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Structure of DNA and RNA
1. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. 2. They are polymers built up from nucleotide monomers. 3. Each nucleotide has a pentose sugar, a phosphate and an organic base. 4. DNA is built up from four types of nucleotides, each with a different base – A, T, C, G. 5. The DNA molecule consists of two polynucleotide chains twisted to form a double helix. 6. Specific bas pairing means that A can only join with T and C can only join with G. 7. This specific or complementary base pairing is essential to the functions of DNA. 8. RNA is single stranded and has four types of nucleotides with different bases – A, C, G and U instead of T. 9. There are three different types of RNA molecule – mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.
Functions of DNA and RNA
1. DNA contains coded information in the form of genes. 2. An exact copy of the DNA can be made by DNA replication. 3. DNA replication allows new cells and new organisms to receive the genetic instructions. 4. The genetic code is a triplet code – a sequence of three DNA bases codes for one amino acid.
particularly enzymes. 3. the coding strand of DNA acts as a template for the copying of a mRNA strand. the mRNA leaves the nucleus and joins with a ribosome in the cytoplasm. mRNA and tRNA are all involved in protein synthesis. Translation: at the ribosome the mRNA strand and the tRNAs are brought close together. This results in a building up of the amino acids carried by the tRNAs into a particular polypeptide. 2. 6. DNA controls the activities of cells and the development of organisms by controlling the synthesis of proteins. The genetic code is also a degenerate code where one amino acid may be coded for by more than one triplet of DNA bases.5. 4. each codon of three mRNA bases will join with the matching anticodon of three bases on the tRNA. . DNA. Transcription: the strands of DNA separate at the gene. Amino acid activation: specific tRNA molecules become attached to a particular amino acid determined by the anticodon on the tRNA. Protein synthesis 1.