offspring. Among weapons. Bhrigu: An ancient sage. Kapila: The great sage who formulated the Sankhya philosophy which is endorsed by Krishna several times in the Bhagavad Gita. japa yajna is the offering or sacrifice of continually repeating Om. Kamadhenu: Wishfulfilling cow produced at the churning of the milk ocean.
Among beasts I am the lion. Hindus consider that bathing in the Ganges profoundly purifies both body and mind. His father. knowledge of the Self. he is the vehicle of Vishnu. Often depicted as an eagle. controller of who dies and what happens to them after death. 105 Prahlada: A daitya prince who rejected his daitya heritage and became a devotee of Vishnu.Of Nagas98 I am Ananta. This was the case with the people among whom Prahlada was born. Varuna: A Vedic deity considered the sustainer of the universe and also the presiding deity of the oceans and water. 102 Of controllers I am Yama. Daityas: Demons who constantly war with the gods.107 Of fishes I am the dolphin. (In Sanskrit naga is the word for snake. Ganges: The sacred river–believed to be of divine origin–that flows from high up in the Himalayas. Aryaman: Chief of the Pitris. tortured him and attempted his life because of his devotion and his speaking to others of divine matters. Garuda: A great being who can assume bird form. 108 107 106 66 . and the end.106 Of purifiers I am Wind. Often identified with the conscience. yet he remained steadfast.) Ananta: The chief of the Nagas. through the plains of Northern India. and therefore considered the king of birds. and upon whom Vishnu reclines. Sometimes “races” or nationalities who acted contrary to dharma and fought against the “aryas” were also called demons (daityas or asuras). a forefather. 29 30 31 32 Nagas: Astral beings that often interact with human beings. Rama: An incarnation of God–the king of ancient Ayodhya in north-central India. the evil Hiranyakashipu. middle.108 Of manifestations I am Beginning.103 Of demons104 I am Prahlada. Of disputants I am logic. Of rivers I am the Ganges. Among warriors I am Rama. His life is recorded in the ancient epic Ramayana.99 Of water beings. 101 102 103 104 100 99 98 Pitri: A departed ancestor. Of knowledge. usually taking the form of snakes. Varuna. Among birds I am Garuda. whose coils encircle the earth and who symbolizes eternity (“ananta” means “without end”).100 Of pitris101 I am Aryaman. Yama: The Lord of Death. and empties into the Bay of Bengal.105 Among measurers I am Time.
courage.110 Of months I am Margashirsha. roughly the latter half of November and the first half of December.112 The gambling of the fraudulent. wisdom. 33 34 35 36 37 38 109 110 A type of chant to Indra in the Sama Veda. A lunar month. Among Vrishnis. Strategy of the ambitious. It is considered especially appropriate for mantric invocation of deities before worship. Son of Vasudeva–Krishna An ancient seer and poet.111 Of seasons. The splendor of the splendorous. the letter A. 112 113 114 115 111 Kusumakaras. I am sattwa of the sattwic.109 Of meters I am Gayatri. I am all-destroying death and Origin of all that shall be. the season of flow’rs. patience. Mem’ry. I the Sustainer. the All-formed. I am fame. Among sages I am Vyasa. This is the time of ideal weather in India.115 The sceptre of authorities. I am victory and effort. speech. Among the rishis. 67 . The ancestral clan of Krishna.Among letters. “the season of flowers” is a term for Spring. I am inexhaustible Time. Dhananjaya. The knowledge of knowers am I. Of compounds I am the dual. The gayatri meter is found only in the Rig Veda and consists of three lines of eight syllables each. Ushanas. Of secret things I am silence. prosperity.114 Of Pandavas.113 Vasudeva. Of chants I am Brihatsaman.
O Arjuna? I ever support this whole world By just one portion of Myself. moving or unmoving. Of what value is it for you To know all this.Whate’er the seed of all beings. 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Arjuna. What I have spoken unto you Is but an example of them. ends the tenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Divine Glories. Arjuna. Can e’er exist apart from Me. there is no end of My divine manifestations. That also am I. Whatever is glorious or Prosperous or yet powerful. Understand that springs from but a Fraction of My radiant Pow’r. the science of the Eternal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. 68 . No thing. the scripture of Yoga.
By this my delusion is gone.Chapter Eleven The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form Arjuna said: In kindness you spoke unto me Regarding the Supreme Secret That is known as the Supreme Self. Ruler. O Krishna. Wherefore. O Lord. And so it is. They avert misfortune and sickness and bring treasures. O Supreme Lord! As You have declared of Yourself. The origin and dissolving Of beings has been heard by me In detail from You. O son of Bharata. Show to me Your eternal Self. And Your eternal majesty. O Lord of Yogis. O Krishna. O Partha. Behold the Adityas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 116 Ishwara: “God” or “Lord” in the sense of the Supreme Power. Ashwins. Ashwins: Two Vedic deities. omnipresence. “Ishwara” implies the powers of omnipotence. Many wonders ne’er seen before. Master. and omniscience. The Rudras. always together. Yet still I desire to behold Your Ishwara116-Form. divine. Vasus. if You should think Me capable of seeing It. My forms A hundred fold–a thousandfold– Various. Then do You. or Controller of the cosmos. Behold. 117 69 . The Holy Lord said: Behold now. and also Of various colors and shapes. who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing.117 and Maruts. celestial horsemen of the sun.
The Infinite. 70 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .See now in this My body the Whole universe centered in one– Both the moving and unmoving– And all else you desire to see. Sanjaya said: Then having thus spoken. With divine perfumes and ointments. Showed unto the son of Pritha His own Supreme Ishwara-Form: With many mouths and many eyes. Krishna. Then that would be like the splendor Of that Resplendent Mighty One. Then Arjuna. With many divine ornaments. If the light of a thousand suns Arose together in the sky. There in the body of the God Of gods the son of Pandu saw The universe resting in One With its manifold divisions. the Great Lord of Yoga. I give to you the divine eye– Behold My supreme Yoga Pow’r. filled with wonder And with his hair standing on end. Omniscient. God embodying all wonders. Bowing down in adoration Thus spoke with joined palms unto Him. But you are not able to see Me with your own eyes. With many divine weapons raised. Arjuna. And with many wondrous aspects. O King. Wearing divine garlands and clothes.
