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Table of Contents
Plagiarism Declaration ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
List of Tables .........................................................................................................................ii
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................ii
1. Question 1 ..................................................................................................................... 1
2. Question 2 ..................................................................................................................... 3
3. Question 3 ..................................................................................................................... 4
4. Question 4 ..................................................................................................................... 6
5. Appendices .................................................................................................................... 8
5.1. Sample Calculations ............................................................................................... 8
5.2. Experimental Raw Data ........................................................................................ 10
6. References .................................................................................................................. 12

List of Tables
Table 1 t
10
particle size for each of the three specified size ranges ............................................. 3
Table 2 Average parameter values of Equation 1 ........................................................................... 4
Table 3 Real and calculated t
10
using input parameters for Equation 1 ....................................... 5
Table 4 Average parameter values of Equation 2 ........................................................................... 6
Table 5 Real and calculated t
10
using input parameters for Equation 2 ....................................... 6
Table 6 Data for determining
t10
for each of the three size ranges ............................................... 8
Table 7 t
10
in relation to input energy for the fitted model .............................................................. 9
Table 8 t
10
in relation to input energy for the modified fitted model .............................................. 9
Table 9 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 31.5 x 26.5 mm .................................. 10
Table 10 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 22.4 x 19 mm ................................... 11
Table 11 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 16 x 13.2 mm ................................... 11

List of Figures

Figure 1 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 31.5
x26.5 mm ............................................................................................................................................... 1
Figure 2 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 22.4 x
19 mm .................................................................................................................................................... 1
Figure 3 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 16 x
13.2 mm ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Figure 4 Fitting of a t
10
curve to breakage data for a platinum ore .............................................. 4
Figure 5 Fitting of modified t
10
equation to breakage data for a platinum ore ............................. 7
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1. Question 1












Figure 1 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range
31.5 x26.5 mm











Figure 2 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range
22.4 x 19 mm
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Figure 3 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 16 x 13.2
mm
Figures 1 to 3 shows the plot of cumulative size distribution for each size range at
three input energies i.e. 0.25, 1.00, and 2.50 kWh/t respectively. It can be seen that
as the input energy increases, the ore becomes finer. Wills (2006) suggested that
the greatest problem lies in the fact that most of the energy input to a crushing or
grinding machine is absorbed by the machine itself, and only a small fraction of the
total input energy is available for breaking the material.











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Size range Ecs t
10
(mm) (kWh/t) (mm)
31.5 x26.5 0.25 30.4
31.5 x 26.5 1.00 62.7
31.5 x 26.5 2.50 78.4
22.4 x 19.0 0.25 34.1
22.4 x 19.0 1.00 70.9
22.4 x 19.0 2.50 82.1
16.0 x13.2 0.25 41.9
16.0 x13.2 1.00 78.3
16.0 x13.2 2.50 91.6
2. Question 2

Determining the t
10
particle size for each of the three specifies size ranges
Size range: 31.5 x26.5 mm

Size range: 22.4 x19.0 mm

Size range: 16.0 x13.2 mm

Table 1 t
10
particle size for each of the three specified size ranges








Table 1 shows t
10
particle size for each of the three specified size ranges at three
input energies i.e. 0.25, 1.00, and 2.50 kWh/t respectively. It can be seen that the t
10
value increases with increasing particle size and input energy.



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Parameter Value
A 83.3
b 2.08
A.b 173
3. Question 3
Determining the parameters A and b in Equation 1 which best fits the breakage data
calculated in Question 2.

(

) (1)
Equation 1 relates the degree of breakage, t
10
to the energy input E
cs
.
 t
10
is defined as the percentage material passing through a screen whose
aperture is one tenth of the original geometric mean particle size.
 E
cs
is taken to be the specific comminution energy (kWh/t) or available energy
to cause fracture per mass present.
 A is the maximum breakage attainable in a single impact (percent passing)
 b is the standard JK slope parameter.

