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America and the Memory of the Holocaust 1950-1965

America and the Memory of the Holocaust 1950-1965

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America and the Memory of the Holocaust 1950-1965
America and the Memory of the Holocaust 1950-1965

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America and the Memory of the Holocaust, 1950-1965 Author(s): Deborah E.

Lipstadt Source: Modern Judaism, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Oct., 1996), pp. 195-214 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1396708 . Accessed: 16/05/2013 11:44
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Deborah E. Lipstadt

To say that the Holocaust has become a central symbol of the twentieth century,particularlyforAmerican Jews, is to state the obvious. This confrontation with catastrophe has become a mythic element of American Jewish identityand has served both a positive and a negative purpose. It has become a stimulus for motivatingJewish identity.But, in certain situations, it has been allowed to assume a dominant role thereby distorting the true nature of Judaism and becoming the prism through which the Jewish world view is refracted. This article explores the emergence of the Holocaust on the American agenda -both Jewish and non-Jewish-during the two decades following World War II. The prominence of the Holocaust in American Jewish identity is particularly noteworthy since throughout the 1950s and most of the 1960s it was barely on the Jewish communal or theological agenda. In contrast to today, there were virtually no courses on the topic. There were no more than a few commemorations of YomHaShoah, or books,

conferences, speeches,and museumsdedicated to exploringthe history and significance of the Holocaust. An examinationofJewish periodicals reveals few articles on the Holocaust. These Holocaust commemorationswhichwere held were generally attended onlyby survivors. Nonsurvivors who attended rememberedfeelinglike they"were crashinga Survivors who came to thiscountry in the later 1940s and the funeral."' 1950s were oftendiscouraged fromdiscussingtheirexperiences.They were toldAmericanswere not interested.2 That the Holocaust had such a limitedovertimpacton the American Jewishcommunity during this period is particularly noteworthy to itwas not totally absentfrom that, given contrary popular impression, the American popular culturalagenda. In contrastto what has often been the generalimpression therewerea significant numberof movies, on television and books the plays, productions, subjectwell before the end of the 1960s. In April1959,theJewish noted that,as "happens every DailyForward shows Passover would be broadcaston television year," special marking of and radio.Amongtheshowsscheduled to be aired was an installment CBS's religionseries,LookUp and Live,dedicated to the topic of the dePress ModernJudaism16 (1996): 195-214? 1996 byThe JohnsHopkins University

This content downloaded from on Thu, 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Reich. In 1959 Alcoa Goodyear Theater's productionof Thirty PiecesofSilver concerned Holocaust refugees. in or did motivated not seem interested by the two Jews particularly and in the the creationof events Holocaust history: major recentJewish the Stateof Israel. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This is YourLifedevoted nine segmentsto the Holocaust in the period between 1953 and 1961. televisionshows.225.painted a highly criticalportrait of German attitudestowards seven At least books Eichmann on Jews.That same yearin a similarsymposium magazine. aired Homeward Borne. the twenty-one virtually ignoredtheHolocaust. struction broadcast TheFinal Ingredient.TheWall.Foremostamong them were The which reached Americansin the formof a book.. appeared in 1962.and WilliamShirer'sTheRiseand Fall oftheThird which.5 on Thu. could have suggestedto theJewishcommunity that the external. In additionKatherineAnne Porter'sShipofFools Times Review Book as one of thebestbooks (1962).books.4Judgment at Nuremberg was a successfultelevisionproductionbeforeit was made into a movie in 1961.thought worthy ation. play. Nonetheless.did pay serious attentionto Hitler'spersecutionof theJewsand the German plan to leave Europe Judenrein. a play by the author of Twelve Men. And. Writing 1957. and televisionproductionson the Holocaust won substantialattention.thoughnot solelyconcernedwiththe Holocaust. Some of the earlyplays. Diary ofAnneFrank. In 1957 the respectedtelevision drama show. of the Holocaust.and movies of a significant captured the attention portionof the Americanpublic.Directions. the productionof MillardLampell's play. lauded bythe NewYork of the past hundredyears. A perusalof participants variousJewishlocal newspapersand publicationsfromthe period reveals littlementionof the Holocaust or serious discussionof its impact on contemporary identity.5In a 1961 symposium magsponsoredby Commentary azine on "Jewishness and Younger Intellectuals.53. The popular televisionshow. American the Holocaust of considernon-Jewish. public. of American the Holocaust did not emerge as a factorin the construct in Nathan Glazer American observed that Jewish identity.ABC's religionseries." onlytwo of thirty-one cited the Holocaust as havinghad a significant impact on participants in Judaism theirlives. This particularkind of attention was especiallysignificant because much of it was generated by the non-Jewish world and.even as these books.In 1960 Playhouse 90 produced Rod Serling'sIn the Presence That same year saw ofMineEnemies.i. Lipstadt of the Warsawghetto.Playhouse a showabout survivors 90. But these were not the only television shows on the topic. consequently. in thespringof 1961 televisionviewerswere able to watch portionsof the Eichmann trial. The Angry the of inmates of the Belsen concentration playdepicted attempt camp to celebrate a Passover Seder.and movie. Jewish This content downloaded from 161.e.196 Deborah E.

para pastwhich seemedtobe ofno direct concern tothis ticularly country." At at which her who has just returnedfrom father. "She puts me to shame. Thosewhohad returned from thewarwereconcerned a family with and a career. including The postwar boomwasin fullswing. by two Hollywood playwrights.. Whatrelevance havefor Americans? In fact. were not in interested "those this was a function But not ily just things. and. sister disease.wasbeingmassproduced. Frances Goodrich and AlbertHackett.In provedthemselves totally The playconcludes with a voiceover Anne's famous obity.was written DiaryofAnneFrank. Would she have been inclined to writesuch uplifting lines at that time?It is doubtful.They notonlyavoided toAnne's fate-which ultimate a numanyreferences berofsurvivors whosawAnnein thecampsindicate wasexceptionally and terribly theultimate ofthe painful lonely-butpresented message servationthat"In spiteof everything I stillbelieve thatpeople are really heart.in many cases. friends famoften totheir that their and great dismay. proclaiming Holocaust as one of hope and faithin the ultimategoodness of human- This content downloaded from 161. baeducations. is humbled by her optimismand replies. cars.and exposure to the elements.Soldiers wholiberated campsor who came to campsshortly after liberation and tookpictures came their documenting experiences hometodiscover. did notseemto be an appropriate timeto focus on a painful past. she watched her beloved where first die as a resultof starvation. homes. Broadway whichwon the Pulitzerprize fordrama. ues to generate controversy to this day'--theyessentially de-Judaized There was littlehorrorin the play and nothing thatwould identity. and thensuccumbedto the same herself. in and never material that gaged obtaining goods they achieving goals had before dreamt wouldbe theirs.9 They also to transform Recruited thebook intoa play-in a movewhich continthe story to herJewish by removing manyof Anne'sown references Americanized thestory iton an optimistic byending upbeatnote. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Anne wrotethose famouslines beforeher experiences in Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. is that America wasnotready theissue.Fromthe foremost to confront a "can-do."In fact." upset audiences' emotional or psychologicalequilibrium.But the play's Americanreviewers obliviousto thatpoint.happy The 1955 version of The endings.225."6 of thehomefront's fora gruesome Americans wereendistaste topic.53. good point the camps. distinguished by they possible ofthetopicat hand. lege Everything. on thehorrors of notwith building dwelling thepast." end of thewaruntiltheearly1960s.g.coland televisions.5 on Thu.andMemory oftheHolocaust America 197 First Thereare a variety ofexplanations forthis and phenomenon. a number ofthepopular oftheperiodare cultural products the fact that as much as was in light had. did it by another country against"an-other" people. It bies.never e. optimistic perspirit vadedAmerica. Thisevent had transpired on another It hadbeen committed continent.