You are the ultimate resting-place of all. I do ween. the Lord. into You enter these hosts of gods. Very hard to look at. The sun and moon Your eyes. I see all the gods in Your body. or end. middle. O Great-souled One. 18 You are without beginning. Infinite in power. Lord.Arjuna said: O God. nor beginning of You Do I see. seated upon the lotus. club. 19 This firmament fixed between heaven and earth. burning fire Your mouth. A mass of radiance shining ev’rywhere. Some of which extol You in fear with joined palms. stomachs. the Supreme Being. 16 I see You with diadem. 17 You are the Unchanging.20 Truly. 15 I see You of boundless form on ev’ry side With Your manifold arms. And the hosts of all grades of beings in You. Heating the universe with Your radiance. Brahma. You are Guardian of Eternal Dharma. And all the quarters are filled by You alone. You are the Primal Purusha. And all the rishis and celestial serpents. mouths. Neither end. “May it be well!” thus saying.21 71 . and discus. and beyond measure. the bands of great Rishis and Siddhas praise You with splendid hymns. The three worlds tremble with fear. of manifold arms. all around blazing Like burning fire and sun. of Your Universal Form. middle. and eyes. Your marvellous and awesome form. Seeing this.
23 On seeing You touching the sky. 72 . quite astounded. Yakshas. Vishnu. 25 And all these sons of evil Dhritarashtra. O Lord of Gods. 22 Having seen this Your immeasurable form– With very many mouths. with mouths wide open. and find no courage nor peace. nor do I find peace. arms. blazing Like Pralaya-fires. Maruts. and fearful with many tusks– All the worlds are terrified. Sadhyas. Ushmapas: A class of ancestors (pitris) which live off subtle emanations or vapors. have mercy. I know neither the four Quarters. 28 118 119 Sadhyas: A group of celestial beings with exquisitely refined natures thought to inhabit the ether. And some with their heads completely pulverized. with the warrior chiefs of ours. With large and fiery eyes: I am terrified At heart.118 and Vishwa-Devas. and Sutaputra. Adityas. then. Among whom are numbered Bishma.27 Verily. thighs. With the multitudinous hosts of monarchs. Drona. Ushmapas. fearful with tusks.119 Gandharvas. and feet. Some are found sticking in the gaps ’tween Your teeth. 26 Enter precipitately into Your mouth.The Rudras. So do all these heroes of the world of men Now enter into Your fiercely flaming mouths. 24 Having seen Your mouths. and so am I. and Siddhas– All these are looking at You. Many stomachs. Vasus. Terrible with tusks and fearful to behold. eyes. Abode of the universe. Asuras. as the many torrents and streams Of all the rivers flow towards the ocean. Ashwins. and blazing With many a color.
29 Swallowing all the worlds on every side With Your flaming mouths. Your fierce rays. but fight. O Vishnu! 30 Tell me who You are–You Who are fierce in form. Arjuna With joined palms. O Supreme God: have mercy! I desire to know You. Arjuna. indeed. mighty world-destroying Time.Just as moths precipitately rush into A blazing fire. Are blazing.35 73 . burning. and surely You shall conquer your enemies in battle. by Myself are they already slain. consuming. and enjoy unrivalled dominion. 31 32 33 34 Sanjaya said: Having heard this speech of Krishna. Karna. Be not distressed with fear. Bowing down to Him. do you kill. Even without you. none of the warriors here Arrayed within the hostile armies shall live. and trembling. Be merely an apparent cause. although only to perish. and Others already killed by Me. and overwhelmed with fear. In like manner so do these creatures also Rush into Your mouths though only to perish. prostrated himself. Salutations. Drona. Truly. You are licking Your lips. Therefore do you arise and thus acquire fame. Jayadratha. I know not indeed Your doings or purpose. Here made manifest for destroying the world. Bhishma. Conquer. O Primeval One. And addressed Krishna in a faltering voice. filling the world with radiance. The Holy Lord said: I am.
I bow to You! 39 Salutation to You before and behind. I bow to You a thousand times. infinite in power and in prowess. The Great and Primal Cause of even Brahma. O Friend. 120 121 122 123 42 Vayu: The Vedic god of the wind. Source of the cosmos? Unchanging–Being. to forgive all this. and Great-grandfather. Agni. Infinite. Agni: Vedic god of fire. addressing You as “O Krishna. unconscious of this Your greatness– 41 However I may have been disrespectful To You in jest. And siddhas bow to You in adoration. wherefore You are All. Again and again I bow. the One Thing to be known. that the world Is delighted and rejoices in Your praise. beyond both.123 I bow. Pervadest all these things. alone. walking. Prajapati and Pitamaha (Grandfather.Arjuna said: It is fitting. Chandra: Presiding deity of the moon or the astral lunar world (loka).40 Whatever I have presumptuously said From carelessness or love.” speaking As a friend. sitting. 37 You the Primal God.120 Yama. reposing.122 Prajapati. 36 Why should they not bow to You. Knower. Lord of gods. Salutation on every side. Immeasurable One. That rakshasas fly in fear to all quarters. You are Supreme Refuge of this universe. the Ancient Purusha. By You is the whole universe pervaded. Chandra. O Great-souled One. yea. the Creator. 74 . or Great Father) are titles of Brahma. Hrishikesha. with others. I implore You. Supreme Goal. O All! You. Non-being. Eating. 38 You are Vayu.121 Varuna. O Yadava.