Table 2 Average parameter values of Equation 1














Figure 4 Fitting of a t
10
curve to breakage data for a platinum ore



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Size range Ecs t
10
t
10,model
(t
10-
t
10,model
)
2
(mm) (kWh/t) (mm) (mm) (mm)
31.5 x 26.5 0.25 30.41 33.73 11.05
31.5 x 26.5 1.00 62.73 72.83 102.09
31.5 x 26.5 2.50 78.40 82.79 19.30
22.4 x 19.0 0.25 34.10 33.73 0.13
22.4 x 19.0 1.00 70.85 72.83 3.94
22.4 x 19.0 2.50 82.10 82.79 0.48
16.0 x 13.2 0.25 41.93 33.73 67.17
16.0 x 13.2 1.00 78.29 72.83 29.77
16.0 x 13.2 2.50 91.58 82.79 77.20
Table 3 Real and calculated t
10
using input parameters for Equation 1








Table 2 shows the average parameters A and b in Equation 1 which best fit the
breakage data calculated in Question 2. The values of the parameters A and b are
83.2 and 2.08, respectively. It should be noted that these are the optimum values
determined in Microsoft Excel using Data analysis pack (Solver) in which the
difference (error) between the real t
10
values and the model values is minimal.
Manlapig et al (2011) suggested that the use of average set of A.b parameters
assumes that particles of different sizes would be broken in the same way when
subjected to the same impact energy which is questionable.

Figure 4 shows the relationship between the t
10
and the specific comminution energy
(Ecs).The graph shows that t
10
increases as the input energy increases. The
breakage data for each particle size have been shown using data points and the
fitted equation as a line. The fitted equation using the parameters in Table 2 match
the breakage data with particle size range 22.4 x 19.0 mm very well.

The value of A.b is typically utilised as an indicator of material hardness, with a
larger number indicating a softer material or less resistance to breakage (Morrison et
al, 1999). The determined value of A.b is 173 which is greater than 127 hence; the
ore is rated as very soft.






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Size range Ecs
Geometric
mean (x) t
10,model
t
10 reference
Scaling
factor t
10,real
t
10,real scaled
(t
10
-t
10,calculated
)
2
(mm) (kWh/t) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
31.5 x 26.5 0.25 28.89 24.50 24.50 1.000 30.41 30.41 34.89
31.5 x 26.5 1.00 28.89 61.16 61.16 1.000 62.73 62.73 2.45
31.5 x 26.5 2.50 28.89 77.20 77.20 1.000 78.40 78.40 1.44
22.4 x 19.0 0.25 20.63 18.40 24.50 0.751 34.1 25.60 1.21
22.4 x 19.0 1.00 20.63 51.68 61.16 0.845 70.85 59.86 1.70
22.4 x 19.0 2.50 20.63 73.53 77.20 0.952 82.1 78.20 1.00
16.0 x 13.2 0.25 14.53 13.45 24.50 0.549 41.93 23.02 2.19
16.0 x 13.2 1.00 14.53 41.58 61.16 0.680 78.29 53.23 62.97
16.0 x 13.2 2.50 14.53 66.87 77.20 0.866 91.58 79.32 4.51
4. Question 4

Determining the parameters A and b in Equation 1 which best fits the breakage data
calculated in Question 2.
Equation 1 has been modified to relate t
10
to input energy W
m,kin
usinf Equation 2:

[

(

)] (2)
 k is the number of impacts to breakage
 x is the particle size (geometric mean) of the largest particle size
 f
mat
is a material specific property

Table 4 Average parameter values of Equation 2




Table 5 Real and calculated t
10
using input parameters for Equation 2


Parameter Value
M 79.1
fmat 0.0513
M.fmat.x 117
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Figure 5 Fitting of modified t
10
equation to breakage data for a platinum ore

Table 4 shows the parameters M and fmat in Equation 2 which best fit the breakage
data calculated in Question 2. The values of the parameters M and fmat are 79.1
and 0.0513, respectively.

Figure 5 the relationship between the t
10
and the W
m,kin
). The breakage data for each
particle size have been shown using data points and the fitted equation as a line.
The fitted equation using the parameters in Table 4 match the breakage data with
particle size range 22.4 x 19.0 mm very well.

The determined value of A.b is 173 and the value of M.fmat.x is 117 and the
difference between the two values is 56. There is a significant difference between
the two models but they both match the breakage data with particle size range 22.4 x
19.0 mm very well. It can also be observed that both equations take similar
exponential form, and the parameters of the two equations are. Manlapig et al (2011)
suggested that the ore softness indicator A.b in Equation 1 can be calculated from
the parameters in Equation 2 using the following relationship:
.The constant 3600 is used for conversion.







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5. Appendices
5.1. Sample Calculations
Question 2
Determining the percent material passing through
Table 6 Data for determining
t10
for each of the three size ranges

Using the data in Table 6
Comminution energy: 0.25 kWh/t


Comminution energy: 1.00 kWh/t


Comminution energy: 2.50 kWh/t


The same procedure was followed for size ranges 22.4 x 19.0 mm and 16.0 x 13.2
mm, respectively.




