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Lipstadt Source: Modern Judaism, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Oct., 1996), pp. 195-214 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1396708 . Accessed: 16/05/2013 11:44
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Deborah E. Lipstadt
AMERICA AND THE MEMORY OF THE HOLOCAUST, 1950-1965
To say that the Holocaust has become a central symbol of the twentieth century,particularlyforAmerican Jews, is to state the obvious. This confrontation with catastrophe has become a mythic element of American Jewish identityand has served both a positive and a negative purpose. It has become a stimulus for motivatingJewish identity.But, in certain situations, it has been allowed to assume a dominant role thereby distorting the true nature of Judaism and becoming the prism through which the Jewish world view is refracted. This article explores the emergence of the Holocaust on the American agenda -both Jewish and non-Jewish-during the two decades following World War II. The prominence of the Holocaust in American Jewish identity is particularly noteworthy since throughout the 1950s and most of the 1960s it was barely on the Jewish communal or theological agenda. In contrast to today, there were virtually no courses on the topic. There were no more than a few commemorations of YomHaShoah, or books,
conferences, speeches,and museumsdedicated to exploringthe history and significance of the Holocaust. An examinationofJewish periodicals reveals few articles on the Holocaust. These Holocaust commemorationswhichwere held were generally attended onlyby survivors. Nonsurvivors who attended rememberedfeelinglike they"were crashinga Survivors who came to thiscountry in the later 1940s and the funeral."' 1950s were oftendiscouraged fromdiscussingtheirexperiences.They were toldAmericanswere not interested.2 That the Holocaust had such a limitedovertimpacton the American Jewishcommunity during this period is particularly noteworthy to itwas not totally absentfrom that, given contrary popular impression, the American popular culturalagenda. In contrastto what has often been the generalimpression therewerea significant numberof movies, on television and books the plays, productions, subjectwell before the end of the 1960s. In April1959,theJewish noted that,as "happens every DailyForward shows Passover would be broadcaston television year," special marking of and radio.Amongtheshowsscheduled to be aired was an installment CBS's religionseries,LookUp and Live,dedicated to the topic of the dePress ModernJudaism16 (1996): 195-214? 1996 byThe JohnsHopkins University
This content downloaded from 188.8.131.52 on Thu, 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
" onlytwo of thirty-one cited the Holocaust as havinghad a significant impact on participants in Judaism theirlives.225.and movie. of the Holocaust.In 1960 Playhouse 90 produced Rod Serling'sIn the Presence That same year saw ofMineEnemies. play.and WilliamShirer'sTheRiseand Fall oftheThird which.Directions. Writing 1957. But these were not the only television shows on the topic.TheWall. public. lauded bythe NewYork of the past hundredyears.196 Deborah E. the productionof MillardLampell's play. consequently. televisionshows. in or did motivated not seem interested by the two Jews particularly and in the the creationof events Holocaust history: major recentJewish the Stateof Israel. In 1959 Alcoa Goodyear Theater's productionof Thirty PiecesofSilver concerned Holocaust refugees. Some of the earlyplays.e. Nonetheless. and televisionproductionson the Holocaust won substantialattention.thoughnot solelyconcernedwiththe Holocaust. And. Reich.did pay serious attentionto Hitler'spersecutionof theJewsand the German plan to leave Europe Judenrein.That same yearin a similarsymposium magazine.thought worthy ation. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Diary ofAnneFrank.5 on Thu. of American the Holocaust did not emerge as a factorin the construct in Nathan Glazer American observed that Jewish identity.i. This is YourLifedevoted nine segmentsto the Holocaust in the period between 1953 and 1961. In additionKatherineAnne Porter'sShipofFools Times Review Book as one of thebestbooks (1962).4Judgment at Nuremberg was a successfultelevisionproductionbeforeit was made into a movie in 1961.painted a highly criticalportrait of German attitudestowards seven At least books Eichmann on Jews. appeared in 1962.Playhouse a showabout survivors 90. aired Homeward Borne.Foremostamong them were The which reached Americansin the formof a book. In 1957 the respectedtelevision drama show. The Angry the of inmates of the Belsen concentration playdepicted attempt camp to celebrate a Passover Seder. Lipstadt of the Warsawghetto.books. could have suggestedto theJewishcommunity that the external.and movies of a significant captured the attention portionof the Americanpublic.. struction broadcast TheFinal Ingredient. The popular televisionshow.5In a 1961 symposium magsponsoredby Commentary azine on "Jewishness and Younger Intellectuals.ABC's religionseries. in thespringof 1961 televisionviewerswere able to watch portionsof the Eichmann trial. American the Holocaust of considernon-Jewish. the twenty-one virtually ignoredtheHolocaust.53.even as these books. Jewish This content downloaded from 161. This particularkind of attention was especiallysignificant because much of it was generated by the non-Jewish world and. A perusalof participants variousJewishlocal newspapersand publicationsfromthe period reveals littlementionof the Holocaust or serious discussionof its impact on contemporary identity. a play by the author of Twelve Men.
ues to generate controversy to this day'--theyessentially de-Judaized There was littlehorrorin the play and nothing thatwould identity.They notonlyavoided toAnne's fate-which ultimate a numanyreferences berofsurvivors whosawAnnein thecampsindicate wasexceptionally and terribly theultimate ofthe painful lonely-butpresented message servationthat"In spiteof everything I stillbelieve thatpeople are really heart. proclaiming Holocaust as one of hope and faithin the ultimategoodness of human- This content downloaded from 161. Whatrelevance havefor Americans? In fact. optimistic perspirit vadedAmerica. on thehorrors of notwith building dwelling thepast. Would she have been inclined to writesuch uplifting lines at that time?It is doubtful. did it by another country against"an-other" people.was written DiaryofAnneFrank.9 They also to transform Recruited thebook intoa play-in a movewhich continthe story to herJewish by removing manyof Anne'sown references Americanized thestory iton an optimistic byending upbeatnote. by two Hollywood playwrights. is humbled by her optimismand replies.never e.Anne wrotethose famouslines beforeher experiences in Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen. distinguished by they possible ofthetopicat hand.225. cars. baeducations. is that America wasnotready theissue.In provedthemselves totally The playconcludes with a voiceover Anne's famous obity." At at which her who has just returnedfrom father. Thosewhohad returned from thewarwereconcerned a family with and a career.5 on Thu. sister disease. were not in interested "those this was a function But not ily just things."6 of thehomefront's fora gruesome Americans wereendistaste topic. Thisevent had transpired on another It hadbeen committed continent.Soldiers wholiberated campsor who came to campsshortly after liberation and tookpictures came their documenting experiences hometodiscover. "She puts me to shame.coland televisions.."In fact.wasbeingmassproduced.para pastwhich seemedtobe ofno direct concern tothis ticularly country.andMemory oftheHolocaust America 197 First Thereare a variety ofexplanations forthis and phenomenon." end of thewaruntiltheearly1960s. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . lege Everything.happy The 1955 version of The endings." upset audiences' emotional or psychologicalequilibrium.in many cases. It bies. good point the camps.and exposure to the elements. she watched her beloved where first die as a resultof starvation. did notseemto be an appropriate timeto focus on a painful past. friends famoften totheir that their and great dismay. Frances Goodrich and AlbertHackett. Broadway whichwon the Pulitzerprize fordrama.Fromthe foremost to confront a "can-do.But the play's Americanreviewers obliviousto thatpoint. homes. in and never material that gaged obtaining goods they achieving goals had before dreamt wouldbe theirs. a number ofthepopular oftheperiodare cultural products the fact that as much as was in light had.g.53. and. including The postwar boomwasin fullswing. and thensuccumbedto the same herself.