225. but nonethelessdeadly effective.sayingto "The never-to-be-forgotten the survivor." contentionthatthe actionsof the SS and otherGermanswere partof a masterplan and not the haphazard actions of a fewindipremeditated viduals "met with little acceptance" in this country.theyseemed to miss or dismissthe factthatthisplaywas about a tragedyof cataclysmic proportions.One described himselfas feeling be Deto a human being" as he leftthe theater. tended that the SS were not "demented sadists.198 Deborah E.or monsters"but He was were in mostcases "banal . itswonder.proud in it are doomed to death. Hanna.upon centrationcamp.was a Hollywood by American producer.if not absurd. It too eschewed gloom and doom and ended on a note of "good overcomesall"-particularlyifthatgood is Americanin origin.""Similarly." Bettelheim's warned thathis theorieswere "apt to mislead Americans. gloom and ing humor. he conframeof reference""14 to our humanistic tended.5 on Thu."12It was an ironic. including some psychiatrists he conbecause a from was that he prisonerpsychosis suffering spoke..wayto end the productiongiventhat.a lar Thisis Your whichwas devoted to the story Life. in fearor in hope.To you in yourdarkest hourAmericaheld out a friendly hand. Europe This content downloaded from 161.. who escaped fromGermanyprior to the war.none of the otherslivedon at all.and itswildand flarwhen the diarywas made into a film..Kohner's husband. doom were eschewed. He to whom he was told by most people.Germany..except forFrankhimself.The episode concluded withthe host. This show was one of the earliest treatments television of the topic. the on the horizon: There was a new enemy wrongdoings. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and mother were all killed at Auschwitz. Lipstadt fact. This is yourlife. Holocaust survivor. he tried to tell Americansabout his experiences.She settledin Hollywood where her second husband. A similarattitude was evidentin a 1953 episode of the wildly popuof Hanna Kohner. as the police break in and the hiding place is discovered:"For twoyears we've lived in fear.."'" Americanscould onlyaddress thistopic withinan optiApparently context.fromnow on we'll live in hope.itsspasmsof anguish. tragicexperiencesof yourlife. father.'0 "exhilarated..Ralph Edwards.. in America shortly afterhis release froma conhis arrival 1939.Hanna Block Kohner.It was..anothernoted spitethefactall the characters thatthe playhad a qualityof lifeabout it. "glowing.."just too contrary But therewas yetanotherfactor-a politicalone-which prompted withGermany's Americansto turnawayfroman active confrontation communists.53.People had to be leftwith a feelingof misticand uplifting made a similarpoint when he recalled how in Bruno Bettelheim hope. ineradicablelifelifein itswarmth. Not onlywas therea new enemypresentbut also Americadepended on bothWestern to protect to serveas a buffer a newally. In the film'sconclusion Otto Frankdeclares. have been tempered by the happiness you've found here in America.

itarianism. objected to this more conciliatory strongly were of the sentences distressed the commutation They particularly by of Nazi war criminals In addition they American tribunals.'5During the airlift.20AmericanJews drummer oftenfound themselves marchingto the beat of a different when it came to post-warattitudestoward Germany. year.'8 American Jewish organizations attitudetowardsGermany. Althoughhe acknowledgedthatit was difficult eitherto forget or what Germans had in the done there had a been forgive previousyears. which lasted close to a and particularly Berlin (whichonlya Germany. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the childrenneverasked forthembut were "grateful" ing to the report. short.'9 by military looked in vain forsome indicationthatGermany felta degree of contrition about what had occurred.and.served to portray had been the of fewyearsearlier symbol the worstof the Third Reich and the place where Hitler made his last stand) as heroic. the more likelytheywere to favornot only softerpeace terms withGermany butGermanmilitary expansion. enemy dom. given people In the been had reborn. Amongthosewho increaswere liberals who felt this otherwise have supporteda way ingly might harsher attitude towards Germany. an aggressive war had now made a verydifferent choice. The under the rule of a had started who.a whole new was officials and journalists forgedforGermanyby government image alike.deliveredan addressin West This content downloaded from 161.'7 The more Americanpoliticiansand military leaders began to think of the USSR as America's major enemy and as the greatestthreatto peace. What theysaw instead was a growing German antagonismtowardsthe DPs and a web of bureaucraticprobin Gerlems as Jewishproperty ownerstried to reclaim theirproperty were aware of American having to many. headed the American military governmentin Germany. when given these sweetsby the soldiers. Clay. Accordingto when a second Berlin had chosen freethe of chance. General Lucius Clay. returnedto the United States. In an address to to Germansin generaland Berlinersin particCongresshe paid tribute ular. theeditorof Commentary magazine.stories circulated of American GIs candies paid forout of theirown pocketsintoBerlinso that parachuting the childrenof thatcity would not have to suffer Accordunnecessarily. Postwareventssuch as the Berlin airlift.In 1950 Elliot Cohen. change.who for fouryears. most important. freedomunited by an intensecontemptfor totalloving. people dictatorship.'6 When the blockade ended.There was littleinclination to call attentionto the wrongdoings-even those that had been committed under a previousregime-of thisally. Jewishorganizations acutely balance theirdesirefora more punitive towards Germany against policy Americanforeign thatour old enemywas the growing policyconviction our new ally even as our old allywas our new enemy.53.Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 199 and the United Statesfroma Sovietonslaught.In fact.5 on Thu.first as Deputy Commander and later as Commander-in-Chief.225.