Ecs (kWh/t) a b c d
0.25 3.35 32.00 2.36 27.50
1.00 3.35 65.10 2.36 58.40
2.50 3.35 80.10 2.36 75.30
0.25 2.36 35.90 1.70 32.60
1.00 2.36 73.80 1.70 68.40
2.50 2.36 86.20 1.70 82.10
0.25 1.7 44 1.18 39.7
1.00 1.7 80.5 1.18 75.9
2.50 1.7 93.7 1.18 89.3
22.4 x 19.0 mm
16.0 x 13.2 mm
31.5 x 26.5 mm
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W
m,kin
t
10, (Calculated)
(kWh/t) (mm)
0.00 0.00
0.25 24.22
0.50 41.22
0.75 52.96
1.00 61.07
1.25 66.67
1.50 70.53
1.75 73.20
2.00 75.04
2.25 76.31
2.50 77.19
2.75 77.79
3.00 78.21
Table 7 t
10
in relation to input energy for the fitted model











The data in Table 7 was obtained using Equation 1 and the parameters A and b
shown in Table 2
Table 8 t
10
in relation to input energy for the modified fitted model










The data in Table 8 was obtained using Equation 2 and the parameters M and fmat
shown in Table 4

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Screen (mm) 0.25 1 2.5 0.25 1 2.5
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
37.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
26.5 4.8 0.0 0.0 95.2 100.0 100.0
19 6.3 1.4 0.0 89.0 98.6 100.0
13.2 17.4 3.2 2.0 71.5 95.4 98.0
9.5 14.5 5.4 4.3 57.0 90.0 93.7
6.7 9.2 9.3 3.1 47.9 80.8 90.6
4.75 8.9 7.9 5.8 38.9 72.9 84.8
3.35 7.0 7.8 4.7 32.0 65.1 80.1
2.36 4.5 6.7 4.8 27.5 58.4 75.3
1.7 3.1 5.5 4.4 24.4 52.8 70.9
1.18 2.7 6.5 4.2 21.7 46.3 66.7
0.85 2.0 3.9 3.6 19.6 42.4 63.1
0.6 1.8 3.9 3.3 17.9 38.5 59.8
0.425 1.9 3.7 3.3 16.0 34.8 56.5
0.3 2.3 5.5 5.6 13.7 29.3 51.0
0.212 3.0 7.1 9.4 10.7 22.2 41.5
0.15 10.7 22.2 41.5 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.106 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
% Retained at Ecs (kWh/t) Cumulative % passing at Ecs (kWh/t)
31.5 X 26.5 mm
Question 4
Size range: 31.5 x26.5 mm

Size range: 22.4 x 19.0 mm


Size range: 16.0 x13.2 mm

k= 1 (given)
x = the geometric mean of the largest particle size = 28.89

5.2. Experimental Raw Data
Table 9 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 31.5 x 26.5 mm
















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Screen (mm) 0.25 1 2.5 0.25 1 2.5
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
37.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
26.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
19 3.5 0.0 0.0 96.5 100.0 100.0
13.2 16.9 0.0 0.0 79.6 100.0 100.0
9.5 11.2 2.6 0.6 68.3 97.4 99.4
6.7 11.7 1.9 1.9 56.7 95.6 97.6
4.75 8.8 7.2 2.8 47.9 88.3 94.8
3.35 7.0 7.7 4.0 40.9 80.6 90.8
2.36 5.0 6.8 4.6 35.9 73.8 86.2
1.7 3.4 5.4 4.1 32.6 68.4 82.1
1.18 2.9 5.3 4.7 29.7 63.1 77.4
0.85 2.0 4.5 3.3 27.7 58.6 74.1
0.6 2.2 3.8 3.6 25.4 54.7 70.6
0.425 2.5 4.2 3.5 23.0 50.5 67.0
0.3 3.3 6.0 5.0 19.6 44.5 62.0
0.212 5.3 9.6 10.2 14.3 34.9 51.9
0.15 5.2 30.7 14.5 9.1 4.2 37.4
0.106 4.0 0.1 14.1 5.1 4.1 23.3
22.4 X 19 mm
% Retained at Ecs (kWh/t) Cumulative % passing at Ecs (kWh/t)
Screen (mm) 0.25 1 2.5 0.25 1 2.5
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
37.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
26.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
19 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
13.2 2.8 0.0 0.0 97.2 100.0 100.0
9.5 10.6 1.4 0.0 86.5 98.6 100.0
6.7 12.7 2.0 0.0 73.8 96.6 100.0
4.75 7.9 3.5 0.0 65.9 93.1 100.0
3.35 9.4 2.6 1.0 56.5 90.5 99.0
2.36 7.6 5.1 2.3 48.9 85.4 96.7
1.7 4.9 4.9 2.9 44.0 80.5 93.7
1.18 4.3 4.6 4.5 39.7 75.9 89.3
0.85 2.7 3.8 3.9 37.0 72.1 85.4
0.6 2.6 6.3 5.0 34.4 65.8 80.4
0.425 3.2 7.1 5.5 31.1 58.7 74.9
0.3 4.8 7.9 7.0 26.4 50.8 67.8
0.212 7.7 8.1 12.1 18.7 42.7 55.8
0.15 7.1 15.4 15.9 11.6 27.3 39.8
0.106 5.1 16.0 15.5 6.5 11.3 24.3
16 X 13.2 mm
% Retained at Ecs (kWh/t) Cumulative % passing at Ecs (kWh/t)
Table 10 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 22.4 x 19 mm













