Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4, June 2004

Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) Tutorial

June 2004

© 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. All Rights Reserved.

1

Another advantage is that much less fiber is required than in pointto-point topologies................................ To visualize the lower fiber requirements............. This lets you utilize the economies-of-scale of Ethernet............... they share the Optical Distribution Network (ODN) trunk fiber back to the Central Office.................................................................. other than at the CO and subscriber endpoints......................... Figure 1 illustrates all of these options....................... EPON is based on the Ethernet standard................. and provides simple................................ there are no active electronics within the access network.... 5 EPON PROTOCOL......................... 11 Overview A Passive Optical Network (PON) is a single..................................... easy-to-manage connectivity to Ethernet-based................ Eliminating the need for electrical equipment in the first mile network is a key facet of the EFMP topology....................................................................... Ethernet in the First Mile PON (EFMP) builds a point-to-multi-point fiber topology that supports a speed of 1 Gbps for up to 20 km.......... As with other Gigabit Ethernet media... 7 EPON DOWNSTREAM ........ While subscribers are connected via dedicated distribution fibers to the site.... 10 SUMMARY .................. 6 ONU AND OLT OPERATION .. shared optical fiber that uses inexpensive optical splitters to divide the single fiber into separate strands feeding individual subscribers.......................................... 2 EPON TOPOLOGIES.................... IP equipment...... which are based on the ATM standard............................ both at the customer premises and at the central office....................................................3AH OBJECTIVES ........................................... PONS are called "passive" because...................................................... 4 EPON SYSTEMS...................................................... June 2004 Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) Tutorial OVERVIEW....... All Rights Reserved................................................................................................................. 7 EPON UPSTREAM ..................................................... 9 EPON STANDARDS WITHIN P802....................... Using these techniques to create a passive optical infrastructure.... unlike other PON technologies............... 2 .................. 8 ROUND TRIP TIME MEASUREMENT .......................... it © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance...............................Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4............................ it is useful to look at the topologies of point to point Ethernet and “curb switched” Ethernet along with EPON.................... 4 EPON NETWORK ........................................................

All Rights Reserved. Curb-Switched Ethernet. Figure 1: Point to Point Ethernet. EPON also uses only one trunk fiber and thus minimizes fibers and space in the CO. It requires no electrical power in the field. and EPON Point-to-point Ethernet might use either N or 2N fibers. as well as time-sensitive voice and video traffic. which is dominant at the access layer. and also only uses N+1 optical transceivers. EPON can support downstream broadcast such as video. June 2004 is well-suited to carry packetized traffic. Curb-switched Ethernet uses one trunk fiber and thus saves fiber and space in the Central Office (CO).Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. The drop throughput can be up to the line rate on the trunk link. © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. and thus has 2N optical transceivers. 3 . But it uses 2N+2 optical transceivers and needs electrical power in the field.

using passive 1:N optical splitters.3ah EPON specification defines Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP). All Rights Reserved. June 2004 The IEEE 802. 4 . and two 1490/1310 nm PMDs for 10 and 20 km. Point-to-Point Emulation (P2PE). authentication and dynamic bandwidth allocation. required to build an EPON system. Figure 2: EPON System Architecture EPON Network An EPON network includes an optical line terminal (OLT) and an optical network unit (ONU). EPON Topologies As Figure 2 shows. © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. including security. EPON is typically deployed as a tree or tree-and-branch topology. The OLT resides in the CO (POP or local exchange). Typical EPON-based systems may include extra features above the IEEE 802. This would typically be an Ethernet switch or Media Converter platform.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4.3ah standard.

Subscribers.3ah WAN interface. see traffic only from the headend. or ONUs. EPON 1:N Photos courtesy of Alloptic. each subscriber cannot see traffic transmitted by other subscribers. or on the curb outside.. 5 . The ONU typically has an 802. or OLT. As Figure 4 shows. multiplexing signals with different wavelengths for downstream and upstream as such: • 1490 nm downstream © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. In Figure 3. 1:N optical splitter single fiber optics Figure 4: EPON Configuration EPON systems use an optical splitter architecture. the headend allows only one subscriber at a time to transmit using a Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) protocol. It can be located at the subscriber residence. Inc. All Rights Reserved.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. June 2004 The ONU resides at or near the customer premise. in a building. and peer-to-peer communication is done through the headend.3 subscriber interface. the OLT is on the left and several ONUs are shown on the right. and an 802. Figure 3: ONU and OLT EPON Systems EPON is configured in full duplex mode (no CSMA/CD) in a single fiber point-tomultipoint (P2MP) topology.

bandwidth polling. auto-discovery. All Rights Reserved. with both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint access cards. EPON uses the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP). and ranging.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. as shown in Figure 5. Model 1 Service Providers IP Router VoIP GW Video Server IP Router SP2 Model 2 VoIP GW SP3 SP4 Video Server L3 Service Multiplexing Switch L3 L2 SP1 L2 Bandwidth Concentration Switch P2M P OLT P2P OLT P2P OLT P2P OLT 2 1 Demarcation Point P2MP and P2P System OLT + Optical Distribution Network Network Operator P2P ONT P2P ONT P2M P ONT Figure 5: EPON in the Ethernet Access Model EPON Protocol To control the P2MP fiber network. Ethernet PON can be deployed in an Ethernet access platform. It is implemented in the MAC Layer. introducing new 64-byte control messages: • • GATE and REPORT are used to assign and request bandwidth REGISTER is used to control the auto-discovery process © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. June 2004 • 1310 nm upstream Though configured as point to multipoint. 6 . MPCP performs bandwidth assignment.

All Rights Reserved. June 2004 MPCP provides hooks for network resource optimization. EPON handles the physical broadcast of 802. The OLT also assigns bandwidth and performs ranging operations. 1 1 ONU 1 header Payload FCS 1 2 USER 1 802. © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. and bandwidth reporting satisfies requirements by ONUs for DBA. Ranging is performed to reduce slack. It receives the GATE message and transmits within the permitted time period.3 frames. Using timestamps on the downstream GATE MAC Control Message. EPON Downstream Downstream. It generates discovery windows for new ONUs. the ONU synchronizes to the OLT timing. Optical parameters are negotiated to optimize performance. ONU and OLT Operation The ONU performs an auto-discovery process which includes ranging and the assignment of both Logical Link IDs and bandwidth. and controls the registration process. broadcast frames are extracted by the logical link ID in the preamble. 7 . The OLT generates time stamped messages to be used as global time reference.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. 64-byte GATE messages are sent downstream to assign upstream bandwidth.3 frame 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 2 2 OLT ONU 2 USER 2 2 3 ONU 3 USER 3 Figure 6: Downstream EPON Operation More detail on the 64-byte GATE message is shown in Figure 7. As Figure 6 shows.

where each ONU sends a 64-byte REPORT message. All Rights Reserved. There are no collisions and no packet fragmentation in this architecture. © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance.request(GATE) MA_CONTROL. Upstream Data Path 8 TS Clock register . June 2004 OLT MAC Control Client Generate GATE message Start Stop ONU MAC Control Client MA_CONTROL.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4.request( … ) MAC Control S C O P E Clock register Timestamp GATE message TS Start Stop MAC Control Write registers Start Stop Slot Start register Slot Stop register Laser ON/OFF PHY I N MAC MAC PHY Figure 7: Path of GATE Message from OLT to ONU EPON Upstream Figure 8 outlines the upstream control. with ONU state information to the OLT.indication(GATE) MA_DATA. the MPCP uses time slots containing multiple 802.3 frames.

Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. 9 . All Rights Reserved. OLT MAC Control Client Q1 Q0 ONU MAC Control Client Q1 Q0 Generate REPORT message MA_CONTROL.3 frame 3 3 3 ONU 3 3 3 3 USER 3 header Payload FCS Figure 8: EPON Upstream Control Figure 9 describes the REPORT message.request(REPORT) MAC Control Clock register RTT register Measure Round-Trip Time - TS Q1 Q0 E P O C S N I MAC Control TS Q1 Q0 Clock register Timestamp REPORT message MAC PHY MAC PHY Figure 9: The REPORT Message Round Trip Time Measurement The calculation of round trip time is as follows: © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance.indication(REPORT) MA_CONTROL. June 2004 ONU 1 1 1 USER 1 1 1 OLT 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 ONU 2 2 USER 2 time slot 802.

OLT sends GATE at T1 2. Figure 10: Calculation of Round Trip Time Measurement The bottom line is that: RTT = (T3-T1) – (T2-T1) = T3-T2 EPON Standards within P802.. which lists all of the P802. T2 (T2-T1) REPORT .. OLT calculates RTT = T3 – T2 The following figure illustrates this. June 2004 1. T2 GATE T2 . T1 (T3-T1) GATE T3 OLT Tx Rx T1 . REPORT ONU Tx Rx T1 T1 .. All Rights Reserved.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. ONU receives GATE at T1 3.. OLT receives REPORT at T3 5.. Subscriber Access Technologies Physical Layer Specifications © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance.. ONU sends REPORT at T2 4. 10 ..3ah objectives by technology. consider the following table..3ah Objectives To see where EPON fits in the entire EFM standard.

but with much greater bandwidth (1 Gbps). analogous to hybrid-fiber-coax networks. point-to-multipoint architecture. An EPON network is a shared network. 11 . All Rights Reserved. data and video services. © 2004 Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance. single SM fiber. resulting from their nature as all-passive networks. >=1:16 PHY for PON. EPON is one type of fiber-based Ethernet access. single SM fiber. 1000Mbps. June 2004 Point to point on optical fiber (EFMF) Point to multipoint on optical fiber (EPON) Point to point on copper 1000BASE-LX extended temperature range optics 1000BASE-X >= 10km over single SM fiber 100BASE-X >= 10km over SM fiber PHY for PON. 1000Mbps. using a passive optical 1:N infrastructure. distance >=750m and speed >=10Mbps full duplex Table 1: P8023ah Objectives Summary EPON is suitable for Fiber-to-the-Home/Building/Business applications. and native Ethernet protocol. EPON systems are a highly attractive access solution because of cost and performance advantage. including voice. >= 10km.Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA) Revision 4. >=1:16 PHY for single pair non-loaded voice grade copper. >= 20km.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful