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in the Transactions of the 1923. In the following pages an attempt is made to remedy this deficiency. I chief object of this work is to provide material for of the affiliations of the Japanese language. destroyed in the great earthquake of There exists. in so far as philological evidence is of value. advanced students of Japanese. requires but little revision in the light of recent research. languages will. without conscious bias towards either theory. Chamberlain and Ueda which. but the philological plete data so far as concerns the vocabulary arguments on both sides have as a rule been based on incomand grammatical structure of the Japanese language in its earliest known stages.PREFACE THE study theory. find many of their difficulties removed by gaining some knowledge of the development of grammatical forms and the growth of common idioms. Asiatic Society of Japan (vol. for inquiry into but it has been so planned the origins of the Japanese race as to be. 225-85) a list compiled by Messrs. It was my intention to furnish as an appendix an annotated vocabulary of Japanese in its earliest known forms. and. leaving it to comparative philologists to make use of the material supplied. xvi. of interest to students of general linguistic . I believe. The question of the racial origins of the people now inhabiting the Japanese archipelago has not yet been solved. and even those will find it useful as a work of reference who are concerned only with the modern spoken and written trust also that especially those who wish to read early . I believe. The chief sources used for the following study treatises of the great pre-Restoration were the grammarians such as Motoori and Mabuchi and their annotated texts of the earliest . but the lists which I had compiled were. and I have purposely confined myself to a purely descriptive treatment. however. pp. unfortunately. I hope. and medieval texts. as opposed to the 'Ural-Altaic' theory. Recently much attention has been paid to the Polynesian.

. Chamberlain. in 1913. ^ and industry. Tokyo. The British Embassy. The examples of Japanese given in the course of the work are taken. published in two volumes. whose great thesis on Japanese grammar ffr) and studies of the language of the Nara. records and anthologies the indispensable studies of Aston. learning G. B. ( 2fc 3£ Heian. and Satow. S. I am most indebted to the works of Professor Yamada Koyii. those great pioneer scholars. of 1. 1 I regret that I have been unable to make use of recently discovered MSS. which show that the work as usually known is refashioned from texts in an earlier language. in the case of classical and medieval usages. to whom all Western students owe praise and thanks various modern text-books on Japanese grammar and compilations made under the auspices of the Department of Education.viii PREFACE . and Kamakura periods are amazing monuments of . of the Heike Monogatari. such as the complete analysis of the vocabulary and grammatical structure of the Heike Monogatari. 1 Of all these.000 pages each. from the best available texts. . and in the case of modern usages from the Readers published by the Department of Education or from newspapers and other contemporary documents.

85. 81. Imperative. ' negative base form..69 Demonstrative pronouns. 71. : Simple conjugation.. The Verb I. .. .Preface . 142.98 126 Verbs and adjectives. . 98. 82. 4i 3. . 130. 73. Inflected adjectives. Uninflected adjectives. 147. Further development of the Script and the representation of Japanese sounds Later developments of the language. The Substantive The Pronoun. 129. and divergence between spoken and written forms . and their simple conjugation IV.. III. Development of conjugations. Interrogative pronouns.90 . . Introduction of Writing CONTENTS vn xi Introduction Abbreviations I. Substantival forms in -ku. Indefinite pronouns. . 133. 3270 b .. Imperfect or 137. 76. Historical development of pro- noun. 2. Numerals. 140. 80. Possessive pronouns. 126 dicative form. . Predicative Words . . 145.88 . 74. Perfect form. 51 II. Auxiliary adjectives. . 117. . . 151. . . . Stem. The Adjective 109. . ' Pre- Conjunctive form. 75.. V. xv i I. Relative Pronouns. Attributive form.. Number in the substantive.

Syntax . VIII. 288 292 304 313 341 Appendix.. Suffixes denoting tense.. . Exclamatory particles. Suffixes forming causative verbs. Transitive and intransitive verbs.. The Adverb IX. 202 VII. 199.. 190. Un- infected verb suffixes. 255.. The Formation of Words X. 156 : Suffixes de- noting voice or aspect. . Adverbial particles. 196.. 164. 173. CONTENTS The Verb II. . . . Comparison of spoken and written forms Index 345 .. 272.x V. 224. Negative suffixes.. 280. The Auxiliary verbs aru and suru Other auxiliary verbs .221 223 Case particles. Grammatical Functions XI. 158. Conjunctive particles.. The Particles . (continued) : Compound Conjugation.. VI. &c.

completed in 797. oral tradition for several centuries. 700 at latest. and it is highly probable. completed A description of this chronicle. . it is possible to reconstruct a great proportion of the native verse of the Nara period with a high degree of certainty. or 'Chronicles of Japan'. but by collation since they are not all written phonetically with other poems in the same collection. and some in a. an 3. and by reference back to the poems of the Kojiki and Nihongi. : be found in Chapter I. The Kojiki. T. since they bear every mark of antiquity. 720. a.A. work are of value.INTRODUCTION describing the development of the Japanese language IN it is convenient to divide it into stages corresponding to and periods usually distinguished by Japanese historians this method is particularly suitable because those periods coincide approximately with well-marked cultural phases. The earliest period to furnish written records of the language is the Nara period.. anthology of Japanese verse completed early in the ninth century a. Whatever doubts be cast upon the reconstructed prose text. or . that they had already at that date been preserved will may by 2. d. pp. D. see . The Shoku Nihongi. 15 et seq. Works now extant which may be assigned to that period are i. d. there is no doubt that the poems in the Kojiki are most valuable material. d. d. remarks on the evidential value of its text as reconstructed. a continuation of the Nihongi.S. completed Only the poems and a few scattered sentences in in this 'Collection of a Myriad Leaves'. The Nihongi. . and containing some poems which go back at least as far as the late seventh century. 4. or 'Record of Ancient Matters'. 713. The Manyoshu. They represent the language of A. and their texts can be restored with considerable accuracy. This work contains certain Imperial edicts in pure Japanese. Not all these poems are directly available as specimens of early forms of Japanese.J. For translation and notes. coinciding roughly with the eighth century a. when the Court was at Nara.

of 1879.). T. INTRODUCTION The Engishiki. in its earlier stages. such as the Tosa Nikki and the Makura no Soshi and a number of historical works such as the Sandai Jitsuroku. the divergence between the spoken and written languages. which are evidently of great antiquity. vii. such as the Kokinshu romances. such as the Genji Monogatari diaries and miscellanies. and it is almost certain that they are among the oldest extant specimens of Japanese For translation and notes. and marvellously preserved until to-day. it is not an exaggeration to say that our knowledge of the earliest forms of the language depends chiefly upon the Manyoshu. 53 et seq. the modern Kyoto. of ceremonial vol. J^ 12) which contain fragmentary material. . is to trace. What is difficult. J. From these it is easy enough to fix with certainty the forms of written Japanese. so called because the centre of government was now at Heian-jo. .. 800-1186) comprised by this period there is no lack of material (vide Chapter I. This contains a number of Shinto rituals. and that the bulk of it is in the form of poetry. see Satow. A. It will be seen from the foregoing account that the material for a grammar and vocabulary of Japanese of the Nara period is scanty. There is only one stone monument of the Nara period bearing an inscription in Japanese the so-called Footprint of Buddha (Bussokuseki) near Nara. however. There is strong internal evidence to show that these rituals belong to the Nara period at latest. d. prose. To it belong several important anthologies of verse. S. . so strong was the influence of Chinese learning in the eighth century that all the documents deposited by the Nara Court in the storehouse called the Shosoin. a code law promulgated in 927. such as purifications and prayers for harvest. Following the Nara period comes the Heian period. pp. ' or Institutes of the Engi Period '. &c. Unfortunately for philologists. for there are important differences be- — ' ' . In addition to the above there are certain family records (R 3fc) an d topographical records (Jig. but altogether it amounts to very little. In the three centuries and more (a. Indeed. There is no doubt that it progressed during this period.xii 5. contain not more than a few dozen lines of Japanese. All other inscriptions of that time are in Chinese.

which are plainly under the influence of the contemporary spoken language. There are in the large mass of written material only occasional passages of undoubted dialogue or reported speech. the general tendency of writers has always been to give a literary form to reported speech. we may assume that the latter forms represented contemporary pronunciation and further. as the cultivated speech current in its writer's day. Namboku and Muro- . and the diaries. but very little exact evidence as to the development of the spoken language. seeing that the older forms are preserved in verse and in other works of the same date. Here again there is ample material study of written forms. while allowing us to make the general inference that the colloquial had by now considerably diverged from the spoken language. (i 186-1332). miscellanies. Thus when we find in. the military aristocracy and its adherents developed in another part of the country on other and less conservative lines. and romances on the other. the Genji Monogatari words hitherto written yoki and utsukushiku appearing as yoi and utsukushiii. Unfortunately. a number of works. howin use is ill-adapted to phonetic recording. Moreover. it is possible to discern some differences. which can safely be ascribed to changes in pronunciation. But it is impossible. they do not furnish much evidence as to the details of this for the variation. in addition to literature based on classical models as to style and vocabulary. at least in the present state of our knowledge. Similar remarks apply to the next. All we can say is that while the Court at Kyoto remained the centre of the ancient culture. and consequently we find. it is not unreasonable to suppose that the language of the Genji Monogatari was substantially the same . to follow step by step the development of more than a few spoken forms. to the development during the Heian period of the kana syllabary. The Heian period was succeeded by the Kamakura period during which the country was controlled by a military autocracy.INTRODUCTION xiii tween the language of the verse anthologies and the more serious historical works on the one hand. particularly war tales and other romances. and where the system of writing Thanks. ever. This is particularly true of Far Eastern countries. say. where the written word is held in high respect.

. who. and by the middle of the nineteenth century the two languages presented almost as differences as resemblances. especially towards its close. it has been necessary for reasons of space as well as simplicity to concentrate on a description of the earliest and the latest forms those of the Nara and Heian periods and of the present day without paying much attention to the intervening stages. The traditional terminology of grammars of modern European languages. unsatisfactory in itself. veloped apace on its own lines. remarkable as they were by their erudition and industry. which has grown up under the influence of concepts and percepts that do not correspond to those which form the basis of European speech. and a return to classical models of the Heian period. The Yedo period (1603-1867). is unsuitable and misleading when applied to a language like Japanese. though it was not without influence on the The spoken language meanwhile dewritten language. Consequently in the following pages I have been obliged to compromise. In the following study of the development of the Japanese language. but this was artificial and could not survive. though it is probable that by working backwards and forwards from a detailed study ad hoc of its documents a good deal of information could be gained as to the development of modern colloquial forms. witnessed a revival of learning. by following the Japanese practice where it seemed advantageous and eking it out with the categories of European many — — grammars. At the same time one cannot accept without change the principles of the great native grammarians.xiv INTRODUCTION machi periods (1332-1603). In compiling a grammar of any Eastern language one is confronted at once by difficulties of classification and nomenclature. knew no language but their own and were therefore ignorant of general linguistic theory.

ABBREVIATIONS Examples taken from early texts are marked K. as follows .


of value in building up hypotheses as to the forms of the archaic language from which the Japanese of the earliest known period and the Luchuan variations thereof are both descended. but very little likeness in vocabulary. which will be presently described. as a rule they preferred to neglect their own language and write in possible. There is no trace of any system of writing in Japan prior to the introduction of Chinese books. however. It shows a strong NOTHING structural likeness to Korean. though not by any means easy. Here the resemblance is so complete that Luchuan can be only a dialect of Japanese. Once the Japanese became acquainted with the Chinese system of writing it was . our knowledge of early forms of Japanese is derived from writings of the beginning of the eighth century of our era. but the evidence so far produced is not sufficient to establish any theory claiming a Polynesian origin for the Japanese race or the Japanese language. The Introduction of Writing is known with certainty as to the origins of the Japanese language. A study of Luchuan is. For reasons of pedantry as well as convenience. d. with the gradual spread of Buddhism. which may be put approximately at A.INTRODUCTORY § I. for them to make use of that system to represent words in their own language. It has hitherto usually been considered to belong to the group variously known as Altaic or Finno-Ugrian. 400 and it was not until the sixth century. chiefly on the ground of structural resemblance to other members of that group. that the study of Chinese became in any sense general. Recent investigations tend to disclose certain similarities in structure and vocabulary between Japanese and the Malay-Polynesian languages. . and its vocabulary and syntax therefore provide no indication of the origin of either language. The only language to which it is safe to assert that Japanese is closely related is Luchuan. Apart from such conjectures.

though Jang. tfj fang. g. 'to speak'. to ask '. is composed of a phonetic element ~}j fang and a sense element "b. and the phonetic element is predominant. but is governed by the sound of that word. d. but the word fang. tales. meaning square '. the native form of certain poems. and may be said to represent the idea moon '. it is clear that their formation not only presupposes the existence of a word. like the letters of an alphabet or a syllabary. and does not directly represent the idea of 'to ask'. It is a symbol which represents a word. through a curious but pardonable confusion of thought. at least in outline. but nevertheless it stands for the Chinese word for moon (however that word may be pronounced at different points in ^ ' e. Thus. the growth of that system. But in fully nine-tenths of the characters now in use the pictorial element is either secondary or completely lacking. it is necessary to study in some detail the system of writing developed by the Japanese. and that a great number of the later characters have a pictorial element. which is the Chinese word for to ask '. It is these texts which furnish us with the materials for the study of archaic Japanese. and to that extent may be said to represent ideas. ngwet in about a. and records which had hitherto been preserved only by oral tradition. ut in Canton to-day) When we come to more complex characters. The unit in Chinese writing is a symbol which. as contrasted with symbols which. but is much more accurately described as a logograph. For a proper understanding of the extent and accuracy of the information as to early Japanese forms which can be derived from such documents. It is true that the first Chinese characters were pictorial.2 Chinese. is usually styled an ideograph. Moreover. and yue in Peking. represent sounds or combinations of sounds. time and space — % ' ' ' . since the adoption of the Chinese script had a great influence upon both vocabulary and constructions in Japanese. may at one time have been ideographic. . HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR much as learned men in Europe at one time used Latin but luckily for philologists they did elect to perpetuate. A simple character like (moon) retains some vestiges of its pictorial quality. 500. it is important to trace. by using Chinese characters as phonetic symbols. When they wished to construct a character to .

and they had no reason to analyse those syllables further into their constituent vowel and consonant sounds. thus establishing But there would still remain the problem of representing the sound of the word hito. as used by the Chinese. and a Japanese might agree to let be read by himself and his compatriots as the character as the conventional sign for hito. A simple example will suffice. hito. To write. 'to ask'. but it may for the moment \ ' \ \ — be neglected. when the Japanese wished to write the sound hito. as we shall see later. . is then an ideograph only inasmuch as any written symbol or group of symbols in any language is an ideograph but it stands for ' ' . the Chinese took the sign "jj. the syllable hi of hito. Now by the fifth century Chinese had become a monosyllabic language. and for one word only. the Japanese method of using the Chinese characters does at times approach an ideographic use. which stands for the word fang. the writer must find . it is as well to state briefly the problem which the first Japanese scholars had before them when they came to consider how to make use of the Chinese script for recording their native words. A Chinese character. I have insisted upon this point because. To write by means of Chinese characters the sound of a Japanese word.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 3 represent fang. the Chinese word for man '. Before describing more fully the Japanese method. and often of course many logographs for the same syllable. it was necessary to represent separately the elements composing that sound. there was a logograph for each syllable. and since each syllable in Chinese was a word. they had in the Chinese symbols a ready means of representing the syllables of which it was composed. and to avoid confusion with this and other words pronounced fang. Consequently. a word. This point has a considerable bearing upon the study of early Japanese forms. The character stands for jen. and there were reasons which made it often essential to represent the sound rather than the meaning of Japanese words reasons which may for the moment be summarized by stating that while Chinese was monosyllabic and uninflected Japanese was polysyllabic and highly inflected. they added the radical jf which conveys the idea of speaking. 'square '. then. The Japanese word for 'man' is hito.

but uniformly pronounced to. 1 Similarly with the syllable to. but all pronounced hi or something like hi. two methods were available which may be conveniently described as the semantic and the phonetic methods. . The modern Japanese system of writing is a combination of these two methods. 'grief. Thus. the Chinese language was so much more highly developed. He would find. from their instructors and since the Chinese logograph can convey to the eye any meaning conventionally assigned to it. that the adoption of the Chinese script was naturally accompanied by important changes in the Japanese language. He could use such characters as JJ. for instance. the second method indicates its sound. 'not'. The principle under discussion is. though an account of the script used to represent a language may appear to be out of place in a study of its grammar. irrespective of the sound by which it may be known. S\-. The first method indicates the meaning of a Japanese word. f£. Though there is some doubt as to exact dates. ^ character by character.4 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR a Chinese character standing for some Chinese word of which the pronunciation was the same as. ^. for. would no doubt at first be guided only by the sense of the Chinese symbols. or as near as possible to. the Japanese sound hi. fa. 1 To simplify matters I assume here that the Chinese and Japanese sounds were both hi. followed very shortly by Chinese versions of and commentaries upon the Buddhist Scriptures. it is pretty certain that chief among the first Chinese books brought to Japan were the Thousand Character Classic ("f* j£) and the Confucian Analects (!& gg-). all representing Chinese words of different meanings. Jfc -V> f? 71) ^B ^£> &c. of course. so much richer in vocabulary and scope. not affected by such an assumption. The Japanese scholars. representing Chinese words meaning respectively 'sort'. . though at the period in question one or both may have been pi. and we must now proceed to trace its development in outline. when reading the Chinese classics. Jrb ^. and many others. it would be possible for the Japanese scholar to read a passage of Chinese without knowing how . Therefore in applying the Chinese script to the Japanese language. to write the word hito he could use any of the combinations Jrfc J]. which they had previously learned. and 'ice'. than Japanese of the archaic period. the characters J£ ^.

either Chinese or Japanese. So vi o\ J. the whole grammatical structure is in almost every respect the opposite of Japanese. But to retain in the mind the meanings assigned to a large number of characters It is in requires a very great effort of visual memory. child VMSlXr 9c^4 speak king child * )CM. practice an aid both to memory and to understanding to associate sounds with signs. to -^^-—-""" take a simple passage from the Analects . If they merely repeated the Chinese sounds. while a Japanese whose knowledge of Chinese was by force of circumstance chiefly derived through the eye and not the ear would be even more at a loss. and therefore it was customary to read Chinese texts aloud. is more often than not insufficient to convey a meaning even to a Chinese. without the visual aid of the character. Thus. then what they recited was not intelligible to a hearer. as we may infer from the habit. which persists among both Japanese and Chinese to this day. or approximately the same. in tones varying according to the individual from a gentle murmur to a loud chant.\ INTRODUCTION OF WRITING it 5 was pronounced in Chinese. Consequently it was for practical purposes necessary for Japanese readers to assign sounds to the Chinese characand it was open to them either to use ters which they read the Chinese sound of the word represented by the character or to say the Japanese word which conveyed the same. because (owing to the great number of homophones in Chinese) the sound alone. meaning as that Chinese word. weight if then not aweJo^l a Japanese student of Chinese might take in the meaning of the characters without definitely translating them into words. and it is clear that for practical purposes some . and without consciously con: verting the Chinese symbols into Japanese words. — — . of reciting to themselves whatever they read. Add to this the difficulty that the order of words in Chinese indeed.

What was needed. then. it is true. and they led to results which must surely be unique in the history of language. where (as in the specimen from the Analects given above) every character had a meaning or at least a grammatical function. for the full comprehension by a Japanese of a Chinese text was not a change of the symbols. for in the period just after the introduction of writing into Japan the Chinese books chiefly studied by the Japanese fell into two well-marked divisions. but containing a great deal of phonetic transcription of Sanskrit words. Since the Japanese had no system of writing of their own. for the benefit of the less learned. In reading the Chinese classics. The important thing was to appreciate the meaning and to convey it to others. On the one hand they had the Chinese classics works written in pure Chinese. the more learned Japanese (and doubtless their Chinese and Korean teachers) devised a system of . the sound did not matter to the Japanese student. These were the important considerations which guided the Japanese in building up a system by which they could adapt the Chinese characters to their own needs. but rather a rearrangement of the symbols to accord with Japanese syntax.— 6 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR arrangement had to be made to facilitate the reading of Chinese texts by Japanese students who. Now it must be understood that for one Japanese to convey to another in writing the meaning of a Chinese text was not at that period a question of translation as we understand it. and therefore a greater or less knowledge of the sounds and meanings ascribed to those characters by the Chinese themselves. or the words for which they stood. were not familiar with Chinese sounds and Chinese grammar. The problem differed somewhat according to the nature of the Chinese text in use. but he would not understand their aggregate meaning unless he was familiar with the Chinese method of grouping and connecting ideas. while visually acquainted with a number of Chinese symbols. for a Japanese to be able to read any writing whatever presupposed in those days a knowledge of the Chinese written character. On the other hand they had the Buddhist Scriptures. Therefore. written. in Chinese characters. The separate ideas conveyed by Chinese characters were clear enough to a Japanese who had learned them by rote.

The substantives in Chinese remain in their Chinese form (SHI. ^ ^ jf. the Chinese characters give the skeleton of a statement. for instance. taking them as far as possible in the order of words natural to Japanese. as indeed it was but. $ij 8. Confucius) 2/fi) 3 ' iwaku____r__^. a negative conditional. necessary Thus. it does not in essence vary much from the method of literal translation followed by schoolboys when construing Latin meaning "A ^ . £j^ SHI . making due allowance for the nature of the script. but the remaining words. though the English order of words corresponds closely to the Chinese. and supplying orally the inflexions. are converted into inflected Japanese words or particles. KUNSHI. with inflexions added where necessary — 1. the Japanese approximation thereto). and /). tenses. and other intricacies to which Chinese is so magnificently superior. X~KUNSHI arazareba a gentleman-^ if 4. The process as thus described sounds exceedingly difficult. and it is clothed in an elaborate grammatical robe of Japanese texture. in Japanese to show the relations between words. the Japanese order involves a rearrangement. e. composed of moods.: INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 7 reading the characters by giving some their Chinese sounds and some their Japanese meaning. The simple FU. 7. they would take the sentence quoted on page 5 from the Analects and give to its characters the following readings the words in capitals being the native in the order shown Chinese sounds (or. particles. In other words. those in italics being the Japanese equivalents of the Chinese words.says v^i 5. The Master (i. jf> then is not respected Jg£ ' gentleman in order to be Confucius said ". omoku sunahachi narazu / : there gravity is not 6. which in Chinese are uninflected monosyllables whose function is determined by position. . becomes the compound verbal negative form arazareba. more strictly. and so on.' respected must be serious It will be noticed that. prose.

flexional terminations. To . suffixes. . were to be taken which were to be given the Chinese sound and together which were to be converted into Japanese words. It was hard for a reader to tell in what order the characters were to be read what characters. scheme. combining them with a system of markings (equivalent to the numerals and brackets in the example) to show the order and grouping of the characters. 1 TeniIt is one of these schemes which accounts for the word woha used by Japanese grammarians as a generic term for particles and other parts of speech which are neither nouns. which can be represented diagrammatically : : Nl 3- WO O KOTO KA() () TO TE if e e HA & its ('fear') and fix as we take the character the Japanese word kashikomi' then ' equivalent .8 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The practical objections to such a system are obvious. arrangement. and certain dots (ten) or strokes at various points of this imaginary square represent. or ' ' . . if any. Japanese students of Chinese texts resorted to the use of diacritics. though quite arbitrary. diminish these difficulties as far as possible. according to a fixed. which in reading are supplied orally after the Thus. particles. according to one such reading of the character. &c. adjectives. This is not the place to describe these devices in full. & and so on. but the general principle may be outlined as follows Each Chinese symbol is regarded as being enclosed in a square. kashikomite (a gerund) kashikomu koto kashikomitari (the act of fearing) (past tense) It is highly probable that this method of diasuggested by the marks used by the Chinese to critics was 1 indicate the tones of Chinese words.

and a construction similar to that of shi iwaku. But the Chinese method was incorporated into Japanese syntax. &c. and is still discernible. and it was therefore essential to preserve a large number of Chinese words which could not be satisfactorily translated into Japanese. partly because the Japanese language.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING It 9 fitted for was a clumsy method. and obviously not general use. ni. either because it was difficult to find an equivalent or because they were a convenient addition to the grammatical apparatus of Japanese. It is a curious instance of the esoteric habit which prevailed. Its very difficulty was a merit in the eyes of the learned men who used it. wo. has survived until to-day. is a Chinese construction. Shi iwaku. in art and letters in the East. The use of diacritic markings might have continued indefinitely had it not been for the growth of another system ^ ^ — — ' verbs. as well as some Buddhist sects. which they kept secret and imparted only to their disciples. represented by Nit fVVO KOTO •HA 3*7° . meaning 'the scholar-gentleman' which could not be expressed in Japanese. and consequently kunshi was adopted as a Japanese word. Many constructions and grammatical devices in Chinese could not be exactly reproduced in Japanese. not the beginning. and were often borrowed with little or no change. There was another powerful reason for the survival of the diacritic method. and the leading schools of Chinese studies. Nor was the adoption confined to single units of the vocabulary. one of the forerunners of the multitude of Chinese words which now form the greater part of the vocabulary of Japanese. but it survived in a remarkable way. while the pure Japanese idiom requires a verb like 'to say' at the end. called ' wo Te. though rich in forms. each had their own system or systems of markings. was poor in vocabulary. The word kunshi In the Analects it had a special is a case in point. the Master says '. The sentence quoted above provides a good illustration. ha were the four words at the corners of a system koto ten '. of a reported speech.

but some acquaintance with the method used is necessary for a proper understanding of the origin and growth of the system eventually worked out by the Japanese. and characters g| j| xfc [?£ f which stand for Chinese words pronounced respectively something like sa. had several centuries before the Japanese been confronted with the problem of applying the logographic script of a monosyllabic language to the phonetic transcription of a polysyllabic language entirely different in grammatical structure. which is a rough approximation to Saddharma Pundarika. by means of the ij. which we have already briefly described. in fact. to render. . If we take the great Lotus Sutra we can see at once what difficulties as a typical example. and li} Reading these characters together. was attempt in the first translation extant (Nanjo 136) an is made at a phonetic rendering. but of course conveys no meaning to a Chinese reader ignorant of the original Sanskrit. The Chinese.io HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR which was more convenient in many respects. Here it is not necessary to describe it at length. do. The semantic system grew out of the need to convey to the mind of a Japanese reader the meaning of the Chinese work he was studying. Saddharma Pundarika. for instance. the translator had to difficult surmount. dan. and paying no attention to their meaning. This was clearly a makeshift method. in which there were many Sanskrit names and Sanskrit terms which could be rendered into Chinese only by a phonetic method. and I do not pretend that they are the correct sounds of the Chinese words at the period in question. but also the terminology of the sacred writings which represented religious and philosophical ideas entirely them ? The phonetic method was the only posand the history of the development of a system of transcribing Sanskrit letters and sounds by means of Chinese characters is a fascinating one. we have Sadan ftandoli. This was the phonetic system of writing Japanese words. were the Chinese to translate from Sanskrit into their own language not only Indian names of places and persons. foreign to sible solution. Its very title. Chief among these were the Chinese translations of the Buddhist sacred writings. pan. How. and 1 These are only approximate. But there were a great number of works in reading which it was essential to know the sound of the characters.

or shall he use characters divorced from their meaning to represent as nearly as possible the sound Buddha ? * However. been possible to find equivalents for the meanings of the words in the Sanskrit text. we see further difficulties before the Chinese translator. though it will be noticed that the very appellation of the Buddha himself raises in an acute form the question of selection between translation and transcription. 1 The translators chose to use the character fjjj>. but since monks did not exist in China apart from Buddhism they preferred to adopt the Sanskrit word. by using the characters $£> pronounced Cheng Fa Hua Ching in modern IE Pekingese. and the modern pronunciation in the Mandarin dialect of f$j is/o. Coming now to the opening words of the Sutra. it is true. UJ Eagle 3E $c King House Fort. for Rajagriha. is no alternative to the phonetic method. pronounced in Chinese pi k'iu. bhikkhu). and Mountain. d. for Gridhrakuta. signifying respectively 'The King's Castle' and 'The Vulture Peak'. and is therefore nearer the Sanskrit original than modern Chinese. The Japanese pronunciation butsu. & ^ the difficulties of translation become insuperable. a. Shall the translator use characters which signify 'enlightened' but may to the Chinese reader have misleading implications. usually rendered by 'monk'. For the Sanskrit word bhikshu (Pali.— INTRODUCTION OF WRITING in later translations n an attempt was made to reproduce the meaning of the Sanskrit words. and there Chapter XXI. which state that 'once upon a time the Buddha was staying at Rajagriha on the Gridhrakuta Mountain with a numerous assemblage of monks'. which represents the Chinese sound at the time when it was borrowed say. 400 has survived unchanged. viz. so that it was possible to represent them by Chinese characters standing for Chinese words of approximately the same meaning. the Chinese translator might perhaps have invented some equivalent Chinese term. when we reach the later chapters of the Lotus. Place-names like Rajagriha and Gridhra- &^ kuta have. which they reproduced phonetically by the two characters So far it might have Jfc Jr. but meaning True Law Flower Scripture. some meaning. But Chinese pronunciation has changed in a way that the translators can hardly have foreseen. — . which in ancient Chinese was pronounced (according to Karlgren) b'jued.

two letters of the Sanskrit alphabet. This they failed to do. $gf. the Chinese translators seem to have deliberately chosen not only a difficult and irregular scheme of transcription but also a great variety of such schemes. but the same Chinese character was used to represent more than one Sanskrit letter. fp. which cannot be translated any more than. manye. instead of establishing a uniform system of phonetic transcription. the Chinese characters ^. say. j$t J^ fgj where each character represents a syllable of the Sanskrit words and is used entirely without reference to its Chinese % meaning. it is not surprising that the Japanese were slow in developing a phonetic script of even relative simplicity. according to Julien. and not to the Japanese. consists largely of spells or talismanic (dhdrani) such as anye. Had they carried further the process outlined above. §! UJ. since they had to find Chinese characters to stand for the see.12 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR words . Stanislas Julien in his masterly work on the subject gives a list of 1. mane. they might from these beginnings have developed a simple alphabet or syllabary. Their problem was not unlike that which had laced the Chinese translators of Buddhist writings. tsieh.200 Chinese characters which were used to render the forty. chi. then. the translators of the Sutras were obliged to find phonetic equiSo. were all used to represent the symbol ^ da while the character JJj. including the combinations of the consonants with all the vowels and diphthongs. Since these incantations were regarded as of great power and value. the credit for the first phonetic use of the Chinese character. and che respectively. and this list is far from complete. to. fg. Thus. pronounced in Chinese cha. dya. which might by gradual simplification have led to the formation of an alphabet. dhya. and cha. With such models before them. words are represented by H. in Chinese che. that some system of phonetic transcription was essential. abracadabra. fp. the above valents for them. for instance. and \$. Unfortunately. We of the Sanskrit alphabet : . but we must at least give to the Chinese. is found standing for Sanskrit djha. and that the Chinese were obliged to adapt their own script to this purpose. in an early translation. mamane. Not only was a given Sanskrit letter represented by more than one Chinese character. dha.

the appointment of provincial historiographers is mentioned. and we may suppose that. since it is pretty certain that the first Chinese books l came to Japan not much sooner than a. they evolved some system of transcription for that purpose. which can hardly be placed earlier than a.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 13 sounds in a polysyllabic language. the author states that the Emperor Tenmu complained that the chronicles of the emperors and the original words in the possession of the various families' were inexact. probably with the assistance It is not even of Wang-in or his colleagues or successors. It is specifically stated in the Nihongi that it was Wang-in and other learned Koreans who kept the first records of ingoings and outcomings the Imperial budget and they naturally would use Chinese and not Japanese. mentions the formaFor this tion of a Treasury) lists of property and taxes. We may infer from this that written records had existed long before the reign of Tenmu. and they needed therefore no greater knowledge of writing than would suffice for compiling lists of families and possibly (since the Nihongi. The earliest chronicles. purpose it would be sufficient to write in Chinese. It is hard to say when the first attempts were made by the Japanese to put their own language in writing. There is no indication that there were any records or books in Japan before the arrival of the Korean scribe Wang-in. under the date 405. between a. in the preface to the Kojiki. In the Nihongi. 400. Their function no doubt was in the nature of a cadastral survey. But the provincial recorders must have had to write down the Japanese names of places and persons. such as the Kojiki and the Nihongi contain references to historical records of events in Japan preserved in writing. necessary to assume that these Korean scholars were familiar ' ' — — 1 It is probable that some knowledge of the Chinese language and script had reached Japan two or three centuries earlier. who acted as interpreters between Japan and Korea. . 400 and 500. d. under the date 403. Thus. and. but the chronology of this part of the Nihongi is dubious. d. but it was doubtless confined to a very few people. which began ' in 673. d. 400. we may safely place the appointment of these recording officers several decades later. and there is no doubt that at first the clerical officials at the Court wrote their records and accounts in the Chinese language.

for in their own country they must have already had to consider the question of writing by means of Chinese characters the names of persons and places in Korea. and possibly the commands of previous emperors. in countries bordering on China. which was compiled in A. We know that Chinese scribes were employed. the Japanese had learned to make use of the Chinese characters as phonetic symbols for recording Japanese words. We may accept without much question the statement in the Kojiki that a certain Hiyeda no Are learned by heart in the latter half of the seventh century the genealogies of the emperors and the words of former ages Are is said to have had such an exceptional memory that he could repeat with his mouth whatever met his eyes and record in his heart whatever struck his ears'. mentioned in the Nihongi under the name of Kataribe. There were Chinese secretaries among the Tartar peoples in the North. The precise duties of these officials is not known.14 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR with the phonetic method used in the Chinese versions of the Buddhist Scriptures. It is significant that the recorded names of the early rulers of some Korean kingdoms. 1 However that may be. d. as written in Chinese characters. and the names are obviously imitations of Chinese 1 ' ' names. ' . d. That their use in this way was restricted is clear from the existence of hereditary corporations of reciters. We may therefore reasonably conclude that there existed at that period certain fragmentary records in writing. prayers to the gods something like the Shinto rituals which have been preserved for us in the Engishiki. from a very early date. but this ' '. 400 onwards the characters have a meaning. . 620. by the end of the fifth century of our era. are evidently phonetic transcripts from a nonChinese language. though there can be no certainty as to dates in this matter. it is highly probable that there were scribes in Korea at least as early as the first century of the Christian era. national legends. The first Japanese book of which we find specific mention is the Kyujiki. and. for recitation at Court functions and religious festivals. and that these were supplemented by oral tradition that the records were for the most part in Chinese but contained phonetic reproductions of Japanese names and possibly of the native form of some prayers and poems which would come under the heading of 'ancient words'. it is tolerably certain that. From about a. but it is safe to assume that they committed to memory.

and proceeding. . commencing with the creation of Heaven and Earth. x. d.J. d. highly inflected verbs and adjectives. A.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 15 was destroyed in a. That the compiler of the Kojiki was under strong Chinese influence His preface is. Supplement). The oldest existing Japanese book is the Kojiki. that his aim in the body of the work was to write in such a way as would allow him to incorporate in the text the native names and phraseology which it was desired to preserve the 'ancient words' referred to in the Imperial decree. in an ascending scale of credibility. which was completed in A. and we have no knowledge of its contents beyond a statement in the Nihongi to the effect that it was a history of the emperors and the leading families. To relate everything in an ideographic tranto scription would entail inadequate expression of the meaning write altogether according to the phonetic method would make the story of events too lengthy. 645. and a large number of . He explains his method at the end of the . to the year a. and the specimens of Japanese given in Aston's grammar but the following outline will give of the written language a general idea of the problems before the writer and the way in which he solved them. is abundantly clear from internal evidence. For details the reader is referred to Chamberlain's translation of the Kojiki (T.' Though this statement is clear enough to one familiar with the text of the Kojiki. is a long and consecutive history of Japan. 628. 712.S. as Chamberlain points out. it must be expanded and illustrated if we are to understand the method adopted in the first attempt on a large scale to reproduce the Japanese language in writing. exclusively. as many other to do so indications confirm. as follows 1 : In high antiquity both speech and thought were so simple that it would be difficult to arrange phrases and compose periods in the characters. a tour de force meant to show that the writer could compose in the Chinese style if he chose but this very fact tends to prove. For this reason I have sometimes used the phonetic and ideographic systems conjointly and have sometimes in one matter used the ideographic record . d. or Record It of Ancient Matters. It must first be reiterated that archaic Japanese was a polysyllabic language. — preface. consisting of uninflected substantives.

the task before the compiler of the Kojiki was unlike that of the scribes who had to record foreign sounds by means of Chinese symbols. character by character. and thus the opposite in almost every respect of Chinese. and Izanami then replying. and regard them as representing the single fjjjf . who wished to read it in Japanese. 'the woman had spoken first '. and £fc second. uninflected. In writing this the compiler began by setting down the following characters — We — — ' ! ' ! : . the Japanese reader might treat them as a compound. and endeavouring to reconstruct the process by which it was written. instead of taking these two characters separately. may best examine the process by taking a passage from the Kojiki. Izanagi saying first. stands for pi. and analytic.16 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR agglutinative suffixes and particles a language markedly synthetic in character. in that his object was to assign symbols to both sounds and meanings in his own language. O what a fair and lovely youth'. fjf being read first. which is monosyllabic. Again. where sore. because. in the courtship which led to the procreation of these islands. the latter having given birth to several islands a progeny with which they were dissatisfied repaired to heaven and were informed that their offspring was not good. 'that' stands for and yue. just as in English we must add 'by' and 'of to give the phrase 'by reason of that'. O what a fair and lovely maiden '. would have to assign Japanese equivalents to the characters. it will be noticed that the order of words is reversed in Japanese. 'cause'. I select for convenience that part of the first volume of the work which describes how the god Izanagi and the goddess Izanami. but in Japanese the particles ga and ni must be supplied. and to one familiar with that language would be quite intelligible. Further. But a Japanese. The narrative goes on to tell that the god and goddess thereupon again descended from heaven and circled again a certain 'august heavenly pillar' which they had erected.\M^) cause that return I « (\ «* ^ descend This could be read in Chinese. Further. The Japanese equivalent of /& Hf (thereupon) is sore ga yue ni.

by using a single Japanese word of approximately the same — ' 1 to a^i'u meaning. whether the writer of the Kojiki intended #fc fjf to be read sore ga yue ni or sunahachi. and that therefore. exist in some cases). the text of the Kojiki cannot provide evidence as to the vocabulary and forms of archaic Japanese. according to their literal meaning in Japanese. There is no means of telling. as we shall presently see. without special indications (which. the passage continues as follows It is gives : 1.i INTRODUCTION OF WRITING word 'sunahachi'. unless the writer of a text of this nature some special indications. Thus the two characters $C can be ^ read in at least three different ways (1) : (2) (3) according to their Chinese sound. much as therefore in English approximates to 'by reason of that'. which approximates ' ' 17 'sore in meaning to ga yue ni '. H . or to the customary Japanese imitation of that sound. and a number of them are undoubtedly false. which may be translated 'Therefore they descended again'. but it is quite certain that many of his readings are entirely conjectural. it is true. After the above words. for example. according to their meaning in composition. reconstruct the whole of the text in pure Japanese without any admixture of Chinese words or phrases whatever. it is not possible to say by which of these methods he intends it to be read. character by character supplying the necessary grammatical links. Motoori. The great commentator on the Kojiki. did. The above example will have sufficed to show that at least some readings are doubtful. obvious that.


And when we come. though clear enough as to meaning. His speech -£. which is in Japanese ame no mi hashira (literally. g&&W ' ^ ^ & ' ' .$ If these characters are read according to their Chinese meanings they make no sense at all but according to their sounds they give Ana niyashie wotome wo. the august pillar of Here . which is now an accusative particle.{•£ would be sufficient to represent heavenly may therefore conclude that the compilers pillar'. but a quasi-Chinese which (to quote Chamberlain) breaks down every now and then. and Chinese it would not have been necessary in the above construction. Thus. but in pure connective as a is used 'this'. the characters . and at the same time it is not Chinese. which has been described above. and about one hundred short poems and songs. and occasionally they throw light upon questions of accidence and syntax. to the words spoken by Izanagi. and is surely the '. meaning 'Oh! what a fair and lovely maiden'. heaven). £ ' We . but it well to show by further examples some of the awkward It will be noticed that in devices which it necessitated. since its reading. the sentence just quoted. It is not Japanese. in the next passage.£ (Chinese pronunciation in modern Pekingese chih. is reported as follows IF j| .of In Chinese means the Japanese genitive particle no particle. These furnish valuable evidence as to the earliest forms of the Japanese vocabulary. But the main body of the text. order to write the 'august heavenly pillar'. we find the phonetic method applied to a complete sentence. rarely provides any indications of this nature. : R $ . to be helped up again by a few Japanese words written phonetically. conjectured pronunciation when borrowed shi) is used to represent . was formerly an interjection. 'Ana ni yashie wotome wo'. is conjectural as to sound. and so we have in this work a tolerably exact phonetic record of a great number of place and personal names. fixes the word for 'maiden' as wotome. a few complete sentences. and shows that wo. are used. for 5^ .INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 19 the phonetic reproduction of Sanskrit words from Buddhist texts.£. first clumsy attempt at combining two divergent elements will as be That it is clumsy enough is already clear. This phonetic method was applied throughout the Kojiki wherever it was thought essential by the compiler to preserve words in their native form. which are Japanese words.

'to return'. kaerimashishi. 'mountain'. We then get. It will be seen that . As we shall see. which is the sense required by the context. We have already seen a group of characters $£. 'to go'. and we are bound to assume (on the evidence of phonetic writing in other parts of the work) that represents this is a Japanese construction. f|. no doubt following the usage of the Kojiki in most cases.£ is used both semantically and phonetically to represent the meaning of no and the sound of shi and it is easy from this one example to imagine how difficult is the reconstruction of a complete text written in such a confusing fashion. for kaerimasu no toki is not good Japanese and we therefore may infer that . So far it is plain sailing. an honorific form of the verb kaeru. would be read as the adjective toyo. which is the preterite of kaerimasu.£ must be regarded here as a phonetic and read shi. but a few examples will show the lines on which it proceeded. where jiH ^ ^ . It was merely a question of deciding upon an appropriate character one which had a meaning corresponding as closely as possible with that of the Japanese word and agreeing to use that character as the correct symbol for the Japanese word in question. so that the whole reads kaerimashishi toki. . Thus. adjectives. consistently with the Chinese use of the character. 'fertile'. and verbs.£. There was not much difficulty in assigning Chinese characters to Japanese substantives. But we can already see the beginnings of the system which was later evolved. and means 'when he returned'. and that j& kaeri masu. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR as an equivalent for no. and ££.20 selected .£ should here be read no as above. would naturally be read as the noun yama. j|| Later. build up a system by which each character was given a recognized Japanese reading. 'time'. — — — — . we find does not H& j£ make sense in Chinese. Similarly we may read 0^ as toki. in a Japanese text [Jj. however. the Japanese did not always follow the apparently simple rule of keeping one character for one word and one word for one character but they did gradually. It is when we come to the Japanese particles and terminations that the difficulty begins. as the verb yuku. since Chinese had a far greater vocabulary than Japanese. We need not trace in detail the development of the system which was finally adopted. But it is very doubtful whether . by adding shi to the stem of the verb masu.

'hereat'. and. Not long after the Kojiki was written. used as a locative meaning 'in' or 'at'.£. the idea of using Chinese characters as phonetic symbols to represent Japanese sounds must have become familiar to Japanese scholars. a compound which. he must somehow or other show the syllable ki. on a gradually increasing scale. Therefore a Japanese at the period in question might read £F A. It would therefore naturally occur to them to write the syllable ki by means of some Chinese character pronounced ki or something like ki.Japanese compounds. namely. as jfe ^. and he wrote. either kojin. supplying the inflexion ki. for instance. if familiar. has continued until the present day. koko ni. or he might read it yoki hito. but not identical with. this method was not unsatisfactory. he used jfe. But there were many grammatical devices in Japanese which have no parallel in Chinese. so that the vocabulary of modern Japanese is largely composed of such Sino. Now the characters £F and Chinese stood for ko (modern Mandarin hao).INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 21 that for the particle no the compiler of the Kojiki selected as a suitable equivalent the character . for the particle ni. Chief among these were the inflexions of the adjective and the verb. wotome. This process. This is what they did. for instance. 'good'. In the same way. which the character does not represent but which was essential in Japanese. were adopted by them. putting the characters in their Chinese order. which performs in Chinese an office similar to. yoki hito. So long as approximate Chinese equivalents could be found for such particles and suffixes in Japanese. But if a writer wished to ensure that the two characters #f were given their pure Japanese reading. growing so usual that they were intelligible in speech. soon became naturalized. Thus the adjective for 'good' in Japanese is yo (the stem) with an attributive form yoki and a predicative form yoshi. &c. which in Chinese can be used in a similar sense. might be intelligible to the Japanese ear. would be written either £f f£ (where £f Am ' . and fin (modern Mandarin jen) a man '. the influence of Chinese upon Japanese scholars was so great that many single Chinese words.) written in this way. that of no. and many compounds on the model of kojin. and yoki. As may be imagined. \ . who were by then accustomed to seeing Japanese names and other Japanese words such as those quoted above {Izanagi.

a word like kashikomi. shi. But there were practical disadvantages in the use of the phonetic method alone. present tense) Kashikomite (gerund) Kashikomitari (past tense) 3ft3l % £'J This method was not only shorter than the phonetic method. but also for 'awful'. 'to hold in awe'. is likely to cause confusion. or adverb. or the Japanese verb kashikomu. which is its Sinico-Japanese pronunciation. five. If we take. 'awfully'. for instance.£ $J %$. |nf . a word meaning 'awe' which is of frequent occurrence in early texts. and {£ the sound of represents the sound the termination ki) or <%* {£ (where yo and {£ the sound ki). the most serious of which was the great labour it entailed. Therefore. ko. or six phonetics. we see that its phonetic representation involves writing a character for each of the syllables ka. e. but it also has the advantage of showing clearly that a character must be given a Japanese reading. it was both intelligible and convenient to write the single character 3ft. It might be supposed that the ^ phonetic method of would be more convenient than the dual method of %f {£. But if 3ft is followed by the phonetic mi. 'awful'. 3ft stands not only for 'awe'. which. adjective. while the meaning kashikomi can be represented by the single character 3&. noun. and mi. in order to represent the Japanese adjective kashikoki. g.22 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR represents the meaning of the stem yo. and 'to hold in awe'. and to follow it by the distinguishing final syllable (or syllables) written phonetically. Thus it was possible to represent a complete series of Japanese words each by two or three characters instead of four. since both these words have about the same meaning. Further. In the following list the characters used phonetically are distinguished by smaller type : ^^ Kashikomi (noun) Kashikoki (adjective) 3ft or 3ft J| 3ft US 3ft Jft 3ft l§ 5£ Kashikomu (verb. since all words in Chinese function indifferently as verb. or it could be read osore or kashikomi. but that that Japanese word must H . being a combination of the semantic and phonetic methods. Thus the character 3ft> without any special indication. the reader knows at once not only that it must be read as a Japanese word. could be read kyo.

The first two characters are obviously phonetic. which signifies that Chinese symbols were borrowed to perform a phonetic function. $1 is sometimes put for nari. and Consequently that count. since it was necessary to preserve every syllable of the original verses. for metrical reasons. is written in Chinese. for the overwhelming prestige of the Chinese language and literature tended to discourage the use of Japanese in writing. and It for kimi. will be seen that on these lines the text of the Manyoshu can be restored with a very high degree of certainty. and must therefore be kashikomi and not osore. d. if we take a line like j£ ^f -& H. the line being thus read oso ya kono kimi. and the characters thus used were known as Manyogana. there is very little difficulty in reconstructing the full Japanese text. Moreover. must stand for kono. 720. except in the poems. so that j§. and though some characters are employed to represent meanings. In this work the order of words is Japanese. Consequently. and makes no attempt to preserve Japanese constructions. By the end of the ninth century this style of writing was well developed and established in use. The remaining four syllables must therefore be a word or words of which the meaning and not the sound is represented by ^. read ya. chronicle which followed shortly after the Kojiki. which are written phonetically. The name of this anthology was the Manyoshu. completed in a. the 'Chronicles of Japan' (Nihongi). borrowed names '. Thus. except where there was some The great special reason for recording Japanese words. It must not be understood that it was universal.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 23 have a stem ending in mi. the verb 'is'. the first great anthology of Japanese verse is written very largely by means of what are called kana. For poems the phonetic method was naturally the best suited. by collating words ' & ^ ^ ^ ^ Q . we know from its position that it must contain seven syllables in Japanese. and this collection is the most valuable of all extant sources for the study of early Japanese. because the admixture of kana is considerable and the metre serves as a guide to the number of syllables. but this and there are would allow us only three syllables for no equivalents for these two characters which would give also must be phonetic. or 'Collection of a Myriad Leaves'. and read oso.

Following upon the Kojiki there came another class of literature in which early Japanese forms are preserved with considerable accuracy. which can be accounted for on grounds of convenience and speed. 'a manifest god'. as in 7f. In these documents the Chinese characters are arranged in the order required by Japanese syntax. d. $p jji$ which and phrases we can . whether as to substance or to language. a continuation. Thus the verb tsutomu. where but as a general the~hegative is expressed by the suffix zu rule the order is the correct Japanese order.(j\i)' does not say'. They are therefore a most valuable source of materials for the study of archaic Japanese. 797. and evidently intended as an exact record of the Japanese phraseology employed when these edicts were pronounced in public. The reconstruction of the exact original words of the rituals therefore presents but little difficulty. of the Nihongi. the Institutes of the Engi period. 'to work'. which has the same meaning while the form tsutomeshimete (which is the gerund of the causative form of tsutomu) is represented by Wl 3i 3fc l£> where the last three characters are phonetic for shimete. promulgated in 927. The next work of importance in which indigenous forms are preserved is the Shoku Nihongi. and all external and internal evidence tends to show that they are remarkably free from Chinese influence. which in Japanese is mosazu.24 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR in the Manyoshu with the text of the Kojiki postulate without much doubt a large number of readings in the latter work. with very few exceptions. fu (' not ') is pjaced before the character representing the verb. but the words of the edicts can be restored with a high degree of accuracy. is written Ig. for Chinese kin. is represented by the single character H. Thus the phrase akitsu mikami. completed in a. and the particles and terminations are written by means of characters used phonetically. . The system of writing is not entirely regular. . but the Shoku Nihongi contains a number of Imperial edicts written by a method similar to that used for the Shinto rituals. These are the Shinto rituals or Norito which are recorded in the Engishiki. Both these works are mainly in Chinese. Thus for the negative forms of verbs the character >f. They share with the poetry of the Kojiki and the Nihongi the distinction of being the oldest extant specimens of Japanese.

because the principal words in a sentence were written by Chinese characters used according to their meaning. The native words and the native idiom were employed for verses and romances. The method is well illustrated by the example of tsutomeshimete. where we find in a similar context the phonetic transcript &C a-ki-tsu-mi-ka-mi. and since. to represent a simple Japanese word. In this aesthetic field.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING is 25 flfi unintelligible in Chinese. 'to go out'. riddle. as to terminations. These early writers can certainly be said to have displayed what Dr. but also by devices in the script comparable to the Thus. quoted above. &c. the aim was not simplicity but elegance. Often a poet or a scribe. They surprised and delighted the reader not only by elaborate word-plays in the body of a poem. Johnson declared to be the highest praise of poetry 'such invention as. and the palindrome. It might have been supposed that. the Japanese were in a fair way to establishing a convenient system of representing Japanese words on the basis of what was styled Kana majiri. the recreation of serious scholars only in their lighter hours. the acrostic. or the Mixed Phonetic Script. M {£ HP It will be seen that. once the system gained a footing. by these H M Chinese characters used according to sound. there was a tendency in writing down verses to use a script selected not so much for easy comprehension as for its beauty or interest. by producing something unexpected. calligraphy is not a mere mechanical accomplishment but one of the fine arts. one wishes to express the meaning of idzuru. the rebus. which is confirmed by reference to the Shinto rituals. surprises and delights'. it would be gradually made simple and uniform. and these were eked out. and he would deliberately ornament or complicate his script very much as a medieval monk in Europe might embellish a missal or a legend by illuminations and flourishes. suffixes. in the East. Elsewhere we find '$$ jjjtjj and two in conjunction suggest a reading akitsu mikami. — 3170 E . by the end of the eighth century. but Japanese scholars in the succeeding centuries devoted themselves almost exclusively to Chinese studies or to Buddhist works and paid but little attention to their own language. would use some character or group of characters which could be related to it only by a strong flight of fancy.

or a verb meaning to shine. had important ing. quite apart from this deliberate creation of diffithe mere failure of Japanese scholars to appreciate and grapple with the problem of simplifying their script led to anomalies of every description. of which the early form was %_. it must not be supposed that each Chinese word has one fixed and invariable meaning. as becomes clear when one studies the process by which Chinese symbols were allocated to Japanese words. raw. as is indicated by the character ^. and the adjective 'growing'). as for instance in English. A third gives $$ 'sea'. 'beam'. partly because it has been a literary language for thousands of years. But. new-born. strange.26 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR use the simple character ft would be dull and uninteresthe puts jJLl _k 1E Uj 'on a mountain another mountain'. verb and adverb. as we shall see. to live. there arose a large number of secondary meanings. for ama a 'fisherman and a fourth writes a part of a character instead of the whole. and ill upon ill gives ft. partly because its peculiar structure and script forbid the easy assimilation of foreign words to express shades of meaning. the word sheng. though each Chinese character stands for one. such as birth. instead of $$ 'sea man'. results. and only one. But Chinese presents this phenomenon in a most intense degree. a ray of light. a disciple and though it is not difficult to trace the association of ideas culties. it can be easily . new. depicting a plant piercing the soil. which is invariably written with the character *£. a living thing. which may be either a noun meaning a piece of wood. and partly because it does not differentiate such parts of speech as noun and adjective. alive. In the first place. to bear. fresh. so To W \ ' . life. From this primary meaning (which in Chinese covers the substantive 'growth'. In any language there are a number of words of which the meaning extends over a wide range. the verb 'to grow'. the side of a ship. . To take an example. Chinese word. to produce. represents the idea of growth. because stork is tsuru and duck is kamo. a practice which. to be born. by which this group of meanings was made. because ill is the symbol for mountain. Many of these are inherent in the nature of a logographic system. A second writes the common combinations of particles tsuru kamo with the characters ?$} IR| 'storkduck'.

his choice would naturally differ according to the value which must be assigned to the Chinese word in the context before him. and therefore more than one character. . . the word inochi if 'to live'. Though. and its script than Chinese for adoption by Japan. Similarly for inochi. languages should cover each a different range of names of material things and abstract ideas. The confusion resulting from such conditions can well be imagined. . and scholars engaged in translating Chinese works or in writing Japanese by means of the Chinese script were guided only by their own taste. like 'birth' and 'disciple'. that their respective alternative. for instance. Even had they deliberately aimed at regularity. First. in fixing the correspondence between Chinese characters and Japanese words. and the disparity between their . or at best by the practice of their particular school. since the Chinese vocabulary was superior to the Japanese vocabulary of those days both in size and in capacity for expressing shades of meaning while it was a natural sequence of the contrast between the two races. 'to live'. if a Japanese scholar reading a Chinese work wished to decide upon a suitable Japanese word to render the meaning conveyed by a given Chinese word. as we have said. the word ikiru. There was no strong influence working for uniformity. he would find that in Chinese there was to convey that meaning more than one word. When the Japanese came to select Chinese characters for their own purposes. 'to bear'. Taking now the reverse process. the word nama if 'life'. he would find fi£. there was no strong influence working for uniformity in the assignment of Chinese symbols . left no civilizations.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING seen that there is 27 a wide gap between its extreme members. and the overwhelming prestige of Chinese culture. the word ou. such as. where we suppose a Japanese to be seeking a character suited to stand for a given Japanese word. its content. But necessity. and so on. jfr and #& as well as £. both in addition to ^. find fjjj- and for ikiru. umu. they would have had a difficult task before them. If it is 'to be born' he must take the Japanese word umaruru if 'to grow'. he would . or haeru if 'raw'. 'life'. say. they had to consider them from two aspects. Indeed. it would be hard to imagine a language less suited by its structure.

narna. For instance. as we have just seen in the case of the very common symbol ^fe. was therefore used to represent that word. 'bad'. to each of which can be assigned a different Then we have the cases where one Chinese character. so that. 'to live'. These are examples where one Japanese word has several meanings. for hi. expressed in Japanese respectively by the words haeru. and ikiru. and for waruki. to the complete or partial exclusion of other characters. and 'to live'. and there could be no doubt or difficulty about the selection of such characters as ^c for ki. that has the meanings 'to grow'. 'money begets money'. 'to bear'. 'tree'. Most names of simple things. in writing the words tamago wo umu. sense of ^ 'water'. representing rather life in the ' ' ^ We ^ movement. as in kane ga kane wo umu. sheng. 'the sun'. 'fresh'. or simple ideas. 7}c for midzu. For haeru. again was the only appropriate character. there was of course a large group of Japanese words for which it was easy to find a single satisfactory Chinese equivalent. 'to lay an egg'. even a deliberate effort to devise a uniform system of correspondence between ^ . which For nama. But. each being reserved to express a special shade of meaning. which we have been discussing. character stands for several meanings which in Japanese are need not look further than conveyed by different words. 'to grow'. the Japanese could find no more suitable symbol than ^. Here there could be no alternative. for umu. and 'fresh'. And so we find that. intelligibility and convenience were bound to some extent to prevail. In addition to the categories just described. by degrees. and though there were even pedantic and esoteric influences working against it. certain characters came to be regarded as the correct equivalents for certain Japanese words. they accordingly adopted for that purpose. and consequently here (as with umu above) both and ffi might be used. It stands for this same one Chinese word. there was available ft§. £f for yoki. |§r would be more correct than ^.28 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR to Japanese words. jH was used in preference to ^. 'good'. naturally fall into this group. while umu in the general sense of to bring into existence would be better represented by £fe. in the restricted sense of the act of parturition. For ikiru. though it was possible to appropriate certain characters exclusively for certain Japanese words.

INTRODUCTION OF WRITING word and symbol was. in spite of all opposing tendencies. Japanese is recorded in a script complex in its nature and irregular in its use to an almost incredible degree. bound to Consequently. we find under the the following common readings of that character heading ^ & : . fail. even to-day. Its defects cannot be better illustrated than by the simple method of copying from a dictionary some of the readings associated with the character ^£ which we have chosen as an example in the foregoing description. 29 in the nature of things. In a modern dictionary of Chinese characters as used by Japanese.

A good example is the reading of the character p^j. which is read myo according to Go-on. for instance. But. We thus have in Japanese three types of pronunciation of imported Chinese words. as they grew more discriminatory. kyo a sutra '. the early borrowings can be distinguished from the late ones. its dialect was admittedly provincial. or Wu sound '. and there are several combinations of sounds in Chinese which are . It is worth mentioning here that. are still pronounced according to what the Japanese call Go-on. though Wu was the province most accessible to Japan. since (quite apart from the tones of Chinese syllables) the Japanese vocal apparatus could not easily compass many common Chinese sounds. Here we have examples of Chinese words which were fully naturalized. which were pronounced in an approximation to the contemporary Chinese sound. shiki rites '. The pronunciation current in T. and sometimes the same Chinese word appears in each of these three types. gaku music '. these were by no means exact reproductions of Chinese sounds. no assimilated. and a number of names of common objects. The Chinese pronunciation just adopted was that of the province of Go (Wu in modern Chinese) in which was situated the capital under the Eastern Shin dynasty in the fourth century. The Japanese scholars. which is frequent in Chinese. and the standard speech was that of Honan. and therefore a great part of the special vocabulary of Buddhism. Others. and min according to the so-called Tang pronunciation. abandoned the Wu dialect. ' doubt. cannot say /. through being in less frequent use. These latter are known as To-in. The Kan-on soon replaced the Go-on. having been borrowed either alone or in composition at three different times. Japanese zeni) and possibly the horse (Chinese ma. literally Tang sounds '. during which there were successive changes in Chinese pronunciation. The Japanese.hat province was that which was given by the Japanese to most of the words which they borrowed at the beginnings of their intercourse with China. were less thoroughly Such are words like rat g|f 'ceremony'. met according to Kan-on. though we speak of the Chinese pronunciations in Japan of imported Chinese words. Japanese uma). except for a few special words imported in comparatively recent times. whence they borrowed the pronunciation known as Kan-on or Han sound '. so ff| a monk '.30 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR coins (Chinese sen. and went to the pure source of Han. ^ ' ^ ' ' : S**' 1 It is interesting to note in passing that since the process of borrowing Chinese words continued over a long period. where the models of the Han dynasty were still followed. ' ' ' . *j!§ ron gfo 'an argument'. and it was the pronunciation used for all borrowings during the succeeding centuries. and have not changed since. which were taken over with only such change in pronunciation 1 as was necessitated by the difference between Chinese and Japanese sounds. the name of the Tang dynasty being used in a general way to mean China.

sounds like mok (-fa) and ngwat ( f^j ) become moku and gwatsu. represented by one character. for the first syllable of the word now pronounced hito. . with a greater or less degree of assimilation to Japanese forms. as J£ pi. white clothes '. originally had an initial consonant resembling p or perhaps ph. because Japanese writing knows no final consonants. otherwise derived from ' Chinese sources. can limit or expand the significance of such words. which is an epithet in close association with a noun. and a comparison of the two is often of great value in determining phonetic changes that have taken place in both languages. There are of course a number of compounds for which it is easy to find a parallel in other languages like ^jt %jf beifun. the Chinese learned by the Japanese was. as a rule a home product. the nearest a Japanese could get to writing such sounds as liao and Hang. or £3 hakui. there are many indications from Chinese that the syllables now pronounced in Japan hi. Conversely. represented by Chinese characters used phonetically. were single words. like the French of Stratford-atte-Bowe. which are for practical purposes monosyllables. Thus. of a Japanese. in selecting Chinese characters to represent these syllables phonetically. or. ho. that the Chinese pronunciation when the word was borrowed by the Japanese was approximately kep. and since each character represents a syllable every Chinese word written phonetically would appear to consist of one or more syllables. by the syllabic method. One such indication is the fact that. It was doubtless. which is merely the juxtaposition of two nouns. Similarly. But Chinese has an unrivalled facility for forming compounds. fu. Chinese. for purposes of study. if not difficult for the tongue. ha. 'rice-flour'. by means of which it can express ideas outside the scope of independent words. and though it is not necessary here to describe all the many varieties and uses of its compound words. the Japanese preferred those of which the Chinese sound had an initial p.— INTRODUCTION OF WRITING The Chinese words which we have just 31 described as adopted into the Japanese vocabulary. At the same time. An interesting example is a Sinico. goes much farther than these simple collocations. since few of them can have heard it from the lips of natives of China or even Korea. This was formerly written in Japan kefu. it is as well to ^ ' repugnant to the ear. would be ri-ya-u. if need be. which from other indications we know to have been pronounced something like kepn. which makes three syllables in Japanese. he. and this confirms the supposition. it is worth remarking. whereas in fact nearly all Chinese words are monosyllabic. however. the correspondences between original Chinese sounds and their Japanese imitations are fairly uniform.Japanese word like kyo ($$J to rob '). Moreover.

except that they carry the process as far as the association of abstract ideas. which was ill-equipped with the names of abstract ideas. for instance. Similar words are .32 illustrate is HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR some of them by examples. and so on. But it is obvious that a word like nagaki-mijikaki for 'long-short' is altogether too unwieldy. One important class composed of antithetical compounds like j^ £g cho-tan. Although the antithetical compounds just described are the most characteristic and perhaps the most important class. the compound cho-tan. 'far-near'. has various secondary meanings. Thus we have is ' ' — . The idea of 'long-ness' could be conveyed by a periphrasis like nagaki koto. 3H $£. and they would desire to translate them into their own language. 'cold-hot'. by extension. a great number formed by the juxtaposition of two words of similar meaning. greatsmall'. since it expresses a synthesis by specifying both elements and emphasizing neither. which stands for the idea expressed in English by the word 'length' but is more logical. but often they serve to express ideas differing slightly from those represented by their separate elements standing alone. Moreover. yenkin. literally 'long-short'. does not convey the abstract idea of length. meaning distance. meaning 'size'. and it was much simpler to take over the Chinese compounds as they stood. Another very convenient class comprises compounds which do not essentially differ very much from such descriptive words as hakui. cumbrous and nagasa. where both kin and ki signify gladness. kandan. its strong points and shortcomings.fc /h dai-sho. £3 ^c cited above. Japanese engaged in studying Chinese works would naturally be impressed by the brevity and usefulness of such compounds. though good enough for 'long-ness'. where nagaki is the adjective for 'long' and koto is the word meaning 'thing' in an abstract sense or by the word nagasa. and foreign to the spirit of the Japanese language. 'rejoicing'. But nagaki koto . or the 'gist' of a matter what we should call the 'long and short' of it. there are compounds of many other types. where sa is a suffix something like '-ness' in English. meaning temperature. There are. Such compounds are redundant. such as kinki. Nearly all such compounds were concise and ' HH convenient notations of ideas difficult if not impossible to express in early Japanese. such as merits in the merits of a case.

and a host of similar compounds for which Japanese could rarely furnish a simple equivalent or even a convenient paraphrase. subject to no such variations as are produced by inflexion or suffixes in other languages. Japanese. a verb to an act or a state. The Chinese language is peculiar in that it does not distinguish what we call 'parts of speech'. as a noun corresponds to a thing. Enough has been said to show that the Japanese could hardly fail to adopt words so useful and so flexible. categories of words corresponding to psychological categories. on an increasing To-day the Chinese words in the scale. and indeed the history of the vocabulary of Japanese for many centuries after the introduction of Chinese learning may be summarized as a tale of borrowing from Chinese. 'to love'. it was simple enough to take over Chinese words for use as nouns. is a single word and shozoku. It has a large number of uninfected words which are nouns. to provide some means of differentiating its function as verb. Consequently. adjective. an adjective to a property.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING gogaku. noun. or adverb as the case might be. There is one aspect of this borrowing process which is of interest in its bearing upon the structural development of Japanese. argument '. if it was to be freely used. The unit of Chinese speech is a fixed monosyllable. commencing with independent words and continuing. with compounds. and both were em3*70 F ' ^ ^ . which corresponds to the jik-ken. language are far more numerous than those of native origin. It is noticeable that these compounds are frequently best translated into English by a word of Greek or Latin origin. 'loving'. and the normal type of a noun in Japanese is uninflected. that is to say. word at f£ stands indifferently for 'love'. the study of languages. fg. on the other hand. for English 'cherish' "jf Jg 'verification'. that is.Ijl for which we have had to invent the misleading term philology' S£ tH a*§°> 'love-protect'. Since all Chinese words are uninflected. The I . Thus %fo ron. and its grammatical function is determined solely by its position and context. without any change or addition. and it has inflected words which are verbs or adjectives or nouns according to their inflexion. a compound word. 'truth-inspection'. and 'beloved'. ' ' 33 talk-study '. 'costume'. it was necessary. in borrowing a Chinese word. has special forms for special functions.