Diademed. Who can excel You. by My own Yoga Power– Form resplendent. seeing Your form. so awesome. so terrible With your fears dispelled and with your heart gladdened.The world’s Father–of the moving. Now see once again this former Form of Mine. infinite. universal. bearing the mace and the discus. This Form Supreme. Which has not been seen before by aught but you. of universal form. do I crave Forgiveness: as a father forgives his son. By any other than you. By gifts. rites. O Arjuna. Overjoyed am I. 49 75 . 48 Be not afraid or bewildered. having seen This Form of Mine. 43 44 45 46 The Holy Lord said: Graciously have I shown to you. and a lover his love– Thus even so should You forgive Me. O You of thousand arms. Abode of the universe. Assume then That same beloved four-armed form of Yours.47 Not by Vedic study or by sacrifice. A friend his dear friend. I wish to see You as before. and yet My mind is distracted with terror. unmoving– You are the worshipful Guru of gurus. Mighty beyond compare? Prostrating in adoration. or by severe austerities Am I seen in such Form in the world of men. O God. There is no one Your equal in the three worlds. only Your previous form– O Lord of gods. In mercy Lord. Arjuna. Show me.
having thus spoken to Arjuna. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. assuming His gentle Four-armed form pacified him. 76 . Devoted to Me as his goal. 50 51 52 53 54 55 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Showed once again His usual manlike form. ends the eleventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. enters into Me. Arjuna said: Now having seen this. Freed from desire. My thoughts are now composed. The Holy Lord said: Verily. Scorcher of Foes. He who does work for Me alone. nor by gifts.Sanjaya said: Krishna. Your gentle Man-like form. nor by Austerity. and I Am now restored to my nature. By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. Seen in reality. nor By sacrifice can I be seen As on this day you have seen Me. also Entered into. without ill will To any. the terrified. O Janardana. Not by Vedic study. hard indeed it is To behold this great form of Mine Which you have seen. the scripture of Yoga. Thus the Great-souled One. Even the gods Ever long to behold this form.
It is My opinion that they Are thus the best versed in yoga. meditating on Me with single-minded yoga– 1 2 3 4 5 6 77 . They worship the Unperishing. For the Unmanifest is hard For the embodied ones to reach. with supreme faith.Chapter Twelve The Yoga of Devotion Arjuna said: Those devotees who worship You. Worship steadfast. Those who worship Me. And even-minded ev’rywhere. Greater is their trouble whose minds Are set on the Unmanifest. Unmanifest. resigning All action. Unspeakable. And those also who do worship The Changeless. Unthinkable Unchangeable. deeming Me as the Supreme Goal. fixing their mind on Me. the Unmanifest– Which are better versed in yoga? The Holy Lord said: Those who. Engaged in the welfare of all– Verily they reach Me alone. Immovable– Having subdued all the senses. Omnipresent.
If you are unable to fix Your mind on Me in steadiness. be Intent on acting for My sake. Renouncement124 than meditation. dear to Me. Mind and intellect fixed on Me. Meditation than mere knowledge. 124 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tyaga: Literally: “abandonment. firm in conviction. Abandon the fruits of action. But if you are unable to Constantly practice yoga. He hates no one. Devoted to Me. Then by taking refuge in Me. Better is knowledge than practice. Placing your intellect in Me.” Even-minded and forbearing. 78 . and is friendly And compassionate towards all. Free from feelings of “I” and “mine. I become ere long. here and hereafter. balanced in mind. If you cannot do even this.” Renunciation–the relinquishment of the fruit of action.To these whose mind is set on Me. Then doubtless you shall evermore Live in Me. By constant practice of yoga Seek to reach Me. Fixing your mind on Me alone. Dhananjaya. Becoming this way self-controlled. Always content. Instant peace comes from renouncement. Self-controlled. their Savior from The sea of mortal samsara. Verily. Even that leads to perfection. O Pritha’s son.
He who is free from dependence. steady-minded. And whom the world agitates not. Deeming Me as the Goal Supreme. Who deems blame and praise as equal. They who follow this Immortal Dharma. pleasure and pain.He who agitates not the world. 15 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. described. Who is freed from joy. the scripture of Yoga. ends the twelfth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Devotion. And worry–he is dear to Me. full of Devotion–he is dear to Me. and full of Devotion–he is dear to Me. In heat and cold. Renouncing all undertakings– That devotee is dear to Me. content with anything. fear. unconcerned. He is the same to friend and foe. 79 . Homeless. skilled. Nor grieves. And ever free from attachment. envy. untroubled. He neither rejoices nor hates. Pure. renouncing Both good and evil. Silent. Devoted–are most dear to me. endued with faith. And in honor and dishonor. the science of the Eternal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. nor desires.
Knowledge. Who He is and what His powers. Intellect.” (Swami Sivananda in his Gita commentary. The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge. If you include this verse also. in sacred chants.) 126 The five jnanindriyas (organs of perception) and the five karmendriyas (organs of action). Modifications. In passages about Brahman.125 The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. Egoism. cause-effects. and that which should be known– I wish to know these.Chapter Thirteen The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field Arjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha and The Field and Knower of the Field. This has been sung by the Rishis In many ways. That do you hear from Me in brief. The ten senses126 and the one–mind– The five objects of the senses. Some commentators look upon this verse as an interpolation. What the Field is–its properties. the Unmanifest. Keshava. Full of convincing reasoning. Know Me also. 125 1 2 3 4 5 “In some of the books you will not find this verse. the number of verses of the Bhagavad Gita will come to 701. The great Elements. 80 . O Bharata. To be the Knower in all Fields. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower.