that someofus exdiagnosis men of religious and spiritual pectedfrom your thought leadership. in was that and Austria later play year.24One of the first In was of it Rommel the Field Marshal Rommel. from from historians and on scholars. performed Despite growing European interestin the play.22 This growing Americanreluctanceto focus attention on Germany's acts of persecutionand murderwas apparently behind the State Departmentdecision that TheDiaryofAnneFrank not be at the 1956 Paris drama festival. your your poetsand novelists this colossal historic tragedy?21 Despite AmericanJewishconcerns that Germanyhad failed to truly confront its unprecedentedacts of brutality.225. He wondered Where arethewords offellow and introspection. he was was successful.Not only were theyinnocent but in many cases they were-or so the films claimed-unaware of the atrocities being committed in theirname. the State Department." and for demonstrating "a vacuum of sentiment" when it came to the murderof EuropeanJewry.2" the (State Departmentobjections not withstanding. Such was the case in the film adaptationof TheYoung Fox movies of thisgenre was TheDesert Lions (1958). Lipstadt Berlinin whichhe lambastedGermansfortheir"silence. He never participated any aspect of the attemptto assassinate had listedhim as the supreme comHitler.fearful be damaged bytheproduction. but suicide.200 Deborah E.5 on Thu.an act designed not onlyto show his greatintegrity to presenthim as a "good" German.as of a grave. if mander of the army theircoup eithercommit visitedbytwogeneralswho deliveredHitler'sultimatum: of punishment courtand the threat suicide or face a trialbeforethe Volk This content downloaded from 161.exertedpressureto prerelationsmight vent its staging. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The conspirators. (1951). however. anguish and healing.as opposed to a Nazi.Consequently.53. (All thiswas HollyservedtheReich since 1935butwas by Rommelhad loyally wood fiction. of sympathy.Filmmakers stressedthe sufferings of the Germanswho were clearlydifferentiated fromthe Nazis-and presentedthemas innocentvictims of a fewdiabolical men who had gained controlof an entire country.) produced Germany Germansin By the early1950s Hollywoodwas beginningto portray a positivelight. therewas littlethatcould be done to stop the growingbelief in America that a soft-and ever increasingly softer-peace imposed on Germanywould better serve Americaninterests. ofregeneration andwisdom. endeavorsin whichHitlerwas engag1944 criticalof the futilemilitary in ing.and a traditionthat had been establishedseveral years earlier that the play which received the Pulitzerprize would be that Franco-German produced in Paris. presented story but as one of those who-seeing not onlyas a heroic military strategist in theJuly the follyof Hitler'sways-breaks withhim and participates of movie Rommel commits At the end the 1944 assassinationattempt.

" Jews Deborah Dash and "sentto death byotherJews.as shallbe demonstrated much persuadingto keep silent. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 201 to him. Professor General Clay told his adviseron Jewishaffairs..e.Some triedto paint theirprosecutionas a sinisof the Rosenbergs'supporters ter conspiracyagainstJews.29 in subsequentpages.) The Rommel took the poison whichwas offered to his family.. a reasonable.appalled by the ravereviewsthe filmreceived. [Jewish] and emotional and economic base forrevived intellectual health. the "old technique of the Jewishtribunal.describingit as havof those ing "a strangedisregardforthe principlesand the sensibilities and died in the cause of defeatingGerman aggressionin who suffered thefilm WorldWarII. wellyoufolks a if ever build a have want to you leadership got responsibility.5 on Thu.."26Accordingto Crowther was a "tenderizedHollywood laudation of the man who sparkedtheAfrika Korps"when in fact he was "the leader responsibleforthe deaths of thousandsupon thousands of British troops"and someone who loyally supportedHitleruntil the military tide began to turn.AmericanJewswere leftfeelingunActivities Committee easy by the attemptof the House Un-American in theSenate under SenatorMcCarthy)to findand (and itscounterpart in Americanpublic lifeand the tremendousatferret out communists tentiongivento trialssuch as thatofJuliusand Ethel Rosenberg. i. In a conversation regardingthe situationofJewsin theAmericanzone in Germany. not only was but it also the struggle conspiracy againstthe Rosenbergsan antisemitic relied on the same tacticsthe Nazis had used to subdue the ghettoesof Eastern Europe. you havegottoforget what happened.225. WilliamHaber:28 in Germany is farmorebitter the anti-Germanism amongtheJews in the thantheanti-Semitism amongtheGermans.53.27 This attitude-that the past was best rewritten or. at the least.30 outside the territoBut it was notjust the fight againstcommunists rial bordersof the United Stateswhichled manyAmericanJewsto believe thatsilence about the pastwas an efficacious policy. describingthe story general'svirtuesin an Americanmotion picture."32 were"judged byJews" This content downloaded from 161. left at the heart of General Lucius Clay'scounsel to Ameriunspoken-was can Jewsto maintainsilence about the Holocaust and Germany's guilt.Eventsclose to home also helped persuade them. The reviewer apas the "celebrationof a German plauded the film..Jewsdid not need In fact. even critics One of the fewdissenting laudable incidentin foreignpolicy.devoted twocolumnsto it.. film'sportrayal Some of themplaced the moviewithinthe largercontextof contempoin Filmsin Review raryAmericanforeignpolicyissues. of Rommel was generally met withpraise by reviewers."'Accordingto this scenario."25 of the NewYork was BosleyCrowther Times who.

They disparaged the attemptto portray Mainstream redux.53. anti-communist In the summer unfounded.225.the AJCsent a statement are communism and that incompatible.listened to reportsof the couple's execution which took place late Fridayafterwiththe Sabbath.33 sincetheHolocaust.Jews conspirators. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . jected the attemptby the Rosenbergs' defendersand othergroups on Americancommunist the Left-particularly groups-to argue thatthe camin Americawas in factan antisemitic to expose communists effort the Rosenbergcase as a paign.as a younggirl." whichexthe situation than as a potentially the situation greaterdanger Russia rather istedduringWorldWar II. from the AmericanJewishCommittee(AJC).3" German of a West the establishment prevent of all Jewswith communism These fears about the identification of 1949."35 and reits patriotism forthe Rosenbergsas a means of demonstrating ranks. they're 'Jews. year. did to Thiswas. such as the all Jewswith the misdeeds of "traitors" lic would identify redid not see thingsthisway. Sacco-Vanzetti exemplifiedby Jewishorganizations.40 depicted as communist This content downloaded from 161.5 on Thu. of House of the on the floor Congressman John Representatives. Peekskill.The its used and then for the opposition Rosenbergs AJCopposed clemency offiand convinceboth government favor"fromWashington to "curry cials and the American public that the AmericanJewishcommunity The AJCopenlyadvocated the death penalty bore not a taintof "red.' killing had infact. 'they' shethought.'they' 'Oh. Lipstadt Moore relatesthe memoriesof a historian who. its wish to Left who of the adherents might join pulsingany before the House Un-AmericanActivities Aftera Jew testifying Committeedeclared that Jewswere betteroffin the SovietUnion than to the House committee in the United States. not were totally attacked and antisemitic forcesjoined Jewswho had come to groups The following concert."'6 utterly "Judaism declaring and openlyopposed to leanti-German groupsthatwere actively Jewish to efforts in communist avoided becominginvolved niencyforGermany state."39 during the peassociatingJewswithcommunistsappeared frequently were regularly riod. and proclaimed that Rankin produced a supposed list of "subversives" literature Antisemitic "thereis nota whiteGentilein the entiregroup. 'Jews.did not stop at refraining Fearful issue. on the silence or the maintaining supporting Rosenbergs thatthe trialmightgive the Americanpublic reason to "impute to the the AJCconsidered Jewsas a group treasonablemotivesand activities.34 policy.3" Robeson a Paul for New York.' Nothing changed. worriedthatthe AmericanpubBut the established Jewishcommunity. actively Jewish organizations Rosenbergs. Now the enemywas communist It translatedits fearsinto an activist than Nazi Germany. what really.'Nowagain.202 Deborah E. noon so as not to conflict werekilling themnow.