in fearor in hope. have been tempered by the happiness you've found here in America." contentionthatthe actionsof the SS and otherGermanswere partof a masterplan and not the haphazard actions of a fewindipremeditated viduals "met with little acceptance" in this country. father.fromnow on we'll live in hope. Not onlywas therea new enemypresentbut also Americadepended on bothWestern to protect to serveas a buffer a newally.a lar Thisis Your whichwas devoted to the story Life.To you in yourdarkest hourAmericaheld out a friendly hand. who escaped fromGermanyprior to the war. This is yourlife.... the on the horizon: There was a new enemy wrongdoings."12It was an ironic.upon centrationcamp.. Hanna. itswonder.theyseemed to miss or dismissthe factthatthisplaywas about a tragedyof cataclysmic proportions.wayto end the productiongiventhat.. he tried to tell Americansabout his experiences.if not absurd.or monsters"but He was were in mostcases "banal . In the film'sconclusion Otto Frankdeclares.Ralph Edwards.sayingto "The never-to-be-forgotten the survivor."'" Americanscould onlyaddress thistopic withinan optiApparently context. He to whom he was told by most people. A similarattitude was evidentin a 1953 episode of the wildly popuof Hanna Kohner.53..One described himselfas feeling be Deto a human being" as he leftthe theater..The episode concluded withthe host.225. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .198 Deborah E. Europe This content downloaded from 161..itsspasmsof anguish.Hanna Block Kohner.'0 "exhilarated. tended that the SS were not "demented sadists. in America shortly afterhis release froma conhis arrival 1939. he conframeof reference""14 to our humanistic tended.People had to be leftwith a feelingof misticand uplifting made a similarpoint when he recalled how in Bruno Bettelheim hope.""Similarly. tragicexperiencesof yourlife. This show was one of the earliest treatments television of the topic. but nonethelessdeadly effective. ineradicablelifelifein itswarmth.except forFrankhimself. "glowing.5 on Thu. Lipstadt fact. including some psychiatrists he conbecause a from was that he prisonerpsychosis suffering spoke.and mother were all killed at Auschwitz.proud in it are doomed to death. doom were eschewed. as the police break in and the hiding place is discovered:"For twoyears we've lived in fear.Germany.anothernoted spitethefactall the characters thatthe playhad a qualityof lifeabout it.none of the otherslivedon at all.was a Hollywood by American producer.She settledin Hollywood where her second husband. gloom and ing humor." Bettelheim's warned thathis theorieswere "apt to mislead Americans. Holocaust survivor.Kohner's husband.It was. It too eschewed gloom and doom and ended on a note of "good overcomesall"-particularlyifthatgood is Americanin origin.and itswildand flarwhen the diarywas made into a film.."just too contrary But therewas yetanotherfactor-a politicalone-which prompted withGermany's Americansto turnawayfroman active confrontation communists.
'7 The more Americanpoliticiansand military leaders began to think of the USSR as America's major enemy and as the greatestthreatto peace. itarianism. given people In the been had reborn.20AmericanJews drummer oftenfound themselves marchingto the beat of a different when it came to post-warattitudestoward Germany. change. freedomunited by an intensecontemptfor totalloving. short.53. the more likelytheywere to favornot only softerpeace terms withGermany butGermanmilitary expansion. most important.There was littleinclination to call attentionto the wrongdoings-even those that had been committed under a previousregime-of thisally.a whole new was officials and journalists forgedforGermanyby government image alike. year. headed the American military governmentin Germany. Amongthosewho increaswere liberals who felt this otherwise have supporteda way ingly might harsher attitude towards Germany. Postwareventssuch as the Berlin airlift.In 1950 Elliot Cohen. when given these sweetsby the soldiers. In an address to to Germansin generaland Berlinersin particCongresshe paid tribute ular. the childrenneverasked forthembut were "grateful" ing to the report.In fact.5 on Thu. Clay.who for fouryears. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The under the rule of a had started who.'6 When the blockade ended.stories circulated of American GIs candies paid forout of theirown pocketsintoBerlinso that parachuting the childrenof thatcity would not have to suffer Accordunnecessarily.deliveredan addressin West This content downloaded from 161. returnedto the United States.225.Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 199 and the United Statesfroma Sovietonslaught.'9 by military looked in vain forsome indicationthatGermany felta degree of contrition about what had occurred.first as Deputy Commander and later as Commander-in-Chief. What theysaw instead was a growing German antagonismtowardsthe DPs and a web of bureaucraticprobin Gerlems as Jewishproperty ownerstried to reclaim theirproperty were aware of American having to many. objected to this more conciliatory strongly were of the sentences distressed the commutation They particularly by of Nazi war criminals In addition they American tribunals.and. theeditorof Commentary magazine.'5During the airlift. enemy dom. Jewishorganizations acutely balance theirdesirefora more punitive towards Germany against policy Americanforeign thatour old enemywas the growing policyconviction our new ally even as our old allywas our new enemy. an aggressive war had now made a verydifferent choice. General Lucius Clay. which lasted close to a and particularly Berlin (whichonlya Germany.served to portray had been the of fewyearsearlier symbol the worstof the Third Reich and the place where Hitler made his last stand) as heroic. Accordingto when a second Berlin had chosen freethe of chance. people dictatorship. Althoughhe acknowledgedthatit was difficult eitherto forget or what Germans had in the done there had a been forgive previousyears.'8 American Jewish organizations attitudetowardsGermany.
presented story but as one of those who-seeing not onlyas a heroic military strategist in theJuly the follyof Hitler'sways-breaks withhim and participates of movie Rommel commits At the end the 1944 assassinationattempt.) produced Germany Germansin By the early1950s Hollywoodwas beginningto portray a positivelight. Lipstadt Berlinin whichhe lambastedGermansfortheir"silence.as opposed to a Nazi.and a traditionthat had been establishedseveral years earlier that the play which received the Pulitzerprize would be that Franco-German produced in Paris. He wondered Where arethewords offellow and introspection.53. however. your your poetsand novelists this colossal historic tragedy?21 Despite AmericanJewishconcerns that Germanyhad failed to truly confront its unprecedentedacts of brutality.exertedpressureto prerelationsmight vent its staging. Such was the case in the film adaptationof TheYoung Fox movies of thisgenre was TheDesert Lions (1958). if mander of the army theircoup eithercommit visitedbytwogeneralswho deliveredHitler'sultimatum: of punishment courtand the threat suicide or face a trialbeforethe Volk This content downloaded from 161. ofregeneration andwisdom.The conspirators. therewas littlethatcould be done to stop the growingbelief in America that a soft-and ever increasingly softer-peace imposed on Germanywould better serve Americaninterests.225. of sympathy.5 on Thu. (All thiswas HollyservedtheReich since 1935butwas by Rommelhad loyally wood fiction.22 This growing Americanreluctanceto focus attention on Germany's acts of persecutionand murderwas apparently behind the State Departmentdecision that TheDiaryofAnneFrank not be at the 1956 Paris drama festival. (1951). from from historians and on scholars. but suicide.as of a grave. he was was successful.Not only were theyinnocent but in many cases they were-or so the films claimed-unaware of the atrocities being committed in theirname. the State Department. performed Despite growing European interestin the play. He never participated any aspect of the attemptto assassinate had listedhim as the supreme comHitler." and for demonstrating "a vacuum of sentiment" when it came to the murderof EuropeanJewry.24One of the first In was of it Rommel the Field Marshal Rommel. endeavorsin whichHitlerwas engag1944 criticalof the futilemilitary in ing.Consequently. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . anguish and healing. in was that and Austria later play year.2" the (State Departmentobjections not withstanding.200 Deborah E.an act designed not onlyto show his greatintegrity to presenthim as a "good" German.fearful be damaged bytheproduction. that someofus exdiagnosis men of religious and spiritual pectedfrom your thought leadership.Filmmakers stressedthe sufferings of the Germanswho were clearlydifferentiated fromthe Nazis-and presentedthemas innocentvictims of a fewdiabolical men who had gained controlof an entire country.
Professor General Clay told his adviseron Jewishaffairs.5 on Thu.53. wellyoufolks a if ever build a have want to you leadership got responsibility.. the "old technique of the Jewishtribunal. you havegottoforget what happened. In a conversation regardingthe situationofJewsin theAmericanzone in Germany. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as shallbe demonstrated much persuadingto keep silent.225."32 were"judged byJews" This content downloaded from 161. not only was but it also the struggle conspiracy againstthe Rosenbergsan antisemitic relied on the same tacticsthe Nazis had used to subdue the ghettoesof Eastern Europe."'Accordingto this scenario.30 outside the territoBut it was notjust the fight againstcommunists rial bordersof the United Stateswhichled manyAmericanJewsto believe thatsilence about the pastwas an efficacious policy. i.) The Rommel took the poison whichwas offered to his family. even critics One of the fewdissenting laudable incidentin foreignpolicy.describingit as havof those ing "a strangedisregardforthe principlesand the sensibilities and died in the cause of defeatingGerman aggressionin who suffered thefilm WorldWarII. left at the heart of General Lucius Clay'scounsel to Ameriunspoken-was can Jewsto maintainsilence about the Holocaust and Germany's guilt."25 of the NewYork was BosleyCrowther Times who." Jews Deborah Dash and "sentto death byotherJews. describingthe story general'svirtuesin an Americanmotion picture. a reasonable..e.. The reviewer apas the "celebrationof a German plauded the film. at the least.devoted twocolumnsto it. of Rommel was generally met withpraise by reviewers.29 in subsequentpages.. [Jewish] and emotional and economic base forrevived intellectual health.AmericanJewswere leftfeelingunActivities Committee easy by the attemptof the House Un-American in theSenate under SenatorMcCarthy)to findand (and itscounterpart in Americanpublic lifeand the tremendousatferret out communists tentiongivento trialssuch as thatofJuliusand Ethel Rosenberg.27 This attitude-that the past was best rewritten or.appalled by the ravereviewsthe filmreceived."26Accordingto Crowther was a "tenderizedHollywood laudation of the man who sparkedtheAfrika Korps"when in fact he was "the leader responsibleforthe deaths of thousandsupon thousands of British troops"and someone who loyally supportedHitleruntil the military tide began to turn.Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 201 to him. film'sportrayal Some of themplaced the moviewithinthe largercontextof contempoin Filmsin Review raryAmericanforeignpolicyissues..Some triedto paint theirprosecutionas a sinisof the Rosenbergs'supporters ter conspiracyagainstJews.Eventsclose to home also helped persuade them.Jewsdid not need In fact. WilliamHaber:28 in Germany is farmorebitter the anti-Germanism amongtheJews in the thantheanti-Semitism amongtheGermans.
' killing had infact. its wish to Left who of the adherents might join pulsingany before the House Un-AmericanActivities Aftera Jew testifying Committeedeclared that Jewswere betteroffin the SovietUnion than to the House committee in the United States. year. Lipstadt Moore relatesthe memoriesof a historian who. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . anti-communist In the summer unfounded."'6 utterly "Judaism declaring and openlyopposed to leanti-German groupsthatwere actively Jewish to efforts in communist avoided becominginvolved niencyforGermany state.listened to reportsof the couple's execution which took place late Fridayafterwiththe Sabbath. jected the attemptby the Rosenbergs' defendersand othergroups on Americancommunist the Left-particularly groups-to argue thatthe camin Americawas in factan antisemitic to expose communists effort the Rosenbergcase as a paign. did to Thiswas.the AJCsent a statement are communism and that incompatible.'they' 'Oh.225.as a younggirl. they're 'Jews. on the silence or the maintaining supporting Rosenbergs thatthe trialmightgive the Americanpublic reason to "impute to the the AJCconsidered Jewsas a group treasonablemotivesand activities. worriedthatthe AmericanpubBut the established Jewishcommunity. what really. 'they' shethought. Sacco-Vanzetti exemplifiedby Jewishorganizations.did not stop at refraining Fearful issue.34 policy. such as the all Jewswith the misdeeds of "traitors" lic would identify redid not see thingsthisway.53."35 and reits patriotism forthe Rosenbergsas a means of demonstrating ranks.' Nothing changed. actively Jewish organizations Rosenbergs. noon so as not to conflict werekilling themnow. They disparaged the attemptto portray Mainstream redux.33 sincetheHolocaust.5 on Thu. not were totally attacked and antisemitic forcesjoined Jewswho had come to groups The following concert. 'Jews.The its used and then for the opposition Rosenbergs AJCopposed clemency offiand convinceboth government favor"fromWashington to "curry cials and the American public that the AmericanJewishcommunity The AJCopenlyadvocated the death penalty bore not a taintof "red.3" Robeson a Paul for New York.Jews conspirators. Now the enemywas communist It translatedits fearsinto an activist than Nazi Germany.202 Deborah E."39 during the peassociatingJewswithcommunistsappeared frequently were regularly riod.3" German of a West the establishment prevent of all Jewswith communism These fears about the identification of 1949. and proclaimed that Rankin produced a supposed list of "subversives" literature Antisemitic "thereis nota whiteGentilein the entiregroup.40 depicted as communist This content downloaded from 161. from the AmericanJewishCommittee(AJC). of House of the on the floor Congressman John Representatives." whichexthe situation than as a potentially the situation greaterdanger Russia rather istedduringWorldWar II.'Nowagain. Peekskill.
Kaufcampaign. Shirerpostulatedthat Third the roots of the Reich were to be found not in the aberrations which"possessed Hitler'sfeverish brain"nor in worldwide politicaland economic conditions. cal continuumin Germanythatbegan withMartinLuther and culminated in AdolfHitler. postwarGermany.privately expressed his concerns.)44 groups Jewishcommunity to differentiate the between ingly compelled Rosenbergs and the American Jewish community.. deep in Germanlife.5 on Thu."43 during the McCarthyhearEstablished within the felt increasings..41 Judge Irving Kaufman. Berlin Diary. altered the course of history sentiments surfaced (Similar country.Shirerargued thatNazism had been a virtually He found a historipredictableoutcome of German history.53.Shirerargued that the Nazi leader's "philosophyhoweverdemented. forwhathe planned to do once the Nazi party came to power.." about the propaganda efforts to save the Rosenbergs. theyhad caused "the communistaggressionin Korea. legacyas the heir of Nazi Germany as opposed to the heroic image of an anti-communist. Berlinairlift. the ThirdReich.000.associate all Jewswith communism. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It was againstthisbackgroundthatWilliamL.In had twicerejectedhis idea of a book on WilliamShirer'spublishers fact.Theydid so despitethe because theywere convinced success of his previousbook.by puttingthe A-bombinto the hands of the Russians. had its roots. This content downloaded from 161.The ideologyof the Third Reich was.The campaign claimed thatthe government's case againstthemand othercommunist was reallya thinly sympathizers veiled antisemitic When sentencingthe Rosenbergs."They had. The identification of West Germanywiththe enemies of communismand withthe heroic defendersof democracypersistedthroughout the 1950s.once in 1954 and again in 1955.. in reading about the history and misthatAmericanshad lost interest A numberof otherpublishersshoweda similar deeds of Nazi Germany. Shirer'sRiseand Fall Reich oftheThird appeared in 1959.42 man charged that.who presided over the Rosenberg trial. in fact."45 Accordingto Riseand Fall.225.as an "Americanand a Jew.Looking back to Bismarck.Americaand Memoryof theHolocaust 203 But it was not onlyAmericanJewishorganizations whichharbored the fearthatAmericansat large would associate the Rosenbergswithall Jews and.46 But the success of thisbook had not been a foregoneconclusion.the German of theirmostbasic people supportedNazism because itwas a reflection beliefs. intellectuals. But then certainpolitical strainsbegan to develop between the United Statesand Germany. in turn.. throughtheiracts of to the disadvantageof our "betrayal. These tensionspromptedcertain jourand writers to focuson Germany's nalists.the and was in harmony withlong"logical continuum"of German history In MeinKampfHitlerset out his blueprint standingGerman traditions. with the resultant casualties exceeding 50.
those involvedwithits publication. Their expectationswere dramatically wrong. vandalismin WestGermany-which led An outbreakof antisemitic that to copycatincidentsin otherpartsof theworld-and the discovery held important Nazi officials former postsin theWestGerhigh-ranking the convictionin certainAmericancircles reinforced man government divorceditselffromits past. garding situationdid not dissiThis tension-laden to the city.few of pages of source notes and a lengthybibliography. somethingthe WestGermans.The interest the crisisin German-American relationswhich.It contained close to forty Given this. at least in measure.48 This content downloaded from 161.reached theirlowestpointsince the end of and the United Statesevolved WorldWarII. This vithatGermanyhad not completely was bolsteredforAmericansbya spate sion of an unrepentant Germany runbypeople who not onlyhad of novelsand books depictinga country a Nazi past but who also feltno remorseforwhathad happened there less thantwodecades earlier. Washington.but it stayedthereforovera year.an increased willon of the part segmentsof the American public-including ingness of Shirer'sbook-to call up most prominently among them reviewers to conthe memoryof Germany'sevils and to question its willingness in Shirer'sbook mayalso have been linked to front them. When thebook finally appeared under anotherpublishit was longer-1.includingShirerhimself.47 Digest. Lipstadt lack of interest. Ultiit became one of thebestsellingnonfiction historical ofall works mately The book's success reflected. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . relationshad reached theirlowestpoint since the German-American end of thewar. expected it to be a commercial success.53.204 Deborah E. of theEuropean demands for a Statesmight recognition accept Russian who statusquo.50 By the summerof 1962. territorial hoped forthe of Germany. The book not only reached thebestsellerlist.In its first yearit sold over a millioncopies. ultimatereunification opposed.49 controlof traffic when Chancellor Adenauer administration the Kennedy pate during a series of denounced compromiseproposals under considerapublicly it appeared thatthe United and tionbyMoscow Moreover.When condensed and serializedin Reader's itwon an even largeraudience.250 pages-and more expensive-ten doler's imprint lars-than most otherbooks on the market.225.5 on Thu. At one point Secretary accept a change in the statusquo regestedthatthe United Statesmight Berlin and allow East West German.51 At the same time another event thrustGermany'sNazi past onto times. as opposed to Russian.at the end of the 1950s and beginningof the 1960s. TensionsbetweenGermany a formof indicatedthatit mightbe inclinedtowards whenWashington of State Allan Dulles sugdetente withthe USSR. In paperback it sold over one millioncopies despite the factthatit was the thickest paperback ever printedand cost more than a dollar.