1 Moreover. without some mutilation. Thus it would be impossible without doing violence to both languages. &c. gyoi. like yoki. and because of a quite fortuitous resemblance to a common native verb shirizoku. where it is seen functioning as a verb. in the period of which we are speaking. and could in any case only occur when the terminal sound of a Chinese word was similar to the termination of a Japanese verb or adjective. as in bibishiki. Another such instance is the verb ryoru. But such formations are quite exceptional. Such forms as gyou. kwai or kwan into typical verb-forms. end in vowels. This word happened to become rather more familiar than most others. 'dressing'.34 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR bodied as they stand in the vocabulary of Japanese. from which they differ in type. as we in English have taken a substantive of foreign origin like 'chronicle'. It might on general grounds be supposed that this result could be achieved by simply adding the necessary terminations to the Chinese word. on account of their sounds. yoshi. and given it our native in- when flexions in 'chronicles'. But this process was not easy to apply to Chinese words because. and it ' 1 There are. kwaishi. -shiki. some adjectives formed by adding a special termination. it was in classical times given native inflexions like sozokite. 'chronicled'. it was necessary to find some way of providing them with inflexions which the Japanese verb requires in order to establish its function and to bring it into relation with other words. even had they not been impossible on grounds of euphony and intelligibility. One is shozoku. however. 'if he dresses'. sozokeba. yuka. I know of only one or two cases where a Chinese compound was taken and conjugated like a Japanese word. 'to cook'. &c. which is a barbarous and comparatively recent formation from the Chinese compound ryori j$ J§ 'cookery'. they could not well be combined with Japanese sounds. which must like yuku. yuyushiki. and so on. costume '. the imported Chinese words. to convert Chinese words like gyo. to Chinese words. were far from being fully assimilated. which has just been quoted. They still retained their alien individuality. kwanki would be monstrosities. end in the syllables ki or shi. or adjective forms which must. But it came to using them as verbs. on account of their shortness. 'chronicler'. yuki. . was corrupted to sozoku. any mutilation might make them unrecognizable and.

The Turkish verb etmek. 'argues'. arzetdim ' ' ' . ronji. . e.Japanese Rongo and for the two separate elements ron and suru there was soon substituted the compound ronzuru. Such compounds as aigo. There are a few verbs like kemisuru. . Ron-suru is a its two members were closely amalgamated. this is invariably true. ron-suru means 'to do argument'. which was treated as a pure Japanese verb. 1 Turkish provides a close parallel to this method of fitting foreign words into the native grammatical structure. future. Such cases of complete assimilation are. by conjugating the verb suru. consequently 'to argue'. ronjite. 'does not argue'. and conjugated ronzu. ron sezu. but generally speaking these derivative verbs are of the type of hi suru. — — meaning 'cherishes'. arzedejek. such as ron su. not numerous. while ron standing alone in Japanese means 'argument'. and the combination can be conjugated exactly as if it were a simple So we have all the verb. 'to do'. where the verb-group thus formed came into common use. called in Sino. J-fc 'to compare'. aigo shitari.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING was only 35 in rare cases like that of sozoku that they became completely naturalized. g. to say respectfully in the usual way. and he was therefore obliged to find some special method of making use It is of them as parts of speech other than substantives. requisite verbal forms. from fa mei and suru. To convert a Chinese word into a verb. ron shite. 1 In many cases. It would hardly occur to a Japanese to treat them in the same way as native words. arzetmek. however. to do '. 'cherishing'. are made to serve as verbs by the simple addition of suru. is suffixed to Arabic substantives and then conjugated past tense. where the ordinary conjugation When the borrowed Chinese word is of suru is retained a compound. which is a naturalized form of ken \fa suru. 'to command'. the word for 'cherishing' mentioned above. snowing slightly different kinds of assimilation. and meijiru. and so on. not too much to say that the method adopted made a remarkable change in the nature of the Japanese language. aigo su. ultimately furnishing a form ronjiru instead of ronzuru. &c. Thus. case in point. all that was done was to add the Japanese verb suru. Ron must have been among the first Chinese words known to the Japanese. &C. 'arguing'. for it is part of the title of one of the first Chinese books brought to Japan the Confucian Analects. aigo shite.

kirei f^ §f meaning other Japanese verbs. in common with all special attributive taking a word like 'pretty'. the attributive form of nari. it was necessary only to attach to it naru. make an inspection'. the Chinese elements had somehow to be made to serve not only as verbs but as adjectives and adverbs. 'to inspect'. To turn a Chinese noun into an adjective there was a convenient grammatical apparatus ready to hand in the native verb nari. . p. Consequently the Japanese vocabulary of to-day is divided into two well-contrasted classes on the one hand the native words. as in kirei-naru hana (literally an is-pretty flower'). with a slight It will be seen that this method of employing words must have had a far-reaching effect upon the vocabulary of Japanese. i See in particular under Adjectives. 'to difference of emphasis. which is the equivalent of our copula 'to be'. and. and we need not do more than sketch them briefly here. but any dunce in Japan can tell. If they were to be fully utilized. each bearing very clear marks of its origin. because it permitted the use of imported words to fulfil almost any grammatical function. It is interesting to compare this condition with that which prevails in the languages of Europe. which can be prefixed to any substantive. : and kensa wo suru. for 'a pretty flower'. on the other the imported ones. This is the normal ' and adverbial forms. forming the combination kirei-naru. and yet retained them in almost every case with no change in their form. where mutual borrowing has been for centuries so continuous and frequent that their vocabularies have an homogeneous aspect and the distinction between native and foreign words is often apparent only to one with expert — knowledge.36 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR 'cherished'. 290. Nobody but a philologist could say off-hand what was the history of an English word like 'choose'. 121. from their mere shape and sound. and under Adverbs. has Consequently. and so on. p. Full details of the processes by which such adaptations were carried out will be found in the body ' of this work. In many cases the Chinese word retains its character as a noun so fully that it is distinguished as being in the objective case by means of the appropriate particle so that we can say both kensa suru. that sentei is Chinese and erabu Japanese for 'to choose'.

and has given rise to the corresponding colloquial kirei na hana. which are functionally inflexional affixes. and it was necessary only to affix to the appropriate Chinese word one of the native adverbial particles. there is no doubt that many locutions and probably many grammatical devices which appear to be indigenous are in reality due to Chinese influence. . we have cases where Japanese has borrowed a part of the Chinese gram' ' matical apparatus. and though they are less frequent they are of interest as showing that the adoption of Chinese words forced upon the Japanese language certain structural changes. 'prettily'. .INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 37 method of using Chinese compounds as attributives. because Japanese adverbs are uninflected. A characteristic example is the borrowing of methods of which Chinese avails itself in the absence of inflexion. as when the Japanese use such adjectival phrases as seijijo. or at least brought into common use syntactical and other devices which would have otherwise remained unusual. gutaiteki. 'suddenly'. but have been due in no small measure to the difficulty of adjusting the highly developed script of a literary language to the requirements of an entirely alien speech with no literary history. ni or to. The problem was simple. Similar expedients were resorted to when it was desired to use Chinese words as adverbs. as we have seen. Altogether. wrought an immense change in the constituthey have profoundly modified its tion of its vocabulary structure by grafting on to an inflected stock a numerically and they have in many preponderant uninflected element respects altered or enlarged its grammatical apparatus. All these results. exerted . where na is simply a contraction of naru. as kirei ni. have not only flowed naturally from the peculiar structure of Chinese. then. Here. totsuzen to. $£ Ip. it is important to notice. _h political '. Other methods of bringing Chinese compounds into an attributive relation with nouns are not wanting. where _t and $j are the Chinese shang and ti. While the outstanding features of the effect produced by Chinese upon the development of Japanese have been described above. j| f| #j concrete '. thus forming not an adverb but an adverbial phrase. the influence upon the Japanese language of Chinese importations has been considerable. They have.

and coming upon a passage like We n . in the nature of things. and there is a marked contrast between the language of those texts and that of. reminding the reader that in the early days of Chinese studies the method of literal translation must. Imagine a Japanese student endeavouring to read the Analects. since the first records of Japanese are in the script of the language which we suppose to have exerted it. But this is very uncertain ground. and I confine myself to giving a few examples of what I suppose to be constructions in imitation of Chinese practice.38 chiefly is HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR through Japanese translations of Chinese works. have been freely followed. and they were compiled at a period when Chinese had already been used in may. say. Japan for at least two or three hundred years. free from any alien admixture. the main body of the Kojiki itself or the Imperial rescripts of the Shoku Nihongi. It naturally impossible to give definite proof of such influence. however. reasonably assume that at least the songs of the Kojiki and most of the Shinto rituals are in pure Japanese.

the translator comes to J£J. I append a few suggestions as to usages now frequent in Japanese which may be due to Chinese influence (i) The use of tokoro to form relative clauses. which are commonly employed in the written language to denote 'by means of.INTRODUCTION OF WRITING 39 where the words in brackets are those supplied to fulfil the grammatical requirements of Japanese. a construction has come into common use through Chinese It is not as a rule possible to prove that such influence. as in this case. modelled upon the ablative absolute They cannot be rejected as not construction of Latin. though intelligible enough to those is used accustomed to such texts. The Chinese characters are taken one by one. we may go so far as to say that the appearance of a given locution in even the earliest texts other than those two is . he says toku wo mochite. in the forms wo mochite and wo motte. but by a phrase wo mochite. and for the simple 'by virtue'. is almost literal. 'using virtue'. This seems to follow the Chinese use of 0f as in fe fift $c tnat which the heart The meaning of gjf as an independent word is desires'. he does not render it by an equivalent Japanese particle. English. 'making use of. and the nearest literal equivalent in Japanese for each but the result. as yuku tokoro no hito. and far from being idiomatic. but they are imitative. ^ . It is easy to multiply examples where. The translation. is obtained by forcing Japanese words into alien constructions. English is perhaps seen in the use of such phrases as 'these things being done'. constructions have been bodily transferred from Chinese but we may suspect that many constructions which were not usual in early Japanese became common under the stress of An analogy from necessity in translating Chinese works. though not incorrect Japanese. which stands for a Chinese instrumental particle of which the original sense was 'to use'. When. : ' . not conclusive proof that it is indigenous. J^J This locution has now taken its place in the Japanese. and though it would be too much to say that any construction or form which does not appear in the Rituals or the Songs should be regarded with suspicion. 'the man who goes'. There is little doubt that the Kojiki contains much phraseology of this nature. for instance.

for instance. ' (4) negative. rendered in Japanese by ni oite. Chinese locative particle is j^ 'at' or 'in'. as in kaku no gotoku. This and many similar locutions which come perhaps rather under the heading of style than of syntax. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR and 'place' in Japanese is tokoro. as in arazaru bekarazu. though numerous. are characteristic features of Chinese prose. 'thus'. but in the Kojiki. since the usual Japanese locative particle. we find phrases like "ff || |fp 'having ' spoken' (literally 'speak finish then'). a common reading of is also copied from Chinese prose. This locution seems to be due to translation. (2) Chinese having no special verb-forms to express special aspects like tenses. &c. ni. and in Japanese prose we find it in common use. jjjj. where homophones. It seems likely that Japanese locutions of this nature are due to Chinese. so that the Japanese would translate the above literally as kokoro no hossuru tokoro. occurs very frequently in phrases equivalent to 'thus'. are not usually such as to cause misunderstanding.40 'place'. 'placed in'. . and it may be that their frequency to-day has been brought about by the example of Chinese. must not not be' for 'must be'. 'the heart's desire-place'. (5) The double ' (6) The use of 'classifiers' is not frequent in the early language. time is expressed by analytic methods. It is probable that the extended use of gotoku is imitated from Chinese. special suffixes to express the completion of an act. The Japanese equivalent is an adjective gotoki. as. but not in a polysyllabic language like Japanese. 'how'. and that the frequent use in the written language of shikashite. which is rendered in Japanese by ii-oete. is possibly due to Chinese influence. can be made to serve all necessary purposes. for instance. where in pure Japanese kaku would be sufficient. the antithetical group of words or phrases. (3) A common is which In Chinese #n like '. The need of classifiers or some other device to prevent ambiguity is urgent in a language full of homophones. as Japanese verbs have If Jt (' speak-finish for 'spoke').

It must be remembered. which may be taken to mean 'easy kana'. already observed that the use of a complete Chinese character to represent each syllable of words in a polysyllabic language was an awkward and tiresome method. Thus the character £p chi. are written with characters used according to meanings. known as the 'grass hand'. was written in a running hand and this was gradually abbreviated through various stages. Kobo Daishi. The Japanese tradition affirms that Kobo Daishi. not a new one. himself chose forty-seven of these signs and fixed them as the conventional equivalents of forty-seven syllables into which the sounds of the Japanese language 'had been analysed. These were called hiragana. 774-835. and constitute an alphabet.. 41 Further Development of the Script. that these characters were as a rule written not in the way in which they appear in printed books but in an abbreviated cursive style. and but those of the middle their reconstruction is not easy We have of the eighth century are written phonetically. The idea of using characters as phonetics was. It is quite likely that Kobo Daishi was responsible for this selection. The verses in the Manydshu are not exclusively written in kana. can hardly have done more than simplify the forms and . however. until it took the simple form £.. FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS § 2. used as a phonetic symbol for the sound chi. The early poems. It is natural to suppose that the convenience of these abbreviations suggested to the Japanese the selection of a number of simplified characters to be reserved for phonetic uses. and the Representation of Japanese Sounds of adapting the Chinese script We have traced the process to Japanese requirements up to a point where the phonetic use of Chinese symbols to represent Japanese particles and terminations was well established by its use in various chronicles and anthologies compiled from the fifth to the ninth century. a famous priest who lived from a. if it was he. 'knowledge'. such as %. by which Japanese words can be written according to their sound. or rather a syllabary. The process was a gradual one. and it had been applied by the Chinese centuries before. but it is incorrect to say that he was the inventor of a Japanese alphabet. d. £ 3*70 G . say those up to the end of the seventh century. as we have seen.

and the stems of inflected words are written by means of complete Chinese characters. particles are written in 2. . used semantically. There is no general rule. : All words of Chinese origin. but the method may be roughly described ' . Many of these have been eliminated. Before this the selection of Chinese characters to represent Japanese sounds was more or less a matter of individual taste. Even when the use of simplified characters became common. which came into use at about the same period as the hiragana. Thus. Similarly both katakana and hiragana signs for the sound ro are derived from the character g. Grammatical terminations and hiragana. most uninfected Japanese words.42 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR reduce the number of kana. and the hiragana being /? which is a cursive form of the whole character g. and not the cursive type of Chinese character. which is the side of the character ffi. also pronounced *. Many different characters were used for each sound. the corresponding katakana form is J. As might be expected. formed by a cursive abbreviation of the character J£J (which is pronounced i). is made up of what are called katakana or side kana' These are abbreviations of the square. . and the hiragana in common use to-day may be said to be standardized. employed in all printed and manuscript documents. which is a part of g. and the total number of hiragana symbols used to represent forty-seven sounds was nearly three hundred. the convenience of these syllabaries encouraged the use of what we have called the Mixed Phonetic Script (Kanamajiri) and this has now after certain vicissitudes come to be the normal script for representing Japanese. generally formed by one part or side (kata) being taken to represent the whole. The admixture of kana varies according to the writer and to the literacy which he expects from his reader. while tp is the hiragana for i. and to show as a rule little more variation than is seen in the different styles of writing or printing our alphabet. as follows 1. the katakana being n. there was nothing in the nature of a fixed alphabet. sometimes the same character was used for more than one sound. Another syllabary.

and the inflexional affixes are represented by units of the syllabary. for instance. though a practised reader will generally make no mistakes. the stem odoro-. the forms odoroku. . Thus. Consequently. is written 3£. As thus described. umu. in a continuous text. Two characters like £3 j£ 'whiteclouds'. but the student of Japanese soon discovers a host of unexpected difficulties. But how is he to tell which ? He may come across. being a verb. sho or a kan-on reading. A single character such as may have. which stands for the Chinese word meaning 'to fear'. odorokitari. the system sounds simple. which is the Chinese character for the Chinese . is inflected. namely. are written odoro-ki : odoro-ku odoro-kitari m m * ft 3 The particles are almost without exception written in kana. is written gfo the word tama. ki. despite their greater simplicity. word meaning 'jewel'. and this is done by means of the kana. the character 3£ and be uncertain as to whether to give it the Japanese reading tama or the Chinese reading gyoku. and the word odoroku. ikiru. . &c. he may be reasonably sure that it represents either a Chinese word or an uninfected Japanese word. 43 Katakana. in print at least. is written by means of the character ||. are not in general use. 'a jewel'. But since odoroku. nama. may stand for the Chinese compound haku-un or the Japanese compound shirakumo. 'to fear'. a go-on reading. In the first place. is odoroki. colloquialisms. when he sees a Chinese character not followed by kana. it is necessary to show its inflexions. &c.FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS 3. These and kindred difficulties will face him at every step and. set or any of the several Japanese readings. for writing foreign words. as we have already seen. a SinicoJapanese word. &c. it is not an exaggeration to say that absolute certainty in reading Japanese texts ^ . the word ron. even among the uneducated. The character || regarded as representing the constant portion of odoroku. and they are generally reserved. or as a typographical device equivalent to italics.

In nearly all newspapers and popular magazines this practice is followed. In support of this statement it is only necessary to refer to the method. An example will 1 make it clear ¥£ . of putting at the side of every character small kana which represent its sound.: 44 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR whether ancient or modern is almost unattainable. in general use in printed matter for which wide publicity is sought.

that though the Chinese script as used by the Chinese is now a logographic script. But the meaning of a Chinese word may vary enormously according to position and to context. But in Japanese. although it stands always for one Chinese word. and. since they selected forty-seven symbols in each set of kana. since one Chinese word is invariably represented by one and the same character. with some reason be regarded as ideographic. and. The Japanese use of the Chinese character may. but to eke out their meanings by specifying their sounds. sheng. It is evident that. as umu if it means 'to bear'. a pupil '. for instance. The function of the kana written at the side of the characters is not to explain them. strange '. it is true.FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS 45 a Japanese text. . the character is to that extent an ideograph. without abuse of language. this word may mean 'to live'. The Chinese word which a single character represents does. We saw in discussing the character that. We may therefore say. and then selects as its equivalent the Japanese word which conveys the particular idea intended. There is one important aspect of the development of the Japanese script which must be given special attention. convey an idea. and ikiru if it means 'to live'. to be born '. when we find the character we assign to it a different word according to the idea which it is intended to convey. It is as difficult to read the kana without the characters as to read the characters without the kana. In other words. probably about the time when the hiragana and katakana syllabaries were contrived. however. as used by the Japanese it is largely . while the character remains without change and in Chinese therefore the character may properly be said to represent a word rather than an idea. we must suppose that they discerned forty-seven sounds. a Japanese reader considers the whole range of ideas covered by the character ^. raw '. ^ 1 ' ' ' ' ' ^ ideographic. at some period in the development of the script. and that is the mutual relation between Japanese sounds and what we may call Japanese spelling. Japanese scholars began to analyse the sounds of which Japanese words were composed. to bear '. to grow '. and so on. In discussing the nature of the Chinese script we have seen that it is more correctly described as logographic than as ideographic. reading it.

in the form of a table described as the scheme of fifty sounds. the vowels a. . but I allude to it here because it has some bearing on grammatical problems. yuke. . on the other hand. I am inclined to the latter view. in analysing Japanese words. and not to go further by dissecting those syllables into their constituent vowels and consonants. if yuk is a stem. yuk is not a stem.46 It HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR was not until some centuries later (the eleventh century) that another classification appeared. to distinguish only syllables. Which of these are we to regard as a stem. i. It is obvious that the syllabic method of writing Japanese is due in the first place to the fact that the Chinese system which they borrowed was a syllabic one. If we take a Japanese verb like yuku and examine its various forms we find yuki. that Japanese must always have been a syllabic language. and could not be used in any other way. For instance. True. then the forms yuka. If. The question of early Japanese sounds is a very obscure one. But that does not by any means prove that the further division of Japanese sounds was unnatural or impossible. and it has always been the custom. in a learned essay upon the origins of Japanese. It is true that to modern Japanese forms like yuk signify nothing. yuka. and I am far from asserting that these are the real stems of Japanese verbs. This is a point which should be borne in mind in all discussions of Japanese etymology. Such a statement will not bear examination. yuki. it cannot be written by means of the Japanese syllabary but that fact alone is not sufficient to prove that such an entity never existed. yuku are made by agglutination. Now the distinguishing feature of these and all other native classifications of Japanese sounds is that the unit is always a syllable. and we should expect to find that the agglutinated vowels had at one time some independent significance. but I do not think it should be taken for granted that syllables are the ultimate constituents of Japanese words. and u are inflexions. because when they came to write it they wrote it syllable by syllable. e. said yuke. I have seen it stated. The classification made by the scholars who drew up the tables of kana was a classification of symbols and not a classification of sounds. and cannot properly be discussed in a treatise on grammar. if for etymological purposes we wish to postulate one ? The constant portion of all these forms is yuk.

or of a consonant followed by a vowel. In column 6 the modern pronunciations are ha. Column 5 offers no difficulty. which is pronounced tsu. but it is*probable that its earlier pronunciation was si.) The sounds in columns 1 and 2 call for no comment. 2. as they were pronounced at least as far back as the seventh century. A I KA KI SA SI TA TI NA NI : .' U $ KU P KE *' E O SE SO V + ". future forms which are now written with n. 8. 1.. consisting either of a vowel. hi.FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS 47 however. it appears.t RA WA RI 9 MI (YI) WI 5* A * V SU . but there are indications that all the syllables in this series once had an initial sound intermediate between t and ts.'.. as represented by katakana and a uniform transliteration. The final n sound doubtless was due to the need for reproducing the termination ng of Chinese words. for instance. 9.. Similar observations apply to tu. ti is now pronounced chi (as in 'chicken'). the syllable represented by si is now pronounced more like shi. fu. In column 3. The fifty sounds above referred to may be set forth as follows. they are all composed of syllables. and. 5. strictly speaking. 7. as aramu. 3. 6. In early texts. did not exist in Japanese. In column 4. HA MA YA HI . 4.* 1 TU NU HU MU "9 * ** y TE NE HE ME ' YU &> . . as aran. which might . RU I* (WU) (YE) RE WE KO a TO \ NO S HO MO * =& YO RO 3 -0 WO ? * (A &awa character 5/ was later used to represent the final n sound which. 10. that as Japanese words are now pronounced. It is true. ho. There is no evidence as to the early pronunciation. There is very good evidence to show that the early forms of these syllables were not aspirate plus vowel but labial plus vowel. were written with mu. he.

represented by ya. Column 8. fu. BI. GO ZA. A. both usually written zu. 6. and that it was originally represented by j> which has now been transferred to the column of simple vowels as u. although in ordinary pronunciation little or no difference can be noticed. In column 10 there is no kana for wu. was Fusu Fu ! It is significant that the sonant forms corresponding to the group ha. but it is almost certain from etymological evidence that a syllable yi did once exist. ye. namely. Similarly. be. no kana equivalent for yi and j^. At present yi is assimilated to i. ho are ba. there is very little doubt that the symbol j. BE. bu. if read according to the usual transliteration. yi. it will be seen. DI. ZO DA.48 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR be represented approximately by pa. BO. It will already be clear that the kana spelling of Japanese words is not easy. and it is useful to write zu for the former and dzu for the latter. DU. ' ' ' ' • . . ZE. GE. he. hi. which is the 'impure' form of shi. PU. These are represented by xv adding a diacritic mark called a nigori or 'impurity'. the impure forms of su and tsu. BU. represented by a mark °. but here again it is pretty certain from early texts that wu originally existed. originally stood for ye. bi. po. ZU. phi. 3. pho. DO. GA. phe. yu.. which is the impure form of chi. has. As for ye. now assigned to the sound e. bo. simply because more usual than zi. PI. and BA. and the sound ji. pi. ^ ' ' seeing a Japanese kana rendering of the title which. pu. It is not necessary here to give a full '. and indeed that the modern pronunciation of ^. should not be confused. PA. pe. to the kana for the 'pure' syllables. Thus we have ^j = ka and tf=ga. DE. or better perhaps by pha. 1 Columns 7 and 9 require no comment. There is not much doubt about the early pronunciation of these 'impure' sounds. as for pa. there are impure sounds corresponding to each of the columns 2.is nearer ye than e. but for etymological purposes one should distinguish between the sound ji. On the whole ji is preferable for s?. 1 I remember once 's ' Who Who '. yo. . ZI. but there is a difference of opinion as to their proper transliteration. though there is no kana symbol for it. GU. There are also half-impure sounds. PE. There are many difficulties which we have not yet exposed. Though the above table represents what are called in Japanese the pure sounds. 4. GI. phu. PO.

.FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS account of the 49 which the syllabary is used to represent compound sounds. The key to all of them is that the old language never in way has a syllable beginning with a vowel. the aspirates of the ha column are lost in pronunciation.. The next important rule is that. except at the beginning of a word.. fu o . but it is desirable to state the chief rules. It follows that the combinations given below form by crasis the compound sounds shown against them. except at the beginning of a word. d . a plus u becomes 6 a .

omoi. A student of Japanese who has enough knowledge to pursue etymological inquiries cannot be misled by such a spelling as soro. and to apply it historically by representing every word quoted as it was pronounced at the period under discussion. verb conjugations which. in the same way. I have thought it best not to adopt any arbitrary transliteration. therefore. For similar reasons. omohe. tolerate 2. obviously does not fulfil these requirements. A person learning Japanese for practical purposes does not need to know that soro was at one time pronounced something like safurafu. Owing to these peculiarities of the kana spelling. The ideal method. safurafu for a word which is now pronounced soro and this plan has the merit of making clear the development of many forms which is obscured by the modern alphabetical spelling. for instance. omoha.7 7 7 which we may choose to transliterate as safurafu but we do not know whether safurafu represents the pronunciation of. but to retain that which is in common use in Japan when it is desired to write Japanese words in our alphabet. The particle he. . It is an approach to a scientific method.50 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR lost in pronunciation and. in the correct kana spelling. In the following pages. would be to use a complete phonetic notation. the Nara period any more accurately than does soro. To write safurafu consistently for soro . omowa. are written on the model of omofu. The practice followed by Aston. omohi. but it is not entirely satisfactory. the combination hana a is made hanawa in ordinary speech. omoe. for philological studies. since he must be acquainted with the lines along which Japanese sounds have developed. We know that the earliest recorded kana spelling of soro was -f. the problem of transliteration into our alphabet is a difficult one. In this system consonants are sounded as in . writing. is pronounced e. Chamberlain. while we are at least certain that soro displays with some accuracy the modern pronunciation. say. and Satow in their philological works on Japanese was to reproduce exactly the kana spelling. since Japanese does not two similar vowels in succession. are pronounced omou. 3. For practical purposes the simplest solution is to represent alphabetically the modern Japanese sounds.

Sinico-Japanese words are treated in the same way thus. It should be added. represented and the Shinto rituals. j. &c. — . In Sinico-Japanese words a final tsu usually stands for an original Chinese final consonant t. they are much shorter and lighter since there is hardly any stress accent vowels play a much less important part in spoken Japanese than in Italian. Their language may be regarded as purely native. when the Japanese borrowed the Chinese script. as . &c. for the sake of accuracy. but in Japanese it was intensified by the exceptional circumstance that. consist of poetry by the songs in the Kojiki and prose. and Divergence between Spoken and Written Forms The specimens of Japanese which have come down to us from the archaic period. sixth. e. as in gwatsu for ^J ngwat a final ku for an original Chinese k. kyu. The distinction between poetry and prose is not well marked. the fifth. and seventh centuries of our era. The songs. and the combinations a plus/w. for the poetry is characterized only by a loose and irregular metre and some inversions of word order. &c. jj st. It is a process which can be traced in most languages.# 1/ instead of a. g. though naturally somewhat high-flown and elaborate. are written 0. After the introduction of Chinese learning. lengthened vowels standing for plus u. probably did not differ in essentials from contemporary speech. g. as in moku for t}c mok. § 3. tas'keru for tasukeru.FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS 51 English. with the exception perhaps of an occasional Chinese or Korean word so thoroughly disguised as to be indistinguishable from indigenous forms. Later Developments of the Language. they were obliged. — . are echoes of archaic colloquial. Similarly a final Chinese n or ng was usually in early writings represented by a kana symbol for mu.. The negative termination nu is often pronounced and sometimes written as if it were n. The vowel u in particular is almost elided in ordinary speech in a number of words e. that is. des' for desu. that though Japanese vowel sounds are usually described as being like and those of Italian. vowels as in Italian. chu.. we may fairly assume. the spoken and written languages began to diverge. and the language of the rituals.

a very wide one. of which the chief literary monuments fall into two well-contrasted divisions the first comprising the poems of the Manyoshu (the later volumes) and Kokinshu. It is convenient to describe first the language of this latter group. It is only a phonetic script which can properly reproduce colloquial usages. to take along with it both Chinese words and. not only could the written language not easily imitate the spoken language. . but also. though not without literary importance. &c. in a much less degree. may be neglected. tends to break down the conservative forces of scholarship and. and consequently the divergence between Japanese writing and speech is. let us add. their aim was to write Chinese. and therefore opposes resistance to the invasion of colloquial forms. exercised a great influence upon the subsequent development of Japanese. or a combination of Chinese and Japanese. Following upon the archaic period came what we may describe as the Classical period. pedantry. no doubt under the eyes of Chinese upon — . in all languages. The prose. they confined themselves for a time to writing Chinese. or. Chinese constructions. for the written language depends upon symbols which have a primarily visual appeal. however. the second consisting of prose and poetry written by Japanese in Chinese. The Chinese poetry. and prose works like the Preface to the Kokinshu. and on the other hand the general influence of colloquial forms which. But it is a conflict in which there is an unusual element. The earliest specimens of Chinese prose written by Japanese. conversely. The history of the development of Japanese after the archaic period is largely a history of the conflict between these two influences. the Tosa Nikki. and it is therefore desirable to describe it in some detail. have therefore on the one hand the special influence of Chinese We all modes of writing Japanese. When studying it we should always bear in mind that. in so far as the script remained ideographic or logographic. designed for the ear and not the eye.52 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR we have seen. in its extremes. the spoken language could not freely incorporate words and locutions which the written language was able to take over from Chinese with little or no change. We have seen that. when the Japanese first became acquainted with the Chinese script. it would perhaps be more accurate to say.

From A. leaving some words unchanged. under the influence of the system of reading Chinese texts with the aid of diacritics according to Japanese syntax. and then to read what he had written in accordance not with the Latin syntax and word order but his own. and must . This he translates into Chinese. Meanwhile imported Chinese works were being copied and expounded. there sprang up a style of prose which was not an imitation of Chinese so much as an imitation of a literal translation of Chinese. its doctrines were spread in Japan through the medium of the Chinese language. or as near as he can get to Chinese. the Nihon Goki. and Japanese scholars wrote their commentaries in Chinese. or what he supposed to be Latin. The writer first thinks of a sentence in Japanese. D. 797 there were successively compiled in Japan a number of historical works like the Shoku Nihongi. of and miscellaneous treatises. a threefold one. Soon. It is doubtful whether the history of language contains a more astonishing example of the mutilation of a foreign tongue. and no court noble or official could hope to rise to eminence if he were not able to write Chinese verses and to make apt quotations from the Chinese classics. converting some into English. which means that he must set down a series of characters in an order quite different from the Japanese order of words. It is so curious and complicated that it is difficult to describe intelligibly. now following or imitating the Latin construction. ' Korean verse. devoted to Chinese learning flourished in Kyoto in the early part of this period. It was probably not often very good Chinese. and now adding English words to eke out the sense.LATER DEVELOPMENTS or 53 were relatively pure and free from japonicisms '. then. and the Sandai Jitsuroku. and though the Buddhist religion had a wider appeal than the Confucian ethic. laws. in government and ceremonies as well as in art and letters. but it passed muster and might have been understood by a Chinaman. In the Heian period (800-1186) the influence of Chinese culture was exceedingly powerful. all which were in the Chinese language. ceremonial codes. Numerous academies. This process of writing what is usually called Sinico-Japanese is. anthologies of instructors. but perhaps some idea of its nature can be conveyed by saying that it is as if a writer of English were to set down his thoughts in Latin. however. both public and private.

Consequently we find. some of which. when he or another comes to read it. They consist chiefly of folk-lore and fairy tales. They are comprehensively styled monogatari. nor its correct Chinese translation. and they were probably for the most part far less capable of writing good Chinese prose than a modern classical scholar of turning out a tolerable imitation of Cicero. They are written in pure Japanese of the period. Had the Japanese not developed the phonetic use of Chinese characters. with results too horrible to contemplate. often making use of materials borrowed from China.54 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR substitute for the particles and the terminations of verbs various Chinese grammatical devices of an entirely different nature. To understand the development of this curiosity of literature. which means simply 'tales'. but a hybrid thing. and though the vocabulary includes Chinese words. by means of kana with a slight admixture of Chinese characters. a number of works in a mixed phonetic script. Fortunately other influences were at work. . and the final result is neither the Japanese sentence first thought of. incomprehensible to a Chinaman. the Japanese Rip Van Winkle. The simplification of the various systems of kana favoured the growth of a written language in which the native element could be used alone. The living language of China was rarely known to them. and even to a Japanese without special study. or mixed with Chinese in whatever proportion was desired while certain changes in the political relations between Japan and China in the reign of the Emperor Uda seem to have somewhat diminished the prestige of Chinese studies. and the earliest of them appear to be the Ise Monogatari and the Taketori Monogatari. which we may regard as pure classical Japanese prose. one must realize that the Japanese as a rule possessed not so much a knowledge of Chinese as a knowledge of Chinese books. . Then. the missing particles and terminations must be supplied. they might have continued to write in unrelieved Sinico. The constructions show no sign of Chinese influence. these are .Japanese of the early chronicles romances of more recent composition. like the stories of the White Rabbit and of Urashima.Japanese. in the tenth century. ascribed to the early part of the tenth century. had already been recorded in or they are the Sinico.

but for certain unfavourable influences which we shall presently discuss. or official. are. The Kokinshu preface (922) which is the work of the same author. descriptive. For our purposes it is sufficient to refer only to a few of these the Tosa Nikki. in the hands of its remarkable . Kokinshu preface. sufficient to show that in the tenth century it was possible for the Japanese to write. and the Genji — Monogatari. The Genji Monogatari. and the earliest monogatari. style clearly influenced by Chinese. however. whether narrative. written by a Court lady Murasaki Shikibu. And indeed during the tenth century classical Japanese prose did undergo a further development. though we are not concerned here with its literary excellence. These early works represent classical Japanese prose in its purest form. the native language as it was then spoken and a prose which was not a slavish imitation of Chinese. a native prose not widely divergent from the spoken language yet capable of all ordinary uses. 1000. and. They were followed by other monogatari of a similar nature. describing events in opens with a passage in which the author explains that he has set out to write a woman's diary. From these promising beginnings there might have grown. and by certain diaries and miscellanies in which the element of pure Japanese predominated. LATER DEVELOPMENTS 55 evidently words which were already well assimilated. an interesting statement by which he means that he uses the Japanese language and a mixed phonetic script in which kana predominate.. in the native script which they had by then brought to a fairly practical stage. similarly purports to be pure Japanese prose. d. but it is written in a flowery The Tosa Nikki 935. in called about a. whereas men as a rule used the Chinese character and wrote in Chinese. didactic. It A. so that altogether one cannot be far out in assuming that their language is substantially the same as the current speech of the period. and reached in the Genji Monogatari a very high point but beyond this it did not . progress. These two works. and it is somewhat of an exhibition of literary dexterity rather than a straightforward piece of ordinary Japanese writing. d. is regarded by many Japanese as the high-water mark of Japanese literature. it is true that. is a travel diary.

were. it so abounds in honorific words and phrases that it is sometimes difficult For a leisurely description of the to disentangle them. But. classical Japanese prose became a powerful and flexible instrument of expression. for purposes which are chiefly. and artificial life about the Court. elaborate. is clear from internal evidence. The spoken language of the day. to make of it a literary medium much better expressing the native temperament than the hybrid Sinico-Japanese of her masculine contemporaries. is enriched by occasional adaptations rather than imitations of Chinese constructions and diversified by a moderate use of words of Chinese origin. which are obviously colloquial forms. That the language of the Genji Monogatari is. in their current pronunciation. . Though her work is undoubtedly the finest specimen of native prose of the classical period. even the length of individual words when written out syllable by syllable in kana instead of figured by a single symbol. Owing to the structural peculiarities of Japanese. narrative and descriptive. such a style was well suited. ceremonious. but not exclusively. the complicated system of agglutinative suffixes. and though it contains a fair proportion of Chinese words.— 56 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR authoress. The writer's skill enables her to use. remarkable as was the achievement of Murasaki no Shikibu in writing a very long novel in her native tongue for it must be remembered that previous monogatari had been even her genius could not overcome brief and disjointed the inherent defects of the pure Japanese style. it cannot be said to display any of the merits of conciseness which distinguish written Chinese. We — . phonetically reproduced in the text various contractions like arazan-nari for arazaru nari. except in the matter of care and polish. for instance. with its now well-established syntax and its profusion of grammatical appliances. but it may readily be imagined that the interminable and intricate Japanese sentence leading through a maze of gerunds up to a far-distant final verb. toko for iakaku. not essentially different from the colloquial of the period find. it is composed of incredibly long sentences. and to modern readers at least sometimes obscure and since its characters are persons of high court rank. terribly involved. &c. while Chinese words are sometimes written out at length. the speech current in the cultivated society to which she belonged.

and a style used in Further. which despite all its obvious defects is. Such a development was doubtless possible but it did not take place. at his period and for a long time subsequently. It is here that we have the beginnings of the divergence between spoken and written Japanese which has continued until recent times. a purely literary medium. the other derived from Chinese. From the classical prose there developed a classical epistolary style. sketches. We have already noticed that Tsurayuki explained the form of his diary by saying that he and broadly had written in the character of a woman speaking it may be said that. Consequently we find. all whether religious or philological or historical. two distinct kinds of prose writing in Japan. an unrivalled medium for concise and compact statement. novels until ^the beginning of the Meiji period. and diaries in a similar style. but it is significant that nearly all of these were the work of women. prose writing in kana was regarded as only suitable for women. while Chinese was the proper medium for men. The reason is not far to seek. there took place. were drawn from Japanese antiquity. from the latter part of the eighteenth century. from the tenth century onwards. more immediately treated. the SinicoJapanese prose was. so that the classical vocabulary and the classical style were for their purposes as 3270 j . we must admit. a nationalist revival in learning and religion led by such great native scholars as Mabuchi and Motoori who in their treatises deliberately reverted to the classical style. The subjects of which they practical . The classical Japanese prose was not far removed from current speech.LATER DEVELOPMENTS for 57 purposes than those of romance. Following the Genji Monogatari there came a number of romances. the one descended from such works as the Tosa Nikki. and to the great advantages of the Chinese system of writing. In their capable hands it seems to be an admirable means of expression it is pure and lucid although it rigidly observes the ancient grammatical rules. . Japanese classical prose could not have been fashioned into an instrument well adapted for all literary purposes. in its most rigid forms. given the intention and the inducement. and this failure is due in a great measure to the superior prestige of Chinese studies. structions of Chinese. . not so convenient as the brief and simple conI do not go so far as to say that.

must be couched in the more learned style sanctified by so many centuries of Chinese chronicles and proclamations and ethical treatises. in the direct line. with a Chinese preface in addition to the Japanese preface written by Tsurayuki. these serious compositions. in a restricted field. which (apart from some belonging to the Nara period which are recorded in the Shoku Nihongi) are all in Chinese composed by Japanese. as we have pointed out. an official anthology of native verse. We see. romances. in the last few years. as in the Yeigwa Monogatari. of classical Japanese prose is now the epistolary language used by women. then. that pure Japanese. is modelled in style upon the previous romances. While. It is interesting to note that the official histories of the Heian period and such quasi-legal works as the Institutes of Engi (Engishiki) are in Chinese. in the tenth century.58 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR adequate as they were appropriate. composite form that the modern written language of Japan is derived. for less than a century. In the classical period. there existed alongside of the native prose the style of writing It is known as Sinico-Japanese. The most characteristic specimens are therefore to be found in the early medieval edicts. . while history with a romantic tinge. and belles lettres in general were being written in the classical style. After flourishing. has gone out of fashion. it was felt. We have already traced the beginnings of the Sinico- By was used . An idea of the importance attached to Chinese studies may be gained from the fact that it was thought proper to furnish the Kokinshu. by which we understand the native language without important structural change and with only a sparing admixture of imported words. the subject. from this a natural division of function the Sinico-Japanese style for political documents and works of a similar nature for. while the native language was well suited for poetry and romance. poems. it fell into disuse. and so foredoomed to failure. and even this. was destined not to become a literary medium. The sole surviving descendant. But this neo-classical prose was artificial. Indeed it is stated that Tsurayuki's preface was a translation of the Chinese one. and the writer's skill. graver if less agreeable works were being composed in Chinese which varied in purity according to the time.

when it was merely a rearrangement of Japanese words eked out by an occasional Chinese locution. correspondence. it had to be reconverted into something like its original form. and so on. in official documents. — —that .LATER DEVELOPMENTS 59 Japanese style and seen that it arose from the peculiar Japanese method of reading Chinese texts. either direct or through the medium of the native prose. grew less and less like its Chinese original. and it survives even to this day in the formal epistolary language. but it did remain in use for centuries. the outward form of Chinese was retained. it had no advantages over a straightforward reproduction of the current speech. Chinese studies accordingly languished. Consequently. From the end of the eleventh century and throughout what is called the Kamakura period. and in order to read it. may be summarized as a gradual divergence from pure Chinese. though too complicated for description here in detail. was the native language of the day. the Sinico-Japanese style. Japan was under the domination of a military caste. in its is. it must be understood that it differed both in nature and development from the . written by a small number of scholars. records. in order to write a simple Japanese sentence. the ordinary prose. from the Middle Ages onwards. But still. though high Sinico-Japanese continued to be difficult to read. What contributed to its preservation was no doubt a certain conciseness and compression which is inherent in the Chinese symbol. its elements had to be altered and rearranged. and which the kana writing certainly does not share. with such literary ornament as the writer might choose to add. It is astonishing that such a difficult method should have persisted. Most students of Japanese will agree that texts in the apparently simple kana syllabary are laborious to write and — most correct form However. and learning was at a low ebb. and there were few who could write anything approaching pure Chinese prose. At the same time. and the influence of the colloquial. Two important causes contributed to this divergence a deficient knowledge of Chinese. Its subsequent development. when. when it most nearly approached pure Chinese could only be used or apprehended by persons with special knowledge while in its loosest form. the foundation. The Sinico-Japanese method had reached the ultimate point of absurdity. though the substance.

the adoption of Chinese words and Chinese compounds into both spoken and written languages had proceeded apace. Owing to the influence of Sinico-Japanese. and many branches of learning should be adopted from China. may be regarded as the foundation of modern literary Japanese. certain tricks of style like the double negative. had a Chinese origin. upon which the ultimate structure of the sentence depends. and these were retained. it might be added. from the latter part of the Heian period. As time went on. Their language differs from that of the monogatari of the Heian period in several important respects. developing from the Kamakura period onwards. 1370). The early stages of this language are well exhibited in such historical romances as the Heike Monogatari (c. were more convenient and expressive than the polysyllabic equivalents in Japanese. the Genji with its full apparatus of particles and termination and the vocabulary includes a very high proportion of Chinese words. however corrupt and. a written language which is the ancestor of the written language of to-day and in which we can discern two influences that of the colloquial. exist in the case of Japanese. from which it could never entirely depart. therefore. as we have seen. and. which provides a great part of the vocabulary. Even without those special reasons which. That. Both these works. writers abandoned even the Chinese order of words. descended in a direct line language. 1200) and the Taiheiki (c. and it was natural that the special vocabularies of Buddhism. We find. Chinese compound words. say. a number of idioms and turns of phrase. writing can absorb a greater number of foreign words than speech. japonicized. — . Confucianism. many of which have not passed through .60 classical HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR native prose which we have described. and was relatively free The Sinico-Japanese. the rhetorical question. simplified forms take the place of the elaborate grammatical structure of. and in particular the latter. Moreover. and wrote something which was an approach to the colloquial in which their thoughts were formed but the long use of Chinese and pseudo-Chinese had established a number of Chinese locutions as part of the grammatical apparatus of the written language. from the archaic native from Chinese influence. in particular. if we may use the term. and that of Chinese. as we shall presently see. and the antithetical phrase. .

Classical Essays Classical Epistles Classical War tales Romances Episto. and one style can. when Japan was thrown open to intercourse with the Western world. which are still operative. her language. nor indeed can it be satisfactorily done without study of original texts. easily merge into another. But. though I have strongly contrasted the development of Classical Japanese and Sinico. The later developments of Japanese therefore require separate treatment. In the foregoing pages I am conscious of having drawn somewhat too definitely the distinction between various styles. because. from the second half of the nineteenth century. they must have had a mutual influence. in particular from Buddhistic works.LATER DEVELOPMENTS 61 the colloquial but have been taken direct from Chinese literature. . There is good reason to believe. of course.Japanese early medieval 8th century. I think that the main lines development were substantially as stated above they can be shown diagrammatically as follows of : . Language is a fluid thing. was subjected to a new set of influences. and Archaic Japanese Prose Chinese Prose 5th century. So far we have referred only in passing to the development of spoken Japanese.Japanese. and confined ourselves to remarking that the colloquial has continuously exercised an influence upon the written language. subject to this reservation. in common with all her institutions. Early Classical Prose Sinico. NeoClassical Women's Letters (obsolescent) Meiji Ordinary Men's Meiji Novels (obsolescent) Letters (obsolescent) Meiji Sinico Prose ( Prose Japanese ] 15th to i=iQth 9th cen- obsolete) (obsolete) J This table stops short at the Meiji period.Official lary style Docu- 10th to "J W4thcen- ments J turies. it is obvious that. except in their extreme purity. Thus. It is hardly necessary to trace further the development of the Japanese written language until the Meiji period.

tenses. Japanese has few homophones which are likely to be confused. had the following main characteristics 1. forms one sentence whose members are grammatically interdependent. to hear. however complicated. type. 2. Chinese was monosyllabic and brief. but 'This egg. In Japanese the order of words is the reverse of that in Chinese. Japanese was polysyllabic and diffuse. The vocabulary consisted chiefly of native words. Thus. The number of these suffixes in classical Japanese was considerable. 'has been heard'. It follows that full . you do not say 'This egg is bad.62 as HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR we have seen. of a polysyllabic type. so that adjective precedes noun. : The structure of the sentence was of the native Japanese Any statement. Moods. and contained only a few words of Chinese origin. being bad. our prepositions are in Japanese post-positions. In Japanese the relations between words were indicated by a system of particles and suffixes. The less important words in a sentence precede the more important ones. mood. But already in the days of the monogatari there are evidences of a divergence between spoken and written forms. &c. . 3. eat can not'. Chinese has many. if we are justified. The spoken language of the Middle Ages. which had become naturalized by frequent use. I cannot eat it'. and the rules governing their use were complicated. but kikaretarishi. as I believe we are. Thus. adverb precedes verb. often forming compounds of considerable length and complexity. that the medieval colloquial did not sub- from the prose of the medieval romances. we have kiku. being expressed by special devices only where essential to prevent ambiguity. and similar aspects of the verb are expressed by the agglutination of suffixes. and the verb is always the final element. It is clear that this was a language diametrically opposed in almost every respect to Chinese. in assuming it to be similar to the written stantially differ language of the Genji. in Chinese they were shown as a rule only by position tense.

were not current in ordinary conversation.— LATER DEVELOPMENTS 63 every approximation of the Japanese written language to the Chinese form involved a divergence between writing and speech in Japanese. though admitted in writing. The written language has a more powerful or a less fastidious digestion. In writing. a natural limit to the absorption by the colloquial of imported words. it did at last break down under the more vital influence of the colloquial. But there is. the spoken language did not require or could not assimilate. . from the earliest days of intercourse with China. for each of a group of Chinese homophones had its . at one time. the written language was able to incorporate in that structure a number of features belonging to Chinese which. the Japanese endeavoured. Moreover. could not be freely admitted into speech. This is true of many idioms and of certain constructions but it is most apparent in the matter of vocabulary. in speech. At the same time. and can assimilate almost anything that promises to be useful. mented by the use of tones. and of such accidence as Chinese may be said to possess. imitate either the Chinese tones or the grammatical devices in question. The fundamental structure of all but the most learned Sinico-Japanese was the structure of the native Japanese sentence. could not. A great deal of Chinese syntax. This process continued on an increasing scale as they became better acquainted with Chinese things. We have seen that. Chinese contains an extraordinary number of homophones words of the same sound but of different meanings. the Japanese began to borrow Chinese words. by writing in what we have called Sinico-Japanese. and they were therefore unable to adopt into the colloquial as many Chinese words as they otherwise might have done. while everyday speech will not take in an alien form until it has been thoroughly tested. . however useful in writing. quite apart from this natural limitation. though this hybrid style managed to survive in a remarkable way. Consequently there were many Chinese words which. however. We have seen that. to force their written language into a Chinese mould but that. it was another matter. in all languages. for one reason or another. and a very important one. between these homophones and these methods are suppleThe Japanese. there was a special reason. is concerned with expressing distinctions . why Chinese words.

so that we now say both yoi hito and hito wa yoi. and finally itta in colloquial) Similar examples might be almost indefinitely multiplied. It can be best explained by some simple examples. voice. though fang might mean either square or no question as to the respective meanings of -)j and f#. Many of these have expressing mood. 'a good man'. become obsolete in the modern language. In modern colloquial Japanese the distinction between attributive and predicative is dropped. which is itself a corruption of -tari. tense. which is well 'to ask'. undergone a development which has not been followed by the written language. In the first place we have a difference brought about by phonetic changes. as in yukitari. however. In colloquial its place has been taken by a suffix ta. about which there could be no mistake. Here it is sufficient to say that. in in spelling. the forms yoki and yoshi both persist. 'went' (which has become ikitari. and by phonetic change the form yoki becomes yoi. Thus. It will be noticed that this phenomenon is not entirely analogous to a change of pronunciation not accompanied by a change Similarly. as we have seen. 'the man is good'. as in itta. both spoken and written. classical Japanese. is no longer used in speech. In the written language. there could be illustrated by the adjectival terminations. Further. In this case the divergence is due to the conservation by the written language of forms which the spoken language has gradually abandoned. owing to the various considerations outlined . ikita. g. hito wa yoshi. e. which often occurs in English. Thus the tense suffix tsu. the spoken language itself has since the classical period. and this survives in the written language only. 'did go'. 'went'. yoki hito. the influence of Chinese upon Japanese especially tended to differentiate the written from the spoken language. but some while surviving in writing are no longer used in speech. making due allowance for the vitality of all spoken forms as compared with written ones. . as in yukitsu. there were a large number of verb suffixes. and only in deliberately old-fashioned writing. &c. In classical Japanese the adjective had an attributive and a predicative form.64 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' ' own symbol. but they can be found in their appropriate places in the body of this work. It will be seen then that. in addition to changes in vocabulary.

for railway. . It was far more convenient to borrow from China the compounds which had already been invented there to name these new things. the spoken language. and the tendency at the end of the eighteenth century was rather to neglect Chinese models and to revert to a pure classical style. It is a phenomenon not without parallel in Europe. The development of the language after the beginning of the Meiji period is still progressing. ^ ' Thus we Japanese language. Strangely enough. worth notice. US tetsudo. as we have seen the written language was more conservative. and it therefore behoves one to speak with reserve on this subject. neither the written nor the spoken language underwent any special change due to alien influence. and % ^ denki. it was to China that she turned when she wished to find new words to name the new things and the new ideas with which she had become acquainted. . by phonetic change and by simplification. . appropriated on an immense scale the Chinese vocabulary. 'lightning-spirit'. had by the beginning of the Meiji period become so different from it as to involve for foreign students a separate study of each. however. It may be said that. lost a good deal of its agglutinative and synthetic character. while the written language retained most of the grammatical apparatus which the colloquial discarded. The Japanese might attempt to naturalize English words like 'railway' or 'electricity'. when Japan after 1850 began to adopt occidental culture. but these could never be other than barbarous intruders they could never be written by means of the Chinese character and the limited resources of the kana could at best make of them some mutilated transcript like reiruei and erekkuchirishichi.LATER DEVELOPMENTS 65 above. where to name our modern 3170 find that the K . throughout the nineteenth century. Yet not so strange when one remembers the powerful advantages of the Chinese script. The difference can be summarized by saying that the spoken language. The spoken language followed the usual lines of phonetic change. which in the tenth century was practically identical with the written language. from the end of the Kamakura period. iron-road '. and this while Japan was deliberately turning her back upon Chinese culture. for electricity. Some interesting phases which became apparent from the middle of the nineteenth century are.

For many decades there has poured from Japanese presses a continuous flood of translations of English words.Japanese equivalents. The effect of this tremendous influx of Chinese words upon the written. which are not easily intelligible in speech. for — — which have been thoroughly assimilated. the daily newspapers are full of bald and almost literal renderings of press telegrams or similar news items. Consequently. language of Japan was almost revolutionary. sometimes in preference to their Sinico. the influence of English —has — . and to a less extent the spoken. which are used more or less freely. modern Japanese say. one may beer. but teki is $J. Though the nature of their script makes it difficult for the Japanese to embody in their language foreign words other than Chinese. a purely Chinese grammatical device unblushingly borrowed by modern Japan. for butter. 'has scarcely anything Japanese about it save a few particles and the construction of the sentence'. and the same is true. Even so. been more marked in phraseology than in separate units of the vocabulary. and it is (or it was a short time ago) fashionable to embellish one's conversation with scraps of English. the modern Japanese. The old Wagakusha. for not only are seiji and kwannen Chinese compounds. there are a few. the languages of Greece and Rome while steadily receding from their ways of thought. in their daily intercourse. the native classical scholars of the type of Motoori a now unhappily vanished school. and a number of terms. use many Chinese words and expressions which would have been all but unintelligible in speech a generation or so ago. mostly technical. the influence of European languages in practice. like the telephone we have resorted to and the vermiform appendix. But generally speaking. The frequency of Chinese homophones prevents their assimilation by the colloquial in such numbers as can be introduced in writing. biru. 'political consciousness'. sometimes alongside of.66 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR discoveries. to quote Chamberlain. sworn foes of Chinese learning would have been shocked to hear and unlikely to understand young students discoursing about (for instance) seiji-teki kwannen. The ordinary modern Japanese prose document. and mostly English. though not to the same extent. like bata. for the ideograph speaks not to the ear but to the eye. of all but the most familiar everyday speech.

with sufficient accuracy the important developments of the Japanese language until recent times. disorganize . it is chiefly through the medium of Sinico-Japanese that such alien forms are admitted into the language. what will be the future of the Chinese characters ? Twenty or thirty years ago it seemed possible that the movement in favour of their abolition would succeed. Complete abolition of the Chinese script would necessitate a complete revolution in the style and the content of the written language. This is called genbun itchi' 'combination of speech and writing'. &c. One question which must occur to all students of Far Eastern languages is. I hope. owing in part to the inflexible con- A nature of Japanese syntax. for the written language has assumed its present form very largely under the influence of the script. To-day the tendency is not to abolish them. The only features of interest which can be spoken of as definitely new are perhaps the modern habit which seems to date from of forming new Chinese after the war with China in 1894-5 and a compounds without reference to Chinese practice strong tendency in periodicals and most books to use a style which approximates to the colloquial in many respects.LATER DEVELOPMENTS now 67 prose. The above summarizes. and very puzzling to the curious feature student in search of the pure native idiom. Its future growth is a matter of conjecture. in the period of transition. ' . This development has been favoured by the spread of elementary education and the consequent growth of a great mass of popular literature in the shape of newspapers and magazines. It would. particles. but to simplify and reduce them. It would render inaccessible to all but special students all previous Chinese and Japanese literature. and even the talk of the educated classes. number of terminations. tains not infrequent English phrases more or less effectively masked by literal translation. It is not so much a reproduction of colloquial as a simplification of the written language by abandoning the use of a — — . There can be little doubt that this composite style will gradually replace for most literary purposes the specialized written language. of these borrowings is that. and therefore beyond the scope of this work. and substituting for them colloquial forms. by the disuse of redundant symbols and compounds.

the true and ultimate elements of writing as well as speech. the introduction of a simple alphabet would force upon the written language a clarity and a balance in which it is now lacking. because the ideograph in itself is so tersely expressive that its users are apt to rely upon the visual appeal of symbols rather than the aural appeal of words which are. On the other hand. the written character many departments — . the time which the Japanese now spend in learning to read and write by their own complicated system could be devoted to the study of Western words and Western things. Further. after all. it may be argued. Whether a knowledge of those words and things is worth the sacrifice it is for the East to determine.68 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR of public is and private affairs with which intimately associated. It would remove something which has certainly contributed to the beauty and interest of Oriental life.

It cannot by itself express number or gender.II THE SUBSTANTIVE distinguishing feature of the substantive in Japanese that it is uninflected. (i) other nouns and verbs. 'a man'. but reference will be made later to the methods by which it has been increased. It is. as ga meshi wo taberu the man eats rice the substantive in Japanese has been not a development of significant form but merely a growth of vocabulary. otoko tatsu a man but. THE . ai-suru. as in wo miru yaru otoko ni (2) a man's hand to see a man to give to a man adjectives. notably by the formation of compounds and by the importation of Chinese words. taking the substantive otoko. 'to love'. From this can be constructed a verb. as in aishi. it is brought into relation with is . becomes in Japanese the substantive ai. Vocabulary is not within the scope of this work. often by means of simple juxtaposition. any word being able as a general rule to perform any grammatical function. where precision otoko demands it. Thus. by means of a particle. yoki otoko (3) a good man stands in verbs. otoko no otoko te by means of particles. while in combination it can serve as an adjective. as is to be expected in view of the fact that the Chinese language does not differentiate between parts of speech. however. appropriate to mention here that practically all Chinese words are imported in the form of substantives. It is brought into relation with other words by means of particles through a process which may be regarded as agglutinative or by means of the appropriate inflexions of those words or by mere juxtaposition. by means of their appropriate inflexion. Thus f£ ai. which in Chinese can stand for either 'love'. 'to love' or 'loving'. $t -? 'a beloved child'. . It follows that the history of .

'at the above of the clouds There is a considerable group of words of this nature. : mae. In Japanese. 'below the bridge' 3. corresponding to the psychological category property'. 'the present day'.. in other languages. 'after the earth. corresponding to the psychological category 'action' or 'state'. . '. as in tera no mae ni. and adjectives. This feature is difficult to explain. precisely because of its psychological aspect but the following illustrations may ' — ' . The typical form of a simple statement comprising suband predicate in modern colloquial Japanese is shown in otoko ga tatsu = the man stands. ' below hako no uchi ni. 'inside the box' hashi no shita ni. seems to retain vestiges of a condition in which there was imperfect differentiation of grammatical categories. Here functionally tatsu is a verb. The Indo-European languages have formal grammatical categories corresponding to certain psychological categories word-classes. A number of adverbs in Japanese are formally nouns. and is used as the equivalent of now as in ima mairimasu. before the temple jishin no nochi ni. . of which we may mention ject ' '. Japanese. Sometimes these words require the aid of a particle before ' ' '. make it clear. it is a noun. such as nouns. either the psychological category is not fully differentiated. Thus ima = t\ie present. even in its modern form. lit..' 70 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR There is one special characteristic of the Japanese language which it is convenient to describe in treating of the substantive. ' . corresponding to the psychological category thing verbs. inside shita. The substantival or noun category seems to be the primary one and to have been retained in some cases where. ' quake . serve to i .. and the formal equivalent of the sentence in English is 'standing of man'. after uchi. or the correspondence between grammatical and psychological categories is incomplete. I am coming now where it is an adverb. '. Relations expressed in English by prepositions are usually conveyed in Japanese by means of substantives. 2. though in ima no yo. but historically it is a substantive. Thus ue is a noun expressing the idea above To translate 'above the clouds' we must say kumo no ue ni. new categories have developed. before nochi.

4. In tori naku. the words ashiki and yoki are nouns.THE SUBSTANTIVE 71 they can function as adverbs. The word koko is historically a noun. What are called the stems of verbs and adjectives can usually stand alone. however.) . nare (? fw shi) \ The fol- These are the only exclusively personal pronouns. but in tori no naku wo kikazu. the stem aka of the adjective akaki. 'he is here'. lowing are instances of their use : A and WA my lover the colt which I keep we two slept together a ga se (K. ' ' ' ' — viewing'. 'red drawers'. g. In the Nara period. in koko ni oru. THE PRONOUN One acquainted only with modern Japanese would suppose that the language contained no true personal pronouns but only a number of periphrastic forms. 'flower. It represents the idea of the quality the concept of redness rather than of the attribute red a thing is not fully differentiated from the concept of a state. or in hanami. 'to go to see'.) wa gafutari neshi (K. no marked change.) a ga kau koma (N. in such a phrase as aka no momohiki. apart from the considerations mentioned above. and function as nouns. but in ashiki wo sute yoki wo torn. naku is a verb. is a noun. It serves as the equivalent of the adverb 'here'. man'. ='this place'. both predicative and attributive words in Japanese have special substantival forms or subYoki in yoki otoko. ware Wu \\\ v^o 2nd person 3rd person na. Pronouns and Numerals. 'to see'. is an adjective 'to reject the good and take the bad'. wa. the stem of the verb miru. 'a good stantival uses of other forms. 'birds sing'. there remain to be treated under this heading only the specialized classes of substantive. the following personal pronouns are found : 1st person a. 'he does not hear the birds singing'. is a substantive in mi niyuku. used attributively. the substantive in Japanese has undergone. it is a noun. As will be seen later. 'red'. as such. Since. e. Thus. are. Similarly mi.

I have only seen one instance quoted. Such evidence as is available indicates that a and are are prior forms. It naturally leads one to exp ect possessive forms more frequ ently than nominati ve. 'my child'. Ware is in fairly common use. it may be stated that wa and ware are equivalent to a and are respectively. The element re is possibly cognate with ra. and can in each case be regarded as a possessive pronoun. it is not found associated with the particle ga. They are now obsolete. aki. but such forms do not persist. as in wa wo shinuburashi wa ni yosori (M. 'it goes'. a is found in direct association with nouns. Thus are kaerikomu (M. but wa survives in the modern language in the possessive form waga = my. without particle) as the subject of a verb. 'he goes'. 'we go'. 'my spouse'. is found standing alone as a subject. the poems in the Kojiki. under Formation Words. and this characteristic must be borne in mind when considering the development of the pronoun in Japanese.) y • : I will return ) y% S ^> while. ase. in adzuma. 'you go'. though it cannot be said to represent the personal pronoun I By a curious semantic development it has come. E. unlike a. There does not appear to be any difference in meaning between a and are. The subject is not expressed except where necessary to prevent ambiguity. Are. on the other hand. or 'they go'. Without going into details.) I me me think I shall sleep But it is doubtful whether a or wa ever stood alone (i. 295). ago. .) nemo to wa ha 'mou (M. p.) she seems to love depending upon (M. e. g. a suffix to which in its earliest meaning can be assigned (v. 'my wife'. and the Nihongi. In what are presumably the very earliest extant specimens of the language. uses no definite of ' '.72 It will HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR be noticed that in the above examples the pronoun is associated with the possessive particle ga. and this is doubtful. Yuku as a predicative form can be translated by 'I go'. and it is to be assumed that are is substituted for purposes of euphony only. It can be found in association with other particles. 'my dear' . The fact is that the verb in Japanese is neutral as to person.

analogous to &c. sore. ago.). adj. Some ' . But it is usually combined with the particle no.andshi f i KO found alone.). ase. na koso ha wo ni imaseba (K. kochi. is ' ' ' ' '. ' L .. koko. cated form wareware is freely used = 'we'. which subsists in the modern language as the equivalent of the demonstrative adjective this '. except in minor rise to the forms sono. kono yamamichi (M. ka. infra) may be regarded as such. ' hither '. were in use in the Nara period nase = thou-brother nabito = thou-person nane = thousister'. pronoun this '. ' here '. wo = man ' ') nave mo are mo (M. this indeed is good (shi here is an emphatic particle). It has survived in the modern language as the dem. with a plural nanjira. KORE bears the same relation to ko as are to a.) since thou art a man (ha is the separative particle. or perhaps had a certain honorific value. presumably derived from na and muchi or mutsu (gentle). naoto = thou younger brother'. cited above. ' ' this year '. Thus.) thou and I both was it thou perchance ? curious combinations of na with nouns. ' : ' ' . the dem. koyoi. that '. j-t. in the form kono. There is no trace of a pronoun of the third person.). which gave rise to the form nanji (through namuji). They seem to have been terms of affection.) nare narikeme ya (N. ' to-night '. 'ye'. ' SO and SORE details. in common use in the later language as a pronoun = 'thou'.PRONOUNS with waga. as in ko shi yoroshi (K. this mountain road kono miki (K. A number of compounds are formed by the aid of ko.1 . ' ' DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS In the Nara period we find ko and kore = this so. this wine'. A similar compound is namuchi. such as kotoshi. unless shi (v.i >= that kare. to have a certain reflective value. 73 The redupli- NA and NARE. These form a pair Examples of their earliest use are : similar to a and are. 3*70 So gives are parallel with ko and kore.

