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and other regional authorities. Act of Supremacy- The declaration by Parliament in 1534 that Henry VIII, not the pope, was the head of the Church in England. Agricultural Revolution- The innovations in farm production that began in the 18th century and led to a scientific and mechanized agricultural. Albigensians- 13th-century advocates of a dualist religion. They took their name from the city of Albi in southern France. Also called Cathers. Anabaptists- Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Anchluss- Meaning “union.” The annexation of Austria by Germany in March 1938. Appeasement- The Anglo-French policy of making concessions to Germany in the 1930s to avoid a crisis that would lead to war. It assumed that Germany had real grievances and that Hitler’s aims were limited and ultimately acceptable. Aristocratic Resurgence- Term applied to the 18th –century aristocratic efforts to resist the expanding powers of European monarchies. Arminians- A group within the Church of England who rejected Puritanism and the Calvinist doctrine of predestination in favor of free will and an elaborate liturgy. Assignants- Government bonds based on the value of confiscated Church lands issued during the early French Revolution. Augsburg Confession- The definitive statement of Lutheran belief made in 1530. Ausgleich- Meaning “compromise.” The agreement between the Habsburg Emperor and the Hungarians to give Hungary considerable administrative autonomy in 1867. It created the Dual Monarchy or Austria-Hungary. Autocracy- Government in which the ruler has absolute power. Axis- The alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Also called the Pact of Steel. Baroque- A style of art marked by heavy and dramatic ornamentation and curved rather than straight lines that flourished between 1550 and 1750. It was especially associated with the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Black Death- The bubonic plague that killed millions of Europeans in the 14th century. Blitzkrieg- Meaning “lightning war.” The German tactic early in WWII of employing fast-moving, massed armored columns supported by airpower to overwhelm the enemy. Bolsheviks- Meaning the “majority.” Term Lenin applied to his faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party. It became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution. Bund- A secular Jewish socialist organization of Polish Jews. Caesaro-papism- The direct involvement of the ruler in religious doctrine and practice as if he were the head of the Church as well as the state. Cahiers de Doleances- Meaning “lists of grievances.” Petitions for reforms submitted to the French Crown when the Estates General met in 1789. Carbonari- Meaning “charcoal burners.” The most famous of the secret republican societies seeking to unify Italy in the 1820s. Categorical Imperative- According to Emmanuel Kant, the internal sense of moral duty or awareness possessed by all human beings.
Catholic Emancipation- The grant of full political rights to Roman Catholics in Britain in 1829. Chartism- The first large-scale European working-class political movement. It sought political reforms that would favor the interests of skilled British workers in the 1830s and 1840s. Civic Humanism- Education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life. Classical Economics- The theory that economies grow through free enterprise of individuals competing in a largely self-regulating marketplace with government intervention held to a minimum. Cold War- The ideological and geographical struggle between the US and its allies and the USSR and its allies that began after WWII and lasted until the dissolution of the USSR in 1989. Collectivization- The bedrock of Stalinist agriculture, which forced Russian peasants to give up their private farms and work as members of collectives, large agricultural units controlled by the state. Concert of Europe- Term applied to the European great powers acting together to resolve internal disputes between 1815 and the 1850s. Conciliar Theory- The argument that Greater Councils were superior in authority to the Pope and represented the whole body of the faithful. Congress System- A series of international meetings among the European great powers to promote mutual cooperation between 1818 and 1822. Conservatism- Support for the established order in Church and state. In the 19th century it implied support for the legitimate monarchies, landed aristocrats, and established Churches. Consulate- French government dominated by Napoleon from 1799 to 1804. Consumer Revolution- The vast increase in both the desire and the possibility of consuming goods and services that began in the early 18th century and created the demand for sustaining the Industrial Revolution. Containment- The US policy during the Cold War of resisting Soviet expansion and influence in the expectation that the USSR would eventually collapse. Convention- French radical legislative body from 1792 to 1794. Corn Laws- British tariffs on imported grain that protected the price of grain grown within the British Islses. Corporatism- The planned economy of Fascist Italy that combined private ownership of capital with government direction of Italy’s economic life and arbitration of labor disputes. All major areas of production were organized into state-controlled bodies called corporations, which were represented in the Chamber of Corporations that replaced the Chamber of Deputies. The state, not the consumers and owners, determined what the economy produced. Counter-Reformation- The 16th-century reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the Protestant Reformation. Deism- A belief in a rational God who had created the universe, but then allowed it to function without his interference according to the mechanisms of nature and a belief in rewards and punishments after death for human action. Divine Right of Kings- The theory that monarchs are appointed by and answerable only to God. Domestic System of Textile Production- Method of producing textiles in which agents furnished raw materials to households whose members spun them into thread and then wove cloth, which the agents then sold as finished productions. Duma- The Russian parliament, after the revolution of 1905. Electors- Nine German princes who had the right to elect the Holy Roman Emperor.