""58 The press was disinclinedto link one Germanywiththe other because-the currenttension in German-American relations not withstanding-in the eyes of mostAmerican newspapers. who were aware of the trial of its people approved being held.5 on Thu.52 Nearlyeverydailypaper in America ran at least one editorialon the trialwhen it began and a significant number ran severalin close succession.225.53 Four monthsbeforethe end of the triala revealed that 87 Gallup poll percentof the Americanpublic had heard about the trial. people knew about the events. noncommunist or between other and Germany states. anddistrust between America ofhostility The most obvious beneficiary is theKremlin.was to revive in Americaand anti-Americanism in Germany in order anti-Germanism to serveSovietinterests.Americaand Memoryof the Holocaust 205 centerstage. His captureand subsequenttrialwere given tremendousmedia attention. The intent.]56 most Significantly.communismwas the contemporaryheir to Nazi totalitarianism.57 While the media did devote extensiveattentionto Eichmann.CaliforniaSun wonderedwhy. Typically.despite the factthatthe disastrous Bay of Pigs invasionand Sovietspace successeswere competingforeditorialspace at the same time. to the bar of justice. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as Shirer had done.53. readofbooksand films picgive This content downloaded from 161. according to this theory. thepress's inclination was to do the exact opposite. anti-Germanism in creating areequally interested Soviet propagandists two sentiIndeedthose in Germany."59 Some conservative book as wellas a politically journals contendedthatShirer's spate of otherworkswhich focused on Germany'spast and which apto Ameripeared around the same timewere designed to give comfort ca's enemies. "other killers-the power-maddespots who orin Budapest and the terrible dered the inhumaneslaughter genocide in Tibet-still are deemed fitcompanywithwhich to negotiate. In May 1960 Israel capturedAdolph Eichmann and spirited him out of Argentina.the San ifEichmann had been called Bernadino.""55 death of GaryCooper (93%) than about the trial. in to Shirer. The Hearst papers explicitly the general reactionin the presswhen theyexpressed the contypified cern thatthe trialwould lead the Americanpublic to "falsely associate the greatmajority of contemporary GermanswithNazi barbarities.it did not see a continuumof German history contrast as reno newspaper connected Eichmann's sponsible for Nazism. In fact.it Germany exoneratedWestGermanyand its people. When the Germans mentshave mutually accelerating distorted and defamatory that a false. Reluctantto create the impression thatthe current was synonymous withthe Third Reich. Virtually deeds to Germanhistory or culture. inAmerica and anti-Americanism inter-action. [Though.54 Polls fromthe timeof the trialindicatethatAmerican wereof the "normalrunof youthweremore aware of the trialthanthey it should be more noted.
Lambasted in the NewYork Michael Musmanno.by substituting in the strous"Nazi. tionswhichcontinuedtheiranalysisof both the book and the response Review described the book as havto it fora numberof weeks.206 Deborah E. whichfirst appeared in the formof articlesin the NewYorker and then as a book. Arendthad translated the story of the Holocaust into "the kindof terms But it was that can appeal to the sophisticatedmodern sensibility.a witness at theEichsylvania SupremeCourtJudge Eichmann inJerusalem mann trialand a judge at the Nurembergtrials."'6 conducted afterthe conclusion Public opinion polls and interviews of the trialsuggestedthatneitherthe trialnor the debate overArendt's in the Holocaust among Americans book generatedsustainedinterest In fact. on role of research the the Jewish (Subsequent councils revealed thather conclusionswere highlyimpressionistic and not generally rootedin historical observed how Newsweek fact. The NewRepublic.cooperated way another forone reason or anotherwiththe Nazis" provokedgreatcontroversy in theJewishcommunity. which. Jewish in almost without one or leadership. This content downloaded from 161. by making Jew "accomplice in evil" ratherthan a and replacingthe "confrontation between guiltand "virtuous martyr" innocence" with "collaboration" between perpetrator and victim.65 the ated well over one hundred lettersto the paper. and the NewYorker wereamong the publicaNational Review. Musmanno'sreviewgenerbecame a topic of discussionin the Times.)62 "deeply disturbed" American Jewswereby the series.he charged. country they Americans the that is not a reliable give impression Germany ally. Lipstadt tureoftheir are aptto indulge in retorts in turn.67Writing observed thatit was rare one reviewer afterthe articlesfirst appeared.6' andJewish that"whereverJews and this lived.therewererecognized leaders. Jews or be damned."64 notjust amongJewsthather series of articlesand the subsequentbook Times BookReview byPennprovokeddebate.6o Hannah Arendt'sEichmann inJerusalem. generatedsignificant discussionin Americanintellectual Her charge circles.225. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .despite the extenin general and AmericanJewsin particular. Commentary.66Partisan as other workit could thinkof in as much controversy any ing provoked in the NationalReview over a year and a half the last decade. exception.5 on Thu. the "banal" Nazi for the "monMoreover. wiser. unfairly Jews'actions duringthe war but of demanding that criticizing better" "be than be "braver.more dignifiedothers. fora seriesof articlesor a book to "arouse so manypassions and so prolonged a discussion.53.One of the more vituperativeJewishreactions appeared in a headline in a Midwestern Jewish whichproclaimed: weekly Writes Pro-Eichmann Series Self-Hating Jewess forNew Yorker Magazine63 in Podhoretz Arendtnot onlyof Norman accused Writing Commentary."And damned them is what he believed she had done. nobler.
an accurate knowledgeof some of the most basic information which million had been transmitted the that six had been trial. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .No communalcommemorationsemerged as a result.5 on Thu. and virtually no courseswereintroducedin universitiesor schools. and emotional atmosphere conducive to a prolongedand intensive grapplingwithmanyof the issues relatedto the Holocaust.225. in 1966 on the "ConWhen Commentary conducted anothersymposium Belief"theeditorsdid notmentionthe Holocaust in the ditionofJewish fivelengthy to the thirty-eight rabbisand distributed questionsthatthey small of who were a number the theologians Only participating. Jews by e. they were revivinganti-Germanfeelingsand giving succor to communist forces. Similar.its impactseems to have been limited. fewamong themhad.oftheHolocaust America andMemory 207 sive media coverageof the trial. Even among American and religiousleaders the intellectuals Jewish tenor of the conversationamong Jews did not change dramatically. temporary impact.An of of examination the indices Jewishmagazines and periodicals from in the the period indicatesthattherewas a momentary of interest flurry Holocaust in general and in Eichmann in particular.conclusions mightbe drawn about theJewish WhileJewswere certainly more aware and more community. criticscontended. by the end of the trial.political.if not bystill some of thosewho feltidentified This content downloaded from 161. ofthe thebarbarous Itwasnatural. However the impact seems to have been of limitedduration. indeedinevitable crimes that hatred of deep and bitter Nazisshouldleavebehinda legacy among in faith and blood.. only study large 20 percentof the whitepopulation knewand believed thatsix million had actuallybeen killed.Accordingto an extensive of one American city. killed. As has been noted in thisarticlethe Sovietswere stillthe primary object of concern.no Holocaust memorialswere proposed by local communities.though not identical. While an extensiveportion (77%) of the general population thought the trialwas a good thing.69 The seeming failure of the Holocaust to have had a sustained impacton the public consciousnesscan be explained in partby the absence in America of an intellectual.What the trialdid do was to turnthe United Statesinto a large classroom.g. respondentsmade reference to the Holocaust. of the information the conveyedby prosecutionduring the accepting it a does not seem to have had more than trial. By so doing.No eventsince the Nurembergtrialshad focusedin such a dramatic of the Nazis to annihilate wayon theattempt theJewish and few people yetrelatively people seemed to have absorbed its more important details.Jewsin generaland surfordemanding vivorsin particular were stillsubject to severecriticism that Germanyconfrontits past.53.
that convinced nothing muchofthe remains. religiousagenda. asthe formof the Six Day Warand the upheavalson thedomesticfront sociated withVietnamprotest.these eventsdid not serve to open up the floodgatesof memory. But Eichmann'scapture and his subsequent trialdid have a longtermimpact.In termsof a more broad-ranging popular response."What meaning do these eventshave forus?" And as AmericanJewsbegan to a portionof the general engage in the act of remembering.forlayingthe groundwork ever. . anti-Communist inclinationsof a number of publishers. togetherwiththe manybooks. in the Holocaustjust a few forwhatwould become an intenseinterest book mayhave had a similar impact-both among yearshence.. ethnicity as a rewho American of whatself-righteous had. These matters engaged the attentionof thatportionof the population "most disposed to become involvedin public affairs"72 scholarsand intellectuals began to examine the Holocaust Journalists." These criticsattributed thisspate of books to "the left-wing.have been responsible.It would also take the rise of American somein the 1970sand the comingof age of a post-Holocaust. been schooled in the politics of protestto begin to ask. weremore prepared to addressitsimplications.They. For the first withthe issues raised by began to grapple seriously arrayof intellectuals the Holocaust. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .It would takea cataclysmic community." By calling of Nazi Germanytheywere creatinga "smokescreento up the memory hide the terrors of the Sovietenemy."71 For manyAmericansremembera incorrect the Holocaust was still ing politically thingto do.reviewers. in a more profoundwaythan theyhad since the end of the war. they was not yetreceptiveto such a In the early1960s Americansociety was necesofAmericansociety in A the nature development.. force behind theanti-German and alsoa organizing driving campaign gooddeal ofitsmassaudience.5 on Thu.authors. Hereone finds goodcan comeoutofGermany. increasingly Americanpopulace began to do the same. EMORY UNIVERSITY This content downloaded from 161. Buta hardcoreofirreconciliables.225. plays and movies on the topic may. in an adaptation of the line fromthe Haggadah.Subsewhen the Holocaust did emerge on theJewishcommunal and quently.7" Those criticalof this trendcondemned these books because theynot readers'attention on thegruesomepast"butled them only"concentrated to "associate the image of Nazism withthe image of Germany. Lipstadt closertiesof relationship of these and friendship.208 Deborah E. withthe victims crimes. Jews generation young sult of the Vietnam War. Arendt's time an those who adored it and those who abhorred it.howat least in part. sea-change feel to to of American in for a broad order Jews empowered range sary of this address the Shoahand to see its own fatein termsof the history in theJewish eventwithin event.53.
1944. and forthatreason and thatreason now. DorothyRabinowitz. On EasterSunday1944.believed thattheirhidingplace had been discovered. 3. pp.225. WilliamHawkinsin New York Telegram Rosenfeld. 7. Jeffrey Shandler." TheDiaryof AnneFrank:TheCritical Edition 78-83. American Street toHollywood: Hester Screen.theinhabitants of theannex.Preserving (New York. Jewish Shandlergraciously of his paper. and The Case of cited in Alvin 168 as Rosenfeld. World. See also the 1972 edition. EarlyAmericanTelevision" Journal of Life History."From Stage TheJewish bySarah Blacher Cohen (Bloomington. Linenthal. "'This is Your Life': Tellinga Holocaust Survivor's Life Storyon Narrative and Vol. of thismatter.p. willbe held up as an example. .see the oral hisin the FredCrawford withliberators Witness tothe Holocaust collectoryinterviews tion. Lawrence Langer. 1 and 2.p. April11.EmoryUniversity.p.1995). Idem. 214.1956). "The Americanization edited and Screen. onlydo we have to suffer Edition. insteadof being doomed..TheDiaryofAnneFrank (New York. 5. 37. p. p. p. FrancesGoodrich and AlbertHackett.oftheHolocaust America andMemory NOTES 209 1. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1957). EdwardT.53. "Americanizationof the Holocaust. Memory NewLives(New York."Lessonsand Legacies:The Meaningof theHolocaustin a Changing edited byPeterHayes (Evanston.JefContinuity. For a summary see David Barnouw.Theywaitedin fearful of the police. 114. frey providedme witha draft 4. 1995). This content downloaded from 161... 172. Atlanta. 6.it mighteven be our religionfromwhichthe worldand all peoples learn good. sometimesone race. 8. 600." Commentary Magazine (June. Who knows.p. 6. Georgia. 257. The nextday anticipation Anne wrotein her diary: Who has inflicted thisupon us? Who has made us Jewsdifferent from all otherpeople? Who has allowed us to suffer so terribly up tillnow?It is God thathas made us as we are."The Holocaust on Television:A New American Jewish 'Rite of Spring.whowillraise us up again.. (New 1989). Nos.1991).thenJews. too.. and Sun as quoted in Alvin World 10. p."forthcoming in Freedom and Responsibility: Dilemmas Exploring of edited by Rela MintzGeffenand Marsha BryanEdelman. For a variety of examples of these kindsof experiences. York. Nathan Glazer. Memory: p. There've always been people that've had to . 2. but itwillbe God. of the Holocaust on Stage and 9. Ifwe bear all thissuffering and ifthereare still Jewsleft. sometimes another. when it is over.discovering burglars in the warehouse and offices below them. "Popularization Anne Frank.1986).5 on Thu. "The Play. 52.DiaryofAnneFrank:Critical This was deleted fromthe playin its entirety and replaced withthe followtransforms Anne'soriginalintent: ing whichtotally We're not the only people to suffer. American Judaism(Chicago. 4..1976).
1951. p.5 on Thu. has forgotten in of could Ibid.. 21. and Germany 1945: Points American after ofConnection Jews and Points (Cincinnati. "What Do the Germans Propose to Do?" Commentary (September.53. of Departure 19. p.Screening of theHolocaust. every61. The reactionof the audience was so disquietingthattheirdecision to create a "hopeful"filmwas reinforced. ization. May Play. 1987).."American37." 31. Bruno Bettelheim. 111-116). planes landed (New York.." p. 20.p. 1949. Idem. 15. 16. Enigma of Germany Commentary (July. Ibid."This is Your Life.." New Republic (June 15.pp."NewYork 26. Lipstadt 11. 1959) Screening (Bloomington. inJuly1949. Ibid. Times. 18. Eugene Davidson.NewYork HeraldTribune. Moses Moskowitz.p. Shlomo Shafir. "How Cheerfulis AnneFrank?" in as cited Ilan theHolocaust Avisar." Times. 1951). 13. There is a certainhistoricalironyto the attemptby Americancommuvictimsof capitalistforces. "The DesertFox.subverted antisemitism. American p. 190. These advisors both DPs who remainedon Germanand looked after the needs of the 200." p. 25. May 18.p. 1948 and ended on May 12. Jews 29. Variety (April 1. Irresponsibility. ern society. "Eichmann: The System.p. everyone despair anyprogress Germany. 12. Times. WalterKerr. 12. One of the innovations of Jewishadvisor to the American militarycommand. 14.'pp. 11. p. to theJewish tersof interest Shafir.. 13.210 Deborah E. "Curious Twist.In a meetingwith forget. 2. of the postwarperiod was the creationof a post 28. community.Clay statedthat"the momentthatGermany representatives Jewish thatwas the pointat which the Buchenwaldsand theAuschwitzes. the 1946). the Victims.pp. 7-14.it should be noted thatthoughhe counseledJewsto he did not believe thatGermansshould do likewise.1993). ofthe p. BosleyCrowther. Ibid. 225-26. 18. In fairnessto Clay.It cost the livesof forty-five Americanand British soldiers. 1963).1950).pp. October 28. Screening October 18. Davidson. 30. Elliot E.During this niststo paint the Rosenbergsas Jewish This content downloaded from 161. 15. p. Vol.pp.he believed. NewYork 27. Films Holocaust.000Jewish withinformation Austriansoil and provided the AmericanJewishcommunity towardsthe DPs and a broad arrayof othermatregardingGerman sentiments and Germany. 13. 17. See Avisar'sanalysisof HollyLions. 24. 25. 1951. 80. Avisar.Shaw wrote of the adaptationof IrwinShaw's TheYoung wood's treatment of modafflictions his book to addresswhathe consideredto be one of theworst his originalintenThe movie. 51. 212. tion (ibid." in "The as cited 23. TheDeathand LifeofGermany 1959). as quoted in Rosenfeld. p.Deathand LifeofGermany p. Cohen. No. 12. 8 (October. 110."The Germans and the Jews: Postwar Report.8 seconds. NewYork 1949. 50-51 as cited in Avisar.At its height. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1956. in Review. The filmmakers trieda different ending whichdepicted Anne in a concentration camp. 22. Jeffrey Shandler.225. De Telegraaf Barnouw. 218. 110. 41. The blockade began on June24.
