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PRESENTED BY:MR. SUSHANT DESHMUKH GUIDED BY:PROF.MS. S. V. KADBHANE
• A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. • Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. • It can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations.
PURPOSE OF DAMS
• Providing water for irrigation to a town or city. • Improving navigation & creating a reservoir of water to supply for industrial uses. • Generating hydroelectric power, creating recreation areas or habitat for fish and wildlife. • Retaining wet season flow to minimize downstream flood risk & containing effluent from industrial sites such as mines or factories.
OTHER PURPOSE OF DAMS
• Some dams can also serve as pedestrian or vehicular bridges across the river as well. • When used in conjunction with intermittent power sources such as wind or solar, the reservoir can serve as pumped water storage to facilitate base load dampening in the power grid. • Few dams serve all of these purposes but some multi-purpose dams serve more than one.
STRUCTURE OF DAM .
• Sluice way: An opening in the dam near the ground level. This helps in keeping the river bed dry. • Toe: Contact on the downstream side. .• Heel: Contact with the ground on the upstream side. • Diversion tunnel: Tunnels are constructed for diverting water before the construction of dam. which is used to clear the silt accumulation in the reservoir side. • Spillways: It is the arrangement near the top to release the excess water of the reservoir to downstream side. • Galleries: Small rooms like structure left within the dam for checking operations. • Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the structure of the dam rest.
level NWL Normal water level Crest Down stream Spillway (inside dam) Free board Gallery Sluice way Heel Toe .STRUCTURE OF DAM Upstream MWL Max.
Timber dams IV. Embankment dams III. Steel dams V. Masonry and concrete dams II.CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS I. Cofferdams .
While the distribution of the normal hydrostatic pressure between vertical cantilever and arch action will depend upon the stiffness of the dam in a vertical and horizontal direction. If the upstream face is vertical the entire weight of the dam must be carried to the foundation by gravity. • • . stability is obtained by a combination of arch and gravity action. Arch dams:- • In the arch dam.Masonry and Concrete Dams I.
Colorado Gordon Dam. Tasmania .Hoover Dam.
impervious foundations with high bearing strength are essential. • • . caused by the water pressure is smaller than the moment caused by the weight of the dam. For this type of dam. The dam will not overturn provided that the moment around the turning point. stability is secured by making it of such a size and shape that it will resist overturning. Gravity Dams:• In a gravity dam. sliding and crushing at the toe.II.
Bhakra Nangal Dam. New York . Himachal Pradesh Gilboa Dam.
The length of the dam (measured from the road above it) is 518. it is 9. is Asia's second highest at 225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam also in India. near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India.1 m broad.Bhakra Nangal Dam Bhakra Nangal Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River.25 m. . located in the village of Bhakra in the Bilaspur region of Himachal Pradesh. The dam.
concrete. timber or other material. The impervious zone may be on the upstream face and made of masonry. An example of a rock-fill dam is New Melones Dam in California. • • • . steel sheet piles. plastic membrane. The earth utilized often contains a large percentage of large particles hence the term rock-fill. • Rock-fill Dams:Rock-fill dams are embankments of compacted freedraining granular earth with an impervious zone.Embankment dams I.
Nashik .Gangapur Dam.
km. The total catchment area of the dam is 357.GANGAPUR DAM This dam is near village Gangawadi and is 10 Km. The total dam length is 3810 m.4 Sq. This is a earthen dam constructed in 1954. .57m. from Nashik city. and maximum height of the dam is 36.
are constructed as a simple embankment of well compacted earth. Modern zoned-earth embankments employ filter and drain zones to collect and remove seep water and preserve the integrity of the downstream shell zone. also called earthen.II. A homogeneous rolled-earth dam is entirely constructed of one type of material but may contain a drain layer to collect seep water. Earth-fill Dams:• Earth-fill dams. • • • . A zoned-earth dam has distinct parts or zones of dissimilar material. rolled-earth or simply earth dams. typically a locally plentiful shell with a watertight clay core.
Pakistan .Tarbela Dam.
The flexible properties of the asphalt make such dams especially suited in earthquake regions. and to settlements in the foundation. • The type of asphalt used is a viscoelastic-plastic material that can adjust to the movements and deformations imposed on the embankment as a whole. Asphalt-concrete core:• This dams are built with rock and/or gravel as the main fill material. • .III.
• Now-a-days they are rarely because of relatively short lifespan and limited height to which they can be built. cement is costly or difficult to transport.Timber dams • Timber dams were widely used in the early part of the industrial revolution and in frontier areas due to ease and speed of construction. • The locations where timber dams are most economical to build are those where timber is plentiful. and either a low head diversion dam is required or longevity is not an issue. .
Michigan .Timber crib dam.
but sturdier than timber crib dams.Steel dams • A steel dam is a type of dam briefly experimented with in around the turn of the 19th-20th Century which uses steel plating (at an angle) and load bearing beams as the structure. • An example of a steel dam is Red Ridge steel dam. • Steel dams were an experiment to determine if a construction technique could be devised that was cheaper than masonry. Michigan. . concrete or earthworks.
Red Ridge steel dam. Michigan .