127 patience. And steadfastness: thus is the Field Briefly described. Harmlessness. and Frequenting secluded places. And absence of egotism. intelligence.128 purity. Distaste for others’ company. or sitting near a teacher. old age. home. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 127 128 129 130 Ahimsa Acharyopasanam: Approaching a teacher. and all suchlike. Unswerving devotion to Me With single-minded yoga. 81 . Non-attachment and non-clinging To son. Janasamsadi: crowds of people. Seeing the goal of truth-knowledge– This is said to be true knowledge. rectitude. Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m. Approach of teacher.129 Keeping in mind the evils of Birth. and pain. death. Absence of both pride and deceit. disease. The aggregate. pain. Stability and self-restraint. Indifference to sense objects. and its aspects. pleasure. aversion. I shall describe what must be known.130 Constant in knowledge of the Self. Which bestows immortality– Beginningless Supreme Brahman: Neither being nor non-being. wife.Desire. Constant evenmindedness in Desired and undesired events. The contrary is ignorance. or society.
and know That all modifications and Gunas are born of Prakriti. In production of the body And senses Prakriti’s the cause. Incomprehensible because It is subtle and far and near. Both the unmoving and moving. Knowledge. Outside and inside all beings. Undivided. knowledge and that which must Be known has been briefly stated.With hands and feet everywhere. Originates from Purusha. detached. Yet experiencing gunas. Eyes. It is Said to be beyond all darkness. yet It exists As if divided in beings: The sustainer of all beings– He absorbs and generates them. the One Thing to be known. With ears throughout the universe– THAT stands. Thus Field. heads. Shining by functions of senses. Pleasure and pain’s experience. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 82 . Goal of knowledge. Knowing all this. pervading ev’rything. within all hearts. Know Prakriti and Purusha Are both beginningless. Yet without senses. My devotee Attains to My state of being. The Light even of lights. and faces ev’rywhere. free from gunas. yet Maintaining all.
Devoted to what they have heard. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 83 . Since seeing the Lord equally Existing ev’rywhere in all. Some perceive the Self in the Self By the Self through meditation. Birth in good and evil wombs comes From his attachment to gunas.Purusha within Prakriti Undergoes Prakriti’s gunas. go beyond death. He shall never be born again. Then goes unto the Supreme Goal. and Self. not knowing thus. Others by Sankhya yoga. The Supreme Purusha is called The Looker-on in this body: The Permitter. the Supporter. O Bharata. Whate’er is born. and Still others by karma yoga. Whatever be his state in life. Know it to be from the union Of the Field and the Field-Knower. The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. Even these. Others. Worship as they hear from others. deathless in the dying. Experiencer. Lord. again. He injures not the Self by Self. too. He who thus knows the Purusha And Prakriti with the gunas. the moving or The unmoving.
As the sun alone illumines This entire world. ends the thirteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field. Field-Knower. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the scripture of Yoga. though embodied. And that the Self is actionless. and Freedom from beings’ Prakriti. And their expansion from That One– He then becomes one with Brahman. Through subtlety is not tainted. They who with the eye of knowledge Distinguish Field. unchanging. 29 30 31 32 33 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the science of the Eternal. The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. Does not act.The one who truly sees is he Who sees that all actions are done Solely by Prakriti alone. in the same way The lord of the field illumines The entire field. O Bharata. He sees the sep’rate existence Of all inherent in the One. and is not tainted. 84 . This Supreme Self. Being without beginning and Devoid of gunas. As the all-pervading ether. They indeed go to the Supreme.
At creation they are not born.131 For me great Brahma is the womb. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea is that the liberated are not impelled into birth at the beginning of the creation cycle nor are they unsettled at its dissolution. Of them Brahma is the great womb.Chapter Fourteen The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas The Holy Lord said: I shall tell you supreme knowledge Which is the best of all knowledge. And free from defect. And in that do I place the egg. That is. creation and dissolution do not affect them in any way since they have severed all bonds with it. Nor tremble at its dissolving. 131 85 . O Bharata. rajas. Sattwa is stainless. And I the seed-casting Father. and tamas–these Gunas born of Prakriti bind Fast in the body him who is Indestructible. embodied. Sattwa. Whatever be the forms produced Within all wombs. Resorting to this knowledge they Attain identity with Me. Son of Kunti. The origin of all beings Then comes from that. luminous. yet it binds By attachment to happiness And by attachment to knowledge. Having known which all the sages Attained to highest perfection.
undertaking Of actions. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 86 . O Bharata. O descendant of the Kurus. And delusion–all these arise When tamas is predominant. and Tamas over sattwa. inertness. Indolence. and sleep. Producing thirst and attachment. greed. When through each sense of the body The light of knowledge clearly shines. Then he attains the stainless realms Of the knowers of the Highest. Attaches unto delusion. Rajas to action. Bharata. Tamas is born of ignorance. And Tamas. Sattwa ’ttaches to happiness. Then it should be known that sattwa Is there fully predominant. Stupefying the embodied. If the embodied one meets death When sattwa is predominant. unrest. Activity. and rajas prevails Over sattwa and tamas. heedlessness. It binds by miscomprehension. Darkness. Sattwa prevails over rajas And tamas. obscuring knowledge. longing– When rajas is predominant All these arise.Know rajas’ nature is passion. rajas. It binds fast the embodied one By the attachment to action. Bharata.
The fruit of good action. verily. do go downward. is he known Who has gone beyond the gunas? What is his conduct. He who goes beyond these gunas Which are the source of the body. while from tamas Arises miscomprehension. and Ignorance the fruit of tamas. O Lord. The fruit of rajas is pain. The sattwa ’biding go upwards. disease. he is born From the wombs of the deluded. Arjuna said: By what marks. And delusion and ignorance. Tamasics. Dying in tamas. and how does He pass beyond these three gunas? 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 87 . When the seer beholds no agent Other than the gunas and knows That which is higher than gunas. he’s born Amid those attached to action. Rajasics dwell in the middle. And attains immortality. abiding in the Lowest guna.Meeting death in rajas. He attains unto My being. death. pain. Is freed from birth. they say. Is sattwic and pure. From rajas. greed. From sattwa arises wisdom.