German communist leader. the Labor Day event. communist-bloc countries. "Reconsidering the Rosenbergs:Symboland Substance in Second GenerationAmerican Consciousness. In 1952.e. After were hurled. 36. History 34.1983). the nexus of the Holocaust. 33.5 on Thu. File(New York. includingCzechoslovakia. The concert was prevented fromoccurringbecause a group of protestors blocked entryinto the was to be held." Jewish ofAmeriJournal canEthnic (Fall. Deborah Dash Moore. pp. 620. 95. reat rescheduled conference. The Doctor's Plot in Moscowin 1949 had been onlythe first defendants were ries of such events. the Jewish the eventfights once visitors arrivedin privatecars and charteredbuses.He maintainedthisvieweven when German communismdefineditselfin opposition to a "Western.p. quoted in Ronald RaydoshandJoyceMilton. 37. 54 (1953). p. Raydoshand Milton." capitalist. (Rudolf Slanskyhad been the second most powerful figurein the Czech communistpartyand government. 11. 62-64.on Labor Day. whose pro-Sovietviewswere well known.it did not workto prevent JewishCommunistorganizationsfrom to communal admitted coordinatingbodies.p.225. Yearbook. approximately 15." L'Humanite. and a number of those who had come for the concertwere beaten up.p. Jewish 41. and the role ofJewsin European society)was at antisemitism. was denounced in 1950 and held in prisonfrom1952 to 1956 forhis supportof he was partiallyrehaZionism and his emphasis on antisemitism. show trialswitha definiteantisemitic and the SoEast Germany.p.one on August27 and a second on September4.was arincorrect-from restedby the East German regime. liberal. 52 (1951). of a sevietUnion.had been scheduled to appear in concert on the first date. the heart of the class struggleand the communistfightagainst fascism."The RosenbergCase. 348. 1949. There were actuallytwo riots.Rosenberg File.) a non-Jewish At the same timePaul Merker.Jewishconspiracy. Jews 38.pp. Names(New York. American and Germany. Navasky."East German Communistsand the Jeffrey OccaGerman HistoricalInstitute. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Shafir.1994.TheRosenberg p. p. Book. Not all Jewishorganizations adopted as vigorousa stance as the Americamcan JewishCommittee. 115-116.American Book.and racial epithets stickers were placed on cars at semitictractswere distributed and antisemitic Year Vol. Naomi Cohen. 352. Howard Fast.Merkerheld the politically the communiststandpoint-view thatthe "Jewish question" (i. 1988). 16.. automopicnic groundswherethe function biles overturned." Jewish sional Paper No.as 32. Herf. Question: The Case of Paul Merker. VictorS.000visitors apa own guards. 56 (1955). Jewish toDesist(Philadelphia. November14. The following week.53. 1952. Stoneswerethrown. when Mcbeing Jewish This content downloaded from 161. 351. Paul Robeson. their peared Accompanied by YearBookfromleft-wing cruited according to the American unions. American Vol.1980). 28. 18.oftheHolocaust America andMemory 211 bias were being held in various period. AmericanJewish Vol.Antiagain ensued. cars and buses werestoned. Eventually bilitatedby the communists. Merker international.In December 1952 eleven mostly Jewish executed in Prague as part of the Slanskytrial. 39.B'nai B'rithdid not conduct an anti-Communist paign within the Jewish community. p.1972).In contrast to the American Jewish Committee. Naming 35. NotFree Year 40.
The sentencewas renderedin December and in May. These statistics validatedIsrael'sand particularly PrimeMinister David BenGurion'sobjectivesfor the trial. pp. 101. 1974). 5.Cohn. Lazarsfeld. 52. berg p. 420. Shirer. John Tebbel. 50. United States and West Germany. 47.Israel Galili. cerningknowledge foreign striking 19-21. 89.. Berkson. 100.Ben-Gurionwrote: This content downloaded from 161. 97. PressPamphletSeries. acquaint withthe era.212 Deborah E.pp. 67-74. 32. pp.It was designed to mete out justice. Analysisof the Americanpress coverageof the trialin thiscountry cates thatit fulfilled the lattertwo objectives.S. "Receptionof Shirer'sRiseandFall. above all. Change.1962. 1960). 46. The trialbegan in April 1961 and concluded in Augustof thatyear. p. Morgan." ADL's oppositionto Communismand its conviction thattherewas a "Communist to destroy conspiracy democracyin the UnitedStates.p.53. A History in theUnited Vol. McCarthy (New York.p. NorbertMuhlen. 44.p. Trial transcript. File. who had emergedas one of main opponents.Hebrew Union College-Jewish Religion. Lipstadt Carthywas gaining an extremely high profile. 226-227." Journal ofContempoVol. Reception of WilliamL. Shirer.p.and. Germany. 29 (1994). Press.The following McCarthy's yearADL passed a resolutionconviolation of traditional"Americansafeguardsof human demning McCarthy's The same resolutionaffirmed liberty. RoyCohn. 249-250. 1960-1962.1981).1968). 1962).84 percent of those sampled met the minimumcriterionof simpleawareness. 51. events.p. Shirer'sTheRiseand Fall oftheThird Reich in the United Statesand WestGermany.the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) chose to honor Senator HerbertLehman. 1613-1614as quoted in Raydoshand Milton. Reader's Digesthad a monthlycirculationof over 12 million. 53. rary 48. pp. 49.as cited in ibid. "YoungMr. TheEichmann Case in theAmerican Instituteof Human Relations. 112-115. IV. servea pedagogical purpost-Holocaust generations indipose. 1953).Rosen284. 54. 45. 42.In a letterto a member of the IsraeliKnesset. 43. ership (Albany. Marc E.pp. History. York."The Case ofJuliusand Ethel Rosenberg:JewishReof Institute sponse to a Period of Stress"(thesis. B'nai B'rith and the Ethnic LeadChallenge of 1981)."Modern Age(Fall.Giventhe generalweaknessdemonstrated byAmericansconof this is a statistic. WilliamL. Image of Germany. 388 as cited in GavrielRosenfeld. The States. Roger Morgan." p. "The U. (New many p.225.TheRiseand Fall oftheThird A History Reich: ofNazi Ger163. RiseandFall.pp. ofBookPublishing Great 1940-1980 (NewYork." Deborah Dash Moore. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gavriel "The Rosenfeld.after the IsraeliSupreme guilty Courtrejectedhis appeal. Howard Rushmore. The United States and West 1945-1973 (London."American Mercury (February.NewYork1978). as Reflectedin AmericanBooks. 134. In addition to the Gallup poll a series of in-depthinterviews were conducted withapproximately fivehundredresidents of Oakland Californiain the summerof 1961. he was hanged. 9.p.5 on Thu.
