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Internal Resistance

What is it
When a charge flows and produces a current in the cell, some of the energy is used up in pushing the electrons through the cell. So some voltage is used to overcome the internal resistance.

The equation
V=-Ir
V= pottential difference = electromotive force I- current r= internal resistance R=resistence

I=

R+r

Testing Internal Resistance

Measurements
Record the current in the cell and the potential difference across its terminals for different settings of the rheostat.

Graph
V/v

Gradient = -r

I/A

Power Supplies
All power supplies have internal resistance. The value for this is often crucial for the correct functioning of the power supply. A car engine must have a very small resistance (0.01 ohms) because the starter motor takes a very large current (200A)