Table 11 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 16 x 13.2 mm










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6. References
1. Ergun, L. & Hosseinzadeh, H. 2000. Determination of Breakage Distribution
Function of Fine Chromite Ores with Bed Breakage Method. 1-9.
2. Napier-Munn, T.J., Morrison, R.D., & Kojovic, T. 1999. Minerals Comminution
Circuits: Their operation and optimization. Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral
Research Centre.
3. Morrison, R.D., Shi, F. & Whyte, R. 2007. Modelling of incremental rock,
breakage by impact- For use in DEM models. Minerals Engineering Journal.
20: 303-309.
4. Dundar, H., Jankovic, A., & Mehta. 2010. Relationship between comminution
energy and the product size for a magnetite ore. The Journal of the Southern
African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 110:141-146.
5. Wills, B.A. 2006. Mineral Processing Technology. An introduction to the
practical aspects of ore treatment of minerals.7:116-120.
6. Manlapig, E., Shi, F. & Wang, E. 2012. Factors affecting electrical
comminution performance. Sustainable Minerals Institute. 34:48-54.
7. Manlapig, E., Shi, F. & Wang, E. 2011. Pre-weakening of mineral ores by high
voltage pulses. Mineral’s Engineering Journal. 24: 455-462.








.... 11 Table 11 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 16 x 13....................................................................... 8 5................................................. 6 Table 5 Real and calculated t10 using input parameters for Equation 2 .................................. 8 5.. Question 2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined....................... 2 Figure 4 Fitting of a t10 curve to breakage data for a platinum ore .. 3 Table 2 Average parameter values of Equation 1 ................................................................................................................ii 1..........................4 x 19 mm ...................... 6 Table 6 Data for determining t10 for each of the three size ranges .................................................................................................................... 1 2....5 x26................................................................................................................. 6 5............... 5 Table 4 Average parameter values of Equation 2 .......................................... 12 List of Tables Table 1 t10 particle size for each of the three specified size ranges ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 ii | P a g e ..............2 mm .... 9 Table 8 t10 in relation to input energy for the modified fitted model ........................5 x 26........4 x 19 mm ...................... 10 Table 10 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 22...2 mm ............................... 4 Table 3 Real and calculated t10 using input parameters for Equation 1 ........ 9 Table 9 Data cumulative size distribution of size range 31.................................... 4 4... 1 Figure 2 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 22............. 4 Figure 5 Fitting of modified t10 equation to breakage data for a platinum ore ................................................. Question 3 ........................ 8 Table 7 t10 in relation to input energy for the fitted model .............................................................................. References ..... 10 6...........1............................................................................................................................... List of Tables ........................................................................................Table of Contents Plagiarism Declaration .............................................2................................ 1 Figure 3 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 16 x 13.............. Sample Calculations ................................................... Question 1 ........................................................................................ii List of Figures ....... 11 List of Figures Figure 1 Plot of cumulative size distribution at different input energies for size range 31............................... 3 3...................5 mm ......5 mm .. Appendices ..................................................................................................................... Question 4 ........................................................................................ Experimental Raw Data ...............................................................

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