He sees earth. Abode of Eternal Dharma. Abode of the Absolute Bliss.The Holy Lord said: He who hates not the appearance Of light and of activity And delusion. He who renders service to Me With unswerving devotion. the science of the Eternal. O Pandava. 88 . The Immortal. Firm. Going beyond the three gunas.” Stands firm and is unwavering. sitting like one unconcerned. stone. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the gunas. Alike to pleasing. Who is not moved by the gunas. Nor yet longs for them when absent. Is fit for union with Brahman. 132 This is the realization of the liberated person.”132 22 23 24 25 26 27 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. displeasing. He. he. the scripture of Yoga. and gold alike. The same to friend and enemy. The same in pleasure or in pain. ends the fourteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas. Knowing: “The gunas operate. Immutable. “I am the abode of Brahman. the same in censure and praise. The same in honor and disgrace.
Becoming a soul in this world. without desires. the leaves. branches below. For that is My Supreme Abode. An eternal part of Myself. is a Veda-knower. This its form is not here perceived– Its end. its buds Are sense-objects. I seek refuge. Which. existence. spread its branches. he who Knows it. attained. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self. 89 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . Going whither they return not. Fount of actions.” Without pride.Chapter Fifteen The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit The Holy Lord said: There is th’ eternal Ashwattha With roots above. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal. Takes on the senses and the mind And abides within Prakriti. That the sun illuminates not. The sacred hymns. There shines neither the moon nor fire. Below. origin. they never return: “In that Primeval Purusha. and in the world Below its roots give rise to acts. Having cut this firm-rooted tree With the axe of non-attachment– Then that goal is to be sought for. Nourished by the gunas. above.
Thus presiding over the ear. behold Him Dwelling within themselves. When He departs. the smell– As also the “sense” of the mind– He experiences objects. That light illumines the whole world. I Myself cause all plants to thrive. but the Unrefined. Joined with prana and apana. Having become the wat’ry moon. The light which resides in the sun. The yogis. Author. Accompanied by the gunas. Memory. knowledge. and Knower. I am seated within all hearts. I support All beings with My energy. He takes these And goes. Entering the earth. That which is in the moon and fire– Know that light to be Mine as well. Dwelling within living beings In the form of digestive fire. Even though striving. the taste. remains. see Him not. enjoys.When the Lord obtains a body And when He leaves it. as the wind takes the scents From their seats: the flowers and herbs. and their loss Proceed from Me: for I am the Veda’s Goal. unintelligent. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 90 . striving. The eye. The deluded do not see Him– Those with the eye of knowledge see. the touch. Do I digest the fourfold food.
Who pervades All the three worlds and sustains them. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. thus worships Me With all his heart. So in this world and the Veda I am called the Supreme Spirit. the science of the Eternal. All beings comprise the Changing. But there is also the Supreme Purusha. thus Knows Me as the Supreme Spirit. Knowing this most secret teaching Imparted by Me. 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 133 Purushottama 91 .133 He who. called the Highest Self. Immutable Lord. one awakes To the highest enlightenment– All his duties thus accomplished. the scripture of Yoga. I transcend the Changing and am Above even the Unchanging. free from delusion. He. ends the fifteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit. Kutastha is the Unchanging. O Bharata.Two Purushas are in this world– The Changing and the Unchanging. knowing all.
Absence of pride–all these belong To one born for a divine135 state. Uncovetousness. modesty. almsgiving. the complete list could not be given. It is: “Non-injury. gentleness. sacrifice. veracity. one who dwells in darkness (a-sura–without the light). 1 2 3 4 5 134 To maintain the meter. Purity. study. firmness in Knowledge and yoga.” In this instance it means those positive souls who are progressing toward divinity.134 Boldness. serenity. 136 135 92 . non-calumny. and uprightness. Austerity. absence of fickleness. Truthfulness. gentleness. absence of anger.Chapter Sixteen The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal The Holy Lord said: Courage. renunciation. absence of anger. compassion. Self-conceit. Sense-control. but do not grieve: You are born for a divine state. absence of hatred. Harmlessness. arrogance. harshness. compassion for beings. forgiveness. renunciation. truth. ignorance– All these qualities belong to One born for a demonic136 state. Asurim: The state of an asura. fortitude. Tranquillity. The divine state is deemed to make For liberation–for bondage. purity.” Daivim: The state of a deva or “shining one. Flamboyance. The demonic. Here it means those negative souls who are turned away from divinity and moving further into degredation of consciousness and mode of life. freedom from desire. anger.
There are two types of beings in This world: divine and demonic. they foully work. Holding this view. Full of hypocrisy. Those of demonic nature know Not what to do or refrain from. Produced by mutual union. Nor is good conduct. They strive to gain by unjust means Wealth for sensual enjoyment. Filled with insatiable desires. The divine type has been described. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 93 . and now this wealth Also shall be mine in future. Without a basis. Now hear of the demonic type. nor is truth. and regarding Gratification of lust as The highest–feeling it is all. With lust for cause–what else?” say they. “This today has been gained by me. “The universe is without truth. and Arrogance. Beset with immense cares ending Only with death. All this is mine. Given over to lust and wrath. holding evil thoughts Through delusion. Purity is not found in them. without God. Bound by a hundred ties of hope. And this desire I shall obtain. these ruined souls Small-minded and of cruel deeds Arise as the enemies of The world. bent on its destruction. pride.
and more I shall slay. I enjoy. Not attaining to Me. most degraded of men. Contrary to the prescribed forms. stubborn. Perfect. Entering the demonic wombs.” they say. Led astray by many fancies. I am successful. For I am the Lord. they fall into a foul hell. Addicted to gratifying Lust. They sacrifice in name. Power. Cruel. Yea. they fall Into still lower conditions. insolence. These malignant people hate Me In both themselves and in others. and happy. These malicious evildoers. give. I hurl perpetu’lly into Only the wombs of demons here. And deluded birth after birth. “I am rich and well-born. lust and wrath. for show.” Thus deluded by ignorance. Given over to egoism. rejoice. filled with The pride and foolishness of wealth. therefore one Should forsake ev’ry one of these. and greed. powerful. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 94 . Self-conceited. Covered by delusion’s meshes. “Who else is equal unto me? I will sacrifice.“I slew that enemy. That is destructive of the self– Lust. anger. triple is this gate of hell.