privately expressed his concerns. But then certainpolitical strainsbegan to develop between the United Statesand Germany.225. the ThirdReich."43 during the McCarthyhearEstablished within the felt increasings. throughtheiracts of to the disadvantageof our "betrayal. Berlin Diary. deep in Germanlife.Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 203 But it was not onlyAmericanJewishorganizations whichharbored the fearthatAmericansat large would associate the Rosenbergswithall Jews and.In had twicerejectedhis idea of a book on WilliamShirer'spublishers fact. with the resultant casualties exceeding 50. These tensionspromptedcertain jourand writers to focuson Germany's nalists. cal continuumin Germanythatbegan withMartinLuther and culminated in AdolfHitler.42 man charged that." about the propaganda efforts to save the Rosenbergs. The identification of West Germanywiththe enemies of communismand withthe heroic defendersof democracypersistedthroughout the 1950s."They had.. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It was againstthisbackgroundthatWilliamL. altered the course of history sentiments surfaced (Similar country..Theydid so despitethe because theywere convinced success of his previousbook.by puttingthe A-bombinto the hands of the Russians..53.once in 1954 and again in 1955..5 on Thu.Shirerargued thatNazism had been a virtually He found a historipredictableoutcome of German history. in turn.associate all Jewswith communism. had its roots.who presided over the Rosenberg trial.)44 groups Jewishcommunity to differentiate the between ingly compelled Rosenbergs and the American Jewish community. forwhathe planned to do once the Nazi party came to power. Shirerpostulatedthat Third the roots of the Reich were to be found not in the aberrations which"possessed Hitler'sfeverish brain"nor in worldwide politicaland economic conditions. in reading about the history and misthatAmericanshad lost interest A numberof otherpublishersshoweda similar deeds of Nazi Germany. Shirer'sRiseand Fall Reich oftheThird appeared in 1959. intellectuals. theyhad caused "the communistaggressionin Korea.as an "Americanand a Jew.the German of theirmostbasic people supportedNazism because itwas a reflection beliefs. Berlinairlift.Looking back to Bismarck.The ideologyof the Third Reich was."45 Accordingto Riseand Fall..Kaufcampaign.the and was in harmony withlong"logical continuum"of German history In MeinKampfHitlerset out his blueprint standingGerman traditions.46 But the success of thisbook had not been a foregoneconclusion. This content downloaded from 161.41 Judge Irving Kaufman. postwarGermany. legacyas the heir of Nazi Germany as opposed to the heroic image of an anti-communist.Shirerargued that the Nazi leader's "philosophyhoweverdemented. in fact.The campaign claimed thatthe government's case againstthemand othercommunist was reallya thinly sympathizers veiled antisemitic When sentencingthe Rosenbergs.000.

At one point Secretary accept a change in the statusquo regestedthatthe United Statesmight Berlin and allow East West German. TensionsbetweenGermany a formof indicatedthatit mightbe inclinedtowards whenWashington of State Allan Dulles sugdetente withthe USSR. garding situationdid not dissiThis tension-laden to the city. When thebook finally appeared under anotherpublishit was longer-1.53. somethingthe WestGermans. In paperback it sold over one millioncopies despite the factthatit was the thickest paperback ever printedand cost more than a dollar.few of pages of source notes and a lengthybibliography. Lipstadt lack of interest.49 controlof traffic when Chancellor Adenauer administration the Kennedy pate during a series of denounced compromiseproposals under considerapublicly it appeared thatthe United and tionbyMoscow Moreover.an increased willon of the part segmentsof the American public-including ingness of Shirer'sbook-to call up most prominently among them reviewers to conthe memoryof Germany'sevils and to question its willingness in Shirer'sbook mayalso have been linked to front them.When condensed and serializedin Reader's itwon an even largeraudience.225.48 This content downloaded from 161. territorial hoped forthe of Germany.but it stayedthereforovera year. as opposed to Russian. relationshad reached theirlowestpoint since the German-American end of thewar. Their expectationswere dramatically wrong. expected it to be a commercial success.includingShirerhimself. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .50 By the summerof 1962.51 At the same time another event thrustGermany'sNazi past onto times.at the end of the 1950s and beginningof the 1960s. This vithatGermanyhad not completely was bolsteredforAmericansbya spate sion of an unrepentant Germany runbypeople who not onlyhad of novelsand books depictinga country a Nazi past but who also feltno remorseforwhathad happened there less thantwodecades earlier. those involvedwithits publication.It contained close to forty Given this. at least in measure. Ultiit became one of thebestsellingnonfiction historical ofall works mately The book's success reflected.47 Digest.reached theirlowestpointsince the end of and the United Statesevolved WorldWarII.The interest the crisisin German-American relationswhich.5 on Thu. of theEuropean demands for a Statesmight recognition accept Russian who statusquo. vandalismin WestGermany-which led An outbreakof antisemitic that to copycatincidentsin otherpartsof theworld-and the discovery held important Nazi officials former postsin theWestGerhigh-ranking the convictionin certainAmericancircles reinforced man government divorceditselffromits past. ultimatereunification opposed. The book not only reached thebestsellerlist.250 pages-and more expensive-ten doler's imprint lars-than most otherbooks on the market.In its first yearit sold over a millioncopies. Washington.204 Deborah E.