• When the project is completed. bridges. cofferdams are used to allow construction on the foundation of permanent dams. and similar structures.Cofferdams • A cofferdam is a (usually temporary) barrier constructed to exclude water from an area that is normally submerged. the cofferdam may be demolished or removed. • Made commonly of wood. . concrete or steel sheet piling.
Cofferdam during the construction of locks at the Montgomery Point Lock and Dam .
and hydroelectric power generation. there were fewer than 300 large dams in India. .DAMS IN INDIA • At independence. after US and China. water supply. • By the year 2010 the number had grown to over 4500. the primary purpose of most Indian dams (96 percent) remains irrigation. India ranks third in the world in dam building. more than half of them built between 1971 and 1989. in 1947. • While some of these dams were built primarily for flood control.
Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India. with a height of 261 meters and the eighth tallest dam in the world.THE 5 BIGGEST DAMS IN INDIA 1. Tehri Dam: Tehri Dam located on the Bhagirathi River. . Uttaranchal Now become Uttarakhand.
the first being Indira Sagar dam. Bhakra Nangal Dam: Bhakra Nangal Dam is a gravity dam across the Sutlej river Himachal Pradesh. .2. known as the “Gobind Sagar Lake” it is the second largest reservoir in India. Its reservoir. Bhakra Nangal is the largest dam in India. with a height of 225 meters and second largest Dam in Asia.
Hirakud Dam is one of the longest dams in the world about 26 km in length. Hirakud Dam: Hirakud dam built across the Mahanadi River in Orissa. There are two observation towers on the dam one is “Gandhi Minar” and another one is “Nehru Minar”. .3.
4. . Nagarjunasagar Dam: Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is the world’s largest masonry dam with a height of 124 meters. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is certainly the pride of Indiaconsidered the largest man-made lake in the world. built across Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh.
over the Narmada River in Gujarat. with a height of 138 meters. The Narmada dam is India’s most controversial dam project.5. Drought prone areas of Kutch and Saurashtra will get irrigate by this project. . Sardar Sarovar Dam: Sardar Sarovar Dam also known as “Narmada Dam” is the largest dam to be built.
4. Construction period is 3. Highly mechanized & continuous comparatively more. Not susceptible to concealed 5. Can be easily constructed on earthen foundations. 3. Susceptible to concealed leakage leakage & erosion. . 5. construction. Use of locally available natural concrete increases the initial cost of material and thus saving in cost. Most suitable in steep valleys. process of construction. & erosion. 4. Earthen Dams 1. Requires sound rocks foundation.COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT DAMS Gravity Dams 1. Earthen dams tend to slip in steep valleys. Use of rubble masonry or 2. 2.
There is no problem of rapid 2. of outer to inner surface. coarse aggregate & fly ash. RCC is the mixture of cement. its strength is affected . sand. Because of improper cooling of strong & durable. 3. 3. aggregates & water. sand. layers of 25 to 30cm.Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Concrete Dam 1. less heat of hydration. Because of proper cooling it is 4. dry 1. Because of addition of some 5. Concrete is the mixture of cement. 2. No such additive is used which percentage of fly ash it generates results in shrinkage & cracks. RCC is put with help of trucks. 4. There is problem of rapid cooling cooling of outer to inner surface. 5. concrete badly. Large amount of concrete is laid at dumpers or conveyer belts with once.
such as a serious malfunction of the service spillway. • Types of spillway include: i. • Many spillways have floodgates designed to control the flow through the spillway. A fuse plug spillway is a low embankment designed to be over topped and washed away in the event of a large flood. A service spillway or primary spillway passes normal flow. An auxiliary spillway releases flow in excess of the capacity of the service spillway.SPILLWAYS • A spillway is a section of a dam designed to pass water from the upstream side of a dam to the downstream side. iv. . An emergency spillway is designed for extreme conditions. iii. ii.
and the replacement of the original environment by a new inland lake.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT • Reservoirs held behind dams affect many ecological aspects of a river. which keeps many fish from moving up stream to their natural breeding grounds. • Large lakes formed behind dams have been indicated as contributing to earthquakes. causing failure of breeding cycles or blocking of migration paths. • A large dam can cause the loss of entire ecospheres. due to changes in loading and/or the height of the water table. • Older dams often lack a fish ladder. including endangered and undiscovered species in the area. .
CONCLUSION DAMS A Current Alternative Not The Final Solution A Gateway to the Future .
NOW THE MOTHER EARTH IS IN YOUR HANDS .
books & papers have been referred during the preparation of the paper and its report. • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.dams.G.nic.youtube. UK World Commission on Dams . Pande (2005): Dams.org Dams & Hydraulic Structures . Head.htm http://www. Nirali Prakashan World Commission on Dams .Nashik. Deshpande.Duflo.com/Introduction to Nashik city. B.org http://www.nashik.htm http://www.The 5 Biggest Dams in India WalkThroughIndia. MIMEO.wikipedia.BIBLIOGRAPHY The following websites. Knight Piesold Limited.Chris R.in/irrigation http://www. MIT Poverty Action Lab Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making . Esther and R.Large Dams: India’s Experience World Commission on Dams .com http://www.
THANK YOU .
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