95 . The scriptures should be your guide in What should be done and what should not. Attains not unto perfection. 22 23 24 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. ends the sixteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal. Arjuna. Nor happiness.The man who has got beyond these Three gates of darkness. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. Knowing what the scriptures prescribe. And thus goes to the Goal Supreme. nor Goal Supreme. You should act here within the world. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Practices what is good for him.
138 Those of extreme austerities– Unscriptural–given to show And egoity. the man consists of his faith. Yea. 96 . rajasic. The others–the tamasic men– The pretas137 and hosts of bhutas. or rajas. doing sacrifice With faith. All the organs in the body. impelled by The force of lust and attachment. spirits of the dead. what is their condition: Sattwa. Do torture. or tamas? The Holy Lord said: Threefold is the embodieds’ faith Inherent within their nature– The sattwic. Know them as of demonic will. Bhutas are ghosts and also various kinds of low-evolved spirits. Do you hear of it. And Me. the body’s indweller. senseless as they are. The sattwic men worship the gods. and the Tamasic. In truth. rakshasas. 1 2 3 4 5 6 137 138 Pretas are ghosts. he is what his faith is.Chapter Seventeen The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith Arjuna said: Those who set aside prescriptions Of scriptures. Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. Rajasic: Yakshas.
Straightforwardness. as is sacrifice. Arjuna. refuse. the rajasic like– Producing pain. Austerity. without offering to the priests. Savory. is sattwic. tasteless. Is the food the tamasic like. non-injury– Are austerity of body. salty.The food also liked by each one Is threefold. and disease. Seeking for fruit. This is the truth. agreeable. 97 . And burning. Is tamasic in character. and almsgiving. Sacrifice unscriptural and Without the offering of food. joy. teachers. Worship of gods. purity. continence. impure. Intent. 139 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 That is. twice-born. Food building life. and Substantial–such the sattwic like. Excessively hot. pungent. dry. stinking. Foods that are bitter. That which is performed. That sacrifice which is offered Without desire for reward and According to scriptures’ command. That which is stale. O Arjuna. sour. Cooked overnight. purity. The wise. strength. Hear from Me now their distinction. or gifts. appetite. Health. and for vain show. cheerfulness.139 or faith. as duty. Know that to be a sacrifice Rajasic in its character. Without mantras. grief.
Steady serenity of mind. 98 . Honesty of motive–all this Is called mental austerity. to unworthy persons. This threefold austerity done With highest faith by those without Desire for fruit. practice of Self-study–these are said to form What is austerity of speech. Austerity with self-torture. True. Unstable. to one worthy– That gift is held to be sattwic. is rajasic. or Looking for the fruit. That is declared as tamasic. Done out of a foolish notion. is rajasic.140 honor. Or for the purpose of harming Another. Kindliness. In a fit place. silence. and with Ostentation. and transitory. And what is given with a view To receiving in return. self-control.Unvexing speech. That gift which is given to one Who does no service in return. worship. is called tamasic. or again Reluctantly. also steadfast Is considered to be sattwic. Austerity practiced to gain Welcome. agreeable. Without respect or with disdain. beneficial. The gift given at the wrong place Or time. 140 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Satkara–hospitality with honor.
”142 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita.” By the expounders of Brahman. the scripture of Yoga. ends the seventeenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith.“Om.” without desire For fruits–thus are sacrifice.” Whate’er is sacrificed. whate’er austerity Is practiced without faith. Sat. Sacrifice. the science of the Eternal. is known Here or hereafter as “Asat. austerities According to the scriptures. Unreal or false. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. “Sat” is used with the meaning of Reality and of goodness. Uttering “Tat. gifts. Tat. and Sacrifice. So also the word “Sat” is used In the sense of auspicious acts. gift. given. And austerity then performed By seekers of liberation. 141 142 Real or true. And austerity is called “Sat:”141 Also action in connection With these is designated “Sat. Or done.” this has been declared The triple title of Brahman. By That were created of old Brahmins. Steadfastness in sacrifice. gift. 99 . Vedas. are Begun with utterance of “Om.
austerity– Should not be relinquished. though leaving Attachment and the fruits. the truth of Sannyasa. Sacrifice. As also of tyaga. gift. but done. 1 2 3 4 5 6 143 144 Renunciation. austerity Are purifying to the wise. The Holy Lord said: Renouncing desire-based actions Sages consider sannyasa: Abandonment of all works’ fruits The wise declare to be tyaga. Tyaga has been declared to be Of three kinds. Should still be performed. austerity. O best of Bharatas. But even these works.Chapter Eighteen The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation Arjuna said: I desire to know sev’rally. O Tiger of Men.143 O Hrishikesha. Sacrifice. such is My best and certain conviction. Some say action should be renounced As an evil. “turning from. And gift should not be relinquished. Hear the conclusion regarding Tyaga.” Abandonment. Arjuna. while others say That sacrifice. “casting aside.144 Krishna. gift. O mighty-armed one.” 100 .
Is rajasic relinquishment. Relinquishers of sattwic kind. The presiding divinity. The threefold fruit of all action– Uncongenial. But the relinquishing of fruits Of action is relinquishment. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 101 . Learn from Me these five causes for The accomplishment of all works As are declared in the Sankhya Which is the end of all action: The body. Actions cannot be entirely Relinquished by the embodied. Producing not the fruit thereof. The functions of manifold kind. nor are they Attached to the congenial work. agent. Abandonment from delusion Is declared to be tamasic. congenial. That relinquishment is sattwic.But the renunciation of Required action is not proper. with doubts dispelled. And that which is also the fifth. leaving aside Attachment and the fruit as well. When work is done only because It should be done. the senses. But not to the relinquishers. hate not Uncongenial work. The relinquishment of action From fear of trouble or of pain. mixed– Accrues to non-relinquishers. Steadfast.