"The Revivalof Anti-Germanism..the Israeli Ministry of EduEchoing Ben-Gurion's expectations cation and Culturecirculated a letter beforethetrialwhichstressed itshisright toricand educationalsignificance. 29. rather that it made it curity possible foran Israeli courtto revealin detail the tragedy of the Holocaust.1966). Ibid. 1974). May27.the dimensionsof the tragedy whichour people experienced. described her workin a letterto her as "heartless. 23. 1961.pp. Eichmann Casein the Press American (pamphlet). TheApathetic A Study BasedonPublicResponses tothe Eichmann Trial(New York. San Bernadino Sun. Jewish 56." frequently withScholem. April 13."American Year Vol.1963). 9. March 2.53. 1960. about which they were untilnow onlyscantily informed.and Joe L. TheNew Yorker.p. Arendt'sanalysisof the behavior of theJewishcouncils in the ghettos. Charles Y. 35. TheEichmann Trialin the Israeli 18.p. (Jerusalem. 59.The editorialin the BaltimoreNews-Post appeared in otherHearst papers. See also the BaltimoreNews-Post. Ibid..given her past close relationship staturein the academic world. the eminent onlyforitsfindings scholarwithwhomshe had workedin the post-war period on the EuropeanJewish CulturalReconstruction.was criticized not but foritstone." 61. 1962.he declared its tone to be one pervaded by"flip- This content downloaded from 161. 9. in a public open trial so that Israeli youthwho grewup and were educated afterthe Holocaust knowthe factsof the incredibletragedy. 28. Circularletterof April 19.. Age "A Reporterat Large: EichmanninJerusalem. 1963. WilliamHenry Chamberlin.. 9.p. Her friendGershomScholem. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as quoted in AkivaW. February16. 57. 62. Spaeth. George Salomon.andMemory oftheHolocaust America I see the importanceof the fact thatAdolf Eichmann has been capturedand willbe put to trialbeforean Israeli courtnot so much as an of the Israeli Seachievementof the efficiency and outstanding ability but has Officers. 18-19. Furthermore it willensure that knowledge of the tragedywill have its impact on public opinion theworld. as cited in ibid. Gertrude J.225. 60.June 5. 63 (1962). Eyes of Youngsters forthe trial. "America'sResponse to the Eichman Trial. Book. throughout 213 Davar.5 on Thu. p. 1962). 16. Glock. Selznick." Modern 278. p. 8. and his commentforArendt. Majority: pp. These articleswere published as Eichmann inJerusalem: A Report on the Banality ofEvil (New York. It is not a feelingof revengewhichguides us whenwitnessing the proceedings of the trialbut the aim to uncover before the whole world and beforeourselves. Hannah Arendt.. 58. 103. 134. of Education and Culture. p. pp. 20. In whatmusthave been a devastating almostsneeringand malicious. Deutsch. (Summer. Ministry Jerusalem. 55.. 1961. whichwas based in the main on secondarysources and written beforevirtually all of the major researchon the councilshad been conducted.
"Hannah Arendton Eichmann:A Studyin the Perof Brilliance:'Commentary versity (September. 69. NewYorker. 154-157. For additional information on the York."Postscript.American Judaism." New York Times Book Review. forexample. Geltman. Partisan Aesthetics of Evil.See also "Talk of the Town. This content downloaded from 161.Judenrat: JewishCouncils inEastern under Nazi edition new York. Glock et al. Further to van den Haag's review a yearlaterwhen the magazine discussionwas generatedin the NationalReview publisheda followup articleon the book.p. Norman Podhoretz. Ernest van den Haag. 108." August27. Arendtmisstated Musmanno'srole at the Nurembergand Eichmanntrials.See.pp."TheNewYorker. 208.For a responsesolicitedbythe editorsof fromArendtand a replyfromMusmanno as well as an arrayof the BookReview to the editorsee New York letters BookReview. June 15. November 17. 66. 16 May 2013 11:44:08 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1963. 64. see Isaiah Trunk.S. Newsweek."Partisan Review (Summer. October 22." bythe Hebrewpressor byaskinghim directly. See Max Geltman's"Hannah Arendt and Her Critics" NationalReview. Times June 23.1963. New Republic.""Eichmann in Jerusalem:An Exchange of Letters between Gershom Scholem and Hannah Arendt. 71.pp. 63.1963). 1963. Michael Musmanno.p. 1963. Glazer. July 67." Encounter (22 January1964). Trial toNazi Persecution: Collective JewishCouncils.225. 20. "Revival"p.The Condition ofJewish Belief(New York. 72.1979). pp.53. p. 278. 211-230. 68. pp. 65. Muhlen. Chamberlin." pp.and idem.pp. Iff. Europe Occupation withintroduction byStevenT. Responses Jewish and Individual Behavior inExtremis The (New York. ofthe p. Image of Germany. June 29. "Crimes NationalReview. Milton Himmelfarb. 17. (New 1964). June 17.easilyascertainedit frommaterialpublished In theWake Scholem. 169. 51-56. April27.1963). She was also bitterly criticizedby MartinBuber formisrepresenting his positionon the trial. 1964.July14. 172.p. 210."U. 1963. 1966). 1007-1012. May 19..pp. 94-95. 1963.24. 1963. "Man with an Unspotted Conscience. 1964.Lionel Abel "The Majority. 1996). Katz (Lincoln.1963). 1963. 201. 421. AgainstHumanity.1963.For responses see September10. 1963. he charged." Review (Summer.5 on Thu. 70. (New 1972).pp. Eichmann 61. Lipstadt pancy.214 Deborah E. 426. Apathetic p. "Editor'sNote. 1007.She could have.p.
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