it did not see a continuumof German history contrast as reno newspaper connected Eichmann's sponsible for Nazism.was to revive in Americaand anti-Americanism in Germany in order anti-Germanism to serveSovietinterests. In fact.communismwas the contemporaryheir to Nazi totalitarianism. In May 1960 Israel capturedAdolph Eichmann and spirited him out of Argentina. according to this theory. anti-Germanism in creating areequally interested Soviet propagandists two sentiIndeedthose in Germany.despite the factthatthe disastrous Bay of Pigs invasionand Sovietspace successeswere competingforeditorialspace at the same time. Reluctantto create the impression thatthe current was synonymous withthe Third Reich. anddistrust between America ofhostility The most obvious beneficiary is theKremlin. [Though."59 Some conservative book as wellas a politically journals contendedthatShirer's spate of otherworkswhich focused on Germany'spast and which apto Ameripeared around the same timewere designed to give comfort ca's enemies. who were aware of the trial of its people approved being held.54 Polls fromthe timeof the trialindicatethatAmerican wereof the "normalrunof youthweremore aware of the trialthanthey it should be more noted. in to Shirer.57 While the media did devote extensiveattentionto Eichmann.""58 The press was disinclinedto link one Germanywiththe other because-the currenttension in German-American relations not withstanding-in the eyes of mostAmerican newspapers. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Typically.225. to the bar of justice.it Germany exoneratedWestGermanyand its people.52 Nearlyeverydailypaper in America ran at least one editorialon the trialwhen it began and a significant number ran severalin close succession. His captureand subsequenttrialwere given tremendousmedia attention.5 on Thu.Americaand Memoryof the Holocaust 205 centerstage.""55 death of GaryCooper (93%) than about the trial. noncommunist or between other and Germany states. as Shirer had done. Virtually deeds to Germanhistory or culture. thepress's inclination was to do the exact opposite.53 Four monthsbeforethe end of the triala revealed that 87 Gallup poll percentof the Americanpublic had heard about the trial. The Hearst papers explicitly the general reactionin the presswhen theyexpressed the contypified cern thatthe trialwould lead the Americanpublic to "falsely associate the greatmajority of contemporary GermanswithNazi barbarities.CaliforniaSun wonderedwhy. The intent. readofbooksand films picgive This content downloaded from 161. "other killers-the power-maddespots who orin Budapest and the terrible dered the inhumaneslaughter genocide in Tibet-still are deemed fitcompanywithwhich to negotiate.53. inAmerica and anti-Americanism inter-action. people knew about the events.the San ifEichmann had been called Bernadino.]56 most Significantly. When the Germans mentshave mutually accelerating distorted and defamatory that a false.

"64 notjust amongJewsthather series of articlesand the subsequentbook Times BookReview byPennprovokeddebate. generatedsignificant discussionin Americanintellectual Her charge circles. Arendthad translated the story of the Holocaust into "the kindof terms But it was that can appeal to the sophisticatedmodern sensibility.therewererecognized leaders. Lambasted in the NewYork Michael Musmanno.5 on Thu.53.206 Deborah E. tionswhichcontinuedtheiranalysisof both the book and the response Review described the book as havto it fora numberof weeks. by making Jew "accomplice in evil" ratherthan a and replacingthe "confrontation between guiltand "virtuous martyr" innocence" with "collaboration" between perpetrator and victim. exception.cooperated way another forone reason or anotherwiththe Nazis" provokedgreatcontroversy in theJewishcommunity. This content downloaded from 161. The NewRepublic.67Writing observed thatit was rare one reviewer afterthe articlesfirst appeared. country they Americans the that is not a reliable give impression Germany ally."'6 conducted afterthe conclusion Public opinion polls and interviews of the trialsuggestedthatneitherthe trialnor the debate overArendt's in the Holocaust among Americans book generatedsustainedinterest In fact.6' andJewish that"whereverJews and this lived. fora seriesof articlesor a book to "arouse so manypassions and so prolonged a discussion. Lipstadt tureoftheir are aptto indulge in retorts in turn. the "banal" Nazi for the "monMoreover. whichfirst appeared in the formof articlesin the NewYorker and then as a book. Jews or be damned. and the NewYorker wereamong the publicaNational Review.)62 "deeply disturbed" American Jewswereby the series."And damned them is what he believed she had done.One of the more vituperativeJewishreactions appeared in a headline in a Midwestern Jewish whichproclaimed: weekly Writes Pro-Eichmann Series Self-Hating Jewess forNew Yorker Magazine63 in Podhoretz Arendtnot onlyof Norman accused Writing Commentary. which.225. on role of research the the Jewish (Subsequent councils revealed thather conclusionswere highlyimpressionistic and not generally rootedin historical observed how Newsweek fact.6o Hannah Arendt'sEichmann inJerusalem. Jewish in almost without one or leadership.more dignifiedothers.by substituting in the strous"Nazi. Musmanno'sreviewgenerbecame a topic of discussionin the Times. Commentary. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .65 the ated well over one hundred lettersto the paper.66Partisan as other workit could thinkof in as much controversy any ing provoked in the NationalReview over a year and a half the last decade.he charged.a witness at theEichsylvania SupremeCourtJudge Eichmann inJerusalem mann trialand a judge at the Nurembergtrials. nobler. unfairly Jews'actions duringthe war but of demanding that criticizing better" "be than be "braver.despite the extenin general and AmericanJewsin particular. wiser.

Jewsin generaland surfordemanding vivorsin particular were stillsubject to severecriticism that Germanyconfrontits past. killed. By so doing. Even among American and religiousleaders the intellectuals Jewish tenor of the conversationamong Jews did not change dramatically.. an accurate knowledgeof some of the most basic information which million had been transmitted the that six had been trial. While an extensiveportion (77%) of the general population thought the trialwas a good thing.its impactseems to have been limited. and emotional atmosphere conducive to a prolongedand intensive grapplingwithmanyof the issues relatedto the Holocaust. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .if not bystill some of thosewho feltidentified This content downloaded from 161. fewamong themhad.political. As has been noted in thisarticlethe Sovietswere stillthe primary object of concern.69 The seeming failure of the Holocaust to have had a sustained impacton the public consciousnesscan be explained in partby the absence in America of an intellectual. in 1966 on the "ConWhen Commentary conducted anothersymposium Belief"theeditorsdid notmentionthe Holocaust in the ditionofJewish fivelengthy to the thirty-eight rabbisand distributed questionsthatthey small of who were a number the theologians Only participating.No eventsince the Nurembergtrialshad focusedin such a dramatic of the Nazis to annihilate wayon theattempt theJewish and few people yetrelatively people seemed to have absorbed its more important details.though not identical. criticscontended. only study large 20 percentof the whitepopulation knewand believed thatsix million had actuallybeen killed. ofthe thebarbarous Itwasnatural.no Holocaust memorialswere proposed by local communities.225.conclusions mightbe drawn about theJewish WhileJewswere certainly more aware and more community.g. they were revivinganti-Germanfeelingsand giving succor to communist forces. Jews by e. indeedinevitable crimes that hatred of deep and bitter Nazisshouldleavebehinda legacy among in faith and blood. temporary impact. of the information the conveyedby prosecutionduring the accepting it a does not seem to have had more than trial. and virtually no courseswereintroducedin universitiesor schools. by the end of the trial.An of of examination the indices Jewishmagazines and periodicals from in the the period indicatesthattherewas a momentary of interest flurry Holocaust in general and in Eichmann in particular.oftheHolocaust America andMemory 207 sive media coverageof the trial.Accordingto an extensive of one American city. respondentsmade reference to the Holocaust. Similar.No communalcommemorationsemerged as a result.5 on Thu.53.What the trialdid do was to turnthe United Statesinto a large classroom. However the impact seems to have been of limitedduration.