and the mind– Whether right or just the reverse– These five alone are its causes. Knowledge. and the knower Form the threefold cause of action. Confined to a single effect As the whole. He who through a non-purified Understanding looks on his Self. The Absolute. He kills not. from the distinction of Gunas: hear them also duly. as the agent– He of distorted mind sees not. Know that knowledge as rajasic. But that by which in all are seen Many beings of many kinds As diff’rent from one another. The instrument. trivial– Know that knowledge as tamasic. and without reason Or basis in truth. neither is he bound. Although he kills all these people. With intelligence untainted. agent Are the threefold base of action.Whate’er action a man performs By his body. action. the known. purpose. and agent are Declared by Sankhya to be of Three kinds. Knowledge. He who is free from egoism. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 102 . That by which in all is seen the One Indestructible Substance Inseparate in the sep’rate– Know that knowledge to be sattwic. speech.
endued with courage and Ardor. Action that’s done through delusion. Unsteady. With self-conceit and much effort. Humble. greedy. According to the three gunas Exhaustively and severally. And free from any attachment Know that action is called sattwic. One passionate. Impure. vulgar. and unaffected in Success or failure. indolent. fearlessness. Without heed to the consequence. is rajasic. malignant. Loss. desirous of Action’s fruits. procrastinating– Such an agent is tamasic.Action without love or hatred And without desire for the fruit. Right and wrong acts. know as truth: That action is called rajasic. is sattwic. That intellect which knows the paths Of work and renunciation. Action done desiring desires. Wicked. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 103 . or ability: Know that action as tamasic. easily elated Or dejected. obstinate. O Dhananjaya. is sattwic. Despondent. An agent free from attachment. dishonest. Bondage and freedom. Now hear the triple distinction Of intellect and fortitude. fear. damage.
despondency. unswerving By means of yoga is sattwic. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 104 . of right and wrong acts. Born of self-realization’s light– That happiness is called sattwic. and senses Are regulated. That which is like poison at first. Now hear from Me of the threefold Happiness whose enjoyment is Learned by practice. and by which one Attains unto the end of pain. and overweening conceit. is tamasic. That intellect is rajasic. That fortitude is tamasic. That by which the stupid does not Give up sleep.That intellect of mistaken Apprehension of dharma and Adharma. fear. That intellect enveloped in Darkness. and wealth. But like amrita at the end. and seeing all things Distortedly. prana. That fortitude is rajasic. regarding adharma As dharma. Grief. That by which one regulates the Mind to dharma. From attachment to all their fruits. Fortitude by which the functions Of the mind. That arising from the contact Of object with sense–at first like Amrit’ but like poison at last– That happiness is rajasic. desire.
austerity Purity. Devoted to his own duty. piety– These are the duties of Brahmins. Found devoid of these three gunas. There is no entity on earth. By Whom all this is pervaded. that now hear from Me. A man attains to perfection. Knowledge. Of Brahmins and Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Generosity. splendor. Valor. Or in heaven among the gods. restraint. 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 105 .That which begins and results in Self-delusion arising from Sleep. and miscomprehension. and skill. husbandry. trade. From Whom all beings do come forth. Arjuna. And Shudras’ duty is service– Arising from innate nature. Born of Prakriti. courage. The duties are distributed According to guna-nature. sovereignty– These are duties of Kshatriyas. How by his duty he attains Perfection. sloth. Also not fleeing from battle. discernment. Agriculture. That is declared as tamasic. uprightness. Worshipping Him with his duty. patience. Are the duties of the Vaishyas. Calmness. Man attains highest perfection. as also of Shudras.
Neither grieving nor desiring.” and tranquil– He’s fit for union with Brahman. 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 106 . With body. wrath. freed from The notion of “mine. and mind controlled. One with Brahman. learn from Me in brief How. without desires. e’er engaged in Meditation. Abstemious. he thus attains Supreme devotion unto Me. Endued with a pure intellect. The same to all. Arjuna. With subdued heart. Leaving attraction and hatred.One’s own dharma. Relinquishing the sense-objects. that supreme Consummation of all knowledge. tranquil-minded. pride. power. for as the fire by smoke So defect envelops all deeds. speech. dispassionate. possessiveness. Is better than another’s though Done to perfection. having reached such perfection. Subduing body and senses. Attains by renunciation To perfect freedom from action. He whose mind is ever detached. though imperfect. Dwelling in a secluded place. Forsaking ego. The duty to which one is born Should not be relinquished. although Faulty. Lust. The duty Of one’s own nature brings no ill. He attains Brahman.
For your nature will compel you. then you shall perish. But if from self-conceit you will Not hear Me. you shall by My grace surmount all obstacles. deluded. Resorting to buddhi-yoga. If. Thus ever fix your mind on Me. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. causing Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine. with all your heart Take refuge in Him. you shall have To do–though in spite of yourself. he knows Me in truth. then having Known Me in My reality.Devoted. O Arjuna.” In vain shall be this your resolve. Though doing all actions always. What and Who I am. filled with pride and self-conceit. With mind fixed on Me. Desire not to do. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 107 . Fettered by your karma born of Your nature. You wrongly think: “I will not fight. By My grace he attains to the Eternal. as to the highest goal. and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode. immutable State. Always taking refuge in Me. what you. O Bharata. He forthwith enters into Me. Resigning mentally all deeds To Me.
