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Bng tun hon nguyn t nhng iu th v (phn 2)

Nhng iu th v v cc nguyn t ha hc: Nguyn t no tn ti trong qu t, trn v tr hay ch trong phng th nghim? S phn ca nguyn t mi nht 108. Vinh quang v bi kch ca nhng nh sn tm nguyn t mi Cc pht kin mi m v cc nguyn t ho hc cc trung tm nghin cu ln trn th gii gip con ngi m rng tm nhn, khm ph nhiu iu th v v th gii t nhin. Nguyn t 106: Ngoi l lch s

Chi ph ch to ra cc nguyn t siu nng, siu uran trong phng th nghim rt cao, i hi thit b v cng ngh rt tinh vi, hin i v d nhin l t tin, t cc tm bia siu tinh khit, my phn tch ht nhn theo khi lng; in tch, c bit l cc c my gia tc hin i

nht cho chm ht cng ln, nng lng cao v chnh xc v.vV vy, mi nguyn t mi c tm thy thng tri qua nhng on ng y chng gai, c gi thnh khng nh. Nhng ngha khoa hc cng rt to ln. V cc tc gi pht minh cng nhn c s tn vinh xng ng. C nhng trng hp s tn vinh vt ra ngoi thng l bnh thng, l trng hp ca nguyn t 106. Nguyn t 106 c pht minh t nm 1974, nhng cuc tranh ci bn quyn ko di n 20 nm gia hai trung tm khoa hc hng u th gii, gia Phng th nghim quc gia Berkley (M) v Vin Lin hip Nghin cu Ht nhn (VLHNCHN, Dupna, Nga), gia nhm nghin cu Gleen Seaborg v nhm Flerov Oganhisian. n nm 1993 cuc tranh ci mi ng ng vi phn thng nghing v nhm Berkley. Nhng vic t tn khng v th m d dng. Tm thnh vin trong nhm nghin cu Berkley khng thng nht nhau, h xut mt bng danh sch di, t nhng danh nhn khoa hc v vn ho Newton, Edison, Leonardo da Vinci, Ferdinad Magellan, n tng thng u tin ca Hoa

k George Washington, tn nc nh Finland (t quc ca mt thnh vin trong nhm), thm ch c tn nhn vt thn thoi nh Ulysses.

Ngi sao bng n, ni to thnh cc nguyn t mi nh Californium. Cui cng tn ngi lnh o ni ting ca h nh khoa hc ni ting, Seaborg, tc gi ca 10 nguyn t mi c thng nht la chn. Hi Ho hc M (ACS) chp nhn ngay, nhng Hip hi Ho Tinh khit v ng dng Quc t (IUPAC) li a ra mt nguyn tc mi khng c t tn nguyn t cho mt ngi ang sng. IUPAC xut tn khc l Rutherforium (Rf). ACS cc lc phn i v e do ty chay IUPAC. Cui cng, nm 1997, ti Geneve,

cuc hp ca hi ng IUPAC nhng b v chp nhn tn ca nguyn t 106 l Seaborgium. Trong lch s, ch c 10 tn ngi c mang tn nguyn t l: Curies (Cm-96), Einstein (Es-90), Fermi (Fm-100), Mendeleev (Md-101), Nobelium (No-102), Lawrence (Lw103), Rutherford (Rf-104), Seaborg (Sg-106), Bohr (Bh107), Meitner (Mt-107). Nhng, c bit, ch mi Glenn Theodore Seaborg l mt ngoi l lch s, ngi u tin trn th gii cn sng c mang tn mt nguyn t ho hc. Nguyn t 118: s phn long ong Tri vi vinh quang ca nguyn t 106, con ng tm kim nguyn t 118 cng qu chng gai v s phn nhng ngi sn tm 118 cng l bi kch. T ma xun 1999, nhm Berkley m tc gi chnh l Victor Nivov a ra thng bo tng hp c 2 nguyn t siu uran 116 v 118. Tuyn b ny thc s lm cho d lun sng st v nghi ng. u tin, v kt qu th nghim khc xa vi tnh ton l thuyt.

Trc s phn bc mnh m ca cc nhm khoa hc gia trn th gii, nhm Berkley phi lm li th nghim v iu ri ro l chnh h cng khng th lp li kt qu cng b ca mnh. ng thi, trn cc my gia tc tin tin Darmastadt v RIKEN, trn my gia tc GANIL ca Php, cng ln lt lm th nghim kim tra. Tt c u cho cu tr li ph nh. Nhiu nh khoa hc trn th gii ln ting yu cu Berkley mt thi dng cm cng nhn sai lm ca mnh. Trong tnh th , cc nh khoa hc Bekley phi tin hnh phn tch li, bng nhiu cch c lp, ton b s liu th nghim thu nm 1999 ca mnh v kim tra cc chng trnh my tnh dng tnh ton. Kt qu cui cng chng t rng nm 1999 khng tng hp c nguyn t siu nng 118 v c nguyn t 116 l sn phm phn r ca 118. Cc kt qu cng b trc y l ngu to. Nhm Berkley chnh thc xin rt lui bn cng b . V tc gi chnh ca pht minh o ni trn, Victor Nivov, phi nhn k lut nng, buc thi vic.

Phn ng tng hp ht nhn to thnh nguyn t mi nht 118 Nh vy, nm 1999 l nm sinh ht ca nguyn t 118. Nhng tng tm kim 118 vn khng t b. 5 nm sau, hai tp th khoa hc quc t ni ting Phng th nghim quc gia Lawrence Livermore v Vin LHNCHN Dupna, cng tc vi nhau nghin cu tm kim nguyn t mi 118. Th nghim tin hnh Dupna, t thng 2 n thng 7 nm 2005, trn my gia tc U400 cyclotron, bn chm ion Calcium gia tc vo bia Californium. Kt qu th nghim chng t: 3 ht nhn 118 c tng hp. Thnh cng c cng b trn tp ch ni ting Physical Review C vo thng 10 nm 2006. Nh vy, cui cng nguyn t siu nng, siu uran mi nguyn t th 118 c tm thy.

Cng cn b sung thm rng, hai tp th khoa hc Dupna Livermore, trc , thnh cng trong vic tng hp cc nguyn t mi 113, 114, 115 v 116. Qu trnh i n cng nhn pht minh nguyn t 118, chc hn cn mt thi gian thm nh kt qu th nghim bi cc phng th nghim khc nhau, xut t tn v.vv cui cng l cuc b phiu chp thun ca t chc c thm quyn Hip hi Ha Tinh khit v ng dng Quc t IUPAC. Hy vng ln ny, nguyn t 118 thc s c khai sinh v bng THNT thc s c ko di n th 118. Hnh trnh sn lng nguyn t mi, i tm o bn trong bng THNT vn tip tc i v pha trc.