53.208 Deborah E. they was not yetreceptiveto such a In the early1960s Americansociety was necesofAmericansociety in A the nature development. .reviewers. For the first withthe issues raised by began to grapple seriously arrayof intellectuals the Holocaust. been schooled in the politics of protestto begin to ask. asthe formof the Six Day Warand the upheavalson thedomesticfront sociated withVietnamprotest." These criticsattributed thisspate of books to "the left-wing. These matters engaged the attentionof thatportionof the population "most disposed to become involvedin public affairs"72 scholarsand intellectuals began to examine the Holocaust Journalists.Subsewhen the Holocaust did emerge on theJewishcommunal and quently.forlayingthe groundwork ever." By calling of Nazi Germanytheywere creatinga "smokescreento up the memory hide the terrors of the Sovietenemy. EMORY UNIVERSITY This content downloaded from 161. withthe victims crimes. But Eichmann'scapture and his subsequent trialdid have a longtermimpact.5 on Thu.In termsof a more broad-ranging popular response. in an adaptation of the line fromthe Haggadah. anti-Communist inclinationsof a number of publishers."What meaning do these eventshave forus?" And as AmericanJewsbegan to a portionof the general engage in the act of remembering.225.They. religiousagenda. togetherwiththe manybooks.It would takea cataclysmic community. plays and movies on the topic may. sea-change feel to to of American in for a broad order Jews empowered range sary of this address the Shoahand to see its own fatein termsof the history in theJewish eventwithin event. weremore prepared to addressitsimplications. Buta hardcoreofirreconciliables. in the Holocaustjust a few forwhatwould become an intenseinterest book mayhave had a similar impact-both among yearshence. Jews generation young sult of the Vietnam War. Lipstadt closertiesof relationship of these and friendship..authors. in a more profoundwaythan theyhad since the end of the war.It would also take the rise of American somein the 1970sand the comingof age of a post-Holocaust. force behind theanti-German and alsoa organizing driving campaign gooddeal ofitsmassaudience. ethnicity as a rewho American of whatself-righteous had. that convinced nothing muchofthe remains.howat least in part. Hereone finds goodcan comeoutofGermany..these eventsdid not serve to open up the floodgatesof memory.7" Those criticalof this trendcondemned these books because theynot readers'attention on thegruesomepast"butled them only"concentrated to "associate the image of Nazism withthe image of Germany."71 For manyAmericansremembera incorrect the Holocaust was still ing politically thingto do. increasingly Americanpopulace began to do the same.have been responsible. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Arendt's time an those who adored it and those who abhorred it.

1991).whowillraise us up again.5 on Thu.1995)."Lessonsand Legacies:The Meaningof theHolocaustin a Changing edited byPeterHayes (Evanston.DiaryofAnneFrank:Critical This was deleted fromthe playin its entirety and replaced withthe followtransforms Anne'soriginalintent: ing whichtotally We're not the only people to suffer. .p. 4.. 37. 6.JefContinuity.TheDiaryofAnneFrank (New York. Atlanta. April11.. pp. 172.Preserving (New York. World. 7. p. Nos. p.Theywaitedin fearful of the police. and forthatreason and thatreason now. 1944. willbe held up as an example. American Street toHollywood: Hester Screen.oftheHolocaust America andMemory NOTES 209 1.it mighteven be our religionfromwhichthe worldand all peoples learn good. There've always been people that've had to .." Commentary Magazine (June. but itwillbe God. DorothyRabinowitz. Memory NewLives(New York. Ifwe bear all thissuffering and ifthereare still Jewsleft. 52. EdwardT.believed thattheirhidingplace had been discovered. 6. too. 2. and Sun as quoted in Alvin World 10.225. WilliamHawkinsin New York Telegram Rosenfeld. Lawrence Langer. (New 1989). "The Play..1986).p. p. Idem. 1995). and The Case of cited in Alvin 168 as Rosenfeld. 1 and 2. p. 257. Georgia.1976).discovering burglars in the warehouse and offices below them. sometimes another. On EasterSunday1944. The nextday anticipation Anne wrotein her diary: Who has inflicted thisupon us? Who has made us Jewsdifferent from all otherpeople? Who has allowed us to suffer so terribly up tillnow?It is God thathas made us as we are. "Popularization Anne Frank.. 114. EarlyAmericanTelevision" Journal of Life History. onlydo we have to suffer Edition.thenJews. 8." TheDiaryof AnneFrank:TheCritical Edition 78-83.53."The Holocaust on Television:A New American Jewish 'Rite of Spring. of the Holocaust on Stage and 9. FrancesGoodrich and AlbertHackett. For a summary see David Barnouw.1956).EmoryUniversity. Memory: p. American Judaism(Chicago.p. "The Americanization edited and Screen. 5. insteadof being doomed. when it is over.."forthcoming in Freedom and Responsibility: Dilemmas Exploring of edited by Rela MintzGeffenand Marsha BryanEdelman. frey providedme witha draft 4. 214. of thismatter. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . York. Linenthal. 3. "'This is Your Life': Tellinga Holocaust Survivor's Life Storyon Narrative and Vol. See also the 1972 edition. For a variety of examples of these kindsof experiences. Jeffrey Shandler. Who knows.theinhabitants of theannex.p. sometimesone race."From Stage TheJewish bySarah Blacher Cohen (Bloomington. This content downloaded from 161. "Americanizationof the Holocaust. Nathan Glazer. Jewish Shandlergraciously of his paper.see the oral hisin the FredCrawford withliberators Witness tothe Holocaust collectoryinterviews tion. 600. 1957).

p. Ibid.It cost the livesof forty-five Americanand British soldiers.'pp. of Departure 19. Vol. Moses Moskowitz." p. 8 (October. BosleyCrowther.. of the postwarperiod was the creationof a post 28. "Eichmann: The System.Screening of theHolocaust.8 seconds. 22. Idem. Screening October 18. Eugene Davidson. Ibid. Enigma of Germany Commentary (July. 15.. One of the innovations of Jewishadvisor to the American militarycommand. 1963). 30. 25. 41. Times. Films Holocaust.pp. ization." p.p. in Review. 110. every61." New Republic (June 15. NewYork 1949. 1951. 25. 1956. 13. These advisors both DPs who remainedon Germanand looked after the needs of the 200. to theJewish tersof interest Shafir.it should be noted thatthoughhe counseledJewsto he did not believe thatGermansshould do likewise." 31. Lipstadt 11. Avisar."American37." in "The as cited 23. There is a certainhistoricalironyto the attemptby Americancommuvictimsof capitalistforces. ern society. May 18. has forgotten in of could Ibid.p. Jeffrey Shandler. 18. 15."This is Your Life.Shaw wrote of the adaptationof IrwinShaw's TheYoung wood's treatment of modafflictions his book to addresswhathe consideredto be one of theworst his originalintenThe movie. 13. 16. American p.. 12. as quoted in Rosenfeld. Jews 29. 1948 and ended on May 12. and Germany 1945: Points American after ofConnection Jews and Points (Cincinnati. Ibid. 20. 21. "How Cheerfulis AnneFrank?" in as cited Ilan theHolocaust Avisar.. 110. 1949. 14. Variety (April 1. 1959) Screening (Bloomington.1993). WalterKerr.. 51. Cohen.In a meetingwith forget.he believed. See Avisar'sanalysisof HollyLions.1950). 80. 12.NewYork HeraldTribune. 11. p. NewYork 27. 190. ofthe p. 1987). tion (ibid."NewYork 26. p.During this niststo paint the Rosenbergsas Jewish This content downloaded from 161. 50-51 as cited in Avisar. Times. De Telegraaf Barnouw.53.225."The Germans and the Jews: Postwar Report. 225-26. 7-14.5 on Thu.At its height.pp. 12.210 Deborah E. 13. the Victims.pp.pp.Clay statedthat"the momentthatGermany representatives Jewish thatwas the pointat which the Buchenwaldsand theAuschwitzes. Shlomo Shafir. 218. the 1946). In fairnessto Clay. 18. Elliot E. p. everyone despair anyprogress Germany. inJuly1949. "Curious Twist. The filmmakers trieda different ending whichdepicted Anne in a concentration camp. May Play.p. 212. community. The blockade began on June24. 1951). 111-116).p. 2. October 28. No.subverted antisemitism.000Jewish withinformation Austriansoil and provided the AmericanJewishcommunity towardsthe DPs and a broad arrayof othermatregardingGerman sentiments and Germany. 17. Irresponsibility. 1951. "What Do the Germans Propose to Do?" Commentary (September. Davidson. p. Bruno Bettelheim. planes landed (New York. The reactionof the audience was so disquietingthattheirdecision to create a "hopeful"filmwas reinforced. TheDeathand LifeofGermany 1959). 24. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Times. "The DesertFox.Deathand LifeofGermany p.