Enclosure- The consolidation or fencing in of common lands by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater commercial profits. It also involved the reclamation of waste land and the consolidation of strips into block fields. Enlightment- The 18th –century movement led by the philosophies that held that change and reform were both desirable through the application of reason and science. European Economic Community (EEC) - The economic association formed by France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957. Also known as the Common Market. European Union- The new name given to the EEC in 1993. It included most of the states in Western Europe. Fabians- British socialists in the late 19th and early 20th century who sought to achieve socialism through gradual, peaceful, and democratic means. Fascism- Political movements that tend to be anti-democratic, anti-Marxist, antiparliamentary, and often anti-Semitic. Fascists were invariably nationalists and exhalted the nation over the individual. They supported the interests of the middle class and rejected the ideas of the French Revolution and 19th –century liberalism. The first fascist regime was founded by Benito Mussolini in Italy in the 1920s. Fourteen Points- President Woodrow Wilson’s idealistic war aims. Fronde- A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. German Confederation- Association of German states established at the Congress of Vienna that replaced the Holy Roman Empire from 1815 to 1866. Glasnost- Meaning “openness.” The policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980s of permitting open criticism of the policies of the Soviet Communist Party. Glorious Revolution- The largely peaceful replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688. It marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain. Golden Bull- The agreement in 1356 to establish a seven-member electoral college of German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor. Great Depression- A prolonged worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 with the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange. Great Purges- The imprisonment and execution of millions of Soviet citizens by Stalin between 1934 and 1939. Great Reform Bill (1832) - A limited reform of the British House of Commons and an expansion of the electorate to include a wider variety of the propertied classes. It laid the groundwork for further orderly reforms within the British constitutional system. Great Schism- The appearance of two and at times three rival popes between 1378 and 1415. Grossdeutsch- Meaning “great German.” The argument that the German-speaking portions of the Habsburg Empire should be included in a united Germany. Heliocentric Theory- The theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. First proposed by Aristarchos of Samos. Its opposite, the geocentric theory, which was dominant until the 16th century, held that the Sun and the planets revolved around the Earth. Holocaust- The Nazi extermination of millions of European Jews between 1940 and 1945. Also called the “final solution to the Jewish problem.” Holy Roman Empire- The revival of the old Roman Empire, based mainly on Germany and northern Italy, that endured from 870 to 1806. Home Rule- The advocacy of a large measure of administrative autonomy for Ireland within the British Empire between the 1880s and 1914.
Huguenots- French Calvinists Humanism- The study of Latin or Greek classics and of the Church Fathers both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms and values. Hussites- Followers of John Huss, who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist. Imperialism- The extension of a nation’s authority over other nations or areas through conquest or political or economic hegemony. Indulgences- Remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven. Industrial Revolution- Mechanization of the European economy that began in Britain in the second half of the 18th century. Intendents- Royal officials under the French monarchy who supervised the provincial governments in the name of the king. Italia Irredenta- Meaning “unredeemed Italy.” Italian-speaking areas that had been left under Austrian rule at the time of the unification of Italy. Jacobins- The radical republican party during the French Revolution that displaced the Girondins. Jacquerie- Revolt of the French Peasantry. Jansenism- A 17th-century movement within the Catholic Church that taught that human beings were so corrupted by original sin that they could do nothing good nor secure their own salvation without divine grace. (It was opposed to the Jesuits). July Monarchy- The French regime set up after the overthrow of the Bourbons in July 1830. Junkers- The noble landlords of Prussia. Keynesian Economics- The theory of John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) that governments could spend their economies out of a depression by running deficits to encourage employment and stimulate the production and consumption of goods. Kleindeustsch- Meaning “small German.” The argument that the German-speaking portions of the Habsburg Empire should be excluded from a united Germany. Kristallnacht- Meaning “crystal night” because of the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany on the orders of the Nazi Party in November, 1938. Kulaks- Prosperous Russian peasant farmers. Kulturkampf- Meaning the “battle for culture.” The conflict between the Roman Catholic Church and the government of the German Empire in the 1870s. Laissez-faire- French phrase meaning “allow to do.” In economics the doctrine of minimal government interference in the working of the economy. League of Nations- The association of sovereign states set up after WWI to pursue common policies and avert international aggression. Lebensraum- Meaning “living space.” The Nazi plan to colonize and exploit the Slavic areas of Eastern Europe for the benefit of Germany. Levee en Masse- The French Revolutionary conscription (1792) of all males into the army and the harnessing of the economy for war production.
