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Kevin Lane Keller Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College
Building Customer-Based Brand Equity
Brand knowledge structures depend on:
The initial choices for the brand elements
The supporting marketing program and the manner by which the brand is integrated into it Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entities
3 .Criteria for Choosing Brand Elements Memorability Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability Protectability Marketer’s offensive strategy and build brand equity Defensive role for leveraging and maintaining brand equity 4.
Memorability Brand elements should inherently be memorable and attention-getting. 4. For example.4 . and therefore facilitate recall or recognition. a brand of propane gas cylinders named Blue Rhino featuring a powder-blue animal mascot with a distinctive yellow flame is likely to stick in the minds of consumers.
with either descriptive or persuasive content.5 . the second. 4.Meaningfulness Brand elements may take on all kinds of meaning. Two particularly important criteria General information about the nature of the product category Specific information about particular attributes and benefits of the brand The first dimension is an important determinant of brand awareness and salience. of brand image and positioning.
Fun and interesting Rich visual and verbal imagery 4.Likability Do customers find the brand element aesthetically appealing? Descriptive and persuasive elements reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness.6 .
Transferability How useful is the brand element for line or category extensions? (within and across product category.a massive south American river) To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? (Ex: Exxon-Nonmeaningful names.7 . Ex: Amazon.) 4.
logos and characters can be given a new look or a new design to make them appear more modern and relevant. 4.Adaptability The more adaptable and flexible the brand element. the easier it is to update it to changes in consumer values and opinions. For example.8 .
Formally register chosen brand elements with the appropriate legal bodies.Protectability Marketers should: 1. Vigorously defend trademarks from unauthorized competitive infringement. Choose brand elements that can be legally protected internationally. 3. 2. 4.9 .
) 4. favorable. Brand names URLs Logos and symbols Characters Slogans Packaging ( Apple was a simple but will-known word that was distinctive in the product category which help to develop brand awareness. and unique brand associations. The meaning of the name also gave the company a “friendly shine” and “warm” brand personality.Tactics for Brand Elements A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong.10 . It could also be reinforced visually with a logo that would transfer easily across geographical and cultural boundaries.
meaningfulness. brand names must be chosen with the six general criteria of memorability. adaptability. Brand Names Like any brand element.11 . transferability. and protectability in mind. “All the good ones are taken. likability.” 4.1.
Brand Naming Guidelines Brand awareness Simplicity and ease of pronunciation and spelling (Cocacola_Coke. Exxon) Brand associations The explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract from it are important. In particular. and uniqueness (Xrox. Aim_toothpaste) Familiarity and meaningfulness (Neon) Differentiated. distinctive.12 . (Lexicaon.PowerBook. the brand name can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up its product positioning. A small product that holds a lot of information. ) 4.
Brand Naming Procedures 1. 6. 5. 4. Define objectives Generate names Screen initial candidates Study candidate names Research the final candidates Select the final name 4. 2. 3.13 .
A company can either sue the current owner of the URL for copyright infringement.2. 4. URLs URLs (uniform resource locators) specify locations of pages on the web and are also commonly referred to as domain names. or register all conceivable variations of its brand as domain names ahead of time. buy the name from the current owner.14 .
Logos and Symbols Play a critical role in building brand equity and especially brand awareness Logos range from corporate names or trademarks (word marks with text only) written in a distinctive form. to entirely abstract designs that may be completely unrelated to the word mark. corporate name.3.15 . or corporate activities 4.
Peter Pan peanut butter’s character. Disney 4. Some are animated like Pillsbury’s Poppin’ Fresh Doughboy. and numerous cereal characters such as Tony the Tiger. Cap’n Crunch. Crackle & Pop. Characters A special type of brand symbol—one that takes on human or real-life characteristics. and Snap.4.16 .
5. shorthand means to build brand equity (Basundhara Group-For the people. for the Country) 4. like brand names. Slogans are powerful branding devices because. Slogans Slogans are short phrases that communicate descriptive or persuasive information about the brand.17 . they are an extremely efficient.
” Newsday. sometimes you don’t” (Almond Joy/Mounds) “Where’s the beef?” (Wendy’s) “A mind is a terrible thing to waste” (United Negro College Fund) “Can you hear me now?” (Verizon) 4. . not in your hands” (M&M’s) “Sometimes you feel like a nut.18 Source: Monty Phan.Classic Slogans “Melts in your mouth. 21 September 2004. A43. “Celebrating Their Sweet Success.
19 . 4. they often have enough catchy hooks and choruses to become almost permanently registered in the minds of listeners—sometimes whether they want them to or not! Jingles are perhaps most valuable in enhancing brand awareness. Jingles Jingles are musical messages written around the brand. Typically composed by professional songwriters.6.
Facilitate product transportation and protection 4.7. art. and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution. sale.20 . Aid product consumption 4. storage. Packaging Packaging is the science. Convey descriptive and persuasive information 3. Assist at-home storage 5. Identify the brand 2. and use. From the perspective of both the firm and consumers. packaging must achieve a number of objectives: 1.
4. and what we see on a package can lead us to taste what we think we are going to taste.21 .Packaging Can Influence Taste Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible.
Packaging Can Influence Value Long after we have bought a product. 4.22 . a package can still lead us to believe we bought it because it was a good value.
Packaging Can Influence Consumption Studies of 48 different types of foods and personal care products have shown that people pour and consume between 18% and 32% more of a product as the size of the container doubles.” Journal of Consumer Research. Valerie Folkes. 4. Ingrid Martin and Kamal Gupta.23 . “When to Say When: Effects of Supply on Usage. 20 December 1993. 467-477.
or new uses.24 . like soup for breakfast.Packaging Can Influence How a Person Uses a Product One strategy to increase use of mature products has been to encourage people to use the brand in new situations. An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumers showed that twice as many people learned about the new use from the package than from television ads. 4. like baking soda as a refrigerator deodorizer.
25 .Putting It All Together The entire set of brand elements makes up the brand identity. the contribution of all brand elements to awareness and image. 4. The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends on the extent to which the brand elements are consistent.
indirectly Characters Slogans and Jingles Can be chosen to enhance brand recall and recognition Can convey almost any types of associations explicitly Packaging Generally more useful for brand recognition Generally more useful for nonproduct related imagery and brand personality Generally more useful for brand recognition Can convey almost any types of associations explicitly Meaningfulness 4. indirectly Brand Elements Logos and symbols Generally more useful for brand recognition Can influence almost any type of association.Critique of Brand Element Options Criteria Brand Names and URLs Memorability Can be chosen to enhance brand recall and recognition Can influence almost any type of association.26 .
27 .Critique of Brand Element Options Criteria Brand Names and URLs Likability Can evoke much verbal imagery Brand Elements Logos and symbols Can provoke visual appeal Characters Slogans and Jingles Can generate human qualities Can be somewhat limited Can sometimes be redesigned Can evoke much verbal imagery Packaging Can combine visual and verbal appeal Good Transferability Can be somewhat limited Excellent Can be somewhat limited Adaptability Difficult Can typically be redesign Can be modified Can sometimes be redesigned Protectability Generally good but with limits Excellent Excellent Excellent Can be closely copied 4.