Eventually bilitatedby the communists. File(New York.. 52 (1951). 33."East German Communistsand the Jeffrey OccaGerman HistoricalInstitute. Book. Paul Robeson. 16.p. 95. Merker international.p.Antiagain ensued.American Book. German communist leader.one on August27 and a second on September4.had been scheduled to appear in concert on the first date. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1980). The Doctor's Plot in Moscowin 1949 had been onlythe first defendants were ries of such events.1972).as 32. VictorS.1983).pp. the Labor Day event.e. cars and buses werestoned. and the role ofJewsin European society)was at antisemitism.Rosenberg File. In 1952. Navasky. 1949. p.He maintainedthisvieweven when German communismdefineditselfin opposition to a "Western. American and Germany. p. 11. After were hurled.Merkerheld the politically the communiststandpoint-view thatthe "Jewish question" (i. Not all Jewishorganizations adopted as vigorousa stance as the Americamcan JewishCommittee.000visitors apa own guards. communist-bloc countries. 54 (1953).) a non-Jewish At the same timePaul Merker. the Jewish the eventfights once visitors arrivedin privatecars and charteredbuses. 351. pp. 18.Jewishconspiracy. 352.225. includingCzechoslovakia. The following week.p. Jews 38. quoted in Ronald RaydoshandJoyceMilton. 620. Jewish 41. 37. Deborah Dash Moore.In contrast to the American Jewish Committee. History 34. whose pro-Sovietviewswere well known. Yearbook. 56 (1955). of a sevietUnion. 62-64. show trialswitha definiteantisemitic and the SoEast Germany. (Rudolf Slanskyhad been the second most powerful figurein the Czech communistpartyand government." L'Humanite. 28.on Labor Day. when Mcbeing Jewish This content downloaded from 161. 115-116." Jewish sional Paper No. the nexus of the Holocaust. AmericanJewish Vol. 348. 39. liberal. approximately 15. Question: The Case of Paul Merker. was denounced in 1950 and held in prisonfrom1952 to 1956 forhis supportof he was partiallyrehaZionism and his emphasis on antisemitism. Naming 35. NotFree Year 40. Stoneswerethrown. 36. November14. Howard Fast. their peared Accompanied by YearBookfromleft-wing cruited according to the American unions. "Reconsidering the Rosenbergs:Symboland Substance in Second GenerationAmerican Consciousness. Raydoshand Milton.and racial epithets stickers were placed on cars at semitictractswere distributed and antisemitic Year Vol.B'nai B'rithdid not conduct an anti-Communist paign within the Jewish community. The concert was prevented fromoccurringbecause a group of protestors blocked entryinto the was to be held. Naomi Cohen.TheRosenberg p. 1988). automopicnic groundswherethe function biles overturned.p.53." Jewish ofAmeriJournal canEthnic (Fall. Herf.oftheHolocaust America andMemory 211 bias were being held in various period.In December 1952 eleven mostly Jewish executed in Prague as part of the Slanskytrial.1994. Names(New York. and a number of those who had come for the concertwere beaten up. Shafir.was arincorrect-from restedby the East German regime. the heart of the class struggleand the communistfightagainst fascism.5 on Thu. reat rescheduled conference."The RosenbergCase.it did not workto prevent JewishCommunistorganizationsfrom to communal admitted coordinatingbodies. Jewish toDesist(Philadelphia. American Vol." capitalist. p. There were actuallytwo riots. 1952.

53. Lazarsfeld. York.the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) chose to honor Senator HerbertLehman. 5. RoyCohn.p.as cited in ibid.Cohn. servea pedagogical purpost-Holocaust generations indipose. (New many p. 226-227.Hebrew Union College-Jewish Religion.Giventhe generalweaknessdemonstrated byAmericansconof this is a statistic. WilliamL. 420. History.p.Rosen284."Modern Age(Fall. IV. 1960-1962. Germany. 44.after the IsraeliSupreme guilty Courtrejectedhis appeal. 249-250. pp. 32. 1960). 89.1962. Lipstadt Carthywas gaining an extremely high profile. as Reflectedin AmericanBooks." Deborah Dash Moore. File. The United States and West 1945-1973 (London.212 Deborah E.pp."American Mercury (February.pp." Journal ofContempoVol.84 percent of those sampled met the minimumcriterionof simpleawareness.TheRiseand Fall oftheThird A History Reich: ofNazi Ger163. Marc E. ership (Albany. Shirer."The Case ofJuliusand Ethel Rosenberg:JewishReof Institute sponse to a Period of Stress"(thesis." ADL's oppositionto Communismand its conviction thattherewas a "Communist to destroy conspiracy democracyin the UnitedStates. The States. "YoungMr. 97. pp.The following McCarthy's yearADL passed a resolutionconviolation of traditional"Americansafeguardsof human demning McCarthy's The same resolutionaffirmed liberty. Press. he was hanged.and. rary 48. pp. John Tebbel. 53.p. Image of Germany.pp.S.The sentencewas renderedin December and in May. p. Morgan.1968). 101. 67-74. events. ofBookPublishing Great 1940-1980 (NewYork. Howard Rushmore. 1974). A History in theUnited Vol. who had emergedas one of main opponents. 45.p. In addition to the Gallup poll a series of in-depthinterviews were conducted withapproximately fivehundredresidents of Oakland Californiain the summerof 1961. 112-115. 51. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .p. McCarthy (New York.NewYork1978). NorbertMuhlen. 134. "Receptionof Shirer'sRiseandFall.Ben-Gurionwrote: This content downloaded from 161. TheEichmann Case in theAmerican Instituteof Human Relations. Shirer. Change.. Berkson. berg p.225. United States and West Germany. 50. PressPamphletSeries. 388 as cited in GavrielRosenfeld.In a letterto a member of the IsraeliKnesset. 54. Gavriel "The Rosenfeld. 49. 46. Trial transcript.p. 52.5 on Thu. B'nai B'rith and the Ethnic LeadChallenge of 1981). acquaint withthe era. 43. 9. 1613-1614as quoted in Raydoshand Milton. 1953). The trialbegan in April 1961 and concluded in Augustof thatyear. "The U.Israel Galili. Analysisof the Americanpress coverageof the trialin thiscountry cates thatit fulfilled the lattertwo objectives. 1962). Roger Morgan. 100.1981). 29 (1994). These statistics validatedIsrael'sand particularly PrimeMinister David BenGurion'sobjectivesfor the trial." p. Reception of WilliamL. cerningknowledge foreign striking 19-21. 42.It was designed to mete out justice. RiseandFall. 47. Shirer'sTheRiseand Fall oftheThird Reich in the United Statesand WestGermany. Reader's Digesthad a monthlycirculationof over 12 million. above all.