Liberal Arts- The medieval university program that consisted of trivium: grammar, rhetoric, and logic, and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. Liberalism- In the 19th-century, support for representative government dominated by the propertied classes and minimal government interference in the economy. Lollards- Followers of John Wycliffe (1384) who questioned the supremacy and privileges of the Pope and the Church hierarchy. Luftwaffe- The German air force in WWII. Magyars- The majority ethnic group in Hungary. Mandates- The assigning of the former German colonies and Turkish territories in the Middle East to Britain, France, Japan, Belgium, Australia, and South Africa as de facto colonies under the vague supervision of the League of Nations with the hope that the territories would someday advance to independence. Mannerism- A style of art in the mid-to late 16th century that permitted the artist to express his or her own “manner” or feelings in contrast to the symmetry and simplicity of the art of the High Renaissance. Marshall Plan- the US program named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall of providing economic aid to Europe after WWII. Marxism- The theory of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that history is the result of class conflict, which will end in the inevitable triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie and the abolition of private property and social class. Mensheviks- Meaning the “minority.” Term Lenin applied to the majority moderate faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party opposed to him and the Bolsheviks. Mercantilism- Term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests. Methodism- An English religious movement begun by John Wesley that stressed inward, heart-felt religion and the philosophy of attaining Christian perfection in this life. Modernism- The movement in the arts and literature in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to create new aesthetic forms and to elevate the aesthetic experience of a work of art above the attempt to portray reality as accurately as possible. Nationalism- The belief that one is part of a nation, defined as a community with its own language, traditions, customs, and history that distinguish it from other nations and make it the primary focus of a person’s loyalty and sense of identity. Naturalism- The attempt to portray nature and human life without sentimentality. Neoplatonism- A religious philosophy that tried to combine mysticism with classical rationalist speculation. Its chief formulator. New Economic Policy (NEP) - A limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the Civil War and War Communism. New Imperialism- The extension in the late 19th and early 20th centuries of Western political and economic dominance to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Old Regime- Term applied to the pattern of social, political, and economic relationships and institutions that existed in Europe before the French Revolution. Panslavism- The movement to create a nation or federation that would embrace all the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe.
Papal Infallibility- The doctrine that the Pope is infallible when pronouncing officially in his capacity as head of the Church on matters of faith and morals, enumerated by the First Vatican Council in 1870. Parlements- French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobility. The most important was the Parlement of Paris, which claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law. Peristrokia- Meaning “restructuring.” The attempt in the 1980s to reform the Soviet government and economy. Philosophes- The 18th-century writers and critics who forged the new attitudes favorable to change. They sought to apply reason and common sense to the institutions and societies of their day. Physiocrats- 18th-century French thinkers who attacked the mercantilist regulation of the economy, advocated a limited economic role of government, and believed that all economic production depended on sound agriculture. Pogroms- Organized riots against Jews in the Russian Empire. Popular Front- A government of all left-wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms. Pragmatic Sanction- The legal basis negotiated by the Emperor Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) for the Habsburg succession through his daughter Maria Theresa. Predestination- The doctrine that God had foreordained all souls to salvation (the “elect”) or damnation. It was especially associated with Calvinism. Presbyterians- Scottish Calvinists and English Protestants who advocated a national church composed of semiautonomous congregations governed by “presbyteries.” Protestant Ethic- The theory propounded by Max Weber in 1904 that the religious confidence and self-disciplined activism that were supposedly associated with Protestantism produced an ethic that stimulated the spirit of emergent capitalism. Ptolemaic System- The pre-Copernican explanation of the universe of the universe, with the Earth at the center of the universe, originated in the ancient world. Puritans- English Protestants who sought to “purify” the Church of England of any vestiges of Catholicism. Realism- They style of art and literature that seeks to depict the physical world and human life with scientific objectivity and detached observation. Reformation- The 16th-century religious movement that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the establishment of Protestantism. Reichstag- The German parliament, which existed in various forms, until 1945. Reign of Terror- The period between the summer of 1793 and the end of July 1795 when the French Revolutionary state used extensive executions and violence to defend the Revolution and suppress its alleged internal enemies. Relativity- The scientific theory associated with Einstein that time and space exist not separately but as a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities that are being measured. Renaissance- The revival of ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientific values that began in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries. Reparations- The requirement incorporated into the Versailles Treaty that Germany should pay for the cost of WWI. Revisionism- The advocacy among 19th-century German socialists of achieving a humane socialist society through the evolution of democratic institutions, not revolution. Robot- The amount of labor landowners demanded from peasants in the Habsburg Monarchy before 1848.
