This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
WHAT IS RAIN WATER HARVESTING : The principle of collecting and using precipitation from a catchments surface. An old technology is gaining popularity in a new way. Rain water harvesting is enjoying a renaissance of sorts in the world, but it traces its history to biblical times. Extensive rain water harvesting apparatus existed 4000 years ago in the Palestine and Greece. In ancient Rome, residences were built with individual cisterns and paved courtyards to capture rain water to augment water from city's aqueducts. As early as the third millennium BC, farming communities in Baluchistan and Kutch impounded rain water and used it for irrigation dams.
ARTIFICAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER : Artificial recharge to ground water is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. Any man-made scheme or facility that adds water to an aquifer may be considered to be an artificial recharge system. WHY RAIN WATER HARVESTING : Rain water harvesting is essential because :1. Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground water. 2. Due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished. 3. As you read this guide, seriously consider conserving water by harvesting and managing this natural resource by artificially recharging the system. The examples covering several dozen installations successfully operating in India constructed and maintained by CGWB, provide an excellent snapshot of current systems.
RAIN WATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES : There are two main techniques of rain water harvestings. 1. Storage of rainwater on surface for future use. 2. Recharge to ground water. The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional techniques and structures used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc. Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used are :-
Pits :- Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifer. These are constructed 1 to 2 m, wide and to 3 m. deep which are back filled with boulders, gravels, coarse sand.
Trenches:- These are constructed when the permeable stram is available at shallow depth. Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m. wide, 1 to 1.5m. deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending up availability of water. These are back filled with filter. materials.
Dug wells:- Existing dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure and water should pass through filter media before putting into dug well.
Hand pumps :- The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow/deep aquifers, if the availability of water is limited. Water should pass through filter media before diverting it into hand pumps.
Recharge wells :- Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells.
Recharge Shafts :- For recharging the shallow aquifer which are located below clayey surface, recharge shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are constructed and back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand.
Lateral shafts with bore wells :- For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1.5 to 2 m. wide & 10 to 30 m. long depending upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are constructed. The lateral shafts is back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand.
Spreading techniques :- When permeable strata starts from top then this technique is used. Spread the water in streams/Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement plugs, gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed.
DIVERSION OF RUN OFF INTO EXISTING SURFACE WATER BODIES • Construction activity in and around the city is resulting in the drying up of water bodies and reclamation of these tanks for conversion into plots for houses. • Free flow of storm run off into these tanks and water bodies must be ensured. The storm run off may be diverted into the nearest tanks or depression, which will create additional recharge.
Urbanisation effects on Groundwater Hydrology : • • • • • • Increase in water demand More dependence on ground water use Over exploitation of ground water Increase in run-off, decline in well yields and fall in water levels Reduction in open soil surface area Reduction in infiltration and deterioration in water quality
Methods of artificial recharge in urban areas : • • • • • Water spreading Recharge through pits, trenches, wells, shafts Rooftop collection of rainwater Roadtop collection of rainwater Induced recharge from surface water bodies.
Computation of artificial recharge from Roof top rainwater collection : Factors taken for computation : Roof top area 100 sq.m. for individual house and 500 sq.m. for multi-storied building. Average annual monsoon rainfall - 780 mm. Effective annual rainfall contributing to recharge 70% - 550 mm. Individual Houses Roof top area Total quantity available forrecharge per annum Water available for 5 member Family 100 sq. m. 55 cu. m 100 days Multistoried building 500 sq. m. 275 cu. m. 500 days
Benefits of Artificial Recharge in Urban Areas : Improvement in infiltration and reduction in run-off. Improvement in groundwater levels and yields. Reduces strain on Special Village Panchayats/ Municipal / Municipal Corporation water supply Improvement in groundwater quality Estimated quantity of additional recharge from 100 sq. m. roof top area is 55.000 liters. HARVESTING RAINWATER HARNESSING LIFE : A NOBLE GOAL - A COMMON RESPONSIBILITY • Ground water exploitation is inevitable is Urban areas. But the groundwater potential is getting reduced due to urbanisation resulting in over exploitation. Hence, a strategy to implement the groundwater recharge, in a major way need to be launched with concerted efforts by various Governmental and NonGovernmental Agencies and Public at large to build up the water table and make the groundwater resource, a reliable and sustainable source for supplementing water supply needs of the urban dwellers. • Recharge of groundwater through storm run off and roof top water collection, diversion and collection of run off into dry tanks, play grounds, parks and other vacant places are to be implemented by Special Village Panchayats/ Municipalities /Municipal Corporations and other Government Establishments with special efforts. • The Special Village Panchayats /Municipalities/Municipal Corporations will help the citizens and builders to adopt suitable recharge method in one's own house or building through demonstration and offering subsidies for materials and incentives, if possible. ATTRIBUTES OF GROUNDWATER : There is more ground water than surface water Ground water is less expensive and economic resource. Ground water is sustainable and reliable source of water supply. Ground water is relatively less vulnerable to pollution Ground water is usually of high bacteriological purity. Ground water is free of pathogenic organisms. Ground water needs little treatment before use. Ground water has no turbidity and colour. Ground water has distinct health advantage as art alternative for lower sanitary quality surface water. Ground water is usually universally available. Ground water resource can be instantly developed and used. There is no conveyance losses in ground water based supplies.
Ground water has low vulnerability to drought. Ground water is key to life in arid and semi-arid regions. Ground water is source of dry weather flow in rivers and streams.