) for whose sake ? .) shi ga hana shi ga ha (N. In the texts of the Nara period they do not appear with such frequency as the latter.) nani wo ka omowamu tare ni to whom shall I show ? itsue (M. . and there is good reason to believe that this na was more in the nature of an adverb than a pronoun. its flowers . . its leaves is By the end of the Nara period shi already obsolescent. sono to less distant KA objects. misemu (M. tsubaki ga mbshishiku (Res.) shi . as in tare ni misemu ka. SHI except that. kano being applied to more distant. ' ' ' ' ' ' . In the two sentences quoted above it clearly means what ? '.) what shall I think? in which direction ? These pronouns are frequently but not necessarily used with the interrogative particle ka to complete the sentence. it appears at times to act as a personal as he said .74 soko. as in : seems to have been identical in meaning with so. usually taking the form dare. '. ta ga tame ni (M. Tare has survived in the modern language. NANI is an interesting example of imperfect differentiation.. ' ' HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR there '. and has given rise to the forms nani and nado. and sore survives as the dem. to whom shall I show it ? ' ' TA and TARE require no special comment. . INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS These are ta and tare = who?' nani^'what?' and Examples of their use are which ? ' ' ' : itsu. the camellia. that and KARE resemble so and sore. but in many cases it is equivalent to how ? or why ? '. . &c. unlike pronoun. but seem to be somewhat later forms. The difference in meaning between them is best explained by stating that sono represents a position intermediate between kono and kano. both originally meaning how and both adverbs. . so.. pronoun.) (M. .

be accom- panied by a form itsure.) no hi made (M. itsushi. idzuchi. 75 by analogy with wa.) (M.) itsue which place does he reach facing whither ? in which direction if ? ? no kata ni (M. Ex' amples : itsuku ni itaru (K. must have had the meaning 'which'. and na. and its development of the special meaning when can perhaps be accounted for by the specialization of nani as 'what' and itsure as originally ' ' 'which'. so. itsu. always (= every when) itsuchi.) itsure It is clear you ask whereabouts until which day ? ? that the element common to each. itsue (whither ?) it refers to place. and has the specialized meaning when ? '.PRONOUNS ITSU should. doko = w here T . but in such combinations as itsuku (where?). This is the case.) until when ? itsu mo itsu mo always. ka. colloquial dore = which .) itsuchi mukite (M. but itsu has diverged from itsure in signification. Where itsu occurs alone (without agglutinated suffix) it refers to time only. In the later language the above forms develop as follows idzure. ? ? idzuku.. Thus ' : itsu made ka (M. and itsure retains the character of a pronoun and means simply which '. : mod.) itsura to towaba (M.

all equivalent to 'thou'. Not infrequent examples of these forms are to be found in the Rescripts and the Manybshu. meaning to dwell'. 3. we find a curious phenomenon. ware Demonstrative Interrogative ko. nare so. have also imashi. It is interesting to trace the development of the language in this respect between the two periods. It is impossible in considering this phenomenon to distinguish between cause and effect. Period. They may be represented schematically as follows : Pronouns Personal at beginning of I. itsure nani If we compare this list with a list of pronouns used in modern Japanese.). Already in the Nara period we find substitutes for simple personal pronouns in the shape of honorific appellations or humble terms. kore ha. Even prior to that period we may assume almost with certainty there existed a fairly complete set of specialized pronominal forms.— 76 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Such is the position with regard to pronouns in the Nara period. 'thou and I') as well as kimi (= lord) and namuchi (v. sore wa. which is apparently composed of the honorific prefix mi and mashi. are na. and even mashi with' We out prefix (mashi mo are mo (M. of obscure origin. such as mimashi = thou. The demonstrative and interrogative pronouns have survived with very little change. above). tare itsu. 'to exist' (in space). (shi) a. the personal pronouns have almost completely vanished. Nara 2. to say whether the tendency to dispense with personal pronouns resulted from a preference for honorific forms or whether the personal pronouns disappeared for other reasons and were perforce re- . and conveys some such idea as 'august being'. which appears to mean both 'I' and 'thou'. There is further a form wake. kare ta. In subsequent periods the function of pronouns is performed by a double process the free use of honorific or humble appellations and the development of an intricate system of honorific and humble verb forms.

but ware is frequent. the Court at Nara. acting as pronouns of the second. doubtless some characteristic which might be explained on grounds of racial psychology. they were developing new forms. 'that side'). the use of causative forms like tatasu as honorific substitutes for the simple form tatsu (v. Na and nare fall out of use and are replaced by nanji = kimi muchi) as pro( = namuchi) and kinji (presumably nouns of the second person. 165). and even of the third person. as.: ' PRONOUNS placed 77 honorific forms. wa survives only in the possessive form waga. acting as personal pronouns. Kare and a number ( - . In the Heian period a and are are practically obsolete. But even in the almost primitive verses of the Kojiki there are already instances of honorific verb forms. soko ('there'). Meanwhile the word watakushi comes into use. under Underlying these tendencies is su. Its original meaning is something like private (not selfishness as is often said). p. alone or in combination. for instance. the development of the process outlined above. as follows. Whatever its causes. and it was this language which furnished a standard. as has been indicated above but the language in use at the centre of culture. by — — tended to be ceremonious and extravagant. This. as can be seen from ' ' ' watakushi ni ureshikere mo ito koso inwardly was much rejoiced but later it developed the meaning of 'I'. is a question which may be left to specialists in that distressing study. There are no signs of atrophy in the personal pronouns in the earlier texts on the contrary. through the Heian period on to the present day. so Thus ga iikeraku (Tosa Nikki) he said of cases where such compounds as sonata sono kata. In the third person we find some of the demonstrative pronouns. provides interesting material. and I therefore sketch it briefly. The first seems the most likely process. verb suffixes. by a slight shift of meaning come to signify persons and not places. however. through being recorded in collections of Verse and magniloquent documents like the Imperial Rescripts. and it is the standard form in the modern colloquial.

E. The substitution of demonstrative pronouns (or compounds thereof) indicating position for personal pronouns proceeded apace. used in the same way as kare. By the period of the Heike Monogatari we find so. and this usage has survived until the present day in the written language. as well as anata. . They arise from the fact that the demonstrative pronouns express three ideas as to position. They are honorifics or perhaps terms of affection. where the second person is expressed by a reference to posi' ' ' . not to be confused with are = I '. 3rd person. .) kare wa tare zo (Gen. that there (distant). vague and unsatisfactory except where there is a clear linguistic context. sore. in fact. After the Nara period they increase in numbers. find such forms as wagimi (approximately = 'my lord'). kare ga mosamu koto In ni soseyo (Yamato Mono. or what has been called a situation context'. wanushi ('my master'). so. ko. as in ' are wa nani koto iu zo (Mak. Those like kimi and nanji have already been mentioned. 2nd person. This last form colloquial. Partly no doubt on this account another group of substitutes came into use. that there (near). sonata are kare — 2nd person = 2nd and 3rd = 3rd person is person and later we find konata. this here. a demonstrative form. wabito ('my man') for the second person omae (honorific and front ') gozen $$ bij and gohen '$$ ^| (the two latter being of Chinese origin).) report to His Majesty he says what who is he ? In this period we find are. soko. and ka. or for a third person. viz. Consequently this person here may be used for the speaker as well as for a third person who is present that person there' may be used for the person addressed. whether present or absent.78 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR in particular frequently stands for 'he'. ' We ' . somewhat impolitely. The substitute forms are. the one which survives in the modern Certain anomalies will be noticed in the employment of these forms.) what does he say ? and are is still used in the modern colloquial in this sense. g.

most august and even divine personages are freely mentioned ' . It seems to arise from a kind of tabu. 3rd person. but used = 'I' as well as 'we'). but everyday speech furnishes abundant illustration of the same tendency. kikun. kano jo ('that woman'. in written language = 'she'). sessha ( = clumsy person). They came into fashion at one period and vanished at another. kisama. we now have 1st person. instead of the simple pronouns of the early Nara period. ano hito (' that person '). Watakushi. Thus a husband refers to his wife as kanai (inside the house). under the pavilion ') for Highness '.PRONOUNS tion. for the Emperor. kakka HQ ~f» (lit. Thus. onore. Certainly in the Kojiki the derived from Chinese usage. But the habit of using periphrastic substitutes for the personal pronoun has persisted. . gojin (af. are of Chinese provenance. Such elegant appellations as denka $g£ fC (lit. ano kata. 'a (large) building'. waga hai (lit. kiden. so that in modern Japanese a great number of equivalent forms are in use. and It is difficult to say to what extent this habit is so on. 2nd person. and many were but ephemeral. omae. such as rnaro i^. One need only state that they are exceedingly numerous. 79 There are also special forms representing the first person. and several others. It should be noticed by the way that forms like denka can stand both for second and third person His Highness as ' ' ' by name. 'respected pavilion') for 'you'. and chin. ware. Anata. The most familiar example is the word mikado = august gate'. a humble word). kimi.' is dono. a wife to her husband as taku (the house) the usual equivalent for 'Mr. kiden -fl Jgj. The substitution for personal pronouns of periphrastic forms denoting position is very characteristic of Japanese. under the council chamber') for 'Excellency'. — well as Your Highness. temae ('before the hand'. particularly a person in a superior rank. imported from China (g£). of varying degrees of politeness. &c. which developed an honorific sense. (lit. kano hito.\). It is unnecessary to enumerate more of these forms. my companions. the Imperial we '. which discourages ' direct address or direct reference to a person. boku (= 'servant'. in common use). Are.

' . &c. the sentence is better translated in an emphatic way Are you going ? for a The use — ' POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS What has been written above applies mutatis mutandis to the possessive pronouns. owing to the existence of special honorific locutions. for my hat we must say watakushi no bdshi. and so on. o ko sama 'your children'. 'your face is red'. and if pronouns are used. Where nouns are used periphrastically as personal pronouns. It may indeed be stated that a typical Japanese sentence does not include a personal pronoun. ' ' ' ' : . 'your hat'. in most cases the unemphatic use of a personal pronoun or a possessive pronoun is a solecism in Japanese. waga ('my'). their possessive forms are naturally constructed in the ordinary way. for instance. o taku is 'your house'. though kimi wa kasa wo wasureta ka is literally Have you forgotten umbrella ? '. Thus irasshaimasu ka are I you going going ? mairimasu am of honorific or humble verbs dispenses with the need pronoun. simplest and most frequent case.: ' 80 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR It is important to remember that. if a third person Similarly is being respectfully referred to. that of the honorific prefix where this is prefixed to a noun its value can o or on usually be given in translation by a possessive pronoun. sentences can easily be constructed where. as in anata irasshaimasu ka. in Japanese. which have already been discussed. The earliest forms are those like aga. and where one is used it generally has an emphatic value. or. the personal pronoun can be omitted without ambiguity. Thus. Thus o kao ga akai. unless there is in the context evidence to the contrary the sentence means Have you forgotten your umbrella ? To say kimi no kasa would be superfluous. Indeed. with the reservation that pronouns are not used where there is no fear of ambiguity. and so on. anata no boshi. Parallel with the use of honorific words as substitutes for personal pronouns is the use of honorific prefixes or similar To take the locutions instead of possessive pronouns. by means of the possessive particles no and ga so that. 'his face is red'.

that when a commercial company in its advertisements or its correspondence styles itself heisha. and which. It may. yours is a splendid palace. o jama is an 'honourable obstacle'. while I write of 'my wife' as gusai or keisai. Thus. in most contexts. RELATIVE PRONOUNS by a These do not exist in Japanese.PRONOUNS 81 For epistolary use. My house is a wretched hovel. is mentioned with the respect due to its recipient. means 'a respected letter'. I refer to your wife as Interior Madam' (okusama). which is the equivalent of 'Pardon me for having disturbed you'. My father is plain 'father'. 3270 M . as homuru hito. mean the letter of the person addressed. o tegami. owing to its respectable destination. a broken-down concern '. according to context. a number of more elaborate locutions are available mostly of Chinese — origm. e. 'your letter'. it does not expect to be taken literally. it must not be assumed that honorifics and personal pronouns represent exactly the same psychological category. by an extension of the application of the honorific. Though it has been stated that honorific forms act as substitutes for personal pronouns. but it is honourable only in so far as it affects an honourable person. It is more accurate to say that the presence or absence of honorific or humble forms. An extreme case of this sort is furnished by such a common phrase as o jama itashimashita. It is obvious. It may even. e. standing alone. Thus. refer to a letter which I have written to you. Many of these hyperbolic expressions are of course stilted and fantastic. i. ' Literally. 'a man who praises'. or in ceremonious language. a stupid or a rustic spouse. ' ' ' . for instance. or the letter of some third person to whom respect is due. i. but a number of them have by frequent usage lost their explicit honorific character. Their purpose is served special attributive form of the verb. where homuru is the attributive form of homu. and are merely stereotyped forms with primarily grammatical functions. yours is a 'stern prince' (genkun). allows the speaker to dispense with personal or and by context here must be underpossessive pronouns stood not only the verbal context but the situation context. 'his letter'.

82 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR THE NUMERAL The numerals in use before the introduction of Chinese were as follows : i hitotsu .

Numeral Auxiliaries would be more correct. in 'two head of cattle'. but classifiers is adequate. If the speaker wishes to refer to the coins themselves. A special feature of the language is the use of what are These correspond to such words called Auxiliary Numerals as 'head'. while in accounts. But even here yen and ma may themselves be regarded as standing for categories rather than things. two rooms '. e. . one often finds for. but the usage is much more extended in Japanese than in English. which means 'money five units of yen'. Though we can say 'seven ships' instead of 'seven sail'. ' ' . since yo is Japanese and nin is Chinese.kami ni mai The difference between this usage and the corresponding idiom in English is not only a matter of frequency. g. and therefore on the same footing as classifiers. 5 gold ten-yen pieces '. go yen. 'five sail of ships'. 'three years'. nor are they even measures of number or quantity like the words 'pair' and 'pound'. Their use can be perhaps better ' ' 1 There are some exceptions. has driven out of use the sorts' original Japanese form mitose. 'four persons'. The auxiliary numerals are both native and Chinese. we cannot say shichi June or nana June. 'death'. &c. and so onT These are compounds with pure Japanese words and as a general rule Chinese numerals must be used with words of Chinese origin. 'otoko yottari (or yonin) -katana hito furi z&oromo yokasane four men one sword four sets of clothing seven ships three pieces of baggage three pieces of paper June shichi so ^nimotsu san ko . An instance of 'tabu' is provided by forms like yonin. The term Auxiliary Numeral is convenient but inaccurate. 'sail'. kin go yen. The words in question are in no sense numerals. When an auxiliary numeral exists its use is obligatory. ' ' ' . Thus for two bedrooms one would say shinshitsufuta ma. 'five yen'. The following are typical illustrations of their employment. In Japanese there is as a rule l no alternative locution.TH E NUMERAL 83 'the third'. he uses a classifier. five yen futa ma. But shi in such connexions is avoided. say. Thus we have futari and ninin for 'two persons'. miiro and sanshu for 'three while sannen. as in jilyen kinkwa go mai. where we should expect shinin. because it is homophonous with shi. ' ' '.

trace of chi. but chiefly to gods. are of Chinese origin. division. woman two persons '. We find.84 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR understood if one remembers that even the earliest and simplest forms of numerals in Japanese contain an element corresponding to these specialized numerative words. two persons ha. them in the Nara period. can be resolved into numeral plus an auxiliary suffix tsu = 'piece'. futari. J In Chinese the classifiers serve an important purpose in that they help to differentiate homophones. as in hitari (mod. for shirts. follows not unnaturally from the use of tsu. a site '. furi. &c. mark on a scale). The suffix tsu appears also in the word ikutsu. 'an article of clothing'. and not futa onna. In pure Japanese this reason for using classifiers does not hold good but since as a rule the numerals themselves. it is to be expected that Chinese usage in regard to numerals would be followed in a large number of cases. and a large part of the vocabulary in Japanese. ORDINAL NUMERALS Japanese has no specialized ordinal numerals. . as in futsuka. hashira. Though shan in Chinese means both 'shirt' and 'mountain'. hon. little doubtless cognate with tsu. and the idiom requires mono hitotsu. helps to ' prevent ambiguity in cases where shirts might be mistaken for mountains. 'seven days'. nanuka. meaning 'pillar'. the use of the appropriate classifier in each case. The use of classifiers such as mat. meaning days. as in misochi amari futatsu no katathirty-two images chi (Bussoku-seki) H. There is however. momoka. and not hito mono. 'two days'. kasane. 'how many'. hitori) one person. 'a hundred days'. for mountains. as in migi yori mitsu me the third from the right . &c. as in yohashira no kami (Rituals) four gods . 'thing one piece'. applied to persons. for 'one thing'. Similarly onnafutari. It is probable that the free use of such classifiers in ' ' Japanese developed under Chinese influence. Thus hitotsu. me (an eye. In the native language there is a suffix. tso. for two women '. futatsu. used in composition with numerals. and kien.

must be remembered that the absence MEANS OF EXPRESSING NUMBER SUBSTANTIVE The substantive are. tion in a series is to make use of locutions containing one or more of the Chinese words dai Jjf£ (step. however.) you .: : but its use is limited. however. various suffixes by means of which number can be expressed. princes. dai ichi ichi ichi ban go . nobles. the idea expressed merely by juxta- position. significant in . as in Dai nijiihachi jo. the meaning is 'twenty-eight articles nigwatsu means February. 8 the ninth regiment is Very often. however. and the omission of ka shows that order is intended. It is usual. for the sake of precision. sometimes adding me. the idea of order can be E. These are : tachi. g. IN THE There in Japanese is neutral as to number. 'Article No. but nikagetsu = 2 months. dai ichi ban dai ichi go With these. y all meaning 'number one'.) imashi tachi (Res. §j| (mark) as in . Thus. order). 28'. samban me no hi dai san sha dai hachi go kwan dai ku rentai the third tree a third person building no. to use the word dai. cers of state Thus and all offi- mikotachi omitachi momo tsukasa no hito tachi (Res. as in mikka ni gwatsu juichi nichi kempd no nijiihachi jo It the third day (of the month) the nth of the 2nd month Article 28 of the Constitution of a classifier is such cases. conveyed. if we say nijiihachi ka jo. using the classifier ka (-j@). ban THE NUMERAL 85 A common method of describing posi- ^ (number) or go . applied to nouns signifying living things. or 'first'.

'a companion'.). since number is not expressed in Japanese except for special reasons. This is particularly true of those forms constructed by duplication. It is only incidentally that to and ' ' ' nado form plurals. In a modern colloquial sentence such as watakushi domo ni wa wakarimasenu. gata. 'maidens' kora (M. For example. ' ' . which must not be regarded simply as elementary plural forms. it also conveys the idea of kuniguni means 'various provinces'. usually regarded as a plural suffix. In addition there is the Chinese word to &fc a class '. applied to persons : otomera (M. in onnagata. you '. which in modern Japanese has no special plural significance. so that here again we seem to have a plural suffix denoting class rather than number. showing that the suffix domo (= tomo) expresses the idea of a group or class rather than of number. It means 'side'. the pronoun stands for 'I' rather than 'we'. ' ' ' asobi is 'playing according to their respective tastes'. domo. for example. It has no plural significance. It does not appear in the earliest texts. An interesting example is the word kodonio. applied to persons. which is probably cognate with tachi. seems to be another example. Similarly samazama no miage is 'various kinds of presents'. friend '. (It means 'companion') I think of my children kodomo omohoyu (M. anatagata. though dachi is no doubt tachi. All the above forms have survived and are in common use to-day. 'from time to time' yamayama koete means not merely crossing mountains but crossing mountain after mountain '. The word tomodachi. child '. as. which have rather the meaning of et cetera. the translation of watakushi domo being 'the likes of me'. though tokidoki means 'times'. 'children' kata. There is an obsolete word dochi. nado.). and kokorogokoro ni .) ra. and can take a further plural suffix. Usually of persons. and its equivalent in pure Japanese.) bad fellows ashiki yatsu domo (Res. It is important to notice that. The forms composed with the aid of the suffixes mentioned above often convey a meaning which is not solely concerned with number. but is frequent in the medieval language. kodomotachi. most so-called plural forms have special meanings. as in kodomora. women '.: 86 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR tomo.

but this is not a fair test. which includes both 'a man' and 'men'. The criterion is whether the original sentence withholds essential information. when translating from Japanese into English. . like 'man' in 'man is mortal'. There is ambiguity to the extent that.THE NUMERAL 87 The fact is that the Japanese noun denotes a true universal. it is sometimes difficult to decide whether a singular or a plural form is required. Inconvenience rarely results from the lack of specialized plural forms in Japanese.

It is in fact a special characteristic of the Japanese language that verb and adjective have many features in common. Thus. that they can form the predicate of a grammatical proposition without the assistance of a copula. namely. meaning use-words '. while ' . in the sentence islii WHAT otsu stones fall the act or state of falling. or hataraki-kotoba. for they describe the words which. These are peculiarly appropriate names. who classify them together as yogen {J$ |f).Ill PREDICATIVE WORDS are here classified as predicative words are those which. the Verbs. and those which predicate acts or states. namely. It would indeed be quite in accordance with the structure of the language to treat the verb and adjective as one part of speech. They show more resemblances than contrasts. though they can perform various grammatical functions. It lies in the fact that. serve the most important and varied purposes. be at once apparent that the adjective here acts in precisely the same way as the verb. It will predicated of stones. and by means of a scheme of inflexions each can fulfil uses other than predicative uses. as might be expected from a class of inflected words in an otherwise uninflected language. and in the sentence ishi katashi stones are hard is the property of hardness. the Adjectives. and this is the method followed by many Japanese grammarians. What difference exists between verb and adjective is one of degree and not of kind. those which predicate properties. They are the only inflected parts of speech. Not only can the verb act as an adjective and the adjective as a verb. but both can act as substantive or adverb. 'work-words'. have this one characteristic in common to distinguish them from all other words in Japanese. They are roughly divisible into two classes.

The form tabu. for instance. to say nothing of number and person. Under all conditions the verb and the adjective are neutral as to person. after describing the features which they have in common. Consequently they may. So that taburu tori may mean the bird or birds which eat. according to con' ' ' text. or are. or voice. It is therefore convenient. that is to eat ' ' ' 3*7o N . or were. by means of which one concept may in speech be brought into relation with other concepts. When precision as to other aspects is required. or will be. and also the bird or birds which is. predicative words can assume a variety of forms. it has certain capacities that the adjective does not fully share. mood. PREDICATIVE WORDS the verb is Sg capable of all the uses of the adjective.. The termination ru does not diminish or enlarge the meaning. In English. is the special predicative form of the notation in Japanese of the concept 'eating'. As stated above. taburu is a special attributive form. other words. This conjugation is of an entirely different nature from the conjugation or declension of words in European languages. except incidentally. broke carry implications of tense. to treat them separately in detail but it cannot be made too clear that this division rests on expediency and not on any fundamental distinction between the two groups as to function. whether of an action or a property or a state. but only conventional variations in form. '. or was. for instance. In Japanese the simple conjugation in all its forms is the notation of a simple concept. breaking. or the birds will eat '. in siderations of time or mode. the forms break. does not. number. They do not by themselves express conditions of time. represent 'the bird eats'. 'the bird will the birds eat '. voice. or will eat. or In a like way. eaten. 'the bird ate'. and gender. breaks. broken. the birds ate '. and mood. Similar considerations apply to all forms of the simple conjugation. or ate. produce variations in meaning. The inflexional process by which these forms are obtained may be termed the Simple Conjugation of verbs and adjectives. and are concerned with no other relation. and the words tori tabu merely predicate eat of bird '. but simply gives to the word the conventional form by which an attributive relation is expressed. which is not limited or extended by any conThe simple conjugation.

I. In adjectives it is the constant portion remaining when any inflexion is removed. and may therefore perhaps be regarded as a more elementary form than other forms of the simple conjugation. ' . it is better to describe the verb stem and the adjective stem separately under their respective headings. as in miraru. this is done by affixing auxiliary words or terminations to the appropriate forms of that conjugation. but all verbs (with only six exceptions) are regular within their type. THE SIMPLE CONJUGATION OF VERB AND ADJECTIVE of the model shown in the attached table. to go '. This is the true verb form. the suffix ki. concerning the subject of a proposition. without qualification. 'is seen'. II. as in yukiki. we can express tense. used in making simple statements. In both cases it is the form which enters principally into compound words. 'went'. The Stem. It will be seen that it presents slight variations in type.90 say. 'does not go' while the suffix ru makes a passive form. described hereafter as the and adjective. is The following is a general account of the nature and formation of the forms of the Simple Conjugation. In ishi otsu ishi katashi stones fall stones are hard . by affixing to the Conjunctive form of the simple conjugation of the verb yuku. Adding to the Imperfect (Negative Base) form the suffix zu. But as its functions and nomenclature are the subject of controversy. The scheme of compound forms thus obtained is Compound Conjugation of verb Thus. we have yukazu expressing negation. in so far as its features are common to both verbs and adjectives. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR when it is desired to elaborate the simple idea expressed by the simple conjugation. In verbs this is identical with the form known as the Conjunctive form. The Predicative Form. A more detailed account is given under the separate headings devoted to each category.

w .

which is described elsewhere. composed of two substantives. — ' ' ' III. It is replaced by the attributive form. This form. and no other purpose. as in ishi ishi ga katai ( = kataki) for ishi katashi ga ochiru ( = otsuru) for ishi otsu This change has been accompanied by a development of the use of the particle ga. can serve more than one purpose. it has practically vanished from the colloquial and survives only in some dialects and in a few words like yoshi. They are neutral as to tense and number. The Japanese grammarians style this the Conclusive form shilshikei) because of its constant position at the ($£ it end of a sentence. as its description intimates. the later idiom prefers to say 'children's crying'. so that the translations given are to that extent arbitrary. as is usual in Japanese. Similarly ishi ga katai is historically equivalent to stones' hardness and not stones are hard'. &c. nashi. 'stones' falling' sentences which are. and saying simply 'children cry' or 'stones fall'. punctuation ' ' ^ is defective. Thus hills are high and the streams deep the hills are high. stones which fall hard stones .— 92 : HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' ' the forms otsu and katashi serve the purpose of predicating falling and hardness respectively. The Attributive or Substantival Form. strictly speaking. (i) It can place a verb or an adjective in an attributive relation to the substantive which it precedes : otsuru ishi kataki ishi falling stones. Instead of using the predicative form. where. The presence of a verb or adjective in the conclusive form may be taken to indicate the position of a full stop. The streams are deep yama takaku kawa fukashi yama takashi the kawa fukashi Though the Predicative form plays an important part in the written language.

The following examples will serve to illustrate it in a general (3) It can. act as a conclusive it is preceded in a clause by certain particles. as is plain from the following sentences : ishi no otsuru wo kiku kawa ni otsuru mo ari he hears the falling of stones there were some who fell into the river under some conditions. such as zo ya. which . when way ishi wa kawa ni otsu ishi ishi wa katashi kawa ni otsuru ishi ya kawa ni otsuru ishi zo ishi zo kataki ya kataki The attributive rentaikei(j& fg| form is called by Japanese grammarians ^). in common with other forms of the simple conjugation. &c. so is this form solely attributive or substantival. It is not. is explained elsewhere (v. for example. not complete. form.: SIMPLE CONJUGATION (2) 93 It can act as a substantive itself : ishi no otsuru ishi no kataki wo kiku wo shiru . Just as the predicative form is solely predicative. The rule of syntax governing this usage. . The substantive otsuru may mean either the act of falling or the person or thing which falls. to which great importance is attached by formal Japanese grammarians. Osoroshiki hi may be 'the day which one fears'. viz. or 'form joined to substantives'. It is characteristic of the attributive. to hear the falling of stones to know the hardness of hana no chiru wo mi ko no ha no otsuru wo kiki . but which is not always observed in modern writing. that it is neutral as to relations other than those which it is its special function to express. stones seeing the scattering of the flowers. concerned with time or voice. It may mean 'the person who sees'. however. Thus miru hito merely relates in the loosest way the two ideas 'see' and 'person'. hearing the falling of the leaves (Kokin. Preface) It will be noticed that in both its uses this form is in verbs similar to the English present participle. under zo). The resemblance is. or 'the day when one fears'. or 'the person who is seen'.

'bamboo ' It will be seen that what all these uses have in common is that they connect two words. in omou uyamai mbsu koishiku to think lovingly to speak reverently an adjective and a verb respectively modify a verb. only a specialized application of this form. modifying some other predicative word. while yukikaeru means 'to come and go'. Thus. either adverbial or conjunctive as one chooses to regard it. . in aoku akaku shiroki kai blue. red. as in kawa hayaku nagaru midzu wa hanahadashiku tsumetashi the river flows fast the water is extremely cold. Sometimes they subordinate one to another. isogi yuku means to go hurriedly'. stands in a predicative relation to take. In — take wa hosoku nagashi bamboo is thin and long hosoku. as follows (i) It serves as an adverb. in fact. The Adverbial or Conjunctive Form. or as the meanings of the words used dictate. Such a phrase as ano hito wa osoroshiku tsuyoshi can be taken to mean either that the person is terribly strong or that he is terrible and strong. The form is. and white shells the adjectives aoku and akaku stand in the same relation to kai as does shiroki an attributive relation. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR corresponds closely in meaning to the term 'adjective' in IV. : This form has various functions. It was principally on account of this use that the form was styled Adverbial by Dr.94 English. the general function of which is to connect or co-ordinate two or more verbs or adjectives that bear the same or a similar relation to another word in the same sentence. Thus. reasoning applies to verbs. Aston. however. Thus. like nagashi. one meaning. (2) The adverbial use is. In take wa hanahadashiku tsuyoshi the nature of the word hanahadashi allows of only The same is exceedingly strong'.

and where ari can only in the most formal way be described as adverbial. which has the advantage that it describes a most characteristic use. (3) In several of the examples just quoted. according to the usual terminology. which means simply 'is'. for the general description. kawa kiyoku nagaru midzu wa kiyoku tsumetashi nageki kanashimu where each member of a pair of words has an equal value. such as kiyoku tsumetashi and nageki kanashimu. The same purpose is served by this form in connecting clauses or complete It would seem preferable therefore to substitute name Adverbial Form some more sentences. meaning 'the form connecting predicative words'. In the water is clear and the breeze is cool flowers bloom and birds sing midzu kiyoku kaze suzushi hana saki tori naku and the forms kiyoku and saki take the place of a conjunction. 'ugly'. as in . 'to look across'. (4) This form can act as a substantive. described below under (3). called Adverbial forms of verbs. such as miwatasu. like arimasu. 'to burn to death'. lamentation I The above would be are what. this use is so important as to justify the term Conjunctive Form. and this is rendered with sufficient accuracy by the name Conjunctive Form. and many even commoner. The corresponding . minikushi. Frequently the connexion is so complete that we have compound words. 95 and sometimes they merely the river runs clear the water is clear and cold to bewail and lament. the force of the so-called Adverbial form is fully rendered in English by the conjunction 'and' connecting two words. as in tsuri ni yuku to go fishing yuki wa itasazu tsutsumi yorokobi. The Japanese grammarians use the term renybkei (^ J$ }§£).SIMPLE CONJUGATION where we have an adverbial use co-ordinate. yakikorosu. nageki did not go a parcel joy.

be capable of the same range of meanings ? Surely the simplest explanation of these facts is that. and it is plain that it does not correspond to the verb stem. How can one contend that tsuri in tsurizao. The development of this form in the adjective is outlined elsewhere (v. the attributive form. may mean either the act of lending or the person who lends. Since the stem and the 'adverbial' form are identical. is not the same form as tsuri in tsuri ni yuku. 'to go fishing' ? As he himself points out. Why should not the stem. while the adjective has a special form. . It is used in the case of both adjectives and verbs in predicating an act or state of the subject. acting as a substantive. use. as in yukaba. 3rd ed. in verbs. 'a message'. 91) a difference. but only when that act or state is not determined or completed. 'does not go'. yukazu. p. as being the stem. 'if he goes'. In verbs there is nothing to distinguish the stem from the 'adverbial' form. Substantival forms ending in -ku. which has certain adverbial and conjunctive uses similar to those of the verb stem. distinct from the stem. which presents the significance of a word in its most comprehensive. I do not see how this statement can be proved. the adverbial form and the so-called 'stem' are one.96 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR forms of adjectives also seem to act as substantives in such phrases as furuku yori kaku no gotoshi oku no hito kono chikaku ni from of old like this many in this people neighbourhood and the correspondence between verb and adjective in all uses of this form thus appears to be complete. 'a messenger'.. because least specialized. Aston perceives {Grammar. and tsukai. But. quoting tsukai. 147). though I hesitate to differ from Aston. but must always be followed by a verbal suffix or a particle. kasu. 'will go'. In adjectives this form is identical with the conjunctive form which has just been described. In verbs it cannot stand alone. as being the adverbial form. V. p. The Imperfect or Negative Base Form. yukamu. 'a fishing rod'. I cannot help thinking that the correspondence is only superficial.

seeing that it is serve as a base for negative forms also a base for conditional. Negative Base. and has no independent existence. which stands for kataku +are. is composite. future. aru. 3*7° . merely the Imperfect Form. without much question. form. if it is e. and causative forms. because one of its important functions is to but. The perfect form is therefore discussed in detail under the heading of Verbs. being either hypothetical or negative or future. What is called the Imperfect form in adjectives is therefore. 1 The Perfect Form. 141. thus bringing out their identity of function. by retaining the separate classification. however. if hard he goes it can be shown that this resemblance is accidental under Conjunctive Particles. the 'Perfect' form. and it has the merit of preserving symmetry in the joint treatment of verbs and adjectives. g. it seems best to . For this reason. p. or shozenkei Dr. wa). : katakuba yukaba but (v. passive. 1 doubtful whether the adjective can be properly said to possess this form. Not much harm is done. it has been styled by Japanese grammarians mizenkei (^c jfe %). Aston names it the (7$ %& M)> the Future. consisting of the conjunctive form of the adjective plus the perfect form of the copula. The only feature of resemblance between verb and adjective. and in order to contrast it with the next.SIMPLE CONJUGATION It will 97 is be seen that in each example the state or action imperfect. The Perfect form in adjectives But see remarks on this nomenclature. in respect of the addition of call it It is particles to a base. as in katakere. VI. is in the conditional forms. only the conjunctive form in another use. the Imperfect.

however. the custom to include it in the adjectival conjugation. the predicative form is. NOT THE ADJECTIVE. features of each form of conjugation have already been indicated under the heading 'Predicative Words'.—INFLECTED Japanese grammarians distinguish two conjugations of adjectives. that these are in reality two varieties of the same conjugation the only difference being that. where the stem ends in shi (or ji as in onaji). Form .. as follows : The Stem Predicative Form Adverbial or Conjunctive .. It is. Forms Type I Imperfect Form Form \ Attributive or Substantive Perfect Form It will .. as will be seen from the account given below of the adjective stem.. and they are sanctioned in modern prose as 'permissible usages' by the Department of Education. and in the present chapter attention is first given to inflected words and their uses. the classes of uninflected words being subsequently treated and compared with them.. J be seen.IV THE ADJECTIVE all Japanese adjectives are inflected. Inflected adjectives. form the largest and most characteristic group of pure Japanese adjectives. however. these uncontracted forms are to be found.. however. are inflected adjectives always used in their inflected forms. consisting as it does of the adverbial form plus the perfect are of the verb aru. shortened to avoid such forms as ashishi. The 'perfect' form is evidently composite and not inflexional. nor.. The main . The following is a detailed account of each form and its uses as displayed by the Adjective in particular. Indeed. for the sake of euphony. both in medieval literature and in the works of Motoori.

home) . • akagane karuishi futomomo furusato red-metal (copper) light-stone (pumice) fat-thigh (upper part of thigh) old-village (birthplace.) (K. It is therefore almost always found related to some substantival word or group of words.) onaji-kao (G. tears of gratitude 'same-face'. usual expression. The adjective stem can. for in the case of the latter. within well-defined limits. this is a purely on us by the fact that Japanese sound ending with a consonant. in such phrases as arigata-namida (G. 99 II The Adjectival Stem.) grateful tears. In this respect.) ao yama totoshi Koshi no kuni sakashi me a green hill the far-off land of China a wise woman The Kojiki and the Manyoshii contain numerous examples of this use. and not of an independent substantival concept. the verb yuku. the adjective differs from the verb. it is worth noting. be readily distinguished. The following are examples of its use an independent word . though we may. in the case of the adjective. unconcerned look in the and many examples are current such as modern language. say that yuki is the stem of arbitrary selection. I yo- ashi- The stem can. The medieval romances use this form freely. (K. forced has no way of writing a like yuk-. since it is the residue left when the termination of any form of the conjugation is removed. but : (a) As an attributive.THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE I.) tanomoshi-hito (H. act as it will be seen that whatever its history it now invariably retains its character as the notation of an attribute. benefactor i. a lover.e. for instance. which seems to represent a transition stage between inflected and uninfected adjectives.

A : chikayoru nagabiku to approach to drag (b) As a substantive. The stem sometimes appears to stand alone as a noun. strangeness Examples of this apparent substantival use are frequent in the poems and romances of the Heian and succeeding periods. g. these words are used in an attributive relation. amount a flaw but it will be found that. e. height akami. : . redness okashisa. g. : ayashi no tami omoshiro no monogatari the common people an amusing tale A number of compound nouns stem is survive in which an adjective : the second element. number of compound verbs. They require the sanction of convention. e. as a general rule.loo HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR It can even be seen in a hybrid compound like arigatameiwaku. a long stretch of shallow water at low tide is (c) Akin to the above use that in which the stem is . i. where meiwaku is Chinese. which are frequently represented in English by a simple verb. usually formed with the aid of the particle no. tenaga ashinaga e. It must not be understood that such compounds can now be formed freely. E. are formed on this model. g. : aka taka ara the colour red quantity. . In order to express the abstract idea it is necessary to add a suffix to the stem. mekura yosamu toasa a long-armed person a long-legged person a blind man night chill long shallow. g. thus takasa. E. as in aka no momohiki red drawers where aka represents the attribute and not the abstract idea of 'redness'.

: 101 it has the form of a noun okashi no kotoba ya kuchioshi no arisama kana ara saniu ya arigata ya (these are) strange words sight ! ! what a regrettable how how cold ! (it is) ! grateful (I am) It is curious that the literature of the Nara period does not appear to contain these ejaculatory forms. : hakabakashi naganagashi konohoshi wa hara kuroguro quick. e. I yo-shi The predicative form of the it is of the adjective is a peculiar feature Japanese language. e. for unlike the adjective in English used as a predicate without the use of a copulative verb. Thus also kowa ! 'I'm frightened A kusa ! What a ' ! ' ! .) haji na ya and deep shameless of greed and (e) As mentioned above under (b) the stem is used to form abstract nouns by the addition of certain suffixes. surviving only in some dialects and in a few expressions like nashi. ejaculations like A ita ! It hurts '. where but a predicative force. g. ' ! ' smell ! is (d) Sometimes. g. yoshi. Thus kokoro yoshi (K. as one might expect in an early stage of language. — — 2.) (his) heart is is na ashi (K. atsu ! It 's hot are used by speakers who wish to relieve rather than to express precisely their feelings. in standard colloquial. . Predicative Form. In the modern everyday colloquial. adroit very long this priest is black of heart yoku fukabuka zo (HK.) (his) name good bad The predicative form of adjectives has almost entirely vanished from the spoken language. by way of emphasis. a compound adjective formed by duplication of the stem.' : THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE used in exclamatory phrases.

. as the second element of such compounds as It occurs. 'was cold'.) waga seko wo kouru mo kurushi (K. such as Takashi. g. consistently nakayoshi honenashi a an intimate man without backbone The following are examples of the use of the Predicative : form of adjectives asa kaze samushi (M. Time relations in the adjective are expressed by its compound conjugation. a light and a number of proper nouns. as in samukarishi.) mizu naki sora (Tosa) kashikoki chichi no oroka- naru ko (b) (G. The following are its uses : (a) Preceding a noun.) it Standing alone can act as a substantive. e. &c. karashi.) the morning breeze is cold yearning for my mistress too is painful kono hbshi wa futsu no hito yori wa take hikuku sei chiisashi (G. to tense. in omoshi.102 It is HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR found. it is purely attributive. Atsushi.) It this priest was shorter in height and of smaller build than ordinary people must be remembered that the adjective is neutral as In any of the above English sentences the tense must depend on the context of the Japanese verb. but very rarely. yoki kokoro ashiki na iyashiki yado (M. I II yo-ki ashi-ki In this form the adjective corresponds closely to the adjective in English. seasoned fish mustard (something pungent) akashi. as in to take the good to reject the bad yoki wo torn ashiki wo sutsuru . a weight sushi. as in a good heart a bad name a mean dwelling a waterless sky the stupid son of a clever father . usually with the auxiliary verb aru. acting as a noun. with its predicative use. Attributive or Substantive Form. samukaramu. 3. &c. 'will be cold'.

103 In such cases the substantive may express the abstract Thus idea (goodness) or the concrete one (good things) : ikusa ni mo nebutaki wa daiji no mono zo ! (H. Thus : ame ai tsuchi to to sakaemu miya wo tsukae matsureba totoku ureshiki (M. find instead the attributive form.) taguite zo yoki (N. or ka (q.) (occurring in the same clause) this form replaces the predicative form. the far ones shot with their bows.) In some of the verses of Nara period there occur a few instances where the attributive form is used as a predicative although not preceded by one of the above particles. as in of adjectives.' : THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE . imo are ro mo ashiki (M. sleepiness is war of his looks June no uchi. ' ' substantive yosa.) on keshiki no imijiki wo mitatematsureba (H.) a dangerous thing as they beheld the splendour in also. does not exist in the Nara period. .) ya kanashiki The composite 'perfect' form yokere.) ayu koso wa shimabe mo yuki (N.) the ships. of the type and after koso we ono ga tsuma koso mezurashiki (M.) It would be more accurate to say the existence of an attribute.) (M. but they can perhaps be accounted for on metrical grounds. ya. nan.v. Thus yoki means either the fact that a thing is good or a good thing The abstract quality of goodness is expressed by a special 1 ' ' ' '. cf. the near ones fought with striking weapons (c) After the particles zo. C kokoro ya yoki the heart is good kokoro ka yoki J ' This usage dates from the earliest recorded language. Thus "\ kokoro zo yoki kokoro nan yoki (^instead of kokoro yoshi. toki wa iru nite among chikaki wa uchimono shobu su (H.

That its adverbial use is only incidental. but 'large and powerful'. Adverbial or Conjunctive Form. It does the work of a conjunction. the adverbial use presents only one aspect of its function. and dependent rather on the meaning of an adjective than on the nature of the form.104 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR I 4. which futoku performs is to correlate the two words futoand takumashi-ki and place them in the same relation. under the general description of form as common to both verbs and adjectives. : yoku neru hanahadashiku takaki yama kono yama wa hanahadashiku takashi to sleep well an exceedingly high hill this hill is exceedingly high As already noticed. in this case attributive. e. . or (2) modifies yaku. it does not mean futoku does not modify takumashiki The service 'largely powerful'. according to the meaning ascribed to karuku. powerful horse . which Thus. and on account of this characteristic function is more accurately described as a 'Conjunctive Form' than an Attributive Form. g. the water runs clear the water is clear and cold kiyoku stands in the same relation to mizu as do nagaru and It will be noticed that the force of the termination -ku is rendered by the word and in English. yo-ku ashi-ku II The uses of this form are as follows : (a) As an adverb. as an adjective. in is to correlate rather than to modify. Similarly in mizu kiyoku nagaru mizu kiyoku tsumetashi tsumetashi respectively. to the word uma. is seen in such expressions as ' ' : (1) (2) kwashi wo karuku koshiraeru kwashi wo karuku yaku to to make a cake light lightly bake a cake Here. (b) this futoku takumashiki uma a large. modifying another predicative or attributive word. it (1) qualifies kwashi.

distinction should not be dismissed as trifling. the wind becomes cool kaze suzushiku naru there is no modification of the verb. Cf. akaki takaki totoki mikotonori (Res. is employed. 1 matsu aoku takashi it the pines are green and tall correlates two words. &c. such as naru. in particular the method by which the adjective is joined to a copulative verb. : samukaru (samuku-aru) samukaran (samuku-aran) samukarazu (samuku-arazu) is cold will is be cold not cold It is by this method that is constructed the compound conjugation of the adjective. see below. Thus. &c. for it explains many characteristic terms of speech in Japanese. lofty. suru.). when it is desired to express the relations of time. The distinction becomes even more apparent when an auxiliary verb. (For details of the Compound Conjugation of Adjectives. in kaze suzushiku fuku the wind blows cool suzushiku but in may still in a formal way be regarded as adverbial.THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE as 105 an adverb. 'a clear.) (c) The conjunctive form serves In to relate clauses. g. In the pines are green and the sand is matsu aoku suna shiroshi correlates white is it two clauses. e. and precious saying'. but there clearly no essential 1 In the earliest writings this rule is not always observed. as well as individual words. which are not conveyed by the simple adjectival forms. and in kaze hayaku suzushiku the wind quickly becomes cool naru we have The the two uses side by side. 3270 P . For this purpose the conjunctive and no other form must be used.

the sand white. in the above examples. It is this use which has caused the Japanese (chushikei). Students of Japanese poetry will recollect that this form most appropriately. suna wa shiroi. suna shiroku. the Conjunctive Form appears to act as a noun. as in toku e yuku furuku yori kono chikaku ni to go to a far place from of old in this neighbourhood The following are examples. 3 ^ ' (d) Sometimes.' 106 difference HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR between its uses in these two cases. . is. his be- haviour correct. One example will suffice : uibana no yo to ya yome no ikameshiku . and the water clear. mizu kiyokereba since the pines are green. and in such locutions as kokoro yoku okonai tadashiku na takashi his heart is good. but not very frequently. the precise meaning of the words in the conjunctive form is held in suspense until we come to the word with the significant inflexion. Accordingly. the Inconclusive Form of verbs and adjectives. taken from classical and current literature. . who . The reader can complete the sentence as his fancy dictates. and those preceding it take the conjunctive form. suna mo shiroshi aokute. the last only takes the appropriate inflexion. fame high and his matsu aoku. which grammarians to give it the name 4* Jfc might be translated 'Suspensive Form' or. in order to contrast it with the Conclusive Form. a favourite one with writers of Hokku. of the various uses of the Conjunctive Form of the adjective. . . Such a form would be found useful by those English writers like to end a passage with a row of little dots. 1 It is a rule of syntax in Japanese that when two or more verbs or adjectives are co-ordinated. those short epigrams whose chief character is that they are inconclusive. and to substitute sentences on the model matsu mo or matsu 2 wa aoshi. . and only in conventional phrases. 1 The colloquial tends to discard this use.

Assuming an Imperfect Form to exist. the 'imperfect' form is indistinguishable from the Adverbial or Conjunctive.THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE (a)- 107 uyauyashiku ai-shitagau koto (Res. in some Japanese grammars. without the least appearance of hesitation.) to obey reverently sono yoshi wo kuwashiku toi- tamau (b) (Uji) he inquired closely into the matter and (c)— kono kawa no tayuru koto naku kono yama no iya takakarashi (M. sauntered up in a leisurely way and reached the gallery of the Central chichi yori natsukashi nagara kowaku. some thick the Household Minister. its . cool ! usuku. Imperfect Form.) kiyoku suzushiki mori no kage (Uji) high a strange and venerable token.) may and this river never cease this mountain ever be ayashiku tbtoki omi-shirushi ayashiku yorokobashiki . haha yori mo netamashikushite kowaki wa kun to shin no naka (G.) hisashiku arame ya (M.) mo Gate House what is. treated separately in order to bring it into line with the verb.) naidaijin isasaka mo habakaru keshiki naku. samazama ni kaki tamaeri (G. more to be feared than a father. is the relation between lord and retainer (d)koishiku no bkaru ware (M. It is. while loving. who have many yearnings 5. some fine. and while jealous more to be feared than a mother. yo-ku ashi-ku II In the adjective.) grove he wrote (them) in various ways. yuyu to ayumi-yote chumon no ro ni tsukiraretari (G.) I wa I. . koku. . omi-shirushi (Res. a strange and glad token may it in the be everlasting shade of a clean.

if it is if if cold desire (they) you were not me.) . One need not assume an original form samuku-araba. I II . were the not for the voice of warbler. since there are analogous cases of the use of the conjunctive form with other particles and without the intervention of aru. The Perfect Form.108 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR is the same as that of the imperfect of the verb. Thus : samuku mo samuku to mo though (it be) cold even though (it be) cold fol- Retaining the term for the sake of uniformity. where samuku is the usual conjunctive form. come and ask existence of an Imperfect Form is denied by many who state that samukuba. The authorities. the lowing may be quoted as early examples of its use : kashikoku tomo are yashina- although foster fearfully. haru kuru koto wo tare ka shiramashi (M. in that it serves as a base to which a particle can be attached so as to express a (yet unrealized) condition. is an elided form of samuku-araba. I will wan (N. for instance. the weight of argument seems to be in favour of the latter view. Though this cannot be proved. Thus use : samukuba nakuba koishikuba tazunete. . however. him uguisu no koe nakuba. who would know the coming of spring it 6. &c.) .

THE INFLECTED ADJECTIVE Examples : 109 spond to those of the compound conjugation of the verb ashiki hito ashikarishi hito ashikaran hito ashikaranu hito sono hito ashikareba sono hito ashikaraba &c. : : kurushii koto (G. of the type yoku. the adjective in different modern spoken language has assumed forms from those now used in writing. This .. Sound Changes in the Adjectival Conjugation By the a gradual process of sound change. as in yd gozaimasu. e. the standard colloquial has reverted to the original form. a a a a bad person person who was bad person who will be bad person who is not bad as he is bad if he is bad &c.) yoi otoko (Mura. The Auxiliary Adjectives It might be expected from the identity of functions between verb and adjective in Japanese that similar methods would be used to amplify those functions in each case. &c. . and such forms were already in use in the Heian period.) It is curious that. as the following examples will show. g.. okashiku-te . kurushiu gozaimasu.) okashiute (Ise) takb (takau) (Uji) karojite (Take. The k was elided : utsukushiu (Take. with the one exception of adjectives joined to the verb gozaru. was evidently often pronounced yd in the same period.) wakai kokochi (G.) painful things (shiki becomes . which exclude entirely the forms yoku gozaimasu.. This process can be traced in medieval literature The colloquial equivalent of the model yoki is yoi. takaku karaku shite though these contracted forms persist in several dialects. for utsukushiku .. shii) youthful feelings (kaki kai) good men (yoki „ yoi) The 'adverbial' form.

Attrib. apart from onomatopoeics. but meanwhile the above words may be examined separately. and (b) auxiliary adjectives which assist to form the compound conjugation of verbs. the only pure Japanese word with an initial b. but it is not strictly speaking an auxiliary. but a compound of both. by the introduction of an element which is neither time nor mood exclusively. the following examples from which to form a general idea of their use yukubeshi yukubeki hito he will (or shall) go yukumaji yukumajiki hito nagaruru gotoshi nagaruru gotoku ware wa yukitashi mitaki koto a person who will (or must) go he will not go a person unlikely to go it is as if it flowed as if flowing I wish to go things I wish to see It will be seen that these auxiliaries amplify the simple forms of verbs. like the verb aru assist to form the compound conjugation of adjectives. which 1 The negative adjective naki (nashi. . which probably represent an original p or p+h. The auxiliary adjectives are four in number T : Stem Pred. Conjunctive BEMAJITA- BESHI MAJI TASHI BEKI MAJIKI TAKI BEKU MAJIKU GOTOmay be given. This characteristic feature of the conjugation of verbs in Japanese is discussed below (under Tense Suffixes. Thus. 2 It is noteworthy as. Syllables which in composition commence with b when isolated belong to the series written f\ha \£_ hi "J fu ^v he . GOTOSHI GOTOKI TAKU GOTOKU : Before discussing them in detail. p. umi-be contains the syllable now written and pronounced he. naku) might perhaps be included here. 173). which was no doubt originally pe or phe.^v ho. and we have two : classes of auxiliary words that serve this purpose (a) auxiliary verbs which. since it can stand alone. noticing that they differ from all other adjectives.no is HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR precisely what happens. BESHI 2 is an adjective conveying an idea of futurity.

: AUXILIARY ADJECTIVES ill can be variously translated by 'may'. It is said that sube. Here bemi and bera are nouns. 'must'. BEKI. abstract nouns (formed by the addition of the suffixes -mi and -ra. The stem is not are. or Beshi is normally suffixed to the predicative form of 'will'. but a great saint. . which can be attached to the stems of most adjecStem. bera. sen sube nashi. A mass must be said for him at once is it likely that this matter will be revealed unless Yuthis it (HK. but there examples of forms bemi.) kono koto Yukitsuna tsugeshirasezuba arawaru beshi ya was no ordinary man. Predicative Form. 'There is nothing to be done'.) yo wo iwazu naru beshi gunjin to mo akiraka wa reigi wo tadashiku subeshi (Mod. in classical literature. chiyo no dochi to zo oniou bera naru (Tosa) Saoyama no motniji chirinu bemi ! yoru sae miyo to terasu tsukikage (M. 'shall'. 'a consists of the verb suru and this root. e. : now found by itself.) seko ga kubeki yoi nari is the night for my lover to come . tives for a like purpose). (M. and qualifies them exactly as they are qualified by verbs other adjectives. with the sole exception that it follows and does not precede them.) . 'possibility'. . That we may see them even by night the moon way shines bright of doing things'. bombu ni arazu dai kenSumiyaka ni kuyo subeshi (HK. BE. it wa ga (N. g. one might think they had been companions for a thousand years the red leaves on Saoyama are about to fall. g. Examples now must : the sword be sharpened sei nari.) tsurugidachi iyoyo togubeshi kore BESHI. Its conjugation is entirely regular and complete . E.) shosha joko subeshi kitsuna gives information will be clear to you without my saying more a soldier should observe etiquette strictly all vehicles must slow down Attributive Form.

i. negatived. 1 It is fully conjugated. akete ya subeki ? zo. or be after daybreak ? Conjunctive and Imperfect Forms. seems to support this hypothesis. and see it do not climb on to the embankment an undeniable fact BEKERE.) 2 mikado no kurai the unattainable rank of Emperor 1 Maji seems to be compounded of the imperfect form ma. The fact that the stem alone does not exist. and possibly it explains forms like mimaku. &c.ii2 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR the place where they were to June ni norubeki tokoro (Tosa) shisu-beki toki shosubeki koto embark wa ima nari now is the time to die a praiseworthy thing After a 'musubi' (one of the particles konnichi no ikusa. ka. it is true. The following are examples of its use : Predicative Form : wasurayu maji (M. 2 Forms like mashijiki are also found in the Nara period. since they June ni norubekereba June ni norubekeredomo must embark though they must embark MAJI is the opposite in meaning of beshi. &c. mimahoshiku. bemi.) uma ni noru maji Attributive I shall he will not be able to forget not mount a horse Form : umajiki (Res.) battle : to-day's — shall we make shall it it a night attack. if it looked as it were going to fall mirubekuba yukite min dote ni noborubekarazu ( if is to be seen I will go = beku arazu) arasou bekarazaru jijitsu Perfect Form. It expresses the same ideas. which = ma+shi (ki. youchi ni ya subeki. Ma . but the above conjecture is supported by the existence of MASHI. is. and like beshi follows the conclusive form of verbs. plus ji. ochinubeku mietari it BEKU. not found alone. the negative suffix. that there are no forms corresponding to bera. shika. e. &c). of the future auxiliary mu. ya.

an unlikely thing a thing that must not (should not) yorumajiki kawa (N. &c. In modern colloquial majiki becomes mai. I will not invite him Theoretically a complete conjugation is formed by the composition with the adverbial majiku and the verb aru. . The stem. is found in combination with suffixes. and therefore gives a It is desiderative form to verbs to which it is attached. &c. tashi in common with all ordinary adjectives forms a complete conjugation by its adverbial form with the verb aru.— AUXILIARY ADJECTIVES arumajiki koto 113 .) Conjunctive happen an unapproachable river Form : This form does not appear in the found in the Heian and later periods. Thus : ware mo yukitashi hitoe ni Butsudo wo shugyo shitaku soraedomo I also wish to go though I earnestly desire to tazune kikitaki koto ari practise Buddhism there are things which I wish to ask As in the case of beshi and maji. forms are used. &c. Thus yukitakaru (takuaru). but is misen if you will not tell any one I will show you Perfect Form : yukumajikereba sasowazu since he would not go. yukimajikereba. yukitakereba. is not found in combinations analogous to bemi. hito ni katarumajiktiba earliest texts. which is used only as a predicative ano hito wa yukumai. but in practice not The stem bera. thus : yukita-sa yukita-garu 3*7° the desire to go to persist in wishing to go Q . suffixed to the conjunctive form. thus : all yukumajikaru. ta-. TASHI conveys the idea of desire. but not yuku- mai hito.

. It is employed with substantives. no or ga. just similarity) in Though gotoshi (which expresses the idea of many ways resembles the auxiliary adjectives described. In fact. as a rule. it stands in a class by itself. is -tai. regular and complete but which does not exist. goto (M. mimicry playing at demons (blindman's buff) playing at housekeeping a tournament. g. or with words in their substantival forms. sham fight. related to them by means of a particle. : kami no like mikoto no goto (Res. and is. it may be regarded as illustrating a stage in the process by which an uninflected stem becomes an inflected adjective.) is you now see for the per- The conjugation Predicative Form. and predicain which is commonly used speech to express a wish yukitai yukitai tokoro (I) wish to go a place (I) wish to go to GOTOSHI.: ii4 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR colloquial form. The following are characteristic examples of its use dangwan ante no gotoshi tama no gotoki ko mitamau ga gotoku Gotoshi is the bullets were like rain (i. The form it goto is found in early goto (K. GOTOSHI. there was a hail of bullets) a child like a jewel as Your Lordship observes e. The be perceived in such phrases as shosagoto onigoto dumb mamagoto shobugoto show. goto. 1 e. goto- In toshitsuki wa nagaruru shi 1 the months and years seem to flow sense of 'similarity' can still And in existing dialects. both attributive It is this suffix : The modern tive. because derived from a noun.) hana no goto yashikushiku a god according to the Word beautiful like a flower as ima mo miru fect form.) literature. and it is presumably has not entirely lost its substantival character that it is ordinarily used with a particle.

Shidzuka „ „ „ quiet nari 2. 0.AUXILIARY ADJECTIVES gotoshi retains 115 by of its substantial sense. Conj. Inflected. Okari Attrib. na wo wo ai mukashi no miru gotoshi (M. Okara Okare nara nare .) hito upon thee is like upon one of ancient times tsuki michite umu ko iro akakushite hitoe ni oni no when her time came the child she bore was red in colour. GOTOKI hana no chirinishi gotoki waga bkimi (M. B. nagaruru. some and is qualified In Toshitsuki wa nagaruru ga gotoshi nagaruru in the is a substantive. wakugo wo yashinai-hitasu koto no gotoku (Res.) and exactly like a demon Attributive and Substantive Form. modern language the niireba The meanings are identical. and particles no and ga are generally to look looking used. gotoshi (HK. a Table showing the Compound Conjugation of the Adjective is given herewith. Uninflected. Inflected Adjectives.( Stem Pred. the attributive form. 1. A.) no hikari no gotoki (Bussoku) kaku no gotoki baai ni (Mod. 5. Okaru Okari naru nari 3. ). Perf. many SHIDZUKA.) ikatsuchi great master. who is as the flowers that have faded like the flash of lightning in my such circumstances as these Adverbial and Conjunctive Form. Imp. — numerous.) like fostering an infant Compound Conjugation of Adjective For convenience of reference. 4.

Examples (Inflected). miru hito bkaru uchi ni among see the many people who This form 3. is. B .n6 i. &c. It is usually of the type bkere. medetaki koto bkari many This form is unusual. for similar reasons. yokere. because the predicative (oshi) of the adjective expresses the same meanings. unusual. miru miru miru hito bkarishi hito hito hito tame because the people who saw 4. miru miru bkaredomo though the people who see hito bkareba who see are many The perfect in this form is rare. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR delightful things are A. 2. okaran bkarazu many the people who many the people who many were are many as the people see will be see are not 5.

3.) o-kurashi Tsukuba twilight o-kawa a brook ko. which now exist only in conventional compounds. 5. For an account of these compound conjugations from the point of view of the verb. kirei. occurring in positions as many proper names and in such comlittle o-tsukuba (M. and also under to (p. shidzuka. suru (p. presumably cognate with a child koyama kobito a small hill a pigmy tallish • kodakaki . 217). cannot be used in attributive or predicative sense without the aid of a particle or other suffix.. UNINFLECTED ADJECTIVES Examples. e. 242). the locutions to shite jijitsu or inamubekarazu ni shite 'the facts are clear and cannot be denied' hanzen be used. small. 0. 4. and appear to be the relics of a body of primitive adjectives belonging to a pre-inflexional period. 0. great a large group of words which. e. 1. g. small. Uninfected Adjectives may These are of two sorts (I) : a small group of adjectival prefixes. 117 2. under aru (p. v. hanayaka. KO. g. &c. small. 249) and ni (p. 206). though primarily adjectival in meaning. principal and (II) (I) The following are the group : members of the first 0. shoko hanzen tari hanzen taru jijitsu jijitsu hanzen tarishi shoko hanzen taraba shoko hanzen tareba the proof is clear an evident fact the facts were clear if the facts are clear as the facts are clear Instead of the conjunctive form.

august child (a prince) In the earliest literature it is found as an honorific prefix to verbs. miaimashite. real feelings straight true thing. great. g. augustly meeting. gentle.). miya. augustly slept. 'raw'. as in KI has the meanings kiito raw silk kisoba kigusuri kimusume pure buckwheat pure drugs a virgin '. such as Oda. miko. august gate. by gradual sound changes. e. : b mi Kami on (written oho-n) yo on kokoro o kokoro great august God great august reign august heart your heart MA. produced the common honorific prefix o. Kobayashi.n8 and in HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR many places and personal names. august house (a palace or shrine). MI. such as Kokura. minemashiki (K. Ofuna. splendid. as in okimi bya byama and in a great king a great house (landlord) a great hill many proper names. and . subayaki. the truth in truth 'live'. adjective b-ki. &c. true. august. true word. This is presumably the stem of the inflected 0. In combination with (above) it has. quick. survives in such compounds pure white as : mashiro magokoro masugu makoto masa ni true heart. survives in such words as mikado. It is found in composition. sunao. SU means suashi sugao ' bare in such compounds as bare feet bare face (unpainted) bare skin suhada it has an intensive force in words like subarashiki. 'pure'. thus .

in tayasuki. It cannot. &c. quiet. p. there is a group of prefixes which appear to have lost all significance. as in kedakaki. as in sayo. These are for the most part derivative words. as as in i-tadashiki (K. KE. to a stem.. in shidzuka naru.) (obsolete). KA. saneru. : 119 form.v. as TA. I. The following list does not pretend to be complete : SA. 242) The form naru. or now retain nothing but a slight intensive force. HI.) shidzuka naru tokoro a quiet place „ . 1 Thus : (Attrib. stand alone.) kono tokoro wa shidzuka nari It will 1 be seen at once that these forms are widely different (q. but is niiname niimakura niita first fruits niimairi new pillow new field newcomer (the bridal bed) In addition to the above. is composed of the particle ni and the verb aru. tayowaki. Instead of a conjunctive form. g. however. formed by adding the suffixes -ka. tabashiru. locutype are used : tions of the following kaze shidzuka { nite S-nami odayaka nari \m shite) W1 + i. be said whether any of these ever had an independent existence as adjectives. (II) Uninflected Adjectives requiring the aid of a suifix or verb. waves calm tne 1 . as in kaguroki. It cannot.) shidzuka ni aruku (Pred.) (Advbl. Thus. e. to walk quietly this place is quiet shidzuka na tokoro (coll. kejikaki. sagoromo. -ge. samayou.UNINFLECTED ADJECTIVES Nil (new) may be the survival of an inflected now found only in composition. from the stem shidzu. kayowaki. but must be brought into relation with other words by means of a particle. in hiyowaki. of course. is formed the word shidzu-ka which conveys the idea of 'quietness'. and is to that extent a substantive.

analogous to the adjective stem. 2 Both -ge and -ka are identified with the word ki or ke. takaraka certainly cannot. which produce predicative or attributive forms by agglutination. or rather the appearance 2 of meanness but though iyashi-ge nam hito conveys the idea 'a mean-looking man'. ke is used in the Heian period in the sense of 'appearance'. and are most suitably regarded as stems. ' ' . Indeed. orosoka. from both practical and theoretical standpoints. a noun denoting 'meanness'. e. It gives a false impression of the uses even of such words as tsuyoge to include them in the category of abstract nouns. iyashige is not as a rule used to represent meanness. meaning "breath'. but they may be classified in a general way according to their terminations (a) : in KA. taka can be a true noun. can being preferred. differ . it is a mistake to follow Aston in classifying them as such. many. 1 It is unnecessary to describe this class of words in detail. they can under no circumstances stand alone. though they may partake formally of the character of nouns. and are now used sparingly. some other locution exist independently as abstract nouns. flower-like Those ending in KE or GE. These consist of uninflected words or stems. is formed iyashi-ge. . hito no ke sukoshi people looked a little . Those ending : wakayaka (stem) oroka. downcast. from the stem iyashi. for the latter can be used predicatively without the aid of a copulative phrase like nari. for though. osoroshige Thus : nam keshiki a fearful appearance 1 At the same time.120 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR from the inflected adjectives. These suffixes are not found in the earliest literature. hanayaka. they are even less of the nature of substantives than the adjective stem proper. while as for forms like kiyora. for instance. g. . they were frequently employed in the Middle Ages. Some of these. but not and they from the words just described to that extent but it will be found that such nouns represent the state or condition regarded as an attribute rather than the abstract conception of a quality. I venture to think that. 'spirit'. to which various terminations containing KA have been added. 'mean'. . orosoka (stem) youthful foolish takaraka (stem) lofty hanayaka (uninflected word) (b) gay. Thus. otoritaru nari.

shikiri. arata naru. &c. 'green' (noun). mare. 'crimson' (noun). 'presence of people' (hitoge naki tokoro. kurenai no. hito-ge. and has (c) value. 'rare' (noun). 'greasy taste or feel'. 'fresh'. as a result. such 'level'. arata. As has been already pointed out in discussing Substantives. but can. kurenai ni. 'a solitary. adjectives. arata ni. iya. 'cunning'. be made to fulfil any grammatical function within limits imposed by their meaning. constant (verb stem) shikiri ni. such as anzen taisetsu % -fc jfc tf] safety. aburake. 'very'. a large class of adjectival phrases. mare ni. peace shikyii 3*70 3| ^£ importance urgency R . mare nari. It follows that all Chinese words or compounds can (within those limits. such as ' ' . in Those ending RA. Thus. verbs. shikiri nari. kanake. Chinese Words. niidari nari. 'wretched'. 'vapour'. taking a number of We Chinese compounds.UNINFLECTED ADJECTIVES osoroshisa osoroshiki koto osore fearful) 121 fearfulness (the quality of being fearfulness fearful) (the fact of being fear Words like the above must be distinguished from such compounds as midzuke. yuge. sakashira. midori. 'confused' (verb stem). kurenai. taira. 'afresh'. (d) A small group of uninfected words of miscellaneous origin. formed principally with the aid of a copulative word such as naru. midari. 'ever'. 'moisture'. wabishira. 'metallic flavour'. midari ni. lonely place ') . with or without the aid of special grammatical devices. where ke or ge its full is compounded with concrete nouns as kiyora. kure- nai nari. Chinese words are not generally susceptible of classification into nouns. of course) be used as adjectives. 'clear'. have.

122 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : these can be used as adjectives as follows anzen naru katei taisetsu a peaceful household naru shokumu shikyu naru shigoto oral anzen nari kono shina wa taisetsu nari shikyu narishi tame an important duty an urgent task the road is safe this article is important because it was urgent uses.). ni shite or razu. Thus. hi =H 'beautiful' (ci. means of adjectival value. ' the scenery is extremely fine ') must be remembered. but these are more appropriately treated as specific uses of the particles no and to (q. Many of these. in addition to the use of naru. 'duty as shokumu taisetsu! n \ e . 'a dreadful sight'). \okotaru beka- shite J is important and must not be neglected'.fukei are. a single Chinese word is found acting as an adjective e. other There giving these compounds an ' . in considering the uses of the adjective. where will be found numerous combinations such as of simple juxtaposition. particularly in the case of Chinese compounds. much more extended rikken seitai j£ ft? j$r gj| constitution-government = kiken shiso constitutional government j& $fc © *g = danger-thoughts dangerous thoughts . \ni .v. while both languages contain compounds of the type anzen-to anzen-kamisori a safety-lamp a safety-razor Japanese makes a use of this method This can be seen on reference to a dictionary. hanahada It bi nari. g. as for example by employing the particle no (shikyu no ydji. but not very often. represent a synthesis of ideas which in English must be given their respective attributive or substantival notations.. urgent business') or the copulative form -taru (santan-taru arisama... The above examples show the predicative and attributive The conjunctive form is obtained by using the phrase nite. that both Japanese and Chinese have a great facility for the formation of compound words. Occasionally.

is Of the same nature seiji-jb the use of -jo ('on'. In addition to words of the type furusato ('old home') (referred to under the Adjectival Stem) which have corresponding types in English. employed to form adjectives from Chinese words. UNINFLECTED ADJECTIVES iden byb JUL 123 W. but seems to be greater than in English. 1 but its employment in Japanese seems to be due in a large measure to the influence of translations of European books and newspapers. As hao-ti jen. g. facility for : The wakari-yasuki kotoba mbshi-nikuki koto sono gi wakimaegatashi sumi-yoki yado 1 words easy-to-understand a thing unpleasant-to-mention its meaning is difficult-to-discern a home ftfj pleasant-to-live-in a g°°d man. e. The most usual of these are such as appear in. g.$H = byb sanjutsu MM M- % heredity-disease hereditary disease = application-mathematics applied mathematics first requiring in English element. ind often redundantly. military forming compounds is not so marked in the case of pure Japanese words. an attributive word to translate the In modern Japanese the Chinese suffix teki #J is freely. =&• gf| $J jfc kyakkan-teki kannen $£ fg #J fg £ JI inductive logic a concrete scheme |jj§ an objective idea use is very common in Chinese. 'above'. _h) political as a suffix in such expressions as no giron argument gunji-jb no seisaku military policy where the force of jo English — is rendered by using an adjective in ' ' political ' ' . there are certain compounds which must be rendered by a phrase or even a relative sentence. where #J (Mandarin ti) used freely to-day as a flexional affix. g£ .. : kinb-teki ronri gutai-teki seian g§ $j #j _j|. e. The almost literal translation of press telegrams in particular has had a deplorable effect on "his the modern written language. to mark the attrimte.

-ku airashi.yr sumerogi no f * *' to no mikado J and in the songs of the Kojiki one finds such forms as the distant land of Koshi totoshi Koshi no kuni Here we seem to have traces of a pre-inflexional period. : independent words —by the addi- tion of -shi. 'sole'. from koi. yo-ki.-ki . youthful From stems existing as separate words —by the addition of E.-ku shidzuke-shi . in that they are suffixed to the simple conjugational forms of verbs.) are similar to beshi. -ki. hitoshi. e. -ki. These form the majority of pure Japanese adjectives. however. interesting purposes may be disregarded.-ku haruke-shi . tashi. 'foolish'. maru-shi. and for practical They are. exist as e. -ki. waru-shi. -ku from baka. love 'childish'. by the addition 'fresh' of -keshi. They differ from them.&c. -ki. g. in that they throw some light on the development of adjectives 1 This is a matter of etymology . -ku hanahadashi. 6-shi. 4. love 'gentle'. but it may be for instance. g. . child 'lovable'. maji. -ku 3. however. -ku inflexion. to (far) appears attributively. -ku koishi-shi. in that they can be used independently of verbs. from hito 'very'. g. -ki -ku otonashi. to-shi. where ra has the force of bakarashi. and take the regular -shi. 2. yo-shi. RECAPITULATION Methods of forming Adjectives i. -shiki. thus sayake-shi. From stems which &c. iya-shi. : -rashi. to tsu to kami "] I > no kuni .nikushi.-ki . 1 waru-ki. from otona.-ki. kodomorashi. -ki.124 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR It will be noticed that these adjectives (yasushi. from kodomo. &c. -ki.-ku 'quiet' 'distant' These words may be treated as obsolete. from hanahada 'beloved'. -ku 'like' or '-ish'. -ki. From uninflected words. &c. which may or may not first have existed as an independent word. thus : mentioned that. From a stem. a fool from ai.

by the addition of suffixes ka and ge which form quasi-substantives that are made attributes by the use of a copulative locution. . as far as I know. sayake-shi akirake-shi shizuke-shi Heian. It will be noticed that these words ending in keshi are precisely those which. it is hard to see why the writers of grammars. nothing to prove that osoro-. this termination : bibishiki. to long for ') ' busy Sometimes Chinese roots take yuyushiki. shitai-. 7. that are not pure studies in etymology. It thus appears that the process of forming adjectives by inflexion was applied to words like akirake and then abandoned. « to hasten ') fearful (osoru. in particular those of the type referred to in (7) below. 'strength' These words show how cautious one should be in using the word There is. like shidzuka. ' shiki. sumiyaka nari haruka nari From the stems of verbs. but -ke is doubtless the same word (^). 'quiet' 1 tsuyoge. arbitrary stem. the following examples : Nara. beautiful From uninfected words or stems. by adding (isogu. are uninfected and require the aid of nari. In fact. Cf. 'to fear') beloved (shitau. isogi-. isoga-. In the Nara period the suffix ge does not occur. Thus: isoga-shiki osoro-shiki shitawa-shiki 6.are not just as much stems as osore-. in modern Japanese. keep up the practice of distinguishing an 'stem'. sayaka nari akiraka nari shizuka nari sumiyake-shi haruke-shi 5. shita.RECAPITULATION 125 in Japanese.

THE VERB I. &c. yuka yuke first. 2. which serve to convey ideas of mood. These variations in form do not now (though some of them originally did) express by themselves variations in meaning as is the case with those changes in the form of the verb in English. by means of which the word in question can function as verb. noun. for the verb 'to go' we have in Japanese the following forms of the Simple Conjugation . 5. which may be styled the Simple Conjugation and the Compound Conjugation full HE respectively. T THE SIMPLE CONJUGATION conjugation of a Japanese verb can be conveniently divided into two parts. 'imperfect' form. yuku yuku yuki . : i. adjective. ' The yuku. is an adjectival form. whether simple or compound. simple conjugation can serve as a base for the addition of suffixes to produce compound conjugational forms which express variations in meaning corresponding to (though not exactly coinciding with) the tenses. 'perfect' form. or adverb. . . 'breaking'. . . The chief function of the Simple Conjugation is to provide variations in form by means of which the verb can be brought into relation with other words. . differentiated by flexion. . the the the the the 'predicative' form. 3. . 'a man who goes'. or 'Negative Base'. i. as in yuku goes-man'. or voice nor do any of the forms of a Japanese verb. &c. contain elements representing number or person. . according to requirement. goes'. 'attributive' form. . like 'break'. . . yuku. . 'broken'. as in hito yuku. It happens that in this case the predicative and attributive forms coincide. moods. 'a The is the true verb form. Each form of the . of an English verb but standing alone it is simply one of a series of forms. . 'broke'. hito. 'conjunctive' form. tense. . . a man second. e. 4. Thus.

yuki. . but acts only as a base for agglutination. The third. as in michiyuki. and they have in their turn a simple conjugation which (precisely as in the case of yuku. is a noun. The Conjunctive Form +an flected verb suffix yukazu. e. 'wayfaring'. this Simple Conjugation is not homogeneous. &c. yuke. mood. performs a similar office. corresponding fairly closely to 'going' in its gerundial uses. . as will be seen. . adjective. and the perfect form was originally an independent form conveying an idea of tense. noun. ' will go ' . e. 'to come and go'. and it has an important syntactical function as a link between sentences. for instance. yuki. g. yuka. The fifth.' ' SIMPLE CONJUGATION but in 127 verbs they differ. Historically. but it can under certain circumstances stand alone as a predicative form. . homu and homuru. The Perfect Form + an unin- ' though he goes fleeted suffix (a particle) It will be observed that some of these agglutinated suffixes are inflected and some uninflected words. . 'has gone ' . yukedo. The Attributive Form + an flected adjectival suffix inin- yukitari. is in many cases a disguised compound form. The inflected suffixes are themselves vestigial verbs or adjectives. Thus. But for practical purposes one is justified in regarding the above five forms as the members of a group that provides the bases upon which the Compound Conjugation is built. . : : yukubeshi. The Imperfect or Negative Base Form +an inflected verb ' ' suffix yukeba. and furnishes bases for the addition of still further suffixes. . is never found alone. and so on. . It is the form which enters most freely into combination with other words. yuka. . . ' way The Compound Conjugation is formed in the following To each variant of the predicative form in the simple conjugation there can be added certain suffixes denoting tense. The fourth. respectively the predicative and attributive forms of the verb many meaning 'to praise'. . ' does not go ' . yukikaeru. g. The 'attributive' form. yuke) allows the compound form to function as verb. voice. ' as he goes ' .

U E KU SU TSU NU FU MU YU RU KE SE TE NE HE ME YE RE (WU) (WE) ... described above.. and a few irregular verbs.. . A I KA SA KI 2. This table is as follows It is : i..128 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR to take a simple example.. .. Perfect so that the compound conjugational form yukitari. ... ' . 4. . . It is usual to distinguish these types by reference to the columns of a conventional table of the Japanese syllabary. .. . . 'a man who has gone while to the appropriate forms can be added further ' ' . the inflected verb suffix tart. ... which for the moment we may describe as the perfect tense of the verb yuku. Thus yukitari is the true verb. There are four regular types of the Simple Conjugation of the verb. has a simple con- jugation : tari taru tari ... as in hito yukitari. ... .... inflected or uninflected. . which indicates approximately a perfect tense. to provide further variations in meaning.. a man has gone yukitaru is an adjective. has the forms yukitari yukitaru yukitari yukitara yukitare . Predicative Attributive Conjunctive Imperfect or Negative Base Perfect ' ' These forms are used in exactly the same way as the simple conjugational forms oiyuku... as in yukitaru hito.. Predicative Attributive ' tara tare Conjunctive Imperfect or Negative Base ' . will have gone did go has not gone though he has gone the conjugational forms created by the addition of suffixes to the forms of the simple conjugation which are hereafter described as constituting the Compound Conjugation of the Japanese verb.. suffixes. ... such as yukitarubeshi yukitariki yukitarazu yukitaredo . TA NA HA MA YA RA SHI CHI NI HI MI (YI) RI WA (WI) 3..

and has the forms otsu. The verb otsu. in column Ta. which correspond to the two middle grades (i. is described as of the Sa column of the quadrigrade con. otsuru. is of the Second Conjugation. which has the forms kasa. 'to come'. In Japanese grammars and dictionaries the verb yuku is therefore described as belonging to the Ka column of the quadrigrade conjugation. ' SIMPLE CONJUGATION 129 verb of the First Conjugation. and it seems sufficient to point out the identity in appearance here. mi. since bu and be are the two lower grades of the Ba column (Ba being the surd form of Ha). Otsu is therefore of the 'Middle Bigrade' Conjugation. Finally. mire. tabe. The Stem. The verb tabu. 'to fall'. It has the forms tabu. since its variations correspond to the four syllables in the vertical column headed by Ka. tabure. Aston draws a distinction between the two which is difficult to follow. 'to eat'. taken in the order of the terminal vowels in the horizontal rows ('grades') of the table. are translations of the Japanese ichidan. This is described as the Lower Bigrade conjugation. taburu. ochi. ' A ' ' jugation. otsure. The terms 'unigrade'. the members of which undergo no flexional change. e. 2 and 3) of the table. Here the syllables ru and re are agglutinated. Japanese grammars for the use of Europeans usually distinguish the types of conjugation by numbers. The flexional variations are otsu. 'bigrade'. The following is an account of each of the Simple Conjugational Forms as exhibited by the verb : I. 'to do'. as miru. kasu. 'to be'. The irregular verbs cannot be referred to any of the columns. It has a form in each of the four grades '. and the only flexional variations are tabu and tabe. is of the Third Conjugation. and the verb kuru. kashi. has four forms which. the verb miru is said to belong to the 'Unigrade Conjugation'. miru. but retain the same syllable in all forms. kase. Only half a dozen verbs are of this ' type. Chief among them are the auxiliaries aru. are yuKA yuKI yuKU. Similarly the verb kasu.. such as yuku. mi. and suru. &c. &c. and to describe 3270 s . yuKE. ochi. In verbs the 'stem' and the Conjunctive or 'Adverbial' form are identical. nidan.


Is he like his father ? where niton is required by the strict rule. To call this an historical present is only to shelve the difficulty by means of terminology. being neutral as to time. ' Where an — : ika ni hihyo seraruru tomo (for seraru) however much criticized it I may moon be is tsuki idzuru to (for idzu) miyu appears that the coming out Generally speaking there is a tendency to substitute the attributive for the predicative form. and the verb should take the predicative form. but venture to think that the name is misleading. The function of the predicative form is to predicate. the . the attributive form is now permissible. g. . Examples of this relaxation are : (1) (2) interrogative particle ends a sentence. the predicative is demanded. and one may hazard a guess that in time the distinction between the two will vanish. it can usually be translated by a present tense in English but context may demand other tenses. without reference to time. Thus I .. Chichi ni nitaru ya. custom now sanctions the use of the attributive. g. It is true that.m.. . : gogo rokuji ni kaikanshiki owaru may mean At either of six p. as mentioned above. Before the particle to. opening ceremony ends . E. where. Chamberlain styled this form the Certain Present. in the modern written language the strict rules prescribing the use of the predicative form are in many cases no longer observed. Further. .THE PREDICATIVE FORM 131 the attributive form has fallen out of use in the spoken language.. will ended end Similarly in narrative prose one finds such sentences as hatachi no toki ni byoshi su which means 'He died of sickness at the age of twenty'. E..

Masaru. acting as an adverb. requires the passive voice. hotaru. 'repeatedly'. and yase is the 'conjunctive' form of the verb yasu. 'wrestling'. the . In the same way the verb in all its forms is neutral as to is HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR common with other forms of the verb. Hagemu. In a few exceptional cases the predicative form is found acting as a noun. 'the ephemera'. The following are examples of characteristic use : of the predicative form.) grows ever thinner and thinner where yasu is the equivalent of the modern verb yaseru (i. which is a grammatical device used when we wish to describe an act without reference to the agent. The modern colloquial form attributive of atau. kagerou. because the use of an active verb does not involve mention of the subject. (3) kono kane hyaku ryb wo ba nanji ni atau (HK. corresponding to the attributive ikuru. 'increasingly'. &c. In Japanese an active verb is used. e. and such proper names as Tadasu. nakunaku. in such forms as kaesugaesu. e. shidzuku. atauru or ataeru. 'tearfully'. sumau. and ousted the attributive form shinuru. (2) morotomo ni iku tomo though we live or die toshinu tomo (Uji) gether Iku in modern colloquial would be ikiru. I give to is you e. the Predicative number. On the other hand shinu is a predicative form which has survived. masumasu. Kaoru.) this sum of a hundred ryo i. &c. yuku. 'a drop'. in such This characteristic is exhibited in a most interesting common constructions as way kono mura wa Kose to iu this village is called Kose The idea in of person or agent is neither expressed nor implicit In English the corresponding locution the verb iu.132 In neutral as to person. Occasionally it will be found reduplicated. for instance. the attributive form yasuru with a slight vowel change). taken from early texts (i) iya yase ni yasu (M. This is clear from the fact that it undergoes no variation to express person. 'you go'.g. 'a firefly'. 'he goes'. standing indifferently for 'I go'.


'well-rope'. ' general'. tsurube. such as yukue. Here oburu. The attributive can also act as a substantive in such expressions as : umaruru wa ureshiku shinuru birth is a joyful. (3) (4) kimi ga keru mari the ball which you kick bakemono no arawaruru mori ware no yuku tokoro kare no kore suru riyu the grove in which the ghost appears the place to which serts this I (5) (6) go wo shuchd the reasons for which he as- Notice the variety in translation 'which'. relates the idea 'wear' to the idea 'sword'. 'to But the phrase does not mean 'the general's leading soldiers'. As mentioned above. words. qualifies heisotsu. the English rendering in such cases often requires a passive construction. as to person and number. death a sad wa kanashiki koto nari thing Here the attributive corresponds to our infinitive. lead'. is the Conjunctive Form which enters into most compound object or As an . 'to which '. without introducing any idea of time or agency. The meaning here is the soldiers led by the heisotsu. in describing the predicative form. Narubut it kami. 'soldiers'.134 (i) HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Shbgun no hikiiru Here the verb hikiiru. epithet the Attributive Form exists in a few conventional compounds. 'to die'. It will be seen that the substantive to which the verb is attributed is not necessarily either its ' — its subject. being an attributive form. but makes no reference to the agent. 'destination'. the verb is neutral 'to be born'. (2) koshi ni oburu katana. 'A sword worn in the belt'. there is obviously no need for a specialized infinitive form. Where. as in Japanese. 'in which'. and for which '. The word hikiiru merely relates the idea 'lead' to the idea 'soldiers'. An extension of the above usage enables one to form locutions like : hito no kuru wo matsu awaits a person's coming . &c. 'the Sounding God'.

in the earliest texts. 'do flowers fall ? This variation is found.) . and so on. hito no kuru koto wo matsu or warau mono wa onna ni shite. 'gazes on the moon'. however. regarded as important by strict grammarians of the school of Mabuchi and Motoori. here. tsuki wo nagamu. ka. . is to replace the 'conclusive' form in sentences where it is preceded by one of the particles zo.THE ATTRIBUTIVE FORM daikoku wo osamuru wa shosen wo niru ga gotoshi 135 warau wa onna ni wa onna nari shite naku governing a great state is like boiling small fish it is the women who laugh and the men who weep This use can be conveniently explained by supplying either koto ('thing'. The verb acting as a noun It is worth mentioning is to be found in the earliest texts. that the colloquial equivalent of this idiom exacts the use of the particle no. 'flowers fall'. Thus. nan. It is referred to under the headings devoted to the various particles. but not uniformly.. Thus. but hana ya otsuru. A further use of the attributive form. but tsuki wo zo nagamuru. . where zo is merely an emphatic particle hana otsu. abstract) or mono ('thing' or 'person') after the verb in the attributive form and regarding it as having usual attributive sense.) tsukaematsuru koto ni yorite it is I who yearn for thee it is namo amatsuhitsugi kikoshimeshikuru (Res. but I think it more probable that it is the particle no in a difficult but comprehensible development of its ordinary sense. wa because of Our service that We have succeeded to the Heavenly Throne . ' : Some Japanese grammarians (1) After the emphatic particles : ZO and NAMO {=NAMU alone or NAN) ware nomi zo kimi ni wa kouru (M. but examples may be given here for convenience stitute for . or ya. But it must not be supposed that this is an accurate reproduction of the sense-development in such cases. as follows its : hito warau no wa onna nari instead . no kuru no wo matsu of hito warau wa onna nari no kuru wo matsu suggest that no here is a submono.

has in speech invariably and in writing usually the meaning 'a person falls'. for instance. and has replaced the simple locution composed of subject + predicate.) Form : tabiyuku ware (M. Thus : nami wa yorikeru ka (M.) ante ni furiki ya (M. To quote Aston It is as if we gave up the use of the indicative mood and used participles instead.) hito no mitogamuru wo shi- the target which is shot at I who am journeying not knowing that others razu (Res.) tare pass Spring alone the days of shi no yakko ka waga mikado ni somukite shika what fellows have thus rebelled against our throne ? suru (Res. after these particles.136 (2) HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR After the interrogative particles YA I and ? KA : hitori ya haruhi kurasamu shall (M. saying. very marked in Japanese.) behold the numbers of the falling autumn leaves the water's edge to which the waves come beating It is a natural custom to help others nami yosekakuru migiwa (HK hito wo tasukuru narai nari wa junjb no . though it stands in strict grammatical analysis for 'a person's falling'.) The tendency dicative is.) I do not know of any satisfactory explanation why. or "his being killed" instead ' : of "he was killed". the substantival form should be preferred to the predicative. ya the predicative form. Thus hito ga ochiru. hito otsu. have the waves come up did it ? rain ? of the substantival form to oust the prehowever.' The following are early examples of the various uses of the Attributive or Substantival iru mato (M.) otsuru momiji no miyo (Kokin. "he dying" or "his dying" instead of "he dies".) blamed them kazu wo . It is of course most apparent in cases where the particle ga ( = of) is used. It is curious to note that where ka and ya are final particles ka follows the substantival.

*37 Conjugation ist 2nd .

The distinction is best shown by examples : sono yorokobi kagiri nashi their joy knew no bounds is kakaru toki ni yorokobu wa shite at such a time to rejoice tsune no narai nari yorokobu wa otoko ni nageku wa onna nari the usual custom it is the men who rejoice and the women who lament Besides entering into composition with other words. the conjunctive form can be used to co-ordinate words without closely connecting them. Thus yukikaeru is 'to come and go'.' 138 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' There is a difference in meaning between the conjunctive forms of verbs thus used as nouns and the true substantival form. or even sometimes the agent. most likely that lead' oshiemichibiku is a translation of the Chinese It is Wlan extension of this co-ordinating use which exhibits the conjunctive form in its most characteristic function. 'to bewail and lament'. are very frequent in the Rescripts. while 'joy'. yorokobu pictures rather the act of rejoicing. where the two parts are of equal value. oshiemichibiku. means 'rejoicing' or It stands for a comprehensive or abstract idea. while kaeriyuku is 'to go back' but the distinction obviously arises from the nature of the words used. for example. 'to invite and ='to seduce'. It is perhaps clearer in such phrases as nagekikanashimu. It is. namely. Early examples of this use are to be seen in . The tendency to form such groups was no doubt strengthened by the influence of Chinese.) unable to wait the two were in converse together is (Here both narabi and i are conjunctive forms of verbs.) this kono yamamichi wa yukiashikarikeri (M. 'to teach and guide' = 'to instruct'. ^ .) futari narabi-i-kataraishi (M. The difference is dependent rather on the meaning of the words employed than on any change of function. for instance. and the form nageki is used merely for purposes of co-ordination. The word yorokobi.) mountain road was bad to travel and such combinations as izanai-hikiiru. since Japanese has no conjunction corresponding closely to 'and'. : machikanetsu (M.

hana ga saite tori ga naku.) saddling and bestriding his chestnut colt he hears the sound (but) does not see according as he deigns to cherish and deigns to rule the Kingdom under Heaven In the spoken language this 'suspensive' use of the conjunctive form is generally reinforced by means of a particle or replaced by some other construction.) to dance I shall die without meeting lover my Here we have the forms shini and mai acting as nouns and . are equivalent to hana saki tori naku.THE CONJUNCTIVE FORM 139 the co-ordination not of single words but of clauses and sentences. Therefore hana saki tori nakamu nakeba flowers will will sing since bloom and birds are blooming hana saki hana saki tori flowers tori naku nobe and birds are singing a moor where flowers bloom and birds sing Such constructions are of fundamental importance in Japanese syntax. with slight differences of emphasis. as in hana saki tori naku flowers bloom and birds sing It is important to notice that saki here does not mean 'blooming' or 'having bloomed'.) oto ni kiki hai(M. These. or hana mo saku shi tori mo naku.) mai suru imo ni awazu shini semu (M. Thus. and it is impossible to understand the written language until they are thoroughly mastered. by which it is determined.) me ni wa mizu osu kuni ame no shita wo megumitamai osametamau ma ni (Res. Its tense is held in suspense until we reach the final verb naku. hana mo sakeba tori mo naku. A use of the conjunctive form which is of some interest is illustrated in (K. They are to be found in the earliest texts : akagoma ni kura uchioki norite (M.


'to cause to eat' 'to eat'. and perfect forms even in a limited way to the predicative form and they are to that extent bases but they have also an individual significance. somewhat reluctantly. eat'. . and so following the usual Japanese nomenclature but it has been pointed out to me that this name might cause confusion with the Imperfect tense in other languages. being yuki + aru +uru. ' ' . But this is only an empiric rule. . from yuku. for instance. historically. 'to cause to go' go'It will =yuka +suru. It is important to note that the Negative Base is the only form of the verb which cannot stand alone. by analogy. +sasuru. retained the term Negative Base. the verb yukaruru. ' taberaruru. in causative verbs but it does not explain the a terminating the base of negative and future forms in the first conjugation. The rule for obtaining passive forms is to add ru to the negative base where it ends in a. conjunctive. which they express standing alone. where the base form does not end in the suffixes added to make causative or passive forms contain that vowel. — — . 'to yukasuru. function. which by crasis becomes yukaruru (attributive) and yukaru (predicative). be noted that. and I have therefore. and raru where it ends in another vowel. from taburu. whereas the Negative Base by itself has no meaning and no a. ' to be eaten ' = tabe-\-raruru. and perhaps. from = tabe to tabesasuru. and there is nothing to show that. It is true that suffixes can be added to the attributive. This seems to be a good reason for styling it the Imperfect form. while the addition of ruru or raruru gives the corresponding attributive forms. passive forms are built up from the negative base. This is sufficient to account for the a in passive verbs. It should be understood that none of the other forms of the verb is a base in the same sense. This gives the predicative of the passive.THE IMPERFECT FORM ' ' 141 taburu. such as yukamu and yukazu. It is tolerably certain that passive verbs are built up by adding to a form of the simple conjugation (probably the conjunctive) the auxiliaries aru ('to be') and uru ('to get').

unlike the Ne- gative Base. e.142 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR VI. the ordinary predicative form. In the earliest texts it is found standing alone where one might expect the conclusive. i. appears to have a certain tense-significance and not to be merely a flexional form providing a base for agglutination. The Perfect Form. Thus : . The Perfect Form.

to express an actual or realized condition. the perfect form certainly conveys the idea of the definite completion of the act or state described by the verb. the imperfect form. This still leaves us with the difficulty of accounting for the perfect form. It is perhaps significant that the Luchuan conjugation does not include a perfect form. The difference is brought out in the methods employed in Japanese to express a condition. particularly with adjectives. is used to express a hypothetical or unrealized condition. g. able to suppose that. The strict rule of Japanese syntax exacts the perfect. it would have left some traces in Luchuan. and the perfect may be regarded as a composite tense form. which seems to indicate the presence of the verb aru. Koso is in them sometimes found governing an attributive. E. under Particles) does not appear to be fully established in the earliest Japanese texts. instead of the . of the verb aru itself. and yuke. but it is richer in forms. : kusa koso shigeki (M.) tsuma koso medzurashiki (M. thus : yuka-ba yuke-ba yuke-do ' if he goes (or should go) since he goes (or has gone) though he goes ' (or has gone) where yuka. Whatever its origin. One may infer that the perfect form came into use in Japanese just before the Nara period. and not part of the simple conjugation formed by flexion. and in this respect it is strongly differentiated from the 'imperfect' or Negative Base form. the perfect form. and was never established in Luchuan. in the same way as the similar particle zo. are.THE PERFECT FORM 143 but first conjugation verbs the perfect ends in re. This view is supported by the fact that the use of the perfect form after koso (v. if the perfect form had existed in the language from which both archaic Japanese and Luchuan are descended. The Luchuan conjugation shows correspondences with the archaic Japanese conjugaIt is therefore not unreasontion. in conjunction with the particle koso. The most curious use of the perfect form is that referred to above.) the grass is luxuriant the spouse is lovely It seems therefore that Aston's view is probably correct.

form of verbs at the end of a sentence containing this particle. Thus text. the clear. In early texts we find conditional forms composed of a perfect with particles other than ba. will it be ?) How In where me is the perfect form of the future verb-suffix mu. Taking these various examples together. indicating as it does the definite completion of a process rather than the lapse of time.) zo now is it tsuchi no indeed I come because there are no . the predicative). sometimes without any particle. wag'imoko ika ni omoe ka yo mo ochizu ime ni shi miyu (M. yukedo. ima ame . explained above. sometimes with emphatic particles other than koso.) how whose love can it be ? is it.) Gods of Heaven or Earth that I am parted from my lovely wife ? of what has my love been thinking that every night I see her in my dreams we have the particles zo.) ika ni arame (M.) kami nakare ya uruwashiki waga tsuma sakaru (M. e. and thus not unnaturally comes to be used with emphatic particles. and ya followed by a perfect. In the modern language the perfect form standing alone without agglutinated suffix is used only after koso. ka. Its chief use now is as a base for conditional and concessive forms. : . and this is merely a survival. it seems that the perfect form. : are ta ga koi ni arame (M. . such as yukeba. affirmative value. has a certain emphatic. Thus kore wa tama nari kore koso tama nave this is a jewel is this indeed a jewel But in the earliest texts a similar idiom is found.144 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : usual conclusive (i. Deprived of their con- above examples perhaps fail to make this point but in most of the cases I have examined I think some emphatic value can be discerned. ware kure (M. I wonder ? (lit. The sentence waga seko wa itsuchi yukame is whither has my beloved gone ? Other examples an instance of a perfect standing alone.

. 'perform') tate (from tatsu. as in the example quoted above. it came to be u . Consequently we find ' tsutome (from tsutomuru. They throw. . is it 'to do') awamu to omoe koso inochi dragging out I my life because tsugitsutsu (M. are). or omoe ya. giving way to a combination omoeba.THE PERFECT FORM nani sure zo sakite . however. which contains the separative particle ha or wa in its surd form ba. yuke. causative of shiru) imashite (from imashitsuru. 'stand') se (from suru. while in other verbs the Imperative is identical with the Negative Base. an honorific verb = 'to be') The addition of the particle yo is not essential for the formation of the Imperative. so that the above sentence might read omoe koso. 'to cause to know'. 145 hana no how kozukemu (M. to do ') shirashime (from shirashimuru. It is found in early texts with verbs of all conjugations. sakiwaitamau mono ni ari to omoe because we thought. and these forms fall out of use. g. Later. in the case of verbs not of the 3270 first conjugation. Then come cases where the perfect form is reinforced by an emphatic or interrogative particle. The Imperative ' in Japanese Verbs In the Nara period the function of the Imperative is performed by the perfect form of verbs of the first conjugation and of the verb aru (e.) that the flowers have not come to bloom ? {sure is the perfect of suru. 'do') and also imperatives of ' compound forms such as nase (from nasu. &c. a past tense form of imasu. It appears that first of all we have the perfect standing alone. but it is a mere exclamation. omoe zo.) hope to meet you but these uses are interesting light now obsolete. an upon the development of the locution for expressing a realized condition in Japanese verbs.

which are no doubt survivals of dialect forms. judging from the existence of forms It will like motere. that it is merely a specialized use of the Perfect. an interjection. Similar observations apply to imperative forms in ro. The modern form of the negative imperative is in the written language of the type yuku nakare. okere. the imperative of nasaru. 'do not go But the use of so is is the conjunctive form of the verb. the ro being. of the auxiIn the modern spoken language the equiliary verb aru. a polite verb for 'to do'. be noticed that.146 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR regarded as an integral part of the imperative form. like yo.) so (K. . valent is yuku na. okere (oku+are) appear in the Manyoshu. being no doubt the same as the particle zo or the so of koso. my lover It is clear that the negative element is na. neglecting the exclamatory paryo and ro. The imperative of a polite verb is usually added. but it seems probable. not invariable and it is probably only exclamatory. such as tsukero.) se mitogamubeki waza na shigure nafuri so (M. Examples of the negative imperative with and without so are ! ' : na shise-tamai so (Res. which is doubtless the same as the negative adjective na-ki.) deign not to die do not do blameworthy things let it not rain do not grieve. seyo. as can be seen from combinations like suru na. na-shi. Forms such as motere (=motsu+are). as in o kaeri nasai. The negative imperative found in the earliest texts is where yuki formed on the model na yuki so. &c. where na is added to the attributive form of the verb. &c.) na wabi waga seko (M. instead of the plain imperative kaere. are. 'please come back'. Here nakare is composed of the negative adjective na-ki (probably in its conjunctive form na-ku) + the imperative. &c. all imperatives end in e. It may be appropriately mentioned here that the simple negative of a verb is rarely used in Japanese except in very intimate or very severe conversation. Here nasai is the colloquial form of nasare. but not ticles later. so that it is now regarded as correct to say tsutomeyo. The imperative should perhaps be regarded as a special conjugational form.

'there was badness'. it will be seen.) sutemasu na wasure masuna (Res. do not forget Here. we are bound to old'.). shiranaku (M.). &c. g. 'was bad'.).). 'do not fall'.). kono uchi no chikaku ni. neshiku (N. araku (M. kataraku (M.) do not tread do not forget do not abandon.). 'from of The compound conjugation of adjectives consists of this form together with the verb aru. and occur freely in early texts.). Substantival Forms.) wasure tamau na (M. suraku (M. . and a group like warukarishi. miraku (M. seeing that arishi is not a copulative verb.). What first strikes one about these forms is their resemblance to the 'adverbial' form of adjectives. Thus. aranaku (M. and the modern colloquial usage prefers the attributive merely because the distinction between predicative and attributive always tends to disappear. oraku (M.) ga mbshishiku (Res.). na is suffixed to the predicative form. resolves itself upon Indeed.) back to back what he said I do not spare the steed (lit. e.).). &c.THE PERFECT FORM : 147 'do not do !' ochiru na. which have survived in the modern language in locutions like Kdshi iwaku or Kdshi no iwaku negawaku wa what Confucius what I desire said These are substantival forms. of Verb and Adjective The foregoing account of the simple conjugation has not included a reference to such verb forms as iwaku. ending in -KU. omoeramaku (M.) koma no oshikeku mo nashi (M. 'there is no sparing of slept steed') neshiku (K. analysis into waruku arishi. ' furuku yori. as may be seen from the following examples : sogai ni neshiku shi shi ima shi kuya- I still hate to think that we mo (M. Similar constructions are not wanting in the early language. sadametsuraku and moshitsuraku (Res. ashi fumasu na (K.). in the neighbourhood of this house '. koemaku (M. which has the same termination and can in the same way serve as a noun.

as in kemu. as in fukenuraku (iromfukenuru. 'to grow shi. . but the resemblance itself can logically be regarded only as evidence that the element ku is of the same origin in each case. as in shiranaku (from shiranu. We find it. and the fact that ku is found following almost all the verb suffixes tends to disprove this supposition. future of fuku. in such compounds as omowazukeri (ki-ari). Thus. past of mosu. and following the tense suffix ki we have only mu. akirakeku. -namu. terminal forms in any compound conjugational form. a number of words like ashikeku. in addition to forms of the type ashiku. A priori this is not unlikely. It does not follow that it is a conjugational form in each case. of shiru. sayakeku. 'to say') nu. it is interesting to examine these -ku forms in adjectives. and that a sentence represents 'with regard to this fish there is not badness'. with few exceptions. Among these are such words as harukeku. 'to know ') and it is unusual to find other verb suffixes following these. and this is rare. We have. past oifukeru. Leaving aside the conjectural identity between the conjugation of verb and adjective. to blow') as in moshitsuraku (from moshitsuru. In view of the resemblance between these -ku forms in verb and adjective it has been suggested by some Japanese grammarians that the conjugation of verb and adjective was originally identical. &c. deign ') suffix to 2. and it is therefore not safe to assume that ku is a conjugational form. following the negative suffix we have only ki. &c. e.— — 148 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR is assume that waruku here like a substantive. Following the tense suffix nu we have only other tense suffixes. as in late ') ' tamaishiku (from tamaishi. in fukamaku (from fukamu. niki. g. past of tamau. neg. In other words. for kono sakana wa warakarazu instance. following: 1. the suffixes to which ku is added are. The negative zu {nu). as tsu. The tense suffixes ' mu.

it is probable that the ku in the normal adjective conjugation (e. and have forms harukeshi. as shown in the following examples : yo no naka no ukeku tsurakeku (M. The verb forms are not uniform.SUBSTANTIVAL FORMS ENDING IN -KU . It is not profitable to speculate which.) omoiide (K. waruku) is of the same origin as the ku in ashikeku.) kanashikeku . A point which requires explanation is the intervening vowel in ashikeku. and it is therefore reasonable to assume that it has here some independent significance. 149 which at first sight appear identical with ashikeku in formabut they are conjugable. The element ko in presumably the same. of which the stem contains the element ke. perhaps 'thing'. which means 'which place'. can hardly suppose that ku in these cases is a conjugaIt obviously follows a contracted conjugational form of the adjective. may therefore conjecture that the ku in such forms as iwaku and ashikeku is a vestige of an obsolete word signifying perhaps place. Seeking for analogies in other words we find the form idzuku. Dr. and similar forms. They appear only in the -ku form. is We ume no hana chiraku wa idzuku (M. . The remainder are not conjugable. this derivation explains the substantival character of the forms under discussion and though forms like harukeku must be distinguished from forms like ashikeku as explained above. Yamada ingeniously quotes koto.) the woefulness and bitterness of life yasukeku mo nashi (M. tion harukeki. suggests ashiki-aru-koto which seems a trifle far- where chiraku . In either case. They are adjectives. whatever its origin. g. but Mr. 'a thing'. suraku. there is no restfulness thinking of the grievousness We tional form. 'this place'. &c. . Aston.) whither have the plum blossoms scattered ? is taken to mean 'scatter-place'. however. where ku appears to follow the attributive form (shi) of the tense suffix ki. and the evidently cognate forms soko and koko = 'that place'. In the case of ashikeku one may assume an original ashiki-ku. . but after other suffixes there is an inter- . We have tamaishiku. fetched.

which we assume to represent aru +ku. &c. . where ku follows directly the attributive form of the tense suffix ki but the conjugation of this tense suffix is obscure. . . . The latter is not mentioned by Aston. for example : ist conjugation toru +a+ku toraku 2nd 3rd 4th Irregular verbs Compound conjugations +a +ku tsuguru +a +ku kouru +a +ku miru +a +ku aru +a +ku suru +a +ku kuru +a +ku fukamu +a +ku negau shiranu +a+ku moshitsuru +a +ku negawaku tsuguraku kouraku miraku araku suraku kuraku fukamaku shiranaku moshitsuraku omowashimuru +a + ku omowashimuraku The only form which will not fit into this scheme is that of the type tamaishiku. Without this clue it is hard to understand the uses of the 'adverbial' form of the adjective. we have. . kuraku. That this a is not part of the ordinary first conjugation base form is clear from the fact that it occurs in composition with verbs of other conjugations and with irregular verbs.150 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR a. araku. . The earliest texts (and all forms cited in this account are taken from the Nara period) contain suraku. as in iwaku. kouraku calated ranu . and probably composite. . . In other words. . The evidence is therefore fairly strong in favour of a development such as that suggested. toraku. as in fukamaku (fukamu ku) shiranaku (shiku) and where ku is suffixed to a verb in its simple conjugation this a also appears. (bigrade). though it is clearly useless to press conjecture any further and inquire whether there actually existed an ancestral form aru +ku. with most other verbs we get the termination raku. miraku. with verbs of the first or quadrigrade conjugation we have the termination aku. Taking attributive verb forms in each case. but it renders more plausible his derivation from aru +ku. The real interest of this form lies in the explanation which it furnishes of the compound adjectival conjugation of the model warukaru. and adding aku. particularly when it acts as a noun.

i5i DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONJUGATIONS The conjugations found in the texts of the Nara period are : .

be hardly any doubt that the whole bigrade conjugation is derivative.A.152 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR therefore. on the reasonable supposition that that language has preserved features of the ancestral language common to it and to archaic Japanese. and is obtained from the first. Further. has a special attributive form. 'Luchuan Language'. in fact. which in Japanese are of the first conjugation (e. tuyuru. In other words. including those like torn. from which the quadrigrade and bigrade derive. This conclusion is supported by the fact Chamberlain. The first conjugation has. . was identical with the first conjugation (quadrigrade) of the Nara and succeeding periods. Luchuan in Luchuan.g. while like the first conjugation in other respects. by agglutination. which by well-substantiated phonetic laws can be shown to = toruru). to discover whether the one original conjugation. (i) (2) the absence of a specialized attributive form ending in ru the imperfect form ending in a. we find among the irregular' verbs two which share features of the quadrigrade and the bigrade conjugations. It remains. . exist in Luchuan. ever possessed a specialized attributive form. or quadrigrade. T. although richer than Japanese in conjugational forms.J.S. in all verbs. There is only one verb conjugation (v. are all inflected alike. the first three conjugations were originally one. upon examining Japanese verbs for traces of a conjugation which. The attributive form does. from which the first three conjugations arise. These are ' : Pred. we might expect to find an attributive form in Luchuan. xxiii) that verbs. however. If the original conjugation. as its distinguishing features.

'uffix .

1 which are obtained from original (known or conjectured) first conjugation forms by agglutination of uru and aru respectively. instead of e. providing special transitive and intransitive forms. It remains to explain the Fourth Conjugation. We thus find such verbs as yukaru (yukaturu. Thus from todomu (which is used in the First Conjugation in the Nara period) we have todomaru to stay (intransitive) todomuru~\ . It seems likely that the variation from e to i is merely accidental. and is conjugated like uru. in the imperfect and conjunctive forms. That third conjugation verbs are derived earlier first conjugation forms is clear from such examples as ikiru and koriru. The difference between the Second and Third Conjugations cannot be explained with certainty. But the majority of verbs in the bigrade conjugations are specialized forms. in the second conjugation (u. It seems probable that such forms as osoruru (osoreru). There is also a large group of derived verbs. . wasururu (wasureru). are due to the influence of these specialized passive and similar forms. uru. which correspond to earlier verbs iku and koru in the first conjugation.. without any particular addition to its meaning. which is composed of a small number of verbs with monosyllabic roots e. from — : Pred. There is a curious and marked tendency in Japanese to accumulate suffixes at the end of a word. g. e). yukare. yukare) which is the passive verb derived from yuku..154 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR These are examples of a change of conjugation without any change of meaning or function. where verbs have moved from the First to the Second Conjugation without any change in meaning or function. The third differs from the second in having a terminal i. Such are all Passive Verbs. &c. instead of uru or aru.. . . x which are of the Second Conjugation. which are obtained by agglutinating the auxiliary verb uru (or eru) to the stem. based on grounds of euphony or perhaps due to the agglutination of the auxiliary iru. to stop r (transitive) v ' . > todomeru J .

we should have. judging from the stem mi. for instance. Predicative .DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONJUGATIONS 155 Aston suggests that these verbs owe their peculiarities to their shortness. miru were inflected according to the First Conjugation. If.

Its predicative form in Nara texts is apparently (w)ori. and we may therefore take its conjugation to have been identical with that of aru. The verb oru is generally considered to be a compound of (w)i (^§) and aru (though there is no special reason to suppose that it is a composite form). yukashimure. Imperfect Perfect ara are aru art Conjunctive and there not art. which seems to have been the predicative form another example. The forms of (w)iru itself are not clear. are themselves verbs. When it is desired to express these secondary aspects. — II. THE COMPOUND CONJUGATION It has been shown above that the forms of the Simple Conjugation of Verbs represent only primary ideas. 'to come' (ku. The corresponding Luchuan form Japanese. On account of their very shortness they doubtless tended to assume forms easily pronounced and distinguished. There is no explanation for the distinctive forms of kuru. which represents aru. which are attached to appropriate forms of the Simple Conjugation. This is best illustrated by a simple example. possessing as a rule all the forms of their own Simple Conjugation. of a first conjugation verb approximating to the fourth conjugation. e. use must be made of one or more of a group of suffixes. to judge from a few examples where the reading is fairly certain (^ Jgl). yukashime. but one cannot expect to find a uniform development in verbs with a monosyllabic stem. kure). ang. with certain exceptions which will be referred to later. yukashime. kuru. These suffixes. consistently with sense. ko. art The conjugation Predicative Attributive and remains. without reference to considerations of time or mode. further and . thus : yuka-shimuru = to cause to go this is a verb which has all the forms of the Simple Conjugation. in is no other example of a predicative is form ending in i. but in the Nara period we occassionally find u (= wu). yukashimuru. to which further suffixes of the same nature can be attached to express further variations of meaning. yukashimu. The suffix -shimuru attached to the Imperfect Form of verbs transforms them into Causative verbs. g.156 > HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR of aru was. perhaps. ki. to which.

as was the practice of the earlier grammarians. Thus. except that they are sometimes monosyllabic. 'to be burned'. wa. &c. by means of which is formed the Compound . This is attached to the conjunctive form. uru. Otsuki in treating the verbsuffixes as a special class of Auxiliary Verbs. It seems therefore mistaken to follow Dr. but the two latter verbs in such compositions cannot fairly be compared with such independent words as 'to be' or 'to get' or 'to have'. however. wo. becomes less. and are rather difficult to fit in among other parts of speech. To yukashimeraruru. They have nothing at all in common with words like ni. but there is naturally in practice a limit to the size of these structures. the number of suffixes which can be attached so as to make a coherent word. Therefore yukashime-raruru = to be caused to go and this verb can in its turn be conjugated yukashime-raruru. and is attached to the Imperfect can be attached. 'to do' or 'make') and may in that sense be regarded as auxiliary verbs. the verb suffix -ki (also declinable). to fix its tense by. is no doubt composed of yaku +aru +uru. and still further suffixes attached. &c. Much the simplest. as the meaning of the verb increases in complexity. Nor is it satisfactory to include them with the Teniwoha or Particles. yakaruru. but as specialized suffixes.COMPOUND CONJUGATION suffixes 157 For example. say. denoting past time. but must be closely attached to other verbs. and surely the most reasonable. ga. Theoretically it is possible to make even longer forms than this. yukashime-raru. it is still possible to make additions for instance. -raru is a suffix denoting the Passive Voice. suru. they differ from auxiliary verbs in other languages in that they cannot stand alone. Obviously. and we have — yukashimerareki = was caused to go. When they become too complex in meaning or too cumbrous in length. Though many of these suffixes are almost certainly themselves composed of one or more verbs (such as the verbs aru. : form. some other locution is substituted. 'to have' or 'get'. no longer falling within the definition of a word.-rare. 'to be'. method is not to regard them as integral parts of speech at all.

This is the method adopted here. as we understand them. while it is not explicit as to certain relations regarded as essential in English. it should be made clear though the compound conjugation of a Japanese verb serves to express relations roughly approximating to relations of time. and the suffixes are grouped according to their functions and not according to any conjectured identity of form. mood. more accurately yuku than Before these suffixes are described. voice. and described as a causative verb derived from the causative form of the verb yuku. It is capable of all the is activities of the verb yuku. is an entity. it does not express exactly those relations. for instance.158 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Conjugation of the verb. Further. that. It is important to remember that the words formed by the addition of verb suffixes are themselves complete verbs. is The form yukashimuru. can express other relations which are not precisely conveyed by any form of an English verb. SUFFIXES DENOTING VOICE OR ASPECT . the Compound Conjugation. I. &c. comparable in meaning only with to cause to go which ' ' composed of isolated parts.

Thus hito utaru a person ..) is not struck (Neg.. and other related aspects of the verb.) being struck (Conj.. . .) is struck (Perf. which will be described below. .) is The original form of these suffixes was probably different. The earliest literature contains almost exclusively forms compounded of -yu and -rayu (according as the Imperfect form to which they are attached ends The paradigm is as shown : in a or another vowel) Form I. utaruru hito hito utare hito utarezu hito koso utarure struck (Concl..) who is struck (Attrib. Imperfect in a i or e .. SUFFIXES DENOTING VOICE OR ASPECT These are the suffixes 159 used in Japanese to form a compound : conjugation denoting the passive voice.

The 'the mother has her child die'. while in English only passive. Thus. 'to have'. where the words had and got do not denote any activity on the part of the subject but are merely a means of expressing the passive aspect of the verbs 'strike' and 'steal'. 'to die'. &c. on the same lines as or he had his clothes stolen he got struck by lightning. taking an intransi- tive verb like shinu. 'to be'. by elision. we can construct a sentence haha ko ni shinaru meaning 'the mother suffers the death of the child'. (i) To form Passive Verbs. auxiliaries aru. No other assumption accounts so completely for the various uses of the verb forms in question. as will be seen from the following account of them. The Passive Voice in English may be regarded as a purely grammatical device for describing an action without mentioning the agent. in Japanese all verbs. Passive verbs in Japanese. perhaps. can have various additional significances.160 HISTORICAL JAPANESE is GRAMMAR in -yu are earlier not sufficient evidence to show whether the forms than those in -ru. while they can perform this function. without exception. 'to get'. to be derived. Thus in : uta-ruru tabe-raruru to be struck to be eaten we have an ordinary But. transitive verbs can be turned into the passive. from a hypothetical combination shin(u)-ar(u)-uru get die be (or shini-ari-uru) . nor is there any definite proof of the origin of either form. nearest rendering of this in English is. can form a compound conjugation with the suffixes -ru or -raru. But there can be little doubt that both are vestiges of a combination of the two There and uru. If we assume such forms as shinaru.

) kare wa hitsuzb no ran ni karerarete bki ni shitsubo shitari (Mod. it is denoted particle ni.) to ware zoku ni taikin wo nusumare-tari (Mod. in certain contexts : An yukaruru taberaruru miraruru can go can eat can see This is at first sight curious.) blossoms that had opened after having the snow fall on them they wished to cross the harbour of Ataka. but the bridgehadbeen pulled down and the river was deep I had a large sum stolen by robbers plum he was greatly disappointed by the withering chids of his or- An example where parallel is furnished atai the English and Japanese idioms are by such a sentence as if towareba sengohyaku to you ' are asked the price kwan (2) iraeyo (Uji) reply 1. Further. 1 by the 'accusative 33?> Y . extended. function of the passive forms is to express ability to perform an action.) Atoka no minato wo watasan suru ni hashi wo hikarete kawa fukashi (HK.500 kwan' To form Potential Verbs. and that this word is used in the same way as the auxiliary verb can in English. range of their meaning becomes easily compreFurther examples of this use are given below J : yuki ni furayete sakeru ume no hana (M. which is denoted It should by the instrumental particle' wo. That the use of e prefixed to the principal verb is not a borrowed Chinese idiom is pretty clear from its frequency in the medieval colloquial preserved in the Kyogen and in dialects. but it is not hard to understand when one remembers that the termination contains the verb uru (to get. It is curious that these forms are invariably negative.SUFFIXES DENOTING VOICE OR ASPECT the full 161 hensible. Thus. in classical modern Japanese we find such locutions 2 as e-iwazu miru wo ezu 1 cannot say cannot see be noticed that where the agent is named. it should be observed that in Japanese a passive verb can govern an object. obtain). or perhaps more accurately a parallel. Thus.

: momochidaruyaniwamomiyu kuni no ho mo miyu (K. under Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.) harobaro ni omoyuru Tsukushi I can but weep (lit. to be able to see to learn to be thought (See also e. and not the verb -am as well. . and it is probable that some if not all of the forms in -yuru contain that verb alone. for which I can but feel a longing if fude wo toreba mono kakaru (Tosa) you take up a pen you naturally write .).) The potential use occurs in the earliest writings.) a myriad abounding homesteads can be seen and the fullness of the land can be seen I imo wo omoi (M. occur occasionally in Nara period texts.) An interesting extension of the potential use is to be observed in such phrases as ne nomi shi nakayu (M. art emu (M. only cries no kuni wa (M. This assumption makes it easy to account for the existence of such pairs as miyuru miraruru oboyuru oboeraruru to be visible to be seen.) i mo nerayenu nerarezu cannot sleep for thinking of my love i uchitoketaru mo being unable to sleep an easy sleep (Mak. forms like ari uru (M.162 > while HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR many dialects preserve forms like yomi-eru for yomeru iki-eru . kiki-eru ikareru kikoeru Moreover.. 199. 'will be able to exist'. p. 'can exist'.. g.).) are cried) the land of Tsukushi. and is consistent with their different meanings. There can be hardly any doubt therefore that these 'Passive' forms derive their Potential meanings from the verb uru.

SUFFIXES DENOTING VOICE OR ASPECT the moonlight serves tsukikage wa shizen no tomomatsu wo harau kaze no oto koto no oto ni ayamataru (HK.)
shibi ni mochiirare,



lamp and the sound of the wind sweeping over the pine

might be mistaken for

the sound of a harp
It will be noticed that the above examples show various gradations in meaning, from 'can' to 'may' and 'must'. It is probable that such humble forms as zonzeraru (' I venture to think'), in the epistolary style, are of this category.


To form

Honorific Verbs.

An important feature of the passive forms is their frequent use in an honorific sense. This is usually explained as an extension of the 'potential' significance of these forms, it being thought more respectful to say that a superior person is able to do a thing if he chooses than that he actually condescends to do it. The usage is a well-established one, and is common in the modern language, both written and colloquial. E. g.

kikun wa kono sho wo yomaretaru ka ? B. kun wa Kyoto ni oraru

have you read
Mr. B.






The polite forms nasaru, 'to do', kudasaru, 'to condescend', irassharu, 'to be present' (=irase-raru), &c, also illustrate this honorific use. I have not come across any examples of the honorific use of forms in -ru, -ram in the Nara period, though causative forms in su (v. pp. 165 et seq.) were freely used in that way. From the Heian period onwards the forms in -ru, -raru appear frequently with an honorific sense, as in the following

iroiro ni kuro



he made




keri (Sandai)

many ways
he gave him a
suit of clothes

sdzoku hito kudari torase yorodzu no koto itawararu (Uji)

and cared ways





ano tachi nagerare sorae ya iikereba (HK.)


as he said Please to throw down that sword'



SUFFIXES FORMING CAUSATIVE VERBS -su, -sasu, and shimu In modern Japanese a causative verb can be formed from any other verb in its simple conjugation by adding to the
-sasu, or shimu.

Imperfect ('Negative Base') form one of the suffixes -su, Verbs thus formed are conjugated according to the following paradigm




ama-terasu o-mi-kami (K.)

(4) (5)

na tsumasu ko


yamada mamorasu ko

the Heaven-shining greataugust-Deity maiden plucking herbs maiden guarding the upland


sumegamitachi no yosashi

the harvest which the Sovereign Gods will bestow remember, my beloved because you smiled with the

matsuramu mitoshi (Res.) shinubase waga se (M.) (8) hanaemi ni emashishi kara ni (M.) no(9) Ame-no-oshio-mimi mikoto ame no ukihashi ni tatashite (K.) (10) asobashishi shishi (K.)

smile of a flower

Ame-noHis Augustness oshio-mimi standing on the
floating bridge of Heaven the wild boar which he was pleased (to shoot).

In all the above examples one can trace no causative meaning, but only an honorific sense, and that (e. g. in 2 and 3) is sometimes doubtful. 1 Judging by analogy with causative verbs formed from adjectives, such as katamuru, shiromuru, the causative element, even of shimuru itself, seems to reside in muru {mi uru, 'to get' ?) and not in -shi, which is no doubt a part of -suru. It is therefore possible that the verbs in -su had originally no causative meaning, but were merely slightly emphatic, so that na tsumasu ko would perhaps correspond to 'maiden who dost pluck herbs'. Sir E. Satow, on the other hand, considers that they are causative verbs by origin, first by extension used honorifically, and then by a common process of degradation losing both causative and honorific value. Either of these explanations is better than the device of many Japanese grammarians, who get over the difficulty by styling these forms 'lengthened words' (engen) and letting it go at that. Perhaps the existence of such a form as yosasu (v. Example 6) is evidence that su existed first as a causative termination, since it is formed from yosu, which is in its turn a causative (or more strictly a transitive 2 ) verb derived from yoru, to

1 In aga ko tobashitsu (M.), 'my child has flown', there can be neither honorific nor causative sense ; but this is a poem by Omi Okura, whose language though vivid is often curious. * See the section on Trans, and Intrans. Verbs, p. 199.



approach'. Further, it will be seen from the two following quotations (both from the songs in the Kojiki, which are the earliest available source) that a true causative and a quasihonorific form of the same verb can exist together

wa ga

keseru osuhi no suso

the skirt of the robe which

hito ni ariseba tachi

hake maski wo, kinu kise-mashi wo

am wearing thou wert a man, Oh I would gird a sword on thee,



would clothe thee

with garments

Here we have, formed from kiru, 'to wear', the two forms ki-suru and ke-su. It will be noticed that, with the exception of the two last forms, all the verbs in -su quoted above are formed from verbs with Base ending in -a, and that their conjugation is
in several cases -su, (su), -sa, (shi), -se (?), thus differing from the paradigm (su, suru, se, se, sure) given above for

the true causative suffix. There are however some further exceptions which are formed from verbs with base not ending in -a. These are of interest in that they show the origin of certain ancient words which exist unchanged in the modern language. In the Nara period we find, in addition to kesu,




... ... ... ... ...
, . . .



formed from nuru, to sleep suru, to do ,, ,,
,, ,,

miru, to see

The words
kikosu shirosu orosu

from omou, to think


kiku, to hear shiru, to know
oru, to



are also found, either alone or combined with mesu, as in omoshimesu (oboshimesu) kikoshimesu, shiroshimesu. Other archaic forms of similar derivation are

torashi, 1

hakashi, a sword, from haku, to gird on toru, to pull, take a bow, ,, kiru, to wear mikeshi, clothing, ,,


The word



which originally meant 'harvest',





to do



derived from an obsolete verb nu, to be.

The usage is so irregular that I do not think it is safe to draw any inference from the existence of the two conjugathe Heian period the termination su (su), only in a few words such as mesu and asobasu. At the same time, the suffix shimu, which, whatever the original meaning of su may have been, was an undoubted causative in the Nara period, now became infrequent, and when used generally had an honorific value. The place of both su (sa, shi, se) the honorific and -shimu the causative was taken by -su and -sasu conjugated as shown in the paradigm at the head of
tions of -su.
sa, shi, se



fallen into disuse, surviving

this section.
of the earliest use of

Before illustrating this later use, the following examples -shimu " should be quoted

sakayeshime tamae (Rituals)







Mikado to tatete amenoshita wo osame shimemu to omoite

thinking to set

him up as Emperor and make him rule over the Land

In the Heian period -shimu loses its purely causative and has almost invariably an honorific value. Thus

mifune sumiyaka ni shime tamae (Tosa)


pray row out the boat
His Majesty, greatly frightened,


oki ni odorokase tamaite kanzeshime-kikoshimesu koto kagiri nashi (Uji)

was moved beyond


haps a form of toru, to take ', the words (tosu) and torasu forming a pair like yosu and yosasu from yoru. The forms in shime are sometimes found written phonetically, e S- $c. Jfl itX J& sakayeshime but the termination is most 2fc


fy $|r sakayeshime, which shows clearly that there is a full causative sense. The forms in su are more frequently written phonetically, but the suffix is also found represented by 0f, thus yosasu appears as $c ^r an d al so as fflf is?* The difference between the force of &• and Jjjf respectively is obvious.
often represented
e. g.

by the character





In the

HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Kamakura period, however, shimuru reverts



original use as a causative. In works like the Heike Monogatari, for instance, it is very rare to find it with an honorific



uta wo narawashimu shukuun no shikarashimuru

he made him learn poetry.

what predestination causes
to take place

shika -\-arashimu-

ru, caus. of aru)


sotto ni kaburashimu, kntoku soto ni arawaru (caus. of kaburu)

he poured his blessings on distant lands and his virtue was spread abroad

Returning now to su-ru, sasu-ru, we find it in the Heian period firmly established as a suffix of which the sense is primarily causative. Thus

me no ouna

ni adzukete yashi-

he gave


(the child) to his

nawasu (Take.) hito domo idashi motomesasuredo usenikeri (Mak.)

wife to bring up they sent people
search, but



had vanished

-suru, -se, -sure,

as stated above, of the model -su, not so constant as the grammarians pretend, and there are many exceptions in the classical period.

As a rule the conjugationis
it is

Such forms,

for instance, are

found as

narawashi-taru cause to learn niowashi-te ('cause to smell') fukasa.-nu (' cause to blow ') narawasa.-mu (' cause to learn ') sesasu mono (' cause to do ')
sa, shi, se (sa, 4-grade).



in shi, not se


,, ,, ,, ,,

se se



,, ,,





which belong to a complete conjugation

of the


su, su,

It is difficult to reconcile the two, but it seems probable that the earliest * forms are those in su, su, sa, shi, se, and that these were gradually assimilated to forms of the Lower Bigrade Conjugation. There is no reason to expect rigidity in these matters and the change from quadrigrade to lower bigrade is very common, as the following list will show.


and kayowase, but
grade conj

It is true that in the Kojiki songs quoted above we have tatashi in the other cases the forms are all regular quadri-

Nara Period


because a number of idiomatic usages are due to the desire to express one of them precisely. The fact that some verbs take -suru only. if any. 'let'. for the simple reason that ordinary people cannot be expected to obey rules discovered for them long after their death by extraordinary so that we need not be put out people like grammarians by such irregularities as the existence side by side of two types of conjugations for one suffix. and later Once we have two sets of forms. directly causing an action indirectly causing an action participating in an action permitting an action It is important to realize this wide range of meanings. — rather than yukasasuru.170 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The analogy revealed by this table is fairly convincing. Thus in We : uma wo hashirasuru kane wo utashimuru ko wo nakasuru midzu wo nomasuru koto wo shirasuru to make a horse run to have a gong struck to make a child cry to give (someone) water to drink to let (a person) know something i. between 1 1 It may be worth noting here that. which gradually by usage became a verbal suffix. and if it is correct we may assume that -sasu was first of all an independent verb. It was a striking demonstration of the advantages of an analytic language. may conclude the discussion of causative verbs by an account of their various meanings In the first place. it is natural of the 2nd. &c. instead of -sasuru. e. there are obvious differences in meaning. we have various gradations of meaning. to expect confusion at a later period. yukasuru . It is here. that the distinction. until it dawned upon me that the writers were trying to reach by analysis distinctions which in English are explicit in the words 'make'. on reading the works of Japanese grammarians. I found myself unable to follow their elaborate abstract discussions of the Causative and an intricate classification. is no doubt due to avoidance of duplication of the a sound thus. 'cause'. first of the 4th grade conjugation. dependent on context or on the sense of the verb from which the causative is formed. for instance. .

because there is no object of the action caused. is Here there no ambiguity.SUFFIXES FORMING CAUSATIVE VERBS 171 -suru and -shimuru is to be sought. With transitive verbs. some difficulties arise. and ko wo nakashimuru to make a child cry'. but only an object of the causation. . because it is at the same time the object of the act of causation. E. It therefore becomes necessary as a rule to distinguish either the agent. : Ko wa Otsu ni Hei wo utasu hito ni uta wo utawasuru e. or the object. such as utasuru. of the action which is caused. so to speak. Taking. mentioned. but not the agent of the action caused. : chichi ko wo shite gakko ni irashimu 1 the father causes his son to enter school make'. g. the particle ni denotes the agent. g. particularly where the action is. and (just as in the case of passive verbs) is not explicit or implicit as to subject or object. Shimuru is generally used instead of -suru in the case of direct causatives. In the case of intransitive verbs this is simple. Thus uma wo hashirasuru can only mean 'to make a horse run'. 'cause'. only one of the possible meanings. 1 The accusative particle wo is here sufficient to designate the agent of the action which is caused. causes Otsu to strike Hei to cause people to sing songs Ko Sometimes. hito Thus : wo utawashimuru is to cause a person to sing Similarly where the object of the action caused. a periphrasis is adopted. the particle wo denotes the object. g. for greater precision or emphasis. represents only the general idea 'to cause beating'. for simplicity. e. or both. forced upon the agent. Extreme examples would be : ko wo nemurasu ko wo nemurashimu to put a child to sleep to force a child to sleep Again a causative verb standing alone. First we have the case where only the agent of the action caused is ' mentioned. &c. 'to 'let'. uta wo utawashimuru to cause songs to be sung When it is necessary to mention both agent and object of the action caused.

) commit suicide quietly Kisaki wo emasetatematsuraraw tote (HK. torase-. and miyadzukasa meshite kudamono sakana raesasu (Mak.) tsukai summoned ni roku torasesase- tamau (Here causative.) Genta ni ikitsukasete Y orikane mo hiza no fushi wo isasete hara kaki kirite usenikeri in order to jesty smile make Her Ma- letting Genta get his breath Yorikane too. and attention is called to the English renderings.) shidzuka ni jigai sesaseyo to zo moshikeru me not hear thy voice he gave money to Okei they said Allow us ' : to ' (HK.) ware ni eshimeshi yamatsuta (M. disembowelled himself and perished honorific use of causative forms is The now practically obsolete.172 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Yoritomo Yoshitsune wo shite Yoritomo caused Yoshitsune Yoshinaka wo semeshimu to attack Yoshinaka the Court summoned Yoshi- Chotei Yoshisada wo meshite Kybto ni kaerashimu (kaerashimu = to cause to return) sada back to Kyoto Further examples of causative uses are appended. except of course in stereotyped phrases survived in the modern language . but in the which have Heian and Kamakura Thus : periods su was freely used in an honorific sense. having had his knee-joint shot through. which are designed to show how many locutions are represented in Japanese by this one form. attendants.) (e-shimuru. to cause to in the mountain village I do not wish to keep people from coming but visitors grow rare the mountain ivy which you gave to let me have =to give) ware ni koe na kikase so (Kokin. yamasato wa hito kosaseji to omowanedo towaruru koto zo utokunariyuku (ShinKokin.) Okei ni kane wo torasu (Take.) partook of fruit and fish he condescended to give the messengers a reward to a true we have sase with an honorific value attached .

e. yuko) can be translated both 'he will go' and 'he Similarly will probably go'. thus araseraruru =aru +su +raruru. kudasaruru. Another method of reinforcing the honorific is by adding the passive form.) lose all or mind at The tendency is always for these honorific terminations to most of their honorific value.SUFFIXES FORMING CAUSATIVE VERBS Fukuhara wo toki 173 tatase tamaishi when he departed from Fukuhara deigning to set your rest for a while (HK. III. the suffix mu is generally described as a future suffix. historically at any rate. Other forms. from the Heike Monogatari the in the last two examples and this causative is followed by a purely honorific verb — — : is true of all cases where. Thus. oseraruru. but it is interesting to note in a general way the lack of precision which characterizes Japanese verbs in this respect. but yukamu (yukan. in that work. SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE. The common verb nasaru. are confined to writing or stilted speech. g. ossharu. a causative form is used as an honorific. affirmative suffixes and that they are only incidentally tense suffixes. the suffixes tsu and nu are usually described as forming a past tense but it would be more accurate to say that they are. and we constantly It will be noticed that find them reinforced in some way. meaning simply 'to be' : and a number of these duplicated forms survive. or similar aspects of the Verb In considering these suffixes it is important to notice that they do not serve to define such relatively precise timerelations as can be expressed in English. is another example of survival.) shibaraku on kokoro wo shidzumes&se owashi-mashite (HK. such as asobasaruru. and even 'he probably goes'. The fact that the so-called tense forms originally expressed degrees of certainty rather than stages . which in modern colloquial have become irassharu. . 'to say'. of which the imperative form nasai (nasare) is so familiar. iraseraruru. from iru /g 'to be present'. These distinctions are best brought out in treating of the suffixes separately.

&c.: 174 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR of time will. However. I believe. it is but a short step to asserting the definite completion of an action. Past C.) mo arazu waga koi wa nagusame kanetsu (M. thence developing a significance of past time. be found by comparative philologists to have some bearing upon the affiliations of Japanese.) nao shi negaitsu inochi chitose no wo (M. Affirmative Suffixes. TSU and TARI. For convenience the tense suffixes may be grouped as follows A. : : tsu and tari nu Tense Suffixes Future Tense Suffixes ki mu and keri and meri beshi A. yukiteyo J j Conjunctive Imperfect (Neg. primary significance is but it an affirmative one. Base) Perfect ' tsure te | Imperative The meaning clear that its signifies of this suffix is not easy to explain. plus tsu tsuru te te Examples yukitsu ~\ yukitsuru Suffixes added to yukite yuki. conjunctive \_ yukite f form of yuku. where it asserts the definite performance of an action or the definite existence of a state or property. Affirmative Suffixes B. The paradigm of tsu Form is as follows : Predicative Attributive Conjunctive of Simple Conjn. from the affirmative use.) kimi ga mifune no tsuna shi toriteba (M.) indeed not in accordance with reason my desire cannot be appeased I still do pray for a thousand years of life if only I had hold of the rope of thy boat would that I could be the sword that thou wearest and be girt around thee it is . is It that the action or state described by the verb is and complete. and it may almost be regarded as complementary to the negative suffix. 1. The following examples illustrate the earliest uses of tsu definite : kotowari no goto aritsu (Res.) na ga hakeru tachi ni narite mo iwaite shi ga mo (M. to yukitsure go'.

too. so that having bloomed is more likely to be a correct translation than 'blooming'. The distinction is so fine. but there can be no doubt that it is simply the conjunctive form of a verbal suffix which has assumed special importance. te is not intrinsically a past suffix. Japanese grammarians have been inclined to regard te as an independent particle (as can be seen from its inclusion in the phrase Te-ni-wo-ha). which has survived and developed in so important a manner that it requires separate treatment. that to give a decided past significance a special locution is often used. sing' flowers or flowers having birds sing'. &c. g. In ordinary modern prose the suffix tsu is almost obsolete in all but the conjunctive form te. bloomed. we have of the sakite tori naku which ' may mean either birds ' blooming. In the simple conjugation of verbs. . The suffix TE. tekeri. making such forms as teshi. in accordance with the definition given above. ' : kono ko wo mitsukete nochi (Take. however. Thus examples : June wo kaeshitsu beshi you will upset the boat Here the force of tsu is solely emphatic or affirmative. In the later language. Its uses can all be explained as conjunctive uses.) After having found this child In early and medieval writings te is combined freely with other suffixes. we have such uses as hana saki tori naku flowers bloom and birds sing tsu in its Making use hana compound conjugation with conjunctive form. has rather a participial use but by contrast with the conjunctive form of the simple conjugation it may be regarded as indicating a past tense. teki. the Conjunctive Form of TSU. it is not unusual to find this suffix where there is actually a future meaning. Here again we see that It . E.' SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE It is 175 evident that any past significance in the foregoing is purely secondary and derives from the context.

while the form hikaritari itself is (v. which might be rendered 'having crossed over'. but it is not exclusively either a past or a present participle. by which tsuki. The honcho following passage illustrates e e te in three different uses : watarite shinobite noborikeru ga Settsu no kuni Imadzu ni tsukite sdro (HK. in such forms as mizute. The tense depends on the context. and the Imperative form teyo is found. or was.) Kyo crossing over to this country he secretly went up to the Capital and he has arrived at Imadzu in the province of Settsu we have In watarite.) Kasuga no kuni ni kuwashime wo ari to kikite itado wo oshi hiraki ware . a perfect tense. Typical examples of the earliest uses of are : na okite tsuma wa nashi (K. tari. below) an elision of hikarite-ari =is. there is an undoubted present participle. in the sentence ayashigarite yorite miru ni tsutsu no naka hikaritari (Take.is brought into relation with an auxiliary verb (viz.176 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR These are not found in ordinary modern prose. .) astonished he went up and looked and (saw that) the inside of the stem was shining ' the words ayashigarite and yorite might be translated being astonished' and 'approaching'. Thus.) apart from thee (lit. with the conjunctive form of the negative suffix zu. In tsukite we have a conjunctive use. shining.) tell me your name te where there can be no question of tense. So far as I know there is no other declinable verb suffix which thus follows zu. This fact. There are also forms such as teba. . In shinobite. 'putting thee aside ') I have no mate hearing that in the land of Kasuga there was a lovely maid I pushed open her door and entered Here we have a form which serves a purpose analogous to that of a participle in English. 'hiding himself. which contain the negative base te. and . sdro). irimashi (K. as in na norashite-yo (M. omowazute. temu. A very curious use of te is found in the Nara period. tenu.

as in yukite—' going'..: SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE 177 the freedom with which te combines with adjectives. (5) Combined with the auxiliary verb ari it forms tari {—te art). tsuite. or 'having gone'. viz. it must be remembered that shi being a causative suffix with seri zari keri meri = = = = shi +ari zu +ari ki +ari ? mu +ari zu being a negative suffix ki being a tense suffix mu being a future tense suffix is and its conjugation. form. which may be regarded as a compound tense suffix.. it is In considering this parallel an independent tense suffix. taru tari that of the verb ari. In the Heian period a number of these forms occur which have since become obsolete. tara tare 3*7° yukitaramu yukitareba „ A a . (5) TARI. sate. The various uses as follows : of te may be conveniently summarized (1) Suffixed to verbs. it can form a participle.v. which are now stereotyped. sometimes used as an alternative to zu. subete. (4) Combined with particles it forms the specialized words tote and nite (q. under Particles).. . e. It is possible that ikade is one of these forms and =ika-te. The last-named use so frequent as to constitute of the suffix te soon became tari. The combination zu-te doubtless gave rise to the negative form de. as in yukade for yukazu. bekute. like theirs. g. such as kanete. (2) Suffixed to adjectives in their adverbial forms it enables the adjectives to be used in a participial construction. as in omoshirokute warukutemo takashi being amusing though bad. tari as in yukitari . and even nadote (=how. yukitaru hito yukitarishi . it is dear (3) Suffixed to verbs or adjectives it has formed many adverbial phrases. motte. gotokute. seem to show that te had already in the Nara period an independent character. or why).

) Yoritomo wa moto wa futoritarishi ga kono koto wo anzuru hodo ni yasetaru zo (HK..' 178 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The meaning of tari in any given context depends upon the meaning of the verb ari. but nokotte nokotta nokotte aru (5) = = = (6) nokorite nokorita nokorite aru = = nokoritari nokoritari while sentences and become respectively Okyo no e ga kakete aru rakkwa ga chi ni chirishiite aru toko ni Although in the foregoing account of the suffix tsu and . .) chi ni chirishiki- mains Yoritomo was formerly fat. not tense. the difference in translation ('-ed' for '-ing') represents a difference in voice. .) blossoms are scattered over the ground It is curious to note that in the modern colloquial these forms are sometimes resolved into their original elements. .) (3) (4) (5) Hitomaro nakunaritaredo uta no koto todomareru ka na (Kokin. fallen tari (Mod. (6) rakkwa kaketari (Mod. and to that extent may be regarded as forming a perfect tense. (nokorite) —there — ' ! : (1) kimi koso wa wasuretarurarne you no doubt will have for- (2) Yasumiko etari (M. keep it shut up The following further examples will serve to make clear the meaning of tari. e. . Thus we have Coll. In such a phrase as nokoritaru yuki. areru intransitive. the snow which is (aru) remaining ' is no question of time. Pref. Perhaps the best proof that tari does not of itself constitute a past tense is the fact that in early writings its imperative form is found thus. It can as a rule be taken to mean the persistence (aru) of an act or state which has been completed (te). gotten I have got Yasumiko though Hitomaro has passed away the art of Poetry re- . torikomete okitare. the remaining snow' i. nokoru being transitive. Similarly in aretaru yado. but through anxiety about this matter he has grown thin in the alcove there hangs a picture by Okyo . 'a deserted home'.) toko ni Okyo no e wo .

. and I do not think one can safely say much else than that tsu is There is of tsu and nu. which might be styled a preterite suffix. NU. < . added Form Predicative Substantival which are Conjunctive form of Simple Conjugation to Examples yukinu yukinuru yukxmshi \ Conjunctive Imperfect (Neg. where the suffix shi is added to give a true past sense (futoritarishi =was fat). 2. and yasetaru. conjunctive * . and the tendency in modern prose is to use tari for the past tense. Base) Perfect Suffixes . shi. &c.) to wa what do you mean by saying the cat has come ? where mairita. since it contains the two forms tarishi. yukmaba J *. But. There does not seem to be any good evidence to show how the change in meaning developed. The paradigm is : Suffixes. form of yuku. being quite distinct from the suffix ki. though tari may be considered to represent a perfect. which can be literally translated 'is (aru) grown thin (yasete) '. but certainly maitta in modern colloquial means 'came' as well as 'has come'. SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE its 179 conjugational forms I have emphasized the fact that it is not primarily a tense suffix. it will be seen that the combination with art to form tari does to some extent correspond with a perfect tense. The two suffixes seem to have been used indifferently. in what is evidently a reported colloquial sentence. to ' Imperative ° yukinure yukine ) a variety of opinion as to the respective meanings distinctions drawn are very fine and not entirely convincing.• v y I yukx. even in the earliest known practice. ' . stands for mairitari. • added . Yet it is tari which has given rise to ta. The beginnings of the process can no doubt be seen in such sentences as : neko dono no mairita nanigoto zo (HK. but the . Example (3) above illustrates this point well. the modern colloquial preterite. it certainly did not function as a preterite..

i8o HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR rather more emphatic than nu. Like tsu. &c. however. but the grounds for their conjecture are slight. perhaps even more certainly than tsu. in (3) and a present tense. but it will probably be agreed by any one studying early Japanese texts especially such narIn (1) (4) ' ' ' ' ' ' . is partly accounted for by the fact ficance. na. for instance.) the moon is waning although the body is buried. — . of course. we have an imperative. . The argument is not easily illustrated by examples separated from their context. In modern colloquial Japanese. This sense is best perceived in such examples as the fol- lowing (i) (2) (3) (4) : na norasane (M.) machi koinuramu (M. vestiges of an obsolete verb nu = 'to be'. to eat up '.) do he tell me your name ! will wait and yearn tsuki wa henitsutsu (M. I think. that it is an easy transition from regarding an act as positively performed to regarding it as completely performed but the principal reason seems to be that in its early stages Japanese has no special apparatus for expressing distinctions of time.) mi wa hai to tomo ni udzu- morinuredo (Res. Its force can sometimes be shown by using such phrases as 'to finish off'. in (2) a future. It may be so. It is. There is just as good reason for supposing that we have in nu and its forms ni. forms in nu are represented by the word shimau ('to finish') so that. kienu becomes kiete shimau = fade away'. There can be no question of any past time significance. The meanings of nu in composition tend to bear out this supposition. and this becomes a secondary function of forms primarily used for other purposes In translation into English. where the words off and up have an emphatic value. nu tends to acquire an incidental tense signiThis. &c. such distinctions cannot be avoided but it must not therefore be assumed that they are explicit in the original. It is hardly possible to give in translation the exact value of nu under such conditions. Nu is identified by Japanese grammarians with inu ('to go away'). not primarily a tense suffix but merely one which definitely asserts the performance of an act or the existence of a state. One authority states that tsu describes subjectively and nu objectively. .

). After he had found the child. 'how'. The fact is that. Kakute okina yoyo yutaka ni nariyuku (Take. which is part of a narrative commencing 'once upon a time'. J ° appear to correspond to gradations in the consciousness of the speaker. there is any difference in tense. which seem to represent an ascending scale of certainty. It must be distinguished from the adverb nan. dating from a time when nu was an independent verb. the suffix under discussion. Ito osanakereba ko ni irete yashinau. -nu.' SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE 181 rative pieces as the Taketori Monogatari and the Tosa Niki that distinctions of time were not uppermost in the writers' — minds. which is a contraction of nani. tsuki katabukinu (M. or 'what'. Japanese verbs are neutral as to tense. uchi ni mono ouna ni . degrees of certainty in his mind as to the completion of the act described by the verb. He took her in his hands and brought her home. .) . and koso (q. Me . zo. . yashinawasu. On the other hand. their variations in form do appear to express degrees of emphasis. As she was very tiny they put her in a basket to bring her up. The forms yukamu probably goes it yuku yukinu \ yukitsu goes . in the early language at least. Nan ( namu) is probably the future (probability) form of nu. It merely adds to terminology. as between the verbs kinu. he found bamboos containing gold time after time. There is a significant parallel in the frequent use of emphatic particles like nan. kasanarinu. He gave her to his wife to bring up. and nariyuku.v. as irete Te ni uchi chite kinu. The following examples show characteristic uses of dif- = ' ferent forms of (i) nu : Predicative. for example. cannot be said that. The use of a term like 'historical present' does not remove the difficulty. and so the old man soon grew rich. adzukete yashinawasu. Kono ko wo mitsukete nochi kogane aru take wo mitsukuru koto kasanarinu. In such a passage.) the moon has gone down . .

narinite arazu ya (M. g. It is even. B. KI and KERI.) (4) you ascend extent this ridge the full of the is Three clearly Thousand Worlds visible to the eye Imperfect. henitsutsu the moon is waning Like the conjunctive form ni occurs with other conjuga- tional suffixes in such combinations as -nishi. -na. kono mine wo noborinureba san zen sekai no kokyo me no mae ni akiraka nari (HK. the flowers which did not bloom are blooming.) kokoro wo hana ni nasaba narinamu (5) should you cross and dwell over the hills if you make the heart a flower it will become a flower Conjunctive. in the earliest writings. tsuki wa te. -nuru.) (3) Heaven if Perfect. in such forms as narinite (e. sakazarishi hana mo sakerethe birds which did not sing 182 do (M. . Its paradigm is : . used to denote a past tense.)) and narinitari. koete yama imashinaba (M. -nikeri. hisakata no ame shirashinuru (2) my Lord who doth rule in kimi (M. Attributive. The is suffix ki. but . -niki.) have come and are singing.. -ni. Past Tense Suffixes. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR fuyukomori haru sarikureba now that Spring has escaped nakazarishi tori mo kinakinu from the clutches of Winter. found combined with te itself. -nure. attached to the conjunctive form of verbs.

) hito ni ariseba (K. furiniki. he ruled the ante no shita shirashimeshiki : Kingdom-under- (M. and the verb suru are cognate. while it does freely occur with the suffix but there shi in its other forms.) nube no yamabuki tare ka when they met face to face from the day when I heard the Minister Fujihara who taorishi (M.) kikiteshi hi yori (M. since uketamaubeki mono nariseba (Res.) okitsukaze itaku fukiseba (M.) It okazu furiniseba since the skies poured with- out ceasing might be suggested that this is a form of the verb sum. (5) ke. .) tsukaematsurimashishi Fujiham no bkimi (Res. furinishi. In the Nara period the following forms are found : (1) ki in predicative uses. : kogidenishi (M. for there is no other example of ni (conjunctive form of nu) in combination with a verb. g. ki and shi.) was e.SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE It will 183 be seen that the conjugation is incomplete.) it was a thing to be received as he is a man since the sea breeze blew hard amama mo (M. suffix shi e.) (3) they rowed out shi in attributive uses.) who plucked the moor ? did serve (the Emperor) the kerria on (4) se as an Imperfect form. e. g. ai mishi toki (M. g.g. and it is apparently composite. 1 apparently as an Imperfect or Negative Base never actually is It followed by the negative suffix. wa gafutari neshi (K. Moreis no positive ground for such a suggestion. There is obviously every reason to believe that we have here vestiges of the conjugations of two distinct suffixes. : it seen in a dream slept together ? (2) shi in predicative uses. particularly with suru. but that Possibly the is a matter J of conjecture.) Heaven he has ascended to Heaven yume kumogakureniki (M. the existence of such forms as furiniseba is strong argument against it. over.) we two e.) ni miyeki ya (M.

shika. and it is probable that the common form kemu is a combination of this form with mu the future. keramu. .) when they said he had come when we went to the hills though we said. (v.) shirizoketamae to mbshishika- domo (Res. kishi .). kemashi. has no parallel in other perfect forms as recorded. kemu. by analogy with such pairs as yokaramu and yokemu. Arguments for this. keramashi. as contractions of keraba ( = ki +araba). &c. called Naniwa The alternative is to regard keba. it seems. spoken dialects. cases of perfect forms ending : Examples of the use of shika occur in the earliest writings kitareri to iishikaba (M.). It seems to belong to the shi series. may therefore conjecture that the composite conjugation shown above can be resolved into two original groups.) tsukaematsuru yakko to omohoshite koso kabane mo tamaite osame tamaishika (Res. E. suffix. kayoikemashi (M. in the Nara period in such combinations as makazukeba (N.) There is no direct evidence to show the origin of these two suffixes ki and shi but it is interesting to note that the verb kuru makes predicative forms with shi (viz. yokaramashi does not become yokemashi. Even in verse. : inishie ni arikemu hito mukashi koso Naniwa rekeme to iwa- people who no doubt lived in ancient times of old it was. ka. g. under KERI). below. occurs. as follows Predicative KI Attributive KI We : Conjunctive Imperfect or Negative Base ' ' ? The Perfect form. There are. ' ' in existing in ka. are not convincing.184 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR form. though rarely. &c.) yama ni yukishikaba (M. however. is curious. Pray withdraw because We thought him Our servant We bestowed a title upon him ! (The last example shows shika standing alone as a perfect after koso. but its terminal syllable.

and shika are given below.) mukashi Karu Daijin to mosu hito ariki (HK. one assumes be formed from a conjunctive like tari. and shi and suru perhaps constitute a similar pair. kuimono to shiki (Take.) shinobite kokoromin to omoishikadomo Kiyomori chakunan narishikaba sono ato wo tsugu (HK. Later examples of the use of ki. and keri seems frequently to be used in an exclamatory sense. we fed on the roots of herbs long ago there was a man called shi. they who sang since them (3) are no more Imperfect form. The form ke is not found after the Nara period.) mo the morn when we parted though they (the trees) have blossomed. while the verb sum makes 185 the predicative form shiki. unless compound suffix keri to form ki and the verb ari. The meaning of ki seems to indicate that it may have a common origin with the verb kuru.) (2) our provisions exhausted. if this had been a world withItsuwari no naki yo nariseba out falsehood (Kokin. se. 3*7<> B b . (4) The Perfect form. SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE but not with ki. se. so indeed he thought though he thought of trying it kaku koso omoishika (Ise. But there is often very little difference between the two. te being KERI has the meaning of its component parts. Karu Daijin The Attributive form. which is te +ari. no ne wo ki. without any significance of time.) This form may be regarded as obsolete. while ki alone forms a preterite. the conjunctive of tsu. ki and art.) sakitaredomo eizeshi hito ima wa nashi (HK. (1) kate tsukite kusa The Predicative form. and may be regarded as forming a perfect tense.and koshi). as he was a legitimate son no trace of a conjunctive form.) There the is secretly Kiyomori succeeded. wakareshi asa yori (Kokin. shika.

as follows .186 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR is : In the Nara period. an almost complete conjugation found.

but it does at least show that the Japanese way of classifying time-relations is peculiar. is MU : and MERI.) ko no ma yori a ga furu sode wo imo mitsuramu thou no doubt hast a wife I (2) see wonder. and ki expresses a retrospect. &c. but more accurate to say that it denotes probability. mashi.) tsukureru ie ni chiyo made ni imasamu kimi to are mo kayowamu (M.SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE 187 the present. Base Perfect Suffixes added L to Imperfect yukamaji. In (3) and (4) it expresses desire or intention. 'to see'. did my sweetheart between the trees my ka (M. It may be inferred from this wide range of meaning that mu is cognate with miru. ' MU added ' to Forms Predicative Attributive Imperfect form of Simple Conjugation Examples mu mu ma (Conjectural) yukamu yukamu ") Conjunctive Imperfect or Neg. In any case. Do hirakase (M. and contains the idea of 'to seem'. of recollecting the past and expressing a judgement of the present. f form of yuku. it is clear that one cannot properly . 'to go' — | | yukame its J Early examples of (1) . Future Tense Suffixes. I shall meet with thee It will be seen that this form expresses in (1) conjecture as to the present. it is usually described as forming a future tense. It is a case of looking at the result and thinking of the cause. use are nushi koso tsuma motaserame (K.) (4) thou open this door shall I I (5) mukae ka yukamu machi ni ka matamu (K. and in (2) as to the past. . This may not mean a great deal. C.) go to meet him. and in (5) imasamu may be regarded as a future.) (3) trite sleeve waved in farewell a ga nemu kono to I will enter and sleep. The conjugational forms are Suffixes. shall wait and wait ? in the house thou hast built where thou wilt dwell for a thousand years. .

the kana V being used. turns round seven times. and art. There is no evidence that it was in use in the Nara period. I suspect it is a purely literary form. mere yukumere It is doubtless a compound of mu. Its origin is not clear. but as a rule it has no translateable value. It conveys sometimes the meaning 'seems to be'. as beshi. yukumeru yukumerishi Conjunctive Imperfect Perfect . . by elision of the m sound. which has broadly speaking the same range of meaning as the earliest forms.188 define HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR as a future suffix. The modern colloquial 'future' is derived from this suffix. which has in Japanese a nasal character. and then drops it out Tatsutagawa momiji midarete nagarumeri down the River Tatsuta the autumn leaves float helterskelter komayaka ni kakitamaumeri he writes in fine characters . and it is hard to discern in it any specialized function. Or. but it is very common in the literature of the Heian period. be. MERI has an incomplete conjugation on the model of : art. In modern writing yukan is put for the future. analogous in formation with keri. The following examples show its use : ko wo o umamu sasagete to suru toki tabi wa when about its to give birth to wo nana ma- warite nan umiotosumeru young it lifts up its tail. Naturally the idea of future time is often implicit. mu The process (in is : yukamu yukan yukau yukd which the u is barely pronounced) (nasal) This last is the modern colloquial form. ranging from doubt to probability. it may contain the same element.. alternatively. as follows Predicative Attributive meri as in yukumeri meru meri . Its primary function is to denote conjecture. the future suffix..

I wonder. medzurashii. : ame fururashiku omowaru kodomo ga kaettarashii kodomorashii hito it it seems as looks as if it would rain if the children had come back a childish person The form subsists in a number of adjectives such as baka- rashii. goes my lover ? the maidens who doubtless are boating in another place there is. These forms have already been discussed under the heading of Auxiliary Adjectives. consistent. 'strange'. map. as well as in the modern colloquial.) (M.) funanori suramu otomera (M. but In the later literature. similar to that of the termination — where ' it has a value ' ish in English.) kototokoro ni iu hito zo Kaguyahime to owasuramu (Take. BESHI and MAJI. Examples of the use of RASHI are : kari wa komurashi (K. Thus The form not later. which indicate probability or conjecture. a person called the Night Shining Princess of aru There can be little doubt that ramu is compounded and the future suffix mu. as compared with beshi.) it looks as if the geese are falling yo wa fukenurashi coming night seems to be rashiki (Perfect) is found in the Nara period.) whither.SUFFIXES DENOTING TENSE Other Future Tense Suffixes 189 RAMU and RASHI. But their use is not regular and They have the following forms Predicative Attributive Perfect : ramu ramu rame rashi *| Suffixed to prerashiki \ dicative form of — J verb The following are examples of the use of ramu : waga seko wa idzuchi yuku- ramu (M. These two suffixes indicate a certain degree of doubt. rashi is used as if it were an adjective. 'foolish'. it seems. They are .

occurring only in the combination maseba. but this is doubtful. In either case. The paradigm of zu is as follows : . It may be regarded as obsolete in of its use are : the modern language. kemu. namashi. mashika. mu and be. mashi. shinamashi mono wo to the rocky base of .) In the last example and in cases mashi appears to express a wish rather than an intention. on the lines mase. the latter being a specialized negative future suffix. It combines with other suffixes to make such forms as temashi. See under Negative Suffixes. mashi is found in both predicative and attributive forms.190 suffixes. : yama many other . and namu. g. g. shika. These are two. IV. it can hardly be doubted that all the forms maji. — JI is an undeclinable suffix. corresponding to temu. The form mashika does not appear until after the Nara period. e. kemashi. but with less certainty. corresponding with se. which may be regarded as the negative of mu. clinging would I might . waga seko to futari mimaseba if I could watch ikubaku ka kono furu yuki no ureshikaramashi (M. maku contain the element ma which is the conjectured imperfect of mu. NEGATIVE SUFFIXES. In the Nara period only. while in function they are verb MASHI expresses approximately the same meanings as mu.) with my would it together lover how joyful this snowfall be This may perhaps be regarded as a trace of an earlier full conjugation of mashi. Examples Urashima no ko ga tamakushige akezu ariseba mata mo awamashi Takayama no iwane shi makite had Urashima not opened the casket met again we might have die. Taka- (M. It is true that there is a form mase. ZU and JI. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR both adjectives in form. mase. It will be noticed that all the suffixes expressing probability have a labial as the initial sound e.

This is obsolete.) ni shi mieneba (N.) Sovereign without ceasing go to and (K. kimimo sute tamawazu shite (Res. on which I am never tired of gazing an unknown road ametsuchi mo nikumi tamawazu.) not a bird cannot be seen by the eyes .' ' ' ' NEGATIVE SUFFIXES Form Predicative Attributive 191 Negative Base (Imperfect) of Verb plus Example zu yukanu yukazu yukazu * nu zu (ni) Suffixes Conjunctive Imperfect or Neg. ne tori : draw back though I gaze since since it is it I shall not tire me ni shi araneba (M. ni.) neither hating Heaven and Earth nor abandoning his I will yamazu kayowamu omowazu aramu its (M. and seems to be composite.) ' not clever not good though he does not draw his is is if na ga koi sezuba Attributive.) yoku mo arazu (N. Predicative. but there are traces of existence in the earliest part of the Nara period : susumu mo shirani shirizoku mo shirani (Res.) shiranu michi (M. (M. zu : the river Yoshino. All the above forms are found in early writings. not knowing how to miredo akanikemu (M. Base Perfect (conjectural) yukaneba added Negative Base (' Imperfect ') form of yuku. ' ' .) : ' sword thou dost not love nu miredo akanu Yoshino no ka- wa (M.) will fro be unthinking Conjunctive. . to It will be noticed that the conjugation is not regular. zu : sakashiku mo arazu (K.) Perfect. nukazu to mo (N.) Conjunctive.) tachi .) not knowing how to go forward. 'to go'.

and that it preceded the forms containing the element z. as used in writing. ji. 'to be'. It should be recollected that the negative adjective is na (shi. Similarly the ordinary negative form of the present tense of all verbs. and maji constitute two pairs. is where it obsolete in the modern standard colloquial. Morphologically it is probably a comof the negative element n. -ki. correlit.) lover will not forget being young. yukumai. though not always. Ji maji. 'will probably not go'. whether predicative (arazu) or attributive (aranu). is often. derived from Thus coll.) into to : wa na wa iu tomo though you say you will not weep wasureji (K. now sponds to yukumaji or yukaji. is probably norant of travel ig- The forms mu. The negative forms employed in the modern colloquial have in some cases diverged in a curious way from those found in both the ancient and modern written languages. There can be little doubt that the sound is characteristic for the expression of the idea not in Japanese at its earliest N ' ' stages.. which always replaces the negative form of the verb aru. where we have such forms as makarazu. -ku). Perhaps the most important aspect of this divergence is seen in the use in speech of the negative adjective nai. the former expressing a higher degree of probability than the latter. a humble word for to proceed ') ' JI undeclinable. 192 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR from the above examples that there It is reasonable to infer originally existed a full conjugation of the negative suffix containing the element n. a future. The form zu can be accounted for by supposing it to be n+su. The meaning of ji will be clear from the following is pound examples nakaji (K. a similar fusion being found in the medieval language. . which can be traced from makaramu-su through the intermediate stages makaran-su and makaranzu (makaru.) wa my wakakereba michiyuki shiraji (M. mashi. has been replaced by the form mai. with the element shi which occurs in the suffixes rashi and mashi and denotes possibility.

) (M. In any case. forms like yukanaku. nai. 'the not-knowing of the time' not waiting even without meeting These forms are described fully under 'Substantival Forms variations of the negative : The above and other common may be represented schematically as follows Negative form of . where the negative : adjective is suffixed to a verb. adj nai (the colloquial form of naki). are not wanting in the earliest language. or it may simply be constructed by analogy with The form yukanai appears . base of yuku) + the neg.: NEGATIVE SUFFIXES replaced in speech 193 by a form ending in the negative adjective. toki no shiranaku (M.) lit. yukanu yukan' yukanai Thus we have : Written form Spoken forms yukazu yukan' yukanai to be composed of the verb (yuka. 147. g. neg. e.) (M. matanaku ni awanaku mo in -ku'. p.

e. if he does not go (which sometimes appears with an intercalated euphonic m. from the evidence of medieval be contractions of the conjunctive negative forms yukazu) combined with the conjunctive form. as in yukazumba) A conauxiliary. and is therefore sometimes conjugated on the model but ryaku shinai is equally correct. if they are sufficiently familiar in speech. which adopt the Tokyo speech as standard.194 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR and spoken forms. They appear. especially Tokyo district. yukimasenu (pronounced arimasen. yukasanai ryakusanai does not cause to go does not abbreviate In the second example ryaku su. shirade kaku iu (Take. ryakusu. g. yukanai for yukanu. But it should be noted that verbs whose negative base ends in se can take only the termination nu. : he says so without knowing being not far distant The termination nai is preferred in speech to nu. usually have.) hitohi hitoyo omowazute aruramu mono to omohoshimesu hito na (M. jbsen shinai. forms ending in rnasu have arimasenu.) wa shi- not knowing the limit think not that for a single day or night I shall not be thinking of you people not knowing the state of affairs The same forms. of the verb-suffix tsu. te. 'does not embark'. g. but with found in the Heian period. call for some comment. their negative in nu. a Chinese word + the is so familiar as to be regarded as one word. Examples of their use in early and texts. are already e. Forms like arade. g. g. . of a causative verb The written language has a negative conditional of the type yukazuba. have colloquial negative forms like Consequently all polite e. yukimasen). senu and in the shinai. Causative verbs. to (arazu.) yo no arisama wa razute (Take.) hodo tokarade (Genji) zute contracted to de. . and verbs composed of a Chinese word + suru. &c. classical texts are : kagiri shirazute (M. yukade. e. ' ' . except that the verb suru has both forms. while compounds of suru have negatives ending in shinai. and the official school readers.

The origin of yukananda is not quite clear. yukaz'a. and compound conjugational forms of negative verbs can be constructed only with the aid of the auxiliary aru. we cannot add the future suffix mu directly to the negative suffix (which has no negative base) and must fall back on the form yukazaru. further inflected verb suffixes cannot be added to negative forms in zu. Similarly. kare yukazariki.. 'a man who does not go ware yukazaramu.. e. taking the verb yuku. The paradigm of compound forms of a negative verb is therefore as follows in the written language of to-day is : yukazaru {—yukazu +aru) as in yukazaramu yukazariki yukazarikeri . and forms like yukazatta are sometimes used. ni itta mono mo iwazu he went without saying anything where ni would be superfluous in the written language. but yukazatta is evidently yukazari + the colloquial past tense suffix ta (=tari). yukade=yukazute) or by a particle. 'he did not go' kare yukazarikeri.. I shall not go' ' .. in the written language. to the conjunctive form naku the colloquial prefers nakute or nai de : minakute mo wakaru mono mo iwanai de itta I understand even without seeing he went without saying anything In the Western dialects of Japan the negative past tense of the type yukananda instead of yukanakatta.'' traction of this form language. . gone' kikun yukazarubeshi. It should be noticed that. if we wish to construct the future tense of its negative form yukazu. NEGATIVE SUFFIXES is common in the modern 195 spoken Conjunctive forms like yukazu are rarely used alone in speech. yukazaru hito. he did not go or he has not ' ' ' yukazarubeshi . g. g. Thus. 'you shall not go In a strict analysis there is a difference of meaning between . as in The colloquial prefers to reinforce them either by some termination (e.

yukubekarazu similar forms throughout. maji.' ' 196 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR suffix forms of the above type and forms where the negative is the final element. . the former has fallen out of use. UNINFLECTED VERB SUFFIXES pages are all inare either (like su. Similarly ' ' : and each tends yukazaritsu yukitarazu ' has has-not not-gone ' gone and is replaced yukazariki.) verbs or vestiges of verbs or (like beshi. It will be seen that the colloquial verb-substantive de aru. daro. The spoken language goes further. in its various forms da. Thus 'will ' : yukazarubeshi yukubekarazu will-not not-go' or 'must not-go' go or must-not go ' ' to be appropriated for a special purpose. 'must not go'. and tashi) adjectives or vestiges thereof. datta. Consequently the paradigm given above does not include a number of forms like yukazaritsu. while yukitarazu retains the meaning of 'has not gone'. and resorts to analytic methods.. and are not observed by all writers. ru. &c. however. is used instead of the agglutinated forms of and the written language. There remains to be described an important group of uninflected suffixes. " yukazariki yukanakatta itte J (=yukite) wa naranu . &c.. . Such distinctions are. so that we have these.. The tendency throughout the written language is to simplify and reduce in number the compound verb forms. with the aid of which certain compound flected suffixes. Of by yukanai daro "] yukanai datta yukanai no datta yukanudeshita f I for yukazaramu . shimu. tsu. nu. yukazaramashi. 'did not go'. rather fine. The suffixes described in the foregoing They . so that yukazarubeshi signifies rather will not go (future) and yukubekarazu. Sec. which are found in archaic or medieval literature but have since fallen out of use.

'as for going'. . . but a brief account of them is given here in order to complete the description of the compound conjugation of the verb. Thus yuku ha. as follows : BA yukaba yukeba . by the use of the perfect (shinure. . (shina. The difference is illustrated by the sentences : ware shinaba tare ka nakubeki if I should die. and certain other particles in specialized uses. who would chui seba ayamachi nakarubeshi chichi shinureba ko chili weep ? if you are careful there will be no mistakes kawaru when the changes father dies the son sureba ayamachi nashi when you are careful there are no mistakes by the use of the negative base assumed to come into being in the future. I. as yuke-ha. and the form becomes yukeba. . In the ordinary spoken language conditional forms com- . coalescence takes place. Suffixes making Conditional or Concessive Forms : is the surd form taken by the separative particle ha (pronounced wa) when it is suffixed to a verb and coalescence takes place. se) a yet unrealized condition is second pair can often express a condition which actually does exist. is pronounced yuku wa. They are treated fully in the chapter devoted to the particles. These are the suffixes BA. In the written language the construction illustrated by the In the first pair of sentences. when suffixed to the perfect form a condition that exists or is assumed to exist. In the second pair. so that (depending upon context) chui sureba ayamachi nashi may mean 'since you are careful there are no mistakes'. but where ha is suffixed directly to a verb stem. DO. Ba is used to express a condition.UNINFLECTED VERB SUFFIXES 197 conjugational forms of the verb are constructed. he goes (unrealized condition) as he goes (realized condition) if he goes (realized or assumed condition) if It will be seen that when suffixed to the negative base ba expresses a hypothetical condition. sure) a condition is assumed to exist already. and DOMO. .

yukedomo = though there is = though he goes word keredomo. the colloquial tends to reinforce the conditional form of the verb in some way. The is it is colloquial prefers the use of the now an independent word meaning Historically a group of suffixes which have become detached from the verb. Examples of its use are : aru keredomo nagasugiru yukitai keredomo hima ga nai there are some but they are too long I want to go but I have no time Here the written language would have the synthetic forms aredomo. yukitakeredomo. being composed of here (the perfect of the verb suffix keri) +do+mo. chili suru kara. e. &c. It is often reinforced by the particle mo ('even'). aredomo yukedo. Consequently the perfect + ba has to serve all purposes. which 'but'. g. . 198 : chili sureba ayamachi wa nahard chili sureba ayamachi ga nai if you are careful there will be no mistakes if you are careful there are no mistakes ' In order to express the idea since you are careful a different idiom is generally used in speech. DO is the surd form taken by the particle to when in coalescence with a verb. Generally speaking. if care there chui shitara ayamachi ga nakarb (where shitara= shitaraba) chili you have taken care there will be. &c. e. if suru nara (where nara sureba koso ayamachi ga you take care —naraba) chili it nai is because you take care that there are. g.HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR posed of the negative base + ba are not much used. It is added to the perfect of verbs. to form a concessive. so that aredo. Thus we have ' : chili suru to ayamachi ga nai when you take are. &c.

UNINFLECTED VERB SUFFIXES Other particles used as verb suffixes. but attention may be drawn here to a very common locution by which ga assumes an adversative meaning. Details of their uses in this respect will be found under the relevant headings in the chapter devoted to particles. independent verbs rather than conjugational varieties of the simple verb yuku. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS It has already been shown that causative and passive forms. to act as conjunctions and into relation with other sentences. . formed from simple verbs by the agglutination of one of the auxiliaries suru. like yukasu and yukaru. are. Analogous to these passive and causative verbs are transitive and intransitive verbs. aru. 199 Most bring of the particles can in the written language be placed after appropriate forms of verbs. In speech this is the ordinary way of contrasting two propositions. These idioms are not much used in the colloquial. strictly speaking. and thus ga frequently acts as an adversative particle. : NI used as a concessive hi teru ni ame furu the sun shines and yet it rains where ni is added to the substantival form teru. 'I want to go but I have no time'. Thus yukitai ga hima ga nai. The following them are simple examples : MO used as a concessive sake aru : mo sakana is nashi though there food is wine there is no where mo added to the substantival form : of art. and uru. WO used as a concessive idzu ame furu wo kasa nashi ni where wo is although rain is falling he sets forth without umbrella added to the substantival form furu.

while tasukeraru is 'to be helped'. ' to help sadamaru.' ''' ' '' ' ' ' '' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '' ' 200 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR into three classes. 'to fix kayuru. II. to be relieved ' ' ' There can be little doubt that the terminations su. uru. Intransitive E. while karu is 'to borrow'. Thus. : The difference in ie meaning displayed by the examples hito wo tatsuru wo tatasu to erect a house to cause a man to stand up. E. Tasukaru is to be relieved '. Transitive tatsuru. to approach ' ' ' Intransitive forms of Transitive verbs. to advance tatsu. to change tasukaru. to change tasukeru. g. and not to cause to borrow'. : Transitive kiku. and aru of the above verbs are the auxiliary verbs. Transitive and Intransitive forms. yosuru. Transitive forms of Intransitive verbs. to be excessive idzuru. which would be karisasuru. g. kasu is 'to lend'. to go out ' ' sadamuru. ' Such are : Intransitive to set ' up ' susumuru. as follows : They may be divided I. to crush ' ' kikoyuru. to distinguish the forms thus constructed from the corresponding causative and passive verbs. ' to see III. to remain yoru. ' ' nokosu. ' to exceed to put out ' ' suguru. The difference between tasukaru and tasukeraru is good evidence that the first form contains only ' ' ' . tatasu is is ' to cause to stand'. to be visible ' ' miru. while tatsu is 'to stand'. to be settled kawaru. : Transitive Intransitive sugusu. to melt ' kudakuru. to encourage watasu. to melt kudaku. and tatsuru is ' to set up'. to hand over ' to stand susumu. to let a man stand up Similarly. idasu. both derived from an obsolete word or stem. 'to hear' toku. to cross over nokoru. 'to be audible' tokuru. to crumble miyuru. which have been added to the stem. ' to leave to bring near ' wataru. however. It is important. to have assistance '.

Thus we have now : shirozokeru for shirozokuru. ' to withdraw ' (tr. Thus tataru and tatasu may be honorific for tatsu. 'to extend' miyuru. is further brought out by the fact that they are never used as honorifics. The distinction between these special transitive and intransitive verbs on the one hand. to bring near nosuru. to be visible ' 3270 Dd .' ' ' TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS 201 aru. and aru were plain in the early language have now.) tatsuru. 'to set ' ' up' ' yameru yoseru noseru nobiru noberu yamuru. Many of the verbs in which the elements su. to place upon mieru noburu (intransitive). especially in speech.) yosuru. 'to extend' noburu (transitive).. suffered phonetic change. the second aru and uru. tateru . but tatsuru cannot. to stop ' (tr. and the causative and passive verbs on the other hand. uru.

... aredo The conjugation. as follows Predicative Attributive Conjunctive ... : ari as in tamago ari aru ari . The sentence tamago ari means there are eggs and cannot possibly convey the meaning 'they are eggs'. It . 'Imperfect' or Negative Base Perfect . The following : is to predicate existence of a subare early examples of its use in this sense sakashime wo ari to kikashite kuwashime wo shite (K. but their functions are so distinct that they must be treated separately from all other ' THESE verbs correspond with the English verbs and 'to ' verbs. arishi ara are arazu. But can serve as an auxiliary when other states or properties . then.. . except that the predicative form ends in i.' VI THE AUXILIARY VERBS ARU AND SURU to be do respectively. . araba areba. I. not u.. is of the ordinary quadrigrade type.. has an irregular simple conjugation. The meaning of aru is 'to be' in the sense of 'to exist'.) is my sister who is at home In so far as aru it is it in function a principal used to predicate existence of any subject and not an auxiliary verb.) hana wa utsurou ware yo no naka ni aramu kagiri it hearing that there was a wise woman..) ni aru into (M.. . aru hito arite. which has remained unchanged from the Nara period.. ject.. and it is important to understand that aru by itself cannot act as a copula between the terms of a proposition. The primary ' ' significance of aru.. The Auxiliary Verb ARU. . .) ari to kikatoki ari (M.. hearing that there was a fair woman there is a time when flowers fade so long as I am in this world wa (M.

while imperfect and conjunctive forms (ku +ara and ku +ari) are frequent. &c. but it does not state that these flowers are white and exist (in which case ari would be a principal verb). Thus kono liana wa shirokari is a proposition which states that the attribute of whiteness exists in the case of certain flowers. the perfect.g. There is good reason to think that the termination -ku of adjectives (and many verbs) forms a noun. while shiroshi and shirokari may be regarded as interchangeable. Ari may therefore in this usage be regarded as an auxiliary verb. coupled with the fact of its existence. . shirokari = shiroku ari. where the copula is comprised in the use of wa and the predicative form. kono chikaku ni. p. The sentence hana wa shirokari as a logical proposition contains more than two terms. nagakaramu. . 'from of old'. See. are preWhen it is desired to dicated in a single proposition. and this is borne out by the use of the conjunctive form of adjectives as a noun in such locutions as furuku yori. as in such compounds as okaraba. e. 'is white'. one would find that shiroku expressed a substantival concept. so far as meaning goes. predicate of a thing some state or property. where shiroshi is the plain predicative form of the adjective. so that shiroku ari would mean 'there is whiteness'. nakarikeri. Yoshioka (Taisho Goho) states that in ordinary modern prose the predicative. if one could analyse the mental process by which it was built up. 'in this vicinity'. 147. and the attributive before ' ' . and shirokari is consequently a redundant form. I do not think it can be distinguished from the other. for substantival forms in -ku.THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU 203 of a thing. The predicative forms are unusual in the modern language also. It means 'these flowers are white'. a word like shirokarishi 'was white'. The sentence hana wa shiroshi. It is more rational to suppose that these compounds of an adjective with aru grew to supply a need as to form and not as to meaning. is a simple proposition of two terms. It is not easy to understand the development of this compound form but I suspect that. the verb aru can be compounded with an adjective in the conjunctive form. but as a grammatical proposition. For. expresses an idea which is not within the range of the adjective alone. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that predicative forms in ku +ari are rare in the early language.

HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR exist. where aru is intercalated. It furnishes material for speculation as to why the Japanese language should have special forms to express both the affirmative of a negative and the negative Nakari of an affirmative. nakari and arazu respectively. arazariki. yuku kai ishi nado okari hito okarubeshi and so on are plentiful there will be many okaredomo kakazu though numerous I going do not write them The following are further examples of the use of aru in this type of compound. ku+ara = kara = ka ku +ara = kara = ke ku +are = kare = kere ke ku +are = kare . The phonetic changes in these forms compounded of ku and aru have been curious. to which any verb suffix can be added. 2.) kanashiku arikemu (M. in order to make a past tense. composed of the negative adjective naku +aru. In the earliest texts we find. 4. The form must be Consequently nakari.) kurushiku areba (M. the form being ku ari and not kari : kyb no aida wa tanushiku during this day joyful as it is painful it will be arubeshi (M. it is not possible to add the past tense suffix hi to arazu.204 viz. 3. stones.) akakaraba mirubeki mono (Gosen) must have been sad a thing which could be seen it if it were light kanashikaru hito (Uji) wadzurewasetamau toki okari (Genji) people who are mo many were he suffered the times grief unhappy when An interesting form is nakaru. It will be observed that in the earliest recorded language elision does not always take place. all the same. probably came into use because the negative suffix zu can only in rare instances be followed by other verb suffixes. as well as the uncontracted forms. is more convenient than arazu and at least as convenient as arazari. the following marked cases of elision : i. a noun do not : But he quotes examples shells. Thus.

Aara becomes ke yasukemu (M. The regular 'perfect' form of adjectives is always of this type. and araba. .) for kanashikaramu. . 'young'. for instance. and keba is either the . that yasukemu is a contraction of yasukaramu under the influence of verb forms like arikemu. . 'desirous'. and the future suffix mu. +areba This change is easy to understand. usukeredo in be seen that kaba and keba are not the same. from yoku. +areba koishikereba (M. from subenaku. from toku.) for koishikareba. : 'easy'. 'far'. from yasuku. although modern language they are frequently confused. +araba yokaba (M. yokere. 'good'. where the kemu is composed of ke. by a tendency which is common in Japanese. from naku.) for yasukaramu. kaba is karaba.) for yokaraba. kare becomes here : wakakereba (M. of a type common in Japanese. +araba This is a simple case of elision. These forms are difficult to explain by crasis and yet it is unlikely that they are original forms made by attaching suffixes direct to the adjective.) for tokaraba.) for subenakaranaku. subenakenaku (M. e.) tokereba .. kare becomes ke : koishikeba (M.) It will . g. from wakaku.) for wakakareba. from koishiku. without the intercalation of am. the conjunctive form of the past tense suffix ki. 2. It seems more probable. helpless + aranaku nakeba (K. usukedo (N. 4. 3.THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU Examples are 1. ' (Res. kanashikemu 'sad'. for the final e of kare influences the preceding vowel a. 'not'. from kanashiku.) for nakaraba.. +aramu ' . however. Historically.) a further contraction of koishikereba tokeba (M. and not yokare... : 205 kara becomes ka : tokaba (M.

as in sari tote. with the auxiliary aru (e. meaning 'notwithstanding'. from sa.. . The combination of adverbial phrases formed from Chinese words by means of the particle to. . Thus : kakaru shikari toki ni at such a time it is shikaredomo though so (=yes) it is so (—nevertheless) After such adverbial phrases as ika ni. g. an account of forms like tari and taru in this usage). adjective verb . . The form sari. shikaru and kakaru. under the particle to. sarinagara. it is whether like this ? These two words are now in common use and may be regarded as equivalent (in writing) to the English 'such'. is dodo. as in the following examples have : kakarazu mo kakari mo kami no mani mani (M. . 'in that way'. So we have a regular scheme for the utilization of such words. The contracted form ikanaru. of which a typical example is is ^ The original Chinese . 'What sort of man'. but is extremely common in modern prose (v. two different forms which strictly speaking different meanings. as in ikanaru hito. • ££ £ (dodo) Japanese adverb . The simplest and earliest of such combinations are those with shika. an imposing person' dodo tari. 'so'. the auxiliary added to form. viz. is imposing ' ' We now come to what is perhaps the most interesting . 1|* rare in the Heian period. word . from the Sinico-Japanese 'imposing'). 'thus'. but is common later.' 206 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR karaba or kereba.) hito mina ka a nomi ya shikaru not thus or is thus is as the gods will is every one. 'how being' (=what sort ?). does not appear in Nara texts. and kaku. 'how'. e. does not appear until the close of the Nara period. This is a natural result of the importation of numerous Chinese words which could be made to serve as adverbs only by the aid of the particle to and as adjectives by means of aru. is not found in the Nara period. The auxiliary verb aru combines freely with adverbs as well as with adjectives. or only myself. ika ni aru. dodo to aru becoming dodotaru.g.. . 'imposingly' dodo taru hito. dodo to.

but by the beginning of the Nara period this form had atrophied. Thus kawa no soko naru tama (M. and forms a verb naru. 258). under Particles. which (according to the general opinion of Japanese grammarians. in Japanese the type of a proposition of two terms is by the kore yarna nari this is a hill where nari the copula is the copula.). it gets dark but this is probably a semantic development of the copula. the ployed to convert the verb aru into a copula. 234). As is pointed out elsewhere (p. and aru. 'is at'. wa. the verb naru often has the meaning 'to become'. methods emHistorically good reason to suppose that the language in its forms. 'to be'. and it may be argued that in practice in the construction of sentences the function of this particle is to combine with nari to form a copula (v. was not devoid of a special copula. 1 which can serve as a link between the two terms of a logical proposition. the first term of a proposition where nari serves as copula is distinguished by the addition of the particle wa. though there is no positive evidence to support them) contains the verb wiru. but not invariably. 'to dwell'. ' ' .THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU phenomenon there earlier is 207 in the Japanese language. Further. . Thus. p. In the proposition there is yama ari a hill is implicit in the word-order and the special predicative form of the verb. where naru = ni aru. in the sense of 'to exist in space'. the particles ni and no are almost certainly vestiges of a copulative verb. In a similar way aru combines with what is now regarded as the particle ni but is the conjectured conjunctive form of the obsolete copula nu. The verb aru could already combine with other verbs.) empty 1 This naru should not be confused with nam formed from ni. As a general rule. before the period which can be taken as covered earliest extant writings. which merely expresses the meaning of its separate elements. thus necessitating the use of other methods. as is shown by the form woru (now oru)=wi +aru. : The following are early examples of the use of nari okite munashiku aru tsukasa it is an office of state left ni arazu (Res. as in kuraku narimasu. 'a jewel which is at the bottom of a stream'. as a locative particle.

or kaze fuku. and can be adequately rendered by the one word 'is' in English. almost a tense value. kore wa yama da.) kaze no fuku nari (M. as . We can also have the substantival form of verbs and adjectives. as in kokoro no asaki nari (M.) tadzu wa ima zo naku nari (M. In all such cases nari can serve as a copula. but it seems more likely that it is formed by the addition of the suffix te to the particle ni. In some cases. at a time when ni retained its force as the conjunctive form of a verb (v. which literally stands for 'being-is-being-is-is'. by still further contraction.) it is it is shallowness of heart the blowing of the wind but in many cases of this nature there is little to distinguish such locutions from the simple predicative statements of the type kokoro asashi. In a proposition of two terms linked by a copula one must be in a substantival form. employed in the colloquial with the verb aru to construct a copulative locution corresponding to nam in the written language. The form nite is possibly a contraction of ni arite. They seem to be due to some obscure characteristic inherent in Japanese speech which impels those who use it It is a feature to pile one redundant verb upon another. 'heart is shallow'. a difference of meaning or emphasis can be traced. as in the first example. 'wind blows'. Thus kore wa yama nari becomes kore wa yama nite ari.) stowed by the gods The uncontracted form ni ari occurs freely in the Nara period.) if it is a horse kore wa b mi kami no itsukuthis is a thing lovingly 208 shibi be- tamaeru mono nari (Res. which gives rise to the colloquial form kore wa yama de aru and. 243). In either case it is this form nite which has given rise to the form de. p. under ni. In naku naru tori (M. Examples of a noun as the first term have been given above. however.) birds which are singing the cranes are now crying naru seems to have an emphatic. which will not have escaped the notice of those who listen to orations where sentence after sentence ends with some phrase like de aru de arimasu.HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR uma naraba (N.

It should perhaps be mentioned here that similar uses of the predicative form can be found in other combinations. Two First. The modern colloquial has similar variant forms. but one cannot but suspect that these and many other apparently irregular forms are sometimes imposed by the requirements of metre.). represent a difference in meaning. such as tsuma tateri miyu (K. and second.THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU insisting 209 upon the fact that the birds are uttering sounds at the present moment. but also their predicative forms. becomes in speech chikyil wa higashi yori nishi ni mukatte tenkwan suru no desu and the difference between this and the alternative tenkwan shimasu is hardly more than can be represented in English by a difference in stress.) shiraho what looks like gulls is the moving of white sails the use of nari is easily understood. where we might expect tateru. In chikyil yuku is wa higashi yori nishi ni mukaite tenkwan suru nari the globe revolves from East to West it is difficult to say that the substitution of tenkwan su for tenkwan suru nari would alter the meaning.). that forms may have arisen under the influence of verse which could not be accounted for under other conditions. the substantival form of verbs. for instance. It marks rather a difference in emphasis which might. since shiraho no a substantival phrase. Thus : nakite koyu nari (M. In such sentences as kamome to miyuru wa no yuku nari (M. as would be expected. that we may results are naturally to be expected. An important function of the auxiliary verb aru is to 3270 E e . sayageri nari (N. In the Nara period we find naru following not only. 'the spouse is seen standing'. Here it seems likely that the turn of phrases is emphatic. The above sentence.) they come crying and itaku sayagite ari nari (K. attach too much importance to examples drawn from these sources. It must be remembered that the earliest texts in pure Japanese are very largely in the form of poetry.). according to context.



HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR by fusion with another verb what may be

called a

'progressive present' tense of the latter.

combinations is conveyed by these

The type of such shown by sakeri— saki-ari. The meaning




that the state

by the verb continues to exist at the moment predication. They can often be translated into English
'to be'

by by

+ a present participle, so that sakeri is rendered blooming'. They are found in the earliest texts

ima mo nokoreri (Bussoku)
tsuma tateri (K.) nishi no miyama ni tateramaski (M.)

it still

tama ni masarite omoerishi waga ko (M.)

remains the spouse is standing would I were standing on the Western hill my child that I used to think more precious than a jewel

in the Manyoshu poems which represent the Eastern dialect (the Adzuma-uta) are of the type furaru for fureru, tataru for tateru, &c. These forms are usually confined to verbs of the quadrigrade conjunction, but there are some exceptions, such as

The equivalent forms

kono a ga keru imo ga koromo

this robe of

my lover's which
in the



and the auxiliary verb suru often appears




In modern prose forms like sakeri are very following are examples of their use

common. The

tsukue ni sansatsu no yohon



there are three books placed on the table

(Coll. yohon ga oite aru) tsukikage midzu ni utsureri (Coll. midzu ni utsutte iru) yama ni kinenhi tateri (Coll. kinenhi ga tatete aru)




reflected in the






up ') on the

Strictly speaking, these forms should be derived only from verbs of the quadrigrade conjugation, which have a conjunctive form ending in i, for it is the combination i +a which gives e, as in yomeri from yomi-ari but forms such

as ukeri, hajimeri, &c., are found in practice. The following examples are taken from the official school Reader issued by the Department of Education




hitoe ni


sokuryoku wo kisou




ware ni masareru hito wo ne-



gyofu wa mina kono ni-son ni sumeri

it has become an age of competition in speed to envy those who are superior to us the fishermen all live in





sakeri is sakitari, which is often used with approximately the same meaning. The termination tari has already been discussed under the heading devoted to the verb suffix tsu, and its conjunctive form te. It is important to distinguish this -tari iromtari=to +ari, mentioned above. The tari which is a combination of te +ari is a verb suffix, used as follows

A form parallel to


wa ima hanare

nite koto


sister is


playing the


hiite iru)

harp in the annexe

(Coll. koto


chi ni chirishikitari

blossoms are scattered over the ground

Sometimes it is difficult to say whether these forms in tari should be treated as indicating a progressive present tense or a perfect tense. Thus in

kenji no shoku ni aru





persons who are or have been in the post of Procurator

aritaru must be regarded as a perfect tense. But it will often be found that tari is affixed to verbs other than those of the quadrigrade conjugation to make forms very similar in meaning to those ending in eri. Thus
toko ni

juku wo kaketari







in the alcove

which would in colloquial be juku ga kakete aru. This is a progressive present tense, equivalent to kakeri, yomeri, &c. But it is easy to see that in some contexts it would be best translated by a perfect tense in English. Where there are two forms, as sakeri and sakitari, they naturally tend to have different meanings, such as 'is blooming' and 'has bloomed'. There is a curious tendency in the modern written language



to resolve these forms into their original elements, put, for example,

yosho wo oki ari

for yosho

wo yomi koto wo hiki

oreri oreri



wo okeri wo yomeri koto wo hikitari

These are quite recent developments. The form oreri is not found in archaic or classical Japanese. The auxiliary verb ari enters into combination with most verb suffixes, as follows

Affirmative suffix tsu(te) +ari Negative suffix zu + ari Causative suffix su +ari








Tense Tense Tense Tense

suffix ki suffix suffix

+ari mu +ari beku +ari majiku +ari

.... ....
. . .










These do not require special treatment, as their significance follows naturally from their composition, but the following notes describe special features of some of them.

TARI has just been described,
under the
suffix tsu, p. 177.



be found also treated


occurs in early texts,
tatasereba (K.)

e. g.


wa ga

tsuma motaserame (K.) waga kimi no obaseru mi
obi (N.)

am standing probably has a mate the august girdle which lord is wearing
since I


honorific for tatsu, 'to stand', and tatasereba Similarly motasu is honorific for motsu, and motaserame —motashi arame—' will be holding'. Obasu is

Here tatasu



tatashi areba.

the honorific form of obu, 'to wear as a girdle'. It will be seen that such forms are not essentially different from those of the type sakeri just described. They are merely progressive present forms of honorific or causative verbs. An example from modern prose is



gunkan wa itaru tokoro ni kokko wo kagayakaseri
. . .

the warships cause the national brilliance to shine in every place




When seri stands alone it is simply a compound of the verb suru, acting as a principal verb, with the auxiliary ari. Thus
mitabi seri (Res.)

has done


three times

It will

seri (M.)

sailing forth

be found that seri sometimes has a past or perfect tense significance. Thus

niju-yo nen kinzoku seri

genan no


ni ketsugi

he has served continuously for more than twenty years they decided in accordance with the original draft

It will be seen that these forms have a tense significance rather like that of the French perfect, e. g. seri— 'il a fait'. Similarly yukeri, and even more often yukitari, are equivalent to 'il est alle'.

ZARI. Early examples



awazaredomo (M.) miezaranu (M.)

though he does not meet is not unseen

Although in early texts there are examples of the conjunctive form (ni) of the negative of verbs, followed by tense suffixes (e. g. akanikemu, 'will be unwearied'), the conjunctive form zu does not form such combinations. Consequently, when it is desired to put a verb like yukazu, 'does not go', into future, past or similar forms, it must be done by means of the auxiliary aru, just as in the case of adjectives the compound conjugation is constructed by the same means, e. g. waruku, warukarishi, warukaramu. Thus we have a negative conjugation built up from yukazari showing forms like yukazarishi, yukazareba, yukazaramu, &c. It follows that zari is

common use. In early texts there are uncompounded forms, as arazu aritsu (Res.), lit. 'was not-being', for 'was not ', but in later writings, down to the present day, zari with its derivatives is always used. Details and examples have already been given under the heading of Negative Suffixes. There existed in early and classical Japanese certain compound forms of the auxiliary verb reserved for special uses, honorific or humble. These were, in addition to the verb oru mentioned above, haberu, imazokaru or imasukaru. They are obsolete except that haberu lingers in the epistolary style.
in very



Imasukaru, with its various forms, is said to be derived from masu, and aru, three verbs each meaning 'to be'. It is an honorific, while haberu, supposed to be hau, to crawl ', +aru, is humble. Examples of the use of these curious forms are
' :

onore ga moto ni medetaki koto haberi (Mak.) *


my home there


a lovely

kaku hakanakute imasukameru wo (Yamato)

harp whereas he seemed to be so

The Auxiliary Verb SURU.

Its simple conjugation is

Predicative Attributive Imperfect or Negative Base
. .



su suru
se shi





The meaning

of suru is approximately 'to do'. It presents the idea of action, but so vaguely that a complete idea can hardly be expressed by its means without the aid of other words. It resembles the French verb faire. It is thus essentially an auxiliary, and cannot stand alone as one of the two terms of a simple proposition. In this respect it differs from aru which in the sense to exist can be so employed. For convenience of description one may take the cases where suru is associated respectively with (i) substantives, (2) adverbs, (3) particles. The typical case is represented by (1) With substantives. such combinations as maisuru (K.), to dance, and koesuru (M.), to cry. It is a development of this use which has enabled the Japanese language to assimilate a large number of Chinese words, and to convert them into verbs where necessary. The earliest examples of this device are such as

meizuru (fa), to command, anzuru (|j|), to consider, where the Chinese words, or rather approximate Japanese pronunciations thereof, are compounded with suru. These are posterior to the Nara period. Such forms would naturally not occur in the Manyoshu or other poetical works, nor are they to be found in other texts of the period. A curious phenomenon, which may be mentioned here, is the formation of compounds from pure Japanese words which




are assimilated in sound to the Sinico- Japanese forms. Thus we have a verb karonzuru, 'to esteem lightly', from the adjective karoki, 'light', presumably through the verb form karomi. Other examples are unzuru, to tire', from umi {$£), omonzuru, 'to prize', from omoki, 'heavy', through omomi.

A number of Chinese words have thus been completely absorbed, as, for example, zonzuru (fc), 'to know', which has, from the Heian period, been so fully naturalized as to have lost most of its meaning and become often a mere formula in the epistolary style. As the influence of Chinese increased and the borrowing of Chinese words progressed, the verb suru was freely employed to convert Chinese words from substantival to predicative uses from nouns to verbs or, more accurately, to give to the uninfected Chinese words, which in Chinese can function indifferently as noun or verb, the special form required by a verb in Japanese. Thus fjij} ron, in Chinese can signify either 'argument' or 'to argue'. To convert it into a Japanese verb the form ronzuru is constructed. It is this process, extended to compound Chinese words, which has given to modern Japanese a large proportion of its verbs. Characteristic examples are



chaku suru, 'to arrive', from chaku ^f 'arrival'
giron suru, 'to discuss', from giron josen suru, 'to embark', from jo ship




f^ 'discussion' mount', sen #&

It is interesting to notice that

modern Japanese, when

borrowing from European languages, resorts to the same device in order to give the borrowed word the form of a verb, and this even if the word borrowed is already a verb in its own language. Thus, to take examples from the field of romance, where the native vocabulary was inadequate, dansu suru, 'to dance', kissu suru, 'to kiss', and rabu suru, 'to love'. Of sterner provenance we have such verbs as
supeshiyaraizu suru, 'to specialize'. Even in the earliest texts, though combinations of a substantive and suru occur freely without the intercalation of a particle (i. e. combinations of the type maisuru), there are many instances where the two elements are separated by a particle such as wo or wa. Thus


mai wa semu (M.) ikusa wo shite (Res.) kadode wo sureba (M.)
I will


making war
as he sets forth

In such cases suru approaches in function to a principal verb, the substantive and the verb each retaining a separate meaning and not completely fusing into one verb form. The difference in form of such locutions is accompanied by a slight difference in meaning, a nuance which it is easier to perceive

than to define. Under this heading (of association with substantives) be included such forms as


omoku suru, to prize, to attach weight to where omoku is the conjunctive form of an adjective,

in a

substantival use. This is analogous to the conjunctive form of a verb in such combinations as horisuru, 'to desire', which has given rise to the modern verb hossuru, and shinisuru, 'to die', karesuru, 'to wither', &c, which are obsolete. It is interesting to note that in early Japanese such verbs were formed freely. Examples are

From From



mattaku suru, mattb suru, to complete takaku suru, takbsuru, to heighten
shinisuru, &c.



This method can be regarded as now obsolete. A parallel tendency is shown in English. To blacken is a stereotyped form, whereas to 'bluen' would not be permissible.


Cases of direct association are kakukakushite, shikasuru, shikashite, and the colloquial shikashi, meaning 'however', sasuru, sashite, &c. These are

With adverbs.



Instances have just been given where (3) With particles. the substantival form which is, so to speak, governed by suru is signalized by one of the particles wo or wa. The adverbial particles such as nomi, koso, &c, can naturally be employed in a similar way, as in

iwade kokoro ni omoi koso

without speaking, in his heart he indeed thinks so

Such locutions are easily understood. much more difficult subject, however, is the combination of the particles to and ni with suru. If we examine the following phrases


THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU katsura ni subeku nari (M. &c. j^J In Chinese and Japanese the characters &c.) there is nobody who being a man does not think only my heart goes to my lover. (otsu). 'to be'. But in yo no hito ni shite (M. the examples given above. far from representing the idea of conveys rather the idea of a state. will be found under the (ko). 1 ^ (hei). I do not of course suggest that the interchangeability arose through a logical process which could be so precisely formulated. "£. ni suru. &c. and the maximum significance of suru is 'to do'. in these contexts. The greatest common measure of meaning here is 'A is as B'. an in be seen that suru. the second that A behaves as B. nishite. as we use A. amounting in many cases to interchangeability.) iitsugi ni semu (M. R x the first may be taken to mean that A exists as B. Cf.) kokoro nomi imo gari yarite a wa koko ni shite (M. which provides a key to many apparent anomalies in the use of suru.) it 217 should be made into a garland will make (it) a messenger there is not much doubt as to the value of suru. this similarity meaning to It is between the two auxiliary verbs. to shite. Indeed it is remarkable that the development should have taken place at all. I myself being here A detailed account of the uses of such combinations as to suru. Thus if we take the two propositions (1) (2) Kb wa Kb wa otsu tari otsu to su (=to ari)\ _ ~~ J » . a common meaning which in translation can be represented by a copula.) 6 omi to shite tsukaematsurishi (Res. 3*70 F £ .) it being a person of the world served as a minister of state will act. and approximates aru. C. B. The idiom under discussion occurs in the earliest texts. since it does not appear to have been caused by any specific requirement in the language. and : hito to shite omowazu aru wa arazu (Res. It seems that while the maximum significance of aru is 'to exist'. there is as it were a territory which the two verbs share. are employed for purposes of enumeration.

I sections devoted to to confine myself here to showing schematically the correspondence both formal and functional between the two verbs : SURU .218 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR and ni.

In merely serves as a conjunctive adjectives. Both mesu and masu appear in the Nara period : waga seko ga kaerikimasamu toki (M. These are the verbs mesu. Thus we have shiroku shite rather than shirokarite.THE AUXILIARIES ARU AND SURU kocho no hbkyu futan to su shi 219 wa kokko no the salary of the Director is a charge upon the Ex- chequer wa hdjin to su the Municipality shall be a juridical person In such sentences as haru no hana nioi sukunaku shite Miyako nite umaretarishi onna koko ni shite niwaka ni usenishikaba (Tosa) there being but little scent to Spring flowers a woman born at the Capital having suddenly died while she was in this place . .) pray do not think . may be regarded many cases.) existing in all ages omooshi mesu na (M. karishi.) the time return when my lover shall yorodzuyo ni imashi tamaite (M. The correspondence between aru and suru emplified su. imazokaru. however. imasu. shirokarazu. and cannot be regarded as shite replaceable by Thus : wakakushite kashikoshi kotaezu shite kaeritari is young and wise (lit. as a formal substitute for arite. and owasu. . Where two forms exist side by side with almost identical meaning they generally develop some difference of . In describing the interchangeability of aru and suru I have naturally paid attention to their resemblance but it need not be assumed that these involve a constant and exact equivalency. emphasis if not of significance. shite form of verbs and arite. &c. masu. but there are no forms like shirokuseshi shirokusezu to correspond with shiro. being young is wise ') he went back without replying he ' It is to be noted that the correspondence in these cases does not extend to the compound conjugation. is further ex- by the use of honorific verbs containing the element analogous to the verbs haberu.

) natane no okisa nite owaseshi (Take. Examples of its use are yonaka made nan owaseshi he was there until midnight : (Mak. and it is probably derived from some such combination of masu as omasu. which are honorific forms of aru. and yukimasu. in such conventional compounds as oboshimesu. it became obsolete and was replaced not by one but by many locutions. where o also is honorific. except that it has an honorific value. Written Colloquial an . attached to the conjunctive form of a principal verb. masu is simply an honorific suffix. Setting these forth in tabular form we have : Heaven and mesu persists chiefly Modern Archaic and Medieval ni A . 'to think'. . in the ordinary polite forms of verbs such as arimasu. Reviewing the above account of the auxiliary verbs.. we see that while the early (pre-Nara) language appears to have had a copula. the form masu continues to play an important part in the spoken language.) Ten ni mashimasu chi she was of the size of a rape seed waga chi- our Father which art in While owasu is obsolete. Its meaning is the same as that of aru or oru.220 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The verb owasu first appears in the Heian period. gozaimasu. where.

'condescend to eat'. as a principal verb means 'to an auxiliary in the sense of 'to be able'. moshimasu (mosu) has no longer its usual meaning of 'to speak humbly' but is simply a humble auxiliary. 'I respectfully sympathize'. It is probable that this verb is cognate with katashi. 'cannot go'. There are forms like mashimasu. in kashi tamae. meaning 'to be'. as in cannot pass into a strange land nagaji wa yukikatenu (M. 'to be unable to go'. as in yukikatsumaji (M. Another auxiliary verb used to form a potential is atau. There is also a verb kaneru or kanuru. and tatsuru. but in the Nara period there occurs a verb hate-. in which the honorific value has suppressed suffixes. where again ezu is an auxiliary. and kaneru may be related to it. but appears to be katsu. hito-kuni ni sugikatenu (M. so that they act merely as . Similarly in on sasshi moshimasu. 'to stand' (transitive). Thus. all other meaning. we see that uru is a hardly get'.OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS The 221 honorific and humble verbs just mentioned may (1) be regarded as auxiliary verbs. There is little doubt that the potential forms of verbs. ' (2) The verb uru which. It is not found in the early language. tamae and kudasai are functionally the equivalent of imperative terminations of the principal verb. used as an auxiliary in such compounds as yukikaneru. owashimasn. where e is the conjunctive of uru. utsurou. deign to lend'. as in yukiatawazu. serves as ' concealed auxiliary in the transitive form. In some dialects the ordinary potential is replaced by forms of the type yukiezu. found as a rule only in the negative. &c. contain the verb uru. to be able to go '. 'hard'. meaning 'to be unable'. and if we examine such pairs as tatsu.) cannot go a long way The conclusive form is scarce. such as yukaruru. In the medieval and later languages we find such forms as e-nomazu. sumau. samurau. and tabete kudasai. and verbs like tamau. 'to stand' (intransitive).). 'cannot go'. 'is unable to drink'.) (3) Some Japanese grammarians distinguish an auxiliary or verb suffix au. irassharu. in such words as katarau.

in the Rescripts. comparable with. but they are already stereotyped. say. and tamau is undoubtedly derived from tabu. ' . not be overlooked when endeavouring to fix the earliest forms of verbs. su. . however.) . ' '. has an earlier form negu. (Cf tsutometabubeshi tasukematsuritabu. The suffix is stated to denote the continuance of the action described by the verb. and it can hardly be said that au is now a verb suffix. It is true that a large number of pairs of this type can be found in the Nara period. Thus kataru is 'to talk'. while katarau is 'to remain in converse sumu is to stop while sumau is to dwell utsuru 'to change'. or an ' '. to pray '.222 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' &c. Thus negau. and utsurou 'to fade'. forms very common auxiliary. Its existence should.

This is clear from the fact that if any one particle is removed. even if supported on logical grounds. Their classification presents some difficulty. V{\\\Al MACih A {JVtMfi^i* .VII THE PARTICLES most characteristic group of words and they are essential to the formation of any proposition containing more than the simplest elements. An examination of the main namely and (2) : particles shows that they fall naturally into two tions. in such a sentence as . The classification is a convenient one. type can be removed without necesbut with a change in it the meaning of the sentence as a whole. ware wa sono hito no na dani I do not know even his name shirazu the particles in sitating the Roman removal of other words. (i) divisions. Thus. those which affect a sentence as a whole. As might be expected. according to their func- those which affect only component parts of a sentence. in the sentence yama no mint ue yori kawa wo to see a river from the top of a hill the particles in Roman type concern only the single words to which they are affixed. therefore. On the one hand cannot be the we have . The traditional method was to include the particles in a large group called Teniwoha. On the other hand. their uses are various and idiomatic. subject and predicate. but the members of the group have of the language no common characteristics. the word to which it is affixed must logically be removed at the same time and this process can be continued until there is nothing left but the simplest elements of a grammatical proposition. THE can be understood. and it seems that few native grammarians are in accord on this question. and must be fully mastered before the structure Particles are the in Japanese.

therefore. it is true. and yori. ni. Their presence not essential to the formation of a sentence. but serves to modify its purport.224 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR to. its is therefore have two categories of particles (i) Case Particles (2) Adverbial Particles. obtrude itself in the suffixes Strictly speaking. but there does not seem to be sufficient reason for so doing. are so specialized that it would be pedantic as well as inconvenient to refuse them special treatment. and in a general way the members of the group in question may be fairly described as Adverbial Particles. The members of the first group are affixed exclusively to substantives or to groups of words acting as substantives. — tion of Case. tsu. without serious abuse of terms be called Case Particles. : We . wo. &c. and they are therefore separately classified below as (3) Conjunctive Particles. From this general classification one might exclude the Interrogative Particles. An anomaly does. but it must be realized that the nominative and accusative cases can be shown without the use of particles. these are the particles ba. but merely indicate it. and their function is that which in other languages is usually performed by inflexion or by prepositions and postpositions the designa- particles ga. he. do. Their several uses are described below. he. made. since the object of classification is secured if groups of manageable size are distinguished. in the case of principal words. CASE PARTICLES These are the particles no. and when particles are affixed to words which are syntactically in those cases. and on the other hand all the remaining particles. and made. when they appear in this form. The remaining group is certainly not homogeneous. wa and to in special forms. Thus the sentences ware yukan I will go I will make a reply to this maw kono uta no kaeshi sen verse . domo. is precisely the function of an adverb. and it is possible to treat them as such by paying elaborate attention to their sense development. yori. ga. no. ni. to. they do not form the case. This. They may. but members have one character in common. wo. as opposed to particles. But their functions.

man of sense'. the following occurs in the Toshigohi (Prayer for Harvest) Ritual . at least the subject of a logical proposition. 'this man '. even indicates the nominative. there is clearly no possessive. but its employment can be better understood if it is regarded as establishing an attributive rather than a possessive or partitive relation between two words. on the other hand. two roads the upper shrine a moonlight night yo This use of no tion 'a is. other than by position. Regarded in this way the significance of no in such locutions as the following becomes much clearer : yaso no shima (M. In waga. in such phrases as 'a child of three'.. however. soga. Strictly speaking. To take a very early example. and it may be said that modern Japanese has no exclusive means of indicating this case. to explain such forms as but in English it is Nor is the analogy tale omoshiro no monogatari iigai-na no koto 3*70 an interesting a thing not worth speaking of G g r> . but relates yatsuka ho to ikashi ho. that certain specialized uses of ga and wa constitute an attempt by the language to single out. ano. yatsuka ho no ikashi ho many-bundled and luxuriant ears where it is quite clear that no does not mean 'of. 'of in English. but only an attributive relation between ko (='here') and hito.) jilyen no kogitte futatsu no michi kami no yashiro tsuki no eighty isles a cheque for ten yen . parallel with that of the preposi. though they contain no particle to indicate nominative or accusative. in sufficient Japanese widely extended. kano. &c. as will be shown later. NO may be defined as a genitive particle. for these words mean 'my'.: — CASE PARTICLES 225 are complete as they stand. &c. 'a night of terror' restricted. In one of its simplest and earliest uses it forms demonstrative adjectives from pronouns kono. 'thy'. if not the grammatical subject of a sentence. of course. as the translation shows. there is a definite possessive sense. sono and in such a phrase as kono hito. It will be seen. neither wa nor ga.

the last day of Spring This use of no. The meanings are the land that is Yamato '. exactly as if it were the regular attributive inflexion. But here again the Japanese use is much more widely extended than the English. but somewhat found in a life fleeting as the dew a flower-like face. which one may suppose to mean 'a devilish business'.) itazura no Saburo the land of Yamato the grass-quelling sword the naughty Saburo Here indeed there is no trace of a possessive relation. the Counsellor to-day.) Kusanagi no tachi (K. moon-like eye-brows fast as tsuyu no inochi (M. can serve to convert almost any part of speech into an adjective. Further illustrations of this type are : ani no Yoshitaro chichi no Dainagon haru no kagiri no kyb no hi Yoshitaro. very ' much as in the English idioms.226 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR no is where we have no effect of affixed to an adjectival stem. rather than an attribute.) hana no kanbase tsuki no mayu yuku midzu no hayaku These running water may perhaps be compared with such English colloquial expressions as 'a devil of a business'. Here the to give the adjective its attributive value. Thus : hidari no te makoto no kotoba mukashi no tera saikin no tokei umitate no tamago wadzuka no koto kanete no negai the left hand true words ancient temples recent statistics new-laid eggs a trifling thing a previous request A construction which elliptical. 'a dreamlike hat'. by which one word is brought into an attributive relation with another. 'her fool of a husband'. . is is similar to those just described. 'a dream of a hat'. 'the county of Kent'. and the particle even points out an identity. iigai naki koto. The attributive force of no is further exemplified in Yamato no kuni (M. in omoshiroki monogatari. &c. his elder brother her father.

corresponding not so much to 'a person's coming' as to 'a person comes'. It can in addition be attached to clauses or sentences. and yuku attributive. acting as a substantive. The sentence hito ga kuru is the usual equivalent of 'a person comes' in the modern colloquial. They go back to a stage of language where there is incomplete differentiation between substantive and verb. ga. thus hito hito : no kuru no tabi ni yuku which hito literally son's going can be translated 'a person's coming'. the first of which is a group of words. or a group of words.CASE PARTICLES 227 The foregoing examples have shown no acting as a link between two simple substantival forms. But. It can also link up two such forms when the second is a word. It is difficult to trace the process by which these usages have developed. which for this purpose are treated as substantival groups. 'a peron a journey '. such phrases in 1 . and the second a simple substantive or its equivalent. because the relation between hito is not so much possessive as Japanese tend to be regarded as complete statements. This tendency is even more marked in the case of the other genitive particle. In the early language we frequently meet (especially in and kuru. Thus : yukan no kokoro kuru hito nashi no yado a a mind comes to go lodging where no man haha hitotsu no kyodai matsu hito no kon ya koji ya no sadame nakereba chichi kawarite with the same mother and a different father it being uncertain whether he whom I await will come or brothers jippi wo mite mairaseyo no on tsukai kainin nanatsuki no onna sanbyaku nin Heike monogatari ni tsukite no kenkyii yukite no nochi not a messenger to go and find out the truth three hundred women seven months gone with child inquiry into the Heike Monogatari after having gone In the above cases the function of no is to connect two substantival forms.

but the colloquial exacts the use of no. performs a characteristic function. 'a man that I know'. In English. for instance. 'falling rain'. a frequent idiom is that illustrated by tbi koto lit. Thus. but ware shiru Into kuru would be barely intelligible in Japanese. In rudimentary propositions. the sentence hito no kuru wo shiru It will be is the equivalent of 'I know that a man comes'. significant word-order. too. But if we say ware no shiru hito. and the phrase means 'an I-know man'. This tendency is no doubt reinforced by deficiencies in other directions the lack. e.) In the modern colloquial. is adequate. no serves to form both relative and subordinate sentences. ame furu. a man with long legs'. The phrase shiru hito as it stands is neutral. ware no shiru is ashi no nagaki in ashi no nagaki hito. literally 'a legs-long man'. Thus — ' : kuru hito hito no kuru toki a man who comes the time when a man comes . In the written language the simple form ashi nagaki hito is permissible. in these contexts. which is another way of saying 'Jones is dead'. &c. in common with tion between terms. Analogous with the combination i.: ' 228 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : poetry) sentences which are in form exclamations rather than assertions. michi no 'the farness of the road '=' What ! In modern English way it is an analogy may be found a long in newspaper head-lines such as 'Death of Jones'. seen that. number. in the sense that shiru is merely attributive to hito. It is necessary to indicate the relaIt is here that no. 'the Sovereign's saying' = 'the Sovereign said' shiku (Res. such as sumera mikoto no nori tamai- lit. 'rain falls'. even in longer sentences. the particle no brings ware into close relation with shiru. other particles. of a simple method of indicating agreement of person. furu ame. the relation between terms is made clear by apposition in significant order. together with simple inflexions. Since hito no kuru corresponds to 'a man comes' as well as to 'a man's coming'. Thus 'I know a man comes' is clear enough in English. It may signify either 'a man who knows' or 'a man who is known'.

but by an extension of meaning the exclamation becomes an assertion. ' (2) inaba soyogite akikaze no rustling the young rice the fuku (3) autumn wind blows in the rainy shigururu sora ni kari no naku nari sky the geese are crying Here kari no naku is treated as a substantive. and literally therefore the last words might be translated the singing of the warbler'. it is quite clear that the exclamatory sense has vanished. . Thus while hito no taburu might mean 'people's eating !' hito no — . by means of the following quotations : (1) shirayuki no kakareru eda ni uguisu no naku in the branches on which the the warbler white snow sings lies the link between subject and predicate The second connects uguisu with naku. In the modern colloquial the sentence would run kari no naku no de aru. which is a substantival form of the verb. even at the risk of over-elaboration.CASE PARTICLES hito 229 hito hito no kuru wo matsu no kuru made matsu no kuru koto to wait for a man to come to wait until a man comes the fact of a man's coming. first Here the no is of a relative sentence. — (4) nani ka wakare no kanashi-karamashi how shall the parting be sad? (5) Kasugano no wakana tsumi ni hito no yukuran no kokoro no hana to folk will go herb gathering on the moor flowers of Kasuga like (6) hito were men's love to fade chirinaba In the last three examples the modern colloquial equivalent would require the use of ga wakare ga kanashikarb hito ga yukb kokoro ga hana no yd ni chitte shimaeba. In relative sentences where no is affixed to the subject. . to illustrate the process by which it has developed. and nari serves as verb -4.copula 'It is a crying of the wild geese'. and the passage can be fairly rendered 'the warbler sings'. or the fact that a man comes This use of no is so important that it is worth while.

) • v \ is . abstract) or tsubame no tobu koto. ataraThe following sentences show the difference clearly : kono uta wa Hitomaro ga yomikeru~) . hito no kuru wo matsu) or make mono (a thing. and still more frequently in the spoken. I add a few examples of this usage haru no kiru kasumi no ko- the robe of mist that Spring romo hito wears things that people close no ii-morasamu koto may dis- imijiki tenjin no amakudareru wo mitaran yd ni as shika no kayou hodo no michi uma no kayowanu koto arubekarazu if he had seen a splendid angel descend from heaven It is not likely that a horse cannot follow a path big enough for a deer to follow In its use as a genitive particle no is at times found in the written language.) shu and (poems) of my own ima no aruji mo mae no mo the present master and the (Tosa) kore wa anata no desu (Mod. concrete). use of the words koto (a thing.. and is invariably used where the written language would employ simple substantival forms (e. & J this v poem /T . ' Hltomaro .) J TT .. one |^ kono uta wa Hitomaro ga yonda no f desu (Coll. : Manydshu ni iranu furuki uta old poems not in the Manyomidzukara no wo mo (Kokin.. E.) former one this is yours Another elliptical use of no is to be found in such phrases as tsubame no tobu no ga hayai kitte the flight of the swallow is quick no furui no wo atsumeru no kuru no wo matsu atarashii no ga nai hito to collect old stamps there are no new ones to await a person's coming The idiom here illustrated is confined to the spoken language.230 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : taburu mono means 'the things which people eat'. and nothing else. just as in English we can say 'the book is John's'. nan (Lit. g.. . as in shiki mono. Coll. g. following one substantive without linking it to another.

Examples of the use of ga in its primary significance are : shi kore ga kokoro wa ta ga his te own heart is this ? zo whose hand umegaka kimigayo kore ga tame the scent of the plum-blossom the king's reign on account of this It will be found that when ga is affixed to a simple noun. &c. between the demonstrative adjectives kono. however. as is clear from the distinction already pointed out. garding no as equal to koto or mono. and the possessive adjectives waga. as Japanese. But I confess I cannot explain historically the usage shown in the last examples.CASE PARTICLES 231 This last use of no is very common and of great importance Its meaning is easily understood by rein the colloquial. sono.£ was used were reproduced in Japanese by means of no. to a greater degree than no. anata yuku no desu ka zuibun samui no desu are it 's you going very cold ? where yuku ka and samui desu would seem to be sufficient. and then adopted. that noun is most frequently a word indicating a person. soga. a Chinese connective suffix. similar in meaning and use to no. which corresponds in certain ways with no. still less the very common colloquial idiom shown in influence. It is stated on good authority that in the whole of the Heike . but this by no means necessarily reveals the true sense-development. It establishes. which is difficult to trace.£. such as the Kojiki. no is represented by . Examples are : kore wa warui no desu itta these are bad ones this (=warui mono) kesa no wa machigai de- shita (=itta koto) what I said wrong there are flowers morning was without hana no nai no ga aru (=nai mono) It is possible some that some of the uses of no are due to Chinese In early texts. in the written language at least. and it seems likely that special Chinese constructions where . GA is by origin a genitive particle. &c. a possessive relation between the two elements which it connects.

kaze suzushi. in sho miru ga omoshiroshi chi naki Thus. A typical contrast between the uses of the two particles in this respect is found in such a phrase as shizuno-o ga ono no oto It is the sound of the peasant's axe show a purely possessive (i) not of course contended that no cannot be used to relation. between two substantives. falls'. night is cool'. there can be no con' ga oshi pleasant to read books those without wisdom are many it is the introduction of ga shows that miru and naki are the When. In all other cases it is the name or description of a person. particularly where the relation between subject and predicate is. ga is almost invariably used in preference to no. because it Thus is on the subject that emphasis is laid. as in these cases. and so to place the second of these in the principal position in the clause where it occurs and . owing to the length or the construction of the sentence. : .232 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Monogatari only one example occurs where ga connects two substantives of which the first is the name of a thing. GA indicates the subject of a clause. and so to place the first of these in the principal position in the clause where it occurs. while in yofukenu. between two substantives. is The contrast (1) illustrated in the following examples : Masamune no katana Masamune ga katana chichi no Dainagon Dainagon ga chichi a Masamune sword Masamune's sword her father the Dainagon the Dainagon's father the Lord of (2) (3) Taniba no kami Tamba whereas Tamba ga kami would be as unusual as 'Norfolk's Duke'. primarily possessive or dependent. or a substantival group. 'the wind fusion. subjects. not immediately apparent. in the same way as no. but that is the function of no to express a loose relationship. (2) the function of ga is to establish a close relationship. whether attributive or partitive. the subject is a verb or adjective in its substantival form.

probably because kaku ga gotoku would be cacophonous. waga kokumin ga sono dokuritsu wo hozen to seshi kokumin no yokkyii . In subordinate (relative) clauses. Thus we can say is No like those ' hana no nai hana ga nai toki toki a time a time when when there are no flowers there are no flowers with a slight difference of emphasis.CASE PARTICLES 233 shall we call a dream only nuru ga uchi ni miru wo nomi that which we see during ya wa yume to iwan sleep ? used on the other hand in exclamatory sentences. should preserve their independence . because from their nature the emphasis lies on the verb and not on the subject. uye. Where ga is used it is because special attention is drawn to the subject. e. . koe no harukesa. 'it is rare for the wise to be rich'. already quoted. Kaku no gotoku appears to be an exception. 'the time when flowers blossom'. and gotoshi are not of their nature emphatic. no is found more often than ga. sore ga uye ni. writer is emphasizing the fact that the demand was a popular one. where the second substantive or verbal form is the important one. but we cannot say hana no nai as well as hana ga nai for 'there are no flowers'. The following are examples from modern prose to illustrate the respective uses of these particles : waga kuni no rikken seitai no kigen wa. . kashikoki hito no tomeru wa mare nari. the f aroffness of its voice'. the people. In the spoken language it is usual to indicate the subject of a sentence by means of a particle. because the words tame. and so it comes about that ga is used for this purpose in independent sentences. and therefore ga is used rather than no with the first kokumin. g. aru ga gotoshi. the beginnings of constitutional government in this ni motozuku mono nari country are based upon a demand of the people that they. . while no is reserved for use in relative clauses. Ga is used rather than no in phrases like kore ga tame. hana no saku toki. . The 3*70 Hn . Thus.

the attributive form nu of which is identical with the particle no. is This conjecture also put forward by Yamada. and there are in archaic Japanese a number of instances where nu represents a later no. Though no and ga are now distinct. the first words is used in preference to no. ' stage between the original form on the one hand and no and ga on the other. It is certainly difficult to understand the sense development of no if it was originally a genitive particle. 2nd ed. 'palm of menajiri=me no hand' manako=me no ko. and there was a specialized and this accords {grammar. The Luchuan equivalent is nu. and therefore ga But in the second. . 120) genitive particle tsu. . and no is used rather than ga.234 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR the Diet being dissolved. 'to be'. for its uses are mainly attributive. The conjectured development * is nu / \ na i no i nga i no i ga no with the hypothesis advanced by Aston that there was a verb nu. p. which survives as a fossil embedded in the words tanagokoro =te no kokoro. There are traces in the earliest Japanese writings of a particle na. In the first example. the failure of the budget is inevitable it is solely for the purpose of ascertaining the opinion of the nation that the Diet is dissolved gikwai ga kaisan serare yosan no fuseiritsu wo miru koto wa yamu wo enu koto nari gikwai no kaisan seraruru wa kokumin no yoron wo tashikamuru tame ni hoka naranu. 'eyeball' shiri. gikwai ga kaisan serare is not a relative clause but an incomplete principal clause. and it is likely that na is an intermediate . the canthus'. because there is no emphasis on gikwai. mean 'the being-dissolved of the Diet'. Ga has a conjunctive This 1 is use.. in co-ordinating two sentences. discussed separately under Conjunctive Particles. it is probable that they have a common origin. Bumpo-ron.

! koko ni chikaku wo kinakite come and here sing. now used A mark the objective case. 'by oneself oto-tsu-hi (day before yesterday) ototsuhito (younger brother) ya-tsu-ko (house-child servant) ' = as well as in many place-names. I should not have waked. Akitsushima.) a voice crying send a boat O Ferryman. though it survives in combination in a number of phrases like TSU onodzukara midzukara ototoi ototo ? yakko ono-tsu-kara. 'autumn time'. tumn moon known I . &c. . survive in poetical language. . . &c. except Of these a few for a number of stereotyped compounds. . by oneself mi-tsu-kara.) watarimori June watase wo I will sleep in to the middle. such as Kotsuke. . In the Heian period tsu was already out of use. though is it seems to have been originally an interjection.! ' CASE PARTICLES 235 It is now appears to be a true genitive particle. Oh close to yo (M. WO. watching the Au- (5) yume to shiriseba . he said. O ! yobu koe (M. same- had zaramashi wo it to be a dream.) In the Heian period wo is used more freely and with a wider range of meaning. trace of its original exclamatory force can be seen in to : the following examples naka ni wo nemu (K. obsolete. but . to soothe tamau (2) (Genji) him though (you say) be seen dress quickly it miezu to wo iedomo cannot (3) toku sdzokite kashiko e wo and come here maire (4) yomosugara mite wo akasamu aki no tsuki all night long I would keep awake. Itsukushima. such as akitsukata. as is shown in these quotations : (1) nodoka ni wo to nagusame (Genji) 'gently'. mukashitsubito 'men of old'.

woba (=wo wa). That being so. by particles. wo may be fairly described as an . but we cannot say ware ga mo nomu for 'I also drink'. Subject to the above. close the gate (8) wa mada yoi nagara akenuru wo kumo no idzuko ni tsuki yadoruramu on summer nights light while it is still it grows evening. . however.236 (6) HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR kaku mosu wo tnina ina to hito mosu ni yorite he spoke thus. It is primarily now be used word-order which determines case in the : in Japanese. where in the clouds does the moon take lodging ? of it The above examples will have shown the development wo from an exclamatory to an emphatic particle. it seems. though ga and no when indicating a nominative cannot. whereat everybody said No. adverbial particle used no case particle is Thus : yama no na nomi ya tsu e kikitsu- hearing. sake wo ba nomu. That should to emphasize in particular an objective case is the more readily understood when one remembers that in Japanese cases are marked. be used with adverbial particles. 'to drink wine'. That being so. but not formed. . (7) asu monoimi naru wo mon wo tsuyoku saseyo natsu no yo to-morrow is a fast day. carrying flowers they light fires and bring charcoal is Where an required. 'to drink wine also'. only the ? wa ta ga kakitaru zo names of mountains who drew the picture Wo can. objective The following sentences contain words case without wo tsuribune no tayutau mireba hito wo yobite mono torasu as I watched the rocking of the fishing boats he calls some one and gives him something Miko wa hana mochite nobori tamaikeri hi nado okoshite sumi mote wataru the Prince ascended. as in sake wo mo nomu. and therefore . Thus we can have the combinations wo mo.

. and Osaka nite hito wo wakare tokoro on parting from a person at (Kokin. . .CASE PARTICLES 237 accusative particle. It can govern not only simple nouns. . waited as agreed despite that. when Sanehira hears that and children have been seized and his house burned down. but any substantival form. wo retains something of its exclamatory force : yakusoku no gotoku machishi mono wo kimi naze kitazarishi It will I Why. his wife .) toshigoro Osaka a place where he had lived for years wo sumishi be regarded as obsolete. . When a passive verb is used it can retain the object which it would have if active. including a complete clause regarded as a substantive : midzu wo nomu hito hito wo utsu ari no kuru wo matsu ya nashi ya wo shirazu to drink water to strike a man to wait till a man comes not knowing whether there are or are not a characteristic rather of certain verbs than of this it can be used to indicate the indirect object of verbs which in English are intransitive. In the phrase mono wo at the end of a sentence. Of this nature are umi wo Nagasaki e—'hy sea to Nagasaki'. the title of an article in a newspaper. . The object is then designated by wo which may elliptical uses like : wo nusumaru kubi wo kiraruru mi ni furokku koto wo matotokei eru soshi no tame ni bakudan he has his watch stolen to have one's head cut off he had a bomb thrown at him by a rough garbed in a frock coat wo tozeraretari Sanehira saishi wo torare jiltaku wo yakiharawarenu to kikaba. did you not ! come be seen that this is ? equivalent to a conjunctive use. Thus It is particle that : michi wo yuku ie wo sumu to go along a road to live in a house which are modern uses.





The following uses


in combination are frequent


consists of

has the significance of emphasis upon the object

wo and the emphatic particle wa ( =ha = its two components, i. e. an wo ba
he takes this and rejects that

kore wo ba tori sore sutsu



exactly parallel to such combinations as wo mo, wo



&c, and

calls for

no special comment.

WO MOCHITE, WO MOTTE are used in somewhat formal
prose, instead of ni or ni yotte, to indicate an agent or a cause, and can usually be translated 'by' or 'with'.



wo motte okuru wo motte sono yue wo motte

to send by messenger by that means
for that reason

Ju gwatsu ni ju roku nichi wo motte owari wo tsugenu
. .




to an end on October 'With Oct. 26', &c.)

would be

used, also in formal prose, where wo alone the object, particularly in the case of causative verbs, where both direct and indirect object are expressed. Thus


sufficient, to indicate


Yoritomo Yoshitsune wo shite Yoshinaka wo semeshimu
chichi ko

Yoritomo caused Yoshitsune to attack Yoshinaka
the father puts the son into business if you ask me to speak without reserve


shite jitsugyb ni



shite kitan

naku iwa-


This form should be compared with ni the subject.

used to indicate


in its simplest uses

can be variously translated

'in', 'to',

'at', or 'by',

or locative in the character of a dative particle

and may be described as a dative, instrumental particle. 1. The following are examples of its use

Sumera mikoto ni sadzukete
tare ni





ka misemu (M.)


shall I


it ?

hito ni


mono wo atau

oya ni niru bushi ni nigon nashi

to give a thing to a person to resemble one's parents a knight is truthful (lit. to a knight there are not two

ko otsu ni otoru




inferior to

B (^

ko, Z.

used in Japanese for enumeration, like
otsu, pj hei are
a, b, c)

kawa ni chikaki uchi

a house near the river


extension of the dative use, somewhat resembling an

ethical dative,

found in

kikun ni wa ikani oboshimesu


Denka ni mo
. . .

shitashiku dairin

Sir, what do you think ? His Highness also was gra-

ciously pleased to inspect
in person


Taishd dono ni owashiki


hiraka ni


General was




As an instrumental
inu ni kamaru haha ko ni nakaru


denoting agency or cause.

gakumon ni mi wo kurushimuru
hitome no tsutsushimashisa ni waza to ybru ni magirete mairite soro zaikwa ni kokoro madou hana ni mai tsuki ni utai

is bitten by a dog the mother is wept for by the child to afflict the body by study


out of anxiety to avoid being seen by others I purposely came under cover of the night he is led astray by riches dancing because of the flowers, singing because of the


As a

locative particle, denoting rest at or motion to

a point, in space or in time.

Tokyo ni sumu Tokyo ni yuku
hako ni osamete oku hatsuka ni kuru nijiigo sai ni oyobu goji ni okureru

to to to to to to

live at


go to Tokyo keep in a box

come on the twentieth
reach the age of twenty-five

be later than

five o'clock


sending him to China for study to go to see the flowers he comes to condole for what purpose (lit. 'for doing what ') should I listen ? he says it to soothe (you)
the meaning 'by


slight extension of this use accounts for locutions like

Morokoshi ni mononarawashi
ni tsukawashi hanami ni yuku tomurai ni ku nani semu ni ka



kiyasume ni iu

where ni has the meaning

'for the purpose'.


further extension gives

way of, way
of a

wo fue ni fuku

he blows his fan by

tsuyu wo tama ni nuku na ni ou
. . .

to thread dewdrops like jewels bearing as a name (i. e.
. .





hana wo yuki ni miru goza wo kasa ni kaburite

regarding the flowers as snow wearing a piece of matting as a hat


similar are expressions like

midzu wo yu ni nasu hito wo baka ni suru
kurenai ni sometaru hakase ni nam

to to

make cold water into hot make a fool of a man

dyed crimson to become a doctor

4. The last-named use may be termed adverbial, and akin to it is the function of ni to form adverbial phrases from substantival forms

tadachi ni ogosoka ni kirei ni ogesa ni omowazu ni kuwauru ni anzuru ni oniou ni

immediately solemnly


in addition,




omompakaru ni uta wo yomu ni

when one

opinion considers in reading poetry


common with

other case particles,

when used

in this


at the end of a sentence, substantival in assertion, ni serves as a conjunctive


form but in
it is



hi teru ni

ame furu

while the sun shines


This idiom is further discussed under the heading of Conjunctive Particles.
5. Meaning 'alongside of, 'together with' extension of the locative use.



matsu ni tsuru
shishi ni hbtan nuitaru hitatare

pine trees and cranes a robe embroidered with (a design of) lions and peonies

is frequent in the colloquial, where ni serves to enumerate a number of things in conjunction. Thus the Biru ni masamune {ni) cries of pedlars at railway stations matchi ni tabako, 'Beer, Masamune, matches, and tobacco'. An idiomatic use of ni which should be mentioned here is

This usage


illustrated in
hie ni hie trite

getting chilled through


natnida wo otoshi ni otosu

yoware ni yowaremairase mashite

through he wept and wept growing weaker and weaker

nanibito mo machi ni machitaru teki-kan to no shukkwai

was the encounter with the enemy's ships for which


we had





'being', in such locutions as

Imoo Dono no rddo ni Munetoshi to iu ko no mono ari

there is a retainer of Imoo Dono's, a stalwart named

used simply in its locative might be argued that ni here and could be translated 'among the retainers', but that would not account for


sono uchi ni I so no Zenshi ga musume ni Shidzuka to iu shirabyoshi bakari zo miezu

of these a dancer

named Shidzuka, the daughter of Iso no Zenshi, alone was missing

With the exception

of the last named, the foregoing uses of ni are not hard to understand, particularly by those accustomed to the variety of English prepositions. It is, indeed,

j i



worth noting that ni is used uniformly in a number of cases where the English idiom exacts a different preposition each

no tame ni no toki ni

for the sake of

at the time of

no yue ni no baai ni

on account


in the case of

&c, &c.
There is, however, a use of ni which, though one of the most important, cannot be explained by any analogy with those described above. It is that illustrated in such sentences as

kore ni arazu ayashiki mono ni koso are

nanigoto ni ka aran wadono tachi wa idzuko no hito ni ka kono kurai wa ametsuchi no sadzuketamau kurai ni ari

not this he is forsooth a strange person what is it, do you suppose ?
it is

what countrymen






a rank granted

by Heaven and Earth
is it

iwarenu mono ni areya (Res.) Gankai naru mono

a thing not to be spoken ?


man Gankai

Here the combination of ni with the verb aru has simply the meaning 'to be'. In English, because there is only one verb 'to be' we are apt to overlook the distinction between its predicative use (e. g. 'there are stones', where it means that stones exist) and its use as a mere copula (e. g. 'these are stones', where it connects subject and predicate, but does not mean anything by itself). The Japanese verb aru is a predicative verb, and ishi ari means 'there are stones', 'stones exist'. It cannot possibly mean 'it is a stone'. To convey the latter meaning we must say ishi nari ( = ni +ari), where ni acts as the copula between ishi and the predicative verb ari. No other explanation will account satisfactorily for the presence of ni in the example just quoted, or for its use, in the form nite, as in

mae wa umi

nite ushiro


yama nari kore wa gin

nite sore

wa kin

is the sea, behind the mountains this is silver and that is gold (lit. 'this being silver that is gold ')

in front it
it is

Tokimasa wa kashikoki
nite hakarigoto hito


aru mono

seeing that Tokimasa was a clever man with good plans


Here not only does ni act as a verb, but it even has a verb gerund of tsu), attached to it. This might of course be explained as an ellipsis of ni arite, as tote is of to iite, but tote is not found in early literature, while nite is common. Certainly the hypothesis that ni is a relic of an extinct verb which was a true copula makes it easy to understand many of the uses of ni and no which are otherwise I so no inexplicable. This is particularly true of (6) above Zenshi ga musume ni, &c. and of such locutions as chichi no Dainagon. These become quite clear if we assume no to be nu, the attributive form of the conjectured verb ('the Dainagon who is my father'). It is significant that with honorific forms of the predicative verb 'to be', ni or nite is constantly used as a copula. Thus
suffix, te (the


omoigake naki koto ni gozasoro

it is

an unexpected thing

Gen to mosu mono nite haberi on imo nite mashimashikereba
kokorotakeki hito nite owashi






since she

his sister

he was a bold-hearted


The following forms of ni in combination are frequent, and deserve some special notice


Okeru is the intransitive verb derived from and it is in the attributive form. Ni okeru consequently means 'situated in'. It is used to express
oku, 'to put',
location, as follows

waga kuni ni okeru minken undo

the democratic



our country

The locution

is confined to the written language, and it is almost certainly of Chinese origin, being a translation of the Chinese jfe.


for ni okite, is the adverbial


of the above,

used in the following
oite ichi



Harubin ni
koko ni

kybkan ni

he was shot by some ruffian
at Harbin at this point, hereupon

sogeki seraretari



ware ni
ippo ni



case, so far as I




kyozetsu suru ni oite


concerned on the one hand in case he declines

into' (hito

apart from its literal significance of 'making wo baka ni shite, 'making a fool of a person'), is used in modern prose to indicate the subject of a sentence where there is some fear of ambiguity. The employment of wo shite to denote the object is analogous. Owing to a somewhat difficult idiom by which the verbs aru and suru are sometimes interchangeable [v. p. 217), ni shite sometimes has the meaning of ni arite, as in the fol-

lowing examples


takumi ni


sumiyaka nari

being skilful



i.e. is

and speedy

kaimen taira ni no gotoshi


wa koshoku

ni shite gin


Tenno wa
It will

shinsei ni shite oka-

the surface of the sea, being smooth, is like a mirror gold being yellow silver is white, i. e. gold is yellow and silver white the Emperor is sacred and
shite is inter-


be found as a general rule that ni changeable with nite. In the sentence

kono on biwa ni shite kase tamau (HK.)


with this lute he deigned to play
. . .

ni shite can only be explained as a formal substitute for nite 'by' or 'with'.

NITE consists of ni and the conjunctive form, te,
suffix tsu. It has, generally speaking, the
it is

of the verb

except that

not used to

June fude

kawa wo wataru kaku yotsukado nite au moyuru nomi nite bakuhatsu
nite nite

same uses as ni, make a dative. Examples are to cross a river by boat

to write with a pen to meet at the crossroads


atama wa

hito nite

mi wa uo

only burns and does not explode as to its head it is a man and as to its body a fish



Nite is the origin of the colloquial de, the uses of which can be shown to correspond with the uses of ni or nite. De aru is the same as nite aru, demo as nite mo, and so on. Nite can have the locative sense of ni, meaning 'at' or 'in', but it cannot mean 'to', in the sense of direction

towards a place.

his brother too is a priest, at

mo Kyo
see nite

nite hoshi nite ari



meaning both



'to be'.

TO appears to have been originally a demonstrative pronoun
corresponding to the English word 'that'. This meaning survives in phrases like tokaku, 'that-this way', 'anyhow', and possibly in certain dialectical usages, such as yuku to desu, which seems to correspond to 'he is going, that he is'. A trace of this demonstrative sense can be perceived in such constructions as

which might be
'a tree, that



ki to


he says Ha it becomes a tree
! '

literally rendered Ha that he says ', and becomes'. In the Rescripts of the Shoku Nihongi we find clauses of the following type



oyashima no kuni shiroshimesu sumera, &c.

which can be translated 'The Sovereign that is a Manifest God ruling the Land of Many Islands'. Here to definitely
has the sense of 'that is'. Similarly in early texts we find such locutions as Chichi to masu hito, the person that is my father', where to corresponds almost exactly with the demonstrative that in English, in its use as a relative. From such beginnings to has developed a correlative use, which may in a comprehensive way be defined as the expression of a parity or similarity between two things. Thus



tama wo ishi to miru onna wo tsuma to suru
ko wo takara to iu kare wo teki to omou

to regard jewels as stones to make a woman one's wife to call children treasures

to think

him an enemy

Japanese grammarians distinguished the uses just illustrated as 'The five tos', referring to the employment




of the five verbs miru, kiku, omou, iu,

But the

merely incidental to the function of to in expressing parity or similarity, and is due to the fact that these relations must be perceived or created by one or all of the senses which the verbs describe in operation. A study of the examples given below will show that to expresses the relation itself, and not merely the judgement of a relation involved in the use of words like miru, omou, &c.
of these verbs





ningen tari







where tari is and ningen.

to ari, 1

and a parity

established between ware

chichi taru hito

the person






become stones kimi yukan to areba since you mean to go (' since it is that you are going ') In the following examples the element of judgement
ki ishi to nari


either expressed or understood


chichi to


to look father


to a person as a

nanji wo zainin to minasu ko wa otsu to onajiku ko wa otsu to chigaeri ko wo otsu to kuraburu utan to shitari ya wo nukan to su

regard you as a criminal

A in the same way as B A is different from B to compare A with B
he made to strike he tries to draw out the arrow changing Yedo to Tokyo he says he has no money

Yedo wo Tokyo
zeni nashi to iu




In Japanese all statements are reported in direct oraon the model of the last example, which can be rendered equally well 'He says, "I have no money".' Occasionally the verb which introduces the quotation is placed at its head, but to always marks the end of the narration. Thus

Kwansai chihb ni kosui ariki to iu dempd tochaku seri
sono dempd iwaku Kwansai chihb ni kosui ariki to

a telegram has arrived saying that there has been a
flood in the

Kwansai district


telegram says, 'There has been a flood in ', &c.

This tari


a late form,



Strictly speaking, the adjective or verb


ceding to sanctions the use of the attributive, as in tsuki idzuru to miyu, where idzuru is written for idzu. The verb following to is frequently understood or included in the sense of another verb

immediately preshould be in the conclusive form, but custom


ya ina ya


shimpai su



awaya tsuiraku suruka to te ni ase wo nigirishi ni buji ni
chi ni


he is anxious (wondering) whether there are or are not he scolded (saying) Silence while they clenched their hands perspiring (with fear as they thought) Alas, will he fall ? he descended safe! '


ly to earth

Genji no June wo isso
rasaji to

mo mo-

Mishimagatsu wo


they surrounded Mishimagatsu (intending) not to allow a single ship of the Genji to escape

4. Probably akin to its use after verbs denoting hearing or speaking, or otherwise connected with sound, is the employment of to to form onomatopoeic adverbs. Thus

gogo to nam karakara to warau horohoro to naku

to sound Gogo, i.e. to rumble to laugh harshly to weep and sob

An extension of this process accounts for a large number

though not strictly speaking onomatothem. These can be related as a rule to percepts other than sounds, but they resemble the above group in that they are composed of duplicated words, or at least of pairs of words that have some rhyme or assonance. Examples are
of adverbs which,
poeics, are similar to

chiri-jiri to


hira-bira to tobu

rin-ri to
rei-ro to





to be scattered to flutter to be seen distantly drip-drip brightly luxuriantly



to, kaku-yaku yu-yu to, &c.










also suffixed to

compounds formed with the

Chinese adverbial suffixes zen %k jo #q ko
totsu-zen to

^ &c., as in




($| %), firmly funjo to ($f #n), 'confusedly' totsujo to (^ #n), 'suddenly'


may be objected that this list covers the whole field of adverbs, but it will be found by those who care to examine a large number of adverbial expressions that a distinction can be drawn between those formed with to and those formed



are in a sense pictorial they are qualities as they are perceived. On the other hand, those formed with ni refer not only to apparent but also to actual and inherent characteristics. This difference is consistent with the difference between the two particles, for to expresses similarity or parity, while ni expresses identity. The contrast is perhaps best suggested by such pairs as
of the nature of similes,

Adverbs formed with

and deal with

kin wo gin to kaeru kin wo gin ni kaeru

to change gold for silver to change gold into silver

goza wo kasa ni kaburu goza wo kasa to kaburu

to wear matting as a hat to wear matting for a hat

In the distinction, though slight, is just perceptible. case the matting is regarded as being a hat, in the second as similar to or replacing a hat. Even if this contrast is stated rather more definitely than actual usage warrants, it will be found to explain a number of uses of to and ni, tari and nari, which are otherwise hard to grasp. Comparing the two formations it will be seen



(Cf 4, above) in ni.

That there are no onomatopoeic adverbs



above) That whereas an expression like harumeans 'distantly', 'as from afar', haruka ni means 'in the distance', 'far away'. (Cf. 6, above) That one cannot say teinei to for teinei ni or tashika to for tashika ni, because teinei and tashika are not figurative words, but attributes de(Cf. 5,





scribing actual qualities. Conversely, one must say totsuzen to for 'with a rush', 'in an abrupt way', while totsuzen ni means simply 'of a sudden', 'in






the foregoing illustrations (1-6)


serves to corre-

two things but one of its most important uses is to co-ordinate them in simpler words, to act like the conjunction 'and'. Thus


na to a to (K.) Rai to Gaku to (Res.) Hangman ga yakata to Kaneyuki ga ie

thou and


Etiquette and Music the Hangwan's mansion and

Kaneyuki's house

can also have the meaning together with ',
I will visit

along with



ware nanji to kare wo towan kikun to tomo ni chichi to katari ko to asobu

him with you

It is


mo yukaji




koro ni makaseyo

together with you talking with the father, playing with the child please yourself whether you will go or not go

an extension of this conjunctive use of to, particularly form illustrated in the last example, which has given rise to the forms -to, -tomo, -do, -domo, used as Conjunctive Particles uniting two sentences (v. under Conjunctive Parof the
ticles, p. 275).



idiomatic use of to (similar in meaning and developto that described in the case of ni under 5) is seen in :

yo ni ari to aru hito art to arayuru shudan kaze Juki to fukinu
ureshi to


in the


possible devices

the wind blew with





iki to shi ikeru




joyful as can be there any thing

ka uta wo yomazarikeru

at all that has not verses ?

which lives composed

The following are the position

more important uses

of to in



auxiliary verb, but

has by usage assumed the character of an it must not be confused with -tari, the

K k

has the meaning to arite. Thus this : sono arisama santan tari santantaru arisama dodo taru shinshi gaga taru ganseki shoko hanzen tareba the sight is pitiful a pitiful sight a dignified gentleman rugged-looking rocks the proof being clear In a general way. .. Examples of its use are : ko taru (ko to aru) mono wa nanji bunsho no hito taru ni yotte persons who are children. quoted above. and the combination to shite. These compounds have the meanings which follow naturally from the meanings of theii components. Examples are difficult is : Rather more tsuyaku 1 to shite jugun seri he was attached to the army as interpreter It should be understood that tari as a contraction of to ari does not occur in Nara or early Heian texts.e. Tari as an auxiliary verb is analogous to nari. the difference between tari and nari is the difference between to and ni. just as ni shite can stand for ni arite or nite. a menial to have killed such a person as a General. those falling within the category children. 1 It can be used with any of those uninflected Chinese words which become adverbs by the aid of to. i. To assimilates A to B. the child seeing that you are a man of ' letters With masu idiom should be compared the locution Chichi to hito. . TO SU {TO SHI. TO SHITE). for instance. which in a like way is composed of ni and ari. ' soldier mono wo koroshitsuru wa ..' ' 250 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR verbal suffix which is composed of te (conjunctive form of tsu) and the verb -ari. Thus : subeki mono jdsen sen to suru mono tomo to one who can be made a friend persons intending to embark a group of idioms in which suru takes the place of aru. Thus : gunjin taru shikaku gunjin naru shikaku gero no mi nite taishb-taru the qualification of being a soldier the qualification for . while ni states an identity between A and B.

without introducing any idea of 'to regard as'. . not a single one was answered from the highest in the land kami hitori yori hajimete shi- mo bammin shimazu to hitori to shite ni itaru made nageki kanaiu koto nashi down there to his lowest subjects. was not one who did not bewail and grieve It will be found that to suru is often quite adequately rendered in English by the verb 'to be'. saying. has a more limited but only for to and some : verb expressing or including the idea of seeing. thinking. form to nite. . to iitemo in the sense of sari tote sareba tote though that be so though that is so . &c. occasionally of all the prayers of the Heike. It in cannot stand for to arite. Thus : sono hattatsu wo meiryo ni seru chosho no imada arawarezaru wo ikan to su it is to be regretted that so no work has appeared which makes its developfar ment clear TOTE. though analogous use.CASE PARTICLES shoko hanzen bekarazu to shite 251 inamu the proof being clear ware ten no shu to shite bud no uchi no bud nari shugi to shite seisaku no hbshin wo danko shite kettei subeshi toki to shite it cannot be denied I being the Lord of Heaven am the Warrior King of Warrior Kings to as a principle. as in the following examples sugu kaeranu tote idetachikeri hanami ni tote idetatsu he went off saying that he would soon come back he went off meaning to go to see the flowers mukashi Ishikawa Goemon tote nadakaki dorobo arishiga once upon a time there was a famous robber called Ishi- kawa Goemon Sometimes tote stands for to iite or to iedemo. on principle the policy of government Heike no inori no hitotsu to shite shirushi wa nakari keri must be definitely fixed at times. meaning 'although' : .

The distinction is. and surnames like Watanabe. he to e and he to be. either in time or space. HE. Thus we have Tokyo e yuku. 'coast'. or in an abstract sense. and it is the element denoting direction in the common words mae. called) it 's lit. literally 'go-place'. denotes motion towards a from motion up to a point. however. as in : To wa some verb like ' to say asamashi nari to wa yo no tsune it the ' may be way (is wretched.e. 'destination'. 'to go to Tokyo'. It appears as a substantive in early texts. and tote are compared and do have acquired their function as conjunctive particles. ' the coast '. as in mo yo no tsune nari mo. u-he. aspirate. 'top' departed).: ' 252 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR is tote. with the meaning of If these elliptical uses of to it will be seen how tomo. hesaki. he. Thus inishie yori roku ji yori hajimaru 1 from of old begins at six o'clock objected that these derivations involve two different i. usually pronounced point. domo. 'the true direction'). It is no doubt identical with be in umibe. the prow of a ship '. not always observed in writing. 'although'. &c. (= ie. 'front' (=ma' he. but exists in combinations in such words as yukue. hamabe. 1 YORI denotes the point from which an act or a state commences. 'house' (= i jg 'dwelling'. 'place'). . 'to reach Tokyo'. expressed by ni. and does not exist in colloquial. but Tokyo ni itaru. what wretched is the way of the world' To mo nikushi to is used in a similar way. though the to it is disagreeable it 's way of the world wa. as in umi no he. which is now obsolete as an independent substantive. He is a word meaning 'place'. 'seaside'. 'the past' (inishi = ue. 'topside'). used elliptically like being understood. as distinguished e or ye. But the original sound of he was almost certainly something like p followed by a light It maybe sound changes. and inishie. but of the world.

is a separate formation from ' ' ' ' . but not in the Kojiki. gold life is The construction kin wa gin yori omoshi takara wa inochi yori oshishi hitori wealth I heavier than silver is more precious than min yori mo hito to min jinko yori ieba sekai daito no dai go i ni oru would rather see it with others than alone in population (lit. meaning 'towards'. In any case it seems almost certain that the earliest form of yori was a noun. ' outside akiramuru yori hoka wa nashi the point of departure is similar in is we can only resign ourselves an abstraction.v.). i. signifying a starting-point. The change of vowel from yu to yo. Yu is found in the Manyoshu and the Nihongi. the archaic word meaning place or direction which is now the particle he (q. But I suspect that it is yu. is quite common. yu or yo. It may be that yori. but not in the Nihongi. There is a verb yoru. but not in the Kojiki. and yu therefore presumably had a meaning like 'origin'.' CASE PARTICLES hito yori 253 ukuru Shina yori kaerite koko yori higashi no kata In such expressions as kore yori hoka from a person returning from China eastwards from here to receive other than this of ') (lit. meaning 'cause'. The obsolete word gari. and there are synonymous forms yu and yo. yuri to yori. in the sense of 'owing to'. Yue would thus signify the place from which a thing arises. meaning to depend upon '. 'deriving from'. Yo is found in the Kojiki and the Manyoshu. and that this yu persists in the word yue. which is probably yu +he. It is therefore hard to say which is the earliest form. but this is mere conjecture. its ground or reason. may provide an analogy for the formation of yori and yuri from yo and yu. speaking ' standpoint of] population ') it is the fifth in rank of the world's great [the cities from The word yori appears in some early texts as yuri. Yuri is found in the Manyoshu and Shoku Nihongi. e.

while kara is rare in the written language.) and kara. 'of meaning lineage or family. as in manako. were all originally independent substantives. thence acquiring the meaning 'of the same parentage'. arise HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR but I am inclined to think that from an original form yu. with a meaning something like 'cause' or 'origin'. (= mi-tsu-kara. parentage. 'since he has come back. Thus kore yori takashi. and used as a noun to indicate 'brothers and sisters'. however. This can still be perceived in compounds like midzukara. &c. onodzukara one's own accord' iegara. 'country-origin'. e. yori. 'belly-origin'. as for instance in the phrase kami nagara. In both. Kara. kunigara. is derived from na (the genitive particle no. since I came back I haven't met him '. born of the same mother. yori must be used to indicate comparison. and kara. 'since it rained. with the meaning 'since' or 'because'. used in describing the emperors. There is no doubt that kara was at one time a noun. but in the spoken language only. Ame ga furu kara denai. It is found acting as a substantival form in early texts. ' ' ' in its modern use is practically identical with yori. 'I don't go out. developed a special use as a conjunctive particle. which has developed the meaning of 'while'.254 this verb. as in amefurishi yori gwaishutsu sezariki. kaette kara aimasen. with the sense of 'descended from the gods'. We ' . The common word nagara. I did not go out'. for it is higher ' KARA than this'. he. In the spoken language it is used almost to the exclusion of yori. like other particles. kaetta kara aimasho. and not kore kara takashi. all these forms Yori in the written language has. meaning nationality. I shall meet him'. harakara. It will be noticed that the last three particles treated. serves as a conjunctive. by which it acquires the meaning since or because '. may therefore reasonably assume that the development of some at least of the other particles has been analogous. 'house-origin'. ono-tsu-kara) . i. because it 's raining'. like yori.

Any adverbial particle can follow any case particle. g. : Tokyo made yuku kuji It made neru to go as far as Tokyo to sleep until nine o'clock can also act as an adverbial particle. nan. koso. zo. ADVERBIAL PARTICLES This class consists of the particles wa. They are distinguishable from the Case Particles by the fact that they can be suffixed to forms other than substantival forms that they can be suffixed to substantives and that they to which a case particle is already attached aff ect frequently the meaning of a whole sentence rather than of a single word. . &c. wo koso. e. until '. &c. mo. dake. nado.bakari.CASE PARTICLES 255 ' MADE as a case particle means ' as far as '. (3) Adverbial particles affecting the meaning of a sentence as a whole : kaze fukeba koso for the very reason that the tama nare kore mo tama nari kore koso blowing a jewel this also is a jewel is wind this indeed is yume yume nariki narishi ka ? was a dream was it a dream it ? . and made. dani. sura. woba. : (1) Adverbial particles suffixed to forms other than sub: stantival forms kazefukeba koso June idasazu kuchioshiku wa omoedomo because the wind blows the boat is not put out although I think it regrettable yume narishi ka ? arite zo ? was for mata mo kon nan no tsumi (2) I will a dream ? come again what crime indeed it ? Adverbial particles following substantives with case : particles fune ni mo. ni wa. nomi. These distinctions are shown by the following examples • . sae.shika. wo zo. June wo mo. together with the Interrogatives ka and ya. ni koso. ni zo.

256 It will HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR be seen that there is very little to distinguish these particles from true adverbs. and a rigid classification would probably include them under the latter heading. however. They may therefore reasonably be treated as intermediate between the other particles and adverbs. in Aston's . moreover. But. any possible contention that wa is a nominative is wa suffixed respectively to objective. (which is properly written ha) when suffixed to a noun loosely described as indicating a nominative case but this is not its true or its only function. Bumpo-ron). All authorities. and though it is true that it is often attached to substantives that form the subject of is . (2) its Wa is used to designate a thing clearly and to prevent being confused with other things (Yamada. WA a sentence. they differ from adverbs in that they have no independent existence. as noticed above. . That wa has nothing to do with what we call case is easy to show. This disposes of. They are. seem agreed that wa is. In Sendai kare to e wa yukanu wa kotonari kanashiku wa omoedo kore ni wa arazu do not go to Sendai different from that though I feel sad I it is it is not this nouns in cases other than the an adverb. is merely a corollary of its general signi- Some idea of that significance can be obtained from the following definitions. to particle. Taisho Goho). (3) Wa is a teniwoha which distinguishes things severally while others such as mo take one thing and regard it in its relation to other things (Otsuki). even though their function may be to modify the predicate. this ficance. It occurs with nouns in the dative and objective cases. and to another particle. quoted from various Japanese authorities (i) : Wa singles out and displays a given thing (Yoshioka. In sake wo ba nomazu (ba = wa) the noun is the object of a verb. very much akin to the other particles in that they are often closely attached to nouns.

has other ways of showing emphasis. Emphatic particles are freely used in Japanese. One does not need. A typical illustration of its function is kono hana wa shiroshi this flower is white explained as meaning 'this flower. such as One can take ice. for instance. It is hard to believe that in Japanese alone such a degree of emphasis is required in an elementary proposition.ADVERBIAL PARTICLES ' 257 words. to show that fire. 3»7o L 1 . is hot. irrespective of other qualities. For ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . however. such reservations are necessary in Japanese. wealth or happiness. irrespective of other flowers. is white'. The word 'emphasis' does. and it is therefore not easy to emphasize words by vocal stresses. irrespective of other flowers. In the first place spoken Japanese has an even accentuation. or we can say John it was instead of It was John but Japanese does not allow of such modifications or changes in significant word-order. such as which is hi wa atsushi fire is hot we must. a sentence expressing what is called a universal judgement. but they do not tell us precisely what. a separative or distinguishing particle '. stone. when 'hot' is predicated of 'fire'. use it have loaded the dice in their own favour. for two very good reasons. to make reservations as to the qualities of other things. In the second place English. but they do not sufficiently account for all the uses of wa. at any rate. but it does not seem to be sufficient. it distinguishes. Thus we can say I did go instead of I went '. is hot. So far as it goes. furnish some clue. for some reason not yet apparent. the explanation Those who is correct. for the word kono. but one may ask why it should be necessary in Japanese to express oneself with such caution. a statement on the model of fire is hot is complete and requires no modification. already indicates that one particular. If. In English. no exception to this on grounds of accuracy. interpret it as meaning that fire. irrespective of all other things. grass. These considerations go a long way towards explaining the use of emphatic particles where emphasis is required. then why do we not say hi wa atsushi wa. If we take a sentence which is not open to this objection. or why. which are not available in Japanese. irrespective of other things. following the usual explanation of wa. is white. 'this'.

but an emphasis inherent in every proposition. which has lost its character as an inflected tongue. agreements of person and number are retained precisely to serve this necessary purpose to relate subject and object. and then we predicate of it some selected property. and a predicate. but the Japanese idiom does selected. ' — between the function of wa of 'is' in 'fire is in hi wa atsushi and the function in fact. in Japanese denotes the concept Wa thus be called selective. so are zo and koso. There does not seem to be any fundamental difference position. and called wa. if wa is emphatic. It marks. the copula 'is' disappears. however. brought into relation by the copula 'is'. Motoori perceived this. It ' may . that the mental process by which any logical proposition is formed consists of two stages. In English a sentence like 'This house was built by my father is of a normal type. do not form a complete logical or grammatical proposition unless they are related in some way. but the two terms are related by another grammatical device. It is separative or emphatic to this extent. both words hot'. kakari or musubi. zo. &c. Even in English. When we say ' fire is hot '. the proposition 'Fire is hot' consists of two terms. between atsushi. not an emphasis modifying a proposition. hi zo atsuki. and hi koso atsukere. it is surely unlikely that the language would have developed such a refinement as three grades of emphasis unless forced to it by a deficiency in some other direction. we have first selected from all the concepts in our minds the particular concept fire. Wa. and there is not much difference. separative or distinguishing. it may help us to ascertain the true nature of these particles. a subject. 'fire'. Seeing that these particles existed in a relatively primitive stage of the language.258 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR one thing. first an analysis and then a synthesis. In the sentence Fire burns '. serves to relate subject and predicate of a logical proposition. In English. The two terms in simple juxta- hi wa all though vaguely comprehensible. signifying 'to join' or 'to connect'. 'hot'. by their position relatively to one another and by the presence of the inflexion 's'. namely. Probably one of the best illustrations of the true function of wa is provided by the Japanese idiom which is commonly used where in English we should employ a passive construction. except in degree of emphasis. If we can lay our finger on this deficiency.

ADVERBIAL PARTICLES 259 not favour a passive construction applied to the name of an inanimate thing. intelligible and grammatical. connected by a copula of any sort. or indeed when the predicate is uninflected as in hana wa kurenai. and in this case the function of connecting the two terms is performed by wa and nari in combination. so that. for instance. and the predicate by the special predicative termination ru. the remaining term must be the subject. the subject is defined by wa. where kurenai is an uninflected adjective. corresponding in a sense to the English verb 'to be'. the proposition can still be established. Thus we say matsu wa ki nari. The sentences hi atsushi ('fire is hot') and hi moyu ('fire burns') are not grammatically incomplete. in Japanese they are related by definition : (1) In hi wa atsushi the subject is defined by wa. wa may be regarded as serving as a copula. One further qualification must be added. Whereas in English these terms are related by an actual connecting link. Taking into consideration all the arguments set forth above. 'rivers flow'. 'the pine is a tree'. (2) In kawa wa nagaru. If either is removed. and the predicate is the complete sentence chichi ga tatemashita. where the subject of the logical proposition kono uchi. Consequently in Japanese the correct rendering of the above sentence is kono uchi wa chichi ga tatemashita. it seems that the Japanese language has adopted a special device for relating the terms of the notation of a logical proposition. 'this house'. though not with precision. 'my father built'. Though. for both matsu wa ki and matsu ki nari are. it would be wrong to leave that statement unqualified. and ' matsu ki is neither. the need of some connecting link is felt when the proposition becomes complex. But its use does not preclude the use of wa. because an inanimate thing like a house cannot get an act performed. the flowers are crimson '. however. the predicate by the special predicative termination shi. In this. as in the foregoing case. is designated by wa. They are not. though barely. as indicated above. get itself built. nari. one term being fixed. because in each case the predicate is indicated by a special predicative termination. cannot. There is in Japanese a copulative verb. the colloquial has . and while this is unimportant in rudimentary propositions.

the predicative verb nari is used to define the predicate. Here the principal clause is ware shirazarishi. 'existence as a tree' is predicated of be seen from reference to the section devoted to auxiliary verbs that nari is not a copulative verb. which means 'to exist'. It will of wa. and is low Here wa sentence.260 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR abandoned the use of the special predicative terminations. in fact. This follows naturally from the fact explained above. . the predicate. The terms of the proposition are. 'pine' ki nari. ko wa A is B of takeki mononofu no kokoro wo nagusamuru wa uta nari is what soothes the heart fierce warriors is Poetry In these cases there tokidoki deiri no emphatic value. but is composed of ni and the verb art. and the insertion of a subordinate clause between subject and predicate makes it desirable to define the subject by means of wa. The following examples will illustrate the various uses of wa : 1. kikedo wa su to though this I frequent hear that he does them at times kono yama wa takaku kano yama wa hikushi is that one it mountain is high. and no or ga the subject of subordinate clauses. but clearly the principal word — does serve to distinguish in this case the subject of the ware wa hito no kitaru wo I did not know that anybody shirazarishi had come . (3) In matsu wa ki nari. wa again defines the subject. not emphatic. otsu nari irrespec- tive of case. that . The purely emphatic force of wa is most apparent when it is affixed to words which are not the subject of a sentence. . is an uninfected word. and thus given an added importance tow. Wa with substantives or substantival phrases. matsu. ' exists as a tree —the subject —the predicate ' and by means 'pine'. and since ki. It may be taken as a general rule that wa marks the subject of principal clauses.

those long nights of yo wa Autumn ? ? ' kitaritsuran wa to towaseta- since he inquired. Thus though I think it sad kanashiku wa omoedo though I do not know well yoku wa shiranedomo is not necessary to the construction. Further examples of this construction are ' ' ' .perhaps not mata — = wa ' = = Wa idzura iii appears at times to have an interrogative force. for they had. but tadashi wa «. saying will He maeba ' ' have come This usage is familiar in the colloquial. as in wa aki no nagashi to where are they. a son who was a general . ladies or children moshi possibly if. as in fujin mala again. In the literature of the Heian period. thus : kono oya wa kindachi-be nado ni ya ariken. Thus the question Do pigs fly ? asked for information. it would seem. but apparently not wa is found qualifying a whole sentence. in such phrases as Anata wa. would be Buta tobu ka but spoken ironically it would be Buta tobu ka wa. but mata wa kodomo. and must therefore be emphatic. but moshi wa tadashi = but. chujo nado wo ko ni motariken wa his parents must have been noble. kaku medetakarubeki hito wa tare ka wa omoishi sokoi naki fuchi ya itsu toki to who would have thought he would be such a splendid person? a bottomless pool turbulent? does the snow ever melt ? is wa sawagu ka wa yuki no kiyuru aru before. What about you ? Kippu wa ? What about the tickets ? When wa is suffixed to a word or group of words already made interrogative by means of another particle. : where wa or. its effect is as illustrated in the two examples above but when suffixed to sentence-adverbs it completely modifies their meaning . When wa is suffixed to ordinary adverbs. it has the effect of turning it into a rhetorical question.' ' ' ADVERBIAL PARTICLES when : 261 distinguishing the subject its use is determined by the form rather than the meaning of the sentence.

and the Priesthood'. which in Japanese would naturally be ^ H ff| rendered Sampo wa. Yamada.who quotes from old texts such examples as V& fH" -& meaning 'The Three Treasures are the Buddha.) waga seko wa kario tsukurasu kusa nakuba (M. But the use of is clearly an imitation of Chinese practice.) bmikoto wa uketamau (Res.) although I go on a journey are not going through the sky.) hito yori wa imo zo mo ashiki (M. we are going on foot since my lover has no grass wherewith to build a hut I hearken to the August word my sister is worse than others we kaku wa aredomo (Res. not important. wa is suffixed to a dependent clause : kono hana usenikeru wa ika ni kaku wa nusumaseshi zo as to the disappearance of these flowers. Obviously wa is one of the earliest elements in the language and it is idle to conjecture its origin. As wa is often in the texts of the Manyoshu represented by ^. hasten? ing in the dark The construction developed. such as $£. some etymologists have contended that it originally meant mono. which is also so written.) wa yukazu ashi yo yuku na (K.) though it is thus That the Chinese use of was familiar to the Japanese scholars at an early period is shown by Mr. the Law. and wa. Already in the period covered by ^ the Kojiki its uses are fully established. moreover. &c. is frequently represented by other characters. In the following.: 262 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The two sentences in the above example may be regarded as independent. except in so far as it shows how the use of wa as a conjunctive particle may have Not much light is thrown upon the early development of wa by a study of archaic writings. . The following examples are given to show this rather than to illustrate its development tabi sora wa yuku tomo (M. how did you let them be P stolen in this way na zo no kuruma zo kuraki hodo ni isogitsuru wa is was it thy carriage. 'a thing'.

and complete sentences. . . apart from other things'. to adverbs. kome mo 'there is rice. . stab him. moshimo. finish mo todome kiri mo todome yo him in either way ! Like wa. but I think not' kuru ya mo shirazu means I do not know whether he will come. or 'even'. Thus : home wa but ari ari means means 'there is rice. It may therefore usually be translated by 'also'. pronouns mo gives them an inclusive Thus : . with an emphasis of their meaning. 'certainly'. can best be rendered by 'both . yorokobi mo nageki mo sumi mo fude mo nashi both joy and there is grief neither ink nor pen In common with other particles of this group. kanarazushimo. mo can be affixed to substantives or substantival groups with or with- out case particles. 'once more'. 'if perchance'. . for where wa excludes one thing from other things. mo includes one thing with other things. Thus : mo mo mbse kakan to mo kakaji to mo kakaru hito ari to mo mishiritaru keshiki mo nashi Sanada e yukite haha ni go to Sanada and tell both nyobo ni my mother and my wife nishiki no koromo yori mo to- toku idzuku made i mo on tomo sen whether you write or not nor did they appear to recognize even that there was such a person more precious even than garments of brocade I will go with thee whithersoever (thou goest) shoot him. : kuru ya wa shirazu means I do not know whether he will come. mo is affixed to sentence adverbs. &c. mata mo. e. verbs. An interesting illustration of the opposition of wa and mo Thus is furnished by their use with interrogative particles. but I think he will' ' ' When suffixed to interrogative significance. as well as other things'. Where mo occurs after both of two substantives it and' or 'neither nor'.ADVERBIAL PARTICLES 263 MO may best be regarded as complementary to wa. 'too'. . g.

in any language. explains the frequent use of other methods of emphasis.) as the ally of the Heike. In the following sentence the word zo is obviously inserted for purposes of rhythm konnichi kinrai Kyb-warambe made no sata su naru Heike no mikata ni Etchu Zehshi crying 'I am he who is in these days to the very children of the streets known ga jinan Shimosa Akushichihyoe Kagekiyo to nanorite June ni zo nori ni keri (HK. but idzure mo. Often we find words introduced for the sake of euphony or rhythm. It is similar in meaning to wa. Japanese having no regular tonic accent (or at least a very slight one) there is a lack of cadences in long sentences. Moreover. 'which'. but tare mo. at the end of a sentence. there are '. 'all' is an emphatic particle which cannot be represented in English by any one word. anything when but itsu mo.' ' : ' 264 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR tare. as in aru zo ! yes. as has been already pointed out. in reply to the suggestion 'there are not'. It must be remembered that. ' '. the second son of Etchu Zenshi. though we are apt to assume that. my knees tremble'. &c. It appears also in the form so. each word must have some significance. zo is an interjection. which is to some extent remedied by the use of emphatic particles. 'everybody' ' nani. 'Indeed' will sometimes render it. but more frequently it can be represented by an ZO oral stress or by an emphatic arrangement of words in English. but carries a stronger emphasis. combined with the fact that the order of words is susceptible of little or no change. and is probably nothing but the demonstrative root (='that') contained in sore. it is not always true. Akushichihyoe Kagekiyo he got aboard the boat ! ! Zo has sometimes an expletive force. having no punctuation and relying largely upon grammatical devices to show the inter-relation between parts of a sentence. idzure. 'my ' head swims. Moreover. sono. . In me no mau zo hiza no furuu zo. 'who'. Japanese prose is almost continuous. what but nani mo. 'anybody'. always ' ' '. and few of us are as economical in using the tokens of speech as we are in spending the tokens of wealth. The length of the sentences in Japanese. 'both'. itsu.

me ? ano kore wa ta ta so who is that man is ? ? wa ga kubi zo whose head this In the Nara and early Heian periods so. found with the interrogative pronoun ta. Zo. as in na yuki so.) it is I alone who yearn for my fall Lord hima naku zo ame wa furi- without cease did the rain at the top of the hill it it was not until he is keru (M. 'When I die be sure to put this flute in my is coffin!' Zo appears but it will to serve sometimes as an interrogative particle. do not go the emphatic particle zo. which is rendered in English by a significant word-order : ware nomi zo kimi ni wa kouru (M.) oya no kokoro yasume-shidzumete zo mata ide ni keri kore zo tadashiki had mono nari calmed his parents' fears that he went out again it is this which is the correct one reporting some astonishing To zo is generally used or noteworthy statement hito when : wo kuu jinshu mo ari to they say there are even some races which eat zo men ! kono fue woba ware usetaran toki wa kanarazu hitsugi ni ireyo to zo he made oserarekeri to even reported to have said. force of zo is to press the question home : ko are wa ika ni narinuru yo no zo hito zo what. modifies under certain conditions the form of the principal verb in the clause in which it occurs.) saka no ue ni zo aru (M. is the world tell naka wa nani naru hito coming to ? what people are those. be found as a rule that an interrogation is already explicit or implicit in the sentence. in common with other adverbial particles. in preference to zo. and the pray. according to the strict is ' ! ' 3270 m m . It seems likely that the so used to emphasize the negative is the same as imperative.ADVERBIAL PARTICLES 265 The following examples from early literature show its emphatic value. Thus.

nan throws the final verb into the attributive instead of the conclusive form. SURA.) Hitomaro was the Sage Poetry of It will be noticed that. which seems to belong to the latter part of the Nara period. For practical purposes both dani and sura can be taken to correspond with 'at least'. 'even'. thus : kora wa awanamo . and it can be best explained as conveying an emphasis somewhat weaker than that of zo and koso. The rule is no longer observed in the colloquial. Examples are : . according to the nature of the phrase in which they occur. The differentiation was a task such as the early Japanese grammarians undertook with remarkable zest. like zo. Nan. Its meaning is impossible to render in translation. . the use of zo throwing the final predicative word into an attributive form. DANI. . appears as a termination of verbs in the imperfect form. in its future Nan is form na-mu. and language.! 266 rule of HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Japanese syntax. but their rulings have never been followed by ordinary men. and gives the verb a certain desiderative sense. and dani and sura are now used indiscriminately. and it is possibly only a combination of the particles na and mo in their exclamatory use. particularly in the Nara period.) Hitomaro nan uta no hijiri narikeru (Kokin. 'as much as'. and SAE are adverbial particles of very much the same significance.) nakiwataranamu children may the warbler fly across singing It is possible that this is a survival of an obsolete verb nu.) would I could meet my uguisu (M. The following are examples : NAN shiroki katachi wo namo mi rejoiced to see a white shape yorokoberu (Res. we must not write kore wa yoshi but sometimes neglected kore zo yoki. (M. not found in modern prose. In early texts it appears in the form namo. is in the written or namu is an emphatic particle. Pref.

to add '. if only a little longer people who know not even a ! single letter sa naki dani . In the Kokinshu a form sae ni analogous with narabi ni. It is thought to be cognate with the verb soeru. . Even the holy name was unknown it is is real distinction can be drawn between dani and sura probably parallel to that between wa and koso. if not. for dani mo. Dani merely separative. sura is exclusive.— ADVERBIAL PARTICLES DANI. . SURA. which presumably stands Hijiri ni Koshi da mo orazu. 'Even Confucius is not among the Saints'. kinju sura on wo shim ransei nite sura shikari mashite taihei no toki ni oite wo the very beasts feel gratitude it is so even in troubled times the more so then in times — ya Buppd imada waga kuni ni tsutawarazu myoji wo sura kiku koto nakariki of peace The teaching of Buddha had not yet been brought to our country. 'even a child can do it'. 'as well as'. and bears the same mo as dani and sura bear to wa and ' koso. 267 at least if there is no rain not so much as a single day do I pass free from care stay. which are those I want to know SAE means relation to 'in addition to'. and in the Manybshu it is written with the character |f[J. . meaning . ame dani furazuba yukubeshi dani kokoroyasuku okuru hi wa nashi ima shibashi dani owasenan ichi monji dani shiranu mono ichi nichi I will go. . Dani corresponds roughly to the colloquial demo in such phrases as kodomo ni de mo dekiru. Dani is found E. in the g. The following comIf any parison may explain the difference I : sono na dani shirazu do not know even his name though it would be of use to know sono na sura shirazu I it do not know even his name quite apart from other things. form damo. then at least .

degree. This is consistent with its derivation to measure '. Thus as : much as this less than this this more than kore bakari kore hodo kore yori sukunaku kore yori bku . and relies for this purpose on words like nomi and It will and expresses from hakaru. as in iro sae ni utsuroi ni keri. It has been noticed already that Japanese has no special form for expressing degree or comparison. and that is its present significance. NOMI and BAKARI are practically identical in meaning. In the modern spoken language it is used instead of dani and sura. 'just so much' or 'nothing but'. but in later prose and speech came by an easy transition from 'also' to mean 'even'.268 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : 'in addition to'. is found. having the significance of 'only'. 'the colour also faded'.) sae e though the its frost falls upon its branches. Examples of sae are mi hana sae sono ha sae ni shimo furedo (M. yoki nomi torn ware nomi yukan takes only the good ones I alone will go is gakumon kemuri to ni nomi fukeru nomi zo mie entirely absorbed in study looking like nothing so as much smoke yume no kokochi nomi zo su iro no kuroki bakari wo erabu ne no toki bakari ni koe bakari koso mukashi narikere Okura Kyb bakari mimi hito toki wa nashi only as if I were dreaming chooses only the black ones just at the Hour of the Rat the voice alone is the voice of old there is nobody so hard of hearing as the Lord High Treasurer I feel be seen that bakari has the sense of 'as much as'. ' bakari. and on its its fruit and on leaves flowers and on amassae This it = amari +sae more than that is the classical use of sae.

but no more than. two. has the same adversative meaning as 'while' or 'whilst' in English. Hana tsuki nado means 'flowers. so'. which means 'Court Ladies and others'. Shika is a similar word. the equivalent of 'nevertheless'. as in yuki nagara. confined to expressing a meaning like that of et cetera. e. however. the moon. used chiefly in the colloquial. Like bakari it is often.ADVERBIAL PARTICLES 269 Other words of this nature are SHIKA and DAKE. say. In common with other adverbial particles it can follow a case particle. in the Heian period nado is found following plural suffixes. as in Tsubone domo nado. and with a negative. not 'flowers and moons'. MADE in has already been mentioned as a case particle. It is pretty certain that dake is related to take. 'length'. such as NADO miyako Its e nado mukaemairase going. 'while going'. so '. but classification perhaps it should be regarded as adverbial. hana to miru made last them as flowers though in the two stantival forms. 'only two'. as in kore shika arimasen. It is presumably the same as the adverb shika. is Thus shikashi nagara. used with the meaning 'only'. there is only this much '. It occurs in contexts where it cannot even mean et cetera. and it is used to signify measure as in kore dake. lit. and suchlike things'. to give even to the children kuru made ni or by the time he comes as far as seeing modify a verb. examples kuru and miru are sub- NAGARA and it means 'while'. ' ' is usually described as a particle expressing number. strict kodomo ni made ataeru or precede a case particle. as many as. and it has the meaning of 'such as' or 'and so on'. to the Capital to meet him modern use is. i. but its use is adverbial. Moreover. as in futatsu dake. by extension. 'while it is . 'this much'.

Thus. KA is an interrogative particle. usually . uke shall We alone receive Ya. ? where we have suru instead YA is an interrogative particle.) he perchance hearing only the names of mountains ? shall I easily perform the task of (governing the Kingis dom) under Heaven ware ? ? ya wa tamawaramu (Res.) Throne of su. it : also throws that verb into the attributive form. 'he goes'. unlike ka. . In Japanese a question is formed not by a change in word-order but by placing an interrogative particle after the appropriate word.) which of Our subjects ? whence did my mistress enter. as in nami wa yorikeru ka (M.) ame no shita no koto wo ya tayasuku okonawamu (Res. Thus tare iru ka means who is there ? means 'somebody is there'. yuku. . tare shi ? ' The particle ka no yakko ka (Res.) itsuku yo ka imo ga irikite yume ni mietsuru (M.) have the waves approached in the clause ? Where ka precedes the verb tare which it effects. and its significance varies with its position. When ka is a : ' while tare ka iru suffixed directly to final verb. if it follows the final verb of a clause. similar to from the following examples : ka. that I saw her in my dream ? is yo no naka wa tsune kaku nomi ka (M. 'does he go appears in the earliest texts. yuku ka.) hitori . as will be seen yama no na nomi ya tsu kikitsu- oramu (M.270 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The derivation of nagara from the substantive kara has already been explained under yori above. that verb takes the attributive and not the conclusive form.) the world thus ? always only The interrogative particle does not necessarily ' come at the end of a sentence. thus shi no yakko ka waga mikado wo somukite shika which of Our subjects has thus rebelled against Our sum (Res.

Here.) will my mistress sleep ? (meaning could she but sleep ') ' ! A special use of the interrogative particles appears in Nara period texts which is of interest because it shows them acting as conjunctives in the same way as other adverbial particles. as in the case of ka. . which preserves its 271 conclusive form : tadzu nakubeshi ya (M. The above examples contain ya. kokoro sae kie-usetare ya koto mo kayowanu 1 (M.) (M. ya wa x) with wa (Res.) no doubt because his love has faded. and in the case of ya this construction is found with all verbs in their simple conjugation. e. ya seems to have been reserved. It seems to arise from a locution illustrated in the last example and in ware wasurure ya (Res. while both could serve the same purpose.) alone ? (Inviting the answer.ADVERBIAL PARTICLES does not affect that verb. the verb is not in the ordinary conclusive but in the perfect form. g. the only examples of ka in this construction are found with future forms in mu.) will the storks cry ? imo ni tsugetsu ya did they tell my mistress ? attributive form is substituted for the conclusive. Strangely enough.) have is it I forgotten ? a thing not to be ? ' spoken which are rhetorical questions.) we imo nurame ya mo (M. their effect is to express a condition. with the auxiliary verb aru and with future conjugations in mu. yukame ka. It is difficult to state the distinction between ya and ka but. No. expecting the answer No '.) iwarenu mono ni are ya (Res. Where clauses constructed in this way form part of a compound as in sentence. no tidings come Ka wa does not appear in Nara texts. Where ya precedes the verb the combination with other particles a special exclamatory force. for rhetorical questions. in the Nara period. it will be noticed. ware hitori ya (as in : ya mo. &c. and it is found rather more frequently than ka in . of the type arame ka.

Further. . we have usetareba. Similarly we can find in early texts parallel forms with zo and koso. &c. because.) . Thus tare ga kita is as correct as tare ga kita ka.: dochira tare where ? ikura who ? how much ? dochira ka dare ka ikura ka somewhere somebody a certain amount These should be compared with such combinations as dochira mo. I suppose. and wo. Further examples of this construction (which is not used in modern prose) are : kami nakare ya tsuma sakaru (M. usetare koso.g. It should be noticed that the interrogative particles when directly suffixed to interrogative pronouns considerably modify their meaning. to (usually in the form do in combination). 'though it Here. In modern prose the distinction between the conclusive and attributive forms of verbs followed by ka or ya is not usually observed. CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES This class consists of the particles wa (usually in the form ba in combination). has faded'.272 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR it be seen. . ga. of the type usetare zo. though this is not the classi- . waga maitsutsu kami here ka mo kono miki no tanushi sa sa (K. The interrogative particles are not necessary after interrogative pronouns. there are no gods. . e. 'because it has faded' and if we substitute to (in its form do). tare mo. we have usetaredo. If we substitute the particle wa (in its form ba) for ya. The special effect of ka and ya in these constructions is to introduce a slight element of doubt. the combination of the perfect form and the particle ya acts as a conjunction between clauses.) . upon which it throws an interesting light. The usage is exactly parallel with the conjunctive use of other particles. will usetare . I am parted from my wife O the joyfulness of this beer —because we danced as we brewed it ! ! In the modern language ka is used to the exclusion of ya in everyday speech. . ni. usetareba means simply 'because it has faded'. so that whereas usetare ya means 'perhaps because it has faded'.

This conjunctive use is illustrated by the following examples : tenki yokereba yukubeshi as the weather shall is good I tenki yokuba yukan yuki furedo samukarazu go if the weather is good shall go although it is snowing is not cold (i. however. wa and to) take the place which connect sentences. With the future or negative base form (the Imperfect ' ') wo N n . the more so as it is a purpose which they serve only in regard to sentences and not to dependent words. is an 'impure' (nigori) form of the particle ha or wa. Kara and yori of such Japanese are also used as conjunctives. It will be seen that in form these particles are identical with the principal particles already discussed. The term Conjunctive Particle seems therefore to be accurately descriptive. for in all other cases the nexus between two clauses resides in the form of one of them. of those English conjunctions as 'though'. Yamada. in and e. §$ and ^. the same particles. I it Here the particles ba and do 'as'. They are. I think that both mo and ka should also be included under this heading. It is.CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES fication 273 grammarians as Yamada and Otsuki. for reasons stated below. and was therefore certainly interchangeable with ha or wa. It corresponds with the name setsuzoku joshi used by Mr. in fact. such They are indeed the only words Japanese which can thus connect sentences. In the Manybshu it is written indifferently $£. and thus has the sanction of a good authority. and their conjunctive use is but a natural development of the primary functions. a sort of gerund of the verb saku. so specialized that one is justified as regarding them for this purpose as a distinct group. according to the form of the inflected word which it follows : BA 1. Thus : hana saki tori naki flowers bloom and birds sing where the equivalent of the conjunctive 'and' is in the conjunctive form saki. 'if. It connects sentences in one of two ways.

because they have no perfect form.) uguisu no tani yori idzuru koe nakuba (K. has already been noted. consistently with the separative value of wa.) : as they said there we were relieved was gold. condition : torikaebaya satobito ni wadzuka ni nozo- if kasebaya (Makura) 2. so that araba. condition of the type With the ko areba otsu ari as or when there is A there is B This use cannot occur with adjectives. may be translated.274 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR it of a verb or adjective condition. of the type denotes a future or hypothetical there is ho araba otsu aran It if A there will be B seems likely that this idiom is a contraction of aran wa which. realized condition kogane ari to moshi tamaere kokoro akirame (Res. according to context.) yachi yo shi neba ya aki toki aran the tide falls quickly we go gathering shellfish if there were not the warbier's cry issuing from the valley O if I could but sleep (with if will ! her) eight should I thousand grow tired nights. for instance. ! no distinction in form between a future. could I but change it only I could let the folks at home have a peep ! ! and perfect form of verbs. 'as it is good '. examples of the use of this form : shio no haya hiba asari shi ni iden (M. by 'when' as well as 'if. In the Nara period we find the perfect standing alone to express an actual. in the future'. would mean 'In the case of there being. The history of this form (perfect +ba) is interesting. not yet and a purely hypothetical one. ba represents an actual. The elliptical use of ba. not an unrealized. usually followed by an interrogative particle. to express a wish. But it is of course not impossible that ba was from the beginning The following are suffixed direct to the base of verbs. . Thus There is realized. but by combining adjectives with the auxiliary verb ari such forms as yokereba (=yoku areba). can be constructed.

The use of a perfect-tense form in such cases as the above is quite logical. yue ni. In prose the word yori is used instead of kara. found followed by particles other than ya. Thus.v. Because the wind is blowing'. In familiar modern speech the distinction between a and a hypothetical condition is not always observed. . Early examples of the conditional with ba are : ito aware nareba kuruma wo tatete nagamuru ni (Yamato) kaze fukeba June idasazu (Tosa) it was very impressive he stopped his carriage and looked as the wind is blowing we do not put out the boat as . koso. to represent 'as' or 'because'. . and a certain tensesignificance. and ka (q. Usually areba is employed to mean 'if there is'. Instead of correlating two conditions it serves to contrast them. since the second condition does not arise until the first is complete. Thus : nochi mo awamu tsuyu no inochi tsu to omoe koso tsugitsu- mo because I think to meet thee again I cling to this fleeting life is it because there are no gods of heaven or earth that I am parted from my lovely ametsuchi no kami wa nakare ya uruwashiki waga tsuma sakaru mate at one time ? These examples seem to indicate that the perfect form had an independent existence. to mean 'since' or 'because'. as in sentences of the type : .). The spoken idiom usually prefers a construction employing some word like kara or tame. kaze ga fuku kara or kaze ga fuku tame ni. TO as a conjunctive particle has a significance almost directly opposite to that of ba. e. zo. In prose also frequent use is made of tame. g.CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES It is also 275 ba. and aida |Q is common in the epistolary style realized ' ' : kaze fuku tame ni kaze fuku yue ni kaze fuku (or fuki soro) aida all stand for 'because the wind is blowing'. although strictly speaking it means as there is '. So with other verbs.

WO . 'although'. and he cites. GA. I don't care even if it 's bad. I'll do it I'm not afraid. whatever may happen This use with the future bears out the supposition that ara-ba derives from the future aran +wa. The form tomo is much the more common at all periods. : ' the impure sound of to. NI.: 276 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR though you paint it your brush will not succeed in the sense ye m kaku to fade oyobaji It is most frequently found together with mo. and that the use of to alone is elliptical. as in sentences of the type is ' ' DO ko aredo otsu nashi though there is is A there is not B The combination domo frequent in the same sense. kaesugaesu miru tomo mirutomo akumaji (G. among other examples. the cock crows when the horse has gone to sleep'.) It is notable that the though you look and look again and again pall it will not very common colloquial use of to is the exact opposite : hon wo yomu to zutsu ga suru when I read a book I get a headache On the other hand tomo (and to. Mr. and in their capacity as conjunctive particles are generally used to co-ordinate two propositions of actual The development of a conjunctive use from the use fact. to a less extent) is used with adversative force in the spoken language accompanying the future of verbs. the following from the Nihongi uma ineshi to ni niwatsutori naku. when in combination. Also it seems to show that the adversative force really resides in the mo of tomo. as shino to (mo) kamawan ashikaro tomo yarn nani ga koyo tomo osorenai even if I die. Yamada (Heian Bumfto-shi) suggests that to in many such cases indicates time. Following the perfect form of a verb it has a significance directly opposed to that of ba after the same form. of 'even though'. where to seems to stand for toki.

not a long ko ni otsu to A along with B ko aru ni otsu ari along with there being it A there is B states the coexistence of a mere assertion. they knew what the heart of Nakamaro was like rinu (Res. kore wo miru ni Nakamaro ga kokoro no sama shi. (ni ari) (Res. there are already people getting up and going out though. .) kogane wa kono kuni ni naki whereas gold. Oda- in this land there nokori . kori (it it mono to . where 'and'. That is to say. when two propositions are placed side by side they are naturally contrasted. In English this is 'while the sun is shining the rain is falling'. and the adversative element resides not so . seeing this. . It simply B.CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES as a case particle step from is 277 It is best illustrated by ni. as a rule. has an adversative force. A parallel in English is perhaps furnished by I ask for bread and you give me a stone'. It will be seen that the verb or adjective to which it is attached is always in the substantival form. he seemed to be in his prime. as would be expected from its true function as a case Such a sentence as stands is A and ' particle. Further examples of this use of ni are as follows. Perhaps a sentence like hi teru ni ame furu best illustrates the idiom under discussion. But since. . an adversative force has been gradually acquired by ni. because of its context. omoeru ni .) was thought that was no is found) in Odano- kuraki ni hay a oki-idzuru hito ari toshi imada rokuju ni mitazaru ni sakari to koso mie tamaishi ni harukasumi to kienikeri although dark. not having reached sixty years of age. he faded away like the mists of spring This last example shows ni used with and without an adversative force in the same sentence. ni does not in theory carry any adversative force. but does not assume that B is contingent upon A. . or that their coexistence is expected or unexpected. .

In neither of the above examples has ga any adversative It merely helps to form what in English becomes a relative sentence. 'I invited him and yet he doesn't come'. 'he who fell into the river could not swim'. as with ni. It co-ordinates but does not is GA necessarily contrast two propositions. Imadzu ni tsukite soro yoshi wo uketamawareba isogi meshitsukawashi sorainu (HK. as in Maneita ni konai. With a conjunctive adverb such used to express a condition : as moshi. I hastily sent for him his old teacher. examples of the conjunctive use : The following are socho yori suguretaru meii watarite shinobite having honcho e e miyako noborikeru ga . The colloquial makes a similar use of ni.278 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR in the word 'while' as in the nature of the two contrasted statements. ni can be moshi tsune ni haibutsu no riyb wo kokorogaken ni wa kanarazu sono ybto wo hakken suru wo ubeshi if people would always pay attention to the disposal of waste products they could certainly discover a use for them In such cases the future of the verb is generally required. 'he ought to have come early. The combination no ni is more frequent hayaku kureba ii no ni mada konai. which come to mean 'he fell into the river but he could not swim'. The function of ga as a conjunctive is. . and he hasn't : much come yet'. . had reached Imadzu. who was at that time the headmaster of a middle school in Berlin. a natural development from its use as a case particle. 'if. on hearing this news at once mous called upon him force. . not found as a conjunctive particle in the earliest It seems to have developed a conjunctive use from such statements as Kawa ni ochishi ga oyogi-ezu.) kyushi wa tdji Berurin no chugaku no kbchb narishi ga kono ho ni sesshite am tadachi ni kare wo toitari learned that a faphysician from the Sung Court. literature. who had secretly crossed over to Japan and gone up to the capital.

as a conjunctive particle is found only in the written language.. It is even sometimes found at the beginning of a sentence. In modern prose of the genbun itchi or semi-colloquial type ga does as a rule stand for but '. The following examples will be sufficient to explain it WO wataran kaze to nomi omou wo nami tomo ni yamubeku mo arazu (Tosa) though they thought of nothing but crossing.) Here wo has in one place an adversative value. while you are waiting night will fall kuwashiku on arisama soshi mo wo haberamahoshiki machi owashimasuran wo yo fukehaberinubeshi (G. arrangements . Ga kokyo no shisetsu wo tokan ni shite this it argument some title to lie is not without respect. in another not. Natsu no yo wa mada yoi nagara akenuru wo on summer evenings since it grows light while it is still night kumo tsuki ni idzuko ni where : in the clouds yadoruran does the moon take lodging ? In the following modern example sekitan yori shozuru abura no gotoki kuroki shiru wo muyo no mono to shite haiki shitarishi wo ima wa kore yori yakuhin senryo to wo seishutsu suru ni itareri it will particle be seen that wo retains some of its value as a case but has an adversative sense. . the waves and wind showed no though sign of abating I desire to report fully upon his condition. The translation is : . Its use is the same as that of ni and ga.. . and it has doubtless developed in the same way.: CONJUNCTIVE PARTICLES kembutsu-nin wa amata arishi ga shdhin wa yoku urezu shibashiba toitaru ga wo ezu 279 menkwai there were many spectators the goods did not sell well though I called several times I could not get an interview though Here there is an adversative element. But does not explain the pub- wa naranu . thus ' : kono giron wa keicho sum kachi ga nai de mo nai. but it resides in the nature of the statements contrasted.

and show ka acting as a conjunctive mo yokaro (Coll. the number of deaths would not have amounted to one four-hundredth of this MO. . shisha no su wa sono shihyaku bun no ichi ni mo tassezarishi naran if assistance is given to such people as these. wo. ye. shi. there is a danger that it may simply increase their feeling of de- pendence suppose there had been an earthquake of the same dimensions in a Japanese city. in the we have seen. It can also stand alone with the same value. Details as regards their early uses in this way will be found under their respectiveheadings. The following examples are from modern newspaper language.) Both KA and YA. serves as a conjunctive along with to. form tomo. ro. but now we have come to manufacture from this chemical dyes. ra.' ante furu wo kasa nashi hitsu ni idzu mono takaki wo karazu mo yo- he goes without an umbrella although it is raining the things are dear. &c. na. yo. are as well consent seeing that he begs so hard nan and : moshi karera no to wo kyiijo sen ka kaette sono iraishin wo zocho seshimuru osore naki ni arazu moshi Nihon no toshi ni doitsu teido no jishin aritaran to sen ka. though as ' there is (or may be) A there is not B\ EXCLAMATORY PARTICLES In the Nara period we find the following used as inter: jections or exclamatory particles ya. i. as well kurete koso. ? why come anna ite ni tanomu mono wo ki- you might as the emphatic particles zo found acting as conjunctives.280 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR 'the black oily liquid produced by coal was thrown away as useless. in sentences of the type kb aru mo otsu nashi. yet they are of is bad quality A development of this use of wo : found in the expression I mono wo used as follows machishi mono wo nado kitazarishi seeing that didn't you waited.

used originally in a vague. 2. WO for instance.) the interrogative force resides in idzuku. which assumes the substantive and not the attributive form. maybe'. have other functions. and it seems probable that some at least of the other particles are words which. as in nase no ko ya (M. In the house. It found as a rule only in rhetorical questions.) Yachihoko no kami no Mikoto O my child O August Deity ! ! of the ya (K. It is this use which gives us such phrases as oya ya shinrui. as has been already pointed out. ya expresses doubt. WO is almost certainly an illustraline draw a tion of this feature. It must be remembered that where ya (or ka) occurs in a sentence with an interrogative and not a purely exclamatory value it affects the form of the final verb.) ya wa totoki shiwo uketamawamu ? is shall I alone receive the pre- cious Token? the question ie rhetorical.) Myriad Spears is still (This usage current : Yasu ya\ Hi ' ! Yasu ') Sky ! and as a mere ante interjection in such cases as (K. It will be seen that some of them.) is Oh Weaver ! in the How foolish this wight It is pretty clear that the use of ya as an interrogative its exclamatory use.EXCLAMATORY PARTICLES It is difficult to 281 between these particles and others. The early uses of the particles in the above list are as follows : 1. 'I think it is this. where is it ? ya mo idzuku (M. In koreya to omou. appears in the o o .) oso nam ya ototanabata ya kono kimi (M. YA appears as a vocative particle. but had to be reinforced by some ' syntactical device. Thus in particle is merely a development of ware hitori rushi (Res. or in statements expressing doubt or surprise. This may be taken as a further indication that the interrogative sense is not inherent in ya. exclamatory or emphatic sense. parents or relations'. *<° WO. have developed a specialized function.

such as ' ! ika ni se yo to (M. moga na. mi fugushi mochi (M. and after the conclusive form of verbs. 'the flowers will fade other particles it helps to express special meanings usually desiderative or mildly imperative.). 'lend but with jugation thus we have yuke. In the medieval language the imperative is almost invariably found without yo in verbs of the first conkase. however. 'go — ' ! ! ' ' — verbs of the other conjugations. a wa mo yo (K. e. She has a while such groups as fine trowel mo ga mo yo yo ! (M.) .g. g. and cannot be distinguished from ya. is purely inter jectional.) koi so do what you will do not love come and sing The imperative is not formed by the particle yo. ! ' at the end of a sentence after nouns or verbs in the 4. I ! and a basket! fine basket.) ko mo yo miko mochi fugushi moyo. Thus hana wa chiIn combination with ramu na (M. The earliest imperative forms are found without yo.) mo ga mo yo are found. but it is easy to see how it may have occurred. g. Jinta yo ! Jinta ') Its most interesting function. earliest texts as is Perhaps the oldest example : that found in one of the Kojiki songs sono yaegaki wo O ! that manifold fence It is not possible to trace its transition from an emphatic to a case particle. 3.) na yo (M.) kinakite yo (M. Na is a common interjection in the modern language. usually found associated with mo. conclusive form is purely exclamatory. ! ' NA . She has a a trowel And e. but emphasized by it. is in imperative or permissive locutions. e. ! midzu ni After substantives. tabe yo. as in The irregular verb suru has the form seyo. = 'O to be the water'. YO is a common In the earliest texts as in it is interjection in the modern language. shiga na. (It is used as a vocative in the same way. eat quoted above. the imperative is usually formed by the addition of yo to the conjunctive form.! 282 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR an interjection.

It is interesting to notice that it can follow most parts of speech. g. after other particles (michi .) hitotsu tatematsu- rier stop j Fujiwara no Asomi mar ora Fu iwara no Asomi and others . denoting the subject. : wakugo i fue Juki noboru (N .) seki the young one comes up flute blowing a mori . have offered a tortoise raraku (Res. 283 SHI is frequent in the earliest texts. . . . 6. I is an obsolete emphatic particle. Koma Maro loyal sub- leading on wicked accom- . The use of i persisted during and after the Nara period.) to cherish children is to gain praise. kame . &c. ya shi. shi zo.) ko wo tamotsu i wa homare wo itashi sutsuru i wa soshiri i Nakamaro was a ject wo manekitsu (Res.EXCLAMATORY PARTICLES 5. .) yasui shi nasanu (M. . . shi wa.) yorozu yo ni shika shi aramu to (M. . shi koso. E. yo shi.£ and its significance resembles that of zo or koso in the later language. i shi. .) Nara Maro Koma Maro i sakashima nam tomogara wo izanai . . as will an emphatic be seen from the following examples : kimi wo matsuramu hito shi kanashi mo (M. In early texts. We find it.) Nakamaro tadashiki omi to shite haberitsu (Res. yorite shi) and it occurs in combinations with other particles such as shi mo. to abandon them is to invite abuse i Some Japanese grammarians argue that definitely indicates a nominative case. and for instance. as particle.) ne nomi shi nakayu (M. It is now shi) practically obsolete. which appears to have acted as a case particle. wa after verbs (tsukae matsureba shi. It is usually represented by the character . where it is regularly written ffi (in particular the Rescripts). .) he indeed who will await you is sad I can but weep a peaceful sleep I do not sleep that it will be thus through the ages 'this'. (Res. i todometen ka i shall the warden . it occurs frequently. Nara Maro and plices . of the Bar- mo . . (M.

the Hossd) a special diacritic marking for i is found. In ko wo ra tsuma wo ra okite ra mo kinu (M. YE is uncommon. It does not appear to have any specialized function. Examples ware wa sabushi ye (M. eat Such imperatives are common put '. tsukero ' tabero . usually in association with other exclamatory particles. e. '. tomoshiki ro kamo (K. It may.! 284 and Mr. e. where it appears to be a meaningless exclamation. g. 14). RO is found in the earliest texts. tsukero for tsuke yo are found in these songs. A few examples of the use of ro are appended. and may be only a of its use are I variation of ya. and it is possible that its emphatic an extension of its use as a suffix I p.) 1 ' my children in have come. used to denote the subject of a sentence when the Chinese text is read according to Japanese syntax. that it occurs very freely in the songs in the Manyoshu (vol. ro (M.) It is am it is lonely painful ! found in the combination ye ya shi. 295). or exclamatory use (v. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Yamada states that in the scriptures of the earliest Buddhist sects in Japan (i. and in other verses which may be taken to represent the Eastern dialect of the Nara period. He gives examples of early systems of v. be a dialectical variation of yo or some other particle. 8) which diacritic markings {ten provide for this particle. x bnu ro ni tanabiku kumo (M. under o koto ten. Imperative forms such as sero for seyo. 8. however. leaving behind and my spouse modern colloquial. — : 7.) 9. g. e. consequently. p.).).) kosuge ro no urafuku kaze the clouds lying above the great plain do not think the wind blowing through the treetops RA is uncommon is .) kurushi ye (N.) omoosu na mo (M. okimi ro ka mo (N. It is interesting to note. which are usually known as Adzuma uta.

The particles ga. ko ra.) waga omou kimi wa mo ga mo (M. ni. so on'. A special use of particles which characterizes the earliest known language deserves some notice. sakashira wo su (M.) Notice that.) narabete mo ga mo (N.). 'children and omou ' ' ' ' . 'would it were thus'. yamai wo ra adding sickness thereto may be emphatic.) to Oh I ! ! that I might now obtain mishi ga omou (M. viz.) .) it sign of the plural.). I wish I could see O that I might become a lark particle.) hibari ni nariteshiga (M. e. or like ' may give the sense of 'sickness and the ? In such phrases as akara tachibana (M. and not the is suffixed to the imperfect form of verbs. kanasuki mo inochi mo ga mo chitose ni (K. monoganashira ni (M. It is no doubt the same as the ra which appears in the Rituals and Rescripts in the much-debated phrase sumera ga mikoto ra ma to. NA iza musubite na (M. but shi here is perhaps only an emphatic attributive form of ki. and ne are used in an exclamatory way to express a wish or a hope. according to the Divine word'.). or part of a word. the tense-suffix ki.). with a curious exception. the In ra kuwaete (M.) ashibiki no yama wa naku mo ga (M. 'in a sad way'. originally denoting sort or kind '. tori ni mo ga mo (M. the latter take the conjunctive form.) think.EXCLAMATORY PARTICLES it is 285 worth noting that the text uses the character H?. This would account for mono ganashira ni. 'saddishly' and for the plural use. na. as in kakumo ga (N. : ima mo eteshiga (M.) waga inochi mo nagaku mo ga mo (N. chiefly mo : usually occurs in combination with other particles. forming a (2) desiderative or a mild imperative. g. I would I were a bird '.). The usage is best explained by classified examples ' : It (1) GA. when such particles or groups follow predicative words. it is hard to say what is the function of ra. On the whole one may reasonably infer that ra is a word.

Of the individual particles. This particle first serves as an interjection. As it is the imperfect which provides a base for future forms. analogy in the termination nan which is found in such phrases as oikaze fukanan. some. mo ga mo. which is simply the future of nuru (e. 286 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR asobi kurasana (M. pray speak na kari so ni. or function. shi. following a negative imperative shiohi ariso ne (M. There is an for instance. that. as the various compound conjugational forms of verbs come to acquire specific meanings. meaning.) Isuki ni hi ni shika shi asobane (M.) katsuki sena wa (K. na. it may be that we have here an elided future. g. expressing a wish. as in moshimasa ni.) It seems likely that here we have a contraction of ' ! An ' ! ' ! ! ! ' — fukan nan. nan itself being the future of the (conjectural) obsolete verb nu.) These are in time replaced by more precise locutions. (As mo ga na.) nafumi so ne (M. O do not reap It is very difficult to account for these forms.) sazaki torasane (K. Summarizing the foregoing discussion it can be stated that the early language contained a large number of particles of an exclamatory or emphatic nature. as is well fall out of use. follow the imperfect. illustrated by wo. and the fact that we find . 'Ah but here it follows the conclusive form.) yukana (M. as in hana wa chiramu na. fukinan Juki and na plus mu). Where flowers will fade used to express a wish. shi ga na. i.) is against it na yuki there be no falling of the tide pray do not tread the snow let apparent alternative form ni is found. &c. such as ro.:' . shi ga. which later assumed an independent value as the particle nan. Others develop specialized functions. ne. NA is used as the an exclamatory particle. as shown above.) (M. not fully differentiated from ' one another. or namo. in form.) nioite (3) NE appears to be interchangeable with NA na norasa ne (norasu and hay a kaeri kone It ne) (M. and to perform syntactical functions. yukana is yukamu or yukan plus na. and ni. Certain combinations of particles gradually come to assume special meanings. itself no doubt the ancestor of the modern colloquial na or ne. to be '. (Nan here must be distinguished from the nan following adverbial forms of verbs. 'may a fair wind blow'.) nu it might be conjectured that this ne is a form of the verb suffix but there is no evidence for this. .

. These considerations are not adduced in support of the interjectional theory of the origins of language but they do throw some light on the genesis of grammatical forms. flexional endings were once independent and significant words.EXCLAMATORY PARTICLES and then becomes the objective case. It is worth noting that wa colloquial. with an extended use by which it acts as a conjunctive. 287 specialized as an emphatic particle. originally exclamatory or emphatic. It is possible that in mo we have the element which forms the old future. and they show at least that it is dangerous to assume that all suffixes and . to judge from its semantic development. also acquires a special function as a mark of the imperative mood. marking Ha or wa itself was. but is now specialized as an isolating particle denoting the subject of a proposition. though there is no direct evidence of this. is still in modern Ya used as an exclamatory particle originally exclamatory acquires a dubitative or interrogative sense. Yo. a vocative particle.

VIII THE ADVERB THERE is considerable disagreement among Japanese grammarians as to the definition and classification of adverbs. where it is evidently already an archaism. especially in the phrase o mikoto ra ma.) nado ka kinakanu (M. or in the Heian ika ni ka oyobu koto emu (Res. kedashi.). The early language contains a number of onomatopoeic . so '.) how shall I attain is ? how. . ' ' : ka yuki kaku yuki (M. Even Thus : na ni ka omowamu (M. Of adverbs in use in the Nara period the simplest are ka. 'according to the Divine Word'. 'what' and appears in nado ( = na zo).). which now survives in the compounds mama and manimani. and it appears that there was originally an adverb na (='how') which. but only an adverbial use of other parts of speech.) nado nakeru tame (K. This view is difficult to uphold in the face of such words as mata. Ika is found always in conjunction with ni or period in the form ikade. It occurs frequently in the early Rescripts and the Rituals. Examples are ' . has given the word nani. and shika. kaku ni (M. 'thus'. kaku (a derivative of ka) thus '. 'why'.) shika shi asobi (M. 'again'. &c. as in ka ni (M. combined with ni. Some have argued that there is no true adverb in Japanese. Thus : to.) going this way and that playing thus way these elementary forms are found in combination with the particle ni. The form sa is of later development. that way '. shika ni wa araji (M. how my home ? There was apparently an adverb ma. and nani assumes the meaning of 'what'.) ika to ika to aru waga yado (M.). sa. with the meaning 'how'. 'probably'.) how shall I think ? why does it not come and sing? why weeping ? The form ika develops presumably from ka.

such as ika. ' . 'certainly'. For convenience of treatment. little mottomo. 'but' katsu. Early forms are: ima. 'further' hata. Adverbs modifying predicative words. shibashiba. 'suddenly'. kedashi. Early instances are kanaradzu. Adverbs modifying a proposition. THE ADVERB and kindred forms. 'frequently'. Kedashi itself is probably an abbreviated form of kedashiku. manner.). hata. 'yet'. Even some of the simplest early forms. Adverbs linking propositions. 'there'. which is presumably the ordinary adverbial form of an adjective. or Conjunctive Adverbs. wachi. 'now'. 'moreover' mata. hardly ' ' ' . found with the particle ni and most echo-words require a particle. Examples are : 289 They are as a rule reduplications. ' . A great number of adverbs in Japanese require the assistance of a particle before they can take their place in a sentence. probably yume or yomo. tachimachi. suna- soko. are. most numerous onomatopoeics like sayasaya above. The grammatical link is in the specialized conjunctive forms of verbs and adjectives. imada. of snow falling harubaru (M. of a rustling sound hodorohodoro (M. sayasaya (N. &c. 'exceedingly' . and : 2. degree.). &c.). 'again'. . of rain falling korokoro (K. From the examples given above it will be seen that the number of single words which function solely as adverbs is very small indeed. 3. The adverbs . 'where' sukoburu.). ' ' ' ' . 'here' koko. like kaku. . very yaya. &c. sude. of raking over salt Most of these adverbs are accompanied by a particle. 'already'. ni or to. ' . adverbs can be classified roughly as follows : 1. These are such as express ideas of time.). These form a logical but not a grammatical link between sentences.). . . Such are tadashi. There are only a few. and kedashi. place. found in Nara period texts. as has been pointed out. . 'thereupon' ko (conjectural). of distance moyura (K. hanahada. sawasawa (K. 'here' and idzuko. which can stand alone as adverbs and cannot perform the function of other parts of speech. 3*70 p p . ika.. .

where it was pointed out that these forms ending in ke. 'to strike hard' it is purely a conjunctive form. Even the adverbs expressing the simplest the least analysed ideas. predicative. These have already been referred to under the heading of Uninflected Adjectives. like this wakare. Single words of which the function is solely adverbial are very rare in Japanese.' ' : ago HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR denoting place invariably take the locative particle ni (koko ni. 'parting at length'. as in akiraka ni miyu. a clear thing akiraka nari. have the character of nouns in so far as they can be used with particles that govern nouns. soko ni). We thus have in each case a group of forms for attributive. adverbial. this ' ' is clear' 'it is akiraka ni. attributive. of which akiraka ni can be taken as an example. as in akiraka naru koto. predicative. The manner of bringing these words into use as adverbs varied according to circumstances. 'now'. 'the present day'. The simplest method was to employ one of the particles to or ni. The so-called adverbial forms of adjectives in Japanese are not exclusively adverbial. Such a word as ima. which cannot without a particle convey any precise meaning. is a noun by origin (ma — space) and shows its substantival character in a phrase like ima no yo. or ka can serve as adjectives only in combination with suffixes like taru and naru. the rapid addition of words of Chinese origin to the native vocabulary gave rise to further formations. and has no adverbial force. 'thus'. can act as an adverb. There is further a considerable class of adverbs. for instance. . The form kataku. ' . of the model akiraka naru. E. . as in kore wa akiraka nari. kaku y agate no oku no hito. many people no gotoki. such as kaku. clearly seen The constant element akiraka cannot stand alone. as — — ' ' ' . those denoting time frequently do so (sude ni). and adverbial uses. Apart from the development of adverbs and adverbial phrases by the processes outlined above. ge. It will be seen that most adverbs in Japanese are either adverbial phrases or other parts of speech functioning as adverbs. g. as in kataku but in katakarazu ( = kataku +arazu) utsu.

Other such terminations. hohai. totsuzen ni. These can. in prose. gogo to dodo to rumblingly majestically These forms have been already described under the heading devoted to the particle to. for the first time). The word kataku.e. and An words ' ko in 5$-. &c. but it is customary. be used as they stand. quoted above. completely).e. in less frequent use. The most frequent of these is zen ffe. of which typical examples are : of adverbial compounds sawasawa and harabaru. say. especially in the spoken language. and are not all reduplicated or even disyllabic. are adverbial forms of verbs. shizen. rinretsu. should be remembered that both adjectives and verbs Japanese have special forms which can be used as adverbs. and nokorazu. . many native onomatopoeic and Thus we have a considerable group of Chinese origin. as in moro. alternative method of forming adverbs from Chinese is to employ suffixes which in Chinese are used to give those words an adverbial sense. They are not necessarily onomatopoeic. analogous to. while hajimete. 'naturally'. certainly'. 'not remaining' (i. to add the particle ni or to. sanran.THE ADVERB in the case of 291 similar forms. ni ffj$. which provides such adverbs as hitsuzen. but they usually display at least alliteration or assonance. are^'o jm. 'hard'. is the adverbial form of the It adjective katashi. 'beginning' (i. as in shizen to.

what I may call a substantival flavour they are imperfectly differentiated as verbs. 'clear'. in Japanese has consisted largely of agglutination the addition to undifferentiated or imperfectly ' ' — differentiated words of suffixes by means of which their function is delimited. This process. and is therefore possibly open to suspicion. and in (3) for a noun. . As has been pointed out text.) the bird sings a singing bird it is the wild geese crying the word naku in each case represents a substantive rather than a verb concept. and there is an important class of words which are of a substantival nature but cannot stand alone. as will have been seen. Thus some verbs developed special attributive forms.IX THE FORMATION OF WORDS THIS subject can naturally be treated only in outline here. in its earlier stages consists of the growth of forms by which functions are differentiated. 'clearly'. the in several places in the foregoing earliest state Japanese language in the known to us seems to reveal an imperfect differentiation of function. Many words appear to retain. This idea is difficult to express clearly. as indeed of most languages. so that hito tatsu is 'a hito 'a man stands'. and must be brought into use as adjectives or adverbs by means of suffixes as akiraka naru. as tatsuru. . since its full discussion involves all questions of etymology as distinct from accidence. and 'it is cry of geese'. in (2) for an adjective. in a variety of uses. 'cry bird'. but it may perhaps be explained by examples. standing man'. but tatsuru Adjectives too have attributive. although syntactically it stands in (i) for a verb. conjunctive. 'to stand'. There is no differentiation in form between the word for cry in each case. The literal translations are 'bird's cry'. and akiraka ni. &c. In — tori ga naku tori naku karigane no naku nari (K. the attributive form of tatsu. and predicative forms. adjectives. A large part of the development of the Japanese language.

(1) Suffixes enabling words to function as substantives. by suffixes other than those already described.). that it is absurd to expect words to behave more logically than the people who use . the way back '. and hito ga yoi instead of hito yoshi. Aha is usually called an adjective stem. The case of a word like akami raises interesting questions as to the early division of function among Japanese words. as in fukasa. 'loneliness'. and still exists. reddishness '. Thus in the standard modern colloquial the specialized predicative forms of adjectives are obsolete. at least approximately. Nara period in such forms as sabushisa subenasa (M. and there is no means of proving that it represented an adjectival rather than a substantival concept. 'helplessness'. SA is found in the (M. akami. kaerusa ni . Words like this are inconvenient for grammarians. than a man ' ' who stands'. The first of these examples provides an instance where Japanese has proceeded farther than English in the direction of simplification and the reliance upon significant word order. yoi hito for yoki hito. and the distinction between predicative and attributive forms of verbs is not observed. The fact is.FORMATION OF WORDS 293 But as the language continued its development it discarded in some instances these specialized forms. the form prior to differentiation. 'depth'. attached as a rule to words other than nouns. It is safer to say that it is.). We can now say tatsu hito as well as hito ga tatsu. with or without a change of meaning. and so on. Apart from those agglutinative processes which have in the case of verbs and adjectives given rise to something like a regular flexional scheme. stand man '. because they refuse to fit into the categories which those scholars pretend to distinguish. but it existed. — ' ' them. as an independent word. since it is obviously simpler to say tatsu hito. These are such as the suffixes sa and mi. kaerusa. there are certain other processes of a more limited application by which words can be differentiated as to function. of course. It is difficult to draw a line between what are generally called compound words and words so formed but for practical purposes the following description is limited to cases where the change is produced by the addition of an element which cannot stand alone that is.

which are of a type very common in the Nara period. Historically.. it appears to be the conjunctive form of a termination.). uru washimi suru.) dreading and obeying. however. and they govern an objective case. have for the most part persisted As examples one may take ayashimu.) that those people may be gentle and peaceable where nigimi and yasumi are conjunctive forms acting as substantives. uruwashimi admiring his sleep ametsuchi no kokoro wo itoshimiikashimi katajikenami kashikomi imasu ni (Res. 'to admire'. In the poetry of the classical period a curious half-way construction can be found. Thus . to suspect in the and they modern language. my sweetheart of whom I think with grieving heart In these examples. 'redness'.294 into ni HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR misen (M. is a suffix forming abstract nouns from adjectival stems. as in sono hito domo no nigimi yasumi subeku (Res. Similarly wabishimi suru. Thus : miyako wo to mi yama wo bmi distance from the Capital multitude of in hills The derived verbs ending mu are numerous. 'to grieve'. of certain derived verbs. mu. MI. where these words ending in mi are treated grammatically as verbs and yet have the meaning of nouns..) kokoro itarni aga 'mou imo . . . to judge from such words in the modern language as akami. . the forms ending in mi are clearly verbs. sometimes marked by the particle wo.) Totoki mikoto wo itadaki yorokobi totomi oji kashikomarite (Res. Other uses are found. and rever- (M. whereas prize We do serve and and thank and dread the Will of Heaven and Earth rejoicing hearkening to the precious Word. : neshiku wo (K. suspicious . 'on my return I will show her'. ing. In the later language it is sometimes suffixed to Sinico-Japanese words.) . ayashi.

'coolness'. Of the above suffixes. Other suffixes. . and persists in such words as onaji. ge is not found in the Nara period. Yamada suggests that in the Nara period it is merely euphonic. to hate yasumu. hoshigaru. are meku. For that purpose we have the suffix sa. to be painful suzumu. with an attributive form kodomorashiki otonashi.). and ka. 'to look Chinese'. with an adverbial form jiku. kiyora. 'to put (3) on airs'. Ureshige. cool nikushi. In the Manyoshu and previous texts an adjective suffix ji is found. This is no doubt another form of shi. to grow cool nikumu. Its significance is vague. Mr. In other combinations its function actually is to make an idea Suffixes enabling among ^ ' ' . occurring chiefly in compounds like ureshige ni. Ra on the other hand is common. e.). gakushaburu. g. umara ni (K. painful 295 suzushi. 'spirit'). which converts it into a noun approximating to joyousness but it is not as a rule used as a noun. awaregaru. ra. hateful yasushi. such as kodomorashi. Such are shi and rashi. 'gentle'. plus ge (probably ke. buru. is composed of the adjective ureshi. These again cannot be brought into use except by the aid of particles. hanayaka. 'painfulness'. garu (which as illustrated in transforming words into verbs. childish '. as in suzushisa. Chief these are the suffixes ge. easy suffix for can hardly be supposed that the mi in yasumi is a special forming abstract nouns. 'joyously'. +aru). 'joyful'. in such words as ureshige. words to act as adverbs. itasa. 'to ape the scholar'. but see p. 'joyous'. harumeku. 189) to form adjectives. karameku. 'to be springlike'. takaburu. (2) Suffixes enabling words to function as predicative words. suffixed to nouns (and verbs. ureshige naru. .FORMATION OF WORDS itamu. mentioned below. to rest It itashi. monokanashira ni (M. ' otonashiki. whereas suzumi and itami have the meanings which we should expect from the conjunctive forms of suzumu and itamu. 'to feel sorry'. for instance. 'same'. is probably gi?. 'to feel desirous'.

&c. for a long time '. as naganagashiki in naganagashiki natsuno hi . In addition to the agglutinative processes just described. where ? Sometimes we find it forming a noun by addition to an adjective stem. 'faintly'. nakanaka. increasingly ' he eats as he goes along she told her story as she wept kaesugaesu. 'shortly'. with or without the aid of a particle. 'whereabouts ?' as opposed to idzuku. zarna. (c) Adjective stems reduplicated. 'at times'. as in sakashira (M. &c. idzure. kore. usuusu. &c. 'questions of various sorts'. ' time after time . mountains wareware. These forms can be used adverbially. '. generally to form adverbs. which can be illustrated as follows : (a) Nouns reduplicated to form plurals. such as yamayama. &c. as hayabaya. 'sets out shortly'. In akara o bune. Function is determined by context sometimes. as tokidoki. as in naganaga no go yakkai. Nouns reduplicated to form adverbs. samazama no mondai. g. there are certain other methods by which parts of speech can be diverted from one function to another. as in chikajika [ni) dekakeru. it may be merely euphonic or it may convey the idea of 'reddish'.' the long long summer day '. and sometimes they can be reconverted into inflected adjectives by means of a suffix. we hitobito. (b) various kinds '. naganaga go yakkai ni nari. By means of no they can be used as adjectives. ' It will be seen that these two classes merge into one another. as in idzura.). 'think variously'. chikajika. ' (d) Verbs in the predicative duplicated to form adverbial phrases. naganaga. and samazama ni omou. This suffix is doubtless cognate with the re which appears in ware. people sama' ' ' '. E.' ' 296 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' ' vague rather than precise. '. 'having been a nuisance to you for a long time'. 'quickly'. for 'cunning'. as yukuyuku kuu nakunaku koto no yoshi wo kataru masumasu. Very characteristic of the Japanese language in this respect is the process of reduplication. 'certainly'. 'a red boat'. 'a protracted nuisance'.

which may at one time have been independent. if not most. The two last are composed of independent compound words words. In words of the type of yamakawa there is no coalescence. samusa. reading a book meanwhile'. Types of such words are respectively which is : We now yamakawa yamamichi migurushi yakikorosu Strictly speaking. where tsutsu indicates the continuation of the action described by the verb. as karakara (of a rattling sound). yukishi. come to the formation of Compound Words. much less forms like tokidoki and masumasu. thinking that gold was scarce I am yearning is tsuki (e) wa henitsutsu (M. surasura (of a rustling sound). it is and streams mountain road u gty to burn to death hills not possible to draw a line between as thus defined and such words as.) the moon waning Verbs in the conjunctive form duplicated to give a kind of progressive. while yukishi and samusa contain the elements shi and sa. onomatopoeic words are formed by reduplication. as in yukiyukite Suruga no kuni ni itaru going on and on he reaches the province of Suruga nagarenagarete koko ni kitaru wandering and wandering have come hither I (/) Many. te) and occurs in early texts. to form a new word either expressing the sum of the two ideas or amplifying or limiting the meaning of the separate components. The classification is arbitrary. say. by to be understood here the synthesis of two or more words. and the meaning conveyed is only 3*70 q q .FORMATION OF WORDS It is this 297 usage which has given rise to the common idiom hon wo yomitsutsu. each capable of independent use. thus illustrated in such a phrase as ' : kugane sukunakemu to ontooshi ureitsutsu aru ni (Res. 'went'. 'cold'. but only juxtaposition.) whereas we have been used to grieve. It is a duplicated form of the verb suffix tsu (tsuru.) koitsutsu zo oru (M.

nomikui. toshiwaka. 'a blind person'. chikamichi. kasegidaka. 'a short cut'. orimono. Where semantic coalescence takes place it is usually accompanied by phonetic ' — Thus yamagawa would mean 'mountain-stream'. (d) Noun + adjective. is the blossoming For convenience classified of description.g. 'tumbling'. E. E. 'grass and flowers'. ' ' 'a treasure-ship'. 'light red'. 'youth'. and consistently with the usual order of words in Japanese. uninflected ('stem') form. and kami-sashi. nadakaki. compound words can be by function and subdivided as follows but many . yoki.funauta. . (e) E. in the appropriate forms perform several functions. E. g.g. E.g. becomes kanzashi. kidzu- . As a general rule. in the sense of vegetation . + adjective. of can. g. adjective. (g) Noun + verb. Thus sakurabana means change. Such are mikomichigai 'miscalculation'. nakineiri. 'riksha-puller'. hills and streams an interesting corollary of the fact that pure Japanese has no satisfactory equivalent of the conjunction and '. warujie. though naturally with less frequency. 'low cunning'. (a) Noun + adjective. (b) Adjective + noun. 'a hairpin'. kusabana. (c) Verb + noun. g. 'sailor'. funanori. monoshirigao. of course. kurumahiki. (a) Noun + noun. 'strong-minded'. a receipt '. E. Adjectives. them Nouns. 'famous'. mekura. Adjective (/) Verb + uketori. the first element in a compound is the subordinate or attributive element. 'a boat-song'. 'eating and drinking'. 'crying oneself to sleep'. g.g. usuaka. E. 'hair pierce'. while hanazakura cherry. It will be noticed that as a rule adjectives are in their (h) ' Verb + verb. 'a knowing look'. tsuribune. the cherry blossom. 'textiles'. 'fishing boat'. takarabune.298 the HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR sum of the ' ' two parts. E. Compounds of three words appear. karuwaza. g. E. 'earnings'.

mochiageru. gataru. ' to change (boat or train) to beat to death nomisugiru. to drink too much tatakikorosu. Verbs.g. mono(a) Noun + verb. (d) Adverb + verb. exactly '. mottomo. E. kokorozasu. norikaeru. E. nakanaka. sometimes acquire a specialized meaning. and from early times has been an independent adverbial particle. Thus kaeriyuku. like kakaru. 'slender'. minikuki. . and echo-words like gatagata). saru. masa ni. 'to set forth'. 'to relate'. but generally speaking the coalescence is not complete. in kakaru toki ni shikareba sareba at such a time as it is so that being the case Adverbs. Perhaps the most characteristic example is the word koso. 'to intend'. E. &c.g. Verb + adjective. chikayoru. with other particles or other parts of speech. The most important verbs of this group are those composed of the demonstrative adverbs and the verb aru. E. Some adverbs are ' ' ' independent compound words (e.g. Combinations of particles. which is a compound of the demonstrative pronoun ko and the particle (itself also a demonstrative) so. (b) Adjective + verb. The commonest form is the combination of a substantive or its equivalent with a particle. 'easy'. in truth '. as in makoto ni. hosonagaki. tobioriru. ' E.' ' FORMATION OF WORDS (b) (c) 299 Adjective + adjective. for truly '. 'to jump down'. 'to approach'. 'to drag'. g. idetatsu. which express meanings usually conveyed in English by verb + preposition. It has already been pointed out that in Japanese adverbial functions are performed more frequently by phrases than by separate words. ' ' Japanese is very rich in compounds of this type.g. 'to hold up'. 'ugly'. (c) Verb + verb. g. shiyasuki. but these are not numerous. Some of these may be regarded as having by frequent usage assumed the character of compound words. nagabiku. shikaru. hanahada. 'to go back'.

Other frequent combinations are bashi. They are few in number. kamo. &c. Thus torikaebaya. ceremony music filial duty benevolence and piety ninkyo {2 . often in a quasi-interjectional way. IMPORTED WORDS Though the origins of the Japanese language are still obscure. 'Methinks the storm is raging'. although these documents purport to be written in pure Japanese. where mozo cannot be said to have the meaning of its component parts. composed at a time when the court and the administration were under strong Chinese influence. Thus we have hakase &. In the Rescripts of the Nara period. consisting of such words as sugoroku §g 7^ (a game like backgammon). Similarly with mogana. for arashi fukuramu. a number of words relating to government and religion are to be found. reinforced by the growing power of Buddhism. hoshi y£ ftj] a priest. mogana. 'O for an elixir of youth and life Such forms may be deemed obsolete in all but ' — — ! ' pseudo-archaic styles. jj rikiden jj |B rai jji|f a court rank a grant of land gaku kyogi %fe i$. Thus arashi mozo fuku. kana. dani. in Oizu shinazu no kusuri mogana.300 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR The early language contained a large number of these compounds. They are so numerous that they cannot be treated separately here. which operated chiefly through the medium of Chinese-speaking teachers and Chinese books. gaki fs$ $g a demon. it is easy to trace foreign elements imported in the Nara period. I wish I could change '. showing various degrees of coalescence. H i$. In poetical language in particular the language of sighs and groans and joyous exclamations they are freely used. as a substitute for compound verb forms. damo. mozo. The occurrence in certain poems of the Manyoshu of Chinese words is ample evidence that they were already naturalized when the verses were composed. A typical case is bay a ( = ha +ya). and no longer had an exotic character. yawa. which has the value of a desiderative suffix after verbs.

of Chinese locutions. but it must be remembered that from the Taikwa reform onwards the language used in state documents. Baramon Rusana Bosachi Brahmana Rocana Bodhisattva Kesa Sari Kashaya Sarira Danna Danapati The above examples are taken from Japanese texts. and even meanings. as. time. Many Chinese words are now used in Japan in a sense which would be unintelligible to a modern Chinese. d. mikesa). as might be supposed. which are written phonetically by means of ideographs. though the words just quoted were no doubt may be inferred from their use with Japanese prefixes. 640) from China. The following are early examples : Sanskrit. or in the place from which. and treatises on subjects both profane and sacred was Chinese. though to a much smaller extent. corresponding to the sound or meaning given to it in China at the time when. not perhaps so freely used. it is true. but at various stages of assimilation. for example. The history of the Japanese language from this date onwards is largely a record of the adoption of Chinese words and. though. The tendency has generally been to take over Chinese compounds without change. it was imported or reimported. As the vocabulary of Sinico-Japanese words increased. and there are some cases where a word to-day has two or more pronunciations. the language naturally developed a faculty for forming new comFor a long binations thereof to meet new requirements. Consequently. official records. Frequently the date at which a Chinese word entered Japanese can be approximately judged from its pronunciation in Japanese. Some traces of Sanskrit are visible. the imported words bear the stamp of the current in conversation (as .IMPORTED WORDS 301 of which the last four are terms from the ethico-political system borrowed in the Taikwa period (a. imported from China or Korea. difference of environment and sometimes mere ignorance often produced differences of semantic development. there was probably a much larger group of words of Chinese origin.

Perhaps the most curious member of this very small class is the word gozaru. and the usual attempt at a phonetic transcript is often quite unrecognizable as either a Japanese or a foreign word. Indeed. once paramount. while the Chinese say f{| j|l tien ch'e. like sozoku. are fully naturalized. coming to mean merely 'to be present'. Words like kurabu (club). 'to be augustly seated'. To-day Japanese bijutsu.Japanese compounds corresponding to these words. H tffa 'fine art'. largely because the syllabic system makes it difficult to record their pronunciation. bata (butter). it is the SinicoJapanese words coined in Japan that are now adopted by the Chinese. and then 'to be'. adjective. of Chinese elements. . to form a verb meaning to strain '. g fifr iff for a not used in China motor-car. 'bread' gyaman. began to wane. 'glass' (= diamant) In modern Japanese a number of English words are in daily use. Such are biidoro. as. by the usual degradations of honorific forms. -)] strength '. giving gozaru. One of them is rikimu. and jidosha. for beer. But as the influence of Chinese civilization upon Japan. since it is the polite way of saying 'is'. to which is added the verb aru. kohi (coffee). in Japan. in the most modern scientific terminology. bakushu. &c. garasu (glass). in the introductory chapter. where the suffix mu has been added to the Chinese riki. 'glass' {—vitro) pan. hoteru (hotel). It derives from a Chinese compound ffli j£ go-za. Philologists might well derive instruction and a warning which is ' ' ' . . There were only a very few words. $£ }f| ('barley wine'). one of the commonest in the language. We have already traced. with perhaps a slight difference in face value. &c. but without reference Thus we have . but they have for the most part retained an exotic flavour. and thence. freely creates new compound words to Chinese usage. the process by which borrowed Chinese words were assimilated and made to perform the various functions of verb. There are in many cases Sinico. but they are rarely used in the spoken language. 302 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR They are Chinese currency. A few words of Portuguese and Dutch origin can be traced to the Tokugawa period. august seat '. which assumed a pure Japanese form. Japan began to strike her own coins of Chinese metal. for instance. biiru (beer). circulating freely Chinese mint. 'to exist'..

. from which word. by mutilation and contrac' — . ' tion. In Japanese railway stations one is sometimes directed to what is called the home '. it is derived.IMPORTED WORDS 303 from some of these naturalized forms. This seems inappropriate for a departing traveller a = hbmu. and is the official name but it is written jfc for platform '. which provide almost incredible instances of sound change.

(i) THE devoted Thus : Verbs in the predicative form. g. verbs and adjectives. yorokobi no amari (6) excess of rejoicing : Adjectives in the conjunctive form. These act only rarely as nouns in such cases as those of shizuku. These are used as nouns only in such rare cases as those of karashi. its object being to summarize the foregoing material in its reverse aspect. The present chapter is mainlyrecapitulatory. 'firefly'. : (4) Adjectives in the attributive form. 'mustard'. &c. The function of a substantive is. E. : Verbs in the conjunctive form. however. Hagemu. and a few names like Susumu. (2) Verbs in the attributive form. of course. In addition. in their appropriate forms. nagaki wa sao to nashi making the long ones into kami no nagaki wa no so nari (5) bijin poles length of hair is a mark of beauty E. E. g.X GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS previous chapters have for the most part been to an analysis of word-forms and an account of their respective uses. 'a drop'. E. hotaru. e. by taking separately each important grammatical function and grouping together the various methods by which it can be performed. it can be performed by predicative words. normally performed by a noun. Substantives. g. g. &c. i. kono uchi no chikaku in the neighbourhood of this house It will be noticed that there are differences in meaning . yorokobu wa yoku ikaruru it is good to rejoice and bad wa ashi to be angry ikaruru wa kiden nari the angry one is you : (3) Adjectives in the predicative form.

'king'. 'my sister'. poems. those of the Kojiki and the Manyoshu. wives. wagimo. Their function is performed by descriptive nouns or by honorific or humble verb forms. like 'darling'. being an honorific form ( = 'to go'). The nearest thing Taro-chan for Taro-san is is perhaps the use of baby-talk. extravagance and subsequent degradation. anata. Thus yorokobi represents the abstract idea of rejoicing. and boku. kimi among intimates. children. earliest 3*70 R r . Examples of these have already been given. or to amiable modes of address like 'dear'. The tendency in Japanese is to dispense with pronouns. 'thou brother'. &c. expressed or implied. used by the Emperor. common in European languages. omae to servants. to deprecatory terms like temae. as equivalents of As is common with honorific forms. particularly with personal pronouns. it does seem possible to discern an affectionate significance in words like nase.GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS 305 according to the form used. 'that +' front'). they tend to 'he'. to say nothing of such vocative forms as 'old man' and its various modern substitutes. 'that perano kata. As a substitute for 'I' we find words ranging from Chin. 'beloved'. 'elder'. side'. omae (honorific prefix ' used as substitutes for 'you'. Pronouns. 'that side'. '? thou dear'. 'the slave'. We find in the modern colloquial that kisama is used in abusive as well as very familiar language. So many of these songs are love-poems that one cannot suppose their vocabulary to have been free from terms of endearment. the person before you'. In polite conversation anata is used. roughly the equivalent of Tommy for Thomas. Thus we have kimi. poverino. Thus irassharu. Japanese is surprisingly poor in terms of affection. It must be remembered that the use of honorific and humble words very often makes the use of pronouns unnecessary. and yorokobu (attributive) represents rejoicing as a condition or state attributed to a subject. Liebchen. sensei. And ano hito. kisama. Similar methods are employed to represent the second and to a less extent the third person. &c. In the . Though liberal in its use of honorifics. naki. There is nothing to correspond to those endearing diminutives which are so all son'. 'noble sir'. and others by whom no deference is expected. but for convenience one or two may be repeated here.

It is characteristic of the Japanese language that both verbs and adjectives can predicative. and adverbial functions. and more native ones. must mean 'my son' and not yours or another's. which is the man's word. particularly humble and honorific terms. daughters. similar to that which takes place with honorific verbs. and does not need further discussion here. mairu (='to go'). Instances of degradation. go frequently serve the purpose of possessive pronouns. except perhaps the most advanced. by women. ohiya (honorific + cold ') instead of midzu. This is a natural result of the difference in education. So we find a woman's word for water. Thus tea is usually o cha. rice is usually go han. but merely instructed in the doctrines of those works which laid down their duties as Further. ' . certain words. But in modern times these customs seem to be dying out. For convenience of reference examples are given below which show the interchangeability of verb and adjective fulfil : Predicative Adjective : kawa wafukashi. It contains fewer Chinese words. Thus o taku means 'your house'. In this connexion it may be appropriate to mention the existence in Japan of what is called the 'women's language'. attributive. wives. Similarly with humble prefixes. particularly tea or rice or mine or some one else's.306 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR cannot refer to the first person. Women. Generally speaking the language of women. can be seen in the use of these prefixes. and mothers. owing to their subordination in the Japanese social system. substantival. The honorific prefixes on. Gusoku. o. though important. 'stupid offspring'. were used exclusively by women. mi. are not usually regarded as honourable. women under the old regime not having been given a grounding in the Chinese classics. This question has been fully dealt with in Chapter III. cannot refer to the second person. whether your is often. prefixed to the names of parts of the body which. Verbs and Adjectives. and consequently it is nearly always possible without ambiguity to dispense with personal pronouns. being humble. has hitherto been more plentifully sprinkled with honorific and humble terms than that of men. streams are deep . still use a language which differs in vocabulary in some respects from that of men. and cannot possibly mean 'my house'.

? Poems which composed ? Pekin e yukareta ka did you go to Peking where yomaretarishi. It has been shown that the auxiliary verbs suru and aru are in some respects interchangeable. to ' . and yukareta are polite substitutes for yomitarishi norane. streams flow : fukaki kawa. Such forms are to be found in the earliest texts. flowing streams Auxiliary Verbs. phrases. It may be briefly stated here as the addition of the suffix su or the suffix ru to the imperfect form of verbs. In describing these it is convenient to proceed to an account of honorific verb forms in general. With constant use their honorific value tends to diminish and even to disappear. For them there can be substituted in many cases certain honorific verbs. g. .) Tsurayuki no yomaretarishi uta please tell me your name T. so that they must be reinforced by the addition of further suffixes or the substitution of other forms. which in some contexts gives those verbs an honorific sense. The vulgar colloquial of to-day provides a striking example of such degradation. as follows : Honorific Verb Forms of constructing honorific verb forms by means of certain suffixes has already been described in detail under The method ' passive and causative suffixes.GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS Predicative Verb Attributive Adjective Attributive Verb : : 307 kawa nagaru. Consequently we find later a free use of both suffixes in combination. deep streams nagaruru kawa. Even in the very ancient poems of the Kojiki there are causative-honorific (su) forms in which it is hard to discern any honorific intention. Thus ' ' ' ' ' : na norasane (M. The circumstances under which they have developed their honorific value cannot be exactly known but it is clear that already in the Nara period there was a strong tendency to construct specialized honorific forms or to employ specialized honorific words or . norasane. yukaseraruru. It is a characteristic of such locutions that they suffer a process of degradation. e. for the causative forms in su have now actually an insulting sense. and yukita.

'to play'. but The medieval colloquial contained a number of forms on this model. 'you go'. is the equivalent of Please step in Gradually these too lose entirely or in part their original significance and become auxiliary verbs. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR which is functionally an honorific. and o hairi asobase. 'to say'. In the place of honorific suffixes we find independent verbs conveying an honorific meaning either inherent in them or added to them by suffixes. These in their turn tend to lose their force and so to create a need for alternative methods of expressing humility or respect. The Gods who dwell in Heaven '. to speak humbly ' . yuku. in ordinary speech. Other verbs of this kind with their original meanings are : nasaru. In the Nara period it had already begun to assume the character of an auxiliary. of which the early ' ' ! something like 'to dwell'. but equally mairimasu. 'to be pleased'. Thus in meaning ' is honorific for ' ' ' waga seko ga kaeri kima- the time samu toki (M. Thus irasshaimasu. contraction of oseraru. so that arimasu. 'I go'. from iru. The most marked case of degradation is the verb masu. In the epistolary language zonji tatematsuru. worshipf ully opine'. 'to make offerings'. the original form having been iraseraru and ossharu. +su +raru. since it is used irrespective of the performer of the act described.) wo ni imaseba (K. is merely the polite way of writing 'I think'.' ' 3o8 go'. and the meaning could be rendered by kaerikomu toki or wo ni areba. grammatically a passive causative verb. Such are tatematsuru. while the older forms are appropriated more and more for distinctions of person. Thus A me ni masu kami. Such are irassharu. yukimasu are the same as am. and which was an to be or to exist '.) it when come back my lover shall man since thou art a has only an honorific value. and asobasu or asobasaruru. It is no longer in the strict sense an honorific. 'to do' (nasu + passive termination ru) mosu. Subsequently by constant use it developed into a purely formal suffix and is now used as a termination to all verbs in ordinary polite conversation. but merely polite. 'to be present'. which is a . a few of which have survived and are in use in everyday speech.

'to partake'. 'I think'. as in kikoku tsukamatsuri soro I am returning to my province and its original meaning has disappeared. 'to deign kudasaru. The verb soro {safurau) is an extreme case. 'to condescend'. ' ' tsukamatsuru. So.' ' ' GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS to worship tatematsuru. asobasu. This word is now pro- nounced soro. They can be used with their original meanings. and really means nothing more than 'it is'. 'to bestow' As will be seen from the following examples. Mosu. to make offerings 309 matsuru. in ascending degrees . Thus : yorokobashiki koto soro to zonji I think it is a matter for rejoicing where zonji soro is a formal equivalent of zonzu. but as a rule they have only the value of auxiliaries. meaning 'to I respectfully on sasshi moshimasu sympathize where moshimasu is simply a humble auxiliary to sasshi. and it is now used. kudasaru. tamau. Similarly kudasaru can be used to mean 'bestow'. it is used in ordinary speech as an honorific auxiliary. and tamau are in constant use in the modern colloquial. chiefly in the epistolary style. like nasaru and asobasu. 'to hand down'. but. as a polite suffix equivalent to masu in the have colloquial. Tsukamatsuru is a humble equivalent of suru. as in mikan wo kudasai. derived from an earlier tabu. others have partially retained it. which would in colloquial be zonjimasu. Some of them have lost entirely their capacity to convey an independent meaning. 'to serve' safurau. they can be used in a purely formal way as honorific auxiliaries. and does not mean 'to say'. 'Please give me an orange'. 'to be in attendance'. It may be said to lost all significance. and is an independent humble verb. tsukaematsuru. Thus : sugu ni mairu to mbshi- he says he will come at once masu where mosu say'.

have been preserved. some honorific verbs can be used independently. Some. 'to partake' (of food. Go yen kashi tamae. meaning to give to a superior. as dollars'. we have as substitutes for a verb in its o hairi nasare (nasai) o hairi o hairi natural form. They are. Thus we have asobaseraruru (honorific verb + honorific suffix). nasaimase o hairi kudasare (kudasai) kudasaimase o hairi asobase all meaning 'Please come in'. . The word tamau in ame no shita moshi tamawane (M.) Deign to rule on earth a strong honorific verb. as might be anticipated. like sashiageru. and many such were in use in ceremonious speech and writing until comparatively recent dates. both humble and honorific. Generally they have a corresponding humble form. in the modern epistolary style. to use several of them in combination. which is employed in the medieval romances and the works of the Kamakura period.Japanese compounds as is shown by miru goran suru haiken suru Neutral august look adoring look ' ' ^J J| ' ^ ^ all meaning 'to see'. however. indeed. kikoshimesu and uketamawaru. in a fossilized form. Such pairs are nasaru and itasu. 'to enter'. &c). But in modern colloquial it is a weak honorific auxiliary. There are also numerous pairs of Sinico. say hairu. As we have seen in the case of kudasaru. 'to hear'. Lend ' me five A further method of making good deficiencies caused by the degradation of honorific or humble forms is. but pale shadows of the phraseology. On these lines it is possible to build up forms of surprising complexity. nashikudasaruru (two honorific verbs).' 3io of HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR politeness. 'to lift up'. 'to do'. used mostly in the imperative in is familiar conversation. meshiagaru and itadaku. drink. and moshiageru (two humble verbs).

take further suffixes to express further modifications of tense. active. causative. and that the modern locution is in reality a reversion to something like earlier forms. by groups of isolated words. but this is not an independent verb in the same way as yukasu and yukaru. as well as a regular conjugational scheme. for the .GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS 311 It is obvious that the growth of honorific forms. accompanied as it is by a process of degradation. The language would become overloaded with redundant forms. under certain conditions. by the agglutination of a suffix like shi. tense. The Japanese cannot be said to possess true link between phrases or sentences is fur- . Also. As might be expected. The aspects of the verb in Japanese do not correspond exactly with the mood. passive. like hanahada. &c. we can form a past tense yukishi. and cannot be conjugated as freely as them. cannot continue indefinitely. however. then. or adverbial locutions composed of other parts of speech with or without the aid of particles. Adverbial functions in Japanese are fulfilled in a small number of cases by independent words. &c. to go '. from yuku. that Japanese has. there is a tendency in modern Japanese to dispense with these locu- tions or to ' employ them more sparingly. and sometimes transitive and intransitive. A distinction can be drawn between those suffixes which form an independent verb and those which perform an office similar to inflexion. we can form by the agglutination of the suffix su a causative verb yukasu. such as itta no dard. and by the agglutination of the suffix ru a potential or passive verb yukaru. The tendency in modern colloquial is to replace complex agglutinated forms of the verb. therefore. such as yukitaran. conjunctions. but for the most part use is made of special adverbial forms of adjectives and verbs. It is interesting to note that yukitaran is built up from yuki-te-aran. ' Adverbs. will have gone'. Thus. certain specialized independent verbs. This is an instance of development towards an analytic method. ' Aspects of the Verb. We see. It can. 'extremely'. ' expression of aspects. Conjunctions. voice. of verbs in English but we may in general terms say that these aspects are expressed in Japanese by the agglutination of suffixes to the verb. from yuku.

. Prepositions. whether of nouns. meaning 'though it is'. 'to lift up' tobioriru. are now frequently used in the colloquial in preference to conjunctive forms of verbs another instance of the tendency towards analytic methods in speech.„ Wl11 wo dashimasho } The link between substantives is sometimes furnished by one of the particles to. The contrast is shown in pairs of sentences like the following : Literary kaze fukeba fune idasazu Colloauial 7 r u u £ kaze ga fuku kara fune dasanai \ . &c. is . i. like kusabana. adjectives. . These do not exist in Japanese. by frequent usage. Indeed the need for conjunctions is lessened in Japanese by its facility for forming compounds. Words like keredomo. 'wine and food'. 'women and children'. or mo. . Again. Sometimes these groups.e. . moshi. wo I because it is windy we do not y put out the boat . 'hold raise'. where the particles have the value of 'and'. There are a few words like keredomo. ni. . . 'grasses and flowers'. which serve to denote case. datte. 'both wine and food'. but strictly speaking they are specialized forms of verbs. or sake mo sakana mo. or rather a group of verb suffixes. which has achieved an independent existence. J Literary kaze fukedo fune idasu beshi Colloquial kaze ga fuku keredomo fune \ j~ tho h * * n( put out the boat ... as in sake to sakana or sake ni sakana. which function in the same way as conjunctions. shikashi. 'however'. . . for instance.. Keredomo.e. compound words often serve as the equivalent of phrases which in English are formed by the aid of prepositions. 'jump descend'. 'to jump down'. 'but'. These have been fully described under their appropriate headings. is a verb suffix. . as for instance mochiageru. Their place taken by postpositions or particles. But very often no conjunction is used and words are merely juxtaposed. . as onna kodomo. or verbs. ^ ™ ^ we . &c. i.: : : — 312 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR nished by special conjunctive forms of verb and adjective. become established as compound words. shikashi.

' how sad that the nights are short and daybreak. when we must separate. like tori ga naku. The appropriate divisions. are tactical : l\ necessarily ALTHOUGH grammatical and logical categories do not Subject and modifications thereof Predicate and modifications thereof Copula and modifications thereof Links between propositions are. comes so quickly yo no mijikaku akuru wabishisa Here nasa and wabishisa are nouns used in an exclamatory way.) the not-ness of anything to do. Early writings poetical ones in particular —contain many statements ' — of this nature.e. or in bringing two such propositions into relation. Thus : sen sube no nasa (M. since it is composed of two nouns ing' instead of 'the bird sings'. and it is worth noting that a typical sentence in Japanese. can be brought within one of the categories which follow.' XI SYNTAX coincide. there is nothing to be done i. however. Such are statements in the form of an interjection or exclamation. rather than an independent part of speech. — ' 3i7o s s . i. These are rudimentary propositions formed without the aid of a verb. grammatical propositions which do not within any of these categories. Most statements. it is convenient to classify synforms according to their functions in stating or modifying a logical proposition. however. is historically of the bird's singsame type. then. Of these in Japanese the simplest type is represented by a group of words such as There fall A ita O pain (meaning ' O ! it hurts ') where ita is an adjective stem in form. short night's ending grievousness. e.

as Yoshitsune wa ningen nari Yoshitsune is a man . Thus : kono hana wo kiku to iu (they) call this flower ' kiku where the verb this iii. HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Subject. of verbs Thus : eda wo oritaru wa ware ni arazu yama yori takaki wa fubo no on nari kaze yori hayaki wa denshin nari it was not I who broke the branch what is higher than the mountains is parental love quicker than the wind is a telegram It is a characteristic feature of Japanese that the subject of a verb is not necessarily expressed. It results from any need for resorting to a be seen that the above sentence kono uchi wa B. soji shinai this cleaned Where the proposition states an identity II. In the simplest cases we have a noun yuki furu kare or a pronoun. kun ga kono uchi wa mada tateta this house was built by Mr. : no subject. Japanese makes use of a verb without a subject or names the subject but uses an active verb.' 314 I. e. where we should use a passive construction. g. 'to say'. as snow falls wa kaeriitari he has returned We can also have verbs and adjectives in special substantival forms : ikaruru kataki It is wa ashi to get angry is bad mo yoroshi the hard ones also are good important to notice that by using the substantival form and adjectives a complete sentence can be made to stand as the subject (and of course as the object) of a verb. Predicate. the predicate is substantival in form and the copula is expressed separately. has is idiom that there rarely passive construction. 'this flower is called kiku'. and as a general rule. house has not yet been B. It will can be translated into English.

no article in Japanese. . as in haru kureba kari kaeru nari when Spring comes the wild geese go back where kaeru is substantival. whatever their position in a sentence. In English this There is is performed by the definite or indefinite article. with the aid of the special copulative nari. Here the copula III. Hito 'persons'. The simplest is that already shown in Yoshitsune wa ningen nari. they are used sometimes to express different shades of meaning. Modifications of the Subject. locution wa In most other cases the object of a proposition is not to state an identity but to predicate a property or a state of the subject. and kari kaeru alone would form a complete proposition. means a person ' '. 315 the subject and ningen a substantive forming the predicate. Thus is : (1) ishi otsu (2) ishi (wa) katashi stones fall stones are hard lies in is in the form of the proposition. The subject being always substantival in form the following observations apply equally to all nouns and equivalents of nouns. ' the person \ . Alternative methods are the use of the locution to ari (contracted to tari) and to su. The simplest form of modification is the differentiation of one thing from others in the same category. Thus : ware wa ningen tari kwaisha wa hojin to su kaze fukan to su I am a man the company is a juridical person the wind is about to blow special predicative Sometimes a copula is used where the form would suffice. Similarly kare wa yukubeki nari he must go where yukubeshi alone would be sufficient. . Naturally. or 'the persons'.SYNTAX where Yoshitsune . IV. Where the copula is expressed it may take several forms. In (1) it the juxtaposition of terms in their proper order. where such alternative forms exist. The Copula. in which shi is a predicative termination. in (2) it is expressed by the special form katashi.

'that person'. It will be seen that the elements so. 'my father'. e. &c. as hayaku nagaruru kawa Ten ni mashimasu waga Chichi imbto no toki a stream which flows rapidly bybki shitaru Our Father which art in Heaven the time when my sister was ill must be noted that it is possible to relate one complete by using the particle no. kono. The same method is used in limiting the subject by reference to its position in time or space or other circumstance. 'that time'. In Japanese there are equivalents of our demonstrative pronouns. sono. The simplest case is that of the possessive pronouns. Thus is : kino no shimbun ima made no tsumori nishi no kaze yesterday's paper my intention until now bku no hito Shina yori no kaeri west wind many people the return from China is A full account of the attributive uses of no given under 'Particles'. g. as in ano hito. waga chichi.316 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR A further stage of differentiation is that where the subject defined by reference to its position as regards the speaker. sono toki. as in nagare no hayaki kawa streams with a rapid flow hayaku nagaruru kawa rapidly flowing streams It is an extension of this latter usage which provides Japanese with an equivalent for the English relative sentence. ano. are brought into relation with nouns by the particle no. nagaki kawa nagaruru kawa long streams flowing streams These attributive forms can be amplified. Both verb and adjective have as in special attributive forms. anata no boshi. a. &c. ko. We can say isse wo odorokasu no jigyo wo he aimed at carrying out nashi togemu to kokorogakesome enterprise which would but it sentence to another tari astonish the world . It is a general rule in Japanese that a particle (usually no or ga) is required to bring one substantive in relation to another. 'your hat'.

first. democracy dangerous thought war minister charitable undertakings In early texts cases of apposition like the following are not infrequent imashi ga chichi Fujihara no Asomi (Res. warm mi koto (Res. The commonest case is that of collocations of SinicoJapanese words. e. as totoki takaki hiroki atsuki noble. iro kuroku shite kwotaku aru kinzokn a black. broad. the Minister Fujihara You. i. 317 issei wo odorokasu jigyo might be substituted. &c. Attributive forms of the predicative locutions nari. such as ni shite. and to su are also freely used.: SYNTAX where. such as Tenno Heika minsei shugi kiken shiso rikugun daijin jizen jigyo His Imperial Majesty popular government principle. lustrous metal . tari. Our son Where several attributes of one subject are mentioned. lofty. nite.) words But the usual method of placing all but the last term of a series in the conjunctive form is also followed : tadashiku akiraka ni kiyoki kokoro (Res.) Waga miko imashi (Res. bright. and pure heart The modern shite. Thus : yukamu shidzuka naru tokoro to suru hito santan taru arisatna a quiet place a person about to go a dreadful sight In some cases simple juxtaposition can make one word the The attributive element is always attribute of another.) Thy father.) an honest. with perhaps a slight nuance. early texts provide instances in which each attributive word is in the normal attributive form. practice is : to use conjunctive phrases.

Thus : Shina narabi ni Chosen Eikoku oyobi sono shokuminchi China and Korea England and her colonies Where items forming the subject are alternative. The modern language prefers such locutions as shonin mata wa gunjin shonin moshiku wa gunjin shonin arui wa gunjin merchants or soldiers . It in its simple forms is neutral as to time.318 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Where the subject consists of more than one item. 'snow or rain'. Modification of the Predicate.. but a number of suffixes which originally denoted other aspects. the possible modifications of the substantival element are of course identical with those just described. such as certainty. V. The following account is therefore limited to modifications of the verb element in a predicate. probability. Where the predicate composed of a substantival form + copula. is simple juxtaposition sometimes sufficient. as in Yoshitsune wa ningen nari. &c. Time. These may be conveniently divided as follows is : has been pointed out that the Japanese verb In the earlier stages of the language time-relations do not appear to have been expressed with precision. as in yuki ka ame ka. may now be looked upon as having developed i. a disjunctive particle or locution is used. as in time sakura ichiji ni saku plum and cherry blossom together is but the use of a conjunctive particle shujin mo kyaku mo tomo rn warau sake to tabako to wa karada ni gai shimasu more frequent : host and guest gether laugh to- wine and tobacco harm the body In modern prose the locutions narabi ni and oyobi are preferred to the particle to. The early language makes use of the interrogative particle ka or ya. . with slight variations of meaning according to context.

SYNTAX a tense-significance. in the absence of a word like 'when' the Japanese idiom is niwa tori no naku toki ni dekaketa he set forth when the cock crew Here there of a is no concord of tenses. In some cases the tense verb in a relative sentence is expressed periphrastically.g. as in katsute kore wo yomeri kakitari sude ni mo I have read this previously has already written These call for no special comment . Thus : kaku kaita ( writes = kakitari) wrote is kaite oru kaite otta writing was writing has written has finished writing will (probably) write will (probably) write kaita oita kaite shimatta kako ( = kakan) kaku daro sary Further definition is given to time-relations where necesby means of adverbs or adverbial phrases. is gone has gone is Past went did go did go will will Future yukinu yukan yukubeshi go go It must be understood that the correspondence between the above categories in English and Japanese is only approximate. but it is worth noting that. e.: tori no naku (or naita) no- chi ni dekaketa he set forth after the cock crowed . The tendency in the spoken language is to substitute analytical methods for the flexional forms in expressing time. goes is going (in some contexts) going has gone. to time as follows : 319 Consequently a verb may be varied as Neutral Present Perfect yuku yukeri yukitsutsu ari yukeri yukitari yukiki yukitsu to go.

komu. yoseru. sashikomu. norikomu. 'to balance'. kakeau. ' ' ' By means such as these Japanese can express a number of ideas for which in English we have to resort to syntactical devices. Instances of their use in composition are verbs like ' irekomu. uchitsukeru. here which have been described under For convenience a few typical forms are shown he speaks thus sleeps well kaku mosu yoku neru hageshiku fuku naku naku kaeru makoto ni yoroshi kanarazu yukubeshi blows hard returns weeping is indeed good must certainly go Japanese makes frequent use of compound verbs in which one element modifies the other. 'to cram' fumikomu. Examples are tobioriru. In an elementary proposition in Japanese.). or adverbial phrases. Object. niwa ni aruku to walk in the garden All adverbial locutions concerning place must be brought into relation with the verb by this or a similar particle. . adverbs. word order is often sufficient to indicate the object of a verb . yoru. Adverbs. 'to guarantee'. 'to press'. have become conventional suffixes. by constant usage. The simplest case is that of the particle ni. to return to Kyoto to fall from a branch to come out of the sea all Manner. . 'to thrust in'. 'to approach' (trans. Such are au. 'to estimate'. 'to accept'. 'hold raise' = 'to lift up'. 'to rush in'. Place. as in Kyoto ye kaeru yeda yori ochiru urni kara deru 3. which is a locative particle in 2. 'to write down'. 'to fasten down'. noriau. 'to get aboard'. Many such compounds are formed with verbs which. 'to approach' (intrans.. 4. uketsukeru. to put or fix '. &c. tsukeru. and so on. 'jump descend' = 'jump down'. This category includes modifications by means : of adverbial forms. 'to consult'. mochiageru. ukeau. 320 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Limitation as to place is expressed by particles. 'to meet'.). to ride together (noriai is an omnibus ') tsuriau. kakitsukeru. mikomu.

g. as in by a substantival group. 'to think'. it can in simple cases be designated by ni direct — . and the following idiom is often resorted to Yoritomo wa Yoshitsune wo shite Yoshinaka wo semeshimu which has the same meaning as the above sentence. If the agent or instrument of an 5. the direct object is usually marked by the particle wo. wo yo no fukuru wo matsu kaku teki no chikaku semekitarishi wo shirazu wo wasure- to wait until night falls they did not know that the enemy's attack had come so near inochi no mijikaki tari he has forgotten that short life is Where feel'. the particle to is used in reporting what is thought. emphasis or euphony. said. &c. Thus : kariudo ga inu wo utsu kaze ki wo taosu the hunter beats the dog the wind blows down the tree Where the is object is represented invariably used.SYNTAX 321 but where necessary for precision. to). : : Yoshinaka wa Yoshitsune ni semeraru hitote ni shinuru Yoshinaka Yoshitsune is attacked by ame ni koromo wo nurasu to die by another's hand to get one's dress wetted the rain by but. 3*70 T £ . both the object of the causation and the object of the act but wo cannot be used for both objects without caused ambiguity. E. : nai to moshimasu to yukan omoiki is he says there are none he thought he would go particle ni. the verb is one of the group 'to say'. as in The indirect object marked by the wo sensei wa seito ni moji tou the master teaches the pupils their letters oshieru Shi ni michi wo Yoritomo wa Yoshitsune ni Yoshinaka wo semeshimu he asks the Master the Way Yoritomo causes Yoshitsune to attack Yoshinaka Causative verbs have strictly speaking two objects. act is named. under Particles. owing to the variety of functions which ni performs. Agent or Instrument. (v. 'to &c.

as in nochi no hotoke we will reverently bequeath matsuramu (Bussoku) sasagemosamu and humbly Buddhas ' offer to later The absence of a conjunction corresponding to 'and' in such a sentence as he walks and talks accounts for a number of idiomatic usages in Japanese. Similarly : meko mireba kanashiku megushi (M. to cut with a knife '. In the written language we might have aruki mo sureba hanashi mo shimasu or ' . and since they must be in adverbial forms or adverbial phrases. however.) without moving and quietly Where in an English sentence two or more acts or states are predicated of the same subject. instead of 'this stone is black and hard'. Where several modifications of the predicate are stated. cases of simple ni yuzuri- juxtaposition. 'by means of. 'to say by letter'. so that we have katana de kiru. as in fumi shite iii.) when I look on her I am sad and tender megumitamai osametamai wasure tamawaji (Res. The modern colloquial equivalent of nite is de.322 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : there is often some danger of ambiguity.) we will love and reward and not forget them There are. ni yorite. and alternative locutions are generally preferred. an archaic idiom and phrasal combinations like motte or wo mochite.) arise. in the earlier language. no tame ni. 'depending on'. — not Thus katabuku koto naku ugoku koto naku watarinamu (Res. Thus. Other equivalents of the instrumental particle ni are shite. : we will reign without bending and without moving(the Law) ugoku koto naku shidzuka ni (arashimuru) (Res. 'on account of all of which can as a rule be rendered in English by the single word 'by'. they are stated in series. the Japanese idiom prefers the use of the adverbial forms for all but the last of the sequence. . we have kono ishi wa kuroku katashi. Thus June nite kawa wo wataru crosses a stream by boat where June ni would mean ' 'in a boat'. the question of conjunction does .

which is a construction modelled on In the standard speech the equivalent Chinese {katsu = _g.' ' ' SYNTAX ayumi katsu . we can use. therefore. yukasamu. in the word nashi. It is therefore unnecessary to mention here any but a few special locutions which seem to be characteristic. true. contains the verb aru. tabun.) is aruki mo shimasu shi hanashi mo shimasu. In addition to the potential form of verbs. kanarazu. which have been already fully described. which are independent words representing independent ideas. But the verb in Japanese has flexional forms which can serve the same purpose. there is no money kane no naki toki. In the first case the modification is effected in Japanese by the use of adverbs analogous to 'probably'. yukinu. yukarinu. yokaranu. but there is a true negative adjective. This is clear from the fact that we can construct the forms yukasazu. Modification of the Copula. ' ' Modifications of the copula. but not forms like yukamazu or yukinasu. for instance. is not good '. there not being money ' ' ' is no money Certain ideas which in English are expressed by auxiliary verbs are in Japanese expressed by special devices. such as kedashi. while yukamu. as follows: Can '. 'to be able to go'. 323 kataru. as VI. means it is does not go '. or aruitari hanashitari shimasu. yukarezu. . &c. One noteworthy feature of Japanese is that both the verb and the adjective have special negative forms. and yukazu represent different aspects of one idea. The form yokaranu. so that we have ' ' kane nashi. such as yukaruru. times when there kane naku. are usually made by of the verb suffixes. as yokanu. but strictly speaking they differ from forms like yukaru and yukasu. of a proposition where ' A is B ' is (1) (2) (3) (4) kore kore kore kore wa wa wa wa ningen ningen ningen ningen nari naran narinu ni arazu this is a man probably is a this is a man this is not a man this man It is true that (2) and (3) have developed a tense-significance. The simplest case is that modified so as to become 'A is probably B\ or even 'A is not B'.

e. long sentences cannot always be avoided. shorter sentences. VII. phrases like yukiatawazu. The Japanese causative is also a permissive. 'if not go. a combination like hana saki is tori naku flowers blooming birds sing preferred to hana saku tori naku flowers bloom. taken haphazard from a modern book written in writers. . as in yukanakereba narimasenu. but the fundamental structure of Japanese is such that. Birds sing under the influence of European languages. can go . i. and. This feature. and the syntax of that language exacts short and independent sentences. as shown in the introductory chapter. . which is common to languages of the group including Manchu and Korean. For example. does not become'. Modern now use much . When. It is a characteristic feature of Japanese syntax that the whole of a statement. the two propositions hana saku (flowers bloom) and tori naku (birds sing) can be placed together without conjunction. ' ' ' ' Japanese than in English. two or more propositions are stated in succession it is usual to connect them by some grammatical link. Must '. in the negative. lit. is less used in is often used. so that yukaseru may mean either to cause to go or to allow to go '.324 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR koto go dekiru lit . but it is characteristic of Japanese to employ some grammatical device to connect them. must be made in one sentence whose members are all grammatically interdependent. yuku yuki-eru lit. even though they are logically independent. for the great divergence between writing and speech in Japanese. however numerous its parts. Let '. In other words. even with the best intentions. and yuku wo ezu. for the written language is under the influence of Chinese. This idea can be conveyed by the auxiliary adjective beshi. The following passage. yukikaneru. as has been pointed out. as myukubeshi. in Japanese. The passive voice. 'must go But a double negative ' '. is largely responsible. Links between Propositions. 'go-thing comes forth' i e can go 'obtain going'.

Another example of this type is suna shiroku matsu aoshi the sand is white and the pines are green its where we have the adjective shiroku. shitaru tame. of a poisonous tint. sutete. have taken to using only crude foreign paints. Consequently the sale of Japanese paints has increasingly fallen off. of . Its several members are connected by means of the conjunctive forms of verbs or by means of conjunctive locutions. onaji de aru ga hinshitsu wa hijd ni colour and. be noticed that. and the locutions itarishi wo motte. because lization. &c. Moreover. will serve to illustrate the characteristics of the structure of Japanese prose Ippan ni shiyo suru Nihon enogu wa Meiji jidai ni iri zenzen soaku ni nari kuwauru ni hbjin ga busshitsuteki bummei wo hencho shitaru tame shikisai ni tsuite no chikaku otorite koyii no ryoko-naru The Japanese paints in gen- eral use have since the Meiji era began become thoroughly bad. otorite. The value of shiroku is expressed in translation by using the conjunction . as in the sentence hana saki tori naku. such as the forms nari. The simplest form of compound sentence is that in which the component parts are logically independent. yokaranu tame ni. of their bias in civi- favour of a materialistic have lost their sense Nihon enogu wo sutete kybre- tsu-naru dokudokushiki iro no seiyd enogu wo nomi shiyo suru ni itarishi wo motte Ni- hon enogu wa masumasu ureyuki yokaranu tame ni zenzen soaku to nari mata wa fujunbutsu wo konjite jisshitsu wo otoshi meishb koso ototte iru.SYNTAX : 325 the mixed colloquial and literary style. It is only the final verb ototte iru which is in It will tactically the conclusive form. this passage is synone sentence. taking the conjunctive form. so that they have either gradually become worse or have lost their character through being mixed with impurities and though the name it is true remains the same. though function is predicative. our country- men. abandoning the good Japanese paints of former times. in Japanese. the quality has extraordinarily deteriorated.

while the conjunctive form of yukan (to correspond with kaeran) does not exist. &c. Consequently compound conjugational forms terminating with the auxiliary verb art. Thus : ante furi kaze fuki kaminari hatameku kore wa kanzubeku mandbubeshi the rain falls. 'A is a man and B is a woman'. the wind blows. The last predicative word takes its normal predicative form. must be used. To make rain this point clear further examples are appended : ame furi kaze fukinu fell and wind blew .. and the thunder roars this must be marked and no shi sho wa koshu shi ko wa wa kbeki su seizo learned the farmer ploughs and sows. as in Ko wa otoko ni shite otsu wa onna nari. and those in which the conjunctive form is absent. Certain difficulties arise where the last verb or adjective of a series is in the compound conjugation. the others the conjunctive form. if in (1) instead of saki we had sakeri it would not be apparent that a conjunctive form was intended. The same form is used. In the case of indeclinable words forms like nite. and the merchant trades The appropriate conjunctive form varies of course with the nature of the word used. Similarly in kare wa yuki ware wa he will go and I shall return kaeran yuki corresponds to kaeru and not to kaeran. The reason for these apparent anomalies is that in these cases the conjunctive forms corresponding to the predicative forms of the final verb either do not exist or are liable to cause ambiguity. nishite. In the sentence (i) sakura no hana wa saki ume no hana wa chireri the cherry fallen flowers have bloomed. the plum flowers have it will to chiru (2) be seen that saki is a conjunctive form corresponding and not to chireri. the artisan manufactures. irrespective of the number of components of the sentence. appear in these conjunctive locutions in their simple form. Thus.326 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR 'and'.

In the case of passive and causative verbs the difference is obvious. 'rain is falling and wind will blow'. and particularly in the spoken language. but in the conjunctive form. It will be seen that though in simple cases there is no danger of ambiguity. of the suffix te. Thus : ame furubeku kao kaze fukubeshi koe rain will fall and wind will blow wa miezu wa kikoezu his face cannot his voice cannot be seen and be heard The importance of this rule can be seen by neglecting it. passive and causative verbs are independent verbs rather than conjugational forms. Thus : ame furite kaze fuku rain falls and wind blows . if anything. Similarly kao wa mie koe wa kikoezu. In each case there is a change of meaning. where in a compound sentence the final predicative word is in a composite flexional form. The sentence ame furi kaze fukubeshi as it stands means. for to remove the passive or causative termination is to change the meaning of the verb : midzu wo nomase meshi wo kuwasu midzu wo nomi meshi wo kuwasu ki wa taosare iwa wa kudakaru ki wa taore iwa wa kudakaru gives water to drink and rice to eat drinks water and gives rice to eat trees are thrown down and rocks shattered trees fall down and rocks are shattered In other words. 'his face is seen and his voice is not heard'. itself the conjunctive form of the affirmative verb suffix tsu. Chief among these is the addition. Consequently. this method of connecting two or more propositions is not always clear.SYNTAX kitakaze 327 wa mi ni ame wo fuki samusa ni shimitari tokarishi omoku michi the North wind blew the rain before it and the cold was piercing the burden was heavy and the way was long With these exceptions. to the ordinary conjunctive form. the preceding predicative words must be similarly inflected. other means are often adopted for the sake of precision.

the connexion can be expressed by means of con j unctive particles or con j unctive adverbs The function s of the conjunctive particles have already been described in detail. as in ' ayamachite nochi aratamegatashi after making a mistake it it is hard to put right colloquial uses of te are sufficient evidence that it has not invariably a tense-significance. co-ordi- nated with another. as in sake ari mata sakana art sho wo yomi sate ji wo narau kokorozashi kataku katsu no- zomi toshi there is drink and (again) there is food reads books and (further) learns characters his will is strong and his outlook is wide Such constructions are not free from Chinese influence. 'to bring' (to come holding). denoting a sequence in time as between the verbs. and they need be only briefly recapitulated here. 'spring having passed summer is on the way'. . and ham sugite natsu kitarurashi. Thus ame furite kaze fukubeshi may be translated rain having fallen wind will blow'. But on the whole the use of te in such cases is formal. Thus motte kuru. 'he is standing on a platform'. It shows that the two sentences are in close grammatical relation. a conjunctive adverb is often used. In the written language a sentence like The bara no hana wa iro utsu-kushite kaori takashi the rose has a beautiful colour and a strong perfume evidently expresses no connexion other than a syntactical one between utsukushiku and takashi. Sometimes it is true the use of te introduces a certain tense-element. An alternative method of co-ordinating sentences is by means of particles and adverbs.328 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR tbi ni ga omokute michi ga the burden is heavy and the way is long This use of te links the two sentences closely together. and leaves their logical connexion to be inferred. such as a sequence in time. and such phrases as dai ni tatte oru. usually without any addition to their separate meaning. Where it is desired to express precisely some logical connexion. is When in a compound sentence one component .

fect + ba. I shall not go out ba) case (Perfect + the condition is already assumed to be existent. condition. a hypothetical or future. in speech. I do not go out if it is ame furaba idezu In the first if it raining. idezu as it is Thus : ame fureba raining. i. existing condition. The latter idea. U U . &c. In the spoken language the form composed of the perfect + ba tends to oust the imper. I do not go out rains. It follows that. In the second case (Imperfect + ba) the condition is hypothetical. as opposed to an assumed. as in undo sureba koso undo suru no de undo suru kara all meaning 'because you take 3»7<> exercise'. : kaze fukaba nami tatan if the wind blows the waves will rise There is some difference of opinion among grammarians upon the correct uses of this form. That it exists is enough to show that these usages are ambiguous and in both spoken and written languages there is a tendency to supplement them for the sake of clearness. or current with the first. Thus : undo sureba shokuyoku ga susumu if you take exercise your appetite improves although in the written language the same sentence might mean 'since you take exercise'. is conveyed by the aid of other words. there is some ambiguity. It is either a condition which has not yet come into existence or one of which the existence Thus is assumed. when two statements are linked in this way. as in kaze gafukeba nami ga tatb if the wind blows the waves will rise and at the same time it ceases to express an actual. e. a doubt as to whether the second is contingent upon or merely conexistent. BA unrealized.SYNTAX 329 suffixed to the perfect form of verbs expresses a realized suffixed to the imperfect form it expresses an condition . at the time when the statement is made.

the birds are not singing The uses of these conjunctive particles are similar to those of ba. Thus. they are inadequate. and kaze fuku tomo yukan I even if the wind blows . DOMO (TO.) though the great deeps roar may yorodzuyo no toshi wa kiu tomo (M.330 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR : Other methods used in the colloquial are illustrated by kaze ga fuitara kana ga chiro if the wind blew the flowers would fall where fuitara is a vestigial form of fukitaraba. though it is possible to say ame mo fureba kaze mo fuku for it is both raining and blowing'.) though the years of ten thousand ages pass away will go. TOMO) nakazu connect two propositions adversa- tively. Thus : bwata yodomu tomo (M. real or assumed kaze fukedomo fune idasu although the wind is blowing beshi the boat must be put out even if the wind is blowing. the colloquial prefers such a locution as ame mo furu shi kaze mo fuku an analytic rather than a synthetic construction. Thus (i) do or domo suffixed to the perfect form of verbs or adjectives express an existent condition. as in hana sakedo tori though the flowers are blooming. . if kaze ga fuku to hana ga chiru kaze gafuku naraba hana the wind blows the flowers fall if the wind blows the flowers ga chiro will fall It is pretty clear that. ' — DO. which are early examples. and tend to be replaced by other locutions. or tomo suffixed to the predicative form of verbs and the imperfect form of adjectives express a hypothetical con(2) to dition. although forms like fukeba and fukaba were originally distinct in function. : : &c.

or by connecting the two sentences by and'. Thus in once there was a man named Yorimitsu who was indeed a stalwart excelling all mono nari- others there is obviously no adversative force in ga. . as will be seen from the following examples ' : kaku mosu wo mina to hito Ina we spoke thus. . are often replaced In modern prose both the above forms by mo standing alone. I miji not takaku tomo kawan buy it. whereupon mosu (Res. In mo kawan becomes takakute mo kaimashd. even dear which are kigen late ones. as in wa semaritaru mo though the date is drawing jumbi wa imada narazu where semaritaru mo ' near the preparations are not yet complete the equivalent of semaritaredomo.) kore wo miru ni Nakamaro no kokoro no kitanaki sama . is colloquial the sentence takaku ' GA. and is best rendered as shown. and not to subordinate one to another.SYNTAX hito 331 wa miru to ware wa though others will I will may if see. Any adversative meaning which they appear to convey is incidental. In the colloquial we find also expressions like shinb tomo kamawan. It serves merely to relate one sentence to the other. (Res. and depends upon the meaning of the components when placed side by mukashi Yorimitsu to iu hito arikeru ga makoto ni hito ni suguretaru go no keri side. and NI. It is important to remember that formally their purpose is to co-ordinate two sentences. it doesn't matter even if I die'. where tomo follows a future. . . there is some kogane wa naki mono to omoni Oda no kbrini (ari) . every one said No upon seeing this we knew how vile was the heart of wa eru shirinu (Res. Similar considerations apply to the use of wo and ni. The functions of these words in linking propositions have developed from their use as case particles.) . WO.) Nakamaro whereas we thought there was no gold in the district of Oda. and it would be a mistake to translate it as 'but'. I'll buy it even if it is dear '.

and (3) adverbial sentences. and the above example is a correct translation of he says. The simplest form is a quotation. (2) attributive sentences. such sentences in Japanese are always in oratio recta. though arrows might pierce his forehead. 'he says he will go'. as in yukan to iu. comprise a complete statement. like tadashi. They may be classified as (i) substantival sentences forming the subject or object of a principal sentence. in the form of sentences. Strictly speaking. as in bochosha wa hakama wo chakuyo subeshi tadashi fujin wa kono kagiri ni arazu members of the audience must wear trousers but . Substantival sentences. arrows should not pierce his (Res.) back mina (M.' All such sentences are introduced by the particle to ' : hitai ni ni ya wa tatsu to mo se wa ya wa tateji to iite saying that. &c. shikaredomo. do nas'tta ka to shimpai shita I was anxious (wondering) what had happened to you seems to be too long naga-sugiru to mieru it Any sentence can be made to act as a substantive by giving its predicative word the substantival form. being either attributive or adverbial to some member thereof.) hito wo neyo to no kane the bell that tells every one kore wa onna no to itta kaita mono to sleep he said that this was written ' da by a woman : Of the same type are sentences following verbs meaning to think'. " I will go". 'to know'. and using the appropriate case particle : sono hi no kuru wo machi itari they were waiting until that day should come . this does not apply to wo- men SUBORDINATE SENTENCES By subordinate sentences I mean here simply one of the elements which.332 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR it is Where necessary to emphasize the contrast between two propositions recourse is had to adverbs or adverbial phrases. 'to feel'. &c.

This tendency is accentuated in the colloquial. Thus : yama takaki ga uye ni kin wa iro no ki nam ga tame ni tattoki ka because the hill is high is gold precious because the colour is yellow ? sized Often the substantival nature of these sentences is emphaby the use of the word koto. no doubt because of the lack of a specialized substantival form of verbs and adjectives : June no deta koto wo shiranai June no deta ranai hito ni to iu koto wo shi- does not has left does not has left it is know know that the boat that the boat wakareru koto wa tsu- painful to part from rai people ideshi is Here the written language would have June no wo and wakamm An wa.where sono hi no examples are : SUBORDINATE SENTENCES kum is a substantival form. E. It provides a method of forming a variety of subordinate sentences. which in English are introduced by a conjunction. denoting 'thing'. 'on account of the fact of your serving ') where tsukaematsum ni yorite would convey the same meaning. : tsukaematsum koto ni yorite (Res. as in .) a blind man's having kore no omoeru yori haruka ni mudzukashi hito wa this is far more difficult than people think It will be seen that this capacity of the Japanese language for turning complete sentences into substantival forms is a very convenient one. &c.) because you serve (lit. wo ushinaeru ni onaji man had 'like lost'. in the abstract sense. alternative method in the colloquial to use the particle no. 333 Further oku no hito wa onore no kokoro no oroka nam wo shirazu sono konnan wa niojin no tsue most people do not know that their own his distress hearts are foolish was as if a blind lost his staff (lit. g.

A complete sentence is brought into an attributive relation with a substantive by giving its predicate an attributive form. saying. but you were out. and I could not have the honour of seeing you . especially in the colloquial. it is preferred to make the relation between terms clearer by using the particle no. These correspond to relative sentences in English. Further examples of relative sentences are As a : taki basha no yukichigau michi no oto kikoyuru yado toki June ga deru It is a road in which carriages pass a lodging whence the sound of the fall can be heard the time when the boat leaves by means of locutions of this type that many sentences which in English would be introduced by a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb are linked to principal sentences. Thus June ga deru toki ni kiteki ga naru June ga deru mae ni June ga deru tame ni June ga deru tambi ni chichi ga meiji tamaishi ton waga nakaran nochi sails a steam whistle sounds before the boat sails because the boat sails every time the boat sails as my father commanded when the boat after I am gone Of this nature are certain locutions familiar in the epistolary : style mybchb sanjd itasubeku soro aida sakujitsu sanjd itashi soro tokoro go fuzai nite haibi wo ezu since I propose to call upon you to-morrow morning I called upon you yesterday.: 334 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR without waiting for the boat to leave it June no deru no wo matazu kodomo wo koroshita no wa watakushi de wa gozaimasen was not I who killed the child Attributive sentences. for instance. The simplest type is illustrated by a sentence like sakujitsu kitaru hito niidzu sukunaki tokoro the man who came yesterday a place where water is scarce rule. midzu no sukunai tokoro.

Attribute precedes substantive. nagaruru kawa. as in kuru hito nashi by no yado yukan no kokoro nashi sono nasubeki no shudan wo sadamu miyako ni sumabaya no kwanto live in the Capital nen Adverbial clauses. now prefer to the simple adverbial forms of verbs locutions by which the adverbial sense Henji wo matazu ni is reinforced. Henji wo matazu shite. Consequently i. 'red flowers'. and subordinated to principal sentences. These are formed. as in kaetta he went back without waiting for an answer do. adverbial form : man comes have no mind to go he determines the steps he must take the idea that he would like a house where no I by using the it predicative word (lit. as in akaki hana. &c. Henji wo matanai de. without having any anxiety Rather more idetari difficult are constructions illustrated in June ni norubeku hamabe ni ite mairubeku hashirase tamaitsu ginkbka wa kbsai ni bbb subeku kbshb-chu de aru miyako ni on kuruma he came to the shore to get into the boat he sent them running to bring his carriage to the capital the bankers are in negotiation with the object of taking up a public loan where the subordinate sentences ending in beku are functionally adverbs modifying the principal sentence. WORD ORDER word order in Japanese is that the particular precedes the general.SUBORDINATE SENTENCES 335 A sentence can be brought into relation with a noun means of the particle no. The colloquial. do. and to a less extent the written language. The characteristic feature of . &c. in its koe taezu naku sings incessantly 'voice kokoro oki naku inaka ni ten yd sen not ceasing it sings') I shall go to the country for a change. 'flowing streams'.

verb. 'cats are good at catching mice'. 'to see flowers'. or their colloquial equivalents da. kore kore Thus : wa hana nari wa tabun sakura darb toshitsuki wa makoto ni nagaruru (ga) gotoshi this is a flower this is probably a cherry the months and years seem to flow past indeed . as in kawa hayaku nagaru. Deviation from fixed word order. as in neko wa nezumi wo toru no ga umai. convenient to distinguish between natural word order and fixed word order. tari. hanahada hayaki nagare. Subject precedes verb. &c. as in It is . is accompanied by a complete change of meaning but such cases are rare in the Japanese language. 'very rapid flow'. Deviations from the former are permissible. as in hana (wo) miru. as in ishi otsu. tosu.336 2. which follow immediately after the predicative word. and can serve to convey emphasis. 'stones fall'. Object precedes verb. The limits are set by the following conditions as to fixed word order (1) In any grammatical proposition the verb or adjective forming the predicate is always the final element. . : neko ga iru ka neko ga iru zo is the cat here the cat is here ? ! it should be noticed that there is no change of word order in an interrogative sentence. de aru. where possible. (2) Where in a proposition the predicate is related to the subject by a copulative locution (such as the verbs nari. as in neko ga nezumi wo toru but within certain limits the elements in a sentence can be variously arranged. An exception must be made in the case of emphatic or interrogative particles. The natural order of words in a Japanese sentence is mice catch cats subject-object. or the auxiliary adjective gotoshi). HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Adverb precedes verb or adjective. 4. 'streams flow quickly'. 'quickly flowing streams'. the predicate must immediately precede the copula without the intervention of any other and word. 3. hayaku nagaruru kawa. because it does not rely upon fixed word order alone for significance.

e. But in itazura ni nagaruru tsukibi he spends months and days that flow vainly wo sugosu by itazura ni can refer only to the verb which it immediately similar example is hayaku nagaprecedes. 'a cherry this pro- bably (3) is'. In hi wo itazura ni sugosu. Other adverbs may be separated therefrom so long as there is no ambiguity. adverb. not kore mo wo). Thus a case particle must always precede an adverbial particle (kore wo mo. i. nagaruru. or adjective. 'this is a cherry probably'. 'he crosses a quickly-flowing stream' A quickly he crosses a flowing stream ') All particles follow immediately the word to which they belong. Subject to the above conditions the positions of the elements in a sentence can be varied for purposes of emphasis but since the functions of words are usually indicated by flexional forms or by particles. The sentence cannot mean 'he very much loves a beautiful woman'. 3*70 xx . Thus : hanahada utsukushiki onna he loves a very beautiful wo koishiku omou woman Here hanahada can refer only to utsukushiki and not to koishiku. WORD ORDER 337 It is not possible to make changes in word order corresponding to 'this probably is a cherry'.. the order as between them is fixed. and we are left to wonder how the subject spends his nights. It is obvious that adverbs of degree like hanahada must immediately precede the word they modify. Thus. The natural order places the object immediately before the governing verb. 'probably this is a cherry'. This would be utsukushiki onna wo hanahada koishiku omou. ruru kawa wo wataru. When more than one particle follows. because of the position of hi at the beginning. in he spends his days in vain itazura ni hi wo sugosu itazura ni may be regarded as modifying the whole sentence hi wo sugosu. there is a slight difference of emphasis. Adverbs must precede the word which they modify. and the order is natural and intelligible. the language cannot make (not ' (4) . without the intervention of any other verb.

as in the first of the two examples just given. ana tanoshi konnichi no hi O How joyful ! is this day saki wa Nushima ga saki ware wa (M. though it is often the object of a verb. the subject of a logical proposition. where case particles were used less freely. it will be observed. it was of course necessary to adhere to the order subject-object-verb. In Jiro ga Taro wo utsu and Taro ga Jiro wo utsu the difference of meaning depends upon the particles and not upon the position of the words. as shown in the following examples (i) Subject brought to end of a sentence. such as direct or indirect objects. 'the president the members him elect ') is Similar constructions are to be found in early texts. Thus I will I will ware nanji nifude wo ataubeshi warefude wo nanji ni ataubeshi give you a brush give you a brush But it must be remembered that in Japanese it is customary to single out an emphasized element in such cases by means of the isolating particle wa. as in fude wa nanji ni ataubeshi nanji ni wafude wo ataubeshi I will give you you I will give a brush employed the first element a brush to When this characteristic idiom is in the sentence is. Occasionally for the sake of precision the construction illustrated below is used : gicho wa giin kore wo the president senkyo su elected by the members (lit. the more important usually coming first consistently with the rule that the particular precedes the general.: : 338 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR ' ' such free use of significant word order as is possible in English. are therefore placed between subject and verb. The natural position of the subject in Japanese is at the beginning of the sentence. In John strikes Henry' and Henry strikes John' a difference of order gives a difference of meaning. in which case such element is placed as a rule at the beginning of the sentence. In exceptional cases the natural order of words and clauses within a sentence is varied. In the earliest language.) ni iori su I dwell at Nushima ga . Elements complementary to the verb.

Vocatives at the end of sentences.) uguisu inu naru ume ga shizue ni (M. word order can be said to have remained unchanged since the Nara period. .(2) 339 Object or other complement brought to the end of a sentence. yearning for mate dawned. akenikeri wagimo (N. : dare desu ka ano hito wa kawanai zeni ga nai kara who I is that person ? won't buy it I have no — money mo kaeru no ka kimi wa itta kitto wasureruna ima koto wo are you going already ? don't forget what I told just now you Generally speaking. saoshika nakitsu omoi kanete (M. proclaim my stoppingplace the warbler departs to the branch of the plum tree (3) Adverbs or adverbial clauses brought to the end of a sentence. .) . g. WORD ORDER I will tsugeyaramu tabi no yadori wo (M. In one respect it may be said that dependence on significant word order has allowed of simplification. sao In ugatsu nami no ue no tsuki wo June wa osou umi wa The no naka no sora wo pole transfixes the moon of the wave.) (4) tsuma the stag his cries. .) the day has mistress my Most examples of this nature occur in poetical or rhetorical language. . e. . In the colloquial the distinction between attributive and predicative worth noting that XX2 . For reasons of style or euphony Japanese prose writers are often tempted to imitate Chinese word order. in Japanese prose some variation of natural word order is occasionally called for because the normal position of the verb at the end of a sentence makes for monotony of cadence and lack of emphasis. the boat strives towards the sky in the midst of the waters on the top we have It is a deliberate reproduction of Chinese word order. but corresponding usages are to be found in modern colloquial.

. the differentiated forms can be dispensed with because the order of words is fixed and significant. akaki hana hana akashi tatsuru hito hito tatsu .. . 340 HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR Consequently forms of verb and adjective has disappeared. in such substitutions as akai hana hana ga akai tatsu hito hito tatsu for .. in so far as attribute precedes noun. . and subject precedes predicate.

apart from a number of compound conjugational forms current in the Heian period but now obsolete. but less freely than the written language. It also adopts Sinico-Japanese words. THE following difference in be stated that the modern written from the language recorded in Heian texts. also pp. 51. rule it As a general language may differs but little in essentials PRONOUN Language Personal. 196. ware nanji as sessha for ' Modern Spoken Language. xi. As to vocabulary. 56. 319) is a tabulated statement of the chief points of form between spoken and written Japanese. . in you kiden. Numerous Sinico-Japanese equivalents such I '. much of the grammatical apparatus of the Heian period persists in modern written Japanese. kika for writing than in familiar ' ' Demonstrative. shows a great diminution in the number of grammatical forms. watakashi omae. The spoken language. more common speech. a are wa ware na nare nanji kinji of Heian Modern Written Language. 275. The language of the Heian period is taken as a starting-point. 311. ore. there has of course been a large and continuous increase of Sinico-Japanese words in the written language. because it is in this period that the divergence first becomes apparent. and a consequent tendency to displace pure Japanese words. anata Period. on the other hand. and a tendency to substitute analytic for synthetic methods. The forms that have been retained are practically unchanged and (though this is an important exception).— APPENDIX Comparison of Spoken and Written Forms (v.

342 .


344 .

285. 66. verb suffix. &c. ' conjunctive ga. 328. 138. compound words. 298. de. 310. influence of. 253. Chinese elements in chap. ha. 71. gotoki.) a. 331 . irassharu. 75. 4. ideographic script. do. adverbial particles. classifiers ' ' Gengi Monogatari. 307 — foreign ba. idzuku. no. Japanese. 137. case. Engishiki. v. colloquial particle. exclamatory use. v. da. Ise Monogatari. 196. 56. 177. 131. honorific forms. 92. 55. he. 54. Hiyeda no Are. 276. verbs. I97> 3 28 conclusive form '. 283. 207. 311. pronoun. 221. case particle. adverbial particle. do. xi. . words in Japanese. 210. 69. adverb. Confucian. 24. 255. 121. . Japanese. 202. accentuation. prefix to verbs. verb suffix. 151. 51. 128 history of. gari. - ' - . 60. beki. 221. Analects. copula. gotoshi. conjectured case particle. 269. 173. v. 75. 311. imperfect form of verbs. concessive forms of verb. itsu. 252. 78. nomen' ' clature. de. 14. 61. adjectival prefix. European languages. i. au. 266. causative verbs. Certain Present'. emphasis. ix. 275. (auxiliary numerals). 84. ap- pendix. hi. 329. irregular verbs. 300. 3J9aru. adverbial form of adjective verb. equivalent of. colloquial verb. 302. 301. 145. intransitive verbs. no. auxiliary verb. viii. beku. passim. 163. divergence from written language. gender. Adzuma-uta. 220. auxiliary numerals. 264. conjunctive particle. case particle. 318. 164. gozaru. dani. 322. beshi. Aston. imperative. 203. 122. conditional forms of verb. go :{$p honorific prefix. 161. Heike Monogatari. 305. 76-81. 300. au.11 i. 45. Japanese. 320. analytic tendencies in Japanese. epistolary style. > hiragana. 42. 163. domo. 258. in conjunctions. viii. forming potential. particles. 319. I97» 3 28 conjugations.INDEX (Only leading references are given. e-. 208. 194. 91. 232 use. idzure. 94. 89. 202. gotoku. 307. 141. 8. diacritic marks. 268. 289. 278. nite. passim. viii. desu. 311. 199. colloquial verb. chap. 2. 273. bakari. Buddhist terminology. 119. -fu. 164-73. 273. dake. 127. 224. and negative termination. see wa. 10. 69. system of. 83colloquial. Chamberlain. 196. 97. v. conjunctive particle. 264. 339.

nasu. pronoun. na. pronoun. nai. 332. 265 etymology. 183. adjectival prefix. 73. 156. 23. ma. nuru. mo. 207. 335. 17. jij| 238-45 . case particle. pronouns. verb. 120. adverbial particle. 208. onomatopoeics. chap. 195. adjectival prefix. on. 166. ni shite. jo J- ka. colloquial negative. 119. 188. 30 katakana. nare. 14. . 263 ' . 255. colloquial negative. 207. no. kara. 305. 82-5. -maji. 143. 174. 74. exclamatory particle. INDEX as adjectival suffix. suffix. compound tense suffix. 119. 23 and passim. 119. 117. 294. order of words. Makura no Soshi. nari. nomi. ix. 192. v. 255. 13. ke. 118. nite. negative forms in speech and writing. case particle. oru. . 160. n. Mixed Phonetic Script'. 123. 244. junctive use. na. ni oite. 118. -keri. 167. 152. nan. adjectival prefix. compound tense suffix. . oratio recta. 71. 118. nanji. 163. pronoun. 273. kore. Norito. nan. 259. . Kan-on. Kojiki. 269. nakatta. 163. 186. prefix. interrogative. 282. 161. termination of uninflected adjectives. use of Chinese characters. interrogative particle. 118. 120. imperative of tense suffix nu. ii and p. 182 adjectival . namo. compound future suffix. con- passive voice. namu. 270. nasaru. ka. 23 . ne. passim. 234. see Rituals. ka. made. 269. tense suffix. numerals. ix. 109 rules. okototen. 194. wokototen. 280. 144. meri. 225-35. -mashi. pronoun.346 /*. 268. 183. 276. pronoun. 132. mesu. v. 193ni. nagara. mi. 23. 73. 0. 42. honorific prefix. . conjectured copula. ke. 184. 254. -me. 174. -keraku. 55. ni okeru. 244. kana. kudasaru. jo jfl\ adverbial termination. -keramashi. potential verbs. 291. nanda. 25. 254. 243 nu. -kere. 195. x Preface to. 181. nigori. 288. adjectival prefix. 74. 1. Motoori. 48. 25. 243. ossharu. koso. 5£ 291. x. negative suffix. particle. nu. no. particle. 199. 190. adverbial particle. adjectival prefix. 71. -kemu. colloquial negative. perfect form of future suffix. ko. nu. kanamajiri. -nishi. compound tense tense suffix. 85. nani. Luchuan. 14. 15. number. vii. negative suffix. 2. 269. naru. i. 118. Manyogana. honorific. 291. -mi. nii. perfect form of adjectives. nado. 73. 49. particle -f te. -majiki. 191. chap. termination of uninflected adjectives. 185. ki. Nihongi. ('little'). 266 rule of syntax regarding. 180 exclamatory particle. Kataribe. tense suffix. . 173. 286. 234. 45. Kokinshu. adverbial termination ko. suffix. . logographic script. -niki. tense suffix. 314. 108. — phonetic changes. o (' great '). prefix. Kyujiki. conjunc- ni adverbial termination. tive. Manyoshu. -ka.

284. 55. suru. 220. reduplication. suffix forming nouns. 255. 164. 74. 279. 159. senjimon. 54. 284. ' ' ya. 174. 253. 119. 238. ' ' su. v. 184. tamau. 173. 8 n. 266. ye. Classic. perfect of tense suffix hi. wo. case. Thousand Character to. 147. 275. 177. tare. ta. tsu. Shinto rituals. ta. case particle. wa. desiderative. -shi. 270 interrogative. colloquial. sa. 221 n. 222. tense suffix. tsutsu. 283. -ramu.. teniwoha. 252. emphatic particle. shika. jectives. adjectival gerundial suffix. exclamatory. zu. . 139. auxiliary verb. particle. and potential shika. 250. tense suffix. 212. negative . 249. 46. 24. pronoun. passive termination. yu. 71. spoken language v. 86. 199. 275. 265. 189 . particle. transitive verbs. 46. adjectival prefix. rituals. 132. tense suffix. 133. 318. 252 . 297. 9. substantival forms in -ku. 77. tomo. 136. 4. 304. v suru. . 73. ware. taru v. vocative. 106. teki. 131. 293. 191. yue. Tosa Niki (or Nikki). adjectival termination. 199. tote. tari (to+ari). particle=Ae or e. tsu. woshite. ix. yu-ru. to su. 331 235. 4. wa. 213. compound negative . 235. sura. zo. 24. no. 125. case particle. . Satow. 238. 301. 24. shimuru. 162. adjectival prefix. viii. exclamatory particle. 74. pronoun. soro. 70.INDEX ra. causative suffix. tari. suffix. 71. 347 termination of uninflected ad- te. 238. 269. Sandai Jitsuroku. 281 . 124. ye. Wangin (Wani). shi. 211. suffix. su. 74. -tashi v. 66. exclamatory. 212. to shite. Japanese. 175. To-in. 266. 124. 174. 206. uru. conjunctive use. yo. 189. Yamada. tari. sae. stem of Japanese verbs. ra. 129. 179. relative pronoun. 24. 137. termination. . rule of 264 syntax regarding. Sanskrit words. substantives. adjectival suffix. -rashi. 135. womotte. -zari. 119. suffix. 254- Taketori Monogatari. viii. 296. adverbial particle. yori. auxiliary verb. particle. safurafu v. exclamatory. tense suffix. 13. wo koto ten. 81. 121. 123. 245 conjunctive particle. 10. soro. -taki. tense suffix. tense in Japanese verbs. . ra. pronoun. Shoku Nihongi. pronoun. particle. particle. perfect form of tense suffix. ta. pronoun. 258. shi. -ta. verb. sa. 295. 309. tabu. rescripts. 251. woba. transliteration of Japanese words. wagakusha. 214. 53. 282. 222. 119. 50. adjectival prefix. syllabary. 253. 280 rule of syntax regarding. 30 n. -taki. tsure. 185. 50. 223. seri.. shiki. concessive. 71. suspensive form. equivalents for. forming passive verbs. colloquial preterite suffix.