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Bi 1 KHI QUT CHUNG V LUT SO SNH I. Khi nim LSS: 1. TNC v PPNC: 1.

1 TNC: nhiu quan im khc nhau - Quan im ca cc hc gi phng ty: s dng phng php khi qut ha i tng nghin cu ca LSS. - Quan im ca cc hc gi XHCN: s dng phng php lit k cc vn thuc TNC ca LSS Nhn xt: u, nhc im ca tng quan im, im chung ca 2 quan im. c im ca TNC: Kh xc nh phm vi C tnh bin i khng ngng C tnh hng ngoi c nghin cu gc l lun v thc tin 1.2 PPNC: - So snh tnh: kh nng c th so snh c vi nhau ca cc vn cn so snh vn rt quan trng c th thc hin c vic so snh. PPNC c chia thnh 2 nhm: - Nhm PP chung: - Nhm PP c th: PPSS lch s: da vo nhng giai on lch s nht nh l gii nhng im tng ng v khc bit. Gi tr ca PPSSLS: c s dng gii quyt nhng vn tng ng v khc bit v bn cht ca cc h thng PL; gii thch c ngun gc nguyn nhn ca s tng ng v khc bit. PPSS quy phm (vn bn): so snh cc quy phm trong h thng PL ny vi cc quy phm tng ng trong HTPL khc. (da vo tn gi ca quy phm, vn bn) PPSSQP i t vic xc nh quy phm (vn bn) cn so snh n vic kt lun v chc nng iu chnh ca quy phm (vn bn). PPSS chc nng: so snh cc gii php php l c s dng trong cc x hi khc nhau cng gii quyt vn x hi hoc php l tn ti cc x hi . PPSSCN i t vic xc nh quan h x hi cn iu chnh n vic xc nh cc quy phm iu chnh quan h x hi . u, nhc im ca tng PP? 2. Khi nim: cha c khi nim thng nht - Cc quan im khc nhau v bn cht ca LSS: L nhm cc PP nghin cu so snh PL L ngnh khoa hc php l c lp Va l ngnh khoa hc php l, va l PPNCSSPL LSS l ngnh khoa hc php l c TNC v PPNC. III. ng dng: - hot ng lp php - Ha hp ha v nht in ha PL - Gii thch v p dng Pl - i vi cng php, t php quc t. IV. Lch s hnh thnh v pht trin ca LSS: - Xc nh LSS vi t cch l ngnh KHPL ra i vo thi im no.

Bi 2 MT S VN CN LU KHI NGHIN CU PHP LUT NC NGOI I. Mi quan h gia NCPLNN v LSS: mi quan h qua li - NCPLNN l tin thc hin cng trnh LSS II. Cc loi ngun thng tin c s dng trong hot ng NCSSPL: 1. Ngun thng tin ch yu: l ngun lut trong h thng PLQG - u im - Hn ch 2. Ngun thng tin th yu: cc cng trnh nghin cu, sch, gio trnh, bi vit tp ch - u im - Hn ch Cn c phn chia loi ngun thng tin: gi tr v tnh php l ca mi loi ngun - Mc ch phn loi: thy c gi tr ca mi loi ngun i vi tng cp d nghin cu (vi m hay v m) - Cn c la chn loi ngun: mc ch nghin cu, trnh , kh nng ca ngi nghin cu, cp nghin cu III. Cc nguyn tc gii thch v s dng ngun lut ca h thng PLNN: - Tn trng trt t phn cp cc ngun lut trong h thng PLNN - Khi gii thch PLNN phi tun th nguyn tc khch quan v t duy - PLNN phi c nghin cu trong tnh tng th, ton din - PLNN phi c nghin cu mt cch bin chng

Bi 3 CC H THNG PHP LUT CH YU TRN TH GII


1. Khi qut chung v hot ng phn nhm cc HTPL ch yu trn TG: 1.1. Mt s khi nim c bn: * HTPL QG: HTPL quc gia l tng th cc QPPL c mi lin h ni ti thng nht vi nhau c phn thnh cc ch nh php lut v ngnh lut do c quan NN c thm quyn ban hnh theo trnh t, th tc do php lut quy nh. - HTPL QG l i tng nghin cu ch yu ca lut hc so snh. * HTPL TG: L s tng hp ca hai hay nhiu HTPL QG c nhng im tng ng nht nh chng ta phn nhm. - HTPL TG l i tng nghin cu phi sinh ca lut hc so snh. 1.2. Gii thch ni hm ca mt s thut ng ch yu: * Mt s thut ng: - HTPL: thng dng khi chng ta i phn nhm cc HTPL trn TG. - Truyn thng php lut: Nhn mnh n ngun gc. - Dng h php lut: Nhn mnh n tnh k tha. * Ti sao li c nhiu thut ng nh vy? * Cc thut ng khng tng ng vi nhau v ni hm nhng trong chng trnh ging dy th cho php s dng thay th cho nhau. 1.3. Mc ch ca vic phn nhm cc HTPL ch yu trn TG: * Mc ch s phm: - Thun li hn trong vic nghin cu php lut quc t, cc mn hc v nghin cu php lut nc ngoi. - Thun li trong hot ng giao lu kinh t, thng mi. 2

* Mc ch nghin cu: Gip cho hon thin HTPL ca QG mnh. 2. Cc tiu ch phn nhm cc HTPL ch yu trn TG: * Cc quan im: - Quan im 1: S dng mt tiu ch phn nhm: + u im: D thc hin. + Nhc im: Hiu qu phn nhm khng cao. - Quan im 2: S dng nhiu tiu ch phn nhm: + u im: Rt kh thc hin. + Nhc im: Hiu qu phn nhm cao. Cn c vo quan im ny, Rne David phn thnh 4 HTPL ch yu trn th gii: + HTPL Thng lut. + HTPL Dn lut. + HTPL XHCN. + HTPL Tn gio. * Cc tiu ch phn nhm: 2.1. Ngun gc php lut: - Cc HTPL trn TG u xut pht t 2 ngun gc: Lut La M c i v Lut Anh c. - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN vi HTPL Thng lut. 2.2. Hnh thc php lut: - nh ngha hnh thc php lut. - Cc hnh thc php lut: Tin l php, Tp qun php, Vn bn quy phm php lut. - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN vi HTPL Thng lut. 2.3. Mi tng quan gia lut thc nh v lut t tng: - nh ngha lut thc nh, lut t tng. - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN vi HTPL Thng lut. - Ti sao? 2.4. Vai tr lp php ca c quan t php: - HTPL Thng lut: C quan t php c vai tr lm lut. Gii thch? - HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN: C quan t php khng c vai tr lm lut. Gii thch? - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN vi HTPL Thng lut. 2.5. Mc php in ha cao: - nh ngha php in ha. Phn bit php in ha v tp hp ha. - HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN: Mc php in ha cao. Gii thch? - HTPL Thng lut: Mc php ha khng cao. Gii thch? - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a v HTPL XHCN vi HTPL Thng lut. 2.6. S phn chia php lut thnh lut cng v lut t: - nh ngha lut cng, lut t. - HTPL XHCN v Thng lut khng phn chia php lut thnh lut cng v lut t. Ti sao? - HTPL chu u lc a c s phn chia php lut thnh lut cng v t. Ti sao? - Phn bit c: HTPL chu u lc a vi HTPL XHCN v HTPL Thng lut. 3. Cc HTPL ch yu trn TG: 3.1. HTPL chu u lc a (HTPL Php c, HTPL Dn lut, Romane German, Civil law): 3.1.1. S ph cp: - Ph cp rng ln vi gn 2/3 dn s trn TG chu s nh hng ca HTPL ny. - Gii thch? 3.1.2. Lch s hnh thnh: * Giai on trc TK XIII (S hnh thnh lut La M): - Hnh thnh lut 12 bng (trc CN). - Nh nc La M ra i c i (trc CN). 3

- S pht trin mnh m v php lut, kinh t... ca NN La M c i. - S nh hng ca lut La M c i khu vc chu u? - NN La M c i sp v nh hng ca php lut LM c i ti chu u lc a. - S thay i v kinh t - chnh tr - x hi ca chu u cui giai on ny -> t ra nhim v l phi xy dng nhng QPPL ph hp vi iu kin mi v phi m bo tnh cng bng. * Giai on t th k XIII n u th k XVIII (Quay tr li p dng lut LM): - Nhim v ca cc trng i hc tng hp chu u. - Php lut c p dng chu u giai on ny l g? * Giai on t cui TK XVIII n nay (Php in ha mnh m): Giai on ny php in ha mnh m ti chu u vi s ra i ca hng lot b lut ni ting: BLDS Napoleon, BLDS c... 3.1.3. c im ca HTPL chu u lc a: Cn c vo cc tiu ch phn nhm trnh by c im. 3.2. HTPL Thng lut (HTPL Anglo Saxong, Anh M, Common law): 3.2.1. S ph cp: - Ph cp rng ln vi gn 1/3 dn s trn TG chu s nh hng ca HTPL ny. - Gii thch? 3.2.2. Lch s hnh thnh: * Trc nm 1066: * T 1066 n 1485 (S ra i ca Thng lut). * T th k XV n TK XIX: S ra i ca Lut cng bng. * T th k XIX n nay: S ra i ca lut thnh vn. 3.2.3. c im ca HTPL Thng lut: Cn c vo cc tiu ch phn nhm rt ra c cc c trng ca HTPL Thng lut. 3.3. HTPL XHCN: 3.3.1. S lc v HTPL XHCN: - Cch mng thng X Nga nh du s ra i ca NN XHCN u tin trn TG. - S hnh thnh nn h thng XHCN. - Mc ch cui cng ca vic xy dng NN XHCN. - S tan r ca HTPL XHCN. 3.3.2. Khi qut v HTPL XHCN; - S ph cp. - Khi NN XHCN hnh thnh nn h thng v khi NN XHCN tan r. 3.3.3. c im ca HTPL XHCN: -Da vo cc tiu ch phn nhm trnh by c im. 3.4. HTPL Hi gio: 3.4.1. Khi qut o Hi: 3.4.2. Php lut Hi gio: - nh ngha. - S ph cp. 3.4.3. c im ca HTPL Hi gio: - C tnh bn vng cao. Gii thch? - Cc iu kin HTPL c coi l HTPL Hi gio. - Ngun ca php lut Hi gio. - Vai tr ca NN trong hot ng lp php. 4. Xu hng pht trin ca cc HTPL ch yu trn TG hin nay: ang c xu hng xch li gn nhau hn. Ti sao?

Bi 4 H THNG PHP LUT ANH I. Cc thnh phn ch yu trong h thng php lut Anh: 1. Thng lut(Common law): 1.1 Lch s hnh thnh: Giai on trc nm 1066: - V kinh t, chnh tr, x hi: PTSX b tc ch yu, nc Anh thot khi s h ca ch La M, lnh th Anh chia thnh nhiu min phong kin khc nhau, ng u l cc lnh cha PK. - V t php: c cc ta n ca cc lnh cha PK, phng thc xt x s dng cc yu t siu nhin, thn thnh. - V php lut: lut LM khng p dng Anh, ngun lut p dng l cc tp qun a phng, cha c h thng PL thng nht - c im ca tp qun: p dng theo nguyn tc vng, cc tp qun rt a dng gia cc vng, tp qun ca vng no ch p dng cho vng u, nhc im ca nguyn tc vng? Giai on 1066-1485: giai on hnh thnh thng lut - V kinh t chnh tr: PTSX PK ng vai tr ch yu, nc Anh ri vo ch thng tr ca b tc Norman. Th lnh b tc Norman l William ln ngi vua Anh. - V t php: vua William tin hnh ci cch t php, thnh lp cc ta n hong gia. - c im ca ta n hong gia: Cc ta n hong gia c tr s ti Lun n Thm quyn xt x tp trung vo cc lnh vc mang tnh cht cng (thu thu ca hong gia, c vn v an ninh ca vng quc, gii quyt tranh chp gia cc lnh cha phong kin). Thm quyn ca ta n hong gia l thm quyn c bit: quyn khi kin ra ta n hong gia l c n, mun khi kin phi xin c trt (writ). Khi xt x ta n hong gia tip tc s dng ngun lut l cc tp qun a phng nhng c s gii thch ca cc thm phn; thm phn c ngha v ghi chp y tnh tit v vic, phng thc xt x loi b cc yu t siu t nhin. Cc ta n hong gia thc hin phng thc xt x lu ng: xt x lu ng vo ma h, ma ng tp trung ti Lun n. Trong qu trnh ngh ng, cc thm phn trao i kinh nghim xt x vi nhau, so snh cc tp qun c s dng cc a phng, rt ra nhng tp qun hiu qu tin b nht. Cc tp qun c cc thm phn p dng thng nht trn c nc dn dn hnh thnh nn h thng cc quy nh php lut gi l thng lut. Thng lut Anh ra i vo th k 13, y l cc tp qun chung, khc vi cc tp qun a phng. Thng lut Anh trong giai on ny l thng lut c hiu theo ngha hp. 2. c im ca qu trinh hnh thnh thng lut; - Thng lut hnh thnh tch bit vi quyn lc lp php. - Thng lut hnh thnh bng con ng ni ti. - S hnh thnh thng lut c tnh lin tc v k tha lch s php lut cc giai on trc. - Nguyn tc Stare Decisis (tin l phi c tun th) c hnh thnh v tr thnh nguyn tc rt quan trng trong h thng thng lut. Nguyn tc Stare Decisis chnh thc c gi tr bt buc vo th k 19. Ni dung nguyn tc: ngha nguyn tc: - Thng lut va c tnh cng nhc va c tnh linh hot. - Lin quan n cc tranh chp bi thng thit hi, thng lut ch c mt ch ti duy nht l pht tin. 2. Lut cng bng(Equity Law) 2.1 Lch s hnh thnh: 5

- V kinh t: PTSXPK vn tn ti nhng bt u suy thoi, cc quan h kinh t TBCN bt u hnh thnh. - V chnh tr x hi: nhiu tranh chp mi pht sinh gia cc thng nhn nhng cc ta n hong gia khng th gii quyt tt cc tranh chp ny. Cc quy nh ca thng lut khng ph hp iu chnh nhng quan h mi pht sinh, thng lut ri vo tnh trng khng hong. - Nhng ngi khi kin khng tha mn vi phn quyt ca cc ta n hong gia lm n thnh cu ln nh vua, vua giao cho i chng n gii quyt. i chng n c ton quyn nh ot gii quyt cc n thnh cu. -Trong qu trnh gii quyt, i chng n a ra nhng gii php php l rt ph hp, hiu qu s lng n thnh cu tng ln, vua ra quyt nh thnh lp ta n cng bng. u th k 16, cc quyt nh ca ta cng bng hnh thnh mt h thng cc quy nh php l c tn gi l lut cng bng. 2.2 c im ca lut cng bng: - Cc quy phm th hin tnh o c, linh hot, mm do (L do?). - Hot ng xt x ca ta cng bng th hin tnh cht c nhn, ch quan. - Cc gii php php l a dng, mi m. - Th tc xt x n gin, a dng. Ci cch ta n ln th nht: 1873- 1875 - Nguyn nhn: s tn ti song song hai h thng ta ta thng lut v ta cng bng- dn n s xung t v thm quyn v tnh hai mt trong th tc t tng Anh. -Mc ch ci cch: hp nht 2 h thng ta lm 1, xa b tnh 2 mt trong th tc t tng - Kt qu: hp nht 2 h thng ta n, xa b tnh 2 mt trong t tng. Mi tng quan gia thng lut v lut cng bng (trc v sau ci cch ta n ln th nht): - Trc ci cch: thng lut l b phn chnh, LCB l b phn b sung - Sau ci cch: hai b phn php lut bnh ng. Mi tng quan gia thng lut v lut thnh vn: - Lut thnh vn: lut do ngh vin trc tip ban hnh (lut ban hnh + lut do ngh vin y quyn cho c quan khc ban hnh). - V nguyn tc: Tnh ti cao thuc v lut ban hnh - Trn thc tin: thng lut c u tin p dng hn lut thnh vn. Cc cch hiu ca thut ng common law: Thng lut lut chung Tng th cc quy phm v nguyn tc do thm phn to ra Torng hp cc b phn trong h thng php lut Anh Php lut hnh thnh di s nh hng ca PL Anh Lut Anh- M Lut n l - thng lut theo ngha hp (phn bit vi lut cng bng) II. H thng ta n: 1. Nhn xt chung: - Tnh tp quyn t php - Kh xc nh theo m hnh no - Nguyn tc hnh thnh: n v hnh chnh + khu vc - Kh xc nh cp ta v cp xt x - Phc tp, cng knh. 2. Cu trc: Ta ti cao: - Thm quyn: phc thm cc bn n ca cc ta n cp di (xem xt li vic p dng php lut) - Thm quyn to n l Ta phc thm: 6

- Thm quyn: phc thm bn n ca cc ta cp di - thm quyn to ra n l Ta dn s thm quyn chung: - Thm quyn: xt x dn s v mt s v HS - Cp XX: s thm, phc thm - Thm quyn to n l Ta HS thm quyn chung: - Thm quyn: xt x HS - Cp xt x: s thm, phc thm - Thm quyn to n l Ta ha gii: - Thm quyn: s thm HS v DS - Cp phc thm - Thm quyn to n l Ta a ht: - Thm quyn: S thm DS - Cp phc thm - Thm quyn to n l 3. n l : - Khi nim: theo ngha rng, theo ngha hp - Cu trc: ratio decidendi v obiter dictum/dicta - iu kin bn n tr thnh n l: cng b trong tuyn tp n l - Quy tc vn hnh: Stare Decisis - Phng thc vn hnh: theo chiu dc, theo chiu ngang III. Ngh lut v o to lut: 1. Nhn xt: - Phng thc o to lut thin v o to thc tin, o to k nng hnh ngh. - hnh ngh khng cn bng c nhn lut. - Cu trc: lut s v thm ph - Lut s phn chia thnh: LSBC v LSTV 2. Cu trc ngh lut: - Lut s - Thm phn

PHP LUT M I. Lch s hnh thnh nh nc Hoa K: 1. Lch s hnh thnh nc M: Qu trnh di dn t chu u qua t Bc M: - Nm 1492 khi Columbus tm ra Bc M, ngi chu u ti Bc M. - Mc di dn: nm 1606, gn vi s hnh thnh khu dn c Virginia ca ngi Anh. - Thnh phn di dn: Ty Ban Nha, B o Nha, Php, H Lan,Thy in, Anh. - Nguyn nhn dn ti vic di dn ca nc Anh: Cng nghip: cng nghip ng tu v luyn kim pht trin mnh nht th gii, ngun nguyn liu trong nc khng p ng c sn xut, cn c ngun nguyn liu mi. Cng nghip dt may pht trindin tch t trng bng v nui cu c m rng ngi nng dn mt t canh tc, lm vo tnh trng ngho tng. Nng nghip: mt ma lin tip 7

Chnh tr: Hong gia Anh tr thnh ch qun ch chuyn ch, km kp s pht trin ca giai cp t sn v nhng ngi c t tng t do dn ch. Tn gio: ny sinh nhiu mu thun tn gio, nhiu quy nh h khc rng buc cc tn Php lut: thng lut tr nn cng nhc, lc hu, h khc, tr thnh cng c bo v ch qun ch chuyn ch. - Kt qu ca cuc di dn: hnh thnh 13 khu thuc a t Bc M. c im chung ca cc khu thuc a: - Mi quan h gia Hong gia Anh vi cc khu thuc a: cc khu thuc a chu s bo tr ca Hong gia Anh. V kinh t V chnh tr - ngoi giao V php lut - Mi lin h gia cc khu thuc a vi nhau: hon ton c lp vi nhau v kinh t, php lut v m hnh qun l. V kinh t V chnh quyn V php lut 2. Lch s hnh thnh php lut Hoa K: Php lut M th k 17: - Ngi Anh n Bc M mang theo thng lut ca mnh. - T gc php l, thng lut Anh c p dng chnh thc ti cc khu thuc a t nm 1608 lin quan ti v n Calwin. Thng lut Anh c p dng mc m cc quy phm ca n ph hp vi nhng iu kin ca vng t ny. - Thng lut Anh khng ph hp vi hon cnh ca nc M, ngun lut ch yu vn l cc quy nh php lut mang tnh cht a phng. Php lut M th k 18: - Kinh t pht trin, iu kin sng ca ngi dn c s ci thin. - Ngi M thay i cch nhn i vi thng lut: tip nhn thng lut v c lut thnh vn ca Anh. Tuy nhin, thng lut ngi M tip nhn ch l thng lut trc thi im nm 1776. - Nm 1776, M tuyn b c lp, s c lp v chnh tr dn n t tng c lp v php lut hng lot bang tuyn b cm da vo thng lut Anh sau nm 1776, phong tro php in ha pht trin mnh m. - Thng lut vn thng li tuyt i M. H thng vn : Php lut M tip nhn g t php lut Anh? Ti sao ngi M li c t tng c lp vi thng lut Anh? Ti sao thng lut Anh vn tip tc c p dng trn t M? 3. c im c bn ca php lut Hoa K: - Tn ti song song h thng php lut ca lin bang v h thng php lut ca cc bang. - Tnh thng nht trong h thng php lut Hoa K: do tc ng ca php lut lin bang, do t duy ca cc lut gia M. - Quy phm v xung t php lut rt pht trin. - Php in ha pht trin mnh. - V ngun lut: n l: - n l M c nhng c trng ring so vi n l Anh: Quy tc Stare Decisis M c p dng mm do hn. (Nguyn nhn:) - Cc loi n l: - n l lin bang 8

- n l bang Lut thnh vn: - Hin php lin bang - Cc hip c, hip nh - Cc vn bn lp php ca quc hi - Cc vn bn di lut do c quan hnh php ban hnh - Vn bn php lut ca cc bang Ngun b tr: - Tp qun php - Cc tc phm ca cc hc gi php l II. Hin php Hoa K: 1. Qu trnh son tho Hin php: 1.1 Bi cnh son tho hin php: - C s khng hong v kinh t, chnh tr, php lut. - Nguy c tan r ca nh nc Hoa K non tr do chnh quyn lin bang khng c c quyn lc tht s mnh n nh t nc. - Bn iu l lin bang c s php lut duy nht li khng c cc quy nh v quyn lc t php lin bang, ngn sch cho lin bang, chnh sch thu chung, ngoi t chung cho lin bang, chnh sch v c ch iu hnh thng mi chung cho lin bang. Son tho Hin php v to dng chnh quyn lin bang thc s c cc chnh tr gia hng u ca M cho l yu t quyt nh ti s sng cn ca nh nc M non tr ang trong giai on khc phc hu qu ca cuc chin v c lp. 1.2 Din bin ca Hi ngh lp hin 1.3 Qu trnh ph chun Hin php 2. c im ca Hin php Hoa K: - L tha c lin minh gia cc tiu bang v l s tha hip phn chia quyn lc gia cc bang vi chnh quyn lin bang. - L mt kh c x hi. - S tha thun phn chia gia cc nhnh quyn lc. 3. C ch tu chnh hin php - Hin php Hoa K l hin php m: iu V ca Hin php - Bn cnh 7 iu khon ban u c 27 tu chnh n - Trng hp ngoi l III. H thng ta n Hoa K: Khi qut chung 1. Cu trc: 1.1 H thng ta n lin bang: Theo o lut t php nm 1789 do Quc hi Hoa K ban hnh th h thng to n lin bang Hoa K bao gm cc to n sau y: Cp s thm : Ta n ht lin bang/Ta n khu vc lin bang/Ta n qun lin bang (District Court) Cp phc thm: Ta n phc thm vng/Ta n phc thm khu vc/Ta phc thm lin bang (Circuit Court of Appeals) Cp ti cao : Ta n ti cao lin bang / Ti cao php vin Hoa K (Supreme Court of the United States) 9

- Ngoi ra, trong h thng ta n lin bang cn c cc ta n c bit sau y: Ta khiu ni lin bang (The U.S Court of Federal Claims) Ta phc thm cu chin binh M (The U.S Court of Appeals for Veteran Claims) Ta phc thm qun s M (TheU.S Court of Military Appeals) Ta n thu lin bang (The U.S Tax Court) Ta thng mi quc t M (The U.S Court of International Trade) - V cc c quan xt x bn t php. 1.1.1 To n ht lin bang/Ta khu vc lin bang/Ta n qun lin bang (district court): - To n ht lin bang l to n xt x phn ln cng vic ca h thng to n lin bang. - Ta n ht c thm quyn xt x: Cc v vic lin quan n lut lin bang, c th: lin quan n vic gii thch Hin php lin bang, lin quan n cc o lut ca Quc hi, cc quy ch ca lin bang, v cc hip c m Hoa K l thnh vin. Cc tranh chp c gi tr t 75.000USD .1 Tuy nhin, nu l tranh chp thuc mt trong cc nhm vn php lut nh: cc quy nh v quyn cng dn, pht minh, bn quyn, h chiu, th tc nhp - thi quc tch, bu chnh lin bang, ch quyn bin v hng hi th vn gi tr tranh chp khng c t ra. Cc tranh chp a chng: lin quan n tranh chp gia cc bn thuc cc bang khc nhau hoc gia cng dn Hoa K vi c nhn, nh nc nc ngoi, gia c nhn nc ngoi vi nhau hoc gia cc bn vi nh nc Hoa K.nhm bo v ngi ca bang khc hay ngi nc ngoi khi s thin v ca ta n bang ni c cng dn ca mnh l mt bn ng s trong v tranh chp.

1.1.2 To phc thm vng/Ta phc thm khu vc/Ta phc thm lin bang (court of appeals): - H thng to n ca Hoa K k t sau o lut t php 1789 c nhng thay i nh sau: T 1789 n trc nm 1891: to n ht to lu ng to ti cao. T 1891 n trc nm 1911: to n ht to lu ng to ti cao. v ta n ht to phc thm vng to ti cao. T 1911 n nay: to n ht to phc thm vng to ti cao. 1.1.3 To n ti cao lin bang (Supreme Court of the United States_USSC): - Chc nng xt x: Thm quyn xt x ca to n ti cao c ghi nhn ti iu I v iu III Hin php. To n Ti cao lin bang c thm quyn xt x s thm v phc thm, cc phn quyt ca n d khng uc ghi nhn trong Hin php nhng c cng nhn l c gi tr chung thm. To n ti cao lin bang c chung thm quyn xt x s thm (thm quyn ng thi) vi to n ht lin bang trong mt s v vic lin quan nh sau: C mt bn l i s, lnh s nc ngoi; Cc v vic gia chnh ph Hoa K vi mt bang; Cc v tranh chp ca hai hay nhiu bang; Cc tranh chp gia mt bang vi cng dn mt bang khc hay ngi nc ngoi.

Gio trnh Lut so snh, HLHN, 2008, tr.279.

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To n ti cao lin bang c thm quyn xt x phc thm cc v vic c khng co, khng ngh t cc to n hin nh, cc to n lut nh lin bang cng nh t cc to n ti cao ca bang (ch trong nhng trng hp c lin quan n yu t lin bang).

- Cc phng thc phc thm ca Ta ti cao lin bang: Phc thm ng nhin: Ta phi chp nhn v xem xt n khng co m n nhn c. Tuy nhin, v vic thuc phm vi ny rt hn ch. Phc thm thnh n (certification): cc to n phc thm vng ca lin bang c th xin to n ti cao cho hng dn v kha cnh php l ca mt v vic c th m n ang gii quyt Phng thc thng qua trt ly ln xt x li (writ of certiorari) : Hu ht cng vic ca to n ti cao lin bang l nhng v n c to n ti cao ng ly ln xt x li, tc l to n ti cao c th a ra lnh tu nghi (khng bt buc, ch cn 4/9 thm phn thnh vin ng ) th to n cp di c ngha v phi chuyn ton b v vic m mnh ang xt x cho to n ti cao trc tip xt x theo yu cu ca mt trong cc bn ng s lin quan trong v n. -Ta TCLB c thm quyn cao nht trong vic gii thch Hin php , lut, ngh quyt ca Quc hi, sc lnh, ch th ca Tng thng, o lut ca cc bang . 1.1.4 Cc to c bit: Ta khiu ni lin bang (The U.S Court of Federal Claims) Ta phc thm cu chin binh M (The U.S Court of Appeals for Veteran Claims) Ta phc thm qun s M (TheU.S Court of Military Appeals) Ta n thu lin bang (The U.S Tax Court) Ta thng mi quc t M (The U.S Court of International Trade)

1.1.5 C quan xt x bn t php 1.2 H thng ta n bang: - Vic t chc v hat ng ca h thng ta n cc bang hon ton thuc thm quyn ca c quan lp php ca bang m khng theo bt c quy nh no ca lin bang. 2. Phn chia thm quyn gia ta n lin bang v ta n bang: phn chia thm quyn xt x gia h thng ta n lin bang v h thng ta n bang. -Thm quyn xt x chnh vn thuc v ta n bang. Cc bn ch c th kin ln ta n lin bang nhng trng hp khi Hin php M cng nhn rng ta n lin bang c thm quyn trong nhng trng hp . - Thm quyn xt x ca hai h thng c th c xc nh nh sau (trong trng hp xt x s thm): Cc v vic m thm quyn gii quyt ch thuc v mt h thng ta n: Ta n ca bang c c quyn xt x i vi v vic lut php ca bang quy nh v tha mn thm iu kin cc bn trong v vic u phi l cng dn ca bang mnh; Ta n lin bang c thm quyn chuyn bit i vi mt s v vic lin quan n: th tc x l ph sn, s hu cng nghip, tranh chp hng hi, khiu kin chng li cc c quan hnh chnh lin bang Cc v vic m c hai h thng ta n u c thm quyn: i vi nhng v vic ny, cc bn c quyn la chn ta n bang hay ta n lin bang gii quyt. C th: 11

Cc v vic DS thuc thm quyn xt x ca c hai h thng ta n bao gm: Th nht, cc tranh chp lin quan n vic din gii hay p dng Hin php v cc o lut ca lin bang. Th hai, cc tranh chp lin quan n yu t a chng. Cc v vic hnh s thuc thm quyn xt x ca c hai h thng ta n bao gm cc v n m c c quan nh nc cp lin bang v cp lin bang u c quyn khi t. 3. Lut p dng ti cc Ta n lin bang: - V lut t tng: Khng ph thuc vo vic ta n th l v vic thm quyn lp php ca cp no, lut t tng c p dng trong mi trng hp l lut t tng ca ta n mnh.. - V lut ni dung: +V vic thuc thm quyn lp php ca cp no th ta n phi p dng lut ni dung ca cp . + i vi nhng v tranh chp thuc thm quyn lp php ca c bang v lin bang th ta n phi p dng php lut ca bang nu vn lin quan n bang, p dng php lut lin bang khi v tranh chp mang tnh cht xuyn bang. IV. Ngh lut v o to lut Hoa K: 1. o to lut hc lut: - o to trong cc trng lut c on lut s Hoa K cng nhn. - c im ca cc trng lut: o to lut dnh cho nhng ngi tt nghip i hc (khng bt buc c bng kin thc i cng v lut) Phng php ging: case study thi vo trng, sinh vin phi tri qua k thi LSAT. Thi gian hc 3 nm 2. Cc ngh lin quan n lut: 2.1 Ngh lut s: - Khng phn chia lut s t vn v lut s bo cha. - tr thnh lut s, sinh vin sau khi tt nghip phi thi vo on lut s ca bang m h chn nhn c chng ch hnh ngh. - Chng ch cp bang no th hnh ngh bang . - Lut s ca bang ny c th gia nhp vo on lut s ca bang khc nhng thng vi iu kin hnh ngh 5 nm. - Hnh ngh c nhn hoc tham gia vo cng ty lut. 2.2 Ngh thm phn: Thm phn lin bang: - Xut thn t lut s. - Do Quc hi ph chun theo c ca tng thng. - Nhim k sut i hoc c thi hn. - Lng ch tng ln ch khng gim xung Thm phn bang: c 3 con ng tr thnh thm phn bang: - Tuyn c - Tuyn la theo cng trng - Do Thng c bang v c quan lp php bang b nhim. 2.3 Gio s dy lut: - Xut thn t cc lut s gii ang hnh ngh. 12

BI 6 H THNG PHP LUT PHP I. Lch s hnh thnh php lut nc Php: 1. Giai on trc CMDCTS nm 1789: 1.1 Tnh hnh php lut: - Cha c h thng php lut thng nht, cc ngun lut c p dng cc vng lnh th rt a dng, bao gm: Lut La M Lut tp qun Lut gio hi Vn bn php lut ca nh vua Lut l ca cc lnh cha, ca chnh quyn cc thnh ph t tr. - Cn c vo ngun lut ch yu c s dng, c th phn chia nc Php thnh 2 min php lut: Min Nam: min php lut thnh vn - Ngun lut ch yu: Lut La M. Nguyn nhn: kinh t hng ha pht trin mnh, tp qun khng thch hp iu chnh, lut thnh vn ca Php cha pht trin, lut LM rt ph hp iu chnh cc quan h mi pht sinh. - Ngoi ra cn p dng tp qun. Min Bc: min php lut tp qun - Ngun lut ch yu: lut tp qun - Bin son cc tp qun: - Cch thc bin son - u im, nhc im - Ci cch bin son tp qun - Ngoi ra cn p dng lut LM. - Bn cnh cc ngun lut c trng ring ca mi vng, cn c nhng quy phm c gi tr p dng thng nht trn ton quc: Lut ca gio hi, cc vn bn php lut ca nh vua (sc lnh, quyt nh ca ta n nh vua). 1.2 c trng ca php lut: - Cha c h thng php lut chung thng nht. - Php lut mang tnh phong kin: Php lut th hin tnh giai cp, bt bnh ng, gia trng. 1.3 Thnh qu: - K tha trc tip nhiu vn t lut LM. - Hnh thnh v pht trin nguyn tc gii quyt xung t php lut. - Hnh thnh t chc lut s Php. ngha: t nn mng cho s hnh thnh t duy php in ha v h thng ha php lut thng nht, chung cho ton nc Php sau ny. 2. Giai on chuyn tip: giai on CMTS 1789-1795 2.1 Tnh hnh php lut: - Nhiu vn bn php lut quan trng ra i: Tuyn ngn nhn quyn v dn quyn v Cc bn hin php. - Ni dung bn Tuyn ngn nhn quyn v dn quyn. - Gi tr ca bn Tuyn ngn nhn quyn v dn quyn: - Ghi nhn gi tr ca cuc CMTS, th hin ton b t tng tin b ca gcts - Cha ng cc quy tc nn tng trong PLDS v PLHS ca nc Php v chu u lc a. 13

- t nn mng cho s ra i ca ngnh lut hin php. - Cc bn Hin php 1791, 1793, 1795. 2.2 c trng ca php lut: - a ra cc nguyn tc c bn ca nh nc php quyn. - cao cc quyn t do ca con ngi. - Th hin tnh bnh ng 2.3 Thnh qu: t nn mng cho vic xy dng nh nc php quyn v dn ch u tin ca chu u, xa b trit ch phong kin. 3. Giai on sau CMTS: 3.1 Tnh hnh php lut: - Din ra qu trnh php in ha mnh m. - S ra i ca B lut Napoleon. - S ra i ca cc B lut khc. 3.2 c trng ca php lut: - Mang tnh php in. - Tnh gin on trong s pht trin ca php lut: gin on v bn cht x hi ca PL trc v sau CMTS 1789. - K tha php lut ca cc giai on trc: ngun lut La M, ngun lut tp qun - Tnh bnh ng v dn ch. - L h thng php lut chung, thng nht do c quan nh nc c thm quyn ban hnh. 3.3 Thnh qu: s hon thin qu trnh php in ha php lut, t nn mng cho s hnh thnh php lut dn s ti cc nc khc. II. B lut dn s Php: 1. V k thut son tho: th hin trnh lp php cao - Cu trc: bao gm Li ni u, 3 quyn, 2283 iu. Cu trc tip nhn t lut La M. - Ngn ng: trong sng, gin d, d hiu. - B lut nu u cc nguyn tc ca dn lut: cc khi nim php l, nguyn tc ca dn lut c trnh by ngn gn, y , chun xc. - Cc quy nh ca b lut kt hp kho lo gia tnh tng qut v tnh c th, ph hp vi thc tin. Ngun lut c s dng son tho B lut: Lut La M Lut tp qun Lut gio hi Cc hc thuyt php l Cc cng trnh ni ting ca cc lut gia Php: cc cng trnh bnh lun lut LM Php lut giai on chuyn tip. 2. Ni dung: - Quyn th nht: quy nh v th nhn - Quyn th hai: ti sn v nhng thay i v quyn s hu - Quyn th 3: cc phng thc xc lp quyn s hu Gi tr ca BLDS: - Tha nhn s bnh ng ca c nhn trc php lut. 14

- Tn trng mt cch tuyt i cc cam kt trong hp ng. - Tha nhn, bo v quyn s hu t nhn. 4. S thay i ca BLDS Napoleon: - S lng cc iu khon vn c gi nguyn. - Ni dung ca cc iu khon c sa i, b sung theo thi gian thch nghi vi s thay i, pht trin ca cc quan h x hi. - Rt nhiu b lut ra i b sung cho lnh vc dn s. - C v tr ngang bng vi cc o lut khc trong h thng php lut dn s. III. H thng c quan ta n: Nhn xt chung v cu trc ta n Php: - C cu trc nh nguyn: Nguyn nhn: do vai tr ca ta n trong lch s, nh hng ca t tng tam quyn phn lp, s phn chia php lut thnh lut cng v lut t. - H thng ta n thng v h thng ta n hnh chnh c t cch hin php v php l khc nhau. - C ta n ring bit thc hin chc nng kim sot tnh hp hin i vi vn bn php lut ca ngh vin v cc vn bn php lut ca c quan hnh php. - Nguyn tc hnh thnh: n v hnh chnh lnh th+khu vc+v vic - C s tch bit ta ph n ta n ti cao trong nhnh thm quyn chung ra khi chc nng xt x s thm. - C 2 nhnh ta u cu to theo 3 cp: s thm phc thm ph n. Cu trc h thng ta n Php: - Nhnh ta thm quyn chung - Nhnh ta hnh chnh - Ta xung t - Hi ng bo hin A. Nhnh ta thm quyn chung: - Cp ta s thm - Cp ta phc thm - Cp ta ti cao. 1. Cp ta s thm: Ta s thm thm quyn hp Ta s thm thm quyn rng Ta i hnh Cc ta c bit 1.1 Ta s thm thm quyn hp: - Ta dn s thm quyn hp - Ta vi cnh Ta vi cnh: - Thm quyn - Cp phc thm

Ta dn s thm quyn hp: - Thm quyn - Cp phc thm - Gii hn quyn phc thm

1.2 Ta s thm thm quyn rng: - Ta DS thm quyn rng - Ta tiu hnh Ta DS TQ rng: - Thm quyn - Cp phc thm Ta tiu hnh - Thm quyn - Cp phc thm 15

1.3 Ta i hnh: - Thm quyn - Bn n c gi tr s chung thm, khng qua ta PT, c th xem xt ti ta ph n. - S dng bi thm on 1.4 Cc ta c bit: - Ta thng mi - Ta lao ng - Ta lun ti Tng thng - Ta t ai - Ta lun ti chnh ph - Ta an sinh x hi 2. Cp phc thm: Ta phc thm - Thm quyn - Th tc xt x: Hi ng thm phn 3. Cp ti cao: Ta ph n - Thm quyn - Quy trnh phc thm: mt v vic ti a ph n 2 ln - Gi tr cc bn n ca Ta ph n: to ra n l B. Nhnh ta hnh chnh: 1. Cp s thm: - Ta hnh chnh s thm thm quyn chung - Ta hnh chnh s thm thm quyn c bit 1.1 Ta hnh chnh s thm thm quyn chung: - Thm quyn - Chc nng: xt x + t vn - Th tc xt x - Cp phc thm 1.2 Ta hnh chnh s thm thm quyn c bit: phc thm v ph n ti HNN - Ta kim ton - Ta k lut trong lnh vc ngn sch v ti chnh - Cc ta n v vn lng hu - Cc ta n v bi thng tn tht chin tranh - y ban thanh tra ngn hng - y ban ti cao v chng minh th ca cc nh bo chuyn nghip - Hi ng ti cao v gio dc quc gia - Cc hi ng ti cao hoc quc gia v cc lnh vc ngnh ngh khc nhau 2. Cp phc thm : Ta hnh chnh phc thm: khng c chc nng t vn - Thm quyn - T chc - Th tc xt x 3. Cp ti cao: Hi ng nh nc/Tham chnh vin - Chc nng: T vn T php: - Thm quyn xt x s thm - Thm quyn xt x phc thm - Thm quyn ph n

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C. Ta xung t: - Thm quyn: gii quyt xung t thm quyn gia 2 nhnh ta, khng xt x v vic tr trng hp ngoi l. D. Hi ng hin php / Hi ng bo hin: Thnh phn: - Thnh phn ca HHP bao gm: Cc cu tng thng Php cc cu tng thng ng nhin l thnh vin sut i ca HHP. V 9 thnh vin khc, trong : 3 thnh vin do Tng thng ch nh 3 thnh vin do Ch tch thng vin ch nh 3 thnh vin do Ch tch h vin ch nh - Nhim k ca HHP l 9 nm v khng c ti b nhim khi ht nhim k. - C 3 nm mt ln, HHP s bu li hoc ch nh li 1/3 s thnh vin. - Ch tch HHP do Tng thng b nhim. - Cc thnh vin ca HHP khng c kim nhim thm cc chc danh sau: B trng, Ngh s, y vin hi ng kinh t x hi v lnh o cc ng phi chnh tr. Chc nng ca Hi ng hin php: 2 chc nng chnh - Kim tra tnh hp hin i vi nhng vn bn do c quan lp php ban hnh: iu 61 Hin php 1958 quy nh rng nu mt vn bn lut s c ban hnh vi t cch l mt Lut t chc hay quy tc t tng ca Ngh vin th bt buc phi c kin t vn ca HBH; Nu khng thuc trng hp trn hoc nu l mt iu c quc t th c th c HBH xem xt khi c yu cu ca mt trong s cc ch th sau: - Tng thng - Th tng - Ch tch mt trong 2 vin - 60 thnh vin ca 1 trong 2 vin - X l nhng khiu ni lin quan n cc cuc bu c ngh vin, tng thng, thng ngh s, h ngh s hoc trng cu dn : chc nng ny c quy nh ti cc iu 58, 59, 60 ca Hin php 1958. HBH thc hin chc nng ny thng qua nhiu loi hot ng nh cung cp kin t vn hay gii quyt cc khiu ni. Vi trch nhim ny, HBH c vai tr nh c quan t vn v gim st cho cc cuc bu c. - H qu php l ca vic kim tra tnh hp hin i vi cc vn bn php lut : trong thi gian HBH ang xem xt tnh hp hin th vic cng b vn bn lut b tm nh ch cho n khi c quyt nh ca hi ng. Mt vn bn lut b tuyn b vi hin th khng th c hiu lc php lut. Nu vn bn lut b tuyn b vi hin mt phn th phn vi hin khng lm nh hng n cc phn cn li ca vn bn. - Thi im kim tra tnh hp hin : theo quy nh ti iu 61 ca hin php 1958, thi im gim nh tnh hp hin i vi mt vn bn lut l sau khi n c ngh vin thng qua nhng cha c cng b. - Thi hn kim tra tnh hp hin : theo iu 61 Hin php 1958, thi hn HBH ra quyt nh l 1 thng k t ngy nhn c yu cu. Trong trng hp khn cp theo yu cu ca Chnh ph, thi hn trn rt xung cn 8 ngy. - Hnh thc, hiu lc ca vn bn do HBH ban hnh : cc vn bn do HBH ban hnh c th hin di hnh thc quyt nh, c gi tr chung thm khng th b khng co, khng ngh, c gi tr bt buc thi hnh i vi tt c cc c quan quyn lc nh nc, cc c quan hnh chnh, t php tt c cc cp cc ngnh. Quyt nh c ng ton vn trn cng bo, c ch k ca tt c cc thnh vin ca HBH. 17

Bt cp ca c ch kim tra tnh hp hin: vic kim tra ch c th c thc hin trong mt thi gian ngn ngi i vi cc vn bn lut mi c Ngh vin thng qua. Nh vy, khng th kim tra tnh hp hin ca cc vn bn lut trc y (thng c k) cng nh cc vn bn p dng (phn quyt ca ta n, quyt nh ca c quan hnh chnh). Do , c ch ny ch m bo c mt phn cc quyn ca con ngi v mt phn cc gi tr c Hin php tha nhn trong ton b h thng php lut. IV. Ngh lut v o to lut : Khi qut chung v ngh lut ca Php: - Tnh a dng: nhiu ngh lut khc nhau( do tc ng ca c im bn cht php lut l php lut thnh vn, coi trng vn bn chng c) bn cht php lut tc ng n cu trc ngh lut. - Tnh c quyn v an xen v thm quyn gia cc ngh lut. - Cu trc a dng phng thc o to a dng: mi ngh mt phng thc o to ring, phng thc o to thin v o to l thuyt bi bn hn so vi cc nc common law, bng c nhn lut l iu kin bt buc. (y vin cng quyn: s dng quyn lc nh nc, nhn danh nh nc thc hin chc nng: cng chng vin, tha pht li, thm phn) y vin t php: khng s dng quyn lc nh nc, khng nhn danh nh nc thc hin cng vic m c s cho php ca nh nc khi hnh ngh: lut s, cng chng vin khi thc hin chc nng t vn, tha pht li khi lm cc dch v php l khc nga tng t bn n Ngh lut va c t cch y vin t php, va c t cch y vin cng quyn: cng chng vin, tha pht li) 1. Ngh thm phn: 1.1 Thm phn ca h thng ta n c thm quyn xt x chung: 1.1.1 B nhim thm phn: - Nguyn tc b nhim - iu kin b nhim - Th tc b nhim 1.1.2 Qun l nh nc i vi thm phn: - Chc nng qun l ca B t php - Chc nng qun l ca HTP ti cao 1.1.3 o to thm phn: - o to c bn - o to thng xuyn 1.1.4 K lut thm phn. 1.2 Thm phn ca h thng ta n hnh chnh. 2. Ngh lut s: 2.1 Cc phng thc tr thnh lut s: - Qua vn bng - Thi tuyn bn ngoi - Phng thc hnh ngh ca LS nc ngoi. 2.2 Hnh ngh ca lut s 2.3 Nguyn tc hnh ngh 2.4 Qun l nh nc i vi lut s 3. Ngh cng chng vin: 3.1 Chc nng 3.2 iu kin hnh ngh 3.3 Nguyn tc hnh ngh 3.4 Qun l nh nc i vi cng chng vin 4. Ngh tha pht li: 4.1 Chc nng 18

4.2 iu kin hnh ngh 4.3 Nguyn tc hnh ngh 4.4 Qun l nh nc i vi tha pht li

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