COMPONENTS OF A RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM A rainwater harvesting system comprises components of various stages - transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for reuse or recharge. The common components of a rainwater harvesting system involved in these stages are illustrated here. 1. Catchments:The catchment of a water harvesting system is the surface which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the system. It can be a paved area like a terrace or courtyard of a building, or an unpaved area like a lawn or open ground. A roof made of reinforced cement concrete (RCC), galvanised iron or corrugated sheets can also be used for water harvesting. 2. Coarse mesh at the roof to prevent the passage of debris 3. Gutters: Channels all around the edge of a sloping roof to collect and transport rainwater to the storage tank. Gutters can be semi-circular or rectangular and could be made using: Locally available material such as plain galvanised iron sheet (20 to 22 gauge), folded to required shapes. Semi-circular gutters of PVC material can be readily prepared by cutting those pipes into two equal semi-circular channels. Bamboo or betel trunks cut vertically in half. The size of the gutter should be according to the flow during the highest intensity rain. It is advisable to make them 10 to 15 per cent oversize. Gutters need to be supported so they do not sag or fall off when loaded with water. The way in which gutters are fixed depends on the construction of the house; it is possible to fix iron or timber brackets into the walls, but for houses having wider eaves, some method of attachment to the rafters is necessary. 4.Conduits Conduits are pipelines or drains that carry rainwater from the catchment or rooftop area to the harvesting system. Conduits can be of any material like polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or galvanized iron (GI), materials that are commonly available. The following table gives an idea about the diameter of pipe required for draining out rainwater based on rainfall intensity and roof area: 5.First-flushing A first flush device is a valve that ensures that runoff from the first spell of rain is flushed out and does not enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface.
Source: A water harvesting manual for urban areas 6.Filter The filter is used to remove suspended pollutants from rainwater collected over roof. A filter unit is a chamber filled with filtering media such as fibre, coarse sand and gravel layers to remove debris and dirt from water before it enters the storage tank or recharge structure. Charcoal can be added for additional filtration.
(i) Charcoal water filter A simple charcoal filter can be made in a drum or an earthen pot. The filter is made of gravel, sand and charcoal, all of which are easily available. (ii)Sand filters Sand filters have commonly available sand as filter media. Sand filters are easy and inexpensive to construct. These filters can be employed for treatment of water to effectively remove turbidity (suspended particles like silt and clay), colour and microorganisms.
In a simple sand filter that can be constructed domestically, the top layer comprises coarse sand followed by a 5-10 mm layer of gravel followed by another 5-25 cm layer of gravel and boulders.
(ii. a) Dewas filters Most residents in Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, have wells in their houses. Formerly, all that those wells would do was extract groundwater. But then, the district administration of Dewas initiated a groundwater recharge scheme. The rooftop water was collected and allowed to pass through a filter system called the Dewas fillter, designed by Mohan Rao , district collecter of Dewas, and engineers of the rural engineering services. The water thus filtered is put into the service tubewell. The filter consists of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe 140 mm in diameter and 1.2m long. There are three chambers. The first purification chamber has pebbles varying between 2-6 mm, the second chamber has slightly larger pebbles, between 6 and 12 mm and the third chamber has the largest - 12-20 mm pebbles. There is a mesh at the outflow side through which clean water flows out after passing through the three chambers. The cost of this filter unit is Rs 600.
Filter for large rooftops When rainwater is harvested in a large rooftop area, the filtering system should accommodate the excess flow. A system is designed with three concentric circular chambers in which the outer chamber is filled with sand, the middle one with coarse aggregate and the inner-most layer with pebbles.
This way the area of filtration is increased for sand, in relation to coarse aggregate and pebbles. Rainwater reaches the centre core and is collected in the sump where it is treated with few tablets of chlorine and is made ready for consumption. This system was designed by R Jeyakumar Varun: S Vishwanath, a Bangalore water harvesting expert, has developed a rainwater filter "VARUN". According to him, from a decently clean roof 'VARUN' can handle a 50 mm per hour intensity rainfall from a 50 square metre roof area. This means the product is relatively standardised. For new house builders we therefore can recommend the number of downpipes they have to optimise on and the number of filters they will need.
'VARUN' is made from a 90 litre High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) drum. The lid is turned over and holes are puched in it. This is the first sieve which keeps out large leaves, twigs etc. Rainwater coming out of the lid sieve then passes through three layers of sponge and a 150 mm thick layer of coarse sand. Presence of sponge makes the cleaning process very easy. Remove the first layer of sponge and soak /clean it in a bucket of water (which you then don't waste but use it for plants). The sand needs no cleaning at all. The basic cost of the filter is about Rs 2250/-
ii. b. Horizontal roughing filter and slow sand filter The introducton of horizontal roughing filter and slow sand filter (HRF/SSF) to treat surface water has made safe drinking water available in coastal pockets of Orissa. The major components of this filter are described below.
1) Filter channel : One square metre in cross-section and eight m in length, laid across the tank embankment, the filter channel consists of three uniform compartments, the first packed with broken bricks, the second with coarse sand, followed by fine sand in the third compartment. The HRF usually consists of filter material like gravel and coarse sand that successively decreases in size from 25 mm to 4 mm. The bulk of solids in the incoming water is separated by this coarse filter media or HRF. At every outlet and inlet point of the channel, fine graded mesh is implanted to prevent entry of finer materials into the sump. The length of a channel varies according to the nature of the site selected for the sump. 2) Sump: A storage provision to collect filtered water from the tank through the filter channel for storage and collection. While HRF acts as a physical filter and is applied to retain solid matter, SSF is primarily a biological filter, used to kill microbes in the water. Both filter types are generally stable, making full use of the natural purification process of harvested surface water and do not require any chemicals.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.