pp. 28. the eminent onlyforitsfindings scholarwithwhomshe had workedin the post-war period on the EuropeanJewish CulturalReconstruction.225. throughout 213 Davar. in a public open trial so that Israeli youthwho grewup and were educated afterthe Holocaust knowthe factsof the incredibletragedy.he declared its tone to be one pervaded by"flip- This content downloaded from 161. 134. whichwas based in the main on secondarysources and written beforevirtually all of the major researchon the councilshad been conducted. 1961. 9.and Joe L. about which they were untilnow onlyscantily informed. Glock.The editorialin the BaltimoreNews-Post appeared in otherHearst papers.p. Charles Y. Her friendGershomScholem.. 62. 35. These articleswere published as Eichmann inJerusalem: A Report on the Banality ofEvil (New York. 8.andMemory oftheHolocaust America I see the importanceof the fact thatAdolf Eichmann has been capturedand willbe put to trialbeforean Israeli courtnot so much as an of the Israeli Seachievementof the efficiency and outstanding ability but has Officers. Ibid. TheNew Yorker. Ministry Jerusalem. 29. Deutsch. as cited in ibid. Circularletterof April 19. Spaeth. 103. TheApathetic A Study BasedonPublicResponses tothe Eichmann Trial(New York. Eyes of Youngsters forthe trial. rather that it made it curity possible foran Israeli courtto revealin detail the tragedy of the Holocaust. (Jerusalem. as quoted in AkivaW. 1974). 55. 1963. San Bernadino Sun.p. p. Gertrude J. 9. (Summer."American Year Vol. Book." frequently withScholem. of Education and Culture. 59. In whatmusthave been a devastating almostsneeringand malicious.the dimensionsof the tragedy whichour people experienced."The Revivalof Anti-Germanism..the Israeli Ministry of EduEchoing Ben-Gurion's expectations cation and Culturecirculated a letter beforethetrialwhichstressed itshisright toricand educationalsignificance.5 on Thu. February16. 16. and his commentforArendt. Hannah Arendt. Majority: pp.given her past close relationship staturein the academic world. TheEichmann Trialin the Israeli 18.. Arendt'sanalysisof the behavior of theJewishcouncils in the ghettos. "America'sResponse to the Eichman Trial. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . March 2.June 5.p. WilliamHenry Chamberlin. 57." 61. 1962). 60. Selznick. 23. 20.. p.1963)." Modern 278. pp. May27. Ibid. 9. April 13. 58. 1960. Age "A Reporterat Large: EichmanninJerusalem. 1961.53. 1962. p. 18-19..was criticized not but foritstone. Jewish 56. described her workin a letterto her as "heartless..1966). It is not a feelingof revengewhichguides us whenwitnessing the proceedings of the trialbut the aim to uncover before the whole world and beforeourselves. Eichmann Casein the Press American (pamphlet). George Salomon. 63 (1962). See also the BaltimoreNews-Post. Furthermore it willensure that knowledge of the tragedywill have its impact on public opinion theworld.

June 29. Newsweek.pp.American Judaism.. 208.She could have.The Condition ofJewish Belief(New York. 72. 51-56. Trial toNazi Persecution: Collective JewishCouncils. Ernest van den Haag. Norman Podhoretz.1963.pp.p. "Crimes NationalReview.See."Postscript. June 17. November 17. Eichmann 61. Glock et al.5 on Thu. pp. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . New Republic.pp. 64. Europe Occupation withintroduction byStevenT.July14.1963).See also "Talk of the Town. (New 1964). 1963. 1007. "Editor'sNote.For responses see September10. 108. 210. 1963." bythe Hebrewpressor byaskinghim directly. 211-230. Times June 23. 63. Michael Musmanno. 1964. 66.Lionel Abel "The Majority. October 22. 172. Partisan Aesthetics of Evil. See Max Geltman's"Hannah Arendt and Her Critics" NationalReview. 1963."U. She was also bitterly criticizedby MartinBuber formisrepresenting his positionon the trial.p. Lipstadt pancy.1963). (New 1972). 1963. Chamberlin. pp. 426. p. Geltman.pp. Image of Germany. 94-95.1979). 421. Milton Himmelfarb. 1966)."Partisan Review (Summer. 1007-1012." August27. 169. 68.pp. ofthe p." pp. For additional information on the York.""Eichmann in Jerusalem:An Exchange of Letters between Gershom Scholem and Hannah Arendt. Further to van den Haag's review a yearlaterwhen the magazine discussionwas generatedin the NationalReview publisheda followup articleon the book. Glazer. Katz (Lincoln. 65. "Man with an Unspotted Conscience.For a responsesolicitedbythe editorsof fromArendtand a replyfromMusmanno as well as an arrayof the BookReview to the editorsee New York letters BookReview. 1996).p.S.easilyascertainedit frommaterialpublished In theWake Scholem. 1963.Judenrat: JewishCouncils inEastern under Nazi edition new York. Iff.53. Muhlen."TheNewYorker. NewYorker. 1963. April27. 1963. "Revival"p. May 19. This content downloaded from 161. see Isaiah Trunk.214 Deborah E." Review (Summer.and idem."Hannah Arendton Eichmann:A Studyin the Perof Brilliance:'Commentary versity (September. 69. 201. Arendtmisstated Musmanno'srole at the Nurembergand Eichmanntrials. 154-157.1963. forexample.225. 1964. AgainstHumanity.1963). Responses Jewish and Individual Behavior inExtremis The (New York. he charged. June 15. 20. Apathetic p. July 67. 278. 70." Encounter (22 January1964). 1963.24." New York Times Book Review. 17.p. 71.

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