Romanticism- A reaction in early 19th century literature, philosophy, and religion against what many considered the excessive rationality and scientific narrowness of the Enlightment. Sans-culottes- Meaning “without knee breeches.” The lower-middle classes and artisans of Paris during the French Revolution. Schlieffen Plan- Germany’s plan for achieving a quick victory in the West at the outbreak of WWI by invading France through Belgium and Luxembourg. Scientific Induction- Scientific method in which generalizations are derived from data gained from empirical observations. Scientific Revolution- The sweeping change in the scientific view of the universe that occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. The new scientific concepts and the method of their construction became the standard for assessing the validity of knowledge in the West. Second Industrial Revolution- The emergence of new industries and the spread of industrialization from Britain to other countries, especially Germany and the US, in the second half of the 19th century. Sejm- The legislative assembly of the Polish nobility. Sinn Fein- Meaning “ourselves alone.” An Irish political movement founded in 1905 that advocated complete political separation from Britain. Social Darwinism- The application of Darwin’s concept of “the survival of the fittest” to explain evolution in nature to human social relationships. Soviets- Workers and soldiers councils formed in Russian during the Revolution. Spinning Jenny- A machine invented in England by James Hargreaves around 1765 to mass-produce thread. Sturm und Drang- Meaning “storm and stress.” A movement in German romantic literature and philosophy that emphasized feeling and emotion. Suffragettes- British women who lobbied and agitated for the right to vote in the early 20th century. Syndicalism- French labor movement that sought to improve workers’ conditions through direct action, especially general strikes. Table of Ranks- An official hierarchy established by Peter the Great in Imperial Russia that equated a person’s social position and privileges with his rank in the state bureaucracy or army. Tabula Rasa- Meaning a “blank page.” The philosophical belief associated with John Locke that human beings enter the world with totally unformed characters that are completely shaped by experience. Taille- The direct tax on the French peasantry. Thermidorean Reaction- The reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution that began in July 1794. Associated with the end of terror and establishment of the Directory. Third Estate- The branch of the French Estates General representing all of the kingdom outside the nobility and the clergy. Third Reich- Hitler’s regime in Germany, which lasted from 1933 to 1945. Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) - The official statement of the beliefs of the Church of England. They established a moderate from of Protestantism. Three-field System- A medieval innovation that increased the amount of land under cultivation by leaving only 1/3 fallow in a given year.
Transportation- The British policy from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries of shipping persons convicted of the most heinous offenses to Australia as an alternative to capital punishment. Utilitarianism- The theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest good for the greatest number of people, should be applied to government, the economy, and the judicial system. Utopian Socialism- Early 19th century theories that sought to replace the existing capitalist structure and values with visionary solutions or ideal communities. War Communism- The economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads, and grain. War Guilt Clause- Clause 231 of the Versailles Treaty, which assigned responsibility for WWI solely to Germany. Water Frame- A water-powered device invented by Richard Arkwright to produce a more durable cotton fabric. It led to the shift in the production of cotton textiles from households to factories. Weimar Republic- The German democratic regime that existed between the end of WWI and Hitler’s coming to power in 1933. White Russians- Those Russians who opposed the Bolsheviks (the “Reds”) in the Russian Civil War of 1918-1921. Zemstvos- Local governments set up in the Russian Empire in 1864. Zollverein- A free trade union established among the major German states in 1834.
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