Therefore I shall speak for your good. you Should take refuge in Me alone. Most secret of all. Never speak this to one without Austerities or devotion. Sacrifice and bow down to Me. for truly I Promise you–you are dear to Me. devoted. Relinquishing all dharmas. Then I shall fully liberate You from all sins. Fill your mind with Me.Thus has wisdom. Or one who renders not service. Now hear again My supreme word. more secret than All other secrets. wherefore grieve not. Or to one who cavils at Me.” 145 108 . nor to one who does not render service. nor to one who does not desire to listen. You shall reach Me. then do as you please. Nor among men is there any Who does dearer service to Me. now reflect on It fully. been declared To you by Me. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 “This shall not be spoken of by you to one who is without austerity. nor to one who is without devotion.145 He who with supreme devotion To Me teaches this most supreme Secret unto My devotees Shall doubtless come to Me alone. nor to one who speaks evil of Me. Nor shall there be another on The earth dearer to Me than he. because you Are dearly beloved of Me.
most secret yoga. shall worship Me by knowledge’s sacrifice. shall attain The happy worlds of the righteous. I will do Your word. By you with a one-pointed mind? Moreover. O Pritha’s son. destroyed is my delusion.And he who studies this sacred Dialogue of ours. I am firm. Sanjaya said: Thus have I heard this wonderful Dialogue of Vasudeva And the high-souled son of Pritha. And I have gained my memory Through Your grace. I recall again and again This wondrous. By grace of Vyasa have I heard This supreme. liberated. This is My certain conviction. Causing my hair to stand on end. and my doubts are gone. And even that man who hears this. Himself the one declaring it. He. 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 109 . Has this been heard. Full of faith and free from scoffing. holy dialogue Between Krishna and Arjuna And rejoice again and again. Yoga’s Lord. Direct from Krishna. has the delusion Of your ignorance been destroyed? Arjuna said: Yea.
As I recall and recall that Most wonderful form of Hari. there are Splendor. O King. ends the eighteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation. Where’er is Arjuna. victory. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. and I rejoice again and again. 110 . Where’er is Krishna. Yoga’s Lord. and right Order: such is my conviction. wealth. 77 78 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Great is my wonder. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.
and whose eyes were filled With tears. I am The beginning. Madhusudana spoke these words: 2) The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. the middle. To be the Knower in all Fields. 4) I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. 3) Know Me also. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower. O Bharata. 111 . and Also the end of all beings. The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge. downcast and despairing. 146 2:1 13:1 13:2 10:20146 Sri Ramana Maharshi said that this verse is the quintessence of the Gita–the Gita in a single verse.Sri maharshi gita 1) Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity.
perpetu’l. 7) This self cannot be cut. nor burnt. Therefore you never should lament. Nor wetted. Of that which is dead. nor yet does it die. The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth. birth is sure. primeval. eternal self. death is sure. 9) The unreal never comes to be. 10) As the all-pervading ether. Through subtlety is not tainted.5) Of that which is born. It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. 8) That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. All-pervading and unmoving. eternal. There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. 6) Neither is the Self slain. nor dried: ’tis changeless. Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. 2:27 2:20 2:24 2:17 2:16 13:32 112 . The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. Over the unavoidable. Birthless. The real does never cease to be. Immovable.
eternal. 16:23 13:27 11:54 113 . deathless in the dying. Attains not unto perfection. Going whither they return not. Scorcher of Foes. 16) By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. Attaining Which they return not. Is declared as the Supreme Goal. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self. Nor happiness. Seen in reality. nor Goal Supreme. There shines neither the moon nor fire. 15:5 14) He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. without desires. This is My supreme dwelling place. 12) The unmanifest. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal.11) That the sun illuminates not. also Entered into. For that is My Supreme Abode. 15) The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. 15:6 8:21 13) Without pride.
the constantly steadfast. 20) Out of compassion for them. and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace. And the master of his senses. Worshipping Me with affection. the man consists of his faith. I. and devoted. 19) To them. Above the mind is intellect. Above the senses is the mind. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. Abiding in their hearts. 21) But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge. he is what his faith is.17) Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. Attains this knowledge. 22) Above the body are senses. Above the intellect: the self. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me. 18) The man of faith. In truth. 17:3 4:39 10:10 10:11 5:16 3:42 114 . Yea. like the sun.
wanders off. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana. 25) Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. those ascetics Who know the Self. He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. that foe: desire. In the same way.23) Thus. With the mind fastened on the self. With thoughts restrained. He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing. O Arjuna. 27) With intellect set in patience. Moving here and there. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. then destroy That enemy. 3:43 4:37 4:19 5:26 6:25 6:26 115 . 26) Released from desire and anger. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this. 24) As fire reduces wood to ash. 28) Whenever the unsteady mind. and restraining The self by the Self. knowing Him Who is above The intellect.
as well. and anger: Such a sage is for ever free.29) Controlling sense. His self satisfied by the self. He knows: “All is Vasudeva. Freed from desire. excels. sees The Self present in all beings. He is called “of steady wisdom. disciplined by yoga. Supremely dear am I to him. intellect. Devoted to the One. 30) He. fear. With moksha as the supreme goal.” How very rare is that great soul! 34) When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. 33) At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me. And all beings within the Self. 31) Those who direct their thoughts to Me. e’er steadfast. mind. For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess.” 5:28 6:29 9:22 7:17 7:19 2:55 116 . 32) Of them. He sees the same Self at all times. the wise man. And he is dear to Me. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind.
40) Content with what comes unbidden. 117 .147 36) He who agitates not the world. And no need of any being For any purpose soever. 37) The same in honor and disgrace. 39) He has nothing to gain by acts. 41) O Arjuna. E’en though acting. Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the Gunas. And whom the world agitates not. Beyond duality. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. Who is satisfied in the Self. acts free from longing. envy. 38) He who is content in the Self. causing 147 2:71 12:15 14:25 3:17 3:18 4:22 Pronounced as four syllables. Nothing to gain by inaction. Who is freed from joy.35) He who abandons all desires Attains peace. envy. The same to friend and enemy. And worry–he is dear to Me. The same in success or failure. fear. he is not bound. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. Who is pleased only in the self: For him there is no need to act.
42) O Bharata. may that Embodiment of Grace save us!148 Om Tat sat. Om.Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine. Spoke the Gospel to Arjuna And removed his distress. Who seated in Arjun’s car. He. 18:61 18:62 148 These four lines where written by Sri Ramana to be included in the recitation of the forty-two verses he selected as the essence of the Gita’s teachings. 118 . with all your heart Take refuge in Him. and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode.
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