Angie Yousry Review Sheet Ancient Greece and Rome Geography of Ancient Greece -on 7 hills -on a peninsula surrounded by islands

-very good for sea trade and fishing -because of hills it was made into city states Sparta Athens Macedonia City state-city that was part of a country which acted like its own country with a leader money and laws. Sparta -city state -lived for war at young ages they practiced for war -women were required to be physically educated -strong army -didn't build walls because they believed that their men were their walls -2 kings and elderly ruled -very little education Athens -city state -sort of democratic they didn't have a king an assembly ruled but let men at 18 vote -believed in a peaceful society -valued arts architecture and education -women stayed at home learned to read weave clothes and take care of house and children -eager to learn -60 joined the government Persian wars -The Persian war started when the Rome was trading with other countries along the Mediterranean -Carthageines didn’t like that -The 29 year old Hannibal began these 3 Punic wars -1st war was for 23 years -he always wanted to destroy Greece -Hannibal came through Alps mountains to defeat the Greeks -Rome prevented him from getting through -Rome found new leader named stupio he made a plan to attack cartage -Hannibal surrendered and Rome won -they set afire 50 thousand inhabitants to slavery -and the Romans conquered the western medetrianien

Battle of Thermopylae -after Persian king died his son started war with the Greeks -went through an area called Thermopylae but the Greeks were always their -Athens/Sparta worked together to fight the Persians -then Greek traitor showed the Persians a route in between the mountains behind Thermopylae - Persians Attacked from the front and back of the Greeks -300 men fought until their weapons broke -Persians won but Greeks never forgot bravery Religion of ancient Greece -they were polytheistic -they believed in many gods ex: Zeus Poseidon Hades Aphrodite etc -mythology are the myths the Greeks believed in they were stories from the past They were beliefs Philosophers -Socrates- he believed everyone should have their own opinions and ideas not to listen and follow the society -Aristotle- he beloved that there should be moderation not to little or too much of things and people should be inspired to learn -Plato-believed in a republic meaning people should have the right to vote on who to be their leader and that 1 philosopher king should rule Alexander the great -Alexander the great was son of King Philip the second -he was an amazing general and famous for conquering many territories and always winning -he spread Greek culture and conquer land through hellinization and cultural diffusion -he destroyed then Persian empire -owned multiple cities and gave the language Greek -he died at 32 of maybe poisoning in his alcohol or assassination -after his death his kingdom was broken in to 3 helonistic kingdoms Roman republic - after Tarquin king who was a tyrant he got overruled and it Gave citizens right to vote For leader -Only free born male citizens voted -plebeians voted -patricians usually wealthy leaders -plebeians made assemblies called tribunes which helped keep their rights not taken away from patricians -plebeians wrote a law code of 12 tablets -12 tablets gave right to citizen to be protected by the law -2 consuls which were like kings term 1 year -any issues a dictator was assign to take over for 6 months usually took over -had legislative and aristocratic branches -300 members in senate

Republic VOTE Patricians. Plebeians 1.Two consuls. The magistrates. 2. Tribunes 3. Senate Julio's Caesar -military leader joined with Crassus and a wealthy roman and roman general pompey - roman general counsel and dictator -made himself king of Guam -Ceasor went with legion and attacked guan and won -he became absolute ruler and popular -gave roman citizenship -helped poor by using conquers land to give to poor -forced landowners to use paid workers as well as slaves -created jobs and gave limit for patricians to own land so poor can own land to -increased pay for men in army -afraid their influence would be forgotten -afraid Ceasor only helping plebeians -afraid Ceasor take power to conquer land with power -group of roman senators led. By Brutus stabbed him to death 1 other roman emperor -Augustus was the first emperor of Rome -grandnephew of Ceasor -he earned supreme power for defeating Antony in 31bc Daily life Romans -started off as a religious event then into fighting -plebeians went their they got free food and got a free show -'Romans were entertained by gladiators which were slaves or volunteers of rich people who ----fought other people in big stadiums for entertainment. -they volunteered to earn fame -They fought until they died -The gladiators whenever they won they gave more money to their owner -if they become free they get to keep their own money -slaves could earn freedom if they win 3 to 5 years of fighting -from 14 years -trained to learn to use weapons like lasso trident -allowed to have armor and pick one weapon of their choice -thumbs down want to kill and ready to fight -thumbs up means they want to give up -winner wins gold bowl and crown Pax Romana -is the period of peace and prosperity in Roman Empire

Fall of Roman Empire -Empire to big since Rome was opened larger it was harder to protect the land -Christianity was introduced they believed in peace not war so army became weak -Army became weaker and was not able to defend country -Barbarians invaded -Economy went down there was a lot of slaves that took up jobs -Economic problems there were high taxes people were not able to feed themselves because they --needed to pay taxes and a lot were poor -Invasions of barbarians because country became weak Plebeians- 'normal crafts people votes for counsel PATRICAANS- rich people usually in consul and senate Republic- government used by Rome to let plebeian’s vote for leader Mythology- stories and tales told that let Romans follow and believe Hellenistic -is process of spreading Greek culture and conquering land Philosopher -person who had their own way of thinking and ideas for academic discipline Helot -slave in Sparta Polis- city state in ancient Greece