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Qun l thng tin trn my tnh

CC KHI NIM C BN V MY TNH

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Ni dung

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Vi nt lch s my tnh

Cc th h my tnh in t

Phn loi

Cc thnh phn c bn

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Vi nt lch s my tnh
Blaise Pascal (1623 1662) My cng c hc u tin trn th gii Gottfried Leibritz (1646 1716) Ci tin my ca Pascal +, -, *, / Charle Babbage Khng nn pht trin my c hc My tnh vi chng trnh bn ngoi John von Neumann Nguyn l c tnh cht quyt nh . Chng trnh lu tr trong my . S gin on qu trnh tun t
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1670

1833 1945

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5 th h my tnh in t
Th h th nht (1950 1958) S dng n chn khng Tc thp: 103 php tnh/s Chtrnh vit bng ngn ng my My ENIAC nng 30 tn!

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5 th h my tnh in t

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Th h th hai (1959 1963) S dng n bn dn Tc nhanh: 106 php tnh/s Chtrnh vit bng COBOL, ALGOL My IBM151 (M), MINSK22 (LX)
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5 th h my tnh in t

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Th h th ba (1964 1977) S dng mch tch hp IC Tc cao: 109 tnh ton/s Ngn ng lp trnh cp cao & cc phn mm ng dng IBM360 (M), MINSK32 (LX)

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5 th h my tnh in t
Th h th t (1978 - 1983) Mch tch hp quy m ln LSI Tc cao: 1012 php tnh/s Nh gn v b nh tng dn Phn mm phong ph, a dng Mng my tnh ra i

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5 th h my tnh in t
Th h th nm (1984 n nay) Mch tch hp quy m rt ln WSI Tc : 100Mega > 1Giga LIPS X l theo c ch song song

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Phn loi
My tnh ln (Mainframe) Kch thc vt l ln. Thc hin hng t php tnh/s Phc v tnh ton phc tp. Trong c quan nh nc.
Siu my tnh (Super Computer)

Nhiu my ln ghp song song. Tc tnh ton cc ln. Dng trong lnh vc c bit nh qun s, v tr.
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Phn loi
My tnh c nhn (Personal Computer - PC) Cn gi l my tnh bn (Desktop) Dng vn phng, gia nh.
My tnh xch tay (Laptop)

Cn gi l Notebook. L loi my tnh nh, c th mang theo ngi. Chy bng pin.
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Phn loi

My tnh b ti (Pocket PC) Thit b k thut s c nhn c chc nng rt phong ph nh kim tra email, xem phim, nghe nhc, duyt web. Nhiu my cn tnh hp chc nng in thoi di ng.

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Cc thnh phn c bn
Phn mm (Software) Phn mm h thng Phn mm ng dng

My tnh in t

Phn cng (Hardware) B nh (Memory) n v x l trung ng CPU (Central Processing Unit) Thit b nhp xut (Input/Ouput Device).
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Phn cng - Cu trc


Thit b nhp (Input) Thit b xut (Output)

B x l trung ng CPU (Central Processing Unit) Khi iu khin CU (Control Unit) Khi lm tnh ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Cc thanh ghi (Registers) B nh trong (ROM, RAM) B nh ngoi (FDD, HDD, CD/DVD)
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Phn cng - B nh

B nh B nh trong ngoi

B nh (Memory) Thit b lu tr thng tin trong qu trnh my tnh x l.

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Phn cng - B nh trong


ROM (Read Only Memory) Ch c thng tin Lu chng trnh h thng Khng mt khi mt in.

B nh trong

RAM (Random Access Memory) B nh truy xut ngu nhin. B mt khi mt in.

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Phn cng - B nh trong

RAM SDRAM l RAM loi c, chm!!! DDRAM l RAM loi mi, nhanh!!! SDRAM : Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (RAM ng b)
SDR SDRAM Single Data Rate SDRAM DDR SDRAM Double Data Rate SDRAM

DDR-II, DDR-III Dung lng: 256MB, 512MB, 1GB, 2GB


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Phn cng - B nh ngoi


a mm (Floppy Disk) ng knh 3.5 Dung lng 1.44 MB. a cng (Hard Disk) Dung lng ln khong: 20 GB, 30 GB, 750 GB... a quang (Compact Disk) CD (700 MB) DVD (4.7 GB)
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Phn cng - B nh ngoi

Th nh (Memory Stick hay Compact Flash Card) Dung lng khong 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB USB Flash Drive Dung lng khong 256 MB, 512 MB, 1GB

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Phn cng - CPU

Khi iu khin (CU Control Unit)


Cc thanh ghi (Registers)

Khi tnh ton s hc v logic (ALU Arithmetic Logic Unit)


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Phn cng - CPU

n v x l trung ng CPU: Gn vi mt ng h (clock) hay cn gi l b xung nhp. Tn s ng h cng cao th tc x l thng tin cng nhanh. Pentium 4/D, Dual Core, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad. Tc : 2.0 GHz, , 3.0 GHz

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Phn cng - Thit b nhp

Bn phm (Keyboard) Nhp d liu v cu lnh Loi ph bin c 104 phm Chut (Mouse) Kch thc va nm tay Dng di chuyn con tr chut trong mi trng ha.

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Phn cng - Thit b nhp


My qut hnh (Scanner) Nhp vn bn hay hnh v, hnh chp vo my tnh. Camera & Webcam Quay hnh nh bn ngoi a vo my tnh My chp hnh k thut s Chp hnh nh bn ngoi a vo my tnh.
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Phn cng - Thit b xut


CRT LCD

Mn hnh (Screen hay Moniter) Th hin thng tin ra mn hnh bng k thut nh x b nh (memory mapping) Cc loi mn hnh ph bin hin nay l SVGA 15, 17, 19
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Phn cng - Thit b xut


My chiu (Projector) Tng t nh mn hnh nhng phng to hnh nh. My in (Printer) Xut thng tin ra giy.

Loa (Speaker) Pht m thanh.


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Phn mm
Phn mm

Phn mm h thng H iu hnh (OS) PM i km thit b phn cng (Driver) V d: MSDOS, Linux, Windows

Phn mm ng dng Son tho vn bn Tnh ton, phn tch ha Bo mt Tr chi


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Bi tp l thuyt

1. Nu vi nt lch s pht trin my tnh (3) v phn loi my tnh in t (8). 2. M t cu to v chc nng CPU? (13) 3. Phn bit b nh trong v b nh ngoi (11). K tn v m t mt s b nh ngoi m bn bit (12). 4. ... 5. K tn v m t mt s thit b nhp v thit b xut m